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Sample records for active substances mbas

  1. MBAS (Methylene Blue Active Substances) and LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates) in Mediterranean coastal aerosols: Sources and transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becagli, S.; Ghedini, C.; Peeters, S.; Rottiers, A.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.; Chiari, M.; Jalba, A.; Despiau, S.; Dayan, U.; Temara, A.

    2011-12-01

    Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) and Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates (LAS) concentrations, together with organic carbon and ions were measured in atmospheric coastal aerosols in the NW Mediterranean Basin. Previous studies have suggested that the presence of surfactants in coastal aerosols may result in vegetation damage without specifically detecting or quantifying these surfactants. Coastal aerosols were collected at a remote site (Porquerolles Island-Var, France) and at a more anthropised site (San Rossore National Park-Tuscany, Italy). The chemical data were interpreted according to a comprehensive local meteorological analysis aiming to decipher the airborne source and transport processes of these classes of compounds. The LAS concentration (anthropogenic surfactants) was measured in the samples using LC-MS/MS, a specific analytical method. The values were compared with the MBAS concentration, determined by a non-specific analytical method. At Porquerolles, the MBAS concentration (103 ± 93 ng m -3) in the summer samples was significantly higher than in the winter samples. In contrast, LAS concentrations were rarely greater than in the blank filters. At San Rossore, the mean annual MBAS concentration (887 ± 473 ng m -3 in PM10) contributed about 10% to the total atmospheric particulate organic matter. LAS mean concentration in these same aerosol samples was 11.5 ± 10.5 ng m -3. A similar MBAS (529 ± 454 ng m -3) - LAS (7.1 ± 4.1 ng m -3 LAS) ratio of ˜75 was measured in the fine (PM2.5) aerosol fraction. No linear correlation was found between MBAS and LAS concentrations. At San Rossore site the variation of LAS concentrations was studied on a daily basis over a year. The LAS concentrations in the coarse fraction (PM10-2.5) were higher during strong sea storm conditions, characterized by strong air flow coming from the sea sector. These events, occurring with more intensity in winter, promoted the formation of primary marine aerosols containing LAS

  2. When doctors go to business school: career shoices of physician-MBAs.

    PubMed

    Ljuboja, Damir; Powers, Brian W; Robbins, Benjamin; Huckman, Robert; Yeshwant, Krishnan; Jain, Sachin H

    2016-01-01

    There has been substantial growth in the number of physicians pursing Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees over the past decade, but there is continuing debate over the utility of these programs and the career outcomes of their graduates. The authors analyzed the clinical and professional activities of a large cohort of physician-MBAs by gathering information on 206 physician graduates from the Harvard Business School MBA program who obtained their degrees between 1941 and 2014. Key outcome measures that were examined include medical specialty, current professional activity, and clinical practice. Chi square tests were used to assess the correlations in the data. Among the careers that were tracked (n = 195), there was significant heterogeneity in current primary employment. The most common sectors were clinical (27.7%), investment banking/finance (27.0%), hospital/provider administration (11.7%), biotech/device/pharmaceutical (10.9%), and entrepreneurship (9.5%). Overall, 84% of physician-MBAs entered residency; approximately half (49.3%) remained clinically active in some capacity and only one-fourth (27.7%) reported clinical medicine as their primary professional role. Among those who pursued residency training, the most common specialties were internal medicine (39.3%), emergency medicine (10.4%), orthopedic surgery (9.2%), and general surgery (8.6%). Physician-MBAs trained in internal medicine were significantly more likely to remain clinically active (63.8% vs 42.4%; P = .01). Clinical activity and primary employment in a clinical role decreased after degree conferment. After completing their education, a majority of physician-MBAs divert their primary professional focus away from clinical activity. These findings reveal new insights into the career outcomes of physician-MBAs. PMID:27355906

  3. When doctors go to business school: career shoices of physician-MBAs.

    PubMed

    Ljuboja, Damir; Powers, Brian W; Robbins, Benjamin; Huckman, Robert; Yeshwant, Krishnan; Jain, Sachin H

    2016-06-01

    There has been substantial growth in the number of physicians pursing Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees over the past decade, but there is continuing debate over the utility of these programs and the career outcomes of their graduates. The authors analyzed the clinical and professional activities of a large cohort of physician-MBAs by gathering information on 206 physician graduates from the Harvard Business School MBA program who obtained their degrees between 1941 and 2014. Key outcome measures that were examined include medical specialty, current professional activity, and clinical practice. Chi square tests were used to assess the correlations in the data. Among the careers that were tracked (n = 195), there was significant heterogeneity in current primary employment. The most common sectors were clinical (27.7%), investment banking/finance (27.0%), hospital/provider administration (11.7%), biotech/device/pharmaceutical (10.9%), and entrepreneurship (9.5%). Overall, 84% of physician-MBAs entered residency; approximately half (49.3%) remained clinically active in some capacity and only one-fourth (27.7%) reported clinical medicine as their primary professional role. Among those who pursued residency training, the most common specialties were internal medicine (39.3%), emergency medicine (10.4%), orthopedic surgery (9.2%), and general surgery (8.6%). Physician-MBAs trained in internal medicine were significantly more likely to remain clinically active (63.8% vs 42.4%; P = .01). Clinical activity and primary employment in a clinical role decreased after degree conferment. After completing their education, a majority of physician-MBAs divert their primary professional focus away from clinical activity. These findings reveal new insights into the career outcomes of physician-MBAs.

  4. Educating Part-Time MBAs for the Global Business Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, W. Alan

    2008-01-01

    To be successful managers in the business world of the 21st century, MBA students must acquire global skills of business acumen, reflection, cultural sensitivity, and multi-cultural teamwork. Developing these skills requires international experience, but educating part-time MBAs creates a special challenge demanding both rigor and efficiency. This…

  5. Antimycobacterial activity of lichen substances.

    PubMed

    Honda, N K; Pavan, F R; Coelho, R G; de Andrade Leite, S R; Micheletti, A C; Lopes, T I B; Misutsu, M Y; Beatriz, A; Brum, R L; Leite, C Q F

    2010-04-01

    We describe here the extraction and identification of several classes of phenolic compounds from the lichens Parmotrema dilatatum (Vain.) Hale, Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale, Pseudoparmelia sphaerospora (Nyl.) Hale and Usnea subcavata (Motyka) and determined their anti-tubercular activity. The depsides (atranorin, diffractaic and lecanoric acids), depsidones (protocetraric, salazinic, hypostictic and norstictic acids), xanthones (lichexanthone and secalonic acid), and usnic acid, as well seven orsellinic acid esters, five salazinic acid 8',9'-O-alkyl derivatives and four lichexanthone derivatives, were evaluated for their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Diffractaic acid was the most active compound (MIC value 15.6mug/ml, 41.6 microM), followed by norstictic acid (MIC value 62.5 microg/ml, 168 microM) and usnic acid (MIC value 62.5 microg/ml, 182 microM). Hypostictic acid (MIC value 94.0 microg/ml, 251 microM) and protocetraric acid (MIC value 125 microg/ml, 334 microM) showed moderate inhibitory activity. The other compounds showed lower inhibitory activity on the growth of M. tuberculosis, varying from MIC values of 250 to 1370 microM. PMID:19683421

  6. Activity Spaces and Urban Adolescent Substance Use and Emotional Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Korpela, Kalevi

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed routine locations (activity spaces) of urban adolescents enrolled in a substance abuse treatment program to understand the relationship between their spatial lives and health outcomes such as substance use and mental health. Sixty-eight adolescents were interviewed and produced a list of 199 locations identified as most…

  7. Challenging the wall of fast rotating asteroids - constraining internal cohesive strength for MBAs and NEAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishook, David; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Binzel, Richard P.; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Aharonson, Oded; Thomas, Cristina; Lockhart, Matthew; Thirouin, Audrey; Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Burt, Brian

    2015-11-01

    We report an observation of a 2 km size main belt asteroid (MBA), (60716) 2000 GD65, with a lightcurve indicating a rotation period of 1.9529±0.0002 hours, i.e. challenging the ‘rubble pile spin barrier’. This adds to a handful of MBAs, recently observed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) survey (Chang et al. 2014, 2015), with diameters between 0.5-1.5 km and lightcurves indicating rotation periods of 1.2-1.9 hours. These asteroids are relatively large compared to the population of small near-Earth asteroids (NEAs; D<300 m) that can reach rotation periods as fast as 15.797 seconds as is the case of NEA 2014 RC (Moskovitz and MANOS team).We apply the Holsapple (2007) model to these two distinct populations in order to constrain the cohesion within these objects and to search for monolithic asteroids. We use the lightcurve’s amplitude as indication of the triaxial shape ratio a/b, and assume b/c=1 (i.e. a>b=c). While the density is a free parameter, the given cohesion is the average of values for density ranges between 1.5 to 2.5 gr cm^-3, which are measured density values for asteroids (Carry 2012).We find that the fast rotating MBAs must have internal cohesive strength of at least ~25 to ~250 Pa in order to prevent disruption against centrifugal acceleration. Similar cohesion values have been found within lunar soils (100-1000 Pa; Mitchell et al. 1974). However, since only a few MBAs rotate so quickly, such internal cohesive strength might be rare within the population of km-size MBAs. Among NEAs, about 25% have minimal constrained cohesion values similar to those found for the fast rotating MBAs. Approximately 65% have no need for substantial cohesion values >25 Pa. Only ~10% of NEAs must have substantial internal cohesion of over 1000 Pa to prevent disruption, however none of them are rotating fast enough to require a fully monolithic body, i.e. cohesion >10 kPa.

  8. Phytotoxic substance with allelopathic activity in Brachiaria decumbens.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ai; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2015-05-01

    The grass Brachiaria decumbens becomes naturalized and quickly dominant in non-native areas. It was hypothesized that phytotoxic substances of plants may contribute to the domination and invasion of the plants. However, no potent phytotoxic substance has been reported in B. decumbens. Therefore, we searched for phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity in this species. An aqueous methanol extract of B. decumbens inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), timothy (Phleum pratense) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seedlings. The extract was then purified using chromatographic methods and a phytotoxic substance with allelopathic activity was isolated and identified by spectral analysis as (6R,9S)-3-oxo-α-ionol. These results suggest that this compound may contribute to the allelopathic effect caused by the B. decumbens extract and may be in part responsible for the invasion and domination of B. decumbens. Two other Brachiaria species, B. brizantha and a Brachiaria hybrid were also confirmed to contain (6R,9S)-3-oxo-α-ionol. Therefore, this compound may play an important role in the phytotoxicity of the Brachiaria species. PMID:26058152

  9. A novel substance with allelopathic activity in Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Takeshita, Sayaka; Kimura, Fukiko; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2013-12-15

    Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) is one of the oldest living tree species and has been widely used in traditional medicine. Leaf extracts of ginkgo, such as the standardized extract EGb761, have become one of the best-selling herbal products. However, no bioactive compound directed at plants has been reported in this species. Therefore, we investigated possible allelopathic activity and searched for allelopathically active substances in ginkgo leaves. An aqueous methanol leaf extract inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), timothy (Phleum pratense) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seedlings. The extract was purified by several chromatographic runs and an allelopathically active substance was isolated and identified by spectral analysis to be the novel compound 2-hydroxy-6-(10-hydroxypentadec-11-enyl)benzoic acid. The compound inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress and timothy at concentrations greater than 3 μM. The activity of the compound was 10- to 52-fold that of nonanoic acid. These results suggest that 2-hydroxy-6-(10-hydroxypentadec-11-enyl)benzoic acid may contribute to the allelopathic effect caused by ginkgo leaf extract. The compound may also have potential as a template for the development of new plant control substances.

  10. A novel substance with allelopathic activity in Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Takeshita, Sayaka; Kimura, Fukiko; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2013-12-15

    Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) is one of the oldest living tree species and has been widely used in traditional medicine. Leaf extracts of ginkgo, such as the standardized extract EGb761, have become one of the best-selling herbal products. However, no bioactive compound directed at plants has been reported in this species. Therefore, we investigated possible allelopathic activity and searched for allelopathically active substances in ginkgo leaves. An aqueous methanol leaf extract inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), timothy (Phleum pratense) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seedlings. The extract was purified by several chromatographic runs and an allelopathically active substance was isolated and identified by spectral analysis to be the novel compound 2-hydroxy-6-(10-hydroxypentadec-11-enyl)benzoic acid. The compound inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress and timothy at concentrations greater than 3 μM. The activity of the compound was 10- to 52-fold that of nonanoic acid. These results suggest that 2-hydroxy-6-(10-hydroxypentadec-11-enyl)benzoic acid may contribute to the allelopathic effect caused by ginkgo leaf extract. The compound may also have potential as a template for the development of new plant control substances. PMID:23932539

  11. Examination of some fragrance substances for mutagenic activity.

    PubMed

    Williams, J; Hanna, P J; Briggs, M H

    1984-11-01

    We tested 64 perfumes and aftershaves for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100; most were tested both with and without metabolic activation. None of the test compounds gave a positive mutagenic response. The available amounts of some test samples were very small, however, and the possibility that larger samples might have produced positive results cannot be altogether discounted. Some tests indicated the presence of cytotoxic substances which require chemical analysis.

  12. Characterizing ultrafine particle growth at a pine forest site influenced by anthropogenic pollution during BEACHON-RoMBAS-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y.; Hodzic, A.; Smith, J. N.; Ortega, J. V.; de Foy, B.

    2013-12-01

    Representing the formation and growth of ultrafine particles in chemistry and climate models is challenging due to the complexity of processes involved, which leads to uncertainties in aerosol size distributions and their effects on Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN). The Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study (RoMBAS) was an intensive measurement campaign as part of the broader BEACHON (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen) project. This took place during July - August 2011 at the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory. The location is situated in the rural-urban interface along the Colorado Front Range and allows us to study the effects of aerosol formation and other atmospheric chemistry phenomenon in a forested region with periodic urban influences. Surface measurements of gases, aerosols and meteorological parameters from this campaign were used to examine the formation and growth processes leading to observed Aiken-mode Particle burst Events (APEs), and to quantify their effects on aerosol properties and cloud condensation nuclei CCN concentrations. Results suggest that APEs were observed at the forest site in the early afternoon associated with the arrival of anthropogenic plumes from Denver and Colorado Springs. Mean number concentrations of ultrafine particles (4-30nm) typically exceeded 5000 cm-3 during APEs and these elevated concentrations were correlated with elevated SO2. The Weather Research and Forecasting model with on-line Chemistry (WRF-Chem) was used to model APEs during BEACHON-RoMBAS. The model was updated to include an activation nucleation (AN) scheme with an empirical representation of aerosol nucleation rate, and subsequent growth due to the condensation of organic and inorganic vapors. Comparisons with ground measurements show that the updated model reasonably captures aerosol number concentrations and size distribution during APEs, as well as CN and CCN concentrations. Model results

  13. Nanodiamonds as Carriers for Address Delivery of Biologically Active Substances

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Surface of detonation nanodiamonds was functionalized for the covalent attachment of immunoglobulin, and simultaneously bovine serum albumin and Rabbit Anti-Mouse Antibody. The nanodiamond-IgGI125 and RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complexes are stable in blood serum and the immobilized proteins retain their biological activity. It was shown that the RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complex is able to bind to the target antigen immobilized on the Sepharose 6B matrix through antibody–antigen interaction. The idea can be extended to use nanodiamonds as carriers for delivery of bioactive substances (i.e., drugs) to various targets in vivo. PMID:20672079

  14. Nanodiamonds as Carriers for Address Delivery of Biologically Active Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purtov, K. V.; Petunin, A. I.; Burov, A. E.; Puzyr, A. P.; Bondar, V. S.

    2010-03-01

    Surface of detonation nanodiamonds was functionalized for the covalent attachment of immunoglobulin, and simultaneously bovine serum albumin and Rabbit Anti-Mouse Antibody. The nanodiamond-IgGI125 and RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complexes are stable in blood serum and the immobilized proteins retain their biological activity. It was shown that the RAM-nanodiamond-BSAI125 complex is able to bind to the target antigen immobilized on the Sepharose 6B matrix through antibody-antigen interaction. The idea can be extended to use nanodiamonds as carriers for delivery of bioactive substances (i.e., drugs) to various targets in vivo.

  15. [Composition and content of biologically active substances in rose hips].

    PubMed

    Dubtsova, G N; Negmatulloeva, R N; Bessonov, V V; Baĭkov, V G; Sheviakova, L V; Makhova, N N; Perederiaev, O I; Bogachuk, M N; Baĭgarin, E K

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the chemical composition of the powders obtained from the pulp with the skins and seeds of fruits of wild rose hips. Research results have shown that the main fraction of the powder is dietary fiber, powder of seeds of insoluble fiber in 1,6 and 2,3 higher than in the powder of the fruit with a thin skin and pulp, respectively. The greatest amount of carbohydrates and protein found in powders and pulp of the fruit with a thin skin, and lipids predominate in the powder from the seeds. Found that the lipid powder rosehip richest in oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, the share of oleic acid has 6,4-19,2%, linoleic and linolenic 19,7-45,8 and 23,3-33,9% of the amount of fatty acids. Lipids powders of hips and seeds of rose have higher levels of essential linoleic acid and powder from the pulp with the skins - linolenic acid. In the study established the presence of sterols 7 fractions, the predominant of which is the beta-sitosterol. In the powder from the pulp with the skins found the greatest amount of ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and the powder of seeds - vitamin E. Carotenoids in powders are beta-carotene and lycopene. The high content of ascorbic acid, vitamin E and carotenoids in powder from wild rose hips makes them a good source of antioxidants. Therefore, we studied the possibility of using vegetable powders obtained from hips of wild rose, to enrich biologically active substances such as vitamins C, E and carotenoids, food supply, particularly of health care use. Rosehip powder from the pulp with the skins had the highest antioxidant activity, antioxidant activity of hips powders was 74% of the activity of powder from the pulp with the skins, the lowest antioxidant activity was observed in the powder from the wild rose seeds. That's way, based on the analysis of the chemical composition of rose hip powder found high levels they ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids,found their high antioxidant activity. It allows to recommend powders

  16. Hen's egg as a source of valuable biologically active substances.

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Herman, Marta; Starostecka, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show current knowledge concerning valuable substances biologically active present in hen eggs and underline important nutritive role of hen eggs. Hen egg is a good source of nutrients such as proteins, vitamins (A, B2, B6, B12, D, E, K), minerals and lipids. The significant part of lipids is a group of unsaturated phospholipids, which are components of cell membranes, act protectively on the cardiovascular system and contribute to a decrease of cholesterol level and blood pressure. Therefore, the consumption of unsaturated phospholipids is recommended especially in patients suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular system. Another important substance is egg cystatin, which has a wide spectrum of biological functions, for example the ability to stimulate cell growth, inhibit inflammatory processes and has antibacterial and antiviral properties. Other substance presented in the egg white which helps fight bacteria is lysozyme. It is used in medicine as an aid in antibiotic therapy and analgesic in the course of infection, as well as in tumor malignancies. Among the components contained in the egg yolk there is also immunoglobulin Y which due to its therapeutic importance deserves special attention. Its use offers the possibility of replacing chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of bacterial infections of digestive system, as well as an opportunity for the development of medicine associated with passive immunization of patients. The egg is a rich source of retinol which gradual depletion in the organism causes many eye pathologies. A very important and useful part of the egg, used in medicine is a shell and its membranes, due to the high collagen content relevant in the treatment of connective tissue diseases. PMID:27383572

  17. Modes of action of three disinfectant active substances: a review.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Stephen; Ingmer, Hanne

    2013-12-01

    This review deals with three categories of active substances for disinfectant products, their modes of action (MOA), and how MOA can help predict propensity for resistance in microorganisms. Within the European Union applications for approval of disinfectants of all kinds must be submitted in a few years, and documentation on MOA and resistance must be part of those applications. Peracetic acid is an unspecific, pervasive oxidizer of C-C double bonds and reduced atoms. This MOA would imply poor chance for development of resistance in microorganisms, as borne out by the absence of such reports in the literature. The quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC's) are much more specific in their antimicrobial mechanism. Even very low concentrations cause damage to the cytoplasmic membrane due to perturbation of the bilayers by the molecules' alkyl chains. Development of microbial resistance to QAC's, as well as cross-resistance to antibiotics, are particularly well documented. The polymer PHMB is antimicrobial because it disturbs the cell membrane's bilayer by interacting with it along the surface of the membrane. Resistance to the polymer appears not to develop despite many years of use in many fields. However, PHMB's toxicity to humans upon inhalation dictates great caution when deploying the substance.

  18. [Need for rheologically active, vasoactive and metabolically active substances in the initial treatment of acute acoustic trauma].

    PubMed

    Pilgramm, M; Schumann, K

    1986-10-01

    Two rheologically active and 8 vasoactive and metabolically active substances were compared in eight independent studies, some of which were randomised and double blind, on 400 patients who had suffered acute acoustic trauma. The control group was given saline. Spontaneous recovery was excluded as far as possible. The following substances were tested: Dextran 40, hydroxyethyl starch 40/0.5, naftidrofurylhydrogenoxalate, Vinpocetin, betahistine, pentoxifylline, flunaricine, Regeneresen AU 4 and 0.9% saline. All groups showed superior results to the control group in both long-term and short-term tests with respect to hearing gain and tinnitis improvement. The rheologically effective substances showed no statistically significant variations. None of the vasoactive or metabolically active substances used as adjunctive therapy improved the results achieved with rheologically effective substances alone. These results demonstrate that acute acoustic trauma can be most effectively treated by rheologically active substances; vasoactive and metabolically active substances are unnecessary. Hyperbaric oxygenation is advantageous as an adjunctive therapy. PMID:2432041

  19. Recent advances in researches on physiologically active substances in holothurians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashi, Hirata; Nobuhiro, Zaima; Kyoko, Yamashita; Ryoko, Noguchi; Xue, Changhu; Tatsuya, Sugawara

    2005-07-01

    In this report, we reviewed recent literature on physiologically active substances from sea cucumbers (SCs) and their activities together with results obtained from our study. Preventive properties against lipid metabolism were reported in rats using a whole SC preparation with no particular constituent specified. Administration of the preparation lowered serum and hepatic cholesterol levels and improved the HDL/LDL ratio. These functions may be attributed to the stimulatory effect of the extract on the secretion of cholesterol in feces. Novel fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCSs) from Ludwigothurea grisea significantly induced fibroblast growth factor 2-dependent angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HU-VECs). The proangiogenetic activity seemed attributable to the action of the sulfated fucose branches on the polysaccharide. SCs contain mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) that are capable of absorbing UV. A biogenetic precursor of MAAs was first reported in SCs. The anti-proliferative effects of a branched chain fatty acid from a sea cucumber on prostate cancer cells was reported with the activity of 5-lipoxygenase. Glycosphingolipid constituents in SCs have been systematically analyzed over the past ten years. The results showed that the gangliosides in several SCs differed from those of mammals in that a sialic acid of SC gangliosides directly binded to glucose of cerebroside. Neuritogenic activity of the glycosphingolipids was demonstrated in vitro experiments and may lead to the development of therapeutic products for neurological disorders. Our study also showed that sphingoid bases, the hydrolyzed products of glycosphingolipids from SCs, induced significant apoptosis in several tumor cell lines.

  20. Study of adsorption process of iron colloid substances on activated carbon by ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machekhina, K. I.; Shiyan, L. N.; Yurmazova, T. A.; Voyno, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    The paper reports on the adsorption of iron colloid substances on activated carbon (PAC) Norit SA UF with using ultrasound. It is found that time of adsorption is equal to three hours. High-frequency electrical oscillation is 35 kHz. The adsorption capacity of activated carbon was determined and it is equal to about 0.25 mg iron colloid substances /mg PAC. The iron colloid substances size ranging from 30 to 360 nm was determined. The zeta potential of iron colloid substances which consists of iron (III) hydroxide, silicon compounds and natural organic substances is about (-38mV). The process of destruction iron colloid substances occurs with subsequent formation of a precipitate in the form of Fe(OH)3 as a result of the removal of organic substances from the model solution.

  1. Supporting the process of removing humic substances on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Olesiak, Paulina; Stępniak, Longina

    2014-01-01

    This study is focused on biosorption process used in water treatment. The process has a number of advantages and a lot of research has been done into its intensification by means of ultrasonic modification of solutions. The study carried out by the authors leads to the conclusion that sonication of organic solutions allows for extension of the time of operation of carbon beds. For the analysis of the results obtained during the sorption of humic substances (HS) from the solution dependencies UV/UV₀ or DOC/DOC₀ were used. In comparative studies the effectiveness of sorption and sonosorption (UV/UV₀) shows that the share of ultrasounds (US) is beneficial for extension of time deposit, both at a flow rate HS solution equal to 1 m/h and 5 m/h. Analysis of the US impact sorption on HS sorption in a biological fluidized bed, both prepared from biopreparat and the activated sludge confirms the higher efficiency compared to sonobiosorption than biosorption. These results confirm the degree of reduction UV₂₅₄/UV₀ and DOC/DOC₀ for the same processes. EMS index also confirms the improvement of HSbiodegradation by sludge microorganisms.

  2. [Biologically active substances of cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.)].

    PubMed

    Perova, I B; Zhogova, A A; Poliakova, A V; Éller, K I; Ramenskaia, G V; Samylina, I A

    2014-01-01

    10 samples of fresh-frozen cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.), collected in the Tambov and the Caucasus regions, were investigated for the total amount and composition of the main biologically active substances (BAS): anthocyanins (AC), proanthocyanidins (OPC), dihydroxycinnamic acids (DHCA), iridoids, organic acids, mono- and disaccharides and antiradical activity in the DPPH-test in vitro. Total phenolics content determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was 150-400 mg/100 g fresh fruit weight. The OPC content, estimated by Bate-Smith method, varied from 20-25 mg/100 g of unripe cornelian cherries to 80-430 mg/100 g of mature cornelian cherries. Total AC amount evaluated by pH-differential spectrophotometry was minimal in unripe fruits (11,2 mg/100 g), and maximal in mature fruits (92,2 mg/100 g). Profile of individual AC was determined by HPLC with UV/Vis and ESI-TOF-MS detections. 3-galactosides of cyanidin (19,0-80,3%) and pelargonidin (15,1-75,6%) were found as main anthocyanins. An original methodology for iridoid determination based on HPLC with UV and ESI-TOF-MS detection was developed. The main iridoids were identified as loganic acid, loganin, sweroside and cornuside. Total iridoids content was 130-400 mg/100 g, and loganic acid was predominant in all samples (87,6-94,8%). Only minor amount of the DHCA derivatives (<10 mg/100 g) were found. The malic acid was predominant among organic acids, the total content of which varied from 0,4 to 2,8%. Relatively high amount of ascorbic acid (35-60 mg/100 g) was found. The carbohydrates profile of cornielian cherries was represented by fructose (2,2-3,8%) and glucose (2,5-7,0%). 70% water-ethanol extracts of Cornus mas fruits have showed pronounced antiradical activity in DPPH-test (470,5-932,0 mg TE/100 g). The data on specific minor BAS can be used in the standardization and evaluation of potential biological activity of extracts and dietary supplements based on the cornelian cherry fruits. PMID:25816631

  3. [Biologically active substances of cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.)].

    PubMed

    Perova, I B; Zhogova, A A; Poliakova, A V; Éller, K I; Ramenskaia, G V; Samylina, I A

    2014-01-01

    10 samples of fresh-frozen cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.), collected in the Tambov and the Caucasus regions, were investigated for the total amount and composition of the main biologically active substances (BAS): anthocyanins (AC), proanthocyanidins (OPC), dihydroxycinnamic acids (DHCA), iridoids, organic acids, mono- and disaccharides and antiradical activity in the DPPH-test in vitro. Total phenolics content determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was 150-400 mg/100 g fresh fruit weight. The OPC content, estimated by Bate-Smith method, varied from 20-25 mg/100 g of unripe cornelian cherries to 80-430 mg/100 g of mature cornelian cherries. Total AC amount evaluated by pH-differential spectrophotometry was minimal in unripe fruits (11,2 mg/100 g), and maximal in mature fruits (92,2 mg/100 g). Profile of individual AC was determined by HPLC with UV/Vis and ESI-TOF-MS detections. 3-galactosides of cyanidin (19,0-80,3%) and pelargonidin (15,1-75,6%) were found as main anthocyanins. An original methodology for iridoid determination based on HPLC with UV and ESI-TOF-MS detection was developed. The main iridoids were identified as loganic acid, loganin, sweroside and cornuside. Total iridoids content was 130-400 mg/100 g, and loganic acid was predominant in all samples (87,6-94,8%). Only minor amount of the DHCA derivatives (<10 mg/100 g) were found. The malic acid was predominant among organic acids, the total content of which varied from 0,4 to 2,8%. Relatively high amount of ascorbic acid (35-60 mg/100 g) was found. The carbohydrates profile of cornielian cherries was represented by fructose (2,2-3,8%) and glucose (2,5-7,0%). 70% water-ethanol extracts of Cornus mas fruits have showed pronounced antiradical activity in DPPH-test (470,5-932,0 mg TE/100 g). The data on specific minor BAS can be used in the standardization and evaluation of potential biological activity of extracts and dietary supplements based on the cornelian cherry fruits.

  4. Substance P receptor desensitization requires receptor activation but not phospholipase C

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiya, Hiroshi; Putney, J.W. Jr. )

    1988-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure of parotid acinar cells to substance P at 37{degree}C results in activation of phospholipase C, formation of ({sup 3}H)inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}), and persistent desensitization of the substance P response. In cells treated with antimycin in medium containing glucose, ATP was decreased to {approximately}20% of control values, IP{sub 3} formation was completely inhibited, but desensitization was unaffected. When cells were treated with antimycin in the absence of glucose, cellular ATP was decreased to {approximately}5% of control values, and both IP{sub 3} formation and desensitization were blocked. A series of substance P-related peptides increased the formation of ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} and induced desensitization of the substance P response with a similar rank order of potencies. The substance P antagonist, (D-Pro{sup 2}, D-Try{sup 7,9})-substance P, inhibited substance P-induced IP{sub 3} formation and desensitization but did not induce desensitization. These results suggest that the desensitization of substance P-induced IP{sub 3} formation requires agonist activation of a P-type substance P receptor, and that one or more cellular ATP-dependent processes are required for this reaction. However, activation of phospholipase C and the generation of inositol phosphates does not seem to be a prerequisite for desensitization.

  5. Ice nuclei measurements from the BEACHON-RoMBAS field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prenni, A. J.; Garcia, E.; Tobo, Y.; DeMott, P. J.; McCluskey, C. S.; Sullivan, R. C.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Prenni, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Biological ice nuclei (IN) are particularly efficient at warmer supercooled temperatures, but currently there is tremendous uncertainty regarding their number concentrations in the atmosphere. In this paper, we describe measurements from July-August 2011 focused on characterizing the cloud nucleating properties of particles from biogenic sources. These data were collected as part of the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study (BEACHON-RoMBAS) in Manitou Experimental Forest in Colorado. Results will include IN number concentrations and compositions from measurements using the Colorado State University Continuous Flow ice thermal Diffusion Chamber (CFDC). In an effort to meet some of the challenges associated with characterizing biological IN, we have interfaced several new techniques with the CFDC. First, we have added a particle concentrator upstream of the CFDC, pushing our limit of detection to approximately 10 IN per cubic meter. Further, as in previous studies, we employ an inertial impactor immediately downstream of the CFDC to capture ice crystals on electron microscope grids, allowing for collection of IN and subsequent identification of the elemental composition and morphology of the ice-nucleating particles. We have expanded this capability so that, if present in sufficient amounts, the genomic material isolated from the IN can be amplified using polymerase chain reaction and characterized using DNA sequencing.

  6. Humic substances biological activity at the plant-soil interface: from environmental aspects to molecular factors.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Sara; Francioso, Ornella; Quaggiotti, Silvia; Nardi, Serenella

    2010-06-01

    Humic substances (HS) represent the organic material mainly widespread in nature. HS have positive effects on plant physiology by improving soil structure and fertility and by influencing nutrient uptake and root architecture. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these events are only partially known. HS have been shown to contain auxin and an "auxin-like" activity of humic substances has been proposed, but support to this hypothesis is fragmentary. In this review article, we are giving an overview of available data concerning molecular structures and biological activities of humic substances, with special emphasis on their hormone-like activities. PMID:20495384

  7. Longitudinal relationships of executive cognitive function and parent influence to child substance use and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R

    2013-06-01

    Considered a set of neuro-cognitive skills, executive cognitive function (ECF) may serve to protect children from initiating substance use, although its role relative to other protective influences that parents and physical activity might provide is not known. As part of a large multiple health risk behavior trial for prevention of substance use and obesity, Pathways, the present study evaluated the relative impact of ECF on lifetime substance use (tobacco and alcohol) and physical activity in a panel of fourth grade children over a 6-month period (N = 1005; 51 % female; 25 % on free/reduced lunch; 60 % Hispanic/Latino or multi-racial; 28 elementary schools). A self-report survey included measures of ECF, lifetime tobacco and alcohol use, out-of-school physical activity, exercising with parents, and parent rules about food/sedentary behavior, monitoring, and arguing, was adapted for use with children. A path analysis demonstrated that ECF was the major predictor of lower substance use and higher physical activity and exercising with parents. Physical activity and exercising with parents showed reciprocal positive relationships. Findings suggest that promoting ECF skills should be a major focus of child health promotion and substance use prevention programs, although the potential protective effects of physical activity and exercise with parents on substance use in this young age group are not yet clear. PMID:23345012

  8. EURONEAR—Recovery, follow-up and discovery of NEAs and MBAs using large field 1-2 m telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaduvescu, O.; Birlan, M.; Tudorica, A.; Sonka, A.; Pozo, F. N.; Barr, A. D.; Asher, D. J.; Licandro, J.; Ortiz, J. L.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Popescu, M.; Nedelcu, A.; Dumitru, D.; Toma, R.; Comsa, I.; Vancea, C.; Vidican, D.; Opriseanu, C.; Badescu, T.; Badea, M.; Constantinescu, M.

    2011-10-01

    We report on the follow-up and recovery of 100 program NEAs, PHAs and VIs using the ESO/MPG 2.2 m, Swope 1 m and INT 2.5 m telescopes equipped with large field cameras. The 127 fields observed during 11 nights covered 29 square degrees. Using these data, we present the incidental survey work which includes 558 known MBAs and 628 unknown moving objects mostly consistent with MBAs from which 58 objects became official discoveries. We planned the runs using six criteria and four servers which focus mostly on faint and poorly observed objects in need of confirmation, follow-up and recovery. We followed 62 faint NEAs within one month after discovery and we recovered 10 faint NEAs having big uncertainties at their second or later opposition. Using the INT we eliminated four PHA candidates and VIs. We observed in total 1286 moving objects and we reported more than 10,000 positions. All data were reduced by the members of our network in a team effort, and reported promptly to the MPC. The positions of the program NEAs were published in 27 MPC and MPEC references and used to improve their orbits. The O-C residuals for known MBAs and program NEAs are smallest for the ESO/MPG and Swope and about four times larger for the INT whose field is more distorted. For the astrometric reduction, the UCAC-2 catalog is recommended instead of USNO-B1. The incidental survey allowed us to study statistics of the MBA and NEA populations observable today with 1-2 m facilities. We calculate preliminary orbits for all unknown objects, classifying them as official discoveries, later identifications and unknown outstanding objects. The orbital elements a, e, i calculated by FIND_ORB software for the official discoveries and later identified objects are very similar with the published elements which take into account longer observational arcs; thus preliminary orbits were used in statistics for the whole unknown dataset. We present a basic model which can be used to distinguish between MBAs and

  9. Ice-Active Substances from the Infective Juveniles of the Freeze Tolerant Entomopathogenic Nematode, Steinernema feltiae.

    PubMed

    Ali, Farman; Wharton, David A

    2016-01-01

    Steinernema feltiae is a moderately freezing tolerant nematode, that can withstand intracellular ice formation. We investigated recrystallization inhibition, thermal hysteresis and ice nucleation activities in the infective juveniles of S. feltiae. Both the splat cooling assay and optical recrystallometry indicate the presence of ice active substances that inhibit recrystallization in the nematode extract. The substance is relatively heat stable and largely retains the recrystallization inhibition activity after heating. No thermal hysteresis activity was detected but the extract had a typical hexagonal crystal shape when grown from a single seed crystal and weak ice nucleation activity. An ice active substance is present in a low concentration, which may be involved in the freezing survival of this species by inhibiting ice recrystallization. PMID:27227961

  10. Ice-Active Substances from the Infective Juveniles of the Freeze Tolerant Entomopathogenic Nematode, Steinernema feltiae

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Farman; Wharton, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Steinernema feltiae is a moderately freezing tolerant nematode, that can withstand intracellular ice formation. We investigated recrystallization inhibition, thermal hysteresis and ice nucleation activities in the infective juveniles of S. feltiae. Both the splat cooling assay and optical recrystallometry indicate the presence of ice active substances that inhibit recrystallization in the nematode extract. The substance is relatively heat stable and largely retains the recrystallization inhibition activity after heating. No thermal hysteresis activity was detected but the extract had a typical hexagonal crystal shape when grown from a single seed crystal and weak ice nucleation activity. An ice active substance is present in a low concentration, which may be involved in the freezing survival of this species by inhibiting ice recrystallization. PMID:27227961

  11. Substance use disorders in Arab countries: research activity and bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders, which include substance abuse and substance dependence, are present in all regions of the world including Middle Eastern Arab countries. Bibliometric analysis is an increasingly used tool for research assessment. The main objective of this study was to assess research productivity in the field of substance use disorders in Arab countries using bibliometric indicators. Methodology Original or review research articles authored or co-authored by investigators from Arab countries about substance use disorders during the period 1900 – 2013 were retrieved using the ISI Web of Science database. Research activity was assessed by analyzing the annual research productivity, contribution of each Arab country, names of journals, citations, and types of abused substances. Results Four hundred and thirteen documents in substance use disorders were retrieved. Annual research productivity was low but showed a significant increase in the last few years. In terms of quantity, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (83 documents) ranked first in research about substance use disorders while Lebanon (17.4 documents per million) ranked first in terms of number of documents published per million inhabitants. Retrieved documents were found in different journal titles and categories, mostly in Drug and Alcohol Dependence Journal. Authors from USA appeared in 117 documents published by investigators from Arab countries. Citation analysis of retrieved documents showed that the average citation per document was 10.76 and the h - index was 35. The majority of retrieved documents were about tobacco and smoking (175 documents) field while alcohol consumption and abuse research was the least with 69 documents. Conclusion The results obtained suggest that research in this field was largely neglected in the past. However, recent research interest was observed. Research output on tobacco and smoking was relatively high compared to other substances of abuse like illicit drugs

  12. Young Adolescents’ Perceived Activity Space Risk, Peer Networks, and Substance use

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Light, John; Rusby, Julie; Westling, Erika; Crewe, Stephanie; Flay, Brian; Campbell, Leah; Zaharakis, Nikola; McHenry, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is a developmentally contingent social practice that is constituted within the routine social-environment of adolescents’ lives. Few studies have examined peer networks, perceived activity space risk (risk of substance use at routine locations), and substance use. We examined the moderating influence of peer network characteristics on the relationship between perceived activity space risk and substance use among a sample of 250 urban adolescents. Significant interactions were found between peer networks and perceived activity space risk on tobacco and marijuana use, such that protective peer networks reduced the effect of activity place risk on substance use. A significant 3-way interaction was found on marijuana use indicating that gender moderated peer network's effect on activity space risk. Conditional effect analysis found that boys' peer networks moderated the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use, whereas for girls, the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use was not moderated by their peer networks. These findings could advance theoretical models to inform social-environmental research among adolescents. PMID:26026598

  13. Young adolescents' perceived activity space risk, peer networks, and substance use.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Light, John; Rusby, Julie; Westling, Erika; Crewe, Stephanie; Flay, Brian; Campbell, Leah; Zaharakis, Nikola; McHenry, Chantal

    2015-07-01

    Adolescent substance use is a developmentally contingent social practice that is constituted within the routine social-environment of adolescents' lives. Few studies have examined peer networks, perceived activity space risk (risk of substance use at routine locations), and substance use. We examined the moderating influence of peer network characteristics on the relationship between perceived activity space risk and substance use among a sample of 250 urban adolescents. Significant interactions were found between peer networks and perceived activity space risk on tobacco and marijuana use, such that protective peer networks reduced the effect of activity place risk on substance use. A significant 3-way interaction was found on marijuana use indicating that gender moderated peer network's effect on activity space risk. Conditional effect analysis found that boys' peer networks moderated the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use, whereas for girls, the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use was not moderated by their peer networks. These findings could advance theoretical models to inform social-environmental research among adolescents.

  14. Isolation and characterization of muscle fatigue substance with anti-tumor activities.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Ruben M; Han, Haiyong; Tegeler, Tony; Petritis, Konstantinos; Von Hoff, Daniel D; Hoffman, Stanley A

    2013-01-01

    Research during the 1950's indicated that exercise played a role in the reduction of tumor growth. In the 1960's our studies confirmed that tumor-bearing rats, exercised to fatigue, demonstrated tumor inhibition. Our further studies isolated an extract (Fatigue Substance, or F-Substance) from rectus femoris muscles of rats which had been electrically stimulated to fatigue. This extract significantly inhibited growth of transplanted rat tumors. Research continued until 1978 when it became apparent the methodology at that time was not able to further identify the substance's active components. Using current technology, we now report on the further isolation and characterization of F-Substance. In cell proliferation assays, extracts from electrically stimulated rat rectus femoris muscles had more significant inhibitory effect on the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 than those isolated from unstimulated muscles. To identify the molecule(s) responsible for the antitumor activity, a rat cytokine antibody array was used to profile the cytokines in the substances. Among the 29 different cytokines contained on the array, 3 showed greater than 3-fold difference between the substances isolated from the stimulated and unstimulated muscles. LIX (also known as CXCL5) is 6-fold higher in the substances isolated from stimulated muscles than those from the unstimulated muscles. TIMP-1 is 4.6 fold higher and sICAM is 3.6 fold higher in the substances from the stimulated muscles. Our results indicated that cytokines released from contracting muscles might be responsible for the antitumor effect of F-Substance.

  15. [Effect of pectin substances on activity of human pancreatic alpha-amylase in vitro].

    PubMed

    Chelpanova, T I; Vitiazev, F V; Mikhaleva, N Ia; Efimtseva, É A

    2012-06-01

    Pectin substances were extracted from food plants: sweet pepper Capsicum annuum L., carrot sowing Daucus sativus L., bulb onion Allium cepa L., white cabbage Brassica oleracea L. by two methods with acid solutions similar to gastric environment. The pectins that were extracted were characterized by Monosaccharide composition and quantitative contents of uronic acids, neutral monosaccharides, methoxy groups, protein. The inhibitory effect of all extracted pectin-protein complexes on activity of pharmaceutical drugs of human pancreatic alpha-amylase was detected. It was found that the inhibitory effect of isolated pectin substances was dependent upon the species of plant source, the manner of pectin substance extraction, the chemical composition and acting concentrations. The ability of pectin substances to suppress enzyme activity was found in a range of pectin concentrations from 0.5 up to 1.5 %. It was revealed that extracted pectin substances from bulb onion and white cabbage by acid solution with pepsin had a 2.4-3.4 times greater inhibiting effect on the human pancreatic alpha-amylase activity in comparison with pectin substances extracted by solution without pepsin from the same plant sources in high concentrations.

  16. Adolescents’ fMRI Activation to a Response Inhibition Task Predicts Future Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, O.M.; Goldenberg, D.; Thayer, R.; Migliorini, R.; Simmons, A.N.; Tapert, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Deficient behavioral regulation may be a risk factor for substance use disorders in adolescents. Abnormalities in brain regions critical to cognitive control have been linked to more intense and problematic future substance use (e.g., (Durazzo, Gazdzinski, Mon, & Meyerhoff, 2010; Falk, Berkman, Whalen, & Lieberman, 2011; Paulus, Tapert, & Schuckit, 2005). The goal of this study was to examine the degree to which brain response to an inhibition task measured in mid-adolescence can predict substance use 18 months later. Method Adolescents aged 16–19 (N=80) performed a go/no-go response inhibition task during fMRI at project baseline, and were followed 18 months later with a detailed interview on substance use and dependence symptoms. Participants were 39 high frequency users and 41 demographically similar low frequency users (458 versus 2 average lifetime drug use occasions at baseline, respectively). Results Across all subjects, no-go trials produced significant increases in neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and a region including the left angular and supramarginal gyri (p(FWE)<.01, cluster threshold ≥30 voxels). Less ventromedial prefrontal activation but more left angular gyrus activation predicted higher levels of substance use and dependence symptoms in the following 18 months, particularly for those who were high frequency users in mid-adolescence (p<.05). Conclusions These findings are consistent with studies showing that impairments in cognitive control have strong associations with substance use. We found a predictive relationship between atypical activation patterns at baseline and substance use behavior 18 months later, particularly among adolescents with histories of previous heavy use. PMID:23006248

  17. Does incentive-elicited nucleus accumbens activation differ by substance of abuse? An examination with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Karoly, Hollis C; Bryan, Angela D; Weiland, Barbara J; Mayer, Andrew; Dodd, Andrew; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W

    2015-12-01

    Numerous questions surround the nature of reward processing in the developing adolescent brain, particularly in regard to polysubstance use. We therefore sought to examine incentive-elicited brain activation in the context of three common substances of abuse (cannabis, tobacco, and alcohol). Due to the role of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in incentive processing, we compared activation in this region during anticipation of reward and loss using a monetary incentive delay (MID) task. Adolescents (ages 14-18; 66% male) were matched on age, gender, and frequency of use of any common substances within six distinct groups: cannabis-only (n=14), tobacco-only (n=34), alcohol-only (n=12), cannabis+tobacco (n=17), cannabis+tobacco+alcohol (n=17), and non-using controls (n=38). All groups showed comparable behavioral performance on the MID task. The tobacco-only group showed decreased bilateral nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activation during reward anticipation as compared to the alcohol-only group, the control group, and both polysubstance groups. Interestingly, no differences emerged between the cannabis-only group and any of the other groups. Results from this study suggest that youth who tend toward single-substance tobacco use may possess behavioral and/or neurobiological characteristics that differentiate them from both their substance-using and non-substance-using peers.

  18. Properties and active substance release kinetics from gelatin-alginate matrices.

    PubMed

    Pluta, Janusz; Haznar, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of composition and technological processing on pharmaceutical availability of active substance as well as on the properties of porous gelatin-alginate matrices. The active substance carrier included glycerol or peanut oil apart from gelatin and sodium alginate, and some matrices were additionally modified with calcium lactate. The obtained matrices were characterized by good sorption properties and high resistance to proteolytic enzymes. The release of the model antibiotic followed the pattern of first order kinetics, while half-release time in vitro (in the experimental conditions) was 1.5 to 3 hrs.

  19. Effect of composition on the physicochemical properties and active substance release from gelatin-alginate sponge.

    PubMed

    Haznar, Dorota; Pluta, Janusz

    2003-01-01

    The aim the study was physicochemically characterize and develop ability of the active substance (cefradine) from the implantable porous carriers. The drug delivery systems consisting of the gelatine and alginic acid sodium salt and glycerol (GL) or peanut oil (AO). Gelatin-alginate sponge was prepared by foamed components and next freeze-dried this foam. The composition of the sponges affected on the sorption ability and on the stability to proteolytic enzymes. Owing to porous structure obtained specific profile of active substance release.

  20. STUDENT ACTIVITIES STAFF FUNCTIONS--SUM AND SUBSTANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARINE, JAMES

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO ASSESS (1) THE CURRENT STATUS OF STUDENT ACTIVITIES (S.A.) WORK, (2) THE PERSONS ASSUMING MAJOR RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE S.A. FUNCTION AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS, BACKGROUND, AND GOALS, (3) THE FUNCTIONS OF PERSONS WHO TAKE LEADERSHIP FOR S.A. PROGRAMS, AND (4) THE TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS IN S.A. COPIES OF A FIVE-PAGE…

  1. Activation and modulation of recombinantly expressed serotonin receptor type 3A by terpenes and pungent substances.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Paul M; Schreiner, Benjamin S P; Flegel, Caroline; Herbrechter, Robin; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2015-11-27

    Serotonin receptor type 3 (5-HT3 receptor) is a ligand-gated ion channel that is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The receptor plays an important role in regulating peristalsis of the gastrointestinal tract and in functions such as emesis, cognition and anxiety. Therefore, a variety of pharmacologically active substances target the 5-HT3 receptor to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The 5-HT3 receptors are activated, antagonized, or modulated by a wide range of chemically different substances, such as 2-methyl-serotonin, phenylbiguanide, setrones, or cannabinoids. Whereas the action of all of these substances is well described, less is known about the effect of terpenoids or fragrances on 5-HT3A receptors. In this study, we screened a large number of natural odorous and pungent substances for their pharmacological action on recombinantly expressed human 5-HT3A receptors. The receptors were functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes and characterized by electrophysiological recordings using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. A screening of two odorous mixes containing a total of 200 substances revealed that the monoterpenes, thymol and carvacrol, act as both weak partial agonists and positive modulators on the 5-HT3A receptor. In contrast, the most effective blockers were the terpenes, citronellol and geraniol, as well as the pungent substances gingerol, capsaicin and polygodial. In our study, we identified new modulators of 5-HT3A receptors out of the classes of monoterpenes and vanilloid substances that frequently occur in various plants. PMID:26456648

  2. TRICHLOROETHYLENE ADSORPTION BY ACTIVATED CARBON PRELOADED WITH HUMIC SUBSTANCES: EFFECTS OF SOLUTION CHEMISTRY. (R828157)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) adsorption by activated carbon previously loaded ("preloaded") with humic substances was found to decrease with increasing concentrations of monovalent ions (NaCl), calcium (until solubility was exceeded), or dissolved oxygen in...

  3. Substance Use, Criminal Activity, and Mental Health among Violent and Nonviolent Rural Probationers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, J. Matthew; Dickson, Megan F.; Saman, Daniel M.; Mateyoke-Scrivner, Allison; Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Differences between violent and nonviolent probationers were examined in the growing, yet understudied, rural probation population. Violent rural probationers had higher rates of substance use, criminal activity, and mental health symptoms than did nonviolent rural probationers. Implications for practitioners are discussed. (Contains 3 tables.)

  4. Peer Groups and Substance Use: Examining the Direct and Interactive Effect of Leisure Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships among adolescent leisure activities, peer behavior, and substance use. We suggest that peer group interaction can have a differential effect on adolescent deviant behavior depending on the type of leisure pattern adolescents engage in. We analyze data from a representative national sample of Icelandic…

  5. ENDOCRINE ACTIVE SUBSTANCES AND DOSE-RESPONSE FOR INDIVIDUALS AND POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine Active Substances and Dose-Response for Individuals and Populations
    Hugh A. Barton

    Abstract for IUPAC-SCOPE article

    Dose-response characteristics for endocrine disruption have been major focuses in efforts to understand potential impacts on human and ec...

  6. Trends of Criminal Activity and Substance Use in a Sample of Welfare Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Victoria L.; Montoya, Isaac D.; Dayton-Shotts, Cheryl A.; Carroll-Curtis, Tiffany L.; Riley, Micah A.

    2004-01-01

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 instituted a compulsory work mandate for welfare recipients. However, recipients who experience difficulties finding employment may increase their involvement in criminal activities and their frequency of substance use as a means to deal with changes precipitated…

  7. In vitro metabolism and bioavailability tests for the predictive toxicology of endocrine active substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    Legislation and prospective legislative proposals internationally (may) require that chemicals are tested for their ability to disrupt the hormonal systems of animals. Chemicals found to test positive in vitro are considered to be endocrine active substances (EAS) and may be puta...

  8. Potent cough suppression by physiologically active substance in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Akaike, Norio; Ito, Yushi; Ogawa, Sachie K; Maeda, Megumi; Wakita, Masahito; Takahama, Kazuo; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Kamei, Shintaro; Hamamoto, Takayoshi; Umehashi, Misako; Maeda, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Human plasma contains wide variety of bioactive proteins that have proved essential in therapeutic discovery. However many human plasma proteins remain orphans with unknown biological functions. Evidences suggest that some plasma components target the respiratory system. In the present study we adapted heparin affinity chromatography to fractionate human plasma for functional bioassay. Fractions from pooled human plasma yielded particular plasma fractions with strong cough suppressing effects. Purification yielded a fraction that was finally identified as an activated blood coagulation factor fXIa using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS). The fraction almost completely suppressed coughs induced by either chemical or mechanical stimulation applied to larynx or bifurcation of guinea-pig trachea. Cough suppressing effect of the fraction and commercially available fXIa were one million times stronger than codeine and codeine only partially suppressed the mechanically triggered coughing in animal model. Recent reviews highlighted prominent shortcomings of current available antitussives, including narcotic opioids such as codeine and their unpleasant or intolerable side effects. Therefore, safer and more effective cough suppressants would be welcome, and present findings indicate that fXIa in human plasma as a very promising, new therapeutic candidate for effective antitussive action.

  9. Active substance from the serum of laying hens and its effect on uterine smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Nikolov, A

    1989-01-01

    Blood serum from laying hens has an excitatory effect on isolated uterine smooth muscles of laying hens. This excitatory effect is not observed for the blood serum of pullets and cocks. After ultrafiltration and gel filtration on Sephadex G25, it was found that the excitatory effect of the blood serum was due to a low-molecular substance (m.w. below 5000 Da). The effect of this active substance was found to be inhibited by indomethacin, brufen and SC 19220. The presence of this substance in the serum of laying hens and its contractile effects, which are probably associated with prostaglandin mechanisms of regulation in the uterine smooth muscles, suggests that it is associated in the processes of oviposition in hens.

  10. Nimbolide B and nimbic acid B, phytotoxic substances in neem leaves with allelopathic activity.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Salam, Md Abdus; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2014-05-26

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been widely used as a traditional medicine and several bioactive compounds have been isolated from this species, but to date no potent allelopathic active substance has been reported. Therefore, we investigated possible allelopathic property and phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity in neem. An aqueous methanol extract of neem leaves inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress, lettuce, alfalfa, timothy, crabgrass, ryegrass, barnyard grass and jungle rice. The extracts were then purified by several chromatographic runs while monitoring the inhibitory activity and two phytotoxic substances were isolated. The chemical structures of the two substances were determined by spectral data to correspond to novel compounds, nimbolide B (1) and nimbic acid B (2). Nimbolide B inhibited the growth of cress and barnyard grass at concentrations greater than 0.1‒3.0 μM. Nimbic acid B inhibited the growth of cress and barnyard grass at concentrations greater than 0.3-1.0 μM. These results suggest that nimbolide B and nimbic acid B may contribute to the allelopathic effects caused by neem leaves.

  11. A marine algicidal Thalassospira and its active substance against the harmful algal bloom species Karenia mikimotoi.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiuhua; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Lili; Liu, Lin; Wang, Gangyuan; Liu, Xiaodong; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain a marine bacterium active against Karenia mikimotoi from the East China Sea and to characterize its extracellular algicidal substances. Using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) and electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography (LC/MS-Q-TOF) system, we purified the alga-lysing substance produced by strain ZR-2 and determined its molecular structure. Based on morphology and l6S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis, the ZR-2 strain was highly homologous to Thalassospira species. Algicidal activity against K. mikimotoi was detected in the cell-free filtrate but not in bacterial cells. The alga-lysing substance produced by ZR-2 was ethanol-soluble and thermostable, with a retention time of 6.3 min and a measured elemental composition of C7H5O2 ([M-H](-) ion at m/z 121.0295). The alga-lysing substance produced by ZR-2 was determined to be benzoic acid. Compared with the negative control, both purified ZR-2 bacteria-free filtrate and standard benzoic acid promoted K. mikimotoi cell disruption and induced K. mikimotoi cell content leakage. Our study is the first to report benzoic acid activity against K. mikimotoi as well as production of benzoic acid by a Thalassospira species. PMID:26846742

  12. Advances in the analysis of non-allowed pharmacologically active substances in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Manuela; Marchei, Emilia; Pacifici, Roberta; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Pichini, Simona

    2011-06-25

    The state-of-the art analysis of non-allowed pharmacologically active substances in cosmetic products is here presented and a new methodology developed for this type of analysis is proposed. Cosmetic products released on the market should not cause damage to human health when applied under normal conditions of use. With respect to this condition, the definition of "cosmetic product" is reported according to the international and region specific regulatory requirements for the manufacturing and marketing and that of non-allowed substances with particular reference to pharmacologically active substances, with therapeutic indication. The existing methodologies for the analysis of non-allowed products in cosmetic preparations generally include some sort of sample treatment and/or extraction before the analytical step, which always include a separation by liquid chromatography (LC) at ambient temperature followed by detection with ultraviolet spectrophotometric detection or mass spectrometry. A systematic high throughput analysis of non-allowed pharmacologically active substances is finally proposed together with the results of such an analysis performed in the "Drug abuse and doping" Unit of the National Institute of Health in Rome.

  13. Investigation of active substance release from poly(ethylene oxide) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Savaş, H; Güven, O

    2001-08-14

    The uptake and controlled release of model active substances from poly(ethylene oxide), (PEO), hydrogels synthesized by irradiation were investigated. For the characterization of network structure of PEO hydrogels, swelling properties in water and the number average molecular weight between crosslinks were determined. Salicylic acid, phthalic acid and resorcinol were used as model substances for their controlled release from PEO hydrogels. The effects of dose rate, total dose and chemical structure of active substance on the uptake and release have been studied. The active substance uptake capacity of hydrogels was found to be lowest for phthalic acid and highest for resorcinol in the gel system obtained by irradiation both at low and high dose rates. The release was lowest both in rate and in total amounts in hydrogels containing phthalic acid, more in those with salicylic acid and highest in those with resorcinol. The physical and chemical factors affecting the release of model compounds such as the network structure of hydrogels and hydrogen bond formation between the adsorbent and PEO chains were discussed.

  14. A marine algicidal Thalassospira and its active substance against the harmful algal bloom species Karenia mikimotoi.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiuhua; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Lili; Liu, Lin; Wang, Gangyuan; Liu, Xiaodong; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain a marine bacterium active against Karenia mikimotoi from the East China Sea and to characterize its extracellular algicidal substances. Using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) and electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography (LC/MS-Q-TOF) system, we purified the alga-lysing substance produced by strain ZR-2 and determined its molecular structure. Based on morphology and l6S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis, the ZR-2 strain was highly homologous to Thalassospira species. Algicidal activity against K. mikimotoi was detected in the cell-free filtrate but not in bacterial cells. The alga-lysing substance produced by ZR-2 was ethanol-soluble and thermostable, with a retention time of 6.3 min and a measured elemental composition of C7H5O2 ([M-H](-) ion at m/z 121.0295). The alga-lysing substance produced by ZR-2 was determined to be benzoic acid. Compared with the negative control, both purified ZR-2 bacteria-free filtrate and standard benzoic acid promoted K. mikimotoi cell disruption and induced K. mikimotoi cell content leakage. Our study is the first to report benzoic acid activity against K. mikimotoi as well as production of benzoic acid by a Thalassospira species.

  15. Influence of biologically active substances isolated from Galleria mellonella on neurons of Lymnaea stagnalis in culture.

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, N A; Kostenko, M A; Volkova, S P; Pogorelov, A G; Kondrashova, M N

    1984-01-01

    A procedure for isolating biologically active substances from Galleria mellonella using a culture of isolated giant neurons of mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis as a test-system is described. Fractions capable of activating neurites and inhibiting aggregation of neuronal cells within a range of concentrations from 1 to 30 micrograms/ml were isolated. The fractions obtained have in their chemical composition about 10.5% N, also contain P and S. They have a carbohydrate component. PMID:6146471

  16. A phytotoxic active substance in the decomposing litter of the fern Gleichenia japonica.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Saito, Yoshihumi; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2015-03-15

    The fern Gleichenia japonica often dominates plant communities by forming large monospecific stands throughout the temperate to tropical Asia. The objective of this study was the investigation of allelopathic property and substances of the decomposing litter of the fern to evaluate the possible involvement of its allelopathy in the domination. An aqueous methanol extract of G. japonica litter inhibited the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum). This result suggests that G. japonica litter contains growth inhibitory substances. The extract was purified by chromatography while monitoring the inhibitory activity, and a growth inhibitory substance was isolated. The chemical structure of the substance was determined by spectral data to be a novel compound, 13-O-β-fucopyranosyl-3β-hydroxymanool. This compound inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress and barnyard grass at concentrations ranging from 89.7 to 271 μM for 50% inhibition. In addition, the compound had potent growth inhibitory activity with the soil taken from near the colony. The concentration of the compound in soil under a pure colony of G. japonica was 790 μM, suggesting that the compound may contribute to the establishment of monocultural stands by this fern.

  17. Reward salience and risk aversion underlie differential ACC activity in substance dependence

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, William H.; Fukunaga, Rena; Finn, Peter; Brown, Joshua W.

    2015-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex, especially the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), has long been implicated in cognitive control and error processing. Although the association between ACC and behavior has been established, it is less clear how ACC contributes to dysfunctional behavior such as substance dependence. Evidence from neuroimaging studies investigating ACC function in substance users is mixed, with some studies showing disengagement of ACC in substance dependent individuals (SDs), while others show increased ACC activity related to substance use. In this study, we investigate ACC function in SDs and healthy individuals performing a change signal task for monetary rewards. Using a priori predictions derived from a recent computational model of ACC, we find that ACC activity differs between SDs and controls in factors related to reward salience and risk aversion between SDs and healthy individuals. Quantitative fits of a computational model to fMRI data reveal significant differences in best fit parameters for reward salience and risk preferences. Specifically, the ACC in SDs shows greater risk aversion, defined as concavity in the utility function, and greater attention to rewards relative to reward omission. Furthermore, across participants risk aversion and reward salience are positively correlated. The results clarify the role that ACC plays in both the reduced sensitivity to omitted rewards and greater reward valuation in SDs. Clinical implications of applying computational modeling in psychiatry are also discussed. PMID:26106528

  18. A phytotoxic active substance in the decomposing litter of the fern Gleichenia japonica.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Saito, Yoshihumi; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2015-03-15

    The fern Gleichenia japonica often dominates plant communities by forming large monospecific stands throughout the temperate to tropical Asia. The objective of this study was the investigation of allelopathic property and substances of the decomposing litter of the fern to evaluate the possible involvement of its allelopathy in the domination. An aqueous methanol extract of G. japonica litter inhibited the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum). This result suggests that G. japonica litter contains growth inhibitory substances. The extract was purified by chromatography while monitoring the inhibitory activity, and a growth inhibitory substance was isolated. The chemical structure of the substance was determined by spectral data to be a novel compound, 13-O-β-fucopyranosyl-3β-hydroxymanool. This compound inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress and barnyard grass at concentrations ranging from 89.7 to 271 μM for 50% inhibition. In addition, the compound had potent growth inhibitory activity with the soil taken from near the colony. The concentration of the compound in soil under a pure colony of G. japonica was 790 μM, suggesting that the compound may contribute to the establishment of monocultural stands by this fern. PMID:25569852

  19. The cytoplasmic tails of protease-activated receptor-1 and substance P receptor specify sorting to lysosomes versus recycling.

    PubMed

    Trejo, J; Coughlin, S R

    1999-01-22

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), is activated when thrombin cleaves its amino-terminal exodomain. The irreversibility of this proteolytic mechanism raises the question of how desensitization and resensitization are accomplished for thrombin signaling. PAR1 is phosphorylated, uncoupled from signaling, and internalized after activation like classic GPCRs. However, unlike classic GPCRs, which internalize and recycle, activated PAR1 is sorted to lysosomes. To identify the signals that specify the distinct sorting of PAR1, we constructed chimeras between PAR1 and the substance P receptor. Wild-type substance P receptor internalized and recycled after activation; PAR1 bearing the cytoplasmic tail of the substance P receptor (P/S) behaved similarly. By contrast, wild-type PAR1 and a substance P receptor bearing the cytoplasmic tail of PAR1 (S/P) sorted to lysosomes after activation. Consistent with these observations, PAR1 and the S/P chimera were effectively down-regulated by their respective agonists as assessed by both receptor protein levels and signaling. Substance P receptor and the P/S chimera showed little down-regulation. These data suggest that the cytoplasmic tails of PAR1 and substance P receptor specify their distinct intracellular sorting patterns after activation and internalization. Moreover, by altering the trafficking fates of PAR1 and substance P receptor, one can dictate the efficiency with which a cell maintains responsiveness to PAR1 or substance P receptor agonists over time.

  20. Phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity may be central to the strong invasive potential of Brachiaria brizantha.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Ai; Ohno, Osamu; Kimura, Fukiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2014-04-15

    The grass Brachiaria brizantha, native to eastern Africa, becomes naturalized and dominant quickly in the non-native areas. It was hypothesized that phytotoxic chemical interaction between this plant and native plants may play an important role in the invasion of B. brizantha. However, no potent phytotoxic substance has been reported in this species. Therefore, we investigated possible allelopathic activity and searched for phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity in B. brizantha. An aqueous methanol extract of B. brizantha inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), timothy (Phleum pratense) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seedlings. The extract was purified by several chromatographic runs and three allelopathically active substances were isolated and identified by spectral analysis as (6R,9R)-3-oxo-α-ionol, (6R,9S)-3-oxo-α-ionol and 4-ketopinoresinol. (6R,9R)-3-Oxo-α-ionol and (6R,9S)-3-oxo-α-ionol inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress at concentrations greater than 30 and 10 μM, respectively. The activity of (6R,9S)-3-oxo-α-ionol was 5.3- to 6.2-fold that of (6R,9R)-3-oxo-α-ionol. The stereochemistry of the hydroxyl group at position C-9 may be important for the inhibitory activities of those compounds. 4-Ketopinoresinol inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress at concentrations greater than 30 μM. The growth inhibitory activity of (6R,9S)-3-oxo-α-ionol was the greatest and followed by 4-ketopinoresinol and (6R,9R)-3-oxo-α-ionol. These results suggest that those phytotoxic substances may contribute to the allelopathic effect caused by B. brizantha and may be involved in the invasion of B. brizantha. PMID:24655388

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Substance P and Neuropeptide Y against laboratory strains of bacteria and oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Christopher J; Burnell, Kindra K; Brogden, Kim A

    2006-08-01

    Infection and inflammation of mucosal tissue may induce the production of neuropeptides, specifically Substance P and Neuropeptide Y. Since these neuropeptides are similar to antimicrobial peptides in their amino acid composition, amphipathic design, cationic charge, and size, we wanted to determine if they had antimicrobial activity against a panel of common bacteria and oral microorganisms using the radial diffusion assay. Neuropeptide Y and Substance P had antimicrobial activity against E. coli (MIC 20.6+/-5.5 microg/ml SEM and 71.5+/-15 SEM microg/ml, respectively), but did not have activity against laboratory strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens (MIC>500 microg/ml) nor oral strains of Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (MIC>500 microg/ml). While Substance P and Neuropeptide Y did not have direct antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested, they still may stimulate local epithelial cells to produce other innate immune factors like defensins and cathelicidins. However, this remains to be determined.

  2. [Comparison study on adsorption of middle molecular substances with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Li, Guifeng; Wan, Jianxin; Huang, Xiangqian; Zeng, Qiao; Tang, Jing

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCTs) are very favorable to the adsorption of middle molecular substances in the hemoperfusion because of their multiporous structure, large surface area and high reactivity, which are beneficial to the excellent absorption properties. The purpose of this study was to study the MWCTs on the adsorption capacity of the middle molecular substances. Vitamin B12 (VB12) was selected as a model of the middle molecular substances. The morphologies of MWCTs and activated carbon from commercial "carbon kidney" were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The adsorption behavior of VB12 was compared to each other with UV-visible absorption spectra. The MWCTs formed a sophistaicate gap structure, and compared to the activated carbon, MWCTs had a larger surface area. By Langmuir equation and Freundlich equation fitting analysis, VB12 adsorption on MWCTs is fit for multi-molecular layer adsorption, and the adsorption type of activated carbon is more inclined to the model corresponding to Langmuir monolayer adsorption. The adsorption rate of MWCTs is faster than that of the activated carbon and the adsorption capacity is greater, which could be expected to become the new adsorbent in the hemoperfusion. PMID:21936376

  3. New reagent for extraction photomeric determination of anionic surface-active substances

    SciTech Connect

    Chernova, R.K.; Yastrebova, N.I.; Pankratov, A.N.

    1995-02-01

    The new reagent 2,6-diphenyl-4-(4-dimethylamino)styrylpyryl chloride is suggested for extraction photometric determination of anionic surface-active substances (SAS). This reagent possesses high sensitivity and selectivity, and can be used for the determination of both individual SAS of any kind and the total amount of anionic SAS. The reagent was used in analysis of highly mineralized statal waters and for the determination of sulfated products in polyoxyethylated alkylphenols.

  4. The interacting role of physical activity and diet control in Hungarian adolescents' substance use and psychological health.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Eszter; Piko, Bettina F; Keresztes, Noemi

    2014-08-01

    The interacting protective role of diet control and physical activity was examined in understanding adolescents' substance use and psychological health. Questionnaire survey was conducted in Hungary in 2008 (N = 881). Diet control, physical activity, prevalence of substance use, and psychological health variables were measured. Logistic regression analyses showed that the interaction term of diet control and physical activity significantly increased the odds of self-perceived health, decreased substance use, and influenced the level of optimism, satisfaction with life, and the presence of depressive symptoms. Results indicated that the interaction of diet control and physical activity plays important role in adolescents' health behavior.

  5. Brattleboro Rats as the Model of Blood Hyperviscosity Syndrome for Testing Substances with Hemorheological Activity.

    PubMed

    Plotnikov, M B; Vasil'ev, A S; Aliev, O I; Zibareva, L N

    2015-09-01

    Hyperviscosity syndrome was described in Brattleboro rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of Brattleboro rats using, as a test system for the study of agents with hemorheological activity. Under conditions of this model of high blood viscosity syndrome in Brattleboro rats, Lychnis chalcedonica L. extract (150 mg/kg) administered intragastrically for 10 days exhibited hemorheological activity by modulating macro- (plasma viscosity, fibrinogen concentration) and microrheological (erythrocyte aggregation and deformability parameters. Hence, Brattleboro rats are an adequate model of hyperviscosity syndrome that can be used for search and testing of substances with hemorheological activity. PMID:26463056

  6. Extracurricular activity availability and participation and substance use among American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moilanen, Kristin L; Markstrom, Carol A; Jones, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    School-based extracurricular activity involvement has been associated with lower levels of substance use among adolescents from various populations; however, these associations have only been slightly examined among American Indian (AI) adolescents. Building from various theoretical perspectives, it was hypothesized that AI adolescents' perceived access to and the intensity (i.e., frequency) of participation in extracurricular activities would be associated with lower substance use and less engagement in risky substance use behaviors (i.e., being drunk or high at school, riding/driving with an intoxicated driver, and selling drugs). The moderating influences of sex, age, reservation residence, and metropolitan status also were examined. Data from the 2010 Arizona Youth Survey were analyzed for 5,701 8th, 10th, and 12th grade AI adolescents (49.1% female). The expected protective effects of extracurricular participation were demonstrated, such that high levels of perceived availability and intensity of participation consistently predicted low levels of all outcomes. Some of these associations were moderated by one or more demographic factors, with unique patterns emerging for each behavior. Ultimately, the findings suggest that AI adolescents benefit from the availability of extracurricular activities and intensity of participation in them, but the degree of the effect is contingent upon other individual and contextual characteristics.

  7. 46 CFR 162.060-32 - Testing and evaluation requirements for active substances, preparations, and relevant chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... substances, preparations, and relevant chemicals. 162.060-32 Section 162.060-32 Shipping COAST GUARD... APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems § 162.060-32 Testing and evaluation requirements for active substances, preparations, and relevant chemicals. (a) A ballast water management...

  8. 46 CFR 162.060-32 - Testing and evaluation requirements for active substances, preparations, and relevant chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... substances, preparations, and relevant chemicals. 162.060-32 Section 162.060-32 Shipping COAST GUARD... APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems § 162.060-32 Testing and evaluation requirements for active substances, preparations, and relevant chemicals. (a) A ballast water management...

  9. Theory-based active ingredients of effective treatments for substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Moos, Rudolf H

    2007-05-11

    This paper describes four related theories that specify common social processes that protect individuals from developing substance use disorders and may underlie effective psychosocial treatments for these disorders: social control theory, behavioral economics and behavioral choice theory, social learning theory, and stress and coping theory. It then provides an overview of the rationale and evidence for four effective psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders: motivational interviewing and motivational enhancement therapy, 12-step facilitation treatment, cognitive-behavioral treatment and behavioral family counseling, and contingency management and community reinforcement approaches. The presumed active ingredients of these treatments are described in terms of how they exemplify the social processes highlighted by the four theories. The identified common components of effective treatment include support, goal direction, and structure; an emphasis on rewards that compete with substance use, a focus on abstinence-oriented norms and models, and attempts to develop self-efficacy and coping skills. Several issues that need to be addressed to enhance our understanding of the active ingredients involved in effective treatment are discussed, including how to develop measures of these ingredients, how well the ingredients predict outcomes and influence conceptually comparable aspects of clients' life contexts, and how much their influence varies depending upon clients' demographic and personal characteristics.

  10. Toxicity of magnetic chitosan micro and nanoparticles as carriers for biologically active substances.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, Maja; Heržič, Katja; Podrepšek, Gordana Hojnik; Hojski, Aljaž; Crnjac, Anton; Knez, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles of inorganic magnetic core surrounded by layers of functional coatings are potential representatives of nanostructures for immobilization of bio-substances. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are often bound in aggregates due to a strong magnetic dipole, which has a lot of advantages, such as large surface area for binding biologically active substances. Chitosan is a polysaccharide polymer that is non-toxic, hydrophilic, biocompatible and has hydroxy and amino groups in its structure. Because of these chemical and biological properties it is a desirable bio-product for immobilization of enzymes and for binding of other biologically active substances. Magnetic micro and nanoparticles were synthesized with chitosan by three different methods; microemulsion process, suspension cross-linking technique and covalent binding of chitosan. Toxic effect of the prepared magnetic particles was determined as well and was examined on five different bacterial cultures; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. At concentrations of 10-30 mg of magnetic particles per 0.5 McFarland Standard solution of E. coli and per 400 CFU of S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. faecalis in K. pneumonia, no inhibition on the chosen bacterial cultures was detected. PMID:24664338

  11. Capsaicin-like activity of some natural pungent substances on peripheral endings of visceral primary afferents.

    PubMed

    Patacchini, R; Maggi, C A; Meli, A

    1990-07-01

    1. The effects of some naturally occurring pungent substances, piperine, mustard oil, eugenol and curcumin, were compared to those of capsaicin in the rat isolated urinary bladder. 2. All test compounds dose-dependently contracted the rat bladder and produced desensitization toward capsaicin (1 mumol/l). Development of cross-tachyphylaxis among the natural pungent substances on one hand and capsaicin on the other, suggested a common site of action on visceral primary afferents. 3. Contractile responses to piperine, mustard oil and eugenol were partially tetrodotoxin and ruthenium red-sensitive, suggesting that activation of sensory terminals by these agents takes place indirectly, as well as by a direct action on sensory receptors. 4. The presence of the secondary acrylamide linkage (present in the backbone of capsaicin, but not in that of test compounds) does not appear to be essential to produce desensitization of sensory nerve terminals.

  12. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior and Substance Use among Adolescents in Slovenian Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    LESJAK, Vesna; STANOJEVIĆ-JERKOVIĆ, Olivera

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies of the relationship between leisure time physical activity, sedentary behaviour and substance use among adolescents report contradictory results. The aim of our study was to examine the association between self-reported leisure time physical activity, sedentary behaviour and alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use among adolescents in Slovenia. Methods Subjects consisted of 822 school children aged from 14 to 16 years, living in urban area of Ljubljana and Maribor. The data was collected using the EURO URHIS 2 survey. Logistic regressions were conducted to assess the correlation between the independent variables of physical activity; time spent watching television and using the computer, and each of the five substance use dependent variables. Results Frequency of daily smoking was significantly associated with leisure time physical activity, while alcohol and cannabis use were not. Watching TV ≥ 2 hours per day was associated with heavy episodic drinking in the past month, no associations were found for smoking and cannabis use. Using the computer ≥ 2 hours per day was positively associated with daily smoking, drinking alcohol in the past month, heavy episodic drinking in the past month and ever being intoxicated, while cannabis use was not. Conclusions These findings suggest that leisure time physical activity is associated with daily cigarette smoking, and leisure time sedentary behaviour is associated with alcohol and tobacco use among adolescents. The results of our study show the need for the formation of suitable preventive measures concerning reduced sitting time as well as leisure time physical activity targeted to adolescents. PMID:27646724

  13. Amygdala Activation and Emotional Processing in Adolescents at Risk for Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Dawn L; Pajtek, Stefan; Tarter, Ralph; Long, Elizabeth C; Clark, Duncan B

    2014-05-01

    Studies are needed that examine neurobiological characteristics in high risk individuals prior to substance use disorder (SUD) development. In this pilot study, 4 adolescent subjects at high risk (having at least 1 parent with a SUD) for SUD were compared with 4 adolescent reference subjects on a corticolimbic reactivity paradigm, where they were presented with affect-laden faces or geometric shapes. FMRI was used to measure cortical activation in response to these stimuli. High risk subjects, compared to low risk, exhibited greater left amygdala activation (t=3.60, df=6, p=0.01), suggesting they may exhibit hyper-responsivity of the amygdala in response to emotional stimuli.

  14. Plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity: from folklore to practice

    PubMed Central

    Fridlender, Marcelo; Kapulnik, Yoram; Koltai, Hinanit

    2015-01-01

    Plants have had an essential role in the folklore of ancient cultures. In addition to the use as food and spices, plants have also been utilized as medicines for over 5000 years. It is estimated that 70–95% of the population in developing countries continues to use traditional medicines even today. A new trend, that involved the isolation of plant active compounds begun during the early nineteenth century. This trend led to the discovery of different active compounds that are derived from plants. In the last decades, more and more new materials derived from plants have been authorized and subscribed as medicines, including those with anti-cancer activity. Cancer is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The number of new cases is expected to rise by about 70% over the next two decades. Thus, there is a real need for new efficient anti-cancer drugs with reduced side effects, and plants are a promising source for such entities. Here we focus on some plant-derived substances exhibiting anti-cancer and chemoprevention activity, their mode of action and bioavailability. These include paclitaxel, curcumin, and cannabinoids. In addition, development and use of their synthetic analogs, and those of strigolactones, are discussed. Also discussed are commercial considerations and future prospects for development of plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity. PMID:26483815

  15. Plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity: from folklore to practice.

    PubMed

    Fridlender, Marcelo; Kapulnik, Yoram; Koltai, Hinanit

    2015-01-01

    Plants have had an essential role in the folklore of ancient cultures. In addition to the use as food and spices, plants have also been utilized as medicines for over 5000 years. It is estimated that 70-95% of the population in developing countries continues to use traditional medicines even today. A new trend, that involved the isolation of plant active compounds begun during the early nineteenth century. This trend led to the discovery of different active compounds that are derived from plants. In the last decades, more and more new materials derived from plants have been authorized and subscribed as medicines, including those with anti-cancer activity. Cancer is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The number of new cases is expected to rise by about 70% over the next two decades. Thus, there is a real need for new efficient anti-cancer drugs with reduced side effects, and plants are a promising source for such entities. Here we focus on some plant-derived substances exhibiting anti-cancer and chemoprevention activity, their mode of action and bioavailability. These include paclitaxel, curcumin, and cannabinoids. In addition, development and use of their synthetic analogs, and those of strigolactones, are discussed. Also discussed are commercial considerations and future prospects for development of plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity. PMID:26483815

  16. Plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity: from folklore to practice.

    PubMed

    Fridlender, Marcelo; Kapulnik, Yoram; Koltai, Hinanit

    2015-01-01

    Plants have had an essential role in the folklore of ancient cultures. In addition to the use as food and spices, plants have also been utilized as medicines for over 5000 years. It is estimated that 70-95% of the population in developing countries continues to use traditional medicines even today. A new trend, that involved the isolation of plant active compounds begun during the early nineteenth century. This trend led to the discovery of different active compounds that are derived from plants. In the last decades, more and more new materials derived from plants have been authorized and subscribed as medicines, including those with anti-cancer activity. Cancer is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The number of new cases is expected to rise by about 70% over the next two decades. Thus, there is a real need for new efficient anti-cancer drugs with reduced side effects, and plants are a promising source for such entities. Here we focus on some plant-derived substances exhibiting anti-cancer and chemoprevention activity, their mode of action and bioavailability. These include paclitaxel, curcumin, and cannabinoids. In addition, development and use of their synthetic analogs, and those of strigolactones, are discussed. Also discussed are commercial considerations and future prospects for development of plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity.

  17. Dissemination activities: a critical new role for substance abuse treatment organizations.

    PubMed

    Fields, Dail; Blum, Terry C; Roman, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for integration of substance abuse treatment into medical care via medical homes and continuing specialty care. For this integration to occur in the substance abuse treatment field, substantial sharing and dissemination of information by treatment providers is required. This study explored the determinants of organizational activities directed at disseminating evidence-based practices (EBPs) undertaken by 193 community treatment programs who are members of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network. Using factor analysis, the research identified two generic categories reflecting different motivations for dissemination activities and explored both treatment center leadership and organizational characteristics as determinants of these different types of dissemination activities. Organizational characteristics predicting treatment center dissemination activities included size, previous involvement in research protocols, linkages with other providers, and having non-profit status. The treatment center leader's membership in professional organizations was also a significant determinant. Organization variables account for a larger portion of the variance in treatment center dissemination activities. The results suggest that the willingness of treatment providers to help disseminate EBPs within the industry may be heavily influenced through shared network connections with other treatment organizations.

  18. Dissemination Activities: A Critical New Role for Substance Abuse Treatment Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Terry C.; Roman, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for integration of substance abuse treatment into medical care via medical homes and continuing specialty care. For this integration to occur in the substance abuse treatment field, substantial sharing and dissemination of information by treatment providers is required. This study explored the determinants of organizational activities directed at disseminating evidence-based practices (EBP) undertaken by 193 community treatment programs who are members of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network. Using factor analysis, the research identified two generic categories reflecting different motivations for dissemination activities, and explored both treatment center leadership and organizational characteristics as determinants of these different types of dissemination activities. Organizational characteristics predicting treatment center dissemination activities included size, previous involvement in research protocols, linkages with other providers, and having non-profit status. The treatment center leader's membership in professional organizations was also a significant determinant. Organization variables account for a larger portion of the variance in treatment center dissemination activities. The results suggest that the willingness of treatment providers to help disseminate EBPs within the industry may be heavily influenced through shared network connections with other treatment organizations. PMID:24722825

  19. Gas- and aerosol-phase chemistry of nitrogen oxides (NOy) in a pine forest (BEACHON-RoMBAS 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, J.; Draper, D.; Zarzana, K. J.; Brown, S. S.; Dube, B.; Wagner, N.; Cohen, R. C.; Palm, B. B.; Ortega, A. M.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Brune, W. H.; Karl, T.; Kaser, L.; Jud, W.; Hansel, A.

    2011-12-01

    Ambient measurements of NOy (NO2, peroxy- and alkyl-nitrates, and the gas/aerosol partitioning of the latter) and Potential Aerosol Mass measurements of NO3-initiated secondary organic aerosol formation in a 16 L flow-through reactor were made during the BEACHON-RoMBAS field campaign in U.S. Forest Service Manitou Forest Observatory, Colorado (July/August 2011). A cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS) is used to monitor NO3 and N2O5 , Thermal Desorption - Laser Induced Fluorescence (TD-LIF) is used to detect the NOy species as NO2; an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) monitors chemical composition of aerosol; Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS) monitors the gas-phase organic compounds; and a thermal converter/chemiluminescent NO/NOx/NH3 analyzer monitors gas-phase inorganic nitrogen compounds. In the PAM measurements, a calibrated flow of NO3 is supplied to the reactor from a temperature-controlled N2O5 trap. With this suite of measurements we seek to elucidate the role of nitrate in biogenic SOA formation, as well as the fate of pollution emissions in a forest environment. We observe significant concentrations of ambient alkyl- and peroxynitrates, despite the remote forest location, and find evidence in PAM measurements that formation of these compounds is linked to organic aerosol production.

  20. Parental knowledge of adolescent activities: links with parental attachment style and adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jason D; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Lejuez, C W; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-04-01

    Parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents' attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents' alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (M age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in 2-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers' and fathers' insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all 3 reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers' and fathers' attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed.

  1. Parental Knowledge of Adolescent Activities: Links with Parental Attachment Style and Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason D.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Lejuez, C. W.; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-01-01

    Parents’ knowledge of their adolescents’ whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents’ attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents’ alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (mean age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in two-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers’ and fathers’ insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all three reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers’ and fathers’ attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed. PMID:25730406

  2. Increased activity of digoxin-like substance in low-renin hypertension in acromegaly

    SciTech Connect

    Soszynski, P.; Slowinska-Srzednicka, J.; Zgliczynski, S. )

    1990-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is common in acromegaly, but the pathogenesis of this complication remains unknown. To determine the role of an endogenous Na,K pump inhibitor/digoxin-like substance (DLS) in the pathogenesis of hypertension in acromegaly 76 subjects: 28 with acromegaly, 20 with essential hypertension and 28 healthy controls were studied. Serum DLS was measured with the use of radioimmunoassay and bioassay by the inhibition of digoxin-sensitive erythrocyte 86-Rb uptake. In acromegaly, the activity of DLS was significantly increased and plasma renin activity decreased in the hypertensive group, as compared with that of the normotensive group and controls. Moreover, DLS was elevated in the low-renin group of essential hypertension, as compared with that of the normal/high-renin group or controls. The activity of DLS correlated positively with mean arterial pressure and negatively with plasma renin activity, but not with growth hormone levels. In conclusion, an endogenous sodium pump inhibitor/digoxin-like substance may play a role in the pathogenesis of low-renin hypertension in acromegaly.

  3. Direct activation of GABAA receptors by substances in the organic acid fraction of Japanese sake.

    PubMed

    Izu, Hanae; Shigemori, Kensuke; Eguchi, Masaya; Kawane, Shuhei; Fujii, Shouko; Kitamura, Yuji; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Yamada, Yasue

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of substances present in Japanese sake on the response of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Sake was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. The fraction containing organic acids (OA fraction) showed agonist activities on the GABAA receptor. OA fractions from sake were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). Of the 64 compounds identified, 13 compounds showed GABAA receptor agonist activities. Especially, l-lactic acid showed high agonist activity and its EC50 value was 37μM. Intraperitoneal injections of l-lactic acid, gluconic acid, and pyruvic acid (10, 10, and 5mg/kg BW, respectively), which showed agonistic activity on the GABAA receptor, led to significant anxiolytic effects during an elevated plus-maze test in mice. PMID:27507485

  4. Activation of non-sensitizing or low-sensitizing fragrance substances into potent sensitizers - prehaptens and prohaptens.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Börje, Anna; Duus Johansen, Jeanne; Lidén, Carola; Rastogi, Suresh; Roberts, David; Uter, Wolfgang; White, Ian R

    2013-12-01

    Experimental and clinical studies have shown that fragrance substances can act as prehaptens or prohaptens. They form allergens that are more potent than the parent substance by activation outside or in the skin via abiotic (chemical and physical factors) and/or biotic activation, thus, increasing the risk of sensitization. In the present review a series of fragrance substances with well documented abiotic and/or biotic activation are given as indicative and illustrative examples of the general problem. Commonly used fragrance substances, also found in essential oils, autoxidize on contact with air, forming potent sensitizers that can be an important source for contact allergy to fragrances and fragranced products. Some of them can act as prohaptens and be activated in the skin as well. The experimental findings are confirmed in large clinical studies. When substances with structural alerts for acting as prohaptens and/or prehaptens are identified, the possibility of generating new potent allergens should be considered. Predictive testing should include activation steps. Further experimental and clinical research regarding activation of fragrance substances is needed to increase consumer safety.

  5. Study the properties of activated carbon and oxyhydroxide aluminum as sorbents for removal humic substances from natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiyan, L. N.; Machekhina, K. I.; Gryaznova, E. N.

    2016-02-01

    The present work relates to the problem of high-quality drinking water supply using processes of adsorption on activated carbon and aluminum oxyhydroxide for removal humic- type organic substances. Also the paper reports on sorbtion properties of the activeted carbon Norit SA UF and oxyhydroxide aluminum for removal humic substances. It was found out that the maximum adsorption capacity of activated carbon to organic substances is equal to 0.25 mg/mg and aluminum oxyhydroxide is equal to 0.3 mg/mg. It is shown that the maximum adsorption capacity of activated carbon Norit SA UF to iron (III) ions is equal to 0.0045 mg/mg and to silicon ions is equal to 0.024 mg/mg. Consequently, the aluminum oxyhydroxide has better adsorption characteristics in comparison with the activated carbon for removal of humic substances, iron and silicon ions. It is associated with the fact that activated carbon has a large adsorption surface, and this is due to its porous structure, but not all molecules can enter into these pores. Therefore, the fibrous structure of aluminum oxyhydroxide promotes better sorption capacity. The presented results suggest that activated carbon Norit SA UF and aluminum oxyhydroxide can be used as sorbents for removal humic substances or other organic substances from groundwater and natural waters.

  6. Influence of Space-Flight Factors on the Properties of Microorganisms, Producers of Biologically Active Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasheninnikova, T. K.; Kanaeva, E. N.; Ukraintsev, A. D.; Smolyanaya, G. L.; Kuznetsov, N. V.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Shcherbakov, G. Ya.

    2001-07-01

    The following substances were isolated under the influence of space-flight factors in cosmic experiments aboard the Mirorbital station: an MIB-90 monoisolant, which is distinguished by its morphological and biochemical properties and enhanced productivity, was isolated from the Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. Kurstaki var. Z-52culture, which is a producer of the plant protection agent Lepidocide; and MIA-74 and MIP-89 monoisolants, which are highly active toward heavy petroleum fractions (C23 C33), were isolated from the Arthrobacter OC-1culture, which is a producer of biodegradants for petroleum.

  7. [Biodegradation of surface-active substances of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus K-4].

    PubMed

    Pyroh, T P; Antoniuk, S I; Sorokina, A I

    2010-01-01

    A capacity of microorganisms of different taxonomic groups to assimilate surface-active substances (surfactants) of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus K-4 as a single source of carbon and energy has been established. It was shown that A. calcoaceticus K-4 cannot use its own surfactants as a source of carbon nutrition. The use of biocide formalin in concentration of 0.1% permits to prolong the term of preservation of A. calcoaceticus K-4 surfactants to 3.5 months without a loss of their surfactant and emulsiying properties.

  8. Anti-tumor-promoting activities of selected pungent phenolic substances present in ginger.

    PubMed

    Surh, Y J; Park, K K; Chun, K S; Lee, L J; Lee, E; Lee, S S

    1999-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) has been widely used as a dietary spice, as well as in traditional oriental medicine. The rhizome of ginger contains pungent vanillyl ketones, including [6]-gingerol and [6]-paradol, and has been reported to possess a strong anti-inflammatory activity. These pungent substances have a vanilloid structure found in other chemopreventive phytochemicals, including curcumin. In our study, we found anti-tumor-promoting properties of [6]-gingerol and [6]-paradol. Thus, topical application of [6]-gingerol or [6]-paradol 30 min prior to 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) attenuated the skin papillomagenesis initiated by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in female ICR mice. These substances also significantly inhibited the tumor-promoter-stimulated inflammation, TNF-alpha production, and activation of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase in mice. In another study, [6]-gingerol and [6]-paradol suppressed the superoxide production stimulated by TPA in differentiated HL-60 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that pungent vanilloids found in ginger possess potential chemopreventive activities. PMID:15281225

  9. Understanding the risks associated with the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS): high variability of active ingredients concentration, mislabelled preparations, multiple psychoactive substances in single products.

    PubMed

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Bettin, Chiara; Sciarrone, Rocco

    2014-08-17

    New psychoactive substances (NPS), are now a large group of substances of abuse not yet completely controlled by international drug conventions, which may pose a public health threat. Anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations, seizures, hyperthermia and cardiotoxicity are some of the common adverse effects associated with these compounds. In this paper, three case reports taken from the archive of processed cases of the authors' laboratory are presented and discussed to stress the risks of possible adverse consequences for NPS users: in particular, (i) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual consumed dose, due to variability of active ingredients concentration in consumed products, (ii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual active ingredients present in consumed products, as opposed to those claimed by the manufacturer, and (iii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual pharmacological and toxicological effects related to the simultaneous consumption of different psychoactive ingredients contained in single products, whose interactions are mostly unknown. Each of them individually provide a source of concern for possible serious health related consequences. However, they should be considered in conjunction with each others, with the worldwide availability of NPS through the web and also with the incessantly growing business derived from the manipulation and synthesis of new substances. The resulting scenario is that of a cultural challenge which demands a global approach from different fields of knowledge.

  10. Activity-Dependent Regulation of Substance P Expression and Topographic Map Maintenance by a Cholinergic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Shichun; Butt, Christopher M.; Pauly, James R.; Debski, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    We have assessed the role of activity in the adult frog visual system in modulating two aspects of neuronal plasticity: neurotransmitter expression and topographic map maintenance. Chronic treatment of one tectal lobe with the non-NMDA receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione decreased the percentage of substance P-like immunoreactive (SP-IR) tectal cells in the untreated lobe while disrupting topographic map formation in the treated one. Treatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist d-(−)-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (d-AP-5) disrupted the topographic map but had no affect on SP-IR cells. These results indicate that maintenance of the topographic map is dependent on direct input from the glutamatergic retinal ganglion cells, whereas substance P (SP) expression is being regulated by a pathway that relays activity from one tectal lobe to the other. Such a pathway is provided by the cholinergic nucleus isthmi, which is reciprocally connected to the ipsilateral tectum and sends a projection to the contralateral one. Mecamylamine and atropine, antagonists of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, respectively, were used together to block all cholinergic activity or alone to block receptor subclass activity. All three treatments decreased SP expression and disrupted the topographic map in the treated tectal lobe. We conclude that both SP expression and topographic map maintenance in the adult optic tectum are activity-dependent processes. Although our results are consistent with the maintenance of the topographic map through an NMDA receptor-based mechanism, they suggest that SP expression is regulated by a cholinergic interaction that depends on retinal ganglion cell input only for its activation. PMID:10884319

  11. Identification of Antifungal Substances of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. ALI033 and Antifungal Activity against Penicillium brevicompactum Strain FI02

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Chang Ki; Hwang, Tae Yean

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the antifungal substances and the antifungal activity against fungi of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from kimchi. LAB from kimchi in Imsil showed antifungal activity against Penicillium brevicompactum strain FI02. LAB LI031 was identified as Lactobacillus sakei subsp. Antifungal substances contained in L. sakei subsp. ALI033 culture media were unstable at high pH levels. Both, the control and proteinase K and protease treated samples showed clear zones, suggesting that the antifungal substances produced by ALI033 were non-protein substances unaffected by protesases. Both, the control and catalase showed clear zones, suggesting that the antifungal metabolite was not H2O2. The molecular weights of the antifungal substances were ≤3,000 Da. The organic acid content of crude antifungal substances produced by L. sakei subsp. ALI033 showed high concentrations of lactic acid (502.47 mg/100 g). Therefore, these results suggest that antifungal substance produced by L. sakei subsp. ALI033 is most likely due to its ability in producing organic acid. PMID:27069906

  12. Harsh Parenting, Parasympathetic Activity, and Development of Delinquency and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Erath, Stephen; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Stress response systems are thought to play an important role in the development of psychopathology. Additionally, family stress may have a significant influence on the development of stress response systems. One potential avenue of change is through alterations to thresholds for the activation of stress responses: Decreased threshold for responding may mark increased stress sensitivity. Our first aim was to evaluate the interaction between thresholds for parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) responding, operationalized as resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and harsh parenting in the prediction of development of delinquency and adolescent substance use (resting RSA as a biomarker of risk). The second aim was to evaluate if resting RSA changes over time as a function of harsh parenting and stress reactivity indexed by RSA withdrawal (altered threshold for stress responding). Our third aim was to evaluate the moderating role of sex in these relations. We used longitudinal data from 251 children ages 8 to 16. Mother-reports of child delinquency and RSA were acquired at all ages. Adolescents self-reported substance use at age 16. Family stress was assessed with child-reported harsh parenting. Controlling for marital conflict and change over time in harsh parenting, lower resting RSA predicted increases in delinquency and increased likelihood of drug use in contexts of harsh parenting, especially for boys. Harsh parenting was associated with declining resting RSA for children who exhibited greater RSA withdrawal to stress. Findings support resting PNS activity as a moderator of developmental risk that can be altered over time. PMID:25688440

  13. Molecular catchers for pharmacologically active substances in wastewaters, a theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar Valencia, P. J.; Pérez Merchancano, S. T.; Paredes, H.; Bolívar Marinez, L. E.

    2016-08-01

    A basic and pressing need in the treatment of residual waste waters for urban and rural centers is the removal of pharmacological active residues from them, these resides are originated in a wide array of domestic, agricultural and industrial sources and can't be removed in the residual waters treatment plants by conventional methods, the result is the incorporation of them into the ecosystem altering the physiology and behavior of living organisms. Among the most active pharmacological substances found in very high concentration in residual waters is paracetamol, an analgesic of very wide excessive use due to its ease of access and low cost [1]. No pharmacological substance is entirely absorbed by the human organism and therefore a wide family of molecular residues is excreted by the urinary tract. In this work we have used the AM1 (Austin Model 1), PM3 (Parametric Method 3) and ZINDO/CI semiempirical methods, from the NDO (Neglect Differential Overlap) family [2] to study and observe the structural, electronic and optical characteristics of paracetamol while immersed in different basic and acidic aqueous environments, either alone or interacting with lignosulphonates. We have previously found that lignosulphonates, a lignin derivatives of wide industrial applications, can be engineered as a binding and flocculant agent and acts as molecular catchers therefore showing the potential to be used as a mean to filter and eliminate molecular residues from the residual waters [3].

  14. Misuse of Psychologically Active Substances of Convicts being in Prisons and their Treatment.

    PubMed

    Plojovic, Safuadan; Dimitrijevic, Slavica; Maksimovic, Andrijana; Zejnelagic, Sabina; Hurem, Adem; Muraspahic, Muamer

    2016-03-15

    Due to the data of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Serbia, over 70% of persons being in prisons and serving their sentences are drug addicts, and 50% of them are drug users. In the European prisons, the percentage of persons using drugs in the entire prison population is 20-70%, and in the USA 70-80%, in the Australian prisons between 50 and 80% of the convicts in prisons are addicts of psychologically active substances. The results of our survey are pursuant to official statistics data for Serbia, the European countries, USA and Australia, since 80% of our convicts in prisons have misused psychologically active substances during the period of 30 days, the previous period before coming to these institutions. More than a half of our examinees (60%), misuses narcotics and alcohol occasionally or permanently, the alcohol users only 12.7%, and only narcotics 7.3% of the ones, meaning that a treatment of addiction disease should have a significant role in prevention of recidivism. PMID:27275354

  15. Misuse of Psychologically Active Substances of Convicts being in Prisons and their Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Plojovic, Safuadan; Dimitrijevic, Slavica; Maksimovic, Andrijana; Zejnelagic, Sabina; Hurem, Adem; Muraspahic, Muamer

    2016-01-01

    Due to the data of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Serbia, over 70% of persons being in prisons and serving their sentences are drug addicts, and 50% of them are drug users. In the European prisons, the percentage of persons using drugs in the entire prison population is 20-70%, and in the USA 70-80%, in the Australian prisons between 50 and 80% of the convicts in prisons are addicts of psychologically active substances. The results of our survey are pursuant to official statistics data for Serbia, the European countries, USA and Australia, since 80% of our convicts in prisons have misused psychologically active substances during the period of 30 days, the previous period before coming to these institutions. More than a half of our examinees (60%), misuses narcotics and alcohol occasionally or permanently, the alcohol users only 12.7%, and only narcotics 7.3% of the ones, meaning that a treatment of addiction disease should have a significant role in prevention of recidivism. PMID:27275354

  16. Platelets enhance activity of antimycotic substances against non-Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus species in vitro.

    PubMed

    Perkhofer, Susanne; Trappl, Krista; Striessnig, Barbara; Nussbaumer, Walter; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2011-02-01

    Platelets are known to be part of haemostasis but they are also players in innate host defense. Recently, we observed that platelets attenuate the virulence of Aspergillus spp. in vitro. However, little is known about the antifungal effects of platelets in the presence of antimycotics against non-A. fumigatus Aspergillus species. We therefore investigated whether platelets increase the in vitro activity of amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole and caspofungin against two clinical isolates each of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus niger. The antifungal activity was evaluated by assessing germination percentages, hyphal elongation and hyphal damage by use of XTT. The combination of platelets plus amphotericin B significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the reduction of germination percentage compared to either substance alone. Among triazoles, voriconazole exhibited significant effects with platelets for all tested aspergilli. Overall, these findings suggest that among the tested antimycotic substances, amphotericin B in combination with platelets has enhancing effects in reducing germination and hyphal elongation in the tested non-A. fumigatus Aspergillus species. These data indicate that platelets act beneficially with antimycotics in an early stage of fungal growth by blocking and/or delaying fungal germination and hyphal elongation; both crucial mechanisms in the development of invasive fungal disease.

  17. [Regulation of the neuronal functional state by ultra low doses of different biologically active substances. Nonspecific effect ].

    PubMed

    Terekhova, S F; Grechenko, T N

    2003-01-01

    The role of biologically active substances in ultra-low doses (10(-15)-10(-27) mol/l) is discussed from the different points of view. The most detailed analysis of neurobiological effects produced by these doses can be studied on the preparate of completely isolated molluscan neurones. In this case the possibility arises to control the first modifications of action at the electrophysiological characteristics of neuronal activity. These changes of electrical activity can be regarded as a reaction to biologically active substance. The following characteristics were controlled: the level of membrane resting potential (MP), the electroexcitable membrane and pacemaker mechanism, chemical sensitivity of somatic membrane loci to neurotransmitter acetylcholine (Ach). Several substances were used in these experiments: two kinds of synthetic antioxidant, GABA, ethanol, serotonine, DSIP (delta-sleep inducing peptide), antibiotic ruboxil, nootrop GVS-111. The isolated neurones were placed into the special chamber. All these substances (0.35 ml) were added single dosing into this chamber with living physiological solution in concentration 10(-15)-10(-27) mol/l. The results demonstrated that all substances had initiated the development of prolonged neurophysiological responses. The intensities of neuronal reactions didn't depend in contact period on the concentration and on the type of substance. It is suggested that these data reveal the existence of unknown modes of regulation of neuronal functional states and presence of hidden channel for information transfer and receiving. This different way of regulation is extremely important influence living organisms. PMID:12881986

  18. Potential Organic Aerosol Formation from Biogenic Compounds: Model and Measurement analysis of the BEACHON-RoMBAS 2011 field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Aumont, B.; Madronich, S.; Palm, B. B.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Karl, T.; Apel, E. C.; Kaser, L.; Hansel, A.

    2012-12-01

    The scientific understanding of the formation of organic aerosols (OA) from biogenic precursors and their ageing, especially in the presence of anthropogenic pollution, is still limited. The Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol field Study (RoMBAS) took place in summer 2011 at the Manitou Forest Observatory in the Colorado Front Range as part of the NCAR Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen (BEACHON) project with the specific objective of characterizing the formation and growth of biogenic particles in the forest canopy that is dominated by terpene and MBO biogenic emissions. Here we present the results of the box model Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) that was applied at the measurement site to study local production of secondary OA (SOA), as well as the results of the 3D regional Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF/Chem) that was run at 4km horizontal resolution to simulate the regional transport and chemistry. First, we quantify the relative contribution of various biogenic and anthropogenic precursors to SOA levels that were measured by the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). The GECKO-A model is initialized from measured VOC concentrations, and uses MEGAN biogenic emissions and WRF/Chem meteorological forcing. The predicted SOA daytime levels at the site of ~0.7-1.0 microg/m3 are consistent with the observations. The SOA production in GECKO from individual VOC precursors is estimated and compared with WRF/Chem predictions which are based on simplified two-product parameterizations as commonly used in regional models. The sensitivity of the SOA formation to the deposition of semi-volatile vapors, and to an increase in NOx and NO3 levels is also discussed for this site that is frequently influenced by advection of the anthropogenic plumes from Denver. Second, we examine how the organic vapors age after several days of atmospheric processing by

  19. Acid composition of particles and gases in a ponderosa pine forest during the BEACHON-RoMBAS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, H.; Yatavelli, L.; Thompson, S.; Kimmel, J. R.; Palm, B. B.; Day, D. A.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Cubison, M. J.; Jayne, J.; Worsnop, D. R.; Thornton, J. A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    We present results from the high mass-resolution analysis of gas-phase and aerosol spectra collected with a chemical ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer, equipped with a micro-orifice volatilization impactor ("MOVI-HRToF-CIMS", Yatavelli and Thornton AS&T, 2010; Yatavelli et al., AS&T, 2012) during the 2011 Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study ("BEACHON-RoMBAS"). The study was conducted during July - August 2011 in a ponderosa pine forest in Colorado. Choosing acetate (CH3C(O)O-) as the reagent ion and developing analysis tools for formula identification and elemental analysis allowed us to identify hundreds of individual acids in aerosol spectra. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of the ion time series is useful to account for backgrounds in the different modes of operation and to separate several gas-phase and particulate factors with different volatility and composition. Results on aerosol composition, including nitrogen- and sulfur-containing species as well as information about elemental ratios (e.g. O:C, H:C) and average carbon oxidation state are presented. Most of the acids detected have between 1 and 10 carbons and average carbon oxidation states (OsC) between -1 and 1. This suggests the importance of monoterpenes and MBO as precursors of the measured acids. We will discuss these results with special consideration of fragmentation on the heated surfaces of the instrument.

  20. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Active Substance Production and Antioxidant Activity in Potentilla fruticosa L. and Its Quality Assessment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Dongxue; Li, Na; Hou, Xiaogai; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Dengwu; Liu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors may influence types and contents of active substances. This study investigated the influence of environmental factors on the active substance contents and antioxidant activity of Potentilla fruticosa L. from different regions of China. Also, HPLC fingerprint similarity analysis (SA) coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were further introduced for the accurate classification and quality assessment of P. fruticosa. The results showed that altitude was significantly and negatively correlated to the content of tannin (P < 0.05). Annual sunshine duration and altitude were significantly and positively correlated to the flavonoids content, rutin content and antioxidant activity (P < 0.05). Annual mean temperature was significantly and negatively correlated to the content of total phenolics, while altitude was significantly and positively correlated to the content of total phenolics (P < 0.05). Eight samples were unambiguously separated into three groups. Two types of discriminant functions with a 100% discrimination ratio were constructed. All data consistently supported the conclusion that P. fruticosa produced from Kangding, Sichuan Province had high quality among all samples, therefore, Kangding in Sichuan Province with favorable environmental conditions is recommended as a preferable production location. PMID:27373366

  1. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Active Substance Production and Antioxidant Activity in Potentilla fruticosa L. and Its Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Dongxue; Li, Na; Hou, Xiaogai; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Dengwu; Liu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors may influence types and contents of active substances. This study investigated the influence of environmental factors on the active substance contents and antioxidant activity of Potentilla fruticosa L. from different regions of China. Also, HPLC fingerprint similarity analysis (SA) coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were further introduced for the accurate classification and quality assessment of P. fruticosa. The results showed that altitude was significantly and negatively correlated to the content of tannin (P < 0.05). Annual sunshine duration and altitude were significantly and positively correlated to the flavonoids content, rutin content and antioxidant activity (P < 0.05). Annual mean temperature was significantly and negatively correlated to the content of total phenolics, while altitude was significantly and positively correlated to the content of total phenolics (P < 0.05). Eight samples were unambiguously separated into three groups. Two types of discriminant functions with a 100% discrimination ratio were constructed. All data consistently supported the conclusion that P. fruticosa produced from Kangding, Sichuan Province had high quality among all samples, therefore, Kangding in Sichuan Province with favorable environmental conditions is recommended as a preferable production location. PMID:27373366

  2. Enhancement of sludge reduction and methane production by removing extracellular polymeric substances from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Mohd Yasin, Nazlina Haiza; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Maeda, Toshinari

    2014-12-01

    The management of waste activated sludge (WAS) recycling is a concern that affects the development of the future low-carbon society, particularly sludge reduction and biomass utilization. In this study, we investigated the effect of removing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which play important roles in the adhesion and flocculation of WAS, on increased sludge disintegration, thereby enhancing sludge reduction and methane production by anaerobic digestion. EPS removal from WAS by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) significantly enhanced sludge reduction, i.e., 49 ± 5% compared with 27 ± 1% of the control at the end the digestion process. Methane production was also improved in WAS without EPS by 8881 ± 109 CH4 μmol g(-1) dry-weight of sludge. Microbial activity was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time polymerase chain reaction, which showed that the hydrolysis and acetogenesis stages were enhanced by pretreatment with 2% EDTA, with a larger methanogenic community and better methane production.

  3. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Drive for Muscularity Scale-S (DMS-S) and Male Body Attitudes Scale-S (MBAS-S) among male university students in Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Compte, Emilio J; Sepúlveda, Ana R; de Pellegrin, Yolanda; Blanco, Miriam

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that men express body dissatisfaction differently than women. Although specific instruments that address body dissatisfaction in men have been developed, only a few have been validated in Latin-American male populations. The aim of this study was to reassess the factor structure of the Spanish versions of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS-S) and the Male Body Attitudes Scale (MBAS-S) in an Argentinian sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 male students to examine: the factorial structure (confirmatory factor analysis), the internal consistency reliability, and the concurrent, convergent and discriminant validity of both scales. Results replicated the two factor structures for the DMS-S and MBAS-S. Both scales showed excellent levels of internal consistency, and various measures of construct validity indicated that the DMS-S and MBAS-S were acceptable and valid instruments to assess body dissatisfaction in Argentinian males. PMID:25828841

  4. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Drive for Muscularity Scale-S (DMS-S) and Male Body Attitudes Scale-S (MBAS-S) among male university students in Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Compte, Emilio J; Sepúlveda, Ana R; de Pellegrin, Yolanda; Blanco, Miriam

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that men express body dissatisfaction differently than women. Although specific instruments that address body dissatisfaction in men have been developed, only a few have been validated in Latin-American male populations. The aim of this study was to reassess the factor structure of the Spanish versions of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS-S) and the Male Body Attitudes Scale (MBAS-S) in an Argentinian sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 male students to examine: the factorial structure (confirmatory factor analysis), the internal consistency reliability, and the concurrent, convergent and discriminant validity of both scales. Results replicated the two factor structures for the DMS-S and MBAS-S. Both scales showed excellent levels of internal consistency, and various measures of construct validity indicated that the DMS-S and MBAS-S were acceptable and valid instruments to assess body dissatisfaction in Argentinian males.

  5. [Peculiarities of ethanol oxidation by the producer of surface-active substances Acinetobacter calcoaceticus K-4].

    PubMed

    Pyroh, T P; Shevchuk, T A; Duhinets', O S

    2010-01-01

    Activity of key-enzymes of C2-metabolism was determined in the cells of strain-producer of surface-active substances Acinetobacter calcoaceticus K-4 grown on ethanol. It is shown that ethanol and acetaldehyde oxidation in the strain K-4 is performed by pyroquinolinquinon (PQQ) and 4-nitroso-N,N-dimethylaniline (NDMA)-dependent dehydrogenases. Activity of NDMA-dependent enzymes was maximum (100-300 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein) in the early exponential growth phase of A. calcoaceticus K-4. Availability of NDMA-dependent alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases in gram-negative bacteria was established for the first time. Acetate is involved in metabolism in the strain K-4 with participation of both acetate kinase and acetate-KoA-synthetase; replenishment of the pool of C4-dicarbonic acids is performed in glioxylate cycle (activity of isocytrate lyase is 600 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein) and in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase reaction (1600 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein). Both key enzymes of gluconeogenesis take place in synthesis of carbohydrates: FEP-carboxykinase and FEP-synthetase (1200 and 4400 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein, respectively). Enzymatic investigations have confirmed the capacity of strain K-4 to synthesis of surface-active trehalosemycolates (activity of trehalosephosphate synthase is 150-160 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein).

  6. Integrative rodent models for assessing male reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine active substances

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Jacques; Eustache, Florence; Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie Chantal; Livera, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In the present review, we first summarize the main benefits, limitations and pitfalls of conventional in vivo approaches to assessing male reproductive structures and functions in rodents in cases of endocrine active substance (EAS) exposure from the postulate that they may provide data that can be extrapolated to humans. Then, we briefly present some integrated approaches in rodents we have recently developed at the organism level. We particularly focus on the possible effects and modes of action (MOA) of these substances at low doses and in mixtures, real-life conditions and at the organ level, deciphering the precise effects and MOA on the fetal testis. It can be considered that the in vivo experimental EAS exposure of rodents remains the first choice for studies and is a necessary tool (together with the epidemiological approach) for understanding the reproductive effects and MOA of EASs, provided the pitfalls and limitations of the rodent models are known and considered. We also provide some evidence that classical rodent models may be refined for studying the multiple consequences of EAS exposure, not only on the reproductive axis but also on various hormonally regulated organs and tissues, among which several are implicated in the complex process of mammalian reproduction. Such models constitute an interesting way of approaching human exposure conditions. Finally, we show that organotypic culture models are powerful complementary tools, especially when focusing on the MOA. All these approaches have contributed in a combinatorial manner to a better understanding of the impact of EAS exposure on human reproduction. PMID:24369134

  7. [Anti-adenovirus activity of a substance and medical form of ribamydil in cell culture].

    PubMed

    Nosach, L N; Diachenko, N S; Zhovnovataia, V L

    2009-01-01

    The inhibiting effect of ribamydil on adenovirus reproduction was studied under the determination of the number of cells with virus- induced DNA-containing intranucleus inclusion bodies and hexone antigen, the synthesis of adenovirus proteins and the infection virus by t he investigation. EC50 of ribamydil substance is 4-8 microg/ml, but complete suppression of adenovirus genome expression was found when adding ribamydil after the virus adsorption, in concentrations of 125-500 microg/ml. The original effect of ribamydil on the expression of adenovirus genome was found under its effect in concentration of 31 microg/ml. Intranucleus virus-induced inclusion bodies of the early type only were found under these conditions. Synthesis of the structural virus polypeptides, including hexone polypeptide (II) and non-structural polypeptide 100K, taking part in hexone trimerization, proceed intensively but without formation of immunologically active hexone. The inhibiting effect of officinal form of ribamydil was less expressed as compared with the substance (EC50: 62 microg/ml). The work results prove that the therapeutic effect of ribamydil (ribavirin) under treatment of adenovirus infections may be achieved in case when it is used in a dose excluding the expression of the adenovirus genome.

  8. Effect of biologically active substances derived from hydrobionts of the Pacific Ocean on parameters of lipid metabolism during experimental hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, T A; Kryzhanovskii, S P; Bogdanovich, L N; Besednova, N N

    2014-12-01

    We studied the effect of biologically active substances derived from hydrobionts, namely maristim (natural product from sea urchin roe) and fucolam (polysaccharides of fucoidan and calcium alginate from brown algae) on blood biochemistry in the mouse model of nutritional hypercholesterolemia. Maristim and fucolam are found to be capable to normalize the levels of the major indicators of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and aminotransferase enzyme activity in terms of atherogenic load. Correction action of biologically active substances is more expressed in combined application. Identified experimentally normalizing effects of maristim and on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism allow us to recommend the further study in clinical trials of these biologically active substances and based on them additives. PMID:25430644

  9. Substance P spinal signaling induces glial activation and nociceptive sensitization after fracture.

    PubMed

    Li, W-W; Guo, T-Z; Shi, X; Sun, Y; Wei, T; Clark, D J; Kingery, W S

    2015-12-01

    Tibia fracture in rodents induces substance P (SP)-dependent keratinocyte activation and inflammatory changes in the hindlimb, similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In animal pain models spinal glial cell activation results in nociceptive sensitization. This study tested the hypothesis that limb fracture triggers afferent C-fiber SP release in the dorsal horn, resulting in chronic glial activation and central sensitization. At 4 weeks after tibia fracture and casting in rats, the cast was removed and hind paw allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema were measured, then the antinociceptive effects of microglia (minocycline) or astrocyte (L-2-aminoadipic acid (LAA)) inhibitors or an SP receptor antagonist (LY303870) were tested. Immunohistochemistry and PCR were used to evaluate microglial and astrocyte activation in the dorsal horn. Similar experiments were performed in intact rats after brief sciatic nerve electric stimulation at C-fiber intensity. Microglia and astrocytes were chronically activated at 4 weeks after fracture and contributed to the maintenance of hind paw allodynia and unweighting. Furthermore, LY303870 treatment initiated at 4 weeks after fracture partially reversed both spinal glial activation and nociceptive sensitization. Similarly, persistent spinal microglial activation and hind paw nociceptive sensitization were observed at 48 h after sciatic nerve C-fiber stimulation and this effect was inhibited by treatment with minocycline, LAA, or LY303870. These data support the hypothesis that C-fiber afferent SP signaling chronically supports spinal neuroglial activation after limb fracture and that glial activation contributes to the maintenance of central nociceptive sensitization in CRPS. Treatments inhibiting glial activation and spinal inflammation may be therapeutic for CRPS. PMID:26386297

  10. Saving two birds with one stone: using active substance avian acute toxicity data to predict formulated plant protection product toxicity.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Samuel K; Edwards, Peter; Wheeler, James R

    2014-07-01

    Environmental safety assessments for exposure of birds require the provision of acute avian toxicity data for both the pesticidal active substance and formulated products. As an example, testing on the formulated product is waived in Europe using an assessment of data for the constituent active substance(s). This is often not the case globally, because some countries require acute toxicity tests with every formulated product, thereby triggering animal welfare concerns through unnecessary testing. A database of 383 formulated products was compiled from acute toxicity studies conducted with northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) or Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) (unpublished regulatory literature). Of the 383 formulated products studied, 159 contained only active substances considered functionally nontoxic (median lethal dose [LD50] > highest dose tested). Of these, 97% had formulated product LD50 values of >2000 mg formulated product/kg (limit dose), indicating that no new information was obtained in the formulated product study. Furthermore, defined (point estimated) LD50 values for formulated products were compared with LD50 values predicted from toxicity of the active substance(s). This demonstrated that predicted LD50 values were within 2-fold and 5-fold of the measured formulated product LD50 values in 90% and 98% of cases, respectively. This analysis demonstrates that avian acute toxicity testing of formulated products is largely unnecessary and should not be routinely required to assess avian acute toxicity. In particular, when active substances are known to be functionally nontoxic, further formulated product testing adds no further information and unnecessarily increases bird usage in testing. A further analysis highlights the fact that significant reductions (61% in this dataset) could be achieved by using a sequential testing design (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 223), as opposed to established single

  11. On-chip optofluidic single-particle method for rapid microscale equilibrium solubility screening of biologically active substances.

    PubMed

    Svanbäck, Sami; Ehlers, Henrik; Antikainen, Osmo; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2015-01-01

    Solubility is the primary physicochemical property determining the absorption and bioavailability of substances. Here, we present an optofluidic single-particle technique for microscale equilibrium solubility determination, based on on-chip hydrodynamic particle trapping and optical particle size monitoring. The method combines the rapidity, universality, and substance sparing nature of physical analysis, with the accuracy traditionally associated with chemical analysis. Applying the diffusion layer theory, we determined the equilibrium solubility from individual pure substance microparticles of as little as 14 μg in initial mass, in a matter of seconds to minutes. The reduction in time and substance consumption, when compared to the golden standard method, is above 2 orders of magnitude. With a simultaneous improvement above 3-fold in accuracy of the solubility data, the applicability of optofluidics based analytics for small-scale high-throughput quantitative solubility and biological activity screening is demonstrated.

  12. DIFFERENTIATION OF EXOTOXIN AND OTHER BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOMALLEI FILTRATES.

    PubMed

    HECKLY, R J

    1964-12-01

    Heckly, Robert J. (University of California, Berkeley). Differentiation of exotoxin and other biologically active substances in Pseudomonas pseudomallei filtrates. J. Bacteriol. 88:1730-1736. 1964.-Denaturing agents such as phenol, formaldehyde, and urea reduced lethal toxicity and proteolytic activity of partially purified preparations from Pseudomonas pseudomallei at about the same rate. Neither toxin nor enzyme was stable at pH 11, when the solution was adjusted with sodium hydroxide, but there was a slight difference in their rates of inactivation. However, under certain conditions, ammonium hydroxide destroyed most of the enzymatic activity with only a slight effect on lethality. Conversely, toxin was less stable in acid solutions than was the enzyme. Thus, treatment with ammonium hydroxide or acetic acid yielded preparations with either a low or a high enzyme-to-toxin ratio, indicating that lethality was not dependent on enzyme activity. Although proteolysis of any one of the essential factors in the blood coagulation system can inhibit clotting of blood, the potent anticoagulant activity of culture filtrates was not associated with its proteolytic activity, but was directly correlated with lethal toxicity. It is of considerable interest that the necrotoxicity was, however, associated with enzymatic activity and not with lethality. Serological reactivity of the enzyme, as well as its proteolytic activity, was altered by ammonium hydroxide. Similarly, antigenicity and toxicity of the lethal toxin were reduced by acidification. Each acid- or alkali-treated preparation produced a single precipitin line in double diffusion in agar when reacted with antisera produced by injection of crude filtrate. Partially purified preparations, having both lethal and enzymatic activity, produced two lines, one identifiable with the enzyme preparation, and one with the toxin. Furthermore, specific precipitation with the respective antisera removed either enzyme or toxin from

  13. Antibacterial activity of bacteriocin-like substance P34 on Listeria monocytogenes in chicken sausage

    PubMed Central

    Sant’Anna, Voltaire; Quadros, Deoni A.F.; Motta, Amanda S.; Brandelli, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) P34 against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in chicken sausage. The BLS was applied to chicken sausages (256 AU g−1) previously inoculated with a suspension of 102 cfu g−1 of L. monocytogenes. BLS P34 inhibited the indicator microorganism in situ in all incubation times for up to 10 days at 5 °C. The effectiveness of BLS P34 was increased when it was added in combination with nisin. The bacteriocin was also tested in natural eatable natural bovine wrapping (salty semi-dried tripe) against the same indicator microorganism, also showing inhibitory capability in vitro. BLS P34 showed potential to control L. monocytogenes in refrigerated meat products. PMID:24688506

  14. Potential metal impurities in active pharmaceutical substances and finished medicinal products - A market surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Wollein, Uwe; Bauer, Bettina; Habernegg, Renate; Schramek, Nicholas

    2015-09-18

    A market surveillance study has been established by using different atomic spectrometric methods for the determination of selected elemental impurities of particular interest, to gain an overview about the quality of presently marketed drug products and their bulk drug substances. The limit tests were carried out with respect to the existing EMA guideline on the specification limits for residuals of metal catalysts or metal reagents. Also attention was given to the future implementation of two new chapters of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) stating limit concentrations of elemental impurities. The methods used for determination of metal residues were inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and atomic absorption spectrometry technologies (GFAAS, CVAAS, HGAAS). This article presents the development and validation of the methods used for the determination of 21 selected metals in 113 samples from drug products and their active pharmaceutical ingredients.

  15. Antibacterial activity of bacteriocin-like substance P34 on Listeria monocytogenes in chicken sausage.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Voltaire; Quadros, Deoni A F; Motta, Amanda S; Brandelli, Adriano

    2013-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) P34 against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in chicken sausage. The BLS was applied to chicken sausages (256 AU g(-1)) previously inoculated with a suspension of 10(2) cfu g(-1) of L. monocytogenes. BLS P34 inhibited the indicator microorganism in situ in all incubation times for up to 10 days at 5 °C. The effectiveness of BLS P34 was increased when it was added in combination with nisin. The bacteriocin was also tested in natural eatable natural bovine wrapping (salty semi-dried tripe) against the same indicator microorganism, also showing inhibitory capability in vitro. BLS P34 showed potential to control L. monocytogenes in refrigerated meat products.

  16. Potential metal impurities in active pharmaceutical substances and finished medicinal products - A market surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Wollein, Uwe; Bauer, Bettina; Habernegg, Renate; Schramek, Nicholas

    2015-09-18

    A market surveillance study has been established by using different atomic spectrometric methods for the determination of selected elemental impurities of particular interest, to gain an overview about the quality of presently marketed drug products and their bulk drug substances. The limit tests were carried out with respect to the existing EMA guideline on the specification limits for residuals of metal catalysts or metal reagents. Also attention was given to the future implementation of two new chapters of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) stating limit concentrations of elemental impurities. The methods used for determination of metal residues were inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and atomic absorption spectrometry technologies (GFAAS, CVAAS, HGAAS). This article presents the development and validation of the methods used for the determination of 21 selected metals in 113 samples from drug products and their active pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:26036232

  17. Determination of active substances in binary mixture antiparasitic veterinary formulations by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Anna; Szczotkowska, Aleksandra; Białecka, Wanda; Podolska, Marzena; Kwiatkowska-Puchniarz, Barbara; Mazurek, Aleksander

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a simple, versatile HPLC method for the identification and quantification of praziquantel and ivermectin (in Equimax) or praziquantel and abamectin (in Abamitel Plus). A satisfactory separation was obtained using the Supelcosil LC-ABZ+ column in gradient system with a mobile phase A: acetonitrile / water in 40:60 ratio and phase B: acetonitrile. The UV detection was set at 245 nm. The correlation coefficient values (> or = 0,998) for all active substances confirmed that the calibration curves (peak area vs. concentration) are linear. The results of the quantification and the statistical evaluation confirmed that the method is accurate and precise. It can also be applied to confirm the identity of benzyl alcohol, methyl p-hydroxybenzoate and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate in Abamitel Plus formulation. PMID:21796928

  18. Stochastic description of the ligand-receptor interaction of biologically active substances at extremely low doses.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, Konstantin G; Agutter, Paul S; Wheatley, Denys N

    2003-04-01

    Signalling molecules can be effective at extraordinarily low concentrations (down to attomolar levels). To handle such cases, probabilistic methods have been used to describe the formal kinetics of action of biologically active substances in these low doses, although it has been necessary to review what is meant by such a term. The mean numbers of transformed/degraded molecules and their dispersions were calculated for the possible range of ligand-receptor binding schemes. We used both analytical equations and numerical simulations to calculate the coefficients of variation (ratio of standard deviation to mean) and demonstrated that the distribution of the coefficient is highly dependent on the reaction scheme. It may, therefore, be used as an additional factor for discriminating between cooperative and noncooperative models of ligand-receptor interaction over extreme ranges of ligand dilution. The relevance to signalling behaviour is discussed.

  19. Effects of ionizing radiation on the blood brain barrier permeability to pharmacologically active substances

    SciTech Connect

    Trnovec, T.; Kallay, Z.; Bezek, S. )

    1990-12-01

    Ionizing radiation can impair the integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Data on early and late damage after brain irradiation are usually reported separately, yet a gradual transition between these two types has become evident. Signs appearing within 3 weeks after irradiation are considered to be early manifestations. The mechanism of radiation-effected integrity impairment of the BBB is discussed in relation to changes in morphological structures forming the BBB, the endothelium of intracerebral vessels, and in the surrounding astrocytes. Alterations in the function of the BBB are manifested in the endothelium by changes in the ultrastructural location of the activity of phosphatases and by the activation of pinocytotic vesicular transport, and in astrocyte cytoplasm by glycogen deposition. The changes in ultrastructure were critically surveyed with regard to increasing doses of radiation to the brain in the range of 5 Gy to 960 Gy. The qualitative as well as the semiquantitative and quantitative observations on the passage of substances across the damaged BBB were treated separately. Qualitative changes are based mainly on findings of extravasation of vital stains and of labelled proteins. The quantitative studies established differences in radiation-induced changes in the permeability of the BBB depending on the structure and physico-chemical properties of the barrier penetrating tracers. Indirect evaluation of radiation-induced BBB changes is based on studies of pharmacological effects of substances acting on the CNS. In conclusion, radiation impairs significantly the integrity of the BBB following single irradiation of the brain with a dose exceeding 10-15 Gy. The response of the BBB to ionizing radiation is dependent both on the dose to which the brain is exposed and on specific properties of the tracer. 68 references.

  20. Acceptability and characteristics of 124 human bioequivalence studies with active substances classified according to the Biopharmaceutic Classification System

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Elena; Laosa, Olga; Guerra, Pedro; Duque, Blanca; Mosquera, Beatriz; Borobia, Alberto M; Lei, Suhua H; Carcas, Antonio J; Frias, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    AIM The aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability of 124 bioequivalence (BE) studies with 80 active substances categorized according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) in order to establish if there were different probabilities of proving BE between the different BCS classes. METHODS We evaluated the differences between pharmaceutical products with active substances from different BCS classes in terms of acceptability, number of subjects in the study (n), the point estimates, and intra- and inter-subject coefficients of variation data from BE studies with generic products. RESULTS Out of 124 BE studies 89 (71.77%) were performed with pharmaceutical products containing active substances classified by the BCS. In all BCS classes there were non-bioequivalent pharmaceutical products: 4 out of 26 (15.38%) in class 1, 14 out of 28 (50%) in class 2, 3 out of 22 (13.63%) in class 3 and 1 out of 13 (7.69%) in class 4. When we removed those pharmaceutical products in which intra-subject variability was higher than predicted (2 in class 1 active substances, 9 in class 2 and 2 in class 3) there were still non-BE pharmaceutical products in classes 1, 2 and 3. CONCLUSIONS Comparisons between pharmaceutical products with active substances from the four BCS classes have not allowed us to define differential characteristics of each class in terms of n, inter and intra-subject variability for Cmax or AUC. Despite the usually employed test dissolution methodology proposed as quality control, pharmaceutical products with active substances from the four classes of BCS showed non-BE studies. PMID:21039763

  1. Eating habits, physical activity, consumption of substances and eating disorders in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Quiles-Marcos, Yolanda; Balaguer-Solá, Isabel; Pamies-Aubalat, Lidia; Quiles-Sebastián, María José; Marzo-Campos, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between adolescents with a high or low risk of developing an eating disorder (ED) in different health behaviors (eating habits, physical activity and the consumption of substances) per gender. The EAT-40 and the Inventory of Behavioral Health in Scholars were applied to 2142 middle school students from Alicante (Spain), of whom 52.8% were girls and 47.2% were boys, with an average age of 13.92 years old (Sd = 1.34). Results indicated that girls with a high risk of developing an ED consumed fewer meals, ate fewer unhealthy foods, followed more diets and paid more attention to nutritional components. Furthermore, they also performed more physical activity with the objective of losing weight, and consumed more tobacco, alcohol and medicines. Boys at high risk of developing an ED followed more diets and paid more attention to nutritional components. For boys, no more differences were found. These results suggest that any program directed at the prevention of ED should not only include nutritional education, but should also seek to promote regular physical activity with objectives other than weight loss or the burning of calories. PMID:22059317

  2. The physico-chemical properties and biostimulative activities of humic substances regenerated from lignite.

    PubMed

    David, Jan; Smejkalová, Daniela; Hudecová, Sárka; Zmeškal, Oldřich; von Wandruszka, Ray; Gregor, Tomáš; Kučerík, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    The positive effect of humic acids on the growth of plant roots is well known, however, the mechanisms and role of their physical structure in these processes have not been fully explained yet. In this work, South-Moravian lignite was oxidized by means of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to produce a set of regenerated humic acids. The elemental composition, solid state stability and solution characteristics were determined and correlated in vitro with their biological activity. A modified hydroponic method was applied to determine the effects of their potassium salts on Zea mays seedlings roots with respect to the plant weight, root length, root division, and starch and protein content. The relations between the determined parameters were evaluated through Principal Component Analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicated that the most important factor determining the biological activity of South-Moravian lignite potassium humates is related to the nature of self-assemblies, while the chemical composition had no direct connection with the root growth of Zea mays seedlings. It was demonstrated a controlled processing that provided humic substances with different chemical and physicochemical properties and variable biological activity.

  3. Surface-active substances in a laboratory simulated Titan's organic haze: Prebiotic microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagota, Seema; Kawai, Jun; Deamer, David; McKay, Christopher; Khare, Bishun; Beeler, David

    2014-11-01

    Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, is a key planetary body for astrobiological studies due to its active organic chemistry, hydrocarbon lakes and possible subsurface water-ammonia liquids. We have investigated the physicochemical properties of organic compounds synthesized in a simulated Titan atmosphere. A laboratory analog of Titan's aerosols, called tholin, was produced by irradiation of a nitrogen/methane gas mixture. The primary aim was to determine whether tholin represent possible sources of surface-active substances that could have been involved in the formation of prebiotic structures. A tholin sample was extracted with chloroform-methanol and the chloroform soluble material was separated by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography. Fluorescence excited by UV light was used to identify the major components on the plates. After being scraped from the TLC plate, the components were eluted as specific fractions and investigated by surface chemical methods, FTIR, scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Fractions 1 and 2 were strongly fluorescent and surface active, producing films at air-water interfaces. When exposed to aqueous phases, components in fraction 1 form spherical microstructures resembling prebionts. The prebionts are precursor structures that might have evolved into the first living cells.

  4. The impact of ozone treatment on changes in biologically active substances of cardamom seeds.

    PubMed

    Joanna Brodowska, Agnieszka; Śmigielski, Krzysztof; Nowak, Agnieszka; Brodowska, Katarzyna; Catthoor, Rik; Czyżowska, Agata

    2014-09-01

    The overall objective of this study was to develop a decontamination method against microorganisms in cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton) seeds using ozone as a decontaminating agent. Ozone treatment was conducted 3 times, at 24-h intervals, and the parameters of the process were determined assuring the least possible losses of biologically active substances (essential oils and polyphenols): ozone concentration 160 to 165.0 g/m(3) ; flow rate 0.1 L/min; pressure 0.5 atm; time 30 min. After each step of decontamination, the microbiological profile of the cardamom seeds was studied, and the contaminating microflora was identified. Next to the microbiological profile, the total polyphenol content (TPC), composition of essential oils, free radical-scavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and LC-MS polyphenol analysis were determined. This study shows that extract from cardamom seeds after ozone treatment is characterized by a better radical scavenging activity (IC(50) = 24.18 ± 0.04 mg/mL) than the control sample (IC(50) = 31.94 ± 0.05 mg/mL). The extract from cardamom seeds after ozone treatment showed an improved FRAP activity as well (613.64 ± 49.79 mmol TE/g compared to 480.29 ± 30.91 mmol TE/g of control sample). The TPC and the total antioxidant capacity were negatively affected, respectively, 41.2% and 16.2%, compared to the control sample.

  5. Neural activation during risky decision-making in youth at high risk for substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Hulvershorn, Leslie A; Hummer, Tom A; Fukunaga, Rena; Leibenluft, Ellen; Finn, Peter; Cyders, Melissa A; Anand, Amit; Overhage, Lauren; Dir, Allyson; Brown, Joshua

    2015-08-30

    Risky decision-making, particularly in the context of reward-seeking behavior, is strongly associated with the presence of substance use disorders (SUDs). However, there has been little research on the neural substrates underlying reward-related decision-making in drug-naïve youth who are at elevated risk for SUDs. Participants comprised 23 high-risk (HR) youth with a well-established SUD risk phenotype and 27 low-risk healthy comparison (HC) youth, aged 10-14. Participants completed the balloon analog risk task (BART), a task designed to examine risky decision-making, during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The HR group had faster reaction times, but otherwise showed no behavioral differences from the HC group. HR youth experienced greater activation when processing outcome, as the chances of balloon explosion increased, relative to HC youth, in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). As explosion probability increased, group-by-condition interactions in the ventral striatum/anterior cingulate and the anterior insula showed increasing activation in HR youth, specifically on trials when explosions occurred. Thus, atypical activation increased with increasing risk of negative outcome (i.e., balloon explosion) in a cortico-striatal network in the HR group. These findings identify candidate neurobiological markers of addiction risk in youth at high familial and phenotypic risk for SUDs.

  6. The physico-chemical properties and biostimulative activities of humic substances regenerated from lignite.

    PubMed

    David, Jan; Smejkalová, Daniela; Hudecová, Sárka; Zmeškal, Oldřich; von Wandruszka, Ray; Gregor, Tomáš; Kučerík, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    The positive effect of humic acids on the growth of plant roots is well known, however, the mechanisms and role of their physical structure in these processes have not been fully explained yet. In this work, South-Moravian lignite was oxidized by means of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to produce a set of regenerated humic acids. The elemental composition, solid state stability and solution characteristics were determined and correlated in vitro with their biological activity. A modified hydroponic method was applied to determine the effects of their potassium salts on Zea mays seedlings roots with respect to the plant weight, root length, root division, and starch and protein content. The relations between the determined parameters were evaluated through Principal Component Analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicated that the most important factor determining the biological activity of South-Moravian lignite potassium humates is related to the nature of self-assemblies, while the chemical composition had no direct connection with the root growth of Zea mays seedlings. It was demonstrated a controlled processing that provided humic substances with different chemical and physicochemical properties and variable biological activity. PMID:24790812

  7. Neural Activation During Risky Decision-Making in Youth at High Risk for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hulvershorn, Leslie A.; Hummer, Tom A.; Fukunaga, Rena; Leibenluft, Ellen; Finn, Peter; Cyders, Melissa A.; Anand, Amit; Overhage, Lauren; Dir, Allyson; Brown, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Risky decision-making, particularly in the context of reward-seeking behavior, is strongly associated with the presence of substance use disorders (SUDs). However, there has been little research on the neural substrates underlying reward-related decision-making in drug-naïve youth who are at elevated risk for SUDs. Participants comprised 23 high-risk (HR) youth with a well-established SUD risk phenotype and 27 low-risk healthy comparison (HC) youth, aged 10–14. Participants completed the balloon analog risk task (BART), a task designed to examine risky decision-making, during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The HR group had faster reaction times, but otherwise showed no behavioral differences from the HC group. HR youth experienced greater activation when processing outcome, as the chances of balloon explosion increased, relative to HC youth, in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). As explosion probability increased, group-by-condition interactions in the ventral striatum/anterior cingulate and the anterior insula showed increasing activation in HR youth, specifically on trials when explosions occurred. Thus, atypical activation increased with increasing risk of negative outcome (i.e., balloon explosion) in a cortico-striatal network in the HR group. These findings identify candidate neurobiological markers of addiction risk in youth at high familial and phenotypic risk for SUDs. PMID:26071624

  8. [Relation between oxygen uptake rate and biosorption of activated sludge against chemical substance].

    PubMed

    Mihara, Yuichi; Inoue, Tatsuaki; Yokota, Katsushi

    2005-02-01

    In this study, the elucidation of the toxicity mechanism was undertaken regarding the IC(50) of the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) with relevance to the biosorption as a toxicity evaluation of chemical substances for activated sludge (AS). At the IC(50) of<100 mg/l, malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) were confirmed in the group showing relatively strong OUR inhibition. These dyes were markedly biosorbed by AS in a short time. The biosorption for AS showed a weak tendency in linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS), alkyl ethoxy sulfonate (AES), alpha-olefine sulfonate (AOS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), formaldehyde (FA), benzalkonium chloride (BZaC), benzethonium chloride (BZeC), rhodamine 6G (R-6G) and fuchsine (Fuc) in which the IC(50) belonged to the 100-1000 mg/l group, when it was compared with CV and MG. In ethanol (EtOH), isopropanol (PrOH), nile blue (NB), evans blue (EB), methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), paraquat (PQ), chlorophyllin (Chl) and auramine (Aur), the IC(50) was large, and the biosorption of AS was weak at 0-15%. The biosorption of MG for AS followed the adsorption isotherm equation Y=0.002X(0.511) of Freundrich. The correlation coefficient was gamma=0.998 (n=8), and a very high correlation was obtained. In the qualitative OUR curve by AS pretreated with MG or CV which belonged to the IC(50) small group, the inhibition of remarkable OUR was observed. Therefore, the findings of the present investigation suggest that the inhibition of the OUR for AS by the tested chemical substances was markedly affected by the biosorption.

  9. Relationship between flocculation of activated sludge and composition of extracellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Wilén, B M; Jin, B; Lant, P

    2003-01-01

    Activated sludge flocs are a flocculated mass of microorganisms, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and adsorbed organic and inorganic material. The structure of the floc is very heterogeneous and flocs with very different properties and morphologies may occur, depending on the conditions in the activated sludge treatment plant and wastewater composition. Present thinking suggest that cations, such as calcium, create cationic bridges with EPS excreted by the bacteria and thereby hold the various floc constituents together. However, due to the complex and heterogeneous nature of activated sludge, the mechanisms have neither been thoroughly investigated nor successfully quantified. A better understanding and description of the biological flocculation process is necessary in order to establish more efficient operational strategies. The main aim of this study was to get a comprehensive and unique insight into the floc properties of activated sludge and to assess the relative impact of chemical and physical parameters. A variety of sludges from full scale treatment plants with different settling properties were characterised. The interrelationships between floc parameters such as composition of EPS, surface properties and floc structure, and their effect on the flocculation and separation properties were assessed. The results indicate that the EPS, both in terms of quantity and quality, are very important for the floc properties of the activated sludge. However, presence of filaments may alter the physical properties of the flocs considerably. The EPS showed positive correlations to sludge volume index (SVI) if only sludges with low or moderate numbers of filaments were included. The surface properties were more affected by the composition of the EPS than by the number of filaments. The EPS showed positive correlation to negative surface charge and a negative correlation to relative hydrophobicity and flocculation ability. The negative correlation between

  10. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and surface properties of activated sludges: effect of organic carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Geyik, Ayse Gul; Kılıç, Başak; Çeçen, Ferhan

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to clarify how the type of organic substrate in a wastewater affects the production and composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and hydrophobicity and surface charge of activated sludges. For this purpose, three activated sludge reactors were operated in parallel with feeds composed of the organics (i) peptone, glucose, and acetate and (ii) peptone and (iii) glucose. EPS extracted from sludges were fractionated into very loosely bound, loosely bound, and tightly bound fractions and analyzed for protein and polysaccharide. Also, molecular weight distribution of proteins was determined by using high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Regardless of the type of organic substrate, in each sludge, tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) prevailed. The type of organic substrate affected the relative proportion of protein and polysaccharide and had an impact on hydrophobicity and surface charge. The sludge fed with peptone was distinctly more hydrophobic and had a lower negative surface charge than others. HPSEC fingerprints revealed that the variety and size of proteins were dependent on the type of feed. HPSEC also pointed to a shift of high molecular weight (MW) proteins from TB-EPS to others. In addition, results of a parallel study examining the inhibitory effect of Ag(+) on three sludges were interpreted along with feed composition, EPS, and surface measurements. The response of each sludge to toxic Ag(+) ion seemed to change with the type of feed. PMID:26381789

  11. Enhancement of sludge reduction and methane production by removing extracellular polymeric substances from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Mohd Yasin, Nazlina Haiza; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Maeda, Toshinari

    2014-12-01

    The management of waste activated sludge (WAS) recycling is a concern that affects the development of the future low-carbon society, particularly sludge reduction and biomass utilization. In this study, we investigated the effect of removing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which play important roles in the adhesion and flocculation of WAS, on increased sludge disintegration, thereby enhancing sludge reduction and methane production by anaerobic digestion. EPS removal from WAS by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) significantly enhanced sludge reduction, i.e., 49 ± 5% compared with 27 ± 1% of the control at the end the digestion process. Methane production was also improved in WAS without EPS by 8881 ± 109 CH4 μmol g(-1) dry-weight of sludge. Microbial activity was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time polymerase chain reaction, which showed that the hydrolysis and acetogenesis stages were enhanced by pretreatment with 2% EDTA, with a larger methanogenic community and better methane production. PMID:25277968

  12. Influence of surface active substances on bubble motion and collision with various interfaces.

    PubMed

    Malysa, K; Krasowska, M; Krzan, M

    2005-06-30

    Bubble motion as a function of distance from a point of its detachment and phenomena occurring during the bubble approach and collision with liquid/gas and liquid/solid interfaces in pure water and solutions of various surface active substances are described and discussed. It is showed that presence of surface active substance has a profound influence on values of the terminal velocity and profiles of the local velocity. At low solutions concentrations there are three distinct stages in the bubble motion: (i) a rapid acceleration, (ii) a maximum velocity value followed by its monotonic decrease, and (iii) attainment of the terminal velocity, while at high concentrations (and in pure water) there are only stages (i) and (iii). It is showed that the bubble terminal velocity decreases rapidly at low surfactant concentration, but there can be found some characteristic concentrations (adsorption coverage's) above which the velocity almost stopped to decrease. Immobilization of the bubble surface resulting from adsorption of the surface active substances (surface tension gradients inducement) causes over twofold lowering of the bubble velocity. Presence of the maximum on the local velocity profiles is an indication that a stationary non-uniform distribution of adsorption coverage (needed for immobilization the bubble interface) was not established there. When the rising bubble arrives at liquid/gas interface or liquid/solid interface there can be formed either foam or wetting film or three-phase contact (TPC). It is showed that prior to the foam and/or wetting film formation the bubble colliding with the interfaces can bounce backward and simultaneously its shape pulsates rapidly with a frequency over 1000 Hz. It is rather unexpected that even in the case of the free surface the bubble's shape and consequently its surface area can vary so rapidly. It shows straightforward that on such a rapidly distorted interface the adsorption coverage can be very different from that

  13. Antimicrobial activity and partial characterization of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances produced by Lactobacillus spp. isolated from artisanal Mexican cheese.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Acedo-Félix, Evelia; González-Córdova, Aarón F; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus spp. from Mexican Cocido cheese were shown to produce bacteriocin-like substances (BLS) active against Staphylococcus aureus,Listeria innocua,Escherichia coli, andSalmonella typhimurium by using the disk diffusion method. Crude extracts of Lactobacillus fermentum showed strong inhibitory activity against Staph. aureus, L. innocua, E. coli, and Salmonella cholerae. Complete inactivation of antimicrobial activity was observed after treatment of crude extracts with proteinase K, pronase, papain, trypsin, and lysozyme, confirming their proteinaceous nature. However, antimicrobial activity was partly lost for some of the crude extracts when treated with α-amylase, indicating that carbohydrate moieties were involved. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was stable at 65°C for 30min over a wide pH range (2-8), and addition of potassium chloride, sodium citrate, ethanol, and butanol did not affect antibacterial activity. However, antimicrobial activity was lost after heating at 121°C for 15min, addition of methanol or Tween 80. Fourteen out of 18 Lactobacillus spp. showed antimicrobial activity against different test microorganisms, and 12 presented bacteriocin-like substances. Generation time and growth rate parameters indicated that the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from 3 different strains was effective against the 4 indicator microorganisms. One of the crude extracts showed inhibition not only against gram-positive but also against gram-negative bacteria. Bacteriocin-like substances produced by this specific Lactobacillus strain showed potential for application as a food biopreservative. PMID:26476937

  14. Antimicrobial activity and partial characterization of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances produced by Lactobacillus spp. isolated from artisanal Mexican cheese.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Acedo-Félix, Evelia; González-Córdova, Aarón F; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus spp. from Mexican Cocido cheese were shown to produce bacteriocin-like substances (BLS) active against Staphylococcus aureus,Listeria innocua,Escherichia coli, andSalmonella typhimurium by using the disk diffusion method. Crude extracts of Lactobacillus fermentum showed strong inhibitory activity against Staph. aureus, L. innocua, E. coli, and Salmonella cholerae. Complete inactivation of antimicrobial activity was observed after treatment of crude extracts with proteinase K, pronase, papain, trypsin, and lysozyme, confirming their proteinaceous nature. However, antimicrobial activity was partly lost for some of the crude extracts when treated with α-amylase, indicating that carbohydrate moieties were involved. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was stable at 65°C for 30min over a wide pH range (2-8), and addition of potassium chloride, sodium citrate, ethanol, and butanol did not affect antibacterial activity. However, antimicrobial activity was lost after heating at 121°C for 15min, addition of methanol or Tween 80. Fourteen out of 18 Lactobacillus spp. showed antimicrobial activity against different test microorganisms, and 12 presented bacteriocin-like substances. Generation time and growth rate parameters indicated that the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from 3 different strains was effective against the 4 indicator microorganisms. One of the crude extracts showed inhibition not only against gram-positive but also against gram-negative bacteria. Bacteriocin-like substances produced by this specific Lactobacillus strain showed potential for application as a food biopreservative.

  15. Antimutagenic activity of extracts of natural substances in the Salmonella/microsome assay.

    PubMed

    Horn, Rubem Cesar; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

    2003-03-01

    Scientific information regarding plants used in folk medicine in the form of teas and their effect on human health or on genetic material has been the subject of many different types of investigation. The antimutagenic activity of two plants Maytenus ilicifolia and Peltastes peltatus, both rich in compounds of the flavonoid and tannin groups and frequently employed in folk medicine, was studied. Antimutagenicity was determined against known mutagenic substances (4-oxide-1-nitroquinoline, sodium azide, 2-nitrofluorene, aflatoxin B(1), 2-aminofluorene and 2-aminoanthracene), using the Salmonella/microsome assay. Infusions of P.peltatus showed high cytotoxicity and a co-mutagenic effect for induction of base pair substitution mutations with 4-oxide-1-nitroquinoline (-S9 mix). Infusions of M.ilicifolia produced similar effects for frameshift and base pair substitution mutations. With the mutagens 2-nitrofluorene (TA98) and sodium azide (TA100) no significant enhancement effects (co-mutagenic effects) were observed and inhibition of mutagenic activity and cytotoxicity were also diminished. In assays evaluating antimutagenic activity in the presence of metabolic activation utilizing S9 mix, high and significant inhibition of aflatoxin B(1)-, 2-aminofluorene- and 2-aminoanthracene-induced mutagenicity was observed in the presence of the infusions using both TA98 and TA100 and employing doses ranging from 25 to 500 mg/plate. Seventy-five percent of the doses tested exhibited a significant or suggestive decrease in induced mutagenicity with the infusion of M.ilicifolia. With the infusion of P.peltatus significant or suggestive antimutagenic responses were observed with 50% of the doses evaluated. Complexity was clearly noted in the responses observed in the interaction of aqueous extracts of M.ilicifolia and P.peltastes with the genetic material and metabolites generated by the S9 mix played an important role in the protection of DNA. PMID:12621065

  16. In vitro metabolism and bioavailability tests for endocrine active substances: What is needed next for regulatory purposes?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Legistation and prospective legislative proposals internationally (may) require that chemicals be tested for their ability to disrupt the hormonal systems of mammals. Chemicals found to test positive in vitro are considered to be endocrine active substances (EAS) and may be puta...

  17. 41 CFR 102-75.130 - If hazardous substance activity took place on the property, what specific information must an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... substance activity took place on the property, the reporting agency must include information on the type and.... The reporting agency must also advise the disposal agency if all remedial action necessary to protect... the date the property was reported excess. If such action was not taken, the reporting agency...

  18. Part-Time Work and Hurried Adolescence: The Links between Work Intensity, Social Activities, Health Behaviors, and Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safron, Deborah J.; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman Jerald G.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines adolescents' part-time work intensity and its relation to participation in various activities as well as substance use. Two theoretical perspectives are considered: the "time trade-off perspective"; and "the precocious development perspective." Results provide evidence for a combination of both perspectives. (Author)

  19. MBAs Get .Com Fever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Betsy

    1999-01-01

    Looks at the trend for Master of Business Administration graduates to head for Internet-related jobs instead of those on Wall Street or with Fortune 500 companies. Profiles recent graduates and discusses the rationale for their career choices. (JOW)

  20. Brain activity classifies adolescents with and without a familial history of substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Jianping; Wang, Zhishun; Geronazzo-Alman, Lupo; Amsel, Lawrence; Duarte, Cristiane; Lee, Seonjoo; Musa, George; Long, Jun; He, Xiaofu; Doan, Thao; Hirsch, Joy; Hoven, Christina W.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to uncover differences in brain circuits of adolescents with parental positive or negative histories of substance use disorders (SUD), when performing a task that elicits emotional conflict, testing whether the brain circuits could serve as endophenotype markers to distinguish these adolescents. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 11 adolescents with a positive familial history of SUD (FH+ group) and seven adolescents with a negative familial history of SUD (FH− group) when performing an emotional stroop task. We extracted brain features from the conflict-related contrast images in group level analyses and granger causality indices (GCIs) that measure the causal interactions among regions. Support vector machine (SVM) was applied to classify the FH+ and FH− adolescents. Adolescents with FH+ showed greater activity and weaker connectivity related to emotional conflict, decision making and reward system including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and ventral tegmental area (VTA). High classification accuracies were achieved with leave-one-out cross validation (89.75% for the maximum conflict, 96.71% when combining maximum conflict and general conflict contrast, 97.28% when combining activity of the two contrasts and GCIs). Individual contributions of the brain features to the classification were further investigated, indicating that activation in PFC, ACC, VTA and effective connectivity from PFC to ACC play the most important roles. We concluded that fundamental differences of neural substrates underlying cognitive behaviors of adolescents with parental positive or negative histories of SUD provide new insight into potential neurobiological mechanisms contributing to the elevated risk of FH+ individuals for developing SUD. PMID:25954186

  1. The impact of ozone treatment on changes in biologically active substances of cardamom seeds.

    PubMed

    Joanna Brodowska, Agnieszka; Śmigielski, Krzysztof; Nowak, Agnieszka; Brodowska, Katarzyna; Catthoor, Rik; Czyżowska, Agata

    2014-09-01

    The overall objective of this study was to develop a decontamination method against microorganisms in cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton) seeds using ozone as a decontaminating agent. Ozone treatment was conducted 3 times, at 24-h intervals, and the parameters of the process were determined assuring the least possible losses of biologically active substances (essential oils and polyphenols): ozone concentration 160 to 165.0 g/m(3) ; flow rate 0.1 L/min; pressure 0.5 atm; time 30 min. After each step of decontamination, the microbiological profile of the cardamom seeds was studied, and the contaminating microflora was identified. Next to the microbiological profile, the total polyphenol content (TPC), composition of essential oils, free radical-scavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and LC-MS polyphenol analysis were determined. This study shows that extract from cardamom seeds after ozone treatment is characterized by a better radical scavenging activity (IC(50) = 24.18 ± 0.04 mg/mL) than the control sample (IC(50) = 31.94 ± 0.05 mg/mL). The extract from cardamom seeds after ozone treatment showed an improved FRAP activity as well (613.64 ± 49.79 mmol TE/g compared to 480.29 ± 30.91 mmol TE/g of control sample). The TPC and the total antioxidant capacity were negatively affected, respectively, 41.2% and 16.2%, compared to the control sample. PMID:25182178

  2. Arctigenic acid, the key substance responsible for the hypoglycemic activity of Fructus Arctii.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaohui; Gu, Chenchen; Wang, Kai; Ju, Jiaxing; Wang, Haiying; Ruan, Kefeng; Feng, Yi

    2015-01-15

    We have reported the antidiabetic activity of the total lignans from Fructus arctii (TLFA) against alloxan-induced diabetes in mice and rats. In this study, arctigenic acid was found to be the main metabolite in rat plasma detected by UPLC/MS and HPLC/MS/MS after oral administration of TLFA. For the first time, its hypoglycemic activity and acute oral toxicity were evaluated in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a spontaneous type 2 diabetic animal model, and ICR mice respectively. GK rats were orally given arctigenic acid (50 mg/kg) twice daily before each meal for 12 weeks. The treatment reduced the elevated plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and showed significant improvement in glucose tolerance in glucose fed hyperglycemic GK rats. We found that the hypoglycemic effect of arctigenic acid was partly due to the stimulation on insulin secretion, whereas the body weight was not affected by arctigenic acid administration in GK rats. Meanwhile, there was no observable acute toxicity of arctigenic acid treatment at the dosage of 280 mg/kg body weight daily in the acute 14-day toxicity study in mice. This study demonstrates that arctigenic acid may be the main metabolite in the rat serum after oral administration of TLFA, which showed significant hypoglycemic effect in GK rats, and low acute toxicity in ICR mice. The result prompts us that arctigenic acid is the key substance responsible for Fructus Arctii antidiabetic activity and it has a great potential to be further developed as a novel therapeutic agent for diabetes in humans.

  3. Arctigenic acid, the key substance responsible for the hypoglycemic activity of Fructus Arctii.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaohui; Gu, Chenchen; Wang, Kai; Ju, Jiaxing; Wang, Haiying; Ruan, Kefeng; Feng, Yi

    2015-01-15

    We have reported the antidiabetic activity of the total lignans from Fructus arctii (TLFA) against alloxan-induced diabetes in mice and rats. In this study, arctigenic acid was found to be the main metabolite in rat plasma detected by UPLC/MS and HPLC/MS/MS after oral administration of TLFA. For the first time, its hypoglycemic activity and acute oral toxicity were evaluated in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a spontaneous type 2 diabetic animal model, and ICR mice respectively. GK rats were orally given arctigenic acid (50 mg/kg) twice daily before each meal for 12 weeks. The treatment reduced the elevated plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and showed significant improvement in glucose tolerance in glucose fed hyperglycemic GK rats. We found that the hypoglycemic effect of arctigenic acid was partly due to the stimulation on insulin secretion, whereas the body weight was not affected by arctigenic acid administration in GK rats. Meanwhile, there was no observable acute toxicity of arctigenic acid treatment at the dosage of 280 mg/kg body weight daily in the acute 14-day toxicity study in mice. This study demonstrates that arctigenic acid may be the main metabolite in the rat serum after oral administration of TLFA, which showed significant hypoglycemic effect in GK rats, and low acute toxicity in ICR mice. The result prompts us that arctigenic acid is the key substance responsible for Fructus Arctii antidiabetic activity and it has a great potential to be further developed as a novel therapeutic agent for diabetes in humans. PMID:25636881

  4. Investigating apical adverse effects of four endocrine active substances in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Arnaud; Lagadic, Laurent; Barsi, Alpar; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Ducrot, Virginie

    2014-09-15

    The hermaphroditic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis is proposed as a candidate species for the development of OECD guidelines for testing of the reprotoxicity of chemicals, including endocrine active substances (EASs). Up to now, only a few putative EASs have been tested for their reproductive toxicity in this species. In this study, we investigate the effects of four EASs with different affinities to the vertebrate estrogen and androgen receptors (chlordecone as an estrogen; cyproterone acetate, fenitrothion and vinclozolin as anti-androgens) on the reproduction of L. stagnalis in a 21-day semi-static test. Testosterone and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were used as the reference compounds. The tested EASs had no significant effect on growth and survival at the tested concentration ranges (ng to μg/L). Classical reproduction endpoints (i.e., oviposition and fecundity) were not responsive to the tested chemicals, except for chlordecone and 17α-ethinylestradiol, which hampered reproduction from 19.6 μg/L and 17.6 μg/L, respectively. The frequency of polyembryonic eggs, used as an additional endpoint, demonstrated the effects of all compounds except EE2. The molecular pathways, which are involved in such reproduction impairments, remain unknown. Our results suggest that egg quality is a more sensitive endpoint as compared to other reproductive endpoints commonly assessed in mollusk toxicity tests.

  5. Enterococcus faecium isolated from honey synthesized bacteriocin-like substances active against different Listeria monocytogenes strains.

    PubMed

    Ibarguren, Carolina; Raya, Raúl R; Apella, María C; Audisio, M Carina

    2010-02-01

    Four Enterococcus faecium strains, isolated from honeycombs (C1 and M2d strains) and feral combs (Mori1 and M1b strains) secreted antimicrobial substances active against fourteen different Listeria spp. strains. The antimicrobial compound(s) present in the cell free supernatant were highly thermostable (121 degrees C for 15 min) and inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, but not by alpha-amylase and lipase, thus suggesting a peptidic nature. Since the structural bacteriocin gene determinants of enterocins A and B were PCR amplified from the four E. faecium isolates, only the bacteriocin produced by strain C1 was further characterized: it showed a broad band of approximately 4.0-7.0 kDa in SDS-PAGE and was bactericidal (4 log decrease) against L. monocytogenes 99/287. L. monocytogenes 99/287R, a clone spontaneously resistant to the enterocin produced by E. avium DSMZ17511 (ex PA1), was not inhibited by the enterocin-like compounds produced by strain C1. However, it was inhibited in mixed culture fermentations by E. faecium C1 and a bacteriostatic effect was observed. The bacteriocin-producer Enterococcus strains were not haemolytic; gelatinase negative and sensitive to vancomycin and other clinically relevant antibiotics. PMID:20221729

  6. Role of extracellular polymeric substances in bioflocculation of activated sludge microorganisms under glucose-controlled conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Badireddy, Appala R.; Chellam, Shankararaman; Gassman, Paul L.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lea, Alan S.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2010-08-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secreted by suspended cultures of microorganisms from an activated sludge plant in the presence of glucose was characterized in detail using colorimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. EPS produced by the mixed population were similar to literature reports obtained from pure cultures in terms of functionalities with respect to C and O but differed subtly in terms of N and P. Hence, it appears that EPS produced by different microorganisms maybe similar in major chemical constituents but may differ in minor components. The role of specific EPS constituents on microbial aggregation was also determined. The weak tendency of microorganisms to bioflocculate during the exponential growth phase was attributed to electrostatic repulsion when EPS concentration was low and acidic in nature (higher fraction of uronic acids to total EPS). However, during the stationary phase, polymeric interactions overwhelmed electrostatic interactions (lower fraction of uronic acids to total EPS) resulting in greater bioflocculation. More specifically, microorganisms appeared to aggregate in the presence of protein secondary structures including aggregated strands, β-sheets, α- and 3-turn helical structures. Bioflocculation was also favored by increasing O-acetylated carbohydrates and overall C-(O,N) and O=C–OH + O=C–OR functionalities.

  7. Enacting Conceptual Metaphor through Blending: Learning activities embodying the substance metaphor for energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Hunter G.; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that a particular blended learning space is especially productive in developing understanding of energy transfers and transformations. In this blended space, naturally occurring learner interactions like body movement, gesture, and metaphorical speech are blended with a conceptual metaphor of energy as a substance in a class of activities called Energy Theater. We illustrate several mechanisms by which the blended aspect of the learning environment promotes productive intellectual engagement with key conceptual issues in the learning of energy, including distinguishing among energy processes, disambiguating matter and energy, identifying energy transfer, and representing energy as a conserved quantity. Conceptual advancement appears to be promoted especially by the symbolic material and social structure of the Energy Theater environment, in which energy is represented by participants and objects are represented by areas demarcated by loops of rope, and by Energy Theater's embodied action, including body locomotion, gesture, and coordination of speech with symbolic spaces in the Energy Theater arena. Our conclusions are (1) that specific conceptual metaphors can be leveraged to benefit science instruction via the blending of an abstract space of ideas with multiple modes of concrete human action, and (2) that participants' structured improvisation plays an important role in leveraging the blend for their intellectual development.

  8. Environmental risk assessment on capsaicin used as active substance for antifouling system on ships.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianbing; Shi, Ting; Yang, Xiaoling; Han, Wenya; Zhou, Yunrui

    2014-06-01

    Biodegradation experiments were carried out with capsaicin to evaluate its degradability. The results show that capsaicin was readily biodegradable under aerobic conditions. The values of Kow and the calculated bioconcentration factor indicate that capsaicin have a low potential for bioconcentration. The fish acute toxicity tests conducted with Brachydanio rerio show LC50 for capsaicin was 5.98 mg L(-1). The tests of alga growth inhibition conducted with Selenastrum capricornutum suggest EC50 for capsaicin was 114 mg L(-1). The calculated PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration) was 4.9×10(-4) mg L(-1). The average PEC (Predicted Environmental Concentration) for OECD-EU commercial harbor and marina were 3.99×10(-6) and 2.49×10(-5) mg L(-1), respectively. These indicate that the PEC was much less than the PNEC for capsaicin. The low Kp value of capsaicin suggests the data about the risk of capsaicin to sediment organisms can be waived. According to the results from the analysis of the degradation, bioaccumulation, toxicity and accumulation in sediment, it can be concluded that capsaicin used as active substance for antifouling system on ships poses relatively low risk to marine environment.

  9. Modeling the development of biofilm density including active bacteria, inert biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Laspidou, Chrysi S; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2004-01-01

    We present the unified multi-component cellular automaton (UMCCA) model, which predicts quantitatively the development of the biofilm's composite density for three biofilm components: active bacteria, inert or dead biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances. The model also describes the concentrations of three soluble organic components (soluble substrate and two types of soluble microbial products) and oxygen. The UMCCA model is a hybrid discrete-differential mathematical model and introduces the novel feature of biofilm consolidation. Our hypothesis is that the fluid over the biofilm creates pressures and vibrations that cause the biofilm to consolidate, or pack itself to a higher density over time. Each biofilm compartment in the model output consolidates to a different degree that depends on the age of its biomass. The UMCCA model also adds a cellular automaton algorithm that identifies the path of least resistance and directly moves excess biomass along that path, thereby ensuring that the excess biomass is distributed efficiently. A companion paper illustrates the trends that the UMCCA model is able to represent and shows a comparison with experimental results. PMID:15276752

  10. Thyroid Histopathology Assessments for the Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay to Detect Thyroid-active Substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (AMA) Test Guideline for the detection of substances that interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, a document was developed that provides a standardized appro...

  11. [The influence of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus K-4 surface-active substances on the efficiency of microbial destruction of oil pollutants].

    PubMed

    Pyroh, T P; Antoniuk, S I; Sorokina, A I

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of the use of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus K-4 surface-active substances (SAS) for water purification from oil was shown. The efficiency of oil degradation (2.6 g/l) in the presence of SAS preparations (5-15 %) in the form of postfermentation of cultural liquid or its supernatant was established to be 81-95 %. Intensification of oil destruction was determined by SAS affecting the activity of oil-oxidizing microbial population.

  12. Purification, structural characterization, and antioxidant activity of antioxidant substance from the red seaweed Gloiopeltis tenax.

    PubMed

    Lim, Byung-Lak; Ryu, Il-Hwan

    2009-04-01

    An antioxidant substance (AOS) obtained from an enzymatic extract of the red seaweed Gloiopeltis tenax was purified by DEAE-Sephadex CL-6B and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The purification yield of AOS was 14.3%. The AOS predominantly contained fucose, mannose, and galactose but also contained a sulfate group. The structure of AOS was investigated by periodate oxidation, desulfation, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. AOS was mainly composed of alternating units of beta-D-Glc(1 --> 2)alpha-D-Man(1 --> 4)beta-D-Gal(1 --> 4)alpha-D-Man(1 --> 4)beta-D-Gal alpha-D-Man (1 --> 4) beta-D-Glc (or Xyl)- and branched linkage of alpha-D-Man(1 --> 3) alpha-D-Fuc. In addition, the fucose residues were shown to be 2-O- and 4-O-sulfated and, therefore, were either terminal or 3-linked. The antioxidative activity of AOS was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the beta-carotene-linoleate assay systems and was compared with those of butylated hydroxytoluene and ascorbic acid (AscA). The results showed that AOS exhibited higher antioxidative activity than AscA in the DPPH assay model and in the beta-carotene-linoleate assay system at all of the four concentration levels tested (from 50 to 200 microg/mL). These results suggested that AOS from the red seaweed G. tenax is an efficient novel antioxidant. PMID:19459750

  13. Combination of MS protein identification and bioassay of chromatographic fractions to identify biologically active substances from complex protein sources.

    PubMed

    Kuromitsu, Sadao; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Hiramoto, Masashi; Yuri, Masatoshi; Naitou, Masanori; Nakamura, Naoto; Kawabata, Shigeki; Kobori, Masato; Katoh, Masao; Furuchi, Kiyoshi; Mita, Haruhisa; Yamada, Tetsuo

    2009-06-01

    Purification of biologically active proteins from complex biological sources is a difficult task, usually requiring large amounts of sample and many separation steps. We found an active substance in a serum response element-dependent luciferase reporter gene bioassay in interstitial cystitis urine that we attempted to purify with column chromatography and the bioassay. With anion-exchange Mono Q and C4 reversed-phase columns, apparently sharp active peaks were obtained. However, more than 20 kinds of proteins were identified from the active fractions with MS, indicating that the purification was not complete. As further purification was difficult, we chose a candidate molecule by means of studying the correlation between MS protein identification scores and bioassay responses of chromatographic fractions near the active peaks. As a result, epidermal growth factor (EGF) was nominated as a candidate molecule among the identified proteins because the elution profile of EGF was consistent with that of the bioassay, and the correlation coefficient of EGF between MS protein identification scores and bioassay responses was the highest among all the identified proteins. With recombinant EGF and anti-EGF and anti-EGF receptor antibodies, EGF was confirmed to be the desired substance in interstitial cystitis urine. This approach required only 20 ml of urine sample and two column chromatographic steps. The combination of MS protein identification and bioassay of chromatographic fractions may be useful for identifying biologically active substances from complex protein sources.

  14. Assessment of quantitative structure-activity relationship of toxicity prediction models for Korean chemical substance control legislation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang-Yon; Shin, Seong Eun; No, Kyoung Tai

    2015-01-01

    Objectives For successful adoption of legislation controlling registration and assessment of chemical substances, it is important to obtain sufficient toxicological experimental evidence and other related information. It is also essential to obtain a sufficient number of predicted risk and toxicity results. Particularly, methods used in predicting toxicities of chemical substances during acquisition of required data, ultimately become an economic method for future dealings with new substances. Although the need for such methods is gradually increasing, the-required information about reliability and applicability range has not been systematically provided. Methods There are various representative environmental and human toxicity models based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). Here, we secured the 10 representative QSAR-based prediction models and its information that can make predictions about substances that are expected to be regulated. We used models that predict and confirm usability of the information expected to be collected and submitted according to the legislation. After collecting and evaluating each predictive model and relevant data, we prepared methods quantifying the scientific validity and reliability, which are essential conditions for using predictive models. Results We calculated predicted values for the models. Furthermore, we deduced and compared adequacies of the models using the Alternative non-testing method assessed for Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals Substances scoring system, and deduced the applicability domains for each model. Additionally, we calculated and compared inclusion rates of substances expected to be regulated, to confirm the applicability. Conclusions We evaluated and compared the data, adequacy, and applicability of our selected QSAR-based toxicity prediction models, and included them in a database. Based on this data, we aimed to construct a system that can be used

  15. Quantification of potential exposure of gray partridge (Perdix perdix) to pesticide active substances in farmlands.

    PubMed

    Bro, Elisabeth; Millot, Florian; Decors, Anouk; Devillers, James

    2015-07-15

    Estimating exposure of wild birds to plant protection products is of key importance in the risk assessment process evaluating their harmful potential. In this paper, we propose an ecologically-relevant methodology to estimate potential exposure to active substances (ASs) of a farmland focal bird, the gray partridge Perdix perdix. It is based on bird habitat use of fields at the time of pesticide applications. It accounts for spatio-temporal heterogeneity at population and landscape scales. We identify and quantify the potential exposure to 179 ASs of 140 clutches during pre-laying, laying, and incubation phases, and of 75 coveys. The data come from a large scale field study combining radiotelemetry and a farmer survey. They were collected in 12 different representative sites. The proportion of clutches potentially exposed to a given chemical was ≥5% for 32 ASs; prothioconazole and epoxiconazole ranking first. 71% of clutches were potentially exposed to ≥1 AS and 67% to ≥2 ASs. Mixtures involved 2 to 22 ASs. They emerged from commercial formulations, tank mixtures, bird habitat use, and combinations. ASs were fungicides (53%), herbicides (25%), and insecticides (16%) used on a variety of crops in April-June, when ground-nesting birds are breeding. The European Food Safety Authority conclusions report a long-term first-tier toxicity-to-exposure ratio (TERlt) <5 for 11 out of 19 documented ASs, and higher-tier TERlt <5 for 5 out of 10 ASs. This suggests a potential risk for bird reproduction in farmlands. Globally 13% of coveys were potentially exposed to 18 ASs during the first month (1-4 coveys per AS). The use of our field data in future research and risk assessment is discussed.

  16. Design of an osmotic pressure sensor for sensing an osmotically active substance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ch, Nagesh; Paily, Roy P.

    2015-04-01

    A pressure sensor based on the osmosis principle has been designed and demonstrated successfully for the sensing of the concentration levels of an osmotically active substance. The device is fabricated using the bulk micro-machining technique on a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate. The substrate has a square cavity on the bottom side to fill with the reference glucose solution and a silicon (Si) membrane on the top side for the actuation. Two sets of devices, having membrane thicknesses of 10 µm and 25 µm, but the same area of 3 mm ×3 mm, are fabricated. The cavity is filled with a glucose solution of 100 mg dL-1 and it is sealed with a semi-permeable membrane made up of cellulose acetate material. The glucose solution is employed to prove the functionality of the device and it is tested for different glucose concentration levels, ranging from 50 mg dL-1 to 450 mg dL-1. The output voltage obtained for the corresponding glucose concentration levels ranges from -6.7 mV to 22.7 mV for the 10 µm device and from -1.7 mV to 4 mV for the 25 µm device. The device operation was simulated using the finite element method (FEM) and the finite volume method (FVM), and the simulation and experimental results match closely. A response time of 40 min is obtained in the case of the 10 µm device compared to one of 30 min for the 25 µm device. The response times obtained for these devices are found to be small compared to those in similar works based on the osmosis principle. This pressure sensor has the potential to provide controlled drug delivery if it can be integrated with other microfluidic devices.

  17. Comparison of the bony remodelling of two synthetic biomaterials: aragonite 55% and aragonite 55% with active substance.

    PubMed

    Oudadesse, H; Derrien, A C; Martin, S; Lucas-Girot, A; Cathelineau, G

    2007-03-01

    In this work, the in vivo behaviour of pure aragonite and vectabone, which is an association of aragonite and an active substance such as gentamicin, was studied to highlight the kinetic resorption of these two biomaterials with 55% of porosity destined for the filling or replacement of bony defects. The synthesis conditions and parameters we used permit us to obtain a biomaterial without a sintering stage. These conditions allow introducing of active substances at the first stage of the elaboration. In this work, the gentamycin antibiotic was associated with calcium carbonate (aragonite 55% with gentamycin) to deliver this active substance on the surgical site for local treatment. The tricalcium phosphate biomaterial was used as the control because of its high biocompatibility. The bony remodelling of these three biomaterials was studied by in vivo experiments. This study was ensured with neutron activation analysis (NAA). The resorption kinetic was elaborated and comparisons of the remodelling biomaterials CaCO(3) 55% and CaCO(3) 55% with gentamicin (vectabone) and tricalcium phosphate were carried out. The obtained results show that, 6 months after implantation, the mineral composition of vectabone and tricalcium phosphate becomes close to that of young bone. Twelve months after implantation, it becomes similar to that of mature bone.

  18. Biologically active substances-enriched diet regulates gonadotrope cell activation pathway in liver of adult and old rats.

    PubMed

    Oszkiel, Hanna; Wilczak, Jacek; Jank, Michał

    2014-09-01

    According to the Hippocrates' theorem "Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food", dietary interventions may induce changes in the metabolic and inflammatory state by modulating the expression of important genes involved in the chronic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of long-term (14 months) use of biologically active substances-enriched diet (BASE-diet) on transcriptomic profile of rats' liver. The experiment was conducted on 36 Sprague-Dawley rats divided into two experimental groups (fed with control or BASE-diet, both n = 18). Control diet was a semi-synthetic diet formulated according to the nutritional requirements for laboratory animals. The BASE-diet was enriched with a mixture of polyphenolic compounds, β-carotene, probiotics, and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In total, n = 3,017 differentially expressed (DE) genes were identified, including n = 218 DE genes between control and BASE groups after 3 months of feeding and n = 1,262 after 14 months. BASE-diet influenced the expression of genes involved particularly in the gonadotrope cell activation pathway and guanylate cyclase pathway, as well as in mast cell activation, gap junction regulation, melanogenesis and apoptosis. Especially genes involved in regulation of GnRH were strongly affected by BASE-diet. This effect was stronger with the age of animals and the length of diet use. It may suggest a link between the diet, reproductive system function and aging. PMID:25156242

  19. Review of the powder and decoction formulae in Traditional Chinese Medicine based on pharmacologically active substances and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qihua; Wen, Jin; Peng, Zhiping; Liu, Fenglin; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-06-01

    Powder formulae are an indispensable part of prescription in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Powder formulae are. characterized by good therapeutic efficacy and low dose used for their preparation. Analysis of the therapeutic application and material basis of pharmacological active substance in power formulae can enable the development of new powder formulae. This in turn can contribute to reduction of wastage of drug material, relief of shortage of herbal medicinal resources and sustainable development of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

  20. [Effect of biologically active substances from marine organisms on lipid peroxidation-antioxidant defence system in gastroduodenitis, associated with hyperlipidemia].

    PubMed

    Knyshova, V V; Ivanova, I L; Kozlovskaia, E P; Loenko, Iu N

    2002-01-01

    An experimental model of gastroduodenitis combined with hyperlipidemia was used to study the effects of the product Zolotoi rog (Golden Horn) which is a composition of biologically active substances of marine organisms and honey. It was found that a course administration of Zolotoi rog in a dose 2.5 mg/kg b.w. improves histomorphology of gastric mucosa, acts hypolipidemically, raises reserves of the antioxidant system of the body and suppresses intensity of lipid peroxidation.

  1. Removal of bacteria from coastal seawater by foam separation using dispersed bubbles and surface-active substances.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Hanagasaki, Nobuaki; Furukawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Terutoyo

    2008-04-01

    The removal of bacteria from rearing water and washing water in aquaculture systems, aquariums and fishing port facilities is the most important means of diminishing the risk of fish diseases, improving public health and ensuring high food quality. However, there are few methods of bacterial elimination, e.g., disinfection. Thus, it is necessary to develop a technology for bacterial removal from coastal seawater. In this study, the removal efficiency for several groups of bacteria by foam separation using dispersed bubbles and surface-active substances was determined using both batch equipment and a continuous-flow unit. By batch processing with only 1 mg/l milk casein added as a surface-active substance and by supplying bubbles, viable bacteria, enterococci, Vibrio, and Salmonella-like bacteria were removed effectively at removal efficiencies of 80% or greater. In addition, suspended solids were also removed from coastal seawater. However, fecal coliforms were difficult to remove by foam separation. The removal efficiency for viable bacteria was greater than 70% using a continuous system. Bacteria were concentrated in a very small amount of generated foam and removed from the water. The foam separation using dispersed bubbles and surface-active substances is a feasible convenient technology for seawater purification as a treatment prior to membrane filtration or ultraviolet irradiation.

  2. Measurement of orexin (hypocretin) and substance P effects on constitutively active inward rectifier K(+) channels in brain neurons.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yasuko; Nakajima, Shigehiro

    2010-01-01

    Electrophysiological experiments in our laboratory have led to the discovery that the cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis in the rat forebrain possess constitutively active inward rectifier K(+) channels. Unlike cloned inward rectifier K(+) channels, these constitutively active inward rectifier K(+) channels were found to have unique properties, and thus were named "KirNB" (inward rectifier K(+) channels in the nucleus basalis). We found that slow excitatory transmitters, such as orexin (hypocretin) and substance P, suppress the KirNB channel, resulting in neuronal excitation. Furthermore, it was discovered that suppression of KirNB channels by these transmitters is through protein kinase C (PKC). This chapter describes detailed electrophysiological techniques for investigating the effects of orexin and substance P on constitutively active KirNB channels. For this purpose, we also present a method for culturing nucleus basalis cholinergic neurons in which KirNB channels exist. Then, we describe the procedures through which PKC has been determined to mediate inhibition of KirNB channels by orexin and substance P. There are probably many other transmitters which may produce effects on KirNB channels. This chapter will enable researchers to investigate the effects of such transmitters on KirNB channels and their roles in neuronal functions.

  3. Enacting Conceptual Metaphor through Blending: Learning Activities Embodying the Substance Metaphor for Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close, Hunter G.; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that a particular blended learning space is especially productive in developing understanding of energy transfers and transformations. In this blended space, naturally occurring learner interactions like body movement, gesture, and metaphorical speech are blended with a conceptual metaphor of energy as a substance in a class of…

  4. Revealing of Biological Activity in Crude Extracts, Seperated Fractions, Groups of Chemical Substance and Individual Compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crude extracts, separated fractions, groups of chemical substances, and individual compounds from natural sources are all evaluated stepwise while performing purifications in in-house bioassays. In a stepwise fashion proceeding from crude extracts to fractions and on to pure compounds, decisions ar...

  5. Amygdala Activation and Emotional Processing in Adolescents at Risk for Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Dawn L.; Pajtek, Stefan; Tarter, Ralph E.; Long, Elizabeth C.; Clark, Duncan B.

    2014-01-01

    Studies are needed that examine neurobiological characteristics in high-risk individuals prior to substance use disorder (SUD) development. In this pilot study, 4 adolescent subjects at high risk for SUD (having at least 1 parent with an SUD) were compared with 4 adolescent reference subjects on a cortico-limbic reactivity paradigm, where they…

  6. How Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Unit Director Activities May Affect Provision of Community Outreach Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey; Green, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services,…

  7. Substance P and the neurokinin-1 receptor regulate electroencephalogram non-rapid eye movement sleep slow-wave activity locally

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Mark R.; Karpova, Svetlana A.; Yang, Xiaomei; Gerashchenko, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide substance P is an excitatory neurotransmitter produced by various cells including neurons and microglia that is involved in regulating inflammation and cerebral blood flow—functions that affect sleep and slow-wave activity (SWA). Substance P is the major ligand for the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R), which is found throughout the brain including the cortex. The NK-1R is found on sleep-active cortical neurons expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase whose activity is associated with SWA. We determined the effects of local cortical administration of a NK-1R agonist (substance P-fragment 1, 7) and a NK-1R antagonist (CP96345) on sleep and SWA in mice. The NK-1R agonist significantly enhanced SWA for several hours when applied locally to the cortex of the ipsilateral hemisphere as the electroencephalogram (EEG) electrode but not after application to the contralateral hemisphere when compared to saline vehicle control injections. In addition, a significant compensatory reduction in SWA was found after the NK-1R agonist-induced enhancements in SWA. Conversely, injections of the NK-1R antagonist into the cortex of the ipsilateral hemisphere of the EEG electrode attenuated SWA compared to vehicle injections but this effect was not found after injections of the NK-1R antagonist into contralateral hemisphere as the EEG electrode. Non-rapid eye movement sleep and rapid eye movement sleep duration responses after NK-1R agonist and antagonist injections were not significantly different from the responses to the vehicle. Our findings indicate that the substance P and the NK-1R are involved in regulating SWA locally. PMID:25301750

  8. [Characteristics study of extracellular active substance of Bacillus sp. B1 on Phaeocystis globosa].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Zhao, Ling; Yin, Ping-He

    2012-03-01

    The algicidal bacterium named B1 which was identified as Bacillus sp. was isolated from red tide water in Xiangzhou shipside of Zhuhai. The algicidal mode of algae-lysis bacterium B1 and the microstructure of algal cells in the algae-lysing process were studied. In order to explore the properties of extracellular algicidal substances, the sterile condensed bacteria-free filtrate was dialysed, sedimentated by ethanol, extracted by organic solvents and exposed in different heat and pH variations. The results showed that the sterile condensed bacteria-free filtrate could effectively dissolve Phaeocystis globosa (P. globosa), the removal rate was 94.9%, B1 excreted algae-lysing substances to inhibit the growth of algae indirectly. Algicidal process under the visual field of microscope demonstrated that the alga cell rounded and the cell wall lost integrity after 16 h, the algae cell lysed and cellular substances released after 56 h. The molecular weight of the extracellular algae-lysing components of B1 are less than 3 500, the algicidal substances have strong polarity and heat-tolerant, which still had a strong algae-lysing effect after being treated at 121 degrees C, and the removal rate was 92.6%. The algae-lysing ability was stronger while the pH value was kept at 9.0, ethanol can separate extracellular algae-lysing components from other components efficiently. The algae-lysing components may be non-bioactive molecules which contain acidic or alkaline groups, and may not be protein, nuclear acid and polysaccharides.

  9. Detection of endocrine active substances in the aquatic environment in southern Taiwan using bioassays and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuang-Yu; Chou, Pei-Hsin

    2016-06-01

    Endocrine active substances, including naturally occurring hormones and various synthetic chemicals have received much concern owing to their endocrine disrupting potencies. It is essential to monitor their environmental occurrence since these compounds may pose potential threats to biota and human health. In this study, yeast-based reporter assays were carried out to investigate the presence of (anti-)androgenic, (anti-)estrogenic, and (anti-)thyroid compounds in the aquatic environment in southern Taiwan. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was also used to measure the environmental concentrations of selected endocrine active substances for assessing potential ecological risks and characterizing contributions to the endocrine disrupting activities. Bioassay results showed that anti-androgenic (ND-7489 μg L(-1) flutamide equivalent), estrogenic (ND-347 ng L(-1) 17β-estradiol equivalent), and anti-thyroid activities were detected in the dissolved and particulate phases of river water samples, while anti-estrogenic activities (ND-10 μg L(-1) 4-hydroxytamoxifen equivalent) were less often found. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that anti-androgenic and estrogenic contaminants, such as bisphenol A, triclosan, and estrone were frequently detected in Taiwanese rivers. In addition, their risk quotient values were often higher than 1, suggesting that they may pose an ecological risk to the aquatic biota. Further identification of unknown anti-androgenic and estrogenic contaminants in Taiwanese rivers may be necessary to protect Taiwan's aquatic environment. PMID:26971174

  10. Assessment of antiproliferative activity of pectic substances obtained by different extraction methods from rapeseed cake on cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cobs-Rosas, M; Concha-Olmos, J; Weinstein-Oppenheimer, C; Zúñiga-Hansen, M E

    2015-03-01

    In this work the antiproliferative activity of pectic substances obtained by different extraction methods from defatted rapeseed cake was assessed on cancer cell lines. The process consisted of sequential treatment with alkalized water (pH∼8), EDTA (0.01 M), alkaline protease (Alkalase 2.4L) and a commercial pectinase preparation (Viscozyme L or Pectinex Ultra SP-L). Pectic extracts identification was performed using spectroscopy and chromatography techniques. FT-IR and HPLC-IR results suggest that the neutral pectic extracts produced would be arabinogalactans and β-galactans. All the pectic substances extracted (acid and neutral) from RSC exhibited antiproliferative activity, being more effective on MCF-7 cells than Caco-2. The most effective pectic extract was obtained by Alkalase 2.4 L which killed over 80% of MCF-7 cells and 60% of Caco-2 cells. At less than 10 mg/mL pectic extracts enriched in neutral sugars also exhibited antiproliferative activity (50 and 40%, respectively), which was superior to the modified citric pectins activity at the same concentration for the breast cancer cell line (61.6% for MCF-7 and 49.9% for Caco-2 cells). These results show that the antiproliferative activity depends on both the type of pectin (acid or neutral) and the extraction procedure.

  11. Studies on active substances in herbs used for hair treatment. I. Effects of herb extracts on hair growth and isolation of an active substance from Polyporus umbellatus F.

    PubMed

    Inaoka, Y; Shakuya, A; Fukazawa, H; Ishida, H; Nukaya, H; Tsuji, K; Kuroda, H; Okada, M; Fukushima, M; Kosuge, T

    1994-03-01

    The effects of methanol extracts of 80 herbs on hair growth were investigated, using normal C3H/He mice from which telogen hair on the back had been removed. Eighteen of the extracts apparently promoted hair regrowth on the mice. As one of active principles in Polyporus umbellatus F., 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde was isolated by column chromatography on Amberlite XAD-2, Sephadex LH-20 and silica gel. PMID:8004697

  12. Sunglint effects on the characterization of optically active substances in high spatial resolution airborne hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streher, A. S.; Faria Barbosa, C. Clemente; Soares Galvão, L.; Goodman, J. A.; Silva, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Sunglint, also known as the specular reflection of light from water surfaces, is a component of sensor-received radiance that represents a confounding factor on the characterization of water bodies by remote sensing. In airborne remote sensing images, the effect of sunglint can be minimized by optimizing the flight paths, directing the sensor towards or away from the Sun, and by keeping solar zenith angles between 30° and 60°. However, these guidelines cannot always be applied, often due to the irregular spatial pattern of lakes, estuaries and coastlines. The present study assessed the impact of sunglint on the relationship between the optically active substances (OAS) concentration, in optically complex waters, and the spectral information provided by an airborne high spatial resolution hyperspectral sensor (SpecTIR). The Ibitinga reservoir, located in southeastern Brazil (state of São Paulo), was selected as the study area because of its meandering shape. As a result, there is demanding constant changes in data acquisition geometry to achieve complete coverage, therefore not allowing sunglint conditions to be minimized during image acquisition. Field data collection was carried out on October 23 and 24, 2011. During these two days, 15 water stations along the reservoir were sampled, concurrently with the SpecTIR image acquisition in 357 bands (398-2455 nm) and at 3 m spatial resolution. Chlorophyll, pheophytin, total suspended solids, organic and inorganic suspended solids and colored dissolved matter were determined in laboratory. The images were corrected for the atmospheric effects using the Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) algorithm and then geometrically corrected. In order to evaluate the sunglint effects on the OAS characterization, the images were corrected for such effects using the deglint algorithm from Goodman et al. (2008). The SpecTIR 662-nm band reflectance was selected to be correlated to the OAS due to

  13. Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor measurements of SOA formation in a Ponderosa Pine forest in the southern Rocky Mountains during BEACHON-RoMBAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, B. B.; Ortega, A. M.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Kaser, L.; Karl, T.; Jud, W.; Hansel, A.; Fry, J.; Brown, S. S.; Zarzana, K. J.; Dube, W. P.; Wagner, N.; Draper, D.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    A Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) photooxidation flow reactor was used in combination with an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer to characterize biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in a terpene-dominated forest during the July-August 2011 Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study (BEACHON-RoMBAS) field campaign at the U.S. Forest Service Manitou Forest Observatory, Colorado, as well as in corresponding laboratory experiments. In the PAM reactor, a chosen oxidant (OH, O3, or NO3) was generated and controlled over a range of values up to 10,000 times ambient levels. High oxidant concentrations accelerated the gas-phase, heterogeneous, and possibly aqueous oxidative aging of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), inorganic gases, and existing aerosol, which led to repartitioning into the aerosol phase. PAM oxidative processing represented from a few hours up to ~20 days of equivalent atmospheric aging during the ~3 minute reactor residence time. During BEACHON-RoMBAS, PAM photooxidation enhanced SOA at intermediate OH exposure (1-10 equivalent days) but resulted in net loss of OA at long OH exposure (10-20 equivalent days), demonstrating the competing effects of functionalization vs. fragmentation (and possibly photolysis) as aging increased. PAM oxidation also resulted in f44 vs. f43 and Van Krevelen diagram (H/C vs. O/C) slopes similar to ambient oxidation, suggesting the PAM reactor employs oxidation pathways similar to ambient air. Single precursor aerosol yields were measured using the PAM reactor in the laboratory as a function of organic aerosol concentration and reacted hydrocarbon amounts. When applying the laboratory PAM yields with complete consumption of the most abundant VOCs measured at the forest site (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, MBO, and toluene), a simple model underpredicted the amount of SOA formed in the PAM reactor in the

  14. [Use of biologically active substances in preventing the toxic action of some heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Degtiareva, T D; Katsnel'son, B A; Pirvalova, L I; Beresneva, O Iu; Gurvich, V B; Kuz'min, S V; Malykh, O L

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents experimental and theoretical rationales for some methods and means of biological prevention of the toxic effects of a number of heavy metals (lead, chromium, arsenic, cadmium) that pollute the environment. Subchronic experiments were made on laboratory animals exposed to the above substances in combination with various biological agents (sodium glutaminate, the adaptogen saparal, pectin-containing enterosorbent, calcium, the multivitamin-multimineral preparation Pikovit, etc.). They have indicated that the complex use of preparations is more beneficial than they are used alone. The results of controlled trials of biologically preventive preparations on children residing in an area exposed to industrial pollution are presented.

  15. Differences in the impact of the frequency and enjoyment of joint family activities on adolescent substance use and violence.

    PubMed

    Windlin, Béat; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2012-05-01

    Previous research has concentrated exclusively on the association between the frequency of joint family activities (JFA) and adolescent problem behaviours. In this study, multiple linear regressions based on a national sample of 3467 13- to 16-year-olds in Switzerland revealed that JFA enjoyment rather than JFA frequency is consistently related to low adolescent substance use and violence. By choosing JFA that their children enjoy, parents might provide opportunities for disclosure, strengthen family bonds and reduce the likelihood of adolescent problem behaviours. In terms of prevention, a shift in focus towards the quality rather than the quantity of JFA could prove more effective. PMID:21963683

  16. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  17. Decreasing toxic and mutagenic activity of soils through the application of humic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorova Alla, I.; Pavlichenko Artem, 2.; Klimkina Iryna, 3.

    2009-04-01

    Based on an example of conditions on mining industry land adjacent to the Dnepr River in the Dnepropetrovsk Region (Ukraine), the ecological quality of the soils was evaluated by cytogenetic methods and, in parallel, the efficiency of using humates obtained from brown coal of the Alexandria deposit was also researched. During an ecological monitoring programme from 1997 to 2007, the genetic characteristics of soils at 12 locations in Dnepropetrovsk, and at 33 locations in four other industrial mining areas in the region, was studied. A theoretical basis for the use of humic substances for blocking the migration paths of ecological toxic-matter within a soil-to-plant system was reasoned, namely that introducing natrium humate into the soil would promote a normalization of the cell division processes and a reduction in the chromosome aberration rate in the root meristem of the biological indicators. Laboratory tests involved growing seeds of an indicator plant (Pisum sativum L.) in the different soils, to some of which humic substances had been added. The data showed evidence that the soils of the region display a rather patchy picture in terms of toxic and mutagen features. This was obvious from the variety of levels on the mitotic index, as well as from the increase of 5 to 24 times the frequency of aberrant chromosomes. Introducing 0.01per cent of a Christecol water solution into a substratum for growing the indicator plant apparently reduced (P<0,01) the level of the chromosome aberrations in the meristem cells of the test material. The mutagenic rates of the soils during the test was reduced by 1.5 to 4 times and, at the same time, a reduction of the soil toxic rates was also observed. The reduction in chromosome aberration levels in the cells of the tested materials for the soils in the different city districts, varied from 2.9 to 12.4 times. Importantly, a reliable reduction in the genetic damage under the influence of humic substances was observed in all test

  18. Effects of Promoting Health Among Teens on Dietary, Physical Activity and Substance Use Knowledge and Behaviors for African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jelani C.; Valois, Robert F.; Farber, Naomi B.; Vanable, Peter A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura; Brown, Larry K.; Carey, Michael P.; Romer, Daniel; Stanton, Bonita; Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Spencer, A Melinda; Annang, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Background African Americans are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease and cancer. Health promotion interventions hold promise for reducing health disparities. Purpose Promoting Health Among Teens (PHAT) is a brief, culturally tailored health education intervention to decrease cardiovascular disease and cancer risk for African Americans. This study evaluated the effects of PHAT for African American adolescents ages 14 to 17 in four eastern cities in the USA. Methods A randomized controlled design (N = 1,654) was used to determine differences in health knowledge, diet, physical activity, and substance use behaviors between PHAT participants and a sexual health promotion control group. Data were collected at baseline, three, six, and twelve months post intervention. Growth curve modeling was used to detect differences in health knowledge, dietary behaviors, physical activity, and substance use between PHAT and control group participants. Results PHAT participants had significantly greater knowledge gains but modest behavior changes compared to control group participants. Discussion PHAT is a promising intervention to increase knowledge and address selected health behaviors in African American youth. Translation to Health Education Practice Future attempts to execute PHAT should continue its emphasis on knowledge building while increasing intervention dosage and modifying length of time for intervention sessions. PMID:23957017

  19. Antibacterial activity of a bacteriocin-like substance produced by Bacillus sp. P34 that targets the bacterial cell envelope.

    PubMed

    Motta, Amanda S; Flores, Fabiana S; Souto, André A; Brandelli, Adriano

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the mode of action of BLS P34, a bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) produced by a novel Bacillus sp. strain P34 isolated from the Amazon basin. The effect of the BLS was tested against Listeria monocytogenes, showing a bactericidal effect at 200 AU (activity units) ml(-1), while no inhibition of spore outgrowth of Bacillus cereus was observed with a dose of 1,600 AU ml(-1). Growth of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Enteritidis was inhibited, but only when the chelating agent EDTA was co-added with the BLS. The effect of BLS P34 on L. monocytogenes was also investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Treated cells showed an important frequency increase in 1,452 and 1,397 cm(-1) and decrease in 1,217 and 1,058 cm(-1), corresponding assignments of fatty acids and phospholipids. Transmission electron microscopy showed damaged cell envelope and loss of protoplasmic material. BLS P34 was bactericidal to Gram-positive, and also showed inhibitory effect against Gram-negative bacteria. There is evidence that its mode of action corresponds to that of a membrane-active substance. The knowledge about the mode of action of this BLS is essential to determine its effective application as an antimicrobial agent.

  20. Substance P modulation of TRPC3/7 channels improves respiratory rhythm regularity and ICAN-dependent pacemaker activity.

    PubMed

    Ben-Mabrouk, Faiza; Tryba, Andrew K

    2010-04-01

    Neuromodulators, such as substance P (SubP), play an important role in modulating many rhythmic activities driven by central pattern generators (e.g. locomotion, respiration). However, the mechanism by which SubP enhances breathing regularity has not been determined. Here, we used mouse brainstem slices containing the pre-Bötzinger complex to demonstrate, for the first time, that SubP activates transient receptor protein canonical (TRPC) channels to enhance respiratory rhythm regularity. Moreover, SubP enhancement of network regularity is accomplished via selective enhancement of ICAN (inward non-specific cation current)-dependent intrinsic bursting properties. In contrast to INaP (persistent sodium current)-dependent pacemakers, ICAN-dependent pacemaker bursting activity is TRPC-dependent. Western Blots reveal TRPC3 and TRPC7 channels are expressed in rhythmically active ventral respiratory group island preparations. Taken together, these data suggest that SubP-mediated activation of TRPC3/7 channels underlies rhythmic ICAN-dependent pacemaker activity and enhances the regularity of respiratory rhythm activity.

  1. Effects of iron on growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, bound extracellular polymeric substances and microcystin production of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Xun; Wang, Peifang; Chen, Bin; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin; Yang, Yangyang

    2016-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms have occurred in various water bodies during recent decades and made serious health hazards to plants, animals and humans. Iron is an important micronutrient for algal growth and recently, the concentration of which has increased remarkably in freshwaters. In this paper, the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 was cultivated under non-iron (0μM), iron-limited (10μM) and iron-replete (100μM) conditions to investigate the effects of iron on growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, EPS and microcystin production. The results showed that algal cell density and chlorophyll-a content were maximal at the highest iron concentration. Antioxidant enzymes activity increased notably under all three conditions in the early stage of experiment, of which the SOD activity recovered soon from oxidative stress in 10μM group. The productions of some protein-like substances and humic acid-like substances of bound EPS were inhibited in iron-containing groups in the early stage of experiment while promoted after the adaptation period of Microcystis aeruginosa. Iron addition is a factor affecting the formation of cyanobacterial blooms through its impact on the content of LB-EPS and the composition of TB-EPS. The intracellular MC-LR concentration and the productivity potential of MC-LR were the lowest in 0μM group and highest in 10μM group. No obvious extracellular release of MC-LR was observed during the cultivation time. Therefore, iron addition can promote the physiological activities of M. aeruginosa, but a greater harm could be brought into environment under iron-limited (10μM) condition than under iron-replete (100μM) condition. PMID:27337497

  2. Effects of iron on growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, bound extracellular polymeric substances and microcystin production of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Xun; Wang, Peifang; Chen, Bin; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin; Yang, Yangyang

    2016-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms have occurred in various water bodies during recent decades and made serious health hazards to plants, animals and humans. Iron is an important micronutrient for algal growth and recently, the concentration of which has increased remarkably in freshwaters. In this paper, the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 was cultivated under non-iron (0μM), iron-limited (10μM) and iron-replete (100μM) conditions to investigate the effects of iron on growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, EPS and microcystin production. The results showed that algal cell density and chlorophyll-a content were maximal at the highest iron concentration. Antioxidant enzymes activity increased notably under all three conditions in the early stage of experiment, of which the SOD activity recovered soon from oxidative stress in 10μM group. The productions of some protein-like substances and humic acid-like substances of bound EPS were inhibited in iron-containing groups in the early stage of experiment while promoted after the adaptation period of Microcystis aeruginosa. Iron addition is a factor affecting the formation of cyanobacterial blooms through its impact on the content of LB-EPS and the composition of TB-EPS. The intracellular MC-LR concentration and the productivity potential of MC-LR were the lowest in 0μM group and highest in 10μM group. No obvious extracellular release of MC-LR was observed during the cultivation time. Therefore, iron addition can promote the physiological activities of M. aeruginosa, but a greater harm could be brought into environment under iron-limited (10μM) condition than under iron-replete (100μM) condition.

  3. [Open questions in the drug therapy of tumors with new active substances].

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Wolf-Dieter; Schott, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    At the time of market authorization and/or the expansion of indication of new oncology drugs, it is often not possible to reliably measure the relevant benefit for the patient. The conception of the clinical studies, on which the market authorization and/or expansion of indication is based, orients itself primarily at the regulatory requirements of the regulatory authorities. In addition, their results are frequently published only incompletely or some time after the end of the clinical study. To clarify these outstanding questions regarding the individual treatment of patients, independent,science-initiated clinical studies after the market authorization are required. However, the execution of these studies is obstructed due to insufficient financial means as well as by regulations and the low evaluation of such studies by the academia. Further challenges result from the high costs of innovative oncologic therapies, which burden the resources of the statutory and private health insurance providers(GKV, PKV) who are confronted with an aging population and a rising prevalence of tumor cases. Independent post-market authorization clinical studies need to be completed in order to ensure a need-oriented and efficient treatment with new oncologic substances. New perspectives result by connecting the reimbursement of the costs of innovative therapies by the GKV and PKV to the generation of evidence in the context of clinical studies, thus improving the medical care of tumor patients as well as the efficient handling of limited health resources. PMID:20926907

  4. Ecological risk assessment of substances with suspected estrogenic activity using standard laboratory fish tests

    SciTech Connect

    Gimeno, S.; Bowmer, C.T.

    1999-07-01

    The assessment of risks to the aquatic environment in the European Union is generally based on a comparison of Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) with Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) for surrogate, or representative, organisms of the receiving waters. Such risk assessments are required for new and priority existing chemicals, pesticides, and, in the near future, biocides; they are dependent on robust in vivo test data. Current strategies for ecological risk assessment were not designed to assess the risk of endocrine disrupters. The selection of suitable fish species and practical in vivo end points for determining endocrine disruption in fish are discussed, including the adaptation of some existing guidelines. This paper is partly based on a series of experiments conducted at the laboratory to look at the effects of a model alkylphenol (4-tert-pentylphenol), an industrial chemical intermediate, acting as a pseudo-estrogen on an all-male population of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Exposure to the test substance occurred at critical life stages for endocrine disruption. Biochemical parameters as well as histological parameters were applied, and their suitability to be used in ecological risk assessment is discussed.

  5. Phytochemical studies of the phenolic substances in Aster glehni extract and its sedative and anticonvulsant activity.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Agung; Kim, Myung-Hoe; Choi, Jongwon; Choi, Jae Sue; Jung, Won Tae; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2012-03-01

    On high performance liquid chromatography, the caffeoylquinic acid (CQ) occupying the highest proportion of the water-ethanol (7:3) extract of Aster glehni (Compositae) leaves was 3-Op-coumaroylquinic acid (46.10 ± 4.22 mg/g of dried weight) among CQs tested. The IC₅₀ of the water-ethanol (7:3) extract was 4.23 ± 0.24 μg/mL in the peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-scavenging assay. Phytochemical isolation from A. glehni extract yielded three kaempferol glycosides. The water-ethanol (7:3) extract and both p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, phenylpropanoid moieties of CQs, had sedative effects in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice and anticonvulsant effects in pentylenetetrazole-induced mice. Furthermore, the phenolic substance-rich W-E (7:3) extract of A. glehni could be used to treat anxiety or convulsion partly due to its peroxynitrite-scavenging mechanism.

  6. Structure-Property-Function Relationship in Humic Substances to Explain the Biological Activity in Plants

    PubMed Central

    García, Andrés Calderín; de Souza, Luiz Gilberto Ambrosio; Pereira, Marcos Gervasio; Castro, Rosane Nora; García-Mina, José María; Zonta, Everaldo; Lisboa, Francy Junior Gonçalves; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the structure-property-function relationship of humic substances (HSs) is key for understanding their role in soil. Despite progress, studies on this topic are still under discussion. We analyzed 37 humic fractions with respect to their isotopic composition, structural characteristics, and properties responsible for stimulating plant root parameters. We showed that regardless of the source of origin of the carbon (C3 or C4), soil-extracted HSs and humic acids (HAs) are structurally similar to each other. The more labile and functionalized HS fraction is responsible for root emission, whereas the more recalcitrant and less functionalized HA fraction is related to root growth. Labile structures promote root stimulation at lower concentrations, while recalcitrant structures require higher concentrations to promote a similar stimulus. These findings show that lability and recalcitrance, which are derived properties of humic fractions, are related to the type and intensity of their bioactivity. In summary, the comparison of humic fractions allowed a better understanding of the relationship between the source of origin of plant carbon and the structure, properties, and type and intensity of the bioactivity of HSs in plants. In this study, scientific concepts are unified and the basis for the agronomic use of HSs is established. PMID:26862010

  7. Structure-Property-Function Relationship in Humic Substances to Explain the Biological Activity in Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Andrés Calderín; de Souza, Luiz Gilberto Ambrosio; Pereira, Marcos Gervasio; Castro, Rosane Nora; García-Mina, José María; Zonta, Everaldo; Lisboa, Francy Junior Gonçalves; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of the structure-property-function relationship of humic substances (HSs) is key for understanding their role in soil. Despite progress, studies on this topic are still under discussion. We analyzed 37 humic fractions with respect to their isotopic composition, structural characteristics, and properties responsible for stimulating plant root parameters. We showed that regardless of the source of origin of the carbon (C3 or C4), soil-extracted HSs and humic acids (HAs) are structurally similar to each other. The more labile and functionalized HS fraction is responsible for root emission, whereas the more recalcitrant and less functionalized HA fraction is related to root growth. Labile structures promote root stimulation at lower concentrations, while recalcitrant structures require higher concentrations to promote a similar stimulus. These findings show that lability and recalcitrance, which are derived properties of humic fractions, are related to the type and intensity of their bioactivity. In summary, the comparison of humic fractions allowed a better understanding of the relationship between the source of origin of plant carbon and the structure, properties, and type and intensity of the bioactivity of HSs in plants. In this study, scientific concepts are unified and the basis for the agronomic use of HSs is established.

  8. Ecotoxicity quantitative structure-activity relationships for alcohol ethoxylate mixtures based on substance-specific toxicity predictions.

    PubMed

    Boeije, G M; Cano, M L; Marshall, S J; Belanger, S E; Van Compernolle, R; Dorn, P B; Gümbel, H; Toy, R; Wind, T

    2006-05-01

    Traditionally, ecotoxicity quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for alcohol ethoxylate (AE) surfactants have been developed by assigning the measured ecotoxicity for commercial products to the average structures (alkyl chain length and ethoxylate chain length) of these materials. Acute Daphnia magna toxicity tests for binary mixtures indicate that mixtures are more toxic than the individual AE substances corresponding with their average structures (due to the nonlinear relation of toxicity with structure). Consequently, the ecotoxicity value (expressed as effects concentration) attributed to the average structures that are used to develop the existing QSARs is expected to be too low. A new QSAR technique for complex substances, which interprets the mixture toxicity with regard to the "ethoxymers" distribution (i.e., the individual AE components) rather than the average structure, was developed. This new technique was then applied to develop new AE ecotoxicity QSARs for invertebrates, fish, and mesocosms. Despite the higher complexity, the fit and accuracy of the new QSARs are at least as good as those for the existing QSARs based on the same data set. As expected from typical ethoxymer distributions of commercial AEs, the new QSAR generally predicts less toxicity than the QSARs based on average structure. PMID:16256196

  9. Substance use

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse; Illicit drug abuse; Narcotic abuse; Hallucinogen abuse ... Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  10. Elucidating the mechanisms linking early pubertal timing, sexual activity, and substance use for maltreated versus nonmaltreated adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Brensilver, Matthew; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To test models linking pubertal timing, peer substance use, sexual behavior, and substance use for maltreated versus comparison adolescents. Three theoretical mechanisms were tested: 1) peer influence links early pubertal timing to later sexual behavior and substance use, 2) early maturers engage in substance use on their own and then select substance-using friends, or 3) early maturers initiate sexual behaviors which leads them to substance-using peers. Methods The data came from a longitudinal study of the effects of child maltreatment on adolescent development (303 maltreated and 151 comparison adolescents; age: 9–13 years at initial wave). Multiple-group structural equation models tested the hypotheses across three timepoints including variables of pubertal timing, perception of peer substance use, sexual behavior, and self-reported substance use. Results Early pubertal timing was associated with substance-using peers only for maltreated adolescents, indicating the mediation path from early pubertal timing through substance-using peers to subsequent adolescent substance use and sexual behavior only holds for maltreated adolescents. Mediation via sexual behavior was significant for both maltreated and comparison adolescents. This indicates that sexual behavior may be a more universal mechanism linking early maturation with risky friends regardless of adverse life experiences. Conclusions The findings are a step toward elucidating the developmental pathways from early puberty to risk behavior and identifying early experiences that may alter mediation effects. PMID:26003577

  11. Metabolic relationships of the isolated fractions of the pectic substances of actively growing sycamore cells.

    PubMed

    Stoddart, R W; Northcote, D H

    1967-10-01

    1. d-Glucose and l-arabinose serve as precursors of the pectic polysaccharides of sycamore suspension-callus tissue. 2. The rates and characteristics of the incorporation of radioactive sucrose, glucose and mesoinositol by sycamore callus tissue have been compared and shown to be different. 3. The time-course of the incorporation of radioactive glucose into the major fractions within the cells has been determined. Approx. 7-10% of the radioactivity incorporated is present in the whole pectin of the cells. 4. A study of the continuous incorporation of radioactive glucose showed that the neutral arabinan-galactan fraction of the pectin quickly became saturated with the radioactive label. During the incorporation of radioactivity from a pulse of radioactive glucose the neutral fraction became progressively less labelled, with a corresponding increase in the radioactivity of the weakly acidic pectinic acid, which is known to contain neutral sugars. 5. When the cells were exposed to a pulse of radioactive l-arabinose, the label accumulated first in the neutral fraction and then after 4hr. it passed to the weakly acidic pectinic acid with a corresponding decrease in the radioactivity of the neutral fraction. 6. The product that was initially labelled during the first hour of exposure of the cells in the stationary phase to radioactive glucose was identified as an incompletely methylated galacturonan in which the radioactivity was present in the anhydrogalacturonide residues. This polysaccharide probably acts as the precursor of the polyuronide portions of both the strongly acidic and weakly acidic pectinic acids. 7. The observations are discussed in relation to the structure of the pectic substances and their function in cell growth and development. A tentative model for their metabolic relationship is put forward.

  12. Toxic Substances in the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of toxic substances, examining pesticides and herbicides, heavy metals, industrial chemicals, and household substances. Includes a list of major toxic substances (indicating what they are, where they are found, and health concerns) and a student activity on how pesticides enter the food chain. (JN)

  13. Adolescents' Time Use: Effects on Substance Use, Delinquency and Sexual Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Grace M.; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Welte, John W.; Farrell, Michael P.; Dintcheff, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    Using an integration of social control theory and the routine activity perspective, adolescent time use was examined for effects on problem behaviors. We examined a wide variety of time use categories, including homework, extracurricular activities, sports time, alone time, paid work, housework, television watching, as well as indices of family…

  14. Speciated measurements of semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs) in a pine forest during BEACHON-RoMBAS 2011

    DOE PAGES

    Chan, A. W. H.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hohaus, T.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Zhao, Y.; Day, D. A.; Kaser, L.; Karl, T.; Hansel, A.; Teng, A. P.; et al

    2016-02-02

    Understanding organic composition of gases and particles is essential to identifying sources and atmospheric processing leading to organic aerosols (OA), but atmospheric chemical complexity and the analytical techniques available often limit such analysis. Here we present speciated measurements of semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs) using a novel dual-use instrument (SV-TAG-AMS) deployed at Manitou Forest, CO, during the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen – Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study (BEACHON-RoMBAS) 2011 campaign. This instrument provides on-line speciation of ambient organic compounds with 2 h time resolution. The species in this volatility range are complexmore » in composition, but their chemical identities reveal potential sources. Observed compounds of biogenic origin include sesquiterpenes with molecular formula C15H24 (e.g., β-caryophyllene and longifolene), which were most abundant at night. A variety of other biogenic compounds were observed, including sesquiterpenoids with molecular formula C15H22, abietatriene and other terpenoid compounds. Many of these compounds have been identified in essential oils and branch enclosure studies but were observed in ambient air for the first time in our study. Semivolatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkanes were observed with highest concentrations during the day and the dependence on temperature suggests the role of an evaporative source. Using statistical analysis by positive matrix factorization (PMF), we classify observed S/IVOCs by their likely sources and processes, and characterize them based on chemical composition. The total mass concentration of elutable S/IVOCs was estimated to be on the order of 0.7 µg m–3 and their volatility distributions are estimated for modeling aerosol formation chemistry.« less

  15. Speciated measurements of semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs) in a pine forest during BEACHON-RoMBAS 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, A. W. H.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hohaus, T.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Zhao, Y.; Day, D. A.; Kaser, L.; Karl, T.; Hansel, A.; Teng, A. P.; Ruehl, C. R.; Sueper, D. T.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding organic composition of gases and particles is essential to identifying sources and atmospheric processing leading to organic aerosols (OA), but atmospheric chemical complexity and the analytical techniques available often limit such analysis. Here we present speciated measurements of semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs) using a novel dual-use instrument (SV-TAG-AMS) deployed at Manitou Forest, CO, during the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study (BEACHON-RoMBAS) 2011 campaign. This instrument provides on-line speciation of ambient organic compounds with 2 h time resolution. The species in this volatility range are complex in composition, but their chemical identities reveal potential sources. Observed compounds of biogenic origin include sesquiterpenes with molecular formula C15H24 (e.g., β-caryophyllene and longifolene), which were most abundant at night. A variety of other biogenic compounds were observed, including sesquiterpenoids with molecular formula C15H22, abietatriene and other terpenoid compounds. Many of these compounds have been identified in essential oils and branch enclosure studies but were observed in ambient air for the first time in our study. Semivolatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkanes were observed with highest concentrations during the day and the dependence on temperature suggests the role of an evaporative source. Using statistical analysis by positive matrix factorization (PMF), we classify observed S/IVOCs by their likely sources and processes, and characterize them based on chemical composition. The total mass concentration of elutable S/IVOCs was estimated to be on the order of 0.7 µg m-3 and their volatility distributions are estimated for modeling aerosol formation chemistry.

  16. Speciated measurements of semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs) in a pine forest during BEACHON-RoMBAS 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, A. W. H.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hohaus, T.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Zhao, Y.; Day, D. A.; Kaser, L.; Karl, T.; Hansel, A.; Teng, A. P.; Ruehl, C. R.; Sueper, D. T.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-08-01

    Understanding organic composition of gases and particles is essential to identifying sources and atmospheric processing leading to organic aerosols (OA), but atmospheric chemical complexity and the analytical techniques available often limit such analysis. Here we present speciated measurements of semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs) using a novel dual-use instrument (SVTAG-AMS) deployed at Manitou Forest, CO during the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study (BEACHON-RoMBAS) 2011 campaign. This instrument provides on-line speciation of ambient organic compounds with 2 h time resolution. The species in this volatility range are complex in composition, but their chemical identities reveal potential sources. Observed compounds of biogenic origin include sesquiterpenes with molecular formula C15H24 (e.g. β-caryophyllene and longifolene), which were most abundant at night. A variety of other biogenic compounds were observed, including sesquiterpernoids with molecular formula C15H22, abietatriene and other terpenoid compounds. Many of these compounds have been identified in essential oils and branch enclosure studies but were observed in ambient air for the first time in our study. Semivolatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkanes were observed with highest concentrations during the day and the dependence on temperature suggests the role of an evaporative source. Using statistical analysis by positive matrix factorization (PMF), we classify observed S/IVOCs by their likely sources and processes, and characterize them based on chemical composition. The total mass concentration of elutable S/IVOCs was estimated to be on the order of 0.7 μg m-3 and their volatility distributions are estimated for modeling aerosol formation chemistry.

  17. Determination of traces of hetero-charged ions in nonionogenic surface-active substances by ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Klyuchnikova, N.V.; Denisova, L.V.; Balyatinskaya, L.N.

    1995-07-01

    An ion-chromatographic method for the separation and determination of K, Na, Mg, and Al ions, the sum of heavy-metal ions (Fe, Cu, Pb, Cr, Sn), and chloride, sulfate, and orthophosphate ions present in amounts of 10{sup {minus}6} - 10{sup {minus}5}% in 1% solutions of nonionogenic surface-active substances (NSAS) is proposed. We use 10{sup {minus}3} M HCl and 3 x 10{sup {minus}3}M HNO{sub 3} solutions and a 2 x 10{sup {minus}3}M solution as eluents to determine K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+} cations and ions of heavy and transition metals, respectively. The method proposed is shown to enable reliable evaluation of the purity of NSAS.

  18. Truancy, grade point average, and sexual activity: a meta-analysis of risk indicators for youth substance use.

    PubMed

    Hallfors, Denise; Vevea, Jack L; Iritani, Bonita; Cho, HyunSan; Khatapoush, Shereen; Saxe, Leonard

    2002-05-01

    Society increasingly holds schools responsible for the effectiveness of health promotion activities, such as drug abuse prevention efforts funded through the federal Safe and Drug-Free Schools program. Consequently, school districts use student surveys as a method for assessing trends and evaluating effects of programs on behavior. Because cost and practical concerns often preclude consistent population-based school survey sampling, risk indicators can provide an essential tool in analyzing needs assessment and program evaluation data. In this paper, three risk measures associated with substance use were selected from among commonly used school surveys. These measures--truancy, grade point average, and recent sexual intercourse--were compared, using meta-analysis techniques, to assess the reliability of risk measures across different survey instruments, different communities, and different points in time. Truancy was judged superior, because of its strong predictive value, particularly among younger students, and because rates can be compared to school records to assess sampling validity over time. PMID:12109176

  19. The effects of three commonly used extraction methods on the redox properties of extracellular polymeric substances from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qin; Chang, Ming; Yu, Zhen; Zhou, Shungui

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the redox properties of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) have attracted the attention of scientists due to their associated environmental significance, such as organic pollutant (e.g. nitroaromatics and substituted nitrobenzenes) degradation and heavy metal (e.g. Cr(VI) and U(VI)) detoxification. Although the separation of EPS from bacterial cells is more often the first step in studies on EPS, and studies have demonstrated that extraction procedures can influence the sorption properties of EPS, few attempts have been made to investigate how separation methods affect the redox properties of the obtained EPS. In this study, three common extraction approaches, that is, centrifugation, formaldehyde+NaOH and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), were employed to extract EPS from activated sludge, and the obtained EPS were evaluated for their redox properties using electrochemical means, including cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. In addition, spectroscopic techniques were utilized to explore the structural characteristics and composition of EPS. The results indicated that EPS extracted by EDTA clearly displayed reversible oxidation-reduction peaks in cyclic voltammograms and significantly higher electron-accepting capacity compared with EPS extracted using the other two approaches. Fourier transform infrared spectra and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectra suggested that the EPS extracted with EDTA presented better redox properties because of the effective and efficient extraction of the humic substances, which are important components of the EPS of activated sludge. Therefore, extraction method has an impact on the composition and redox properties of EPS and should be chosen according to research purpose and EPS source.

  20. Great horsetail (Equisetum telmateia Ehrh.): Active substances content and biological effects.

    PubMed

    Radojevic, Ivana D; Stankovic, Milan S; Stefanovic, Olgica D; Topuzovic, Marina D; Comic, Ljiljana R; Ostojic, Aleksandar M

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, total phenolic content and concentrations of flavonoids of Equisetum telmateia extracts. Total phenolic content was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and it ranged between 129.0 to 262.7 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids in various extracts of E. telmateia was determined using spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride and obtained results varied from 112.6 to 199.8 mg RU/g. Antioxidant activity was monitored spectrophotometrically and expressed in terms of IC50 (µg/ml), and its values ranged from 33.4 to 982.2 µg/ml. The highest phenolic content, concentrations of flavonoids and capacity to neutralize DPPH radicals were found in the acetone extract. In vitro antimicrobial activity was determined using microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) were also determined. Testing was performed on 22 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria (standard and clinical strains) and 7 species of fungi. There were statistically significant differences in activity between the extracts of E. telmateia. Different effects were noticed against the bacteria and the methanol extract appeared to be most efficient. All the extracts showed significant antibacterial activity against G+ bacteria and weak to moderate activity against other microorganisms.

  1. 77 FR 2552 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Substances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... approval requirement for ``food additives;'' section 201(s) of the FD&C Act (21 U.S.C. 321) provides an exemption from the definition of ``food additive'' and thus from the premarket approval requirement, for... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities;...

  2. Molluscicidal activity of some marine substances against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Planorbidae).

    PubMed

    Miyasato, P A; Kawano, T; Freitas, J C; Berlinck, R G S; Nakano, E; Tallarico, L F

    2012-05-01

    Freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria play a major role as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, the etiologic agent of schistosomiasis. While Biomphalaria spp. control by molluscicides is one of the main strategies to reduce the snail population in infected areas, there are few effective molluscicides commercially available. Natural products may be considered as potentially useful and safe molluscicides. We have evaluated the molluscicidal activity of 12 extracts from ten marine organisms on adult and embryonic stages of Biomphalaria glabrata. Only extracts of the red algae Liagora farinosa and of the sponge Amphimedon viridis presented molluscicidal activity. Lethal concentration (LC)(50) values obtained were 120 μg/mL for L. farinosa CH(2)Cl(2) extract (apolar fraction) and 20 μg/mL for A. viridis extract and halitoxin. The polar alga fraction and halitoxin had no effect on B. glabrata embryos. The algae apolar fraction was active on B. glabrata in all embryonic development stages, with LC(50) values for blastulae at 42 μg/mL, gastrulae at 124 μg/mL, trochophore at 180 μg/mL, and veliger at 222 μg/mL. This is the first report of extracts from marine organisms which presented molluscicidal activity. PMID:22205347

  3. Adhesive Properties and Acid-Forming Activity of Lactobacilli and Streptococci Under Inhibitory Substances, Such as Nitrates.

    PubMed

    Hakobyan, L; Harutyunyan, K; Harutyunyan, N; Melik-Andreasyan, G; Trchounian, A

    2016-06-01

    One of the main requirements for probiotics is their ability to survive during passage through gastrointestinal tract and to maintain their activity at different adverse conditions. The aim of the study was to look for the strains of lactobacilli and streptococci with high adhesive properties even affected by inhibitory substances, such as nitrates (NO3 (-)). To study the adhesion properties hemagglutination reaction of bacterial cells with red blood cells of different animals and humans was used. The acid formation ability of bacteria was determined by the method of titration after 7 days of incubation in the sterile milk. These properties were investigated at different concentrations of NO3 (-). The high concentration (mostly ≥2.0 %) NO3 (-) inhibited the growth of both lactobacilli and streptococci, but compared with streptococcal cultures lactobacilli, especially Lactobacillus acidophilus Ep 317/402, have shown more stability and higher adhesive properties. In addition, the concentrations of NO3 (-) of 0.5-2.0 % decreased the acid-forming activity of the strains, but even under these conditions they coagulated milk and, in comparison to control, formed low acidity in milk. Thus, the L. acidophilus Ep 317/402 with high adhesive properties has demonstrated a higher activity of NO3 (-) transformation.

  4. Evidence for several types of biologically active substances in north Pacific sea anemones.

    PubMed

    Mahnir, V M; Shumilov, U N; Kovalevskaya, A M; Romanenko, L A; Grebelny, S D

    1993-11-01

    1. Twenty-two sea anemone samples from seven species were collected in Aleutian and Comandorskiye Islands from sub-littoral region (> 50m depth). 2. Water-ethanol extracts of sea anemones were tested using various test-systems after ethanol evaporation. 3. All sea anemones extracts inhibited DNA and most of them inhibited RNA synthesis in Ehrlich carcinoma tumor cells. 4. Extracts of most sea anemones species showed high hemolytic activity. 5. The extracts proved to be nontoxic or display low toxicity being i.p. injected into mice. 6. Some extracts precipitated virus of aleutian disease of mink. 7. None of the extracts showed activity toward Gram +ve, Gram -ve bacteria or yeast. PMID:7905806

  5. Trends in monitoring residues of pharmacologically active group B substances in products of animal origin in Lithuania from 1999 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Šerniene, L; Stimbirys, A; Daunoras, G

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring data of group B pharmacologically active substances in the Republic of Lithuania during the period 1999-2008 are presented. Peer review is based on data taken from residue-monitoring plans of the years 1999-2008 and the National Food and Veterinary Risk Assessment Institute reports on analyses performed in various foods. The data were analysed with the SPSS statistical package. Analysis of group B pharmacologically active substances residues monitoring results from the years 1999-2008 revealed that 25,030 samples were tested to detect 421 (1.68%) non-compliant samples in three groups of substances: antibacterials, anthelmintics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Most residues (88.3%) were found in milk, and were far less in beef, pork, sheep and goat meat. PMID:24779903

  6. Immunochemical studies on blood groups LXII. Fractionation of hog and human A, H, and AH blood group active substance on insoluble immunoadsorbents of Dolichos and Lotus lectins.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M E; Kabat, E A

    1976-02-01

    The purified lectins from Lotus tetragonolobus and Dolichos biflorus were coupled to Sepharose 2B to make insoluble adsorbents for purification and fractionation of blood group A and H active glycoproteins. With both adsorbents, hog gastric mucin A + H blood substance (HGM), purified by phenol-ethanol precipitation, yielded fractions showing only A, only H, or AH activities. The AH fraction was obtained when the adsorbent column was overloaded with HGM and its A and H specificities seem to be carried on the same molecules since they were not separable by chromatography on either column. However A and H specificities of blood group substance from the stomach of a presumably heterozygous individual hog were both on the same molecules as they too could not be fractionated on either column. Analytical properties of the isolated fractions were generally similar to those of the unfractionated material, the purfied A substances had a higher galactosamine/fucose ratio than did the H substances. Although the original A + H showed very little specific optical rotation, the separated A and H substances rotated positively and negatively, respectively. The lectin-Sepharose adsorbents have also proven useful in isolating A or H substances directly from the crude commercial hog gastric mucin. Blood group A2 substance from a human ovarian cyst yielded two fractions on the Lotus-Sepharose column; the effluent did not interact with the Lotus lectin but precipitated the Ulex and Dolichos lectins and anti-A, and appears to contain type 1 H determinants. The other fraction reacted with Lotus and Ulex lectin as well as with Dolichos and anti-A.

  7. Biologically active antimicrobial and antioxidant substances in the Helianthus annuus L. bee pollen.

    PubMed

    Fatrcová-Šramková, Katarína; Nôžková, Janka; Máriássyová, Magda; Kačániová, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the content of flavonoids, polyphenols, and carotenoids in the Helianthus annuus L. bee pollen. It was also to evaluate the ability of the dried, frozen, and freeze-dried extracts of sunflower (H. annuus) pollen, its scavenged free radicals and reducing action. Another aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial in vitro action of the H. annuus pollen extracts against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. All pollen extracts showed medium antiradical activity and reductive ability. The most effective was the freeze-dried extract in both evaluation systems. The evaluation of the protective effects of DNA using a biosensor showed an opposite trending-frozen ˃ dried ˃ freeze-dried pollen. For the evaluation of antiradical activity, the DPPH method was used, and reductive ability was assessed by means of phosphomolybdic complex formation. The comparison of the polyphenols content shows higher values in freeze-dried bee pollen than in the dried and frozen pollen. The highest content of flavonoids was found in the frozen samples and the most carotenoids were present in the dried samples. In our study, the best antibacterial effects of the dried sunflower bee pollen extracts were found against Paenibacillus larvae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus raffinosus. The best inhibitory properties of the frozen sunflower bee pollen extracts were found against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Paenibacillus larvae. Very good inhibitory effects of freeze-dried sunflower bee pollen were found against Paenibacillus larvae, Brochotrix thermosphacta, and Enterococcus raffinosus. The best antifungal activity of the sunflower bee pollen was found in the frozen bee pollen extracts against Aspergillus ochraceus and freeze-dried bee pollen extracts against Aspergillus niger. PMID:26674447

  8. Biologically active antimicrobial and antioxidant substances in the Helianthus annuus L. bee pollen.

    PubMed

    Fatrcová-Šramková, Katarína; Nôžková, Janka; Máriássyová, Magda; Kačániová, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the content of flavonoids, polyphenols, and carotenoids in the Helianthus annuus L. bee pollen. It was also to evaluate the ability of the dried, frozen, and freeze-dried extracts of sunflower (H. annuus) pollen, its scavenged free radicals and reducing action. Another aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial in vitro action of the H. annuus pollen extracts against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. All pollen extracts showed medium antiradical activity and reductive ability. The most effective was the freeze-dried extract in both evaluation systems. The evaluation of the protective effects of DNA using a biosensor showed an opposite trending-frozen ˃ dried ˃ freeze-dried pollen. For the evaluation of antiradical activity, the DPPH method was used, and reductive ability was assessed by means of phosphomolybdic complex formation. The comparison of the polyphenols content shows higher values in freeze-dried bee pollen than in the dried and frozen pollen. The highest content of flavonoids was found in the frozen samples and the most carotenoids were present in the dried samples. In our study, the best antibacterial effects of the dried sunflower bee pollen extracts were found against Paenibacillus larvae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus raffinosus. The best inhibitory properties of the frozen sunflower bee pollen extracts were found against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Paenibacillus larvae. Very good inhibitory effects of freeze-dried sunflower bee pollen were found against Paenibacillus larvae, Brochotrix thermosphacta, and Enterococcus raffinosus. The best antifungal activity of the sunflower bee pollen was found in the frozen bee pollen extracts against Aspergillus ochraceus and freeze-dried bee pollen extracts against Aspergillus niger.

  9. A marine algicidal actinomycete and its active substance against the harmful algal bloom species Phaeocystis globosa.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaowei; Zhang, Bangzhou; Zhang, Jinlong; Huang, Liping; Lin, Jing; Li, Xinyi; Zhou, Yanyan; Wang, Hui; Yang, Xiaoru; Su, Jianqiang; Tian, Yun; Zheng, Tianling

    2013-10-01

    A strain O4-6, which had pronounced algicidal effects to the harmful algal bloom causing alga Phaeocystis globosa, was isolated from mangrove sediments in the Yunxiao Mangrove National Nature Reserve, Fujian, China. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and morphological characteristics, the isolate was found to be phylogenetically related to the genus Streptomyces and identified as Streptomyces malaysiensis O4-6. Heat stability, pH tolerance, molecular weight range and aqueous solubility were tested to characterize the algicidal compound secreted from O4-6. Results showed that the algicidal activity of this compound was not heat stable and not affected by pH changes. Residue extracted from the supernatant of O4-6 fermentation broth by ethyl acetate, was purified by Sephadex LH-20 column and silica gel column chromatography before further structure determination. Chemical structure of the responsible compound, named NIG355, was illustrated based on quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. And this compound showed a stronger algicidal activity compared with other reported algicides. Furthermore, this article represents the first report of an algicide against P. globosa, and the compound may be potentially used as a bio-agent for controlling harmful algal blooms.

  10. Zinc polycarboxylate dental cement for the controlled release of an active organic substance: proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad Naseem; Edwards, Mark; Nicholson, John W

    2010-04-01

    The potential of employing zinc polycarboxylate dental cement as a controlled release material has been studied. Benzalkonium chloride was used as the active ingredient, and incorporated at concentrations of 1, 2 and 3% by mass within the cement. At these levels, there was no observable effect on the speed of setting. Release was followed using an ion-selective electrode to determine changes in chloride ion concentration with time. This technique showed that the additive was released when the cured cement was placed in water, with release occurring by a diffusion mechanism for the first 3 h, but continuing beyond that for up to 1 week. Diffusion coefficients were in the range 5.62 x 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) (for 1% concentration) to 10.90 x 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) (for 3% concentration). Up to 3% of the total loading of benzalkonium chloride was released from the zinc polycarboxylate after a week, which is similar to that found in previous studies with glass-ionomer cement. It is concluded that zinc polycarboxylate cement is capable of acting as a useful material for the controlled release of active organic compounds.

  11. Exposure of activated sludge to nanosilver and silver ion: Inhibitory effects and binding to the fractions of extracellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Geyik, Ayse Gul; Çeçen, Ferhan

    2016-07-01

    The main aim of the study was to determine the inhibitory effects of Ag(+) and AgNP (commercial and synthesized) on activated sludge by using respirometry. Along with this aim, also the changes taking place in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were studied. Additionally, the binding of Ag(+) or AgNP to the different fractions in EPS was assessed using voltammetry. Synthesized AgNP led to an obvious inhibition whereas commercial AgNP had no effect on activated sludge. For Ag(+) and AgNP, IC50 values were found between 2.3-3.0mg/L and 3.2-11.1mg/L, respectively. Thus, AgNP was less inhibitory than silver ion, since the release of free silver from AgNP was very small. The protein and carbohydrate content of EPS generally increased when Ag(+) was added. Both tightly- and loosely bound fractions in EPS could bind Ag(+) and AgNP. Silver binding capacity of EPS was seen to depend on the molecular weight of proteins.

  12. Mental Health and Substance Use Factors Associated With Unwanted Sexual Contact Among U.S. Active Duty Service Women.

    PubMed

    Stahlman, Shauna; Javanbakht, Marjan; Cochran, Susan; Hamilton, Alison B; Shoptaw, Steven; Gorbach, Pamina M

    2015-06-01

    Many U.S. military women are exposed to unwanted sexual contact during military service, which can have important implications for mental health. Using data from the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors, we employed multiple logistic regression methods to examine whether unwanted sexual contact was associated with stress, screening positive for mental disorders, or substance use, among active duty service women. The sample included 7,415 female military personnel, of whom 13.4% reported unwanted sexual contact (including any touching of genitals) since entering the military. After adjusting for potentially confounding variables, factors independently associated with unwanted sexual contact included military-related stress (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.44), family/personal life-related stress (AOR = 1.78), and gender-related stress (AOR = 1.98) in the past 12 months. In addition, screening positive for depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, or psychological distress, and suicidal ideation or attempt were associated with unwanted sexual contact (AOR = 1.57-2.11). For drug/alcohol use, only misuse of tranquilizers/muscle relaxers (past 12 months) was associated with report of unwanted sexual contact (AOR = 1.35). Given the prevalence of unwanted sexual contact and corresponding adverse health outcomes in this sample of active duty women, strategies to create military structural/cultural changes and reduce gender-related stress and sexism are needed. PMID:25976935

  13. Mental Health and Substance Use Factors Associated with Unwanted Sexual Contact among U.S. Active Duty Service Women

    PubMed Central

    Stahlman, Shauna; Javanbakht, Marjan; Cochran, Susan; Hamilton, Alison B.; Shoptaw, Steven; Gorbach, Pamina M.

    2015-01-01

    Many U.S. military women are exposed to unwanted sexual contact during military service, which can have important implications for mental health. Using data from the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors, we employed multiple logistic regression methods to examine whether unwanted sexual contact was associated with stress, screening positive for mental disorders, or substance use, among active duty service women. The sample included 7,415 female military personnel, of whom 13.4% reported unwanted sexual contact (including any touching of genitals) since entering the military. After adjusting for potentially confounding variables, factors independently associated with unwanted sexual contact included military-related stress (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 2.44), family/personal life-related stress (AOR = 1.78), and gender-related stress (AOR = 1.98) in the past 12 months. In addition, screening positive for depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation or attempt were associated with unwanted sexual contact (AOR = 1.57–2.11). For drug/alcohol use, only misuse of tranquilizers/muscle relaxers (past 12 months) was associated with report of unwanted sexual contact (AOR = 1.35). Given the prevalence of unwanted sexual contact and corresponding adverse health outcomes in this sample of active duty women, strategies to create military structural/cultural changes and reduce gender-related stress and sexism are needed. PMID:25976935

  14. Trajectories of Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Early Substance Use in the Fast Track Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children who exhibit early-starting conduct problems are more likely than their peers to initiate sexual activity and substance use at an early age, experience pregnancy, and contract a sexually-transmitted disease [STD], placing them at risk for HIV/AIDS. Hence, understanding the development of multi-problem profiles among youth with early-starting conduct problems may benefit the design of prevention programs. In this study, 1,199 kindergarten children (51 % African American; 47 % European American; 69 % boys) over-sampled for high rates of aggressive-disruptive behavior problems were followed through age 18. Latent class analyses (LCA) were used to define developmental profiles associated with the timing of initiation of sexual activity, tobacco and alcohol/drug use and indicators of risky adolescent sex (e.g. pregnancy and STD). Half of the high-risk children were randomized to a multi-component preventive intervention (Fast Track). The intervention did not significantly reduce membership in the classes characterized by risky sex practices. However, additional analyses examined predictors of poor outcomes, which may inform future prevention efforts. PMID:23417666

  15. A multihealth behavior intervention integrating physical activity and substance use prevention for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Werch, Chudley Chad; Moore, Michele J; DiClemente, Carlo C; Bledsoe, Rhonda; Jobli, Edessa

    2005-09-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a brief, multi-health behavior intervention integrating physical activity and alcohol use prevention messages for high school-aged adolescents. A total of 604 participants, 335 9th and 269 11th grade students from a suburban high school in northeast Florida participated in this study. A randomized control trial was conducted with participants randomly assigned within grade levels to receive either a brief consultation and prescription with a mailed reinforcing follow-up flyer (Project SPORT) or a minimal intervention control consisting of a wellness brochure provided in school and a pamphlet about teen health and fitness mailed to the home. Differences between intervention groups were evaluated with a series of MANCOVA tests. Project SPORT participants demonstrated significant positive effects at 3-months postintervention for alcohol consumption, alcohol initiation behaviors, alcohol use risk and protective factors, drug use behaviors, and exercise habits, and at 12-months for alcohol use risk and protective factors, cigarette use, and cigarette initiation (p's < 0.05). A post hoc analysis examining interactions between past 30-day use of marijuana and/or cigarettes by treatment group indicates significant positive effects for drug using adolescents who received Project SPORT on alcohol consumption, drug use behaviors, and drug use initiation at 3-months, and for drug use behaviors and exercise habits at 12-months (p's < 0.05). A brief, 12-min one-on-one consultation integrating alcohol avoidance messages within those promoting fitness and other positive health behaviors holds promise for influencing adolescent alcohol and cigarette use and other health behaviors at posttreatment and 1 year later. Long-term sustained effects for cigarette and marijuana use, and both vigorous and moderate physical activity, were found among adolescents using marijuana and/or cigarettes prior to intervention.

  16. The Impact of Ozone Treatment in Dynamic Bed Parameters on Changes in Biologically Active Substances of Juniper Berries

    PubMed Central

    Brodowska, Agnieszka Joanna; Śmigielski, Krzysztof; Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyżowska, Agata; Otlewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The development of the parameters of ozone decontamination method assuring the least possible losses of biologically active substances (essential oils and polyphenols) and their activity in common juniper (Juniperus communis (L.)) berries was studied. Ozone treatment in dynamic bed was conducted 9 times. The process was conducted under different ozone concentrations (100.0; 130.0; 160.0 g O3/m3) and times (30, 60, 90 min). After each decontamination, the microbiological profile of the juniper berries was studied, and the contaminating microflora was identified. Next to the microbiological profile, the phenolic profile, as well as antioxidant activity of extracts and essential oils were determined. The total polyphenol content (TPC), composition of essential oils, free radical-scavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), beta-carotene bleaching test (BCB) and LC-MS polyphenol analysis were carried out. The study reveals that during short ozone contact times, higher amounts of TPC, 15.47 and 12.91 mg CE/g of extract, for samples 100/30 and 130/30, respectively, were demonstrated. Whereas samples 100/60, 130/60, 100/90, and 160/90 exhibited the lowest amount of phenolics. The highest antioxidant activity was found in the methanol extract obtained from ozonated berries which exhibited the lowest IC50 in all the antioxidant assays, such as DPPH, FRAP, and BCB assays. Ozone treatment showed noteworthy potential and its usage in food manufacturing and as an alternative decontamination method should be considered. PMID:26659905

  17. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis of Test Endpoints for Detecting the Effects of Endocrine Active Substances in Fish Full Life Cycle Tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish full life cycle (FFLC) tests are increasingly required in the ecotoxicological assessment of endocrine active substances. However, FFLC tests have not been internationally standardized or validated, and it is currently unclear how such tests should best be designed to provid...

  18. The Influence of Race and Ethnicity on Substance Use and Negative Activity Involvement among Monoracial and Multiracial Adolescents of the Southwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kelly F.; LeCroy, Craig W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined predictors of substance use and negative activity involvement among a diverse sample of European American, African American, Hispanic, Native American, and multiracial early adolescents (n = 749) living in a large urban city in the Southwest United States. This study investigated a broad set of predictor variables that tap…

  19. Inhibition of rotaviruses by selected antiviral substances: mechanisms of viral inhibition and in vivo activity.

    PubMed Central

    Smee, D F; Sidwell, R W; Clark, S M; Barnett, B B; Spendlove, R S

    1982-01-01

    Several RNA virus inhibitors were evaluated against simian (SA11) rotavirus infections in vitro and murine rotavirus gastroenteritis in vivo. Test compounds included 1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide (ribavirin), 3-deazaguanine (3-DG), 3-deazauridine, and 9-(S)-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine [(S)-DHPA]. All drugs inhibited total infectious SA11 virus yields in MA-104 cells. Ribavirin, 3-DG, and (S)-DHPA affected [3H]uridine uptake into uninfected MA-104 cells in both the acid-soluble and -insoluble fractions. All drugs reduced the levels of dense (precursor) and light (complete) SA11 particle yields compared with control but did not alter the relative amounts of dense compared with light particles, suggesting that the agents did not interfere with virus assembly. Ribavirin and 3-DG inhibited SA11 polypeptide synthesis, as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis studies. None of the agents or mono- and triphosphate derivatives of ribavirin inhibited SA11 RNA polymerase activity. In murine rotavirus studies, oral therapy with ribavirin-2',3',5'-triacetate and (S)-DHPA increased mean survival time, but no increase in survivor rate was observed. 3-DG- and (S)-DHPA-treated mice had a more rapid weight gain than controls, suggesting a probable lessening of the severity of the disease. Images PMID:6282209

  20. New insights into dietary supplements used in sport: active substances, pharmacological and side effects.

    PubMed

    Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Tomczyk, Michal

    2013-08-01

    As a society we are increasingly concerned about our physical appearance. For example, as much as 24% of people in developed countries admittedly exercise to improve their performance. Professional sportsmen and amateurs alike are in a constant search for new means that will enable them better sport results in shorter time. Among those means, a prominent place belongs to dietary supplements. However, the producers often advertise products whose use in sports is neither scientifically founded nor safe. This brings on an irrational use of herbal supplements which sometimes leads to unwanted side effects, but is more often of little use. Thus, the aim of this review will be to systematically evaluate some of the herbal supplements that are used as adaptogenic and ergogenic aids in sport. The review will include available data on Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera, Schisandra chinensis, Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera, Citrus aurantium, and others. Their effects, active ingredients as well as possible adverse effects will be discussed with special focus on clinical studies. PMID:23574283

  1. New insights into dietary supplements used in sport: active substances, pharmacological and side effects.

    PubMed

    Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Tomczyk, Michal

    2013-08-01

    As a society we are increasingly concerned about our physical appearance. For example, as much as 24% of people in developed countries admittedly exercise to improve their performance. Professional sportsmen and amateurs alike are in a constant search for new means that will enable them better sport results in shorter time. Among those means, a prominent place belongs to dietary supplements. However, the producers often advertise products whose use in sports is neither scientifically founded nor safe. This brings on an irrational use of herbal supplements which sometimes leads to unwanted side effects, but is more often of little use. Thus, the aim of this review will be to systematically evaluate some of the herbal supplements that are used as adaptogenic and ergogenic aids in sport. The review will include available data on Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera, Schisandra chinensis, Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera, Citrus aurantium, and others. Their effects, active ingredients as well as possible adverse effects will be discussed with special focus on clinical studies.

  2. Modeling ultrafine particle growth at a pine forest site influenced by anthropogenic pollution during BEACHON-RoMBAS 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y. Y.; Hodzic, A.; Smith, J. N.; Ortega, J.; Brioude, J.; Matsui, H.; Turnipseed, A.; Winkler, P.; de Foy, B.

    2014-03-01

    Formation and growth of ultrafine particles is crudely represented in chemistry-climate models, which contributes to uncertainties in aerosol composition, size distribution, and aerosol effects on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. Measurements of ultrafine particles, their precursor gases, and meteorological parameters were performed in a ponderosa pine forest in the Colorado Front Range in July-August 2011, and were analyzed to study processes leading to Aitken-mode Particle burst Events (APEs). These measurements suggest that APEs were associated with the arrival at the site of anthropogenic pollution plumes around noon or in the early afternoon. Number concentrations of ultrafine (4 to 30 nm diameter) particles typically exceeded 10 000 cm-3 during APEs, and these elevated concentrations coincided with increased SO2 and monoterpene concentrations, and led to a factor of two increase in CCN concentrations at 0.5% supersaturation. The APEs were simulated using the regional WRF-Chem model, which was extended to account for ultrafine particle sizes starting at 1 nm in diameter, to include an empirical activation nucleation scheme in the planetary boundary layer, and to explicitly simulate the subsequent growth of Aitken particles by condensation of organic and inorganic vapors. Comparisons with aerosol size distribution measurements showed that simulations using the activation nucleation parameterization reasonably captured aerosol number concentrations and size distribution during APEs, as well as ground level CCN concentrations. Results suggest that sulfuric acid from anthropogenic SO2 triggers APEs, and that the condensation of monoterpene oxidation products onto freshly nucleated particles drives their growth. The simulated growth rate of 3.4 nm h-1 for small particles (4-30 nm in diameter) was comparable to the measured average value of 2.3 nm h-1. Model results also suggest that the presence of APEs tends to modify the composition of sub-100 nm

  3. Surface-active Substances in the biomass burning and atmospheric particles in the North China Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhijun; Bai, Yao; Liu, Yuechen; Wang, Yujue; Qiao, Kai; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min

    2016-04-01

    Surface active materials, such as HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS), play an important role in particle hygroscopicity and activation by taking up water and acting as surfactants. They account for large proportions of water soluble organic carbon. Currently, the information on the chemical composition, hygroscopicity, and surface active properties of HULIS is still very scarce in china, which is suffering from heavy air pollution. Therefore, we promoted this study to investigate the hygroscopic growth and CCN activity of HULIS particles using hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser and condensation cloud nuclei counter and surface tension depression using contact angle meter (KRÜSS GmbH). Two different types of particles were investigated in our study. One is the particles emitted from biomass burning. The wheat and corn straw residuals were burned in a lab burning simulator. The PM2.5 samples were collected onto quartz filters. Another is PM2.5 taken during the heavy hazy days. The HULIS were isolated from PM2.5 samples by water exaction, C18 solid phase extraction (SPE), CH3OH elution, and N2 drying. Then, the water solution of HULIS was generated to particles using TSI atomizer. The hygroscopicity of HULIS particles were detected by hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer. The temperature dependency of HULIS surface tension was detected using contact angle meter. The primary results showed that PM2.5 consists of a large amount of surface active materials during severe air pollution episodes. A clear temperature dependency of surface tension was observed. At temperature of 20 degree, the surface tension of HULIS exacted from ambient samples is around 50 N/m2, which is much lower than that of pure water. The future investigations will include the effects of burning conditions on the HULIS concentration and surface tensions. In the presentation, a full picture of the hygroscopicity and CCN activity, and surface active properties of HULIS will

  4. Studies of the active substances in herbs used for hair treatment. III. Isolation of hair-regrowth substances from Polygara senega var. latifolia TORR. et GRAY.

    PubMed

    Ishida, H; Inaoka, Y; Okada, M; Fukushima, M; Fukazawa, H; Tsuji, K

    1999-11-01

    Four active principles, 1, 2, 3 and 4, were isolated from Polygara senega var. latifolia TORR. et GRAY by a combination of partition and column chromatography on silica gel and octadecyl silica gel (ODS), monitored by a hair-regrowth activity assay. Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4 were identified as senegose A, senegin II, senegin III, and senegasaponin b by comparison of their spectral data with those of authentic samples. PMID:10598039

  5. Extracellular polymeric substances, microbial activity and microbial community of biofilm and suspended sludge at different divalent cadmium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zichao; Gao, Mengchun; Wei, Junfeng; Ma, Kedong; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yusuo; Yu, Shuping

    2016-04-01

    The differences between biofilm and suspended sludge (S-sludge) in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), microbial activity, and microbial community in an anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) at different concentrations of divalent cadmium (Cd(II)) were investigated. As the increase of Cd(II) concentration from 0 to 50mgL(-1), the specific ammonium oxidation rate (SAOR), specific nitrite oxidation rate (SNOR), and specific nitrate reduction rate (SNRR) of biofilm decreased from 4.85, 5.22 and 45mgNg(-1) VSSh(-1) to 1.54, 2.38 and 26mgNg(-1)VSSh(-1), respectively, and the SAOR, SNOR and SNRR of S-sludge decreased from 4.80, 5.02 and 34mgNg(-1)VSSh(-1) to 1.46, 2.20 and 17mgNg(-1)VSSh(-1), respectively. Biofilm had higher protein (PN) content in EPS than S-sludge. Contrast to S-sludge, biofilm could provide Nitrobacter vulgaris, beta proteobacterium INBAF015, and Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana with the favorable conditions of growth and reproduction. PMID:26829529

  6. Latent Class Analysis of Gambling Activities in a Sample of Young Swiss Men: Association with Gambling Problems, Substance Use Outcomes, Personality Traits and Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Simon, Olivier; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed to identify different patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) and to investigate how PGAs differed in gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. A representative sample of 4989 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing seven distinct gambling activities, gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. PGAs were identified using latent class analysis (LCA). Differences between PGAs in gambling and substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies were tested. LCA identified six different PGAs. With regard to gambling and substance use outcomes, the three most problematic PGAs were extensive gamblers, followed by private gamblers, and electronic lottery and casino gamblers, respectively. By contrast, the three least detrimental PGAs were rare or non-gamblers, lottery only gamblers and casino gamblers. With regard to personality traits, compared with rare or non-gamblers, private and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sensation seeking. Electronic lottery and casino gamblers, private gamblers and extensive gamblers had higher levels of aggression-hostility. Extensive and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sociability, whereas casino gamblers reported lower levels of anxiety-neuroticism. Extensive gamblers used more maladaptive and less adaptive coping strategies than other groups. Results suggest that gambling is not a homogeneous activity since different types of gamblers exist according to the PGA they are engaged in. Extensive gamblers, electronic and casino gamblers and private gamblers may have the most problematic PGAs. Personality traits and coping skills may predispose individuals to PGAs associated with more or less negative outcomes.

  7. Substance use - prescription drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... substance use; Oxycodone - substance use; Hydrocodone - substance use; Morphine - substance use; Fentanyl - substance use ... fluff, hydros, v-itamin, vic, vike, Watson-387. Morphine. Drugs include Avinza, Duramorph, Kadian, Ormorph, Roxanol. Street ...

  8. Studies of the active substances in herbs used for hair treatment. II. Isolation of hair regrowth substances, acetosyringone and polyporusterone A and B, from Polyporus umbellatus Fries.

    PubMed

    Ishida, H; Inaoka, Y; Shibatani, J; Fukushima, M; Tsuji, K

    1999-11-01

    Fractionation of the 50% ethanol extract of Polyporus umbellatus Fries by column chromatography on Amberlite XAD-2, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and octadecyl silica gel (ODS) (C18)) monitored by a hair-regrowth activity assay, afforded three active principles, 1, 2 and 3. The structures of 1, 2 and 3 were determined as acetosyringone, polyporusterone A, and polyporusterone B by comparison of their spectral data with that of authentic samples, respectively. The effects of several compounds related to acetosyringone, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde or polyporusterone A on hair regrowth were also investigated. PMID:10598026

  9. Social network and census tract-level influences on substance use among emerging adult males: An activity spaces approach

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Crystal; Perley, Lauren; Bailey, Jonathan; Barbour, Russell; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-01-01

    Social network and area level characteristics have been linked to substance use. We used snowball sampling to recruit 90 predominantly African American emerging adult men who provided typical locations visited (n=510). We used generalized estimating equations to examine social network and area level predictors of substance use. Lower social network quality was associated with days of marijuana use (B=-0.0037, p<0.0001) and problem alcohol use (B=-0.0050, p=0.0181). The influence of area characteristics on substance use differed between risky and non-risky spaces. Peer and area influences are important for substance use among men, and may differ for high and low risk places. PMID:26176810

  10. Influence of Ecological Factors on the Production of Active Substances in the Anti-Cancer Plant Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S. Ying

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Jianjun; Yin, Dongxue; Zhao, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    The quality of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which plays a very important role in the health system of China, is determined by the active substances produced by the plants. The type, content, and proportion of these substances may vary depending on ecological factors in areas where the plants are grown. Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S. Ying, an endangered plant species with great medical value, was investigated in eight production locations representative of its natural geographical distribution range in China. The correlation between the contents of the active ingredients extracted from the roots and rhizomes of S. hexandrum and the ecological factors were evaluated step-by-step using a series of computational biology methodologies. The results showed that ecological factors had significant effects on the contents but not on the types of the active ingredients in eight production locations. The primary ecological factors influencing the active substances included the annual average precipitation, July mean temperature, frost-free period, sunshine duration, soil pH, soil organic matter, and rapidly available potassium in the soil. The annual average precipitation was the most important determinant factor and was significantly and negatively correlated with the active ingredient contents (P < 0.001). In contrast, organic matter was the most important limiting factor and was significantly and positively correlated with the active substances. These ecological factors caused 98.13% of the total geographical variation of the active ingredient contents. The climate factors contributed more to the active ingredient contents than did the soil factors. It was concluded that from the view of the contents of the secondary metabolites and ecological factors of each growing location, in Jingyuan, Ningxia Province, and Yongdeng, Gansu Province, conditions were favorable to the production of podophyllotoxin and lignans, whereas in Shangri-La, Yunnan Province, and

  11. Influence of ecological factors on the production of active substances in the anti-cancer plant Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S. Ying.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Jianjun; Yin, Dongxue; Zhao, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    The quality of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which plays a very important role in the health system of China, is determined by the active substances produced by the plants. The type, content, and proportion of these substances may vary depending on ecological factors in areas where the plants are grown. Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S. Ying, an endangered plant species with great medical value, was investigated in eight production locations representative of its natural geographical distribution range in China. The correlation between the contents of the active ingredients extracted from the roots and rhizomes of S. hexandrum and the ecological factors were evaluated step-by-step using a series of computational biology methodologies. The results showed that ecological factors had significant effects on the contents but not on the types of the active ingredients in eight production locations. The primary ecological factors influencing the active substances included the annual average precipitation, July mean temperature, frost-free period, sunshine duration, soil pH, soil organic matter, and rapidly available potassium in the soil. The annual average precipitation was the most important determinant factor and was significantly and negatively correlated with the active ingredient contents (P < 0.001). In contrast, organic matter was the most important limiting factor and was significantly and positively correlated with the active substances. These ecological factors caused 98.13% of the total geographical variation of the active ingredient contents. The climate factors contributed more to the active ingredient contents than did the soil factors. It was concluded that from the view of the contents of the secondary metabolites and ecological factors of each growing location, in Jingyuan, Ningxia Province, and Yongdeng, Gansu Province, conditions were favorable to the production of podophyllotoxin and lignans, whereas in Shangri-La, Yunnan Province, and

  12. Influence of biologically-active substances on {sup 137}Cs and heavy metals uptake by Barley plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglov, Stanislav; Filipas, Alexander

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: When solving the problem of contaminated agricultural lands rehabilitation, most of attention is concentrated on the effective means which allow the obtaining of ecologically safe production. The minimization of radionuclides and heavy metals (HM) content in farm products on the basis of their migration characteristics in agro-landscapes and with the regard for different factors influencing contaminants behavior in the soil-plant system is of great significance. Our investigation has shown that the effect of biologically active substances (BAS) using for seeds treatment on {sup 137}Cs transfer to barley grown on Cd contaminated soil was dependent on their properties and dosage, characteristics of soil contamination and biological peculiarities of plants, including stage of plants development. Seeds treatment by plant growth regulator Zircon resulted in a significant increase in {sup 137}Cs activity in harvest (40- 50%), increase in K concentration and significant reduction in Ca concentration. Increased Cd content in soil reduced {sup 137}Cs transfer to barley plants by 30-60% (p<0,05) and Zircon application further reduced its concentration. Ambiol and El also reduced {sup 137}Cs uptake by roots and Cd and Pb phyto-toxicity. The experimental data do not make it possible to link the BAS effect on inhibition of {sup 137}Cs absorption by plants directly with their influence on HM phyto-toxicity. The dependence of Concentration Ratio of {sup 137}Cs on the Ambiol and El dose was not proportional and the most significant decrease in the radionuclide uptake by plants was reported with the use of dose showing the most pronounced stimulating effect on the barley growth and development. The pre-sowing seed treatment with Ambiol increased Pb absorption by 35-50% and, on the contrary, decreased Cd uptake by plants by 30-40%. (authors)

  13. Raising Leadership Criticality in MBAs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eric Jean

    2009-01-01

    In a world of supercapitalism, the tensions between business and public interests are expected to rise, thereby calling corporations to assume new roles in society. In response to this trend, corporations will be in demand of an innovative kind of leadership exercised at all levels by a new breed of ethical, reflective and creative…

  14. Peak purity assessment in a triple-active fixed-dose combination drug product related substances method using a commercial two-dimensional liquid chromatography system.

    PubMed

    Shackman, Jonathan G; Kleintop, Brent L

    2014-10-01

    Pharmaceutical formulations containing multiple active components challenge the development of analytical methods, especially as the individual active ingredients diverge in their physicochemical properties. Establishing specificity, especially peak purity, is one of the major evaluation criteria when developing a related substances method for drug substances or products. Fixed-dose combination products may not be amenable to common strategies for assessing peak purity, such as performing orthogonal separations, due to the complexity of the separation and/or diversity of the active ingredients. An alternate approach to evaluating peak purity is demonstrated for a triple-active component fixed-dose combination product under development. A commercially available automated two-dimensional liquid chromatography system was used to perform a selective comprehensive multidimensional separation of an active ingredient peak. The first dimension performed the drug product impurity/degradant profiling method; the second dimension assayed these fractions using the drug substance profiling method, which was pseudo-orthogonal to the first dimension. A total of 14 targeted fractions were sampled across the first dimension main peak, with 11 containing detectable analytes and the remaining fractions bracketing the main peak. This degree of sampling allowed profiling of a coeluting degradant present at a 0.2% w/w level throughout the main peak.

  15. Activation of neurokinin-1 receptors up-regulates substance P and neurokinin-1 receptor expression in murine pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Koh, Yung-Hua; Moochhala, Shabbir; Bhatia, Madhav

    2012-07-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) has been associated with an up-regulation of substance P (SP) and neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) in the pancreas. Increased SP-NK1R interaction was suggested to be pro-inflammatory during AP. Previously, we showed that caerulein treatment increased SP/NK1R expression in mouse pancreatic acinar cells, but the effect of SP treatment was not evaluated. Pancreatic acinar cells were obtained from pancreas of male swiss mice (25-30 g). We measured mRNA expression of preprotachykinin-A (PPTA) and NK1R following treatment of SP (10(-6) M). SP treatment increased PPTA and NK1R expression in isolated pancreatic acinar cells, which was abolished by pretreatment of a selective NK1R antagonist, CP96,345. SP also time dependently increased protein expression of NK1R. Treatment of cells with a specific NK1R agonist, GR73,632, up-regulated SP protein levels in the cells. Using previously established concentrations, pre-treatment of pancreatic acinar cells with Gö6976 (10 nM), rottlerin (5 μM), PD98059 (30 μM), SP600125 (30 μM) or Bay11-7082 (30 μM) significantly inhibited up-regulation of SP and NK1R. These observations suggested that the PKC-ERK/JNK-NF-κB pathway is necessary for the modulation of expression levels. In comparison, pre-treatment of CP96,345 reversed gene expression in SP-induced cells, but not in caerulein-treated cells. Overall, the findings in this study suggested a possible auto-regulatory mechanism of SP/NK1R expression in mouse pancreatic acinar cells, via activation of NK1R. Elevated SP levels during AP might increase the occurrence of a positive feedback loop that contributes to abnormally high expression of SP and NK1R.

  16. Activation of neurokinin-1 receptors up-regulates substance P and neurokinin-1 receptor expression in murine pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Yung-Hua; Moochhala, Shabbir; Bhatia, Madhav

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Acute pancreatitis (AP) has been associated with an up-regulation of substance P (SP) and neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) in the pancreas. Increased SP-NK1R interaction was suggested to be pro-inflammatory during AP. Previously, we showed that caerulein treatment increased SP/NK1R expression in mouse pancreatic acinar cells, but the effect of SP treatment was not evaluated. Pancreatic acinar cells were obtained from pancreas of male swiss mice (25–30 g). We measured mRNA expression of preprotachykinin-A (PPTA) and NK1R following treatment of SP (10−6M). SP treatment increased PPTA and NK1R expression in isolated pancreatic acinar cells, which was abolished by pretreatment of a selective NK1R antagonist, CP96,345. SP also time dependently increased protein expression of NK1R. Treatment of cells with a specific NK1R agonist, GR73,632, up-regulated SP protein levels in the cells. Using previously established concentrations, pre-treatment of pancreatic acinar cells with Gö6976 (10 nM), rottlerin (5 μM), PD98059 (30 μM), SP600125 (30 μM) or Bay11-7082 (30 μM) significantly inhibited up-regulation of SP and NK1R. These observations suggested that the PKC-ERK/JNK-NF-κB pathway is necessary for the modulation of expression levels. In comparison, pre-treatment of CP96,345 reversed gene expression in SP-induced cells, but not in caerulein-treated cells. Overall, the findings in this study suggested a possible auto-regulatory mechanism of SP/NK1R expression in mouse pancreatic acinar cells, via activation of NK1R. Elevated SP levels during AP might increase the occurrence of a positive feedback loop that contributes to abnormally high expression of SP and NK1R. PMID:22040127

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and monoamine transporter activity of the new psychoactive substance 3',4'-methylenedioxy-4-methylaminorex (MDMAR).

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Gavin; Morris, Noreen; Kavanagh, Pierce V; Power, John D; Twamley, Brendan; O'Brien, John; Talbot, Brian; Dowling, Geraldine; Mahony, Olivia; Brandt, Simon D; Patrick, Julian; Archer, Roland P; Partilla, John S; Baumann, Michael H

    2015-07-01

    The recent occurrence of deaths associated with the psychostimulant cis-4,4'-dimethylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR) in Europe indicated the presence of a newly emerged psychoactive substance on the market. Subsequently, the existence of 3,4-methylenedioxy-4-methylaminorex (MDMAR) has come to the authors' attention and this study describes the synthesis of cis- and trans-MDMAR followed by extensive characterization by chromatographic, spectroscopic, mass spectrometric platforms and crystal structure analysis. MDMAR obtained from an online vendor was subsequently identified as predominantly the cis-isomer (90%). Exposure of the cis-isomer to the mobile phase conditions (acetonitrile/water 1:1 with 0.1% formic acid) employed for high performance liquid chromatography analysis showed an artificially induced conversion to the trans-isomer, which was not observed when characterized by gas chromatography. Monoamine release activities of both MDMAR isomers were compared with the non-selective monoamine releasing agent (+)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as a standard reference compound. For additional comparison, both cis- and trans-4,4'-DMAR, were assessed under identical conditions. cis-MDMAR, trans-MDMAR, cis-4,4'-DMAR and trans-4,4'-DMAR were more potent than MDMA in their ability to function as efficacious substrate-type releasers at the dopamine (DAT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters in rat brain tissue. While cis-4,4'-DMAR, cis-MDMAR and trans-MDMAR were fully efficacious releasing agents at the serotonin transporter (SERT), trans-4,4'-DMAR acted as a fully efficacious uptake blocker. Currently, little information is available about the presence of MDMAR on the market but the high potency of ring-substituted methylaminorex analogues at all three monoamine transporters investigated here might be relevant when assessing the potential for serious side-effects after high dose exposure. PMID:25331619

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and monoamine transporter activity of the new psychoactive substance 3',4'-methylenedioxy-4-methylaminorex (MDMAR).

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Gavin; Morris, Noreen; Kavanagh, Pierce V; Power, John D; Twamley, Brendan; O'Brien, John; Talbot, Brian; Dowling, Geraldine; Mahony, Olivia; Brandt, Simon D; Patrick, Julian; Archer, Roland P; Partilla, John S; Baumann, Michael H

    2015-07-01

    The recent occurrence of deaths associated with the psychostimulant cis-4,4'-dimethylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR) in Europe indicated the presence of a newly emerged psychoactive substance on the market. Subsequently, the existence of 3,4-methylenedioxy-4-methylaminorex (MDMAR) has come to the authors' attention and this study describes the synthesis of cis- and trans-MDMAR followed by extensive characterization by chromatographic, spectroscopic, mass spectrometric platforms and crystal structure analysis. MDMAR obtained from an online vendor was subsequently identified as predominantly the cis-isomer (90%). Exposure of the cis-isomer to the mobile phase conditions (acetonitrile/water 1:1 with 0.1% formic acid) employed for high performance liquid chromatography analysis showed an artificially induced conversion to the trans-isomer, which was not observed when characterized by gas chromatography. Monoamine release activities of both MDMAR isomers were compared with the non-selective monoamine releasing agent (+)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as a standard reference compound. For additional comparison, both cis- and trans-4,4'-DMAR, were assessed under identical conditions. cis-MDMAR, trans-MDMAR, cis-4,4'-DMAR and trans-4,4'-DMAR were more potent than MDMA in their ability to function as efficacious substrate-type releasers at the dopamine (DAT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters in rat brain tissue. While cis-4,4'-DMAR, cis-MDMAR and trans-MDMAR were fully efficacious releasing agents at the serotonin transporter (SERT), trans-4,4'-DMAR acted as a fully efficacious uptake blocker. Currently, little information is available about the presence of MDMAR on the market but the high potency of ring-substituted methylaminorex analogues at all three monoamine transporters investigated here might be relevant when assessing the potential for serious side-effects after high dose exposure.

  19. Perindopril increases the swallowing reflex by inhibiting substance P degradation and tyrosine hydroxylase activation in a rat model of dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Jun-ichi; Kojima, Natsuki; Saeki, Kohji; Ishihara, Miki; Takayama, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Patients with hypertension have a high risk of ischemic stroke and subsequent stroke-associated pneumonia. Stroke-associated pneumonia is most likely to develop in patients with dysphagia. The present study was designed to compare the ameliorative effects of different treatments in rat model of dysphagia. Spontaneously hypertensive rats were treated with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion causing disorders of the swallowing reflex. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (perindopril, imidapril and enalapril), an angiotensin II type 1-receptor blocker (losartan), a vasodilator (hydralazine) and an indirect dopamine agonist (amantadine) were dissolved in drinking water and administered to the rats for six weeks. The blood pressure, the swallowing reflex under anesthesia, the substance P content in the striatum and the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the substantial nigra were measured. Compared to the vehicle control, the decrease in the swallowing reflex induced by BCAO was attenuated significantly by enalapril, imidapril and perindopril, but only slightly by losartan. Hydralazine had no effect on the swallowing reflex. Amantadine significantly attenuated the decreased swallowing reflex but increased the blood pressure. Cerebral hypoperfusion for six weeks decreased the TH expression and substance P level. Perindopril improved both the TH expressions and substance P level, but imidapril, enalapril and amantadine only improved the substance P level. The present findings indicate that perindopril could be useful for preventing dysphagia in the chronic stage of stroke by attenuating the decrease in TH expression and the decrease in the substance P level.

  20. An evaluation of fish early life stage tests for predicting reproductive and longer-term toxicity from plant protection product active substances.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, James R; Maynard, Samuel K; Crane, Mark

    2014-08-01

    The chronic toxicity of chemicals to fish is routinely assessed by using fish early life stage (ELS) test results. Fish full life cycle (FLC) tests are generally required only when toxicity, bioaccumulation, and persistence triggers are met or when there is a suspicion of potential endocrine-disrupting properties. This regulatory approach is based on a relationship between the results of fish ELS and FLC studies first established more than 35 yrs ago. Recently, this relationship has been challenged by some regulatory authorities, and it has been recommended that more substances should undergo FLC testing. In addition, a project proposal has been submitted to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to develop a fish partial life cycle (PLC) test including a reproductive assessment. Both FLC and PLC tests are animal- and resource-intensive and technically challenging and should therefore be undertaken only if there is clear evidence that they are necessary for coming to a regulatory decision. The present study reports on an analysis of a database of paired fish ELS and FLC endpoints for plant protection product active substances from European Union draft assessment reports and the US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs Pesticide Ecotoxicity Database. Analysis of this database shows a clear relationship between ELS and FLC responses, with similar median sensitivity across substances when no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) are compared. There was also no indication that classification of a substance as a mammalian reproductive toxicant leads to more sensitive effects in fish FLC tests than in ELS tests. Indeed, the response of the ELS tests was generally more sensitive than the most sensitive reproduction NOEC from a FLC test. This analysis indicates that current testing strategies and guidelines are fit for purpose and that there is no need for fish full or partial life cycle tests for most plant protection

  1. An evaluation of fish early life stage tests for predicting reproductive and longer-term toxicity from plant protection product active substances.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, James R; Maynard, Samuel K; Crane, Mark

    2014-08-01

    The chronic toxicity of chemicals to fish is routinely assessed by using fish early life stage (ELS) test results. Fish full life cycle (FLC) tests are generally required only when toxicity, bioaccumulation, and persistence triggers are met or when there is a suspicion of potential endocrine-disrupting properties. This regulatory approach is based on a relationship between the results of fish ELS and FLC studies first established more than 35 yrs ago. Recently, this relationship has been challenged by some regulatory authorities, and it has been recommended that more substances should undergo FLC testing. In addition, a project proposal has been submitted to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to develop a fish partial life cycle (PLC) test including a reproductive assessment. Both FLC and PLC tests are animal- and resource-intensive and technically challenging and should therefore be undertaken only if there is clear evidence that they are necessary for coming to a regulatory decision. The present study reports on an analysis of a database of paired fish ELS and FLC endpoints for plant protection product active substances from European Union draft assessment reports and the US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs Pesticide Ecotoxicity Database. Analysis of this database shows a clear relationship between ELS and FLC responses, with similar median sensitivity across substances when no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) are compared. There was also no indication that classification of a substance as a mammalian reproductive toxicant leads to more sensitive effects in fish FLC tests than in ELS tests. Indeed, the response of the ELS tests was generally more sensitive than the most sensitive reproduction NOEC from a FLC test. This analysis indicates that current testing strategies and guidelines are fit for purpose and that there is no need for fish full or partial life cycle tests for most plant protection

  2. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of methylene blue active substances by spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkhardt, Mark R.; Cinotto, Pete J.; Frahm, Galen W.; Woodworth, Mark T.; Pritt, Jeffrey W.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the determination of methylene blue active substances in whole-water samples by liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric detection is described. Sulfate and sulfonate-based surfectants are reacted with methylene blue to form a blue-colored complex. The complex is extracted into chloroform, back-washed with an acidified phosphate-based buffer solution, and measured against external standards with a probe spectrophotometer. The method detection limt for routine analysis is 0.02 milligram per liter. The precision is plus/minus 10 percent relative standard deviation. The positive bias from nitrate and chloride and U.S. Geological Survey method O-3111-83 for methylene blue active substances is minized by adding a back-washing step.

  3. Stimulation of Synthesis and Release of Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) from Intestinal Smooth Muscle Cells by Substance P and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Peptide (PACAP)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qudah, M.; Alkahtani, R.; Akbarali, H.I.; Murthy, K.S.; Grider, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin present in the intestine where it participates in survival and growth of enteric neurons, augmentation of enteric circuits, and stimulation of intestinal peristalsis and propulsion. Previous studies largely focused on the role of neural and mucosal BDNF. The expression and release of BDNF from intestinal smooth muscle and the interaction with enteric neuropeptides has not been studied in gut. Methods The expression and secretion of BDNF from smooth muscle cultured from rabbit longitudinal intestinal muscle in response to substance P and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) was measured by western blot and ELISA. BDNF mRNA was measured by rt-PCR. Key Results The expression of BNDF protein and mRNA was greater in smooth muscle cells from the longitudinal muscle than from circular muscle layer. PACAP and substance P increased the expression of BDNF protein and mRNA in cultured longitudinal smooth muscle cells. PACAP and substance P also stimulated the secretion of BDNF from cultured longitudinal smooth muscle cells. Chelation of intracellular calcium with BAPTA prevented substance P-induced increase in BDNF mRNA and protein expression as well as substance P-induced secretion of BDNF. Conclusions & Inferences Neuropeptides known to be present in enteric neurons innervating the longitudinal layer increase the expression of BDNF mRNA and protein in smooth muscle cells and stimulate the release of BDNF. Considering the ability of BDNF to enhance smooth muscle contraction, this autocrine loop may partially explain the characteristic hypercontractility of longitudinal muscle in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26088546

  4. [Increase in Alkaline Phosphatase Activity after High-Fat Meal Ingestion is Correlated to the Amount of ABH Substances in Saliva].

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Makoto; Otani, Kana; Sakamoto, Yui; Arai, Tomoko; Yukimasa, Nobuyasu; Muramoto, Yoshimi; Komoda, Tsugikazu

    2015-05-01

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) appears in the circulation more frequently in blood group B or O secretors than in blood group A or AB secretors and non-secretors, and serum IAP activity rises following the ingestion of a high-fat meal. In a previous study, the occurrence of two IAP isoforms, with high (HIAP) and normal molecular mass (NIAP), in healthy sera was demonstrated by 6.0% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of 1% Triton X-100. NIAP was present in the fasting serum of only healthy blood group B or O secretors, but was present in all subjects following ingestion of a high-fat meal. We classified 56 healthy subjects into 3 blood groups: B (n = 19), O (n = 17), and A (n = 20), and measured their serum ALP activity in a fasting state and 6 h after a high-fat meal. The amount of ABH substances in the saliva of each subject was determined by the hemagglutination inhibition test. Correlation coefficients between the change in ALP activity after high-fat meal ingestion and the hemagglutination inhibition values in saliva were 0.925 in blood group B, 0.879 in blood group O, and 0.906 in blood group A. These results suggest that increases in ALP activity in the circulation following the ingestion of a high-fat meal are closely related to the amount of ABH substances in saliva. PMID:26524892

  5. Toxic Substances Control Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  6. Selenium levels, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity in the blood of women with gestosis and imminent premature labour.

    PubMed

    Gromadzinska, J; Wasowicz, W; Krasomski, G; Broniarczyk, D; Andrijewski, M; Rydzynski, K; Wolkanin, P

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate antioxidant status, monitored by selenium and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance concentrations in blood plasma, and glutathione peroxidase activity in erythrocytes and blood plasma in women with gestosis (n = 26), imminent premature labour (n = 48) and normal pregnancy (n = 23) during 19-38 weeks of pregnancy. Selenium concentrations in blood plasma were significantly higher in women with pathological pregnancies than in normal (45.5 +/- 10.5 micrograms l-1, p < 0.01 and 44.1 +/- 11.6 micrograms l-1, p < 0.05 vs. 38.6 +/- 8.3 micrograms l-1, respectively). In all groups of pregnant women Se concentrations were extremely low as compared with non-pregnant females. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in blood plasma was significantly higher in complicated pregnancies than in healthy ones. There were no significant differences in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance concentrations between all groups of pregnant women. Statistically significant correlations were found between blood plasma Se concentrations and GSH-Px activity in healthy pregnant (r = 0.53, p < 0.01), imminent premature labour (r = 0.39, p < 0.01), and non-pregnant females (r = 0.56, p < 0.001). PMID:9581018

  7. Role of humic substances in the degradation pathways and residual antibacterial activity during the photodecomposition of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin in water.

    PubMed

    Porras, Jazmín; Bedoya, Cristina; Silva-Agredo, Javier; Santamaría, Alexander; Fernández, Jhon J; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on the photo-transformation, in presence of humic substances (HSs), of ciprofloxacin (CIP), a commonly-used fluoroquinolone antibiotic whose presence in aquatic ecosystems is a health hazard for humans and other living organisms. HSs from the International Humic Substances Society (Elliott humic acid and fulvic acid, Pahokee peat humic acid and Nordic lake) and a humic acid extracted from modified coal (HACM) were tested for their ability to photodegrade CIP. Based on kinetic and analytical studies, it was possible to establish an accelerating effect on the rate of CIP decomposition caused by the humic substances. This effect was associated with the photosensitized capacity of the HSs to facilitate energy transfer from an excited humic state to the ground state of ciprofloxacin. Except for Nordic lake, which experienced a lower positive effect, no significant differences in the CIP transformation were found among the different humic acids examined. The photochemistry of CIP can be modified by parameters such as pH, CIP or oxygen concentration. The irradiation of this antibiotic in the presence of HACM showed that antimicrobial activity was negligible after 14 h for E. coli and 24 h for S. aureus. In contrast, the antimicrobial activity was only slightly decreased after 24 h of irradiation by direct photolysis. Although mineralization of CIP irradiation in the presence of a HACM solution was not achieved, biodegradability was achieved after 12 h of irradiation, indicating that microorganisms within the environment can easily degrade CIP photochemical by-products. PMID:26921708

  8. Role of humic substances in the degradation pathways and residual antibacterial activity during the photodecomposition of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin in water.

    PubMed

    Porras, Jazmín; Bedoya, Cristina; Silva-Agredo, Javier; Santamaría, Alexander; Fernández, Jhon J; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on the photo-transformation, in presence of humic substances (HSs), of ciprofloxacin (CIP), a commonly-used fluoroquinolone antibiotic whose presence in aquatic ecosystems is a health hazard for humans and other living organisms. HSs from the International Humic Substances Society (Elliott humic acid and fulvic acid, Pahokee peat humic acid and Nordic lake) and a humic acid extracted from modified coal (HACM) were tested for their ability to photodegrade CIP. Based on kinetic and analytical studies, it was possible to establish an accelerating effect on the rate of CIP decomposition caused by the humic substances. This effect was associated with the photosensitized capacity of the HSs to facilitate energy transfer from an excited humic state to the ground state of ciprofloxacin. Except for Nordic lake, which experienced a lower positive effect, no significant differences in the CIP transformation were found among the different humic acids examined. The photochemistry of CIP can be modified by parameters such as pH, CIP or oxygen concentration. The irradiation of this antibiotic in the presence of HACM showed that antimicrobial activity was negligible after 14 h for E. coli and 24 h for S. aureus. In contrast, the antimicrobial activity was only slightly decreased after 24 h of irradiation by direct photolysis. Although mineralization of CIP irradiation in the presence of a HACM solution was not achieved, biodegradability was achieved after 12 h of irradiation, indicating that microorganisms within the environment can easily degrade CIP photochemical by-products.

  9. Composition analysis of fractions of extracellular polymeric substances from an activated sludge culture and identification of dominant forces affecting microbial aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xuan; Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) appear to play a critical role in the formation of bioaggregates, such as sludge flocs, in activated sludge processes. Here, we systematically investigated the composition and chemical structure of various EPS fractions excreted from an activated sludge culture using multi-analysis techniques to examine the ability of the sludge to aggregate. Chemical analysis was used with a three-dimensional excitation emission matrix and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, applying inter-particle forces theory. The combined findings revealed that hydrophobic groups, especially protein-related N–H, were present in a greater proportion in tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS). This result, which explained the specificity of TB-EPS in the chemical structure, was consistent with data indicating that TB-EPS contained a large amount of protein-like substances (86.7 mg/g of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids, 39.7% of the total EPS). Subsequently, a novel experimental procedure was developed to pinpoint key inter-particle forces in sludge aggregation. The result revealed that hydrogen bonds are the predominant triggers that promote sludge aggregation. This comprehensive analysis indicated that hydrophobic proteins in TB-EPS are responsible for the critical role played by hydrogen bonds in sludge formation. Our findings highlight the need to elucidate the mechanisms of TB-EPS-mediated flocculation in future efforts. PMID:27311788

  10. Simultaneous determination of 20 pharmacologically active substances in cow's milk, goat's milk, and human breast milk by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, Abdelmonaim; Jurado-Sánchez, Beatriz; Souhail, Badredine; Ballesteros, Evaristo

    2011-05-11

    This paper reports a systematic approach to the development of a method that combines continuous solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of 20 pharmacologically active substances including antibacterials (chloramphenicol, florfenicol, pyrimethamine, thiamphenicol), nonsteroideal anti-inflammatories (diclofenac, flunixin, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, mefenamic acid, niflumic acid, phenylbutazone), antiseptic (triclosan), antiepileptic (carbamazepine), lipid regulator (clofibric acid), β-blockers (metoprolol, propranolol), and hormones (17α-ethinylestradiol, estrone, 17β-estradiol) in milk samples. The sample preparation procedure involves deproteination of the milk, followed by sample enrichment and cleanup by continuous solid-phase extraction. The proposed method provides a linear response over the range of 0.6-5000 ng/kg and features limits of detection from 0.2 to 1.2 ng/kg depending on the particular analyte. The method was successfully applied to the determination of pharmacologically active substance residues in food samples including whole, raw, half-skim, skim, and powdered milk from different sources (cow, goat, and human breast).

  11. Composition analysis of fractions of extracellular polymeric substances from an activated sludge culture and identification of dominant forces affecting microbial aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xuan; Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin

    2016-06-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) appear to play a critical role in the formation of bioaggregates, such as sludge flocs, in activated sludge processes. Here, we systematically investigated the composition and chemical structure of various EPS fractions excreted from an activated sludge culture using multi-analysis techniques to examine the ability of the sludge to aggregate. Chemical analysis was used with a three-dimensional excitation emission matrix and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, applying inter-particle forces theory. The combined findings revealed that hydrophobic groups, especially protein-related N–H, were present in a greater proportion in tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS). This result, which explained the specificity of TB-EPS in the chemical structure, was consistent with data indicating that TB-EPS contained a large amount of protein-like substances (86.7 mg/g of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids, 39.7% of the total EPS). Subsequently, a novel experimental procedure was developed to pinpoint key inter-particle forces in sludge aggregation. The result revealed that hydrogen bonds are the predominant triggers that promote sludge aggregation. This comprehensive analysis indicated that hydrophobic proteins in TB-EPS are responsible for the critical role played by hydrogen bonds in sludge formation. Our findings highlight the need to elucidate the mechanisms of TB-EPS-mediated flocculation in future efforts.

  12. Activity and purification of linenscin OC2, an antibacterial substance produced by Brevibacterium linens OC2, an orange cheese coryneform bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Maisnier-Patin, S; Richard, J

    1995-01-01

    An orange cheese coryneform bacterium isolated from the surface of Gruyère of Comté and identified as Brevibacterium linens produces an antimicrobial substance designated linenscin OC2. This compound inhibits gram-positive food-borne pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes but is not active against gram-negative bacteria. Linenscin OC2 caused viability loss and lysis of the test organism, Listeria innocua. Electron microscopy showed that linenscin OC2 induces protoplast formation and cell lysis. The native substance is resistant to proteolytic enzymes, heat, and organic solvents and stable over a wide range of pH. The molecular weight of the native linenscin OC2 was estimated by gel chromatography to be over 285,000. Linenscin OC2 was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, 2-propanol extraction, and reverse-phase chromatography. Direct detection of antimicrobial activity on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel suggested an apparent molecular mass under 2,412 Da. Molecular mass was determined to be 1,196.7 Da by mass spectrometry. Amino acid composition analysis indicated that linenscin OC2 may contain 12 residues. PMID:7646021

  13. In General, the Total Voltammetric Current from a Mixture of Redox-Active Substances will Not be the Sum of the Currents that Each Substance would Produce Independently at the Same Concentration as in the Mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Oh, Woon Su; Gao, Xue-Rong; Rawashdeh, Abdel Monem M.

    2003-01-01

    At the potential range where both decamethylferrocene (dMeFc) and ferrocene (Fc) are oxidized with rates controlled by linear diffusion, electrogenerated Fc(+) radicals diffusing outwards from the electrode react quantitatively (K23 C=5.8 x 10(exp 8) with dMeFc diffusing towards the electrode and produce Fc and dMeFc. That reaction replaces dMeFc with Fc, whose diffusion coefficient is higher than that of dMeFc(+), and the total mass-transfer limited current from the mixture is increased by approximately 10%. Analogous observations are made when mass-transfer is controlled by convective-diffusion as in RDE voltammetry. Similar results have been obtained with another, and for all practical purposes randomly selected pair of redox-active substances, [Co(bipy)3](2+) and N - methylphenothiazine (MePTZ); reaction of MePTZ(+) with [Co(bipy)3](2+) replaces the latter with MePTZ, which diffuses faster and the current increases by approximately 20%. The experimental voltammograms have been simulated numerically and the role of (a) the rate constant of the homogeneous reaction; (b) the relative concentrations; and, (c) the diffusion coefficients of all species involved have been studied in detail. Importantly, it was also identified that within any given redox system the dependence of the mass-transfer limited current on the bulk concentrations of the redox-active species is expected to be non-linear. These findings are discussed in terms of their electroanalytical implications.

  14. A new classification paradigm of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge: separation and characterization of exopolymers between floc level and microcolony level.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin-Bin; Chang, Qing; Peng, Dang-Cong; Hou, Yin-Ping; Li, Hui-Juan; Pei, Li-Ying

    2014-11-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play a crucial role in the formation of activated sludge flocs. However, until now, the EPS are rather classified by the method used for extraction than by a theoretical consideration of their function and composition. In this paper, a new classification paradigm of EPS was proposed, which offered a novel approach to identify the role of EPS in the formation of activated sludge flocs. The current study gave an exploration to distinguish the EPS in the floc level (extra-microcolony polymers, EMPS) and in the microcolony level (extra-cellular polymers, ECPS). It was found that cation exchange resin treatment is efficient to disintegrate the flocs for EMPS extraction, however, inefficient to disaggregate the microcolonies for ECPS harvesting. A two-steps extraction strategy (cation exchange resin treatment followed by ultrasonication-high speed centrifugation treatment) was suggested to separate these two types of EPS in activated sludge flocs and the physicochemical characteristics of EMPS and ECPS were compared. The protein/polysaccharide ratio of ECPS was higher than that of EMPS and the molecular weight of proteins in EMPS and ECPS were found to be different. The ECPS contained higher molecular weight proteins and more hydrophobic substances than the EMPS contained. The result of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy analysis also showed that the EMPS and the ECPS have different fluorescent expressions and the components of EMPS were more diverse than that of ECPS. All results reported herein demonstrated that two different types of exopolymers exist in the activated sludge flocs and the inter-particle forces for aggregation of activated sludge flocs are not identical between the floc level and the microcolony level. It suggested that cation bridging interactions are more crucial in floc level flocculation, while the entanglement and hydrophobic interactions are more important in microcolony level cohesion.

  15. Effect of natural organic substances on the surface and adsorptive properties of environmental black carbon (char): attenuation of surface activity by humic and fulvic acids.

    PubMed

    Pignatello, Joseph J; Kwon, Seokjoon; Lu, Yufeung

    2006-12-15

    Black carbon (BC) plays a potentially important role in the availability of pollutants in soils and sediments. Recent evidence points to the possible attenuation of the high surface activity of raw BC by natural substances. We studied the effects of soil humic (HA) and fulvic (FA) acids on the surface properties and affinity for organic compounds of synthesized wood charcoal. Char powder suspended in a solution of HA or FA was loaded with organic matter via adsorption, evaporation of the water, or coflocculation with Al3+. These treatments were chosen to simulate initial and more advanced stages of environmental exposure. Coevaporation dramatically reduced the N2 Brunauer-Emmett-Teller total surface area of the char, but only moderately the CO2 cumulative surface area up to 1.4 nm. Organic compound adsorption was suppressed in proportion to molecular size, benzene < naphthalene < phenanthrene and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene < phenanthrene, for humics in the adsorbed and coflocculated states, respectively. Humic substances also increased the linearity of the isotherms. The model we propose assumes that humic substances are restricted to the external surface where they act as pore blocking agents or competitive adsorbates, depending on the temperature and adsorbate size. Nitrogen is blocked from the internal pore space due to stiffness at 77 K of humic strands extending into pore throats, giving an artificially low surface area. Together with previous results, this finding indicates that N2 may not detect BC microporosity in geosorbents. At higher temperatures (CO2, 273 K; organics, 293 K), humic strands are more flexible, allowing access to interior pores. The counterintuitive molecular size dependence of adsorption suppression by humics is due to a molecular sieving effect in pores in which the adsorption space available to the organic compound is more and more restricted to external sites. PMID:17256524

  16. Anti-Proliferative and Apoptotic Activities of Müllerian Inhibiting Substance Combined with Calcitriol in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yeon Soo; Kim, Hee Jung; Seo, Seok Kyo; Choi, Young Sik; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Sang Wun; Han, Hyuck Dong; Kim, Jae Wook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to investigate whether Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS) in combination with calcitriol modulates proliferation and apoptosis of human ovarian cancer (OCa) cell lines (SKOV3, OVCAR3, and OVCA433) and identify the signaling pathway by which MIS mediates apoptosis. Materials and Methods OCa cell lines were treated with MIS in the absence or presence of calcitriol. Cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation assay. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine the signaling pathway. Results The cells showed specific staining for the MIS type II receptor. Treatment of OCa cells with MIS and calcitriol led to dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell growth and survival. The combination treatment significantly suppressed cell growth, down-regulated the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and up-regulated the expressions of Bcl-2 associated X protein, caspase-3, and caspase-9 through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. Conclusion These results, coupled with a much-needed decrease in the toxic side effects of currently employed therapeutic agents, provide a strong rationale for testing the therapeutic potential of MIS, alone or in combination with calcitriol, in the treatment of OCa. PMID:26632380

  17. The Role of Biotechnology for Conservation and Biologically Active Substances Production of Rhodiola rosea: Endangered Medicinal Species

    PubMed Central

    Tasheva, Krasimira; Kosturkova, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    At present, more than 50 000 plant species are used in phytotherapy and medicine. About 2/3 of them are harvested from nature leading to local extinction of many species or degradation of their habitats. Biotechnological methods offer possibilities not only for faster cloning and conservation of the genotype of the plants but for modification of their gene information, regulation, and expression for production of valuable substances in higher amounts or with better properties. Rhodiola rosea is an endangered medicinal species with limited distribution. It has outstanding importance for pharmaceutical industry for prevention and cure of cancer, heart and nervous system diseases, and so forth. Despite the great interest in golden root and the wide investigations in the area of phytochemistry, plant biotechnology remained less endeavoured and exploited. The paper presents research on initiation of in vitro cultures in Rhodiola rosea and some other Rhodiola species. Achievements in induction of organogenic and callus cultures, regeneration, and micropropagation varied but were a good basis for alternative in vitro synthesis of the desired metabolites and for the development of efficient systems for micropropagation for conservation of the species. PMID:22666097

  18. Substance P activates responses correlated with tumour growth in human glioma cell lines bearing tachykinin NK1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Palma, C; Nardelli, F; Manzini, S; Maggi, C A

    1999-01-01

    The neuropeptide substance P (SP), by stimulating tachykinin NK1receptors (NK1R), triggers a number of biological responses in human glioma cells which are potentially relevant for tumour growth. First, radioligand binding studies demonstrated the presence of tachykinin NK1R on SNB-19, DBTRG-05 MG and U373 MG, but not on U138 MG and MOG-G-GCM human glioma cell lines. Second, application of SP or neurokinin A (NKA) to NK1R+glioma cell lines increased the secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and potentiated IL-6 secretion induced by IL-1β. SP also up-regulated the release of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) by the U373 MG glioma cell line. Third, SP induced new DNA synthesis and enhanced the proliferation rate of NK1R+, but not of NK1R−glioma cell lines. Also, NKA stimulated the proliferation and cytokine secretion in NK1R+glioma cell lines. All the stimulant effects of SP/NKA on NK1R+glioma cell lines were completely blocked by a specific tachykinin NK1R antagonist, MEN 11467. These data support the potential use of tachykinin NK1R antagonist for controlling the proliferative rate of human gliomas. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:9888463

  19. Fluorinated alkyl substances and technical mixtures used in food paper-packaging exhibit endocrine-related activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rosenmai, A K; Taxvig, C; Svingen, T; Trier, X; van Vugt-Lussenburg, B M A; Pedersen, M; Lesné, L; Jégou, B; Vinggaard, A M

    2016-07-01

    Migration of chemicals from packaging materials to foods may lead to human exposure. Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) can be used in technical mixtures (TMs) for use in food packaging of paper and board, and PFAS have been detected in human serum and umbilical cord blood. The specific structures of the PFAS in TMs are often unknown, but polyfluorinated alkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) have been characterized in TMs, food packaging, and in food. PAPs can be metabolized into fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Some PFAS have endocrine activities, highlighting the need to investigate these effects. Herein, we studied the endocrine activity of less characterized PFAS, including short-chain PFCAs and FTOHs, PAPs, and TMs of unknown chemical composition. Long-chain PFCAs were also included. We applied seven assays covering effects on estrogen, glucocorticoid, androgen, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activity, as well as steroidogenesis in vitro and ex vivo. In general, PAPs, FTOHs, TMs, and long-chain PFCAs showed estrogenic activity through receptor activation and/or increasing 17β-estradiol levels. Furthermore, short- and long-chain PFCAs activated PPARα and PPARγ. Collectively, this means that (i) PAPs, FTOHs, and PFCAs exhibit endocrine activity through distinct and sometimes different mechanisms, (ii) two out of three tested TMs exhibited estrogenic activity, and (iii) short-chain FTOHs showed estrogenic activity and short-chain PFCAs generally activate both PPARα and PPARγ with similar potency and efficacy as long-chain PFCAs. In conclusion, several new and divergent toxicological targets were identified for different groups of PFAS.

  20. Platelet-active substances in the venom of Bothrops moojeni snake-a novel evaluation method using whole blood aggregometry.

    PubMed

    Demler, Christine; Bühler, Beatrice; Menin, Laure; Stöcklin, Reto; Wilmer, Marianne; Ernst, Beat; Perchuc, Anna Maria

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was an investigation of the crude Bothrops moojeni venom, aiming at the identification of new compounds with platelet-activating or -inhibiting activity. The venom was separated by gel filtration chromatography into 18 fractions, which were tested by means of whole blood aggregometry for their activities affecting the aggregation of blood platelets. In order to eliminate interferences caused by prothrombin activators or thrombin like-enzymes, which are frequently present in snake venoms, a test method for screening protein mixtures was developed. To avoid clotting of the blood samples, the thrombin inhibitor hirudin and the synthetic inhibitor of fibrin polymerization Pefabloc FG were applied. In the present study, a platelet aggregation activator with an activity resembling thrombocytin from B. atrox was identified in one of the examined venom fractions. In addition, a platelet antagonist-most likely a disintegrin-with broad inhibitory activity against aggregation triggered by collagen, adenosine diphosphate and thrombin receptor activating peptide, was identified. PMID:19938887

  1. Kinetic assays for determining in vitro APS reductase activity in plants without the use of radioactive substances.

    PubMed

    Brychkova, Galina; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Sagi, Moshe

    2012-09-01

    Adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (APR; EC 1.8.4.9) catalyzes the two-electron reduction of APS to sulfite and AMP, a key step in the sulfate assimilation pathway in higher plants. In spite of the importance of this enzyme, methods currently available for detection of APR activity rely on radioactive labeling and can only be performed in a very few specially equipped laboratories. Here we present two novel kinetic assays for detecting in vitro APR activity that do not require radioactive labeling. In the first assay, APS is used as substrate and reduced glutathione (GSH) as electron donor, while in the second assay APS is replaced by an APS-regenerating system in which ATP sulfurylase catalyzes APS in the reaction medium, which employs sulfate and ATP as substrates. Both kinetic assays rely on fuchsin colorimetric detection of sulfite, the final product of APR activity. Incubation of the desalted protein extract, prior to assay initiation, with tungstate that inhibits the oxidation of sulfite by sulfite oxidase activity, resulted in enhancement of the actual APR activity. The reliability of the two methods was confirmed by assaying leaf extract from Arabidopsis wild-type and APR mutants with impaired or overexpressed APR2 protein, the former lacking APR activity and the latter exhibiting much higher activity than the wild type. The assays were further tested on tomato leaves, which revealed a higher APR activity than Arabidopsis. The proposed APR assays are highly specific, technically simple and readily performed in any laboratory.

  2. [The role of disorders in the tubular transport of water and osmotically active substances in the progression of chronic kidney failure].

    PubMed

    Esaian, A M; Kaiukov, I G

    1993-01-01

    Lithium clearance served the criterion for measuring proximal and distal tubular transport of water, sodium and osmotically active substances (OAS) in 41 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) of various degree. Distal reabsorption of water and sodium occurs early in CRF. In moderate disease the authors observed a drastic rise in distal excreted fraction of OAS which surpassed that of sodium threefold. Proximal fractional excretion of water acquired defects in advanced CRF only. In the range of creatinine clearance 30-65 ml/min an inverse relationship appeared between the clearance and the ratio of urea of OAS concentrations to chlorine concentrations. Distal fractional OAS excretion correlated with relevant parameters directly. It is suggested that a decline in relative chlorine ions content in the tubular fluid at the site of the thick spot entails hypoactivity of the tubular-glomerular feedback mechanisms resultant in hypertension and hyperfiltration in the intact nephrons which start to perish because of overloading.

  3. [Effect of surface-active substances of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241, Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, and Nocardia vaccinii K-8 on phytopathogenic bacteria].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Konon, A D; Sofilkanich, A P; Iutinskaia, G A

    2013-01-01

    The effect of surface-active substances (SAS's) of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241, Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, and Nocardia vaccinii K-8 on phytopathogenic bacteria has been studied. It was shown that the survival of cells (10(5)-10(7) in a milliliter) of the Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas phytopathogenic bacteria was found to be 0-33% after treatment with SAS preparations of the IMV Ac-5017 and IMV B-7241 strains for 2 h (0.15-0.4 mg/mL). In the presence of N. vaccinii K-8 SAS preparations (0.085-0.85 mg/mL), the number of cells of the majority of the studied phytopathogenic bacteria decreased by 95-100%. These data show prospects for using microbial SAS's for the construction of ecologically friendly drugs for regulating the number of phytopathogenic bacteria.

  4. Spinal actions of substance P analogues on cardiovascular responses in the rat: a structure-activity analysis.

    PubMed

    Couture, R; Gupta, A; Kérouac, R; Escher, E; Regoli, D

    1987-03-01

    Ten substance P (SP) analogues were tested for their effects on mean arterial pressure and heart rate following intrathecal administration in the pentobarbital anaesthetized rat. The 10 analogues are [D-Pro4,D-alpha Npa7,9,10]SP(4-11) (A-I), (D-alpha Npa7,9,10]SP (A-II), [D-Trp7,9,10]SP (A-III), [D-Pro4,D-Npa7,9,Phe11]SP(4-11) (A-IV), [D-Pro4,D-beta Npa7,D-alpha Npa9,D-Phe11]SP(4-11) (A-V), [D-Pro4,Lys6,D-Trp7,9,10,Phe11]SP(4-11) (A-VI), [D-Pro4,D-Trp7,9,10,Phe11]SP(4-11) (A-VII), [D-Pro4,D-Trp7,9,10,Trp11]SP(4-11) (A-VIII), [D-Trp7,9,10,Trp11]SP (A-IX), and [D-Pro4,D-Phe7,9,10,Phe11]SP(4-11) (A-X). At 6.5 nmol, the analogues containing the amino acid D-Npa (A-I, A-II, A-IV, and A-V) or D-Phe (A-X) in positions 7, 9, or 10 of SP or its C-terminal octapeptide are devoid of the long-lasting cardio- and vaso-depressor effects, which are otherwise seen with analogues containing the amino acid D-Trp (A-III, A-VI, A-VII, A-VIII, and A-IX) in the same positions. Some of the analogues containing D-Npa maintain the initial hypotensive effect seen with SP while the analogue containing D-Phe produces only a small hypertensive response. The 10 analogues when tested at a dose that failed to alter basal mean arterial pressure and heart rate did not block the cardiovascular responses elicited by SP and no cross desensitization was observed between SP and these analogues. It appears that these SP analogues exert cardiovascular effects in the rat spinal cord probably without interacting with SP receptors.

  5. Neuropeptide Y, substance P, and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulate human osteoblast osteogenic activity by enhancing gap junction intercellular communication

    PubMed Central

    Ma, W.H.; Liu, Y.J.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Y.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Bone homeostasis seems to be controlled by delicate and subtle “cross talk” between the nervous system and “osteo-neuromediators” that control bone remodeling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of interactions between neuropeptides and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) on human osteoblasts. We also investigated the effects of neuropeptides and hBMP2 on gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Osteoblasts were treated with neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), or hBMP2 at three concentrations. At various intervals after treatment, cell viability was measured by the MTT assay. In addition, cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin were determined by colorimetric assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The effects of NPY, SP and hBMP on GJIC were determined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The viability of cells treated with neuropeptides and hBMP2 increased significantly in a time-dependent manner, but was inversely associated with the concentration of the treatments. ALP activity and osteocalcin were both reduced in osteoblasts exposed to the combination of neuropeptides and hBMP2. The GJIC of osteoblasts was significantly increased by the neuropeptides and hBMP2. These results suggest that osteoblast activity is increased by neuropeptides and hBMP2 through increased GJIC. Identification of the GJIC-mediated signal transduction capable of modulating the cellular activities of bone cells represents a novel approach to studying the biology of skeletal innervation. PMID:25714881

  6. Long-term degradation of resin-based cements in substances present in the oral environment: influence of activation mode

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Eduardo Moreira; NORONHA-FILHO, Jaime Dutra; AMARAL, Cristiane Mariote; POSKUS, Laiza Tatiana; GUIMARÃES, José Guilherme Antunes

    2013-01-01

    Indirect restorations in contact with free gingival margins or principally within the gingival sulcus, where the presence of organic acids produced by oral biofilm is higher, may present faster degradation of the resin-based cement pellicle. Objectives: To investigate the degradation of four resin-based cements: Rely X ARC (R), Variolink II (V), enforce (E) and All Cem (A), after immersion in distilled water (DW), lactic acid (LA) and artificial saliva (AS) and to analyze the influence of the activation mode on this response. Material and Methods: Two activation modes were evaluated: chemical (Ch) and dual (D). In the dual activation, a two-millimeter thick ceramic disk (IPS empress System) was interposed between the specimen and light-curing unit tip. Specimens were desiccated, immersed in distilled water, artificial saliva and lactic acid 0.1 M at 37ºC for 180 days, weighed daily for the first 7 days, and after 14, 21, 28, 90 and 180 days and were desiccated again. Sorption and solubility (µg/mm3) were calculated based on ISO 4049. The data were submitted to multifactor analysis of variance (MANOVA) and Tukey's HSD test for media comparisons (α=0.05). Results: Sorption was higher after immersion in LA (p<0.05) and increased significantly with time (p<0.05). Sorption was influenced by the activation mode: Ch>D (p<0.05). The lowest solubility was presented by R (p<0.05). Conclusions: Lactic acid increased the degradation of resin-based cements. Moreover, the physical component of activation, i.e., light-activation, contributed to a low degradation of resin-based cements. PMID:23857651

  7. Current limitations and a path forward to improve testing for the environmental assessment of endocrine active substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the hazards and risks of possible endocrine active chemicals (EACs) there is a need for robust, validated test methods that detect perturbation of endocrine pathways of concern and provide insights reliable information as to assess to potential adverse effects on apical...

  8. An fMRI Study of the Influence of a History of Substance Abuse on Working Memory-Related Brain Activation in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wojtalik, Jessica A.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2014-01-01

    There has been little investigation of the effects of past substance abuse (SA) on working memory (WM) impairments in schizophrenia. This study examined the behavioral and neurobiological impact of past SA (6 months or longer abstinence period) on WM in schizophrenia. Thirty-seven schizophrenia patients (17 with past SA and 20 without) and 32 controls (12 with past SA and 20 without) completed two versions of a two-back WM task during fMRI scanning on separate days. Analyses focused on regions whose patterns of activation replicated across both n-back tasks. Schizophrenia patients were significantly less accurate than controls on both n-back tasks. No main effects or interactions with past SA on WM performance were observed. However, several fronto-parietal-thalamic regions showed an interaction between diagnostic group and past SA. These regions were significantly more active in controls with past SA compared to controls without past SA. Schizophrenia patients with or without past SA either showed no significant differences, or patients with past SA showed somewhat less activation compared to patients without past SA during WM. These results suggest robust effects of past SA on WM brain functioning in controls, but less impact of past SA in schizophrenia. This is consistent with previous literature indicating less impaired neurocognition in schizophrenia with SA. PMID:24478729

  9. Anticancer substances of mushroom origin.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, T S; Krupodorova, T A; Barshteyn, V Y; Artamonova, A B; Shlyakhovenko, V A

    2014-06-01

    The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms, as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed. Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines (including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins), and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc. are discussed. The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed.

  10. Fractionating ambient humic-like substances (HULIS) for their reactive oxygen species activity - Assessing the importance of quinones and atmospheric aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Vishal; Wang, Ying; El-Afifi, Rawan; Fang, Ting; Rowland, Janessa; Russell, Armistead G.; Weber, Rodney J.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present a technique to identify the redox-active components of fine organic aerosols by fractionating humic-like substances (HULIS). We applied this technique to a dithiothreitol (DTT) assay - a measure of the capability of PM to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and assessed the contribution of quinones to the DTT activity of ambient water-soluble PM. Filter samples from the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution & Epidemiology (SCAPE) were extracted in water and then passed-through a C-18 column to isolate the HULIS fraction by retention on the column. The HULIS was then eluted with a sequence of solvents of increasing polarity, i.e., hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and then methanol. Each of these eluted fractions was analyzed for DTT activity. The methanol fraction was found to possess most of the DTT activity (>70%), while the hexane fraction had the least activity (<5%), suggesting that the ROS-active compounds of ambient water-soluble PM2.5 HULIS are mostly polar in nature. A number of quinones thought to contribute to ambient PM DTT activity were also tested. 1,4 Naphthoquinone (1,4 NQ), 1,2 Naphthoquinone (1,2 NQ), 9,10 Phenanthrenequinone (PQ), and 5-hydroxy-1,4 NQ were analyzed by the same protocol. The hexane fraction of two quinones (PQ, and 1,4 NQ) was the most-DTT active, while methanol was the least, confirming that PQ, 1,4 NQ, and 1,2 NQ (which could not be recovered from the column) do not contribute significantly to the water-soluble DTT activity of ambient PM2.5. However, an oxygenated derivative of 1,4 NQ, (5-hydroxy-1,4 NQ), which is also intrinsically more DTT-active than 1,4 NQ, was mostly (>60%) eluted in methanol. The results demonstrate the importance of atmospheric aging (oxidation) of organic aerosols in enhancing the ROS activity of ambient PM.

  11. Substance use and multiculturalism.

    PubMed

    Adrian, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews intercultural variability of substance use behaviors, including availability of international statistics on consumption of alcohol and other drugs, as well as the use of drugs available locally only. Within a conceptual framework of intercultural relations, it considers the history of transcultural spread of substance use behaviors and possible reactions to the introduction of new drugs within a culture or jurisdiction, including illustrations of the "law of alien poisons." Although intercultural views of substance use have generally concentrated on majority groups' views of substance use in minority groups, minority and non-Western views of substance use need to be considered in the context of increasing international and intercultural communications that increase the rate at which substance use behaviors spread. Both Western and non-Western experiences with substance use and misuse must be taken into account so that better interventions can be developed to deal with addictions and other substance-related problems. PMID:8908704

  12. Estrogen receptor mediated activity in bankside groundwater, with flood suspended particulate matter and floodplain soil - an approach combining tracer substance, bioassay and target analysis.

    PubMed

    Wölz, J; Grosshans, K; Streck, G; Schulze, T; Rastall, A; Erdinger, L; Brack, W; Fleig, M; Kühlers, D; Braunbeck, T; Hollert, H

    2011-10-01

    Bankside groundwater is widely used as drinking water resource and, therefore, contamination has to be avoided. In the European Union groundwater protection is explicit subject to Water Framework Directive. While groundwater pollution may originate from different sources, this study investigated on impacts via flood events. Groundwater was sampled with increasing distance to the river Rhine near Karlsruhe, Germany. Samples were HPLC-MS-MS analyzed for the river contaminant carbamazepine to indicate river water infiltration, giving permanent presence in 250 m distance to the river (14-47 μg L⁻¹). Following a flood event, concentrations of about 16-20 μg L⁻¹ could also be detected in a distance of 750 m to the river. Furthermore, estrogenic activity as determined with the Yeast Estrogen Screen assay was determined to increase up to a 17β-ethinylestradiol equivalent concentration (E-EQ)=2.9 ng L⁻¹ near the river, while activity was initially measured following the flood with up to E-EQ=2.6 ng L⁻¹ in 750 m distance. Detections were delayed with increasing distance to the river indicating river water expansion into the aquifer. Flood suspended matter and floodplain soil were fractionated and analyzed for estrogenic activity in parallel giving up to 1.4 ng g⁻¹ and up to 0.7 ng g⁻¹, respectively. Target analysis focusing on known estrogenic active substances only explained < 1% of measured activities. Nevertheless, river water infiltration was shown deep into bankside groundwater, thus, impacting groundwater quality. Therefore, flood events have to be in the focus when aiming for groundwater and drinking water protection as well as for implementation of Water Framework Directive.

  13. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD. PMID:27613348

  14. Development of a new screening assay to identify proteratogenic substances using zebrafish danio rerio embryo combined with an exogenous mammalian metabolic activation system (mDarT).

    PubMed

    Busquet, François; Nagel, Roland; von Landenberg, Friedrich; Mueller, Stefan O; Huebler, Nicole; Broschard, Thomas H

    2008-07-01

    The assessment of teratogenic effects of chemicals is generally performed using in vivo teratogenicity assays, for example, in rats or rabbits. We have developed an in vitro teratogenicity assay using the zebrafish Danio rerio embryo combined with an exogenous mammalian metabolic activation system (MAS), able to biotransform proteratogenic compounds. Cyclophosphamide (CPA) and ethanol were used as proteratogens to test the efficiency of this assay. Briefly, the zebrafish embryos were cocultured at 2 hpf (hours postfertilization) with the test material at varying concentrations, induced male rat liver microsomes and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) for 60 min at 32 degrees C under moderate agitation in Tris-buffer. The negative control (test material alone) and the MAS control (MAS alone) were incubated in parallel. For each test group, 20 eggs were used for statistical robustness. Afterward fish embryos were transferred individually into 24-well plates filled with fish medium for 48 h at 26 degrees C with a 12-h light cycle. Teratogenicity was scored after 24 and 48 hpf using morphological endpoints. No teratogenic effects were observed in fish embryos exposed to the proteratogens alone, that is, without metabolic activation. In contrast, CPA and ethanol induced abnormalities in fish embryos when coincubated with microsomes. The severity of malformations increased with increasing concentrations of the proteratogens. We conclude that the application of microsomes will improve and refine the D. rerio teratogenicity assay as a predictive and valuable alternative method to screen teratogenic substances.

  15. Rapid start-up of the anammox process: Effects of five different sludge extracellular polymeric substances on the activity of anammox bacteria.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianbo; Wang, Sihui; Lian, Jing; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yunman; Song, Yuanyuan

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the rapid start-up of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) strategy by inoculating different biomass ratios of denitrifying granular sludge and anammox bacteria. The results demonstrated that two reactors (R1 and R2) were rapidly and successfully started-up on days 25 and 28, respectively, with nitrogen removal rates (NRRs) of 0.70kg/(m(3)·d) and 0.72kg/(m(3)·d) at biomass ratios of 10:1 (R1) and 50:1 (R2). The explanation for rapid start-up was found by examining the effect of five different sludge extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on the activity of anammox bacteria in the batch experiments. Batch experiments results first demonstrated that the denitrification sludge EPS (DS-EPS) enhanced the anammox bacteria activity the most, and NO2(-)-N, NH4(+)-N removal rates were 1.88- and 1.53-fold higher than the control with optimal DS-EPS volume of 10mL. The rapid start-up strategy makes possible the application of anammox to practical engineering. PMID:27612401

  16. Use of active substances of plant origin in chicken diets based on maize and locally grown cereals.

    PubMed

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Wertelecki, T; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J

    2005-08-01

    1. A total of 336 Hubbard Hi-Y broiler hybrids were fed from d 1-41 on diets based on maize or wheat and barley which were supplemented (or not) with 100 mg/kg plant extract consisting of capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol. 2. Body weight was not enhanced, but feed conversion improved by 4.2% on the maize diet and 2.0% on the wheat and barley diet. 3. Plant extract addition enhanced the breast muscle proportion of empty body weight by 1.2% in comparison to control birds. 4. The apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients (crude protein, fibre and amino acids) was not significantly better in birds fed on supplemented diets than in the control group. 5. Reduction of E. coli, Clostridium perfringens and fungi and increase of Lactobacillus spp. were observed in the 41-d-old chickens from the supplemented groups. 6. An increase in the lipase activity in pancreas and intestine wall was found in older birds fed on the plant extract supplemented diets.

  17. Expression of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1 (UGT1) and Glucuronidation Activity toward Endogenous Substances in Humanized UGT1 Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kutsuno, Yuki; Hirashima, Rika; Sakamoto, Masaya; Ushikubo, Hiroko; Michimae, Hirofumi; Itoh, Tomoo; Tukey, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Although UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are important phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes, they are also involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds. Certain substrates of UGTs, such as serotonin and estradiol, play important roles in the brain. However, the expression of UGTs in the human brain has not been fully clarified. Recently, humanized UGT1 mice (hUGT1 mice) in which the original Ugt1 locus was disrupted and replaced with the human UGT1 locus have been developed. In the present study, the expression pattern of UGT1As in brains from humans and hUGT1 mice was examined. We found that UGT1A1, 1A3, 1A6, and 1A10 were expressed in human brains. The expression pattern of UGT1As in hUGT1 mouse brains was similar to that in human brains. In addition, we examined the expression of UGT1A1 and 1A6 in the cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, midbrain, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex of hUGT1 mice. UGT1A1 in all brain regions and UGT1A6 in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex of 6-month-old hUGT1 mice were expressed at a significantly higher rate than those of 2-week-old hUGT1 mice. A difference in expression levels between brain regions was also observed. Brain microsomes exhibited glucuronidation activities toward estradiol and serotonin, with mean values of 0.13 and 5.17 pmol/min/mg, respectively. In conclusion, UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 might play an important role in function regulation of endogenous compounds in a region- and age-dependent manner. Humanized UGT1 mice might be useful to study the importance of brain UGTs in vivo. PMID:25953521

  18. Dryocrassin ABBA, a novel active substance for use against amantadine-resistant H5N1 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Ou, Changbo; Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Guojiang; Shi, Ningning; He, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of multi-drug resistant highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strains highlights the urgent need for strategies for the prevention and control of avian influenza virus. The aim of our current study is to evaluate the antiviral activity of dryocrassin ABBA isolated from Rhizoma Dryopteridis Crassirhizomatis (RDC) against an amantadine-resistant H5N1 (A/Chicken/Hebei/706/2005) strain in a mouse model. Post inoculation with HPAIV H5N1 virus in mice, the survival rate was 87, 80, and 60% respectively in the 33, 18, and 12.5 mg/kg dryocrassin ABBA-treated groups. On the other hand, the survival rate was 53 and 20%, respectively in the amantadine-treated group and untreated group. Mice administered with dryocrassin ABBA or amantadine showed a significant weight increase compared to the untreated group. Moreover, 33 and 18 mg/kg dryocrassin ABBA have decreased lung index (P >0.05) and virus loads (P <0.01) compared to the untreated group on day 7. Also, on day 7 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) decreased significantly (P <0.01) while anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and MCP-1) were increased significantly (P <0.01) in the 33 and 18 mg/kg dryocrassin ABBA-treated groups compared to the amantadine group and the untreated group. Moreover, the concentrations of IL-12 in drug-treated groups were significantly (P < 0.01) lowered compared with the untreated group. Based on the above we conclude that orally administered dryocrassin ABBA provided mice protection against avian influenza virus H5N1 by inhibiting inflammation and reducing virus loads. Dryocrassin ABBA is a potential novel lead compound which had antiviral effects on amantadine-resistant avian influenza virus H5N1 infection.

  19. Substance P primes lipoteichoic acid- and Pam3CysSerLys4-mediated activation of human mast cells by up-regulating Toll-like receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Tancowny, Brian P; Karpov, Victor; Schleimer, Robert P; Kulka, Marianna

    2010-10-01

    Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide with neuroimmunoregulatory activity that may play a role in susceptibility to infection. Human mast cells, which are important in innate immune responses, were analysed for their responses to pathogen-associated molecules via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the presence of SP. Human cultured mast cells (LAD2) were activated by SP and TLR ligands including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Pam3CysSerLys4 (Pam3CSK4) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and mast cell leukotriene and chemokine production was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gene expression by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Mast cell degranulation was determined using a β-hexosaminidase (β-hex) assay. SP treatment of LAD2 up-regulated mRNA for TLR2, TLR4, TLR8 and TLR9 while anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) stimulation up-regulated expression of TLR4 only. Flow cytometry and western blot confirmed up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR8. Pretreatment of LAD2 with SP followed by stimulation with Pam3CSK4 or LTA increased production of leukotriene C4 (LTC(4) ) and interleukin (IL)-8 compared with treatment with Pam3CSK4 or LTA alone (>2-fold; P<0·01). SP alone activated 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) nuclear translocation but also augmented Pam3CSK4 and LTA-mediated 5-LO translocation. Pam3CSK4, LPS and LTA did not induce LAD2 degranulation. SP primed LTA and Pam3CSK4-mediated activation of JNK, p38 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and activated the nuclear translocation of c-Jun, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) and cyclic-AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) transcription factors. Pretreatment with SP followed by LTA stimulation synergistically induced production of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8)/IL-8, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2)/monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-6 protein. SP primes TLR2-mediated activation of human mast cells by up-regulating TLR expression and

  20. Production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by Serratia sp.1 using wastewater sludge as raw material and flocculation activity of the EPS produced.

    PubMed

    Bezawada, J; Hoang, N V; More, T T; Yan, S; Tyagi, N; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2013-10-15

    Growth profile and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production of Serratia sp.1 was studied in shake flask fermentation for 72 h using wastewater sludge as raw material. Maximum cell concentration of 6.7 × 10(9) cfu/mL was obtained at 48 h fermentation time. EPS dry weight, flocculation activity and dewaterability of different EPS (tightly bound or TB-EPS, loosely bound or LB-EPS and broth-EPS or B-EPS) were also measured. The highest concentration of LB-EPS (2.45 g/L) and TB-EPS (0.99 g/L) were attained at 48 h of fermentation. Maximum flocculation activity and dewaterability (ΔCST) of TB-EPS (76.4%, 14.5s and 76.5%, 15.5s), LB-EPS (67.8%, 8.1s and 64.7%, 7.6s) and broth EPS (61%, 6.1s and 70.4%, 6.8s) were obtained at 36 and 48 h of growth. Higher flocculation activity and dewaterability were achieved with TB-EPS than with the two other EPS. Characterization of TB-EPS and LB-EPS was done in terms of their protein and carbohydrate content. Protein content was much higher in TB-EPS where as carbohydrate content was only slightly higher in TB-EPS than LB-EPS. Morphology of the Serratia strain after fermentation in sludge and TSB was observed under a scanning electron microscope and the cell size was found to be bigger in the sludge medium than the TSB medium.

  1. Component analysis and structure identification of active substances for anti-gastric ulcer effects in Radix Astragali by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Hua; Zhao, Liang-Gong; Liang, Jing; Guo, Long; Yang, Ying-Lai; Hu, Fang; Zhu, Rui-Juan; Feng, Shi-Lan

    2014-06-01

    This study provided a comprehensive component analysis and structure identification of active substances for the anti-gastric ulcer effects of Radix Astragali. The data were generated by organically combining the results from in vivo pharmacodynamic experiments, a cell growth-promoting assay, structure identification, content determination, fingerprinting, and correlation analyses. The fingerprints from high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and from HPLC coupled with evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD) from 95% ethanol extracts of Radix Astragali (ERA) were determined using HPLC-DAD-ELSD. The structures of 16 compounds were identified using ultra-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). The contents of these 16 compounds were simultaneously determined in a single run using HPLC-DAD-ELSD. The strength of the anti-ulceration effect of each of the 16 compounds was correlated to its content in the HPLC spectrum using gray relation statistics. The sequence of the contribution from each of the 16 compounds to the anti-gastric ulcer effect was determined. The results showed that ononin, astragalosideIII, and astragalosideIV contributed most to the observed anti-gastric ulcer effects and that these three compounds also exhibited strong growth-promoting effects in cultured GES-1 cells. The results of this study can be used to evaluate the quality of Radix Astragali and to provide a theoretical foundation for its further study.

  2. Multiresidue method for the determination of pharmacologically active substances in egg and honey using a continuous solid-phase extraction system and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, Abdelmonaim; Ballesteros, Evaristo

    2015-07-01

    A sensitive, selective, efficient gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of 22 pharmacologically active substances (antibacterials, nonsteroidal antiinflammatories, antiseptics, antiepileptics, lipid regulators, β-blockers and hormones) in eggs and honey was developed. The sample pretreatment includes precipitation of proteins and lipids with acetonitrile:water (3:2, v/v), centrifugation and continuous solid-phase extraction for cleanup and preconcentration. The proposed method was validated with quite good analytical results including limits of detection of 0.4-3.3 ng/kg for 2g of sample and good linearity (r(2)>0.995) throughout the studied concentration ranges. The recoveries of analytes from real honey and egg samples spiked at concentrations of 15-2,000 ng/kg fell in the range 87-102%, with relative standard deviations from 2.6% to 7.0%. The method was successfully used to determine the target compounds in various types of eggs (hen, quail and duck) and honey samples (flower, forest, acacia, sunflower, clover and pine tree). Two samples of hen eggs bought at supermarkets and one of quail eggs were found to contain florfenicol, pyrimethamine, estrone and 17β-estradiol at levels from 0.095 to 2.7 μg/kg.

  3. Are fish and standardized FETAX assays protective enough for amphibians? A case study on Xenopus laevis larvae assay with biologically active substances present in livestock wastes.

    PubMed

    Martini, Federica; Tarazona, José V; Pablos, M Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) and essential metals (zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium) that may be found in livestock wastes were used for the larvae exposure. Lethal (LC(50)) and sublethal effects were estimated. Available data in both, fish and FETAX studies, were in general more protective than values found out in the current study, but not in all cases. Moreover, the presence of nonlethal effects, caused by ivermectin, zinc, and copper, suggested that several physiological mechanisms could be affected. Thus, this kind of effects should be deeply investigated. The results obtained in the present study could expand the information about micropollutants from livestock wastes on amphibians. PMID:22629159

  4. Are Fish and Standardized FETAX Assays Protective Enough for Amphibians? A Case Study on Xenopus laevis Larvae Assay with Biologically Active Substances Present in Livestock Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Federica; Tarazona, José V.; Pablos, M. Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) and essential metals (zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium) that may be found in livestock wastes were used for the larvae exposure. Lethal (LC50) and sublethal effects were estimated. Available data in both, fish and FETAX studies, were in general more protective than values found out in the current study, but not in all cases. Moreover, the presence of nonlethal effects, caused by ivermectin, zinc, and copper, suggested that several physiological mechanisms could be affected. Thus, this kind of effects should be deeply investigated. The results obtained in the present study could expand the information about micropollutants from livestock wastes on amphibians. PMID:22629159

  5. Current concepts on integrative safety assessment of active substances of botanical, mineral or chemical origin in homeopathic medicinal products within the European regulatory framework.

    PubMed

    Buchholzer, Marie-Luise; Werner, Christine; Knoess, Werner

    2014-03-01

    For active substances of botanical, mineral or chemical origin processed in homeopathic medicinal products for human use, the adequate safety principles as with other human medicinal products are applied in line with the European regulatory framework. In homeopathy, nonclinical safety assessment is facing a particular challenge because of a multitude and diversity of source materials used and due to rarely available toxicological data. Thus, current concepts applied by the national regulatory authority in Germany (BfArM) on integrative safety assessment of raw materials used in homeopathic medicinal products involve several evaluation approaches like the use of the Lowest Human Recommended Dose (LHRD), toxicological limit values, Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), data from food regulation or the consideration of unavoidable environmental or dietary background exposure. This publication is intended to further develop and clarify the practical use of these assessment routes by exemplary application on selected homeopathic preparations. In conclusion, the different approaches are considered a very useful scientific and simultaneously pragmatic procedure in differentiated risk assessment of homeopathic medicinal products. Overall, this paper aims to increase the visibility of the safety issues in homeopathy and to stimulate scientific discussion of worldwide existing regulatory concepts on homeopathic medicinal products.

  6. Analysis of the reaction of subcutaneous tissues in rats and the antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide paste used in association with different substances

    PubMed Central

    MIDENA, Raquel Zanin; GARCIA, Roberto Brandão; CAVENAGO, Bruno Cavalini; MARCIANO, Marina Angélica; MINOTTI, Paloma Gagliardi; ORDINOLA-ZAPATA, Ronald; WECKWERTH, Paulo Henrique; de ANDRADE, Flaviana Bombarda; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the subcutaneous tissue response in rats and the antimicrobial activity of intracanal calcium hydroxide dressings mixed with different substances against E. faecalis. Fifty four rats were divided into three experimental groups according to the vehicle in the calcium hydroxide treatment: 0.4% chlorohexidine in propylene glycol (PG), Casearia sylvestris Sw in PG and calcium hydroxide+PG (control group). The pastes were placed into polyethylene tubes and implanted into the subcutaneous tissue. After 7, 14 and 30 days, the samples were processed and histologically evaluated (hematoxylin and eosin). The tissue surface in contact with the material was analyzed, and the quantitative analysis determined the volume density occupied by the inflammatory infiltrate (giant cells, polymorphonuclear cells and mononuclear cells), fibroblasts, collagen fibers and blood vessels. For the antimicrobial analysis, 20 dentin blocks infected with E. faecalis were treated with calcium hydroxide pastes in different vehicles; 0.4% chlorhexidine in PG, PG, extract from Casearia sylvestris Sw in PG and a positive control (infection and without medication) for 7 days. The efficiency of the pastes was evaluated by the live/dead technique and confocal microscopy. The results showed that 0.4% chlorhexidine induced a higher inflammatory response than the other groups. The Casearia sylvestris Sw extract showed satisfactory results in relation to the intensity of the inflammatory response. In the microbiological test, there were no statistical differences between the evaluated intracanal dressings and the percentage of bacterial viability was between 33 and 42%. The control group showed an 86% viability. Antimicrobial components such as chlorhexidine or Casearia sylvestris Sw did not improve the antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis in comparison to the calcium hydroxide+PG treatment. In addition, the incorporation of chlorhexidine in the calcium hydroxide

  7. Analysis of the reaction of subcutaneous tissues in rats and the antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide paste used in association with different substances.

    PubMed

    Midena, Raquel Zanin; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Marciano, Marina Angélica; Minotti, Paloma Gagliardi; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Weckwerth, Paulo Henrique; Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda de; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the subcutaneous tissue response in rats and the antimicrobial activity of intracanal calcium hydroxide dressings mixed with different substances against E. faecalis. Fifty four rats were divided into three experimental groups according to the vehicle in the calcium hydroxide treatment: 0.4% chlorohexidine in propylene glycol (PG),Casearia sylvestris Sw in PG and calcium hydroxide+PG (control group). The pastes were placed into polyethylene tubes and implanted into the subcutaneous tissue. After 7, 14 and 30 days, the samples were processed and histologically evaluated (hematoxylin and eosin). The tissue surface in contact with the material was analyzed, and the quantitative analysis determined the volume density occupied by the inflammatory infiltrate (giant cells, polymorphonuclear cells and mononuclear cells), fibroblasts, collagen fibers and blood vessels. For the antimicrobial analysis, 20 dentin blocks infected with E. faecalis were treated with calcium hydroxide pastes in different vehicles; 0.4% chlorhexidine in PG, PG, extract from Casearia sylvestris Sw in PG and a positive control (infection and without medication) for 7 days. The efficiency of the pastes was evaluated by the live/dead technique and confocal microscopy. The results showed that 0.4% chlorhexidine induced a higher inflammatory response than the other groups. The Casearia sylvestris Sw extract showed satisfactory results in relation to the intensity of the inflammatory response. In the microbiological test, there were no statistical differences between the evaluated intracanal dressings and the percentage of bacterial viability was between 33 and 42%. The control group showed an 86% viability. Antimicrobial components such as chlorhexidine or Casearia sylvestris Sw did not improve the antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis in comparison to the calcium hydroxide+PG treatment. In addition, the incorporation of chlorhexidine in the calcium hydroxide

  8. Active bio-based food-packaging: Diffusion and release of active substances through and from cellulose nanofiber coating toward food-packaging design.

    PubMed

    Lavoine, Nathalie; Guillard, Valérie; Desloges, Isabelle; Gontard, Nathalie; Bras, Julien

    2016-09-20

    Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were recently investigated for the elaboration of new functional food-packaging materials. Their nanoporous network was especially of interest for controlling the release of active species. Qualitative release studies were conducted, but quantification of the diffusion phenomenon observed when the active species are released from and through CNF coating has not yet been studied. Therefore, this work aims to model CNF-coated paper substrates as controlled release system for food-packaging using release data obtained for two model molecules, namely caffeine and chlorhexidine digluconate. The applied mathematical model - derived from Fickian diffusion - was validated for caffeine only. When the active species chemically interacts with the release device, another model is required as a non-predominantly diffusion-controlled release was observed. From caffeine modeling data, a theoretical active food-packaging material was designed. The use of CNFs as barrier coating was proved to be the ideal material configuration that best meets specifications. PMID:27261728

  9. Active bio-based food-packaging: Diffusion and release of active substances through and from cellulose nanofiber coating toward food-packaging design.

    PubMed

    Lavoine, Nathalie; Guillard, Valérie; Desloges, Isabelle; Gontard, Nathalie; Bras, Julien

    2016-09-20

    Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were recently investigated for the elaboration of new functional food-packaging materials. Their nanoporous network was especially of interest for controlling the release of active species. Qualitative release studies were conducted, but quantification of the diffusion phenomenon observed when the active species are released from and through CNF coating has not yet been studied. Therefore, this work aims to model CNF-coated paper substrates as controlled release system for food-packaging using release data obtained for two model molecules, namely caffeine and chlorhexidine digluconate. The applied mathematical model - derived from Fickian diffusion - was validated for caffeine only. When the active species chemically interacts with the release device, another model is required as a non-predominantly diffusion-controlled release was observed. From caffeine modeling data, a theoretical active food-packaging material was designed. The use of CNFs as barrier coating was proved to be the ideal material configuration that best meets specifications.

  10. [Effect of naloxone on the activity of Cl(-)-activated Mg(2+)-ATPase from plasma membrane fraction of the common bream brain (Abramis brama L.) in the presence of GABAa-ergic substances].

    PubMed

    Menzikov, S A; Menzikova, O V

    2003-01-01

    We studied the effect of naloxone--an antagonist of the opioid receptors--on sensitivity of Cl(-)-activated Mg(2+)-ATPase from the plasma membrane fraction of bream brain (Abramis brama L.) to GABAa-ergic substances. Preincubation of the plasma membranes with 1-100 microM naloxone increased the basal Mg(2+)-ATPase activity and suppressed its activation by chloride ions. The same effects were observed in the presence of the agonists of GABAa/benzodiazepine receptors: 0.1-100 microM GABA, 1-500 microM pentobarbital, and 0.1-100 microM phenazepam. Naloxone (10 microM) inhibited the activation of the basal Mg(2+)-ATPase by the studied ligands and regenerated the enzyme sensitivity to Cl-. However, the effect of naloxone was not observed in the presence of high concentrations of pentobarbital (500 microM) and phenazepam (100 microM). The obtained data show that naloxone modulates the activity of Cl(-)-activated Mg(2+)-ATPase from the plasma membranes of bream brain and antagonizes the GABAa receptor ligands.

  11. Substance use - amphetamines

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - amphetamines; Drug abuse - amphetamines; Drug use - amphetamines ... There are different kinds of street amphetamines. Common ones ... Dextroamphetamine (ADHD medicine used illegally): dexies, kiddie- ...

  12. Stability indicating LC method for rapid determination of related substances of O-desmethyl venlafaxine in active pharmaceutical ingredients and pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Rao, Karri Visweswara; Reddy, Kesareddy Padmaja; Kumar, Yelavarthi Ravindra

    2014-01-01

    A simple, precise and accurate stability-indicating reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the quantitative determination of O-desmethyl venlafaxine (ODV) and its related substances in active pharmaceutical ingredient and pharmaceutical formulation. The method was developed using YMC-pack ODS-A (150 × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) column with mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of solvents A and B. Solvent A contained a mixture of buffer and acetonitrile in the ratio of 85:15 (v/v). The buffer consisted of 10 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 2 mM 1-octane sulfonic acid sodium salt (pH adjusted to 6.0 by using diluted potassium hydroxide solution). Solvent B contained a mixture of water and acetonitrile in the ratio of 20:80 (v/v). The eluted compounds were monitored at 230 nm. ODV and its six impurities were well separated within 14 min run time. It was subjected under the stress conditions of oxidative, acid, base, water, thermal and photolytic degradation. It was sensitive towards acidic, basic, oxidative and water stress conditions, stable in photolytic and thermal degradation conditions. The degradation products were well resolved from main peak and its impurities, the mass balance in each case was >99.0%, proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to its specificity, linearity (correlation coefficient >0.9996), limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy (recovery range 97.1-103.2%), precision (% relative standard deviation ≤1.9%) and robustness.

  13. Purification, characterization, and biological activity of a substance P-related peptide from the gut of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Conlon, J Michael; Joss, Jean M P; Burcher, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    A peptide with mammalian substance P (SP)-like immunoreactivity was isolated from an extract of the spiral intestine of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri. The primary structure of this peptide was established as Lys-Pro-Arg-Pro-Asp-Glu-Phe-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Met . NH2, showing 64% identity with mammalian SP. In isolated preparations of lungfish foregut circular muscle, lungfish SP produced a slow, long-lasting tonic contraction, with a pD2 value of 8.19. Lungfish midgut circular muscle preparations responded to lungfish SP rapidly and in a more complex manner. There was an increase in the frequency of spontaneous activity (pD2 = 8.76), associated with diminished amplitude of the spontaneous contractions (pD2 = 9.24), also coupled in some preparations with a tonic contraction (pD2 = 8.43). The response patterns of foregut and midgut circular muscle to acetylcholine (ACh) were very similar to those seen to lungfish SP. Lungfish SP and ACh, however, had very weak effects on both foregut and midgut longitudinal muscle. These data demonstrate that lungfish SP may be a physiologically important regulator of gastrointestinal motility in Neoceratodus. This study further confirmed that the structures of SP-related peptides have been strongly conserved under the pressure of vertebrate evolution, particularly in preserving the functionally important sequence, Phe-Xaa-Gly-Leu-Met . amide, at the C-terminus. The sequence of lungfish SP is identical to that of bufokinin, a SP-related peptide previously isolated from the intestine of the cane toad, Bufo marinus, supporting the hypothesis that lungfishes and amphibians share a common ancestor.

  14. In-syringe magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for automation and downscaling of methylene blue active substances assay.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Ruth; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Cerdà, Victor

    2014-12-01

    A simple and rapid method for the determination of the methylene blue active substances assay based on in-syringe automation of magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed. The proposed method proved to be valid for the determination of anionic surfactant in waste, pond, well, tap, and drinking water samples. Sample mixing with reagents, extraction and phase separation were performed within the syringe of an automated syringe pump containing a magnetic stirring bar for homogenization and solvent dispersion. The syringe module was used upside-down to enable the use of chloroform as an extraction solvent of higher density than water. The calibration was found to be linear up to 0.3mg/L using only 200 µL of solvent and 4 mL of sample. The limits of detection (3σ) and quantification (10σ) were 7.0 µg/L and 22 µg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviation for 10 replicate determinations of 0.1mg/L SBDS was below 3%. Concentrations of anionic surfactants in natural water samples were in the range of 0.032-0.213 mg/L and no significant differences towards the standard method were found. Standard additions gave analyte recoveries between 95% and 106% proving the general applicability and adequateness of the system to MBSA index determination. Compared to the tedious standard method requiring up to 50 mL of chloroform, the entire procedure took only 345 s using 250-times less solvent.

  15. Substance Abuse and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    A review of the literature provides the conclusion that individuals with a disability versus those without a disability are more likely to have a substance abuse problem and less likely to get effective treatment. Data suggest 10-40% of all individuals in treatment for substance abuse have a coexisting physical or mental disability. Alcohol rates…

  16. Composition and source apportionment of surfactants in atmospheric aerosols of urban and semi-urban areas in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Nurul Bahiyah Abd; Latif, Mohd Talib; Suratman, Suhaimi

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the composition and source apportionment of surfactant in atmospheric aerosols around urban and semi-urban areas in Malaysia based on ionic compositions. Colorimetric analysis was undertaken to determine the concentrations of anionic surfactants as Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) and cationic surfactants as Disulphine Blue Active Substances (DBAS) using a UV spectrophotometer. Ionic compositions were determined using ion chromatography for cations (Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)) and anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-)). Principle component analysis (PCA) combined with multiple linear regression (MLR) were used to identify the source apportionment of MBAS and DBAS. Results indicated that the concentrations of surfactants at both sampling sites were dominated by MBAS rather than DBAS especially in fine mode aerosols during the southwest monsoon. Three main sources of surfactants were identified from PCA-MLR analysis for MBAS in fine mode samples particularly in Kuala Lumpur, dominated by motor vehicles, followed by soil/road dust and sea spray. Besides, for MBAS in coarse mode, biomass burning/sea spray were the dominant source followed by motor vehicles/road dust and building material. PMID:23336924

  17. Extraction from prawn shells of substances cryoprotective for Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed Central

    Shimodori, S; Moriya, T; Kohashi, O; Faming, D; Amako, K

    1989-01-01

    Substances cryoprotective for Vibrio cholerae were detected from prawn shells immersed in phosphate-buffered saline. This cryoprotective activity was heat resistant and sensitive to treatment with trypsin. For the exhibition of its full activity, the presence of Mg ion was indispensable. The cryoprotective activity of this substance was more active than that of other known cryoprotectants, like glycerol or serum. PMID:2604409

  18. The use of kinetic N-order model in description of active substance release from various drug forms. Part 2. Analysis of paracetamol and sodium diclofenac release from methylcellulose.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Dominik M; Dryś, Andrzej; Pluta, Janusz; Kubis, Aleksander A

    2008-01-01

    The first part of the monograph presented the premises and equations which are the basis for the proposed mathematical n-order model. This non-linear physical model obeying the laws of chemical kinetics was used to describe the processes of active substance release from drug form. The possibilities of its application in the mathematical description and detailed analysis of the kinetics of paracetamol and sodium diclofenac release from various viscosity gels based on methylcellulose were investigated. Moreover, the effect of temperature on the release profiles of the above-mentioned active substances from investigated formulations was analyzed. On the basis of a series of performed experiments and detailed comparative statistical analysis of the estimators of two parameters characterizing n-order model: release rate constant K and order coefficient of the release process N, it was demonstrated that the active substance release rate from formulations with uncontrolled release is correlated with actual order of the process. Also, the proposed n-order model was compared with models obeying the laws of chemical kinetics: 0-order model, 1-order model and with diffusion Higuchi "square root of time" model, and the comparison demonstrated superiority of the n-order model over standard models. A non-linear statistical analysis was performed by means of computer software Statistica Pl. v. 7.1 manufactured by StatSoft Polska and Mathematica v. 5.0 manufactured by Wolfram Research.

  19. Are Full-Time MBAs Performing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Caroline Ann; Hall, Roger David

    2012-01-01

    Full-time MBA students amount to about one-third of the 26,000 students enrolled on MBA programmes at UK universities. The programmes have become increasingly international in student composition and concerns have been expressed about performance, quality and comparability between programmes. Research into predictors of MBA success has been…

  20. Immersion Freezing of Water and Aqueous Ammonium Sulfate Droplets Initiated by Humic-Like Substances as a Function of Water Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigg, Y.; Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Immersion freezing of water and aqueous (NH4)2SO4 droplets containing leonardite (LEO) and pahokee peat (PP) serving as surrogates for humic-like substances (HULIS) has been investigated. Organic aerosol containing HULIS are ubiquitous in the atmosphere; however, their potential for ice cloud formation is uncertain. Immersion freezing has been studied for temperatures as low as 215 K and solution water activity, aw, from 0.85 to 1.0. The freezing temperatures of water and aqueous solution droplets containing LEO and PP are 5-15 K warmer than homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures. Heterogeneous freezing temperatures can be represented by a horizontal shift of the ice melting curve as a function of solution aw and Δaw by 0.2703 and 0.2466, respectively. Corresponding heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients, Jhet, are (9.6×2.5)x104 and (5.4×1.4)x104 cm-2 s-1 for LEO and PP containing droplets, respectively, and remain constant along freezing curves characterized by Δaw. Consequently predictions of freezing temperatures and kinetics can be made without knowledge of the solute type when relative humidity and ice nuclei (IN) surface areas are known. The acquired ice nucleation data are applied to evaluate different approaches to fit and reproduce experimentally derived frozen fractions. In addition, we apply a basic formulation of classical nucleation theory (α(T)-model) to calculate contact angles and frozen fractions. Contact angles calculated for each ice nucleus as a function of temperature, α(T)-model, reproduce exactly experimentally derived frozen fractions without involving free-fit parameters. However, assigning the IN a single contact angle for the entire population (single-α model) is not suited to represent the frozen fractions. Application of α-PDF, active sites, and deterministic model approaches to measured frozen fractions yield similar good representations. Furthermore, when using a single parameterization of α-PDF or active sites

  1. Supervision: Substance and Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  2. Substance use during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Forray, Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal substance use is a critical public health concern that is linked with several harmful maternal and fetal consequences. The most frequently used substance in pregnancy is tobacco, followed by alcohol, cannabis and other illicit substances. Unfortunately, polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, as well as psychiatric comorbidity, environmental stressors, and limited and disrupted parental care, all of which can compound deleterious maternal and fetal outcomes. There are few existing treatments for prenatal substance use and these mainly comprise behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Contingency management has been shown to be the most efficacious of these. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the prenatal use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids, including the effects of these on maternal and fetal health and the current therapeutic options. PMID:27239283

  3. Toxic substances handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  4. Substance Abuse/Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... users when they are included as part of medical and substance abuse treatment and prevention services. Syringe ...

  5. Substance use during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Forray, Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal substance use is a critical public health concern that is linked with several harmful maternal and fetal consequences. The most frequently used substance in pregnancy is tobacco, followed by alcohol, cannabis and other illicit substances. Unfortunately, polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, as well as psychiatric comorbidity, environmental stressors, and limited and disrupted parental care, all of which can compound deleterious maternal and fetal outcomes. There are few existing treatments for prenatal substance use and these mainly comprise behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Contingency management has been shown to be the most efficacious of these. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the prenatal use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids, including the effects of these on maternal and fetal health and the current therapeutic options. PMID:27239283

  6. Toxic substances alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  7. Substance use - LSD

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs called hallucinogens. These are substances that cause hallucinations . These are things that you see, hear, or ... amount is needed to cause effects such as hallucinations. LSD users call their hallucinogenic experiences "trips." Depending ...

  8. Substance use - phencyclidine (PCP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs called hallucinogens. These are substances that cause hallucinations . These are things that you see, hear, or ... up, excited, tense, confused, or irritable ( agitation ), having hallucinations Physical reactions may include muscle breakdown or twitching, ...

  9. Organic substances in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeson, Phillip E.

    1981-01-01

    This is the third of several compilations of briefing papers on water quality by the U.S. Geological Survey. Each briefing paper is prepared in a simple, nontechnical, easy-to-understand manner. This U.S. Geological Survey Circular contains papers on selected organic substances in water. Briefing papers are included on ' Why study organic substances in water. ', ' Taste and odor in water ', and ' Classification and fractionation of organic solutes in natural waters'. (USGS)

  10. Seasonal pattern of source and transport processes of natural and anthropic surfactants in coastal aerosol (Tuscany coast - Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becagli, Silvia; Ghedini, Costanza; Peeters, Stephane; Rottiers, Andre; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto; Jalba, Adriana; Dayan, Uri; Temara, Ali

    2010-05-01

    Surface active agents have been detected in coastal aerosols for decades. Their partial hydrophilicity could affect the hygroscopicity of aerosol particles. The ecological significance of surface active substances has thus been much debated, including pre-biotic processes, global climate changes by influencing optical properties and Cloud Condensation Nuclei forming ability, and in decline of coastal vegetation exposed to sea spray. Based on results obtained using non specific analytical methods (e.g., Methylene Blue coloration - MBAS), MBAS reactive surface active agents, like surfactants used in detergents, have been singled out as one of the causing factors of some of these aerosol effects. In order to increase the knowledge on the atmospheric concentration, source and distribution of surfactants, an aerosol sampling campaign was arranged at San Rossore (Pisa): a costal site located in the NW Mediterranean sea.The aerosols were collected at a distance of 500 meters from the sea, on the roof of a building at about 10 m above the sea level. A preliminary spot sampling campaign, at weekly resolution, was carried out in February-March 2006, using an Andersen 8-stages impactor. The main sampling campaign covered more than one year (from March 2007 to June 2008) and the sampling was accomplished at daily resolution by two sequential aerosol samplers operating in parallel way. The samplers were equipped with PM10 and PM2.5 sampling heads designed according to EN12341 European rule. After weighting, the filter was analysed for ionic content by ion chromatography. The concentration of the anthropogenic surfactant LAS was measured in all collected samples using specific analytical techniques (LC-MS-MS) and was compared with the MBAS signal. In the PM10 aerosol, MBAS concentration was on average 887 ng/m3 MBAS, while the LAS concentration detected in the same aerosol samples represent less than 5% of the total MBAS signal. Analysis of the temporal trends in LAS and MBAS in

  11. PubChem Substance and Compound databases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghwan; Thiessen, Paul A; Bolton, Evan E; Chen, Jie; Fu, Gang; Gindulyte, Asta; Han, Lianyi; He, Jane; He, Siqian; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Wang, Jiyao; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Jian; Bryant, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    PubChem (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for information on chemical substances and their biological activities, launched in 2004 as a component of the Molecular Libraries Roadmap Initiatives of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). For the past 11 years, PubChem has grown to a sizable system, serving as a chemical information resource for the scientific research community. PubChem consists of three inter-linked databases, Substance, Compound and BioAssay. The Substance database contains chemical information deposited by individual data contributors to PubChem, and the Compound database stores unique chemical structures extracted from the Substance database. Biological activity data of chemical substances tested in assay experiments are contained in the BioAssay database. This paper provides an overview of the PubChem Substance and Compound databases, including data sources and contents, data organization, data submission using PubChem Upload, chemical structure standardization, web-based interfaces for textual and non-textual searches, and programmatic access. It also gives a brief description of PubChem3D, a resource derived from theoretical three-dimensional structures of compounds in PubChem, as well as PubChemRDF, Resource Description Framework (RDF)-formatted PubChem data for data sharing, analysis and integration with information contained in other databases. PMID:26400175

  12. PubChem Substance and Compound databases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunghwan; Thiessen, Paul A.; Bolton, Evan E.; Chen, Jie; Fu, Gang; Gindulyte, Asta; Han, Lianyi; He, Jane; He, Siqian; Shoemaker, Benjamin A.; Wang, Jiyao; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Jian; Bryant, Stephen H.

    2016-01-01

    PubChem (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for information on chemical substances and their biological activities, launched in 2004 as a component of the Molecular Libraries Roadmap Initiatives of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). For the past 11 years, PubChem has grown to a sizable system, serving as a chemical information resource for the scientific research community. PubChem consists of three inter-linked databases, Substance, Compound and BioAssay. The Substance database contains chemical information deposited by individual data contributors to PubChem, and the Compound database stores unique chemical structures extracted from the Substance database. Biological activity data of chemical substances tested in assay experiments are contained in the BioAssay database. This paper provides an overview of the PubChem Substance and Compound databases, including data sources and contents, data organization, data submission using PubChem Upload, chemical structure standardization, web-based interfaces for textual and non-textual searches, and programmatic access. It also gives a brief description of PubChem3D, a resource derived from theoretical three-dimensional structures of compounds in PubChem, as well as PubChemRDF, Resource Description Framework (RDF)-formatted PubChem data for data sharing, analysis and integration with information contained in other databases. PMID:26400175

  13. Adolescent substance use during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Henggeler, S W; Felice, M E; Reynoso, T; Williams, N M; Sheets, R

    1993-04-01

    Substance use during pregnancy may be a key mediator of the association between adolescent childbearing and poor newborn outcome. Substance use during pregnancy was evaluated for 50 teens who were consecutive patients at an inner-city university clinic. Although teens reported typical lifetime rates of substance use, self-reports and two urine assays indicated minimal substance use throughout pregnancy. Findings suggest that the adolescents exercised judicious decision making in light of the known health risks of substance use during pregnancy.

  14. Approaching Suspicious Substances Safely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A mineral identification tool that was developed for NASA's Mars Rover Technology Development program is now serving as a powerful tool for U.S. law enforcement agencies and military personnel to identify suspicious liquid and solid substances. The tool can measure unknown substances through glass and plastic packaging materials with the RamanProbe(TradeMark) focused fiber-optic probe. The probe length can be extended up to 200 meters to enable users to analyze potentially dangerous substances at a safe distance. In many cases, the spectrometer and personnel are kept in a safe zone while the probe is positioned next to the sample being analyzed. Being able to identify chemicals in remote locations also saves users time and labor, since otherwise the samples would need to be collected, transported, and prepared prior to measurement in the laboratory.

  15. PRESSOR SUBSTANCES IN ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Henry A.; Perry, H. Mitchell; Dennis, Evie G.; Mahoney, Laura E.

    1955-01-01

    Some pharmacological and chemical qualities of pherentasin, a vasoconstrictor substance procured from human hypertensive blood, were studied by a new assay method using the spirally cut rabbit aorta. Of a number of drugs tested, six metal-binding agents including hydralazine inactivated the active principle. The material was stable in acid but not in alkali. It was destroyed by drying. Chemical analysis and inactivation procedures suggested the presence of primary amine and considerable sulfur; a peptide linkage was suspected because of inactivation by manganous ion and papain. The material was remarkably resistant to most pharmacological agents and appeared to act directly on smooth muscle. PMID:13252186

  16. A freshwater bacterial strain, Shewanella sp. Lzh-2, isolated from Lake Taihu and its two algicidal active substances, hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione and 2, 3-indolinedione.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenghua; Lin, Shengqin; Liu, Xianglong; Tan, Jing; Pan, Jianliang; Yang, Hong

    2014-05-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms have become a serious problem in Lake Taihu during the last 20 years, and Microcystis aeruginosa and Synechococcus sp. are the two dominant species in cyanobacterial blooms of Lake Taihu. A freshwater bacterial strain, Shewanella sp. Lzh-2, with strong algicidal properties against harmful cyanobacteria was isolated from Lake Taihu. Two substances with algicidal activity secreted extracellularly by Shewanella sp. Lzh-2, S-2A and S-2B, were purified from the bacterial culture of strain Lzh-2 using ethyl acetate extraction, column chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in turn. The substances S-2A and S-2B were identified as hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione and 2, 3-indolinedione (isatin), respectively, based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and hydrogen-nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) analyses, making this the first report of their algicidal activity toward cyanobacteria. S-2A (hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione) had no algicidal effects against Synechococcus sp. BN60, but had a high level of algicidal activity against M. aeruginosa 9110. The LD50 value of S-2A against M. aeruginosa 9110 was 5.7 μg/ml. S-2B (2, 3-indolinedione) showed a potent algicidal effect against both M. aeruginosa 9110 and Synechococcus sp. BN60, and the LD50 value of S-2B against M. aeruginosa 9110 and Synechococcus sp. BN60 was 12.5 and 34.2 μg/ml, respectively. Obvious morphological changes in M. aeruginosa 9110 and Synechococcus sp. BN60 were observed after they were exposed to S-2A (or S-2B) for 24 h. Approximately, the algicidal activity, the concentration of S-2A and S-2B, and the cell density of Lzh-2 were positively related to each other during the cocultivation process. Overall, these findings increase our knowledge about algicidal substances secreted by algicidal bacteria and indicate that strain Lzh-2 and its two algicidal substances have the

  17. Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, Charles L.; Thilly, William G.

    1985-01-01

    A line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity) is disclosed. Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. Mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics, are also disclosed.

  18. Risks and Chemical Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Avrom A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines exposure to chemicals within the home and three important ways in which hazardous substances can be identified and evaluated. Suggests a rational picture of human health risks and contains an introductory discussion of reasons for exposure, epidemiology, cancer causes and patterns, animal testing, toxins, and risk. (LZ)

  19. Drug and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Latest Research Getting More Help Related Topics Anxiety COPD Delirium Depression Pain Management Prevention Related News Older Adults Who Drink Alcohol at Risk for Drug Interactions Monday, November 23, 2015 Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Drug and Substance Abuse ...

  20. Substance Abuse and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos, Ed.

    This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…

  1. Substance abuse in women.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Shelly F; Back, Sudie E; Lawson, Katie; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-06-01

    Gender differences in substance use disorders (SUDs) and treatment outcomes for women with SUDs have been a focus of research in the last 15 years. This article reviews gender differences in the epidemiology of SUDs, highlighting the convergence of male/female prevalence ratios of SUDs in the last 20 years. The telescoping course of SUDs, recent research on the role of neuroactive gonadal steroid hormones in craving and relapse, and sex differences in stress reactivity and relapse to substance abuse are described. The role of co-occurring mood and anxiety, eating, and posttraumatic stress disorders is considered in the epidemiology, natural history, and treatment of women with SUDs. Women's use of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, cannabis, and nicotine are examined in terms of recent epidemiology, biologic and psychosocial effects, and treatment. Although women may be less likely to enter substance abuse treatment than men over the course of the lifetime, once they enter treatment, gender itself is not a predictor of treatment retention, completion, or outcome. Research on gender-specific treatments for women with SUDs and behavioral couples treatment has yielded promising results for substance abuse treatment outcomes in women.

  2. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  3. Substance Use Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Judy

    This report outlines the Hillsborough County, Florida, Head Start Program's project to field test with young children and their families curricula that were designed to prevent alcohol and other drug problems. A national search conducted by means of computers, individual contacts, and other methods yielded information on 22 substance abuse…

  4. [Problems related to regulation of toxic substances].

    PubMed

    Kurliandskiĭ, B A

    1989-01-01

    Intensification of chemical load on humans and nature requires a complex approach to regulation of hazardous substances. Extensive setting-up of sanitary standards has no significant positive effect on natural and technological environment. Due to more thorough approaches to research it is necessary to establish MACs for major pollutants. It is advisable to regulate substances having no actual risk of intoxication. Regulation activities need the development of the All-Union Data Base. Epidemiological studies accompanied by active participation of practising sanitary physicians should be said for MAC development.

  5. Stress, substance abuse, and addiction.

    PubMed

    Duffing, Tiffany M; Greiner, Stefanie G; Mathias, Charles W; Dougherty, Donald M

    2014-01-01

    Experiencing stressful life events is reciprocally associated with substance use and abuse. The nature of these relationships varies based on the age of stress exposure and stage of substance use involvement. This chapter reviews the developmental and biological processes involved in the relationship of stress exposure and substance use initiation, substance use maintenance and relapse, and response to substance abuse treatment. Special emphasis is given to describing the various stress-related mechanisms involved in substance use and abuse, highlighting the differences between each of these phases of drug use and drawing upon current research to make suggestions for treatments of substance use disorder (SUD) patients. Stress is inherent to the experience of life and, in many situations, unavoidable. Through ongoing research and treatment development, there is the potential to modify the relationship of stress with ongoing substance use and abuse. PMID:24510301

  6. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...

  7. Relations between heavy drinking, gender, and substance-free reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G

    2010-04-01

    Behavioral economic theory and laboratory research have suggested that substance abuse may be associated with diminished engagement in enjoyable substance-free activities (substance-free reinforcement). However, college students, in particular men, have reported numerous social benefits from drinking that might mitigate the expected inverse relation between drinking and substance-free reinforcement. In this study, we examined the relations between college student heavy drinking, gender, and several categories of substance-free reinforcement (peer, dating, sexual, school, and family activities). Participants were 246 undergraduate students who were classified as a function of their reported frequency of heavy drinking during a typical week in the past month (120 heavy drinkers, 126 light drinkers). Heavy drinking was associated with significantly higher substance-free peer and sexual reinforcement. This association was gender invariant and remained significant in multiple regression models that controlled for gender, ethnicity, and fraternity or sorority membership. Substance-free reinforcement did not predict frequency of heavy drinking in models that included levels of substance-related reinforcement. The results indicate that college student heavy drinking is not associated with global deficits in substance-free reinforcement and is instead associated with increased peer and sexual activity that occurs outside the context of drinking or drug use. Prevention programs should help students to compensate for the potential loss of social reinforcement associated with reductions in drinking.

  8. Substance abuse and criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Motayne, G G

    1992-09-01

    As forensic psychiatry develops as a clinical subspecialty, clinical skill in understanding, treating, and predicting violent behavior will become more important. This article addresses the importance of understanding the relationship between substance abuse and violent behavior. This article also discusses morbidity and mortality in substance abuse, the demographics of substance abuse and criminality, and the clinical aspects of the forensic psychiatric evaluation.

  9. Streptococcal Bacteriocin-Like Inhibitory Substances: Some Personal Insights into the Bacteriocin-Like Activities Produced by Streptococci Good and Bad.

    PubMed

    Tagg, John Robert

    2009-06-01

    The background to the discovery and commercial development of the first Streptococcus salivarius probiotic is documented. A 40-year search of the genus Streptococcus for a harmless natural antagonist of Streptococcus pyogenes had as its operational basis a simple deferred antagonism "fingerprinting" procedure, the application of which results in each tested strain being accorded an inhibitor production (P)-type and inhibitor sensitivity (S)-type profile. Systematic application of this schema has opened a "Pandora's Box" of novel streptococcal bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS). The numerically prominent commensal S. salivarius is proposed to have a pivotal population-modulating role within the oral microbiota of humans. The probiotic strain S. salivarius K12 produces several megaplasmid-encoded BLIS including the lantibiotics salivaricin A and salivaricin B. Strain K12 and other BLIS-producing S. salivarius are currently in use or under development for application to the control of a variety of common maladies and infections of the human oral cavity. PMID:26783132

  10. Comparison of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activity of the phenolic substances in two black legumes of different genera.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yuqing; Chang, Sam K C; Zhang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant-rich plant foods can inhibit starch and lipid digestions that are relevant to diabetes management. Two high-antioxidant black legumes, black soybean (Glycine max) and black turtle bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), belonging to two different genera were used to investigate their capacity against digestive enzymes. Phenolic substances were compared in crude, semi-purified extracts (semi-purified by XAD-7 column), and fractions (fractionationed by Sephadex LH-20 column) from these two legumes. In addition, their antioxidant capacities and abilities to inhibit digestive enzymes were characterized. Results showed that Fraction V from black soybean was the most effective (IC50: 0.25mg/mL) against α-amylase; Fraction V from black turtle bean was the most potent (IC50: 0.25μg/mL) against α-glucosidase; Fraction IV from black turtle bean was the most powerful (IC50: 76μg/mL) against lipase. Of the pure phenolic compounds tested, myricetin showed the highest inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase (IC50: 0.38mg/mL, 0.87μg/mL and 15μg/mL, respectively). PMID:27507474

  11. Dextrins from Maize Starch as Substances Activating the Growth of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria Simultaneously Inhibiting the Growth of Firmicutes, Responsible for the Occurrence of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Barczynska, Renata; Kapusniak, Janusz; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Slizewska, Katarzyna; Szalecki, Mieczyslaw

    2016-06-01

    Unarguably, diet has a significant impact on human intestinal microbiota. The role of prebiotics as substances supporting the maintenance of appropriate body weight and reducing the demand for energy via stimulation of the growth of beneficial microbiota of the gut and formation products such as short-chain fatty acids, is more and more often highlighted. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether dextrins from maize starch resistant to enzymatic digestion stimulate the growth of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria strains representing a majority of the population of colon microbiota in lean individuals and limit the growth of Firmicutes bacterial strains representing a majority of the population of colon microbiota in obese individuals. The study was conducted with the use of in vitro method, using isolates from faeces of children characterized by normal weight, overweight and obesity. It was demonstrated that dextrins from maize starch equally efficient stimulate the growth of the isolates derived from normal-weight, overweight and obese children, and therefore may be added to foods as a beneficial component stimulating growth of strains belonging to Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes for both overweight, obese and normal-weight children. PMID:27155867

  12. Brief Family Based Intervention for Substance Abusing Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Lynn; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Research has consistently shown that a lack of parental involvement in the activities of their children predicts initiation and escalation of substance use. Parental monitoring, as well as youth disclosure about their whereabouts, parent child communication, positive parenting and family management strategies, e.g., consistent limit setting, and parental communication about and disapproval of substance use, have all been shown to protect against adolescent substance abuse and substance problems. Given the empirical evidence, family and parenting approaches to preventing and intervening on adolescent substance misuse have received support in the literature. This article discusses the theoretical foundations as well as the application of the Family Check-up, a brief family-based intervention for adolescent substance use. PMID:26092741

  13. Aspects of tests and assessment of filtering materials used for respiratory protection against bioaerosols. Part I: type of active substance, contact time, microorganism species.

    PubMed

    Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Gutarowska, Beata; Brochocka, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on antimicrobial activity of polymer filter nonwovens produced by needle-punching or melt-blowing with an addition of disinfecting agents. The first part of the paper discusses how the biocidal activity of nonwovens is a function of the active agent added to the nonwovens, the duration of the contact of microorganisms with nonwovens and the type of microorganisms. The types of fibres and disinfecting agents had a considerable effect on the biocidal activity of nonwovens. The biocidal effect of nonwovens increased with the duration of their contact with microorganisms. Fibre activity differed considerably depending on the species of the microorganism. The microorganisms most sensitive to biocidal activity of the active filter nonwoven were S. aureus, M. flavus and E. coli. There were no biocidal effects on spore-forming bacterium B. subtilis.

  14. The Influence of Group Membership on Multiple Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Craig; Barnes, Jeremy; Leaver-Dunn, Deidre; Nagy, Steven; Leeper, James

    2001-01-01

    Study assessed the influence of group membership on the use of multiple substances among adolescents. Organized group activity included clubs and organizations, as well as athletic participation. Multiple substance included current use of any combination of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Group participation had a buffering effect on multiple…

  15. Substance Abuse Prevention Program. Evaluation Report 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Jennifer S.

    In May 1986, the Albuquerque, New Mexico Public Schools adopted a policy to address concerns about student substance abuse. All schools developed objectives and activities to address substance abuse prevention and intervention, and an interdisciplinary team was formed to monitor and facilitate the schools' efforts in implementing the policy. To…

  16. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, personal-care products, and other organic wastewater contaminants in water resources: Recent research activities of the U.S. Geological Survey's toxic substances hydrology program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Focazio, Michael J.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2003-01-01

    Recent decades have brought increasing concerns for potential contamination of water resources that could inadvertently result during production, use, and disposal of the numerous chemicals offering improvements in industry, agriculture, medical treatment, and even common household products. Increasing knowledge of the environmental occurrence or toxicological behavior of these contaminants from various studies in Europe, United States, and elsewhere has resulted in increased concern for potential adverse environmental and human health effects (Daughton and Ternes, 1999). Ecologists and public health experts often have incomplete understandings of the toxicological significance of many of these contaminants, particularly long-term, low-level exposure and when they occur in mixtures with other contaminants (Daughton and Ternes, 1999; Kümmerer, 2001). In addition, these ‘emerging contaminants’ are not typically monitored or assessed in ambient water resources. The need to understand the processes controlling the transport and fate of these contaminants in the environment, and the lack of knowledge of the significance of long-term exposures have increased the need to study environmental occurrence down to trace (nanogram per liter) levels. Furthermore, the possibility that mixtures of environmental contaminants may interact synergistically or antagonistically has increased the need to characterize the types of mixtures that are found in our waters. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Toxic Substances Hydrology Program (Toxics Program) is developing information and tools on emerging water-quality issues that will be used to design and improve water-quality monitoring and assessment programs of the USGS and others, and for proactive decision-making by industry, regulators, the research community, and the public (http://toxics.usgs.gov/regional/emc.html). This research on emerging water-quality issues includes a combination of laboratory work to develop new analytical

  17. Hazardous substance liability insurance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The study was carried out to meet requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980. It considers the adequacy and feasibility of private insurance to protect owners and operators of ships covered by the Act and for post-closure financial responsibility for hazardous waste disposal facilities. The report is in three parts: Pt. 1 is an introduction to the hazardous substance insurance problem; Pt. 2 considers the adequacy of private insurance for owners and operators of vessels and facilities; Pt. 3 focuses on the problem of a private insurance alternative to the Post-Closure Liability Fund for 'inactive' hazardous waste disposal facilities.

  18. Parental substance use impairment, parenting and substance use disorder risk.

    PubMed

    Arria, Amelia M; Mericle, Amy A; Meyers, Kathleen; Winters, Ken C

    2012-07-01

    Using data from a nationally representative sample, this study investigated substance use disorder (SUD) among respondents with ages 15-54 years as a function of their parents' substance-related impairment and parents' treatment history. In addition, associations among maternal and paternal substance-related impairment, specific parenting behaviors, and risk for SUD in the proband were examined. As expected, parental substance-related impairment was associated with SUD. Paternal treatment history was associated with a decreased risk for SUD in the proband but did not appear to be associated with positive parenting practices. Results of post hoc analyses suggested that parenting behaviors might operate differently to influence SUD risk in children where parents are affected by substance use problems compared with nonaffected families. Future research is warranted to better understand the complex relationships among parental substance use, treatment, parenting behaviors, and SUD risk in offspring. Opportunities might exist within treatment settings to improve parenting skills.

  19. Substance abuse: an overview.

    PubMed

    Comerci, G D; Schwebel, R

    2000-02-01

    Substance abuse continues to be a major adolescent health risk. Despite encouraging trends toward decreased drug use in the late 1980s, an increase in use occurred in the early 1990s and only now is beginning to level off. A brief update on the status of the most commonly abused substances is provided. A discussion of current research is given in support of viewing drug addiction as a medical condition, i.e., a "brain disease." Reasons are suggested to explain why adolescents use and abuse drugs and why trends occur in their use. Two aspects of diagnosis are reviewed: psychiatric and medical comorbidity and drug screening and laboratory assessment of the adolescent. Prevention and early intervention are presented with an emphasis on drug education, behavioral wellness, family communication, doctor-patient discussion and assessment, and referral. Commentary is made on the ethics of care; issues of confidentiality and the right to privacy with regard to drug testing and sharing of information are explored. A review of various policy statements of the American Academy of Pediatrics and other medical organizations is presented.

  20. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of pharmacologically active substances in urine and blood samples by use of a continuous solid-phase extraction system and microwave-assisted derivatization.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, Abdelmonaim; Ballesteros, Evaristo

    2012-04-01

    A sensitive method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine 22 pharmacologically active substances (frequently used in the treatment of human and animal's diseases) including analgesics, antibacterials, anti-epileptics, antiseptics, β-blockers, hormones, lipid regulators and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories in blood and urine samples. Samples were subjected to continuous solid-phase extraction in a sorbent column (Oasis HLB), and then the target analytes were eluted with ethyl acetate and derivatized in a household microwave oven at 350 W for 3 min. Finally, these products were determined in a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a DB-5 fused silica capillary column. The analyte detection limits thus obtained ranged from 0.2 to 1.3 ng L⁻¹ for urine samples and 0.8-5.6 ng L⁻¹ for blood samples. Recoveries from both blood and urine ranged from 85 to 102%, and within-day and between-day relative standard deviations were all less than 7.5%. The proposed method offers advantages in reduction of the exposure danger to toxic solvents used in conventional sample pretreatment, simplicity of the extraction processes, rapidity, and sensitivity enhancement. The method was successfully used to quantify pharmacologically active substances in human and animal (lamb, veal and pig) blood and urine. The hormones estrone and 17β-estradiol were detected in virtually all samples, and so were other analytes such as acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and triclosan in human samples, and florfenicol, pyrimethamine and phenylbutazone in animal samples. PMID:22391330

  1. Reward processing in obesity, substance addiction and non-substance addiction.

    PubMed

    García-García, I; Horstmann, A; Jurado, M A; Garolera, M; Chaudhry, S J; Margulies, D S; Villringer, A; Neumann, J

    2014-11-01

    Similarities and differences between obesity and addiction are a prominent topic of ongoing research. We conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis on 87 studies in order to map the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to reward in participants with obesity, substance addiction and non-substance (or behavioural) addiction, and to identify commonalities and differences between them. Our study confirms the existence of alterations during reward processing in obesity, non-substance addiction and substance addiction. Specifically, participants with obesity or with addictions differed from controls in several brain regions including prefrontal areas, subcortical structures and sensory areas. Additionally, participants with obesity and substance addictions exhibited similar blood-oxygen-level-dependent fMRI hyperactivity in the amygdala and striatum when processing either general rewarding stimuli or the problematic stimuli (food and drug-related stimuli, respectively). We propose that these similarities may be associated with an enhanced focus on reward--especially with regard to food or drug-related stimuli--in obesity and substance addiction. Ultimately, this enhancement of reward processes may facilitate the presence of compulsive-like behaviour in some individuals or under some specific circumstances. We hope that increasing knowledge about the neurobehavioural correlates of obesity and addictions will lead to practical strategies that target the high prevalence of these central public health challenges.

  2. [Effect of biologically active substances of animal and plant origin on prooxidant-antioxidant balance in rats with experimental prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Belostotskaia, L I; Nikitchenko, Iu V; Gomon, O N; Chaĭka, L A; Bondar', V V; Dziuba, V N

    2006-01-01

    The effect of biologically active complexes of animal (prostatilen) and plant (permixon) origin on physiological indices of prostate and prooxidant-antioxidant balance in prostate and blood was studied in rats with the hyperprolactinemia-induced prostatic hyperplasia. It was shown that both prostatilen (1 mg of the total peptides per kg) and permixon (100 mg of Serenoa repens extract per kg) prevent increase in the prostate mass and volume, in the content of lipid hydroperoxides, and in the glutathione peroxidase activity in prostate. Prostatilen, in contrast to permixon, normalized the content of lipid hydroperoxides (increased under hyperplazia conditions) and increases glutathione peroxidase activity (reduced under hyperplazia conditions).

  3. Adolescent substance use and abuse: recognition and management.

    PubMed

    Griswold, Kim S; Aronoff, Helen; Kernan, Joan B; Kahn, Linda S

    2008-02-01

    Substance abuse in adolescents is undertreated in the United States. Family physicians are well positioned to recognize substance use in their patients and to take steps to address the issue before use escalates. Comorbid mental disorders among adolescents with substance abuse include depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Office-, home-, and school-based drug testing is not routinely recommended. Screening tools for adolescent substance abuse include the CRAFFT questionnaire. Family therapy is crucial in the management of adolescent substance use disorders. Although family physicians may be able to treat adolescents with substance use disorders in the office setting, it is often necessary and prudent to refer patients to one or more appropriate consultants who specialize specifically in substance use disorders, psychology, or psychiatry. Treatment options include anticipatory guidance, brief therapeutic counseling, school-based drug-counseling programs, outpatient substance abuse clinics, day treatment programs, and inpatient and residential programs. Working within community and family contexts, family physicians can activate and oversee the system of professionals and treatment components necessary for optimal management of substance misuse in adolescents.

  4. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  5. Surfactants in atmospheric aerosols and rainwater around lake ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Razak, Intan Suraya; Latif, Mohd Talib; Jaafar, Shoffian Amin; Khan, Md Firoz; Mushrifah, Idris

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the composition of surfactants in atmospheric aerosols and rainwater in the vicinity of Lake Chini, Malaysia. Samples of atmospheric aerosol and rainwater were collected between March and September 2011 using a high volume air sampler (HVAS) and glass bottles equipped with funnel. Colorimetric analysis was undertaken to determine the concentration of anionic surfactants as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and cationic surfactants as disulphine blue active substances (DBAS). The water-soluble ionic compositions were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for cations (Na, K, Mg and Ca) and ion chromatography equipped with a conductivity detector for anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3(-), and SO4(2-)) and the Nessler Method was used to obtain the NH4(+) concentrations. The source apportionment of MBAS and DBAS in atmospheric aerosols was identified using a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR). The results revealed that the concentrations of surfactants in atmospheric aerosols and rainwater were dominated by anionic surfactants as MBAS. The concentration of surfactants as MBAS and DBAS was dominated in fine mode compared to coarse mode aerosols. Using PCA/MLR analysis, two major sources of atmospheric surfactants to Lake Chini were identified as soil dust (75 to 93%) and biomass burning (2 to 22%).

  6. Neural Circuitry of Impaired Emotion Regulation in Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E.; Pommy, Jessica M.; Adinoff, Bryon

    2016-01-01

    Impaired emotion regulation contributes to the development and severity of substance use disorders (substance disorders). This review summarizes the literature on alterations in emotion regulation neural circuitry in substance disorders, particularly in relation to disorders of negative affect (without substance disorder), and it presents promising areas of future research. Emotion regulation paradigms during functional magnetic resonance imaging are conceptualized into four dimensions: affect intensity and reactivity, affective modulation, cognitive modulation, and behavioral control. The neural circuitry associated with impaired emotion regulation is compared in individuals with and without substance disorders, with a focus on amygdala, insula, and prefrontal cortex activation and their functional and structural connectivity. Hypoactivation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (rACC/vmPFC) is the most consistent finding across studies, dimensions, and clinical populations (individuals with and without substance disorders). The same pattern is evident for regions in the cognitive control network (anterior cingulate and dorsal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices) during cognitive modulation and behavioral control. These congruent findings are possibly related to attenuated functional and/or structural connectivity between the amygdala and insula and between the rACC/vmPFC and cognitive control network. Although increased amygdala and insula activation is associated with impaired emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders, it is not consistently observed in substance disorders. Emotion regulation disturbances in substance disorders may therefore stem from impairments in prefrontal functioning, rather than excessive reactivity to emotional stimuli. Treatments for emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders that normalize prefrontal functioning may offer greater efficacy for substance disorders

  7. [Arg6,D-Trp7,9,NmePhe8]-substance P (6–11) activates JNK and induces apoptosis in small cell lung cancer cells via an oxidant-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, A C; Armstrong, R A; Waters, C M; Cummings, J; Smyth, J F; Haslett, C; Sethi, T

    1999-01-01

    [Arg6,D-Trp7,9,NmePhe8]-substance P (6–11) (antagonist G) is a novel class of anti-cancer agent that inhibits small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell growth in vitro and in vivo and is entering phase II clinical investigation for the treatment of SCLC. Although antagonist G blocks SCLC cell growth (IC50 = 24.5 ± 1.5 and 38.5 ± 1.5 μM for the H69 and H510 cell lines respectively), its exact mechanism of action is unclear. This study shows that antagonist G stimulates apoptosis as assessed by morphology (EC50 = 5.9 ± 0.1 and 15.2 ± 2.7 μM for the H69 and H510 cell lines respectively) and stimulates c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity in SCLC cells (EC50 = 3.2 ± 0.1 and 15.2 ± 2.7 μM). This activity is neuropeptide-independent, but dependent on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is inhibited by the free radical scavenger n-acetyl cysteine. Furthermore, antagonist G itself induces inflammation (59% increase in oedema volume compared to control) and potentiates (by 35–40%) bradykinin-induced oedema formation in vivo. In view of these results we show that, as well as acting as a ‘broad-spectrum’ neuropeptide antagonist, antagonist G stimulates basal G-protein activity in SCLC cell membranes (81 ± 12% stimulation at 10 μM), thereby displaying a unique ability to stimulate certain signal transduction pathways by activating G-proteins. This novel activity may be instrumental for full anti-cancer activity in SCLC cells and may also account for antagonist G activity in non-neuropeptide-dependent cancers. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10362111

  8. Antileishmanial activity of compounds produced by endophytic fungi derived from medicinal plant Vernonia polyanthes and their potential as source of bioactive substances.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Adriana M; Soares, Mateus Gonçalves; da Silva Torchelsen, Fernanda K V; de Araujo, Jorge A Viana; Lage, Paula S; Duarte, Mariana C; Andrade, Pedro H R; Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Coelho, Eduardo A F; do Nascimento, Andréa M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the antileishmanial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Vernonia polyanthes plant and their prospective use in the discovery of bioactive compounds. Sixteen endophytes were isolated by using potato dextrose agar medium and submitted to cultivation in rice medium. The fungal cultures were extracted with ethanol and used as crude extracts for testing their antileishmanial activity. The most active ethanol extract was obtained from P2-F3 strain, which was identified as Cochliobolus sativus by ITS rRNA gene sequence data. Followed by a bioassay-guided fractionation, the cochlioquinone A, isocochlioquinone A and anhydrocochlioquinone A compounds were isolated from the crude extracts and demonstrated to inhibit the parasites. From the present work, it is possible to conclude that endophytic fungi derived from medicinal plant V. polyanthes may be considered promising source for the discovery of bioactive compounds. PMID:26318306

  9. Adsorption of organic substances with different physicochemical properties 2. The heats of adsorption of freon 13B1 on active carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Baikova, T.V.; Gubkina, M.L.; Larin, A.V.; Polyakov, N.S.

    1995-03-01

    Toxic organic compounds which cause danger to the ozone layer must be removed from air. Adsorption processes are finding increasingly wide use. The linear regions of the adsorption isotherms of freon 13B1 (CF{sub 3}Br) on active carbons with different porous structures were studied by gas chromatography at 343-573 K. The Henry`s constants were determined, and the isosteric heats of adsorption (Q) were calculated in the region of zero filling. It was established that the Q values for active carbons with different pore size distributions are almost the same and vary within 38-41 kJ mol{sup -1}. This coincidence can be explained assuming that the interaction between the adsorbed molecules and the active carbons occurs in the pores whose sizes are comparable with those of the adsorbed molecules.

  10. Antileishmanial activity of compounds produced by endophytic fungi derived from medicinal plant Vernonia polyanthes and their potential as source of bioactive substances.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Adriana M; Soares, Mateus Gonçalves; da Silva Torchelsen, Fernanda K V; de Araujo, Jorge A Viana; Lage, Paula S; Duarte, Mariana C; Andrade, Pedro H R; Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Coelho, Eduardo A F; do Nascimento, Andréa M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the antileishmanial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Vernonia polyanthes plant and their prospective use in the discovery of bioactive compounds. Sixteen endophytes were isolated by using potato dextrose agar medium and submitted to cultivation in rice medium. The fungal cultures were extracted with ethanol and used as crude extracts for testing their antileishmanial activity. The most active ethanol extract was obtained from P2-F3 strain, which was identified as Cochliobolus sativus by ITS rRNA gene sequence data. Followed by a bioassay-guided fractionation, the cochlioquinone A, isocochlioquinone A and anhydrocochlioquinone A compounds were isolated from the crude extracts and demonstrated to inhibit the parasites. From the present work, it is possible to conclude that endophytic fungi derived from medicinal plant V. polyanthes may be considered promising source for the discovery of bioactive compounds.

  11. Analysis of effects of MCB3681, the antibacterially active substance of prodrug MCB3837, on human resident microflora as proof of principle.

    PubMed

    Dalhoff, A; Rashid, M-U; Kapsner, T; Panagiotidis, G; Weintraub, A; Nord, C E

    2015-08-01

    The water-soluble prodrug MCB3837 is rapidly converted to MCB3681, active against Gram-positive bacterial species, after intravenous infusion. The aim of this study was to prove the principle that MCB3681 is efficacious in vivo by demonstrating its effect on the resident microflora or colonizers of the human skin, nose, oropharynx and intestine. MCB3837 was infused at a daily dose of 6 mg/kg for 5 days. MCB3681 was active against clostridia, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus, thus proving the principle that MCB3681 is antibacterially efficacious in vivo without affecting the Gram-negative microflora.

  12. 75 FR 53719 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Acid (GHB) (2010), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule I. The company plans to manufacture Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) (2010) in bulk active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) form...

  13. Purification of substances from Achyrocline satureioides with inhibitory activity against Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood in honeybees' larvae.

    PubMed

    González, María J; Beoletto, Viviana G; Agnese, Alicia M; Audisio, Marcela C; Marioli, Juan M

    2015-04-01

    Achyrocline satureioides extracts were tested in vitro against the growth of Paenibacillus larvae. Four different extracts were obtained by liquid-liquid extraction from an aqueous-ethyl alcohol macerate of the aerial parts of the plant. The biological activity was tested by the broth microdilution technique. Hexane extract showed the highest activity (minimum inhibitory concentration = 0.060 ± 0.037 mg/mL). Transmission electron microscopy experiments showed that the main effect exerted by the hexane extract on the cell was at the cellular membrane level. The hexane extract was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography, and the activity of its components was tested by bioautography. Four growth inhibition zones were observed in the bioautographic experiments (using hexane-acetone (7:3) as mobile phase), with that at Rf = 0.57 showing the largest zone of inhibition. High-performance liquid chromatographic experiments, using ultraviolet and electrospray ionization coupled to tandem mass spectrometric detection, showed the presence of one compound with a m/z ratio of 442, which may be related to phloroglucinols α-pyrone compounds recently discovered. The high antibacterial activity of the hexane extract and of the isolated compound determined in this work may be useful for the development of future new alternatives for the treatment of American foulbrood.

  14. Soldiering with Substance: Substance and Steroid Use among Military Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The military provides a unique social environment given the organization and culture of the institution. Understanding substance use by those inside this institution provides insight into both the population as well as substance use in general. Using data collected from in-depth interviews, this article explores the nature and extent of substance…

  15. Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, C.L.; Thilly, W.G.

    1999-08-10

    The present invention pertains to a line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity). Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. The invention also includes mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics. 3 figs.

  16. Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, Charles L.; Thilly, William G.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity). Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. The invention also includes mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics.

  17. Substances and Heart Rhythm Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... in others. These rhythm problems are rarely serious. Substance Abuse: Drugs and Inhalants Abusing legal or illegal drugs ... people, alcohol can cause heart rhythm disturbances. Alcohol abuse is a major risk factor for High ... herbs and other substances used in over-the-counter remedies are believed ...

  18. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…

  19. Toxic Substances List. 1972 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Herbert E., Ed.; And Others

    The second edition of the Toxic Substances List, containing some 13,000 entries, is prepared annually by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. The purpose of the List is to identify all known toxic substances but not to quantitate the hazard. The List…

  20. Michigan Household Hazardous Substance Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Janet; Stone Nancy

    Common household hazardous substances include cleansers, drain cleaners, automotive products, paints, solvents, and pesticides. This handbook was designed to serve as a resource for people frequently contacted by the public for information on household hazardous substances and wastes. Included in the handbook are: (1) an introduction to Michigan's…

  1. Usage criminel de substances psycho-actives : le problème de la durée de détection.

    PubMed

    Kintz, P; Villain, M; Cirimele, V; Goullé, Jp; Ludes, B

    2002-01-01

    On a regular basis, the media presents the potential risks of the use of psycho-active compounds, including misused pharmaceuticals (flunitrazepam, GHB) or drugs of abuse (cannabis, LSD, ecstasy). Ethanol is also frequently encountered. These drugs can be used for recreational purposes by addicts or can be observed after sexual assaults (drugs spiked in food). Forensic toxicology can be involved in several situations to document impairment, such as : crime under influence, date rape, driving under influence, phsychiatric disorders, determination of the cause of death … In some particular situations, it can be very cautious to investigate exposure to psycho-active drugs, due to late sampling of biological specimens. To enhance the window of detection of 3 specific drugs, the authors propose the following : 1. Use of an ultra-sensitive technique, such as GC/MS/MS/NCI for 7-aminoflunitrazepam; 2. Use of a cumulative specimen, such as sweat for GHB and 3. Use of a metabolite with a long half-life, such as ethyl glucuronide for ethanol. PMID:24862520

  2. Isolation, purification, and identification of antialgal substances in green alga Ulva prolifera for antialgal activity against the common harmful red tide microalgae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-ying; Wang, Hui; Guo, Gan-lin; Pu, Yin-fang; Yan, Bin-lun; Wang, Chang-hai

    2016-01-01

    Ten compounds (1~10) were successfully isolated from green algae Ulva prolifera through the combination of silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and repeated preparative thin-layer chromatography. These ten compounds showed antialgal activity against red tide microalgae. Among them, compounds 3, 6, and 7 showed stronger antialgal activity against red tide microalgae. Furthermore, their structure was identified on the basis of spectroscopic data. There are three glycoglycerolipids: 1-O-octadecanoic acid-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl glycerol (2), 1-O-palmitoyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl glycerol (4), and 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-oleoyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl glycerol (5); two monoglycerides: glycerol monopalmitate (1), 9-hexadecenoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester (3); two terpenoids: loliolide (6) and lsololiolide (7); one lipid-soluble pigments: zeaxanthin (8); one sterol: cholest-5-en-3-ol (9); and one alkaloid: pyrrolopiperazine-2,5-dione (10). These compounds were isolated from U. prolifera for the first time, and compounds 2, 3, 5, and 8 were isolated from marine macroalgae for the first time.

  3. Effect of biologically active substances present in water extracts of white mustard and coriander on antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation of mouse C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Zielniok, K; Szkoda, K; Gajewska, M; Wilczak, J

    2016-10-01

    Coriander and white mustard, an annual plants originated in the Mediterranean region, have been cultivated and used as spices for a long time. Recent studies have shown that they may constitute a potential source of phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of polyphenols in coriander and white mustard water extracts and to investigate their antioxidant activity in C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells, which serve as a good model of cells with intensive metabolism. HPLC analysis showed that polyphenols were able to permeate from the water extracts of studied plants into the undifferentiated myoblasts as well as myocytes undergoing differentiation, increasing the concentration of reduced glutathione and upregulating glutathione reductase and peroxidase activity. White mustard and coriander extracts also decreased the levels of oxysterols and sum of tiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in both: myoblasts and differentiating myocytes, demonstrating protective effect on cell membranes. The obtained results indicate that polyphenols synthesized by both herbs may have beneficial effects on muscle tissue.

  4. Carbohydrate polymers as constituents of exopolymer substances in seawater, their complexing properties towards copper ions, surface and catalytic activity determined by electrochemical methods.

    PubMed

    Plavšić, Marta; Strmečki, Slađana

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate to which extent polysaccharides (PS) contribute to the complexing capacity for copper ion (LT), to determine their property of surface activity and evaluate their capability to cause the catalytic hydrogen evolution wave (peak "H") due to their adsorption and the catalytic groups in their structure. Complexing capacities and apparent stability constants (Kapp) were measured electrochemically for model polysaccharides (PS): carrageenans (κ-, ι- and λ-), chondroitin sulfate, dextran, dextran sulfate, Na-alginate and humic material. Cu-complexing capacities were determined for Na-alginate (logKapp=8.32) and chondroitin sulphate (logKapp=8.14). PS adsorb on different surfaces due to their amphyphylic properties and on that way they could increase the interaction of copper ions with these surfaces by forming the surface complexes with Cu ions. PMID:26453850

  5. [Nutrition, physical activity and substance use in children and adolescents : Representative results of the federal state module Thuringia in KiGGS wave 1].

    PubMed

    Krause, Laura; Anding, Christine; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis

    2016-08-01

    The term health behaviour combines both health-promoting and health-risk components. In this study, the health behaviour of children and adolescents in Thuringia is analysed. The database was a representative subsample of the federal state module Thuringia, which was conducted by the Robert Koch Institute as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) wave 1 (2010-2012; n = 4,096; 3-17 years). Health behaviour was described based on nine indicators: fruit and vegetable consumption, soft drink consumption, breakfast at home, physical activity, sport, swimming ability, alcohol consumption, smoking and water pipe consumption (shisha smoking). Prevalence and mean values with 95 % confidence intervals were reported, and based on logistic or linear regression, the significance of the group differences was examined. The results show that 43.4 % of children and adolescents in Thuringia ate fruits and vegetables daily, 44.5 % consumed soft drinks less than once a week, and 67.9 % had breakfast at home every weekday. In addition, 31.0 % of children and adolescents in Thuringia were physically active at least 60 min a day, 69.8 % did sports for at least 2 h a week, and 81.5 % can swim. Additionally, 15.9 % of adolescents in Thuringia had hazardous alcohol consumption, 14.4 % currently smoked, and 20.0 % smoked a water pipe. Differences existed with regard to gender, age, socio-economic status (SES) of the family and residence (urban/rural). In summary, many of the children and adolescents in Thuringia demonstrate relatively positive health behaviour. However, the results also indicate groups at higher risk of unhealthy behaviour, such as children and adolescents from families with low SES. PMID:27351434

  6. Apple fruit pectic substances

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, A. J.; Northcote, D. H.

    1965-01-01

    1. The pectic substances of apple have been extracted and separated into a pure pectinic acid and a neutral arabinan–galactan complex by precipitation of the acidic component with ethanol and with cetylpyridinium chloride. 2. The composition of the fractions has been determined. The pectinic acid contained galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, xylose and several trace sugars. 3. Transelimination degradation of the pectinic acid gave rise to two components completely separable by zone electrophoresis and by Sephadex gel filtration. Analysis of these components confirmed that the pectinic acid molecules contained long chains of esterified galacturonosyl residues, but showed in addition that more neutral portions containing a high proportion of arabinofuranose residues were attached to them. 4. The identification of rhamnose, galactose and xylose in aldobiouronic acids obtained from a partial hydrolysate of pectinic acid has shown that these sugars are covalently linked in the molecule, and it is suggested that the galacturonosyl-(1→2)-rhamnose link is a general feature of pectinic acid structure. 5. The possible biological significance of pectinic acid structure has been discussed. 6. The arabinan–galactan complex contained nearly equal quantities of arabinose and galactose residues and some of its physical properties have been investigated. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 9. PMID:14340052

  7. Rapid automated assay of anti-oxidation/radical-scavenging activity of natural substances by sequential injection technique (SIA) using spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Polásek, Miroslav; Skála, Petr; Opletal, Lubomír; Jahodár, Ludek

    2004-07-01

    A PC-controlled sequential injection analysis (SIA) system equipped with a spectrophotometric diode-array detector is used for rapid monitoring and evaluation of antioxidation/radical scavenging activity of biological samples. The automated method is based on the known reaction of stable 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) with antioxidants in organic or aqueous-organic media resulting in bleaching of DPPH due to its "quenching" by the interaction with the analytes. The decrease of the absorbance of DPPH (compared to blank experiment carried out with water-ethanol 1:1 instead of the test solution) measured at 525 nm is related to concentration of an antioxidant in the test solution. With the optimised SIA procedure it is possible to detect down to micromolar concentrations of model antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and rutin and to evaluate the concentration of these antioxidants in the micromolar to millimolar range. The sample throughput is 45 h(-1). Thanks to its rapidity and sensitivity, the proposed SIA method is suitable for performing routine screening tests for the presence of various antioxidants in large series of lyophilised herbal or mushroom extracts (the amount of sample needed for the analysis is several milligrams).

  8. Epidemiology of Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Merikangas, Kathleen R.; McClair, Vetisha L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) have provided an abundance of data on the patterns of substance use in nationally representative samples across the world (Degenhardt et al. 2008; Johnston et al. 2011; SAMHSA 2011). This paper presents a summary of the goals, methods and recent findings on the epidemiology of substance use and disorders in the general population of adults and adolescents and describes the methods and findings on the genetic epidemiology of drug use disorders. The high 12 month prevalence rates of substance dependence in U.S. adults (about 12% for alcohol and 2–3% for illicit drugs) approximate those of other mental disorders as well as chronic physical disorders with major public health impact. New findings from the nationally representative samples of U.S. youth reveal that the lifetime prevalence of alcohol use disorders is approximately 8% and illicit drug use disorders is 2–3% (Merikangas et al. 2010; Swendsen et al. in press, SAMSHA, 2011). The striking increase in prevalence rates from ages 13 to 18 highlight adolescence as the key period of development of substance use disorders. The application of genetic epidemiological studies has consistently demonstrated that genetic factors have a major influence on progression of substance use to dependence, whereas environmental factors unique to the individual play an important role in exposure and initial use of substances. Identification of specific susceptibility genes and environmental factors that influence exposure and progression of drug use may enhance our ability to prevent and treat substance use disorders. PMID:22543841

  9. Infant of a substance using mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... Maternal substance use; Maternal drug use; Narcotic exposure - infant; Substance use disorder - infant ... ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS SEEN IN AN INFANT OF A SUBSTANCE-ABUSING MOTHER? Babies born to ...

  10. Potent activity of nobiletin-rich Citrus reticulata peel extract to facilitate cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB signaling associated with learning and memory in cultured hippocampal neurons: identification of the substances responsible for the pharmacological action.

    PubMed

    Kawahata, Ichiro; Yoshida, Masaaki; Sun, Wen; Nakajima, Akira; Lai, Yanxin; Osaka, Naoya; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Naganuma, Akira; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Yamakuni, Tohru

    2013-10-01

    cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB signaling linked to CRE-mediated transcription is crucial for learning and memory. We originally found nobiletin as a natural compound that stimulates this intracellular signaling and exhibits anti-dementia action in animals. Citrus reticulata or C. unshiu peels are employed as "chinpi" and include a small amount of nobiletin. We here provide the first evidence for beneficial pharmacological actions on the cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB cascade of extracts from nobiletin-rich C.reticulata peels designated as Nchinpi, the nobiletin content of which was 0.83 ± 0.13% of the dry weight or 16-fold higher than that of standard chinpi extracts. Nchinpi extracts potently facilitated CRE-mediated transcription in cultured hippocampal neurons, whereas the standard chinpi extracts showed no such activity. Also, the Nchinpi extract, but not the standard chinpi extract, stimulated PKA/ERK/CREB signaling. Interestingly, treatment with the Nchinpi extract at the concentration corresponding to approximately 5 μM nobiletin more potently facilitated CRE-mediated transcriptional activity than did 30 μM nobiletin alone. Consistently, sinensetin, tangeretin, 6-demethoxynobiletin, and 6-demethoxytangeretin were also identified as bioactive substances in Nchinpi that facilitated the CRE-mediated transcription. Purified sinensetin enhanced the transcription to a greater degree than nobiletin. Furthermore, samples reconstituted with the four purified compounds and nobiletin in the ratio of each constituent's content in the extract showed activity almost equal to that of the Nchinpi extract to stimulate CRE-mediated transcription. These findings suggest that above four compounds and nobiletin in the Nchinpi extract mainly cooperated to facilitate potently CRE-mediated transcription linked to the upstream cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB pathway in hippocampal neurons.

  11. Potent activity of nobiletin-rich Citrus reticulata peel extract to facilitate cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB signaling associated with learning and memory in cultured hippocampal neurons: identification of the substances responsible for the pharmacological action.

    PubMed

    Kawahata, Ichiro; Yoshida, Masaaki; Sun, Wen; Nakajima, Akira; Lai, Yanxin; Osaka, Naoya; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Naganuma, Akira; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Yamakuni, Tohru

    2013-10-01

    cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB signaling linked to CRE-mediated transcription is crucial for learning and memory. We originally found nobiletin as a natural compound that stimulates this intracellular signaling and exhibits anti-dementia action in animals. Citrus reticulata or C. unshiu peels are employed as "chinpi" and include a small amount of nobiletin. We here provide the first evidence for beneficial pharmacological actions on the cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB cascade of extracts from nobiletin-rich C.reticulata peels designated as Nchinpi, the nobiletin content of which was 0.83 ± 0.13% of the dry weight or 16-fold higher than that of standard chinpi extracts. Nchinpi extracts potently facilitated CRE-mediated transcription in cultured hippocampal neurons, whereas the standard chinpi extracts showed no such activity. Also, the Nchinpi extract, but not the standard chinpi extract, stimulated PKA/ERK/CREB signaling. Interestingly, treatment with the Nchinpi extract at the concentration corresponding to approximately 5 μM nobiletin more potently facilitated CRE-mediated transcriptional activity than did 30 μM nobiletin alone. Consistently, sinensetin, tangeretin, 6-demethoxynobiletin, and 6-demethoxytangeretin were also identified as bioactive substances in Nchinpi that facilitated the CRE-mediated transcription. Purified sinensetin enhanced the transcription to a greater degree than nobiletin. Furthermore, samples reconstituted with the four purified compounds and nobiletin in the ratio of each constituent's content in the extract showed activity almost equal to that of the Nchinpi extract to stimulate CRE-mediated transcription. These findings suggest that above four compounds and nobiletin in the Nchinpi extract mainly cooperated to facilitate potently CRE-mediated transcription linked to the upstream cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB pathway in hippocampal neurons. PMID:23588349

  12. Substance misuse and substance-related disorders in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Michael H

    2006-09-01

    There is a broad range of substance-related problems that arise for the forensic psychiatrist. For many, what is most challenging about addressing these issues are the complex behavioral, biological, clinical, and social phenomena involved. Substance- related illnesses are on the cutting edge of brain research. Substance-related behavior that brings individuals to the attention of forensic psychiatrists involves a wide spectrum of substance use patterns, but even substance misuse may have profound and relevant effects, forensically. The social forces that mold our laws and attitudes toward addictive drug use are at work in almost every forensic context. Substance-related issues provide a rich medium for the application of forensic psychiatric principles and practice. As in all of forensic psychiatric work, the psychiatrist should be familiar with each forensic context in which addiction issues arise. They should become familiar with the relevant definitions, criteria, and legal requirements that apply in each specific area of their practice, rather than assume that clinical definitions and clinical reasoning will carry them. Comfort and effectiveness with addiction issues requires willingness to continually educate oneself about this rapidly changing field, and familiarity with one's own attitudes and beliefs regarding addictive illness.

  13. Effect of total or partial uterus extirpation on sympathetic uterus-projecting neurons in porcine inferior mesenteric ganglion. B. Changes in expression of neuropeptide Y, galanin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating peptide, somatostatin and substance P.

    PubMed

    Wasowicz, K

    2003-01-01

    The expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), galanin (GAL), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), somatostatin (SOM) and substance P (SP) was studied in the neurons of the inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) projecting to the uterine horn and uterine cervix after uterus extirpation-induced axotomy in sexually immature gilts. The expression was studied with immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. Uterus-projecting neurons were identified by retrograde tracing with Fast Blue (FB). Immunohistochemistry revealed that FB-positive (FB+) uterus-projecting neurons in control animals contained only immunoreactivities to NPY (ca. 50%) and GAL (single neurons). Uterus extirpation increased the occurrence of NPY and GAL in FB+ neurons. No other studied neuropeptides were found in axotomized uterus-projecting neurons. Hybridization in situ revealed the reduction of NPY expression and induction of GAL expression in FB+ neurons. RT-PCR detected induction of GAL expression in the IMG after uterus extirpation. The expression level of NPY and SOM was significant and was not affected by axotomy. The expression level of PACAP was very low and did not differ between IMG of control, partially and totally hysterectomized animals. No VIP and SP expression was detected in all ganglia. The presented data show clear axotomy-related changes in the expression of GAL and NPY in the uterus-projecting neurons of the porcine IMG. PMID:12817785

  14. 40 CFR 710.26 - Chemical substances for which information is not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., gelatin, gluten, hemoglobin), an enzyme, a polysaccharide (starch, cellulose, gum), rubber, or lignin... case by the specific activities of the person who manufactures the substance in question. Some...

  15. 40 CFR 710.26 - Chemical substances for which information is not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., gelatin, gluten, hemoglobin), an enzyme, a polysaccharide (starch, cellulose, gum), rubber, or lignin... case by the specific activities of the person who manufactures the substance in question. Some...

  16. Substance Abuse in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... Although illicit drug use is lower among U.S. military personnel than among civilians, heavy alcohol and tobacco use, ... in identifying and treating substance use problems in military personnel, as does lack of confidentiality that deters many ...

  17. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... of death from overdose and suicide. Rural and Urban Substance Abuse Rates (ages 12 and older, unless ... among rural youth aged 12-13 than among urban youth the same age. This study suggests that ...

  18. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended...

  19. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended...

  20. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended...

  1. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended...

  2. Genetic studies of substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Vanyukov, M M; Tarter, R E

    2000-05-01

    Genetic studies of substance abuse indicate that variation in the risk for the disorder in the population is contributed by differences in both individual genotypes and environment. Recent developments in genetics raise the possibility of disentangling the complex system of genotype-environment interaction that determines the development of the individual behavioral phenotype. This paper reviews the concepts, methods and results pertaining to genetic investigation of substance abuse.

  3. New York hazardous substances emergency events surveillance: learning from hazardous substances releases to improve safety.

    PubMed

    Welles, Wanda Lizak; Wilburn, Rebecca E; Ehrlich, Jenny K; Floridia, Christina M

    2004-11-11

    Since 1993, the New York State Department of Health, funded by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, has collected data about non-petroleum hazardous substances releases through the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (NYHSEES) project. This study investigates risk factors for hazardous substances releases that may result in public health consequences such as injury or reported health effects. The 6428 qualifying events that occurred during the 10-year-period of 1993-2002 involved 8838 hazardous substances, 842 evacuations, more than 75,419 people evacuated, and more than 3120 people decontaminated. These events occurred both at fixed facilities (79%) and during transport (21%). The causative factors most frequently contributing to reported events were equipment failure (39%) and human error (33%). Five of the 10 chemicals most frequently associated with injuries were also among the 10 chemicals most frequently involved in reported events: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, ammonia, sodium hypochlorite, and carbon monoxide. The chemical categories most frequently associated with events, and with events with adverse health effects were volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and solvents, and acids. Events with releases of hazardous substances were associated with injuries to 3089 people including employees (37%), responders (12%), the general public (29%) and students (22%). The most frequently reported adverse health effects were respiratory irritation, headache, and nausea or vomiting. Most of the injured were transported to the hospital, treated, and released (55%) or treated at the scene (29%). These data have been used for emergency response training, planning, and prevention activities to reduce morbidity and mortality from future events.

  4. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  5. 31 CFR 20.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controlled substance. 20.610 Section 20.610 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance...

  6. Neuroimaging the Effectiveness of Substance Use Disorder Treatments.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Elizabeth A; Wiers, Corinde E; Lindgren, Elsa; Miller, Gregg; Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2016-09-01

    Neuroimaging techniques to measure the function and biochemistry of the human brain such as positron emission tomography (PET), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), are powerful tools for assessing neurobiological mechanisms underlying the response to treatments in substance use disorders. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature on pharmacological and behavioral treatment in substance use disorder. We focus on neural effects of medications that reduce craving (e.g., naltrexone, bupropion hydrochloride, baclofen, methadone, varenicline) and that improve cognitive control (e.g., modafinil, N-acetylcysteine), of behavioral treatments for substance use disorders (e.g., cognitive bias modification training, virtual reality, motivational interventions) and neuromodulatory interventions such as neurofeedback and transcranial magnetic stimulation. A consistent finding for the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions identifies the improvement of executive control networks and the dampening of limbic activation, highlighting their values as targets for therapeutic interventions in substance use disorders. PMID:27184387

  7. Neuroimaging the Effectiveness of Substance Use Disorder Treatments.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Elizabeth A; Wiers, Corinde E; Lindgren, Elsa; Miller, Gregg; Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2016-09-01

    Neuroimaging techniques to measure the function and biochemistry of the human brain such as positron emission tomography (PET), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), are powerful tools for assessing neurobiological mechanisms underlying the response to treatments in substance use disorders. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature on pharmacological and behavioral treatment in substance use disorder. We focus on neural effects of medications that reduce craving (e.g., naltrexone, bupropion hydrochloride, baclofen, methadone, varenicline) and that improve cognitive control (e.g., modafinil, N-acetylcysteine), of behavioral treatments for substance use disorders (e.g., cognitive bias modification training, virtual reality, motivational interventions) and neuromodulatory interventions such as neurofeedback and transcranial magnetic stimulation. A consistent finding for the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions identifies the improvement of executive control networks and the dampening of limbic activation, highlighting their values as targets for therapeutic interventions in substance use disorders.

  8. Basic substances: an opportunity for approval of low-concern substances under EU pesticide regulation.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Patrice A

    2015-09-01

    Plant extracts and byproducts furnish various alternative products for crop protection and are traditionally used by farmers. However, the cost and timeframe for their registration as active substances are prohibitive for small companies and farmers' associations with the new Plant Protection Products (PPP) Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009. However, there is now a possibility of registering light compounds as 'basic substances', a new category described in Article 23 and in 'Whereas/Recital 18'. We developed a regulatory expertise on the approval of such products within the framework of the PPP regulation. A Draft Assessment Report in one volume was established, later transformed by EC Directorate into a Basic Substance Application Template, and subsequently used by the EC as a matrix for the corresponding Guidelines for applicants (SANCO 10363/2012 rev. 9). Here we provide further tools, consisting of methodological, linguistic and strategic recommendations in order to constitute a Basic Substance Application (BSA) and proceed to its registration. While the use of alternative agents for crop protection is increasing both in organic and conventional agriculture, these usages are still considered as 'minor uses'. Our approach and tools are valuable to non-PPP specialised applicants for simplifying and facilitating their submission of the BSA.

  9. Basic substances: an opportunity for approval of low-concern substances under EU pesticide regulation.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Patrice A

    2015-09-01

    Plant extracts and byproducts furnish various alternative products for crop protection and are traditionally used by farmers. However, the cost and timeframe for their registration as active substances are prohibitive for small companies and farmers' associations with the new Plant Protection Products (PPP) Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009. However, there is now a possibility of registering light compounds as 'basic substances', a new category described in Article 23 and in 'Whereas/Recital 18'. We developed a regulatory expertise on the approval of such products within the framework of the PPP regulation. A Draft Assessment Report in one volume was established, later transformed by EC Directorate into a Basic Substance Application Template, and subsequently used by the EC as a matrix for the corresponding Guidelines for applicants (SANCO 10363/2012 rev. 9). Here we provide further tools, consisting of methodological, linguistic and strategic recommendations in order to constitute a Basic Substance Application (BSA) and proceed to its registration. While the use of alternative agents for crop protection is increasing both in organic and conventional agriculture, these usages are still considered as 'minor uses'. Our approach and tools are valuable to non-PPP specialised applicants for simplifying and facilitating their submission of the BSA. PMID:25727699

  10. Investigating Maternal Brain Structure and its Relationship to Substance Use and Motivational Systems.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Helena J V; Gerig, Guido; Gouttard, Sylvain; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C

    2015-09-01

    Substance use during pregnancy and the postpartum period may have significant implications for both mother and the developing child. However, the neurobiological basis of the impact of substance use on parenting is less well understood. Here, we examined the impact of maternal substance use on cortical gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes and whether this was associated with individual differences in motivational systems of behavioral activation and inhibition. Mothers were included in the substance-using group if any addictive substance was used during pregnancy and/or in the immediate postpartum period (within 3 months of delivery). GM volume was reduced in substance-using mothers compared to non-substance-using mothers, particularly in frontal brain regions. In substance-using mothers, we also found that frontal GM was negatively correlated with levels of behavioral activation (i.e., the motivation to approach rewarding stimuli). This effect was absent in non-substance-using mothers. Taken together, these findings indicate a reduction in GM volume is associated with substance use and that frontal GM volumetric differences may be related to approach motivation in substance-using mothers.

  11. Investigating Maternal Brain Structure and its Relationship to Substance Use and Motivational Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Helena J.V.; Gerig, Guido; Gouttard, Sylvain; Potenza, Marc N.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2015-01-01

    Substance use during pregnancy and the postpartum period may have significant implications for both mother and the developing child. However, the neurobiological basis of the impact of substance use on parenting is less well understood. Here, we examined the impact of maternal substance use on cortical gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes and whether this was associated with individual differences in motivational systems of behavioral activation and inhibition. Mothers were included in the substance-using group if any addictive substance was used during pregnancy and/or in the immediate postpartum period (within 3 months of delivery). GM volume was reduced in substance-using mothers compared to non-substance-using mothers, particularly in frontal brain regions. In substance-using mothers, we also found that frontal GM was negatively correlated with levels of behavioral activation (i.e., the motivation to approach rewarding stimuli). This effect was absent in non-substance-using mothers. Taken together, these findings indicate a reduction in GM volume is associated with substance use and that frontal GM volumetric differences may be related to approach motivation in substance-using mothers. PMID:26339203

  12. Update on Banned Substances 2013

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Kenneth P.; Rainbow, Catherine R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Doping has been pervasive throughout the history of athletic competitions and has only recently been regulated by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). These regulatory bodies were created to preserve fair play and maintain the safety of the participants. Their updated 2013 lists of banned substances and practices include a variety of drugs and practices that could cause harm to an athlete or give one an unfair competitive advantage. Evidence Acquisition: Published websites for the WADA, USADA, and NCAA were investigated. These governing bodies update and publish their lists annually. Results: The WADA, USADA, and NCAA monitor anabolic steroids, hormones, growth factors, β-agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, masking agents, street drugs, manipulation of blood and blood components, chemical and physical manipulation, gene doping, stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticosteroids, and β-blockers. Some substances may be used by athletes but require formal exemption. The WADA has also recently created a category of nonapproved substances that have yet to be identified to curb athletes from experimenting with new doping agents. Conclusion: The lists of banned substances and practices per the WADA, USADA, and NCAA are in place to ensure the integrity of sports and maintain safe competition. Health care providers who work with athletes under the jurisdiction of these organizations should review updated lists of banned substances when prescribing medications. PMID:24427415

  13. Women and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Hecksher, Dorte; Hesse, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Substance use disorders belong to the class of externalizing behaviours that are generally more common among men than women. Those women who do have substance disorders therefore deviate more from the norms of society compared with men, tend to live in an environment characterized by high risk of violence and other forms of abuse, and tend to be survivors of childhood trauma. In terms of seeking treatment, women often have difficulty acknowledging their problems with substance use disorders, and professionals are reluctant to ask women about drug or alcohol use. Even when they do seek treatment, women in many countries face practical and financial barriers to access treatment. For women who do enter treatment, outcomes are generally comparable to outcomes for men, suggesting that facilitating entry into treatment can yield substantial benefits for women with addictions.

  14. Factors associated with altered pharmacokinetics in substance users and non-substance users receiving lopinavir and atazanavir.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Niamh; Zingman, Barry S; Slish, Judianne; Reichman, Richard C; Fischl, Margaret A; Gripshover, Barbara; Tooley, Kelly; Boston, Naomi; Forrest, Alan; Brazeau, Dan; Catanzaro, Linda M; DiFrancesco, Robin; Lliguicota, Francesco; Ma, Qing; Morse, Gene D

    2007-01-01

    Substance use is highly prevalent in HIV-infected individuals in the United States, and clinical management is complicated by the need for antiretroviral treatment, addiction therapy, variable medication adherence, and co-morbidities. The interrelation between HIV and substance use prompted our investigation to examine substance use and self-reported medication adherence in patients receiving the HIV-1 protease inhibitors, atazanavir (ATV) or lopinavir (LPV). ATV and LPV pharmacokinetics were determined by measuring plasma concentrations in subjects with active substance use (SU group) or with no active substance use (NSU group). No difference in adherence was observed between groups (p > 0.05). The mean SU ATV trough was 0.550+/-0.45 microg/mL; the mean NSU ATV trough was 0.780+/-0.590 microg/mL (p > 0.05). The mean SU LPV trough was 4.02+/-2.39 microg/mL; the mean NSU LPV trough was 6.67+/-0.910 microg/mL (p = 0.01). Co-factors found to be associated with variation in ATV and LPV concentrations included concurrent methadone use, cigarette smoking, and substance use status. These data indicate that chronic HIV treatment may be assisted with plasma concentration monitoring to identify those patients who may require dosage modification and/or regimen adjustment in order to optimize antiretroviral effects.

  15. Partial purification of a bacterial lectinlike substance from Eikenella corrodens.

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Y; Ebisu, S; Okada, H

    1988-01-01

    A bacterial lectinlike substance, which is considered to participate in the adherence of Eikenella corrodens to various host cells, was purified from E. corrodens cells. The substance was extracted in 1% Triton X-100 with sonication from the cell envelope of E. corrodens 1073 and partially purified by galactosamine affinity chromatography and gel filtration chromatography based on its hemagglutination (HA) activity. The lectinlike substance was purified about 256-fold as evaluated by its specific HA activity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the partially purified lectinlike substance (PPL) produced a single protein band of large molecular weight when it was applied to the gel without the addition of beta-mercaptoethanol and heating. Chemical analysis showed that PPL contained 14.4 micrograms of hexose per 100 micrograms of protein and that it did not contain muramic acid, glucosamine, or 2,6-diaminopimelic acid, which are characteristic of peptidoglycans. The HA activity of PPL was inhibited by EDTA but restored by adding Ca2+. The HA activity was remarkably inhibited by sugars containing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and D-galactose. These results indicate that the lectinlike substance on the E. corrodens cells is an essential factor for the adherence to host cells. Images PMID:3121509

  16. [Cytokines. Transmittor substances of the immune system].

    PubMed

    Pisa, P; Söder, O

    1995-07-12

    Cytokines are hormone-like proteins and peptides whose principal function is that of signalling substances within the immunoinflammatory and haematopoietic systems. Since the first cytokines were characterised 15 years ago, over 50 cytokines have been strictly defined and characterised. Cytokines are classified mainly on the basis of functional criteria into families--e.g, interleukins, interferons, colony stimulating factors, and chemokines. The article provides a broad review of cytokine physiology and pathophysiology with an emphasis on recent findings of their involvement in various diseases such as infections, autoimmune and haematological disorders, and cancer. Different treatment modalities that affect cytokine activity are discussed.

  17. Anticholinergic substances: A single consistent conformation

    PubMed Central

    Pauling, Peter; Datta, Narayandas

    1980-01-01

    An interactive computer-graphics analysis of 24 antagonists of acetylcholine at peripheral autonomic post-ganglionic (muscarinic) nervous junctions and at similar junctions in the central nervous system, the crystal structures of which are known, has led to the determination of a single, consistent, energetically favorable conformation for all 24 substances, although their observed crystal structure conformations vary widely. The absolute configuration and the single, consistent (ideal) conformation of the chemical groups required for maximum anticholinergic activity are described quantitatively. Images PMID:16592775

  18. USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Toxic Substances Hydrology Program adapts research priorities to address the most important contamination issues facing the Nation and to identify new threats to environmental health. The Program investigates two major types of contamination problems: * Subsurface Point-Source Contamination, and * Watershed and Regional Contamination. Research objectives include developing remediation methods that use natural processes, characterizing and remediating contaminant plumes in fractured-rock aquifers, identifying new environmental contaminants, characterizing new and understudied pesticides in common pesticide-use settings, explaining mercury methylation and bioaccumulation, and developing approaches for remediating watersheds affected by active and historic mining.

  19. Adolescent pregnancy and substance use.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, P; Kokotailo, P

    1999-03-01

    The question of just what is the relationship of early pregnancy and childbearing and substance use among adolescents remains unanswered. From a public health perspective, both behaviors are unwanted, and populations that are at risk are often at high risk for both. Perhaps prevention of one behavior may be expected to prevent the other. This, however, may be too simplistic a notion, grounded in misconception of the role of early pregnancy and specific cultural context. Furthermore, several studies have documented a decline of drug use during pregnancy and just after delivery among adolescent mothers. Does this trend continue through the parenting years? If so, for whom? What are the individual maternal, child, and family environmental characteristics that predict a decline in use or continued abstinence after early childbearing? Within the context of poverty, lower educational attainment, minority status, and high prevalence of alcohol and drug use, pregnancy may play a positive role. With a change in role, young women may be less likely than nonparenting peers and less likely than prior to their own pregnancy to become deeply involved in the negative behaviors, such as smoking, drinking, and substance use. Perhaps this is a potential opportunity to intervene. To summarize, the health risk behaviors of substance use and adolescent pregnancy and childbearing appear to be linked. Youths who become pregnant before they complete high school represent a particular group of young women who may be at higher risk than the general population for substance use, at least cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Yet, most pregnant teenagers are not substance users. Among those who are, frequency and amounts of use in most samples were low compared with adult samples of pregnant women. Furthermore, there is evidence that teenagers perceive substance use as a risk to their pregnancies and their unborn children. Among users, there is a decrease in use and increase in quit rates

  20. Medications for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Douaihy, Antoine B.; Kelly, Thomas M.; Sullivan, Carl

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors briefly review the pharmacotherapeutic agents that are currently available for the treatment of substance use disorders. Nicotine replacement therapies are most effective for tobacco cessation. Naltrexone, acamprosate, and disulfiram are effective for reducing alcohol use. The most effective pharmacotherapies for opiate use disorders are agonist therapies, including methadone and buprenorphine. The authors also examine recent advances in medication development for other substance use disorders such as stimulant addiction. The role of medication adherence and behavioral treatments and the integration of behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic interventions are also discussed. PMID:23731419

  1. Substance Use Among College Students.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Chloe R; Kaufman, Erin A; Crowell, Sheila E

    2016-10-01

    Emerging adulthood has heightened risk for substance use. College students experience unique challenges, making them prone to use of alcohol, marijuana, and nonmedical use of prescription drugs. This article reviews rates of college students' substance use, risk factors, and populations at elevated risk. Consequences include legal, academic, and mental health problems; engagement in other risky behaviors; increased rates of injury; and death. Researchers, clinicians, and university administrators must identify those at greatest risk and provide prevention and intervention programs. Despite broad evidence supporting such programs, many students fail to access appropriate treatment. Future research should elucidate treatment barriers. PMID:27613349

  2. Impact of contextual factors and substance characteristics on perspectives toward cognitive enhancement.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Sebastian; Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric; Sauer, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing cognitive performance with substances--especially prescription drugs--is a fiercely debated topic among scholars and in the media. The empirical basis for these discussions is limited, given that the actual nature of factors that influence the acceptability of and willingness to use cognitive enhancement substances remains unclear. In an online factorial survey, contextual and substance-specific characteristics of substances that improve academic performance were varied experimentally and presented to respondents. Students in four German universities rated their willingness to use and moral acceptance of different substances for cognitive enhancement. We found that the overall willingness to use performance enhancing substances is low. Most respondents considered the use of these substances as morally unacceptable. Situational influences such as peer pressure, policies concerning substance use, relative performance level of peers, but also characteristics of the substance, such as perceptions of substance safety, shape the willingness and acceptability of using a substance to enhance academic performance. Among the findings is evidence of a contagion effect meaning that the willingness was higher when the respondents have more CE drug users in their social network. We also found deterrence effects from strong side effects of using the substance, as well as from policy regulations and sanctions. Regulations might activate social norms against usage and sanctions can be seen as costly to users. Moreover, enhancement substances seem to be most tempting to low performers to catch up with others compared to high performers. By identifying contextual factors and substance characteristics influencing the willingness and acceptability of cognitive enhancers, policy approaches could consider these insights to better manage the use of such substances. PMID:23940757

  3. Abuse deterrent formulations and the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).

    PubMed

    Sapienza, Frank L

    2006-06-01

    The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) has reduced the diversion of controlled substances at the manufacturing and distribution levels. Recent increased diversion has occurred at the retail level. Levels of diversion and abuse of controlled substances with similar abuse potential and therapeutic indications often parallel availability for medical use, while rates of diversion and abuse may be influenced by factors related to specific products, including their formulations and risk management plans. Abuse deterrent formulations may reduce abuse and attendant adverse health consequences even if the products are diverted. Their development should consider how, to what extent and by whom products containing the targeted substance are abused. It should take into consideration all potential types of abuse including "as is", multiple doses, alternate routes of administration, physical or chemical separation of the active ingredient, compromised extended release mechanisms and abuse in combination with other substances. Industry incentives for developing abuse-resistant formulations include enhanced corporate image and potentially less restrictive scheduling or risk management plans. Scheduling is substance specific, but the CSA includes products/formulations that are differentially scheduled. Issues to be considered for differential scheduling under the CSA include: (1) whether there is legal authority to do so; (2) application of standard scheduling criteria to individual products; (3) product specific data for "eight factor analyses"; (4) development of predictive data and standards accepted by the scientific and regulatory communities; (5) use of predictive data or post marketing surveillance data; (6) international treaty obligations. These issues must be addressed before differential scheduling can be considered.

  4. Matters of Substance: Students' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gertrude

    2007-01-01

    America's romance with certainty leads to a belief that substances improve life and fits with the New Psychiatry. It's use of psychotropic medications to treat an array of mental illnesses changes evaluations, treatment and emergency coverage. The rising abuse of its prescription drugs alters the campus party scene, and challenges pretenses about…

  5. Substance Abuse by Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutsky, Irving; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…

  6. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  7. Substance Use as Impression Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  8. Pharmacotherapy for Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jared Wilson

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the current pharmacotherapy options available for the treatment of patients with substance use disorders. In the United States there are medications available to treat tobacco use disorders (nicotine replacement, bupropion, and varenicline), alcohol use disorders (naltrexone and acamprosate), and opioid use disorders (methadone and buprenorphine). These medications are likely underused and physicians should more readily prescribe for eligible patients. PMID:27235620

  9. Substance Abuse and Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimian, Michael J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined on-the-job stress in relationship with need to use and frequency of use of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription (P) drugs and alcohol (A), across five teacher samples (N=1,788). Results showed high stress frequencies were significantly related to the frequent use of OTC, P, and A substances. (Author/BH)

  10. Substance Use and Early Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Steven C.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.

    2004-01-01

    Prior work indicates that substance use is related to adolescent marriage. We describe two different processes that may account for this relationship and hypothesize patterns of association that would be consistent or inconsistent with each. Using data from a study that followed west coast youth from 7th grade to young adulthood N3,324, we…

  11. A New D.A.R.E. Curriculum Gets Mixed Reviews: Communications Activities for Improving and Evaluating the DARE School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Curriculum. Program Results Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakashian, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Zili Sloboda, Sc.D., and colleagues at the University of Akron, Ohio, designed and evaluated "Take Charge of Your Life", a substance abuse prevention curriculum for 7th- and 9th-grade students delivered by D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) police officers. They designed "Take Charge of Your Life" to impact students' later (high school)…

  12. Impact of Contextual Factors and Substance Characteristics on Perspectives toward Cognitive Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Sebastian; Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Éric; Sauer, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing cognitive performance with substances–especially prescription drugs–is a fiercely debated topic among scholars and in the media. The empirical basis for these discussions is limited, given that the actual nature of factors that influence the acceptability of and willingness to use cognitive enhancement substances remains unclear. In an online factorial survey, contextual and substance-specific characteristics of substances that improve academic performance were varied experimentally and presented to respondents. Students in four German universities rated their willingness to use and moral acceptance of different substances for cognitive enhancement. We found that the overall willingness to use performance enhancing substances is low. Most respondents considered the use of these substances as morally unacceptable. Situational influences such as peer pressure, policies concerning substance use, relative performance level of peers, but also characteristics of the substance, such as perceptions of substance safety, shape the willingness and acceptability of using a substance to enhance academic performance. Among the findings is evidence of a contagion effect meaning that the willingness was higher when the respondents have more CE drug users in their social network. We also found deterrence effects from strong side effects of using the substance, as well as from policy regulations and sanctions. Regulations might activate social norms against usage and sanctions can be seen as costly to users. Moreover, enhancement substances seem to be most tempting to low performers to catch up with others compared to high performers. By identifying contextual factors and substance characteristics influencing the willingness and acceptability of cognitive enhancers, policy approaches could consider these insights to better manage the use of such substances. PMID:23940757

  13. Changes in cannabis use among psychotic clients without specialised substance use treatment.

    PubMed

    Rebgetz, Shane; Kavanagh, David J; Hides, Leanne

    2016-08-01

    The need to address substance use among people with psychosis has been well established. However, treatment studies targeting substance use in this population have reported mixed results. Substance users with psychosis in no or minimal treatment control groups achieve similar reductions in substance use compared to those in more active substance use treatment, suggesting a role for natural recovery from substance use. This meta-analysis aims to quantify the amount of natural recovery from substance use within control groups of treatment studies containing samples of psychotic substance users, with a particular focus on changes in cannabis use. A systematic search was conducted to identify substance use treatment studies. Meta-analyses were performed to quantify reductions in the frequency of substance use in the past 30days. Significant but modest reductions (mean reduction of 0.3-0.4 SD across the time points) in the frequency of substance use were found at 6 to 24months follow up. The current study is the first to quantify changes in substance use in samples enrolled in no treatment or minimal treatment control conditions. These findings highlight the potential role of natural recovery from substance use among individuals with psychosis, although they do not rule out effects of regression to the mean. Additionally, the results provide a baseline from which to estimate likely changes or needed effects sizes in intervention studies. Future research is required to identify the processes underpinning these changes, in order to identify strategies that may better support self-management of substance use in people with psychosis. PMID:27068569

  14. Influence of different kind of peats on some physic-chemical properties, biochemical activity, the content of different forms of nitrogen and fractions of humic substances of The Great Vasyugan Mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    Mires, or peatlands belong to the wetlands ecosystems where carbon is bounded in primary production and deposited as peat in water saturated, anoxic conditions. In those conditions, the rate of the supply of new organic matter has exceeded that the decomposition, resulting in carbon accumulation. Place of sampling belongs to an oligotrophic landscapes of the river Klyuch basin in spurs of Vasyugan mire. The catchment represents reference system for Bokchar swampy area (political district of Tomsk region). Landscape profile crosses main kinds of swampy biogeocoenosis (BGC) toward the mire center: paludal tall mixed forest, pine undershrub Sphagnum (high riam, trans-accumulative part of a profile, P2), pine-undershrub Sphagnum (low riam, transit part, P3), sedge-moss swamp (eluvial part, P5). The latter represents an eluvial part of a slope of watershed massif where it is accomplished discharge of excess, surface, soil-mire waters. The depth of peat deposit of sedge-moss swamp reaches 2,5m. To the depth of 0,6m there is a layer of Sphagnum raised bog peat, then it is a mesotrophic Scheuchzeria Sphagnum layer and at the bottom there is a thick layer of low-mire horsetail peat. The samples of peats were taken from two places (P2 and P3), both from the depth 0-75 cm of the great Vasyugan Mire. These materials represent (P2) Sphagnum fuscum peat (ash content ranged from 10.8 to 15.1%), but samples P3 belong to low-moor sedge peat (ash content ranged from 4.5-4.8%). The differences in water level, redox potential, pH, degree of degradation, bulk density, number of microorganisms, activity of enzymes, different kinds of nitrogen and humic substances were studied in two different peat soils characterized by different type of peat. In general in P2 the redox potential changed from 858 to /-140/ mV, higher activity of xanthine oxidase and peroxidase, different kinds of microorganisms (ammonifing bacteria and cellulose decomposing microorganisms) and different kinds of

  15. Ava[L-Pro9,N-MeLeu10] substance P(7-11) (GR 73632) and Sar9, Met(O2)11 increase distention-induced peristalsis through activation of neurokinin-1 receptors on smooth muscle and interstitial cells of cajal.

    PubMed

    Nieuwmeyer, Florentine; Ye, Jing; Huizinga, Jan D

    2006-04-01

    Substance P is generally considered an excitatory neurotransmitter related to gut motor activity, although an inhibitory influence of neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor activation on peristalsis has also been reported. With an optimized in vitro method to assess distention-induced peristalsis, our aim was to clarify the effect of NK1 receptor activation on peristaltic activity and to reveal the mechanisms by which NK1 activation alters peristalsis. Distention of the small intestine of the mouse and guinea pig induced periodic occurrence of rhythmic waves of propagating rings of circular muscle contraction, associated with slow waves and superimposed action potentials, that propelled intestinal contents aborally. Activation of NK1 receptors by Ava[l-Pro(9),N-MeLeu10] substance P(7-11) (GR 73632) and Sar(9), Met(O(2))(11) on smooth muscle cells resulted in prolongation of the activity periods and increased action potential generation occurring superimposed on the intestinal slow wave activity. Activation of NK1 receptors on interstitial cells of Cajal resulted in an increase in slow wave frequency. Slow wave amplitude increased, likely by increased cell-to-cell coupling. The NK1 antagonist (S)-1-(2-[3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-(3-isopropoxyphenylacetyl)piperidin-3-yl]ethyl)-4-phenyl-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride (SR 140333) induced a decrease in the slow wave frequency and duration of the activity periods evoked by distention, which makes it likely that NK1 receptor activation plays a role in the normal physiological distention-induced generation of peristaltic motor patterns. In summary, NK1 receptors play a role in normal development of peristalsis and NK1 receptor activation markedly increases propulsive peristaltic contractile activity.

  16. Longitudinal Associations among Impulsivity, Friend Substance Use, and Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Julee P.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is an increasing problem in the United States, and some researchers posit a bidirectional relation between adolescent substance use and the personality trait of impulsivity (e.g., Quinn, Stappenbeck, & Fromme, 2011). Friend substance use has been shown to be a powerful predictor of adolescent substance use, with prior research suggesting a bidirectional relation between adolescent substance use and friend substance use (e.g., Simons-Morton & Chen, 2006). Extant literature has not tested the bidirectional relation between adolescent substance use and impulsivity with longitudinal data nor has it examined this relation while considering the bidirectional relation with the social context factor of friend substance use. Using three waves of longitudinal data, we tested if there was a bidirectional relation between adolescent substance use and impulsivity while also examining the influences of friend substance use. Participants were 131 adolescents (male = 55%, mean age = 13 years at Wave 1). We tested nested models and examined whether adding equality constraints degraded the model fit using a Wald test. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that, after controlling for baseline levels of substance use, impulsivity predicted adolescent and friend substance use over time, whereas adolescent and friend substance use did not predict impulsivity. Adolescents with substance using friends were likely to increase their own substance use. The findings imply that aiming at both improving adolescents’ ability to regulate impulsivity and deterring associations with friends who are using substances is essential for prevention and intervention efforts against substance use development in adolescents. PMID:26523239

  17. Youth employment and substance use.

    PubMed

    Kaestner, Robert; Sasso, Anthony Lo; Callison, Kevin; Yarnoff, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A significant portion of teens work while in school and the consequences of that work are of potential concern to society. While there is widespread support for combining work and school, and some evidence that employment has positive effects on youth development, previous research has revealed some potentially harmful consequences of employment among teens. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between teen employment and substance use. We extended this literature by studying two different cohorts of youth, and by exploiting arguably exogenous variation in youth employment and earnings caused by changes in minimum wages and the business cycle (unemployment). Estimates suggest that hours of work are positively associated with alcohol and cigarette use. However, if selection on unobserved variables were equal to selection on observed variables, these associations would be close to zero. With respect to the association between earnings and substance use, the evidence is less clear.

  18. Tanning as a substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Kathleen C; Fisher, David E

    2014-01-01

    While few people would deny the appeal of a day in the sun there are some who seem to take it too far. In recent years the concept of ‘tanning addiction’ has become popular and several studies have supported the notion of viewing exposure to UV radiation as a form of substance abuse. In this article we will review some of the literature on sun seeking behavior. PMID:26842945

  19. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios.

  20. 34 CFR 84.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controlled substance. 84.610 Section 84.610 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  1. Family Characteristics and Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Andy L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Study used self-report questionnaire data from high school students to determine the relation between adolescents' perception of family characteristics and adolescent substance use patterns. Results indicate adolescents' perception of maternal substance use, family hardiness, and age of the adolescent were significant predictors of substance use.…

  2. [Changes in the low-molecular fractions of physiologically active substances in the tissues of the spleen, lymph nodes and blood serum of rats exposed to x-ray irradiation].

    PubMed

    Antonenko, V T; Korolev, Iu N; Terent'ev, A Iu; Kolmakov, S F

    1992-01-01

    Acute radiation sickness (grades II-III) was induced in experiments on 135 adult rats by single total X-ray radiation (185.7 mCal/kg). A gel-chromatographic study showed that 40 days after irradiation the surviving animals showed a 2 times increase of substances with a molecular mass of 600-850 daltons in the homogenate of lymphoid organs. This possibly evidences their participation in restorative processes. PMID:1292215

  3. Substance Use and Associated Factors among University Students in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Derese, Andualem; Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate that substance use among Ethiopian adolescents is considerably rising; in particular college and university students are the most at risk of substance use. The aim of the study was to assess substance use and associated factors among university students. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 1040 Haramaya University students using self-administered structured questionnaire. Multistage sampling technique was used to select students. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were done. About two-thirds (62.4%) of the participants used at least one substance. The most commonly used substance was alcohol (50.2%). Being male had strong association with substance use (AOR (95% CI), 3.11 (2.20, 4.40)). The odds of substance use behaviour is higher among third year students (AOR (95% CI), 1.48 (1.01, 2.16)). Being a follower of Muslim (AOR (95% CI), 0.62 (0.44, 0.87)) and Protestant (AOR (95% CI), 0.25 (0.17, 0.36)) religions was shown to be protective of substance use. Married (AOR (95% CI), 1.92 (1.12, 3.30)) and depressed (AOR (95% CI), 3.30 (2.31, 4.72)) students were more likely to use substances than others. The magnitude of substance use was high. This demands special attention, emergency preventive measures, and targeted information, education and communication activity. PMID:24872903

  4. Pre-Instructional Conceptions about Transformations of Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfundt, Helga

    Findings generated from past classroom observation and individual interviews indicate that certain framework conceptions can be identified by which students explain special transformations of substances and which are activated in view of new experiences made in the course of chemistry instruction. This study investigated these framework…

  5. Substance Use among Students Attending a Christian University that Strictly Prohibits the Use of Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Gary L.; Freier, M. Catherine; Babikian, Talin; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines substance use at a church-affiliated university which prohibits the use of alcohol, tobacco, and drug substances. The purpose was to investigate the prevalence of substance use, the prevention efforts put forth by the university, and whether religious beliefs, which prohibit substance use, are protective. While the findings…

  6. NEIGHBORHOOD NORMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG TEENS

    PubMed Central

    Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598

  7. Child maltreatment and substance abuse among U.S. Army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Deborah A; Martin, Sandra L; Johnson, Ruby E; Rentz, E Danielle; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Hardison, Jennifer

    2008-08-01

    Although substance abuse has consistently been linked to child maltreatment, no study to date has described the extent of substance abuse among child maltreatment offenders within the military. Analysis of U.S. Army data on all substantiated incidents of parental child maltreatment committed between 2000 and 2004 by active duty soldiers found that 13% of offenders were noted to have been abusing alcohol or illicit drugs at the time of their child maltreatment incident. The odds of substance abuse were increased for offenders who committed child neglect or emotional abuse, but were reduced for child physical abuse. The odds of offender substance abuse nearly tripled in child maltreatment incidents that also involved co-occurring spouse abuse. Findings include a lack of association between offender substance abuse and child maltreatment recurrence, possibly because of the increased likelihood of removal of offenders from the home when either substance abuse or spouse abuse were documented.

  8. Relationship between levels of neuropeptide Substance P in periodontal disease and chronic pain: a literature review.

    PubMed

    de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; de Molon, Rafael Scaf; de Godoi Gonçalves, Daniela Aparecida; Camparis, Cinara Maria

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the current review was to investigate the relationship between levels of neuropeptide Substance P in periodontal disease and chronic pain. Substance P is a neuropeptide that is directly related with pain. In periodontal disease, it is expressed during the inflammatory process, and is one of the factors responsible for bone resorption. Studies have shown that Substance P levels are highest in the gingival crevicular fluid from sites with active periodontal disease and bone loss. The persistence of these substances could be sufficient to stimulate neurogenic inflammation in susceptible tissues, and cause pain. The scientific literature shows that Substance P expressed during periodontal disease can be a risk factor for patients with systemic inflammatory pathologies, such as chronic arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Additional research is needed to confirm the participation of this substance in the origin of some types of chronic pain. PMID:24574025

  9. Ciliary membranes and mating substances in Paramecium caudatum.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T

    1977-08-01

    Cilia detached from mating reactive cells of Paramecium caudatum were fractionated for the purpose of identifying the structural component bearing mating substances. Purified axoneme fractions had no mating reactivity. The membrane fraction obtained by dialyzing against a solution of Tris-EDTA (0.1 mm EDTA, 1 mM Tris-HCI, pH 7.6) and 0.6 m KCI, and then by centrifuging over 40% (w/v) sucrose was strongly reactive. No mating reactivity was detected in the soluble fractions containing axonemal and matrix proteins. The results indicate that the mating substances in active form are localized only on the ciliary membranes. PMID:915845

  10. Characterization of a broad range antibacterial substance from a new Bacillus species isolated from Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Motta, Amanda S; Cannavan, Fabiana S; Tsai, Siu-Mui; Brandelli, Adriano

    2007-10-01

    A Bacillus sp. strain producing a bacteriocin-like substance was characterized by biochemical profiling and 16S rDNA sequencing. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain has low sequence similarity with most Bacillus spp., suggesting a new species was isolated. The antimicrobial activity was detected starting at the exponential growth phase, and maximum activity was observed at stationary phase. The substance was inhibitory to a broad range of indicator strains, including pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, B. cereus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Erwinia carotovora, Pasteurella haemolytica, Salmonella Gallinarum, among other. The antibacterial substance was stable over a wide pH range, but it was sensitive to pronase E and lipase. The antibacterial substance was bactericidal and bacteriolytic to L. monocytogenes and B. cereus at 160 AU ml(-1). The identification of a broad range bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance active against L. monocytogenes addresses an important aspect of food protection against pathogens and spoilage microorganisms.

  11. Understanding Incarcerated Women's Perspectives on Substance Use: Catalysts, Reasons for Use, Consequences, and Desire for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Marla; Murphy, Kelly; Martin, Megan Smith; Korchinski, Mo; Buxton, Jane; Granger-Brown, Alison; Hanson, Debra; Hislop, Greg; Macaulay, Ann C.; Martin, Ruth Elwood

    2011-01-01

    The majority of women serving short-term sentences in provincial prisons in Canada are incarcerated for illegal activities involving alcohol and substance use. Although there is a wealth of research on substance use among those serving sentences within the federal prison system, little of that literature addresses the needs and experiences of…

  12. Latent Model Analysis of Substance Use and HIV Risk Behaviors among High-Risk Minority Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Min Qi; Matthew, Resa F.; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Yan, Fang; Bellamy, Nikki D.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated substance use and HIV risk profile using a latent model analysis based on ecological theory, inclusive of a risk and protective factor framework, in sexually active minority adults (N=1,056) who participated in a federally funded substance abuse and HIV prevention health initiative from 2002 to 2006. Methods: Data…

  13. [Substance use among Lebanese university students: prevalence and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Salameh, P; Rachidi, S; Al-Hajje, A; Awada, S; Chouaib, K; Saleh, N; Bawab, W

    2015-08-27

    Scientific research on use and misuse of substances in Lebanon is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the rate of use and abuse of substances among Lebanese youth and identify the determinants and risk factors behind these behaviours. An observational survey was conducted on 1945 university students selected from the different faculties of the Lebanese University and other private universities. A self-administered questionnaire based on ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test) was administered. The prevalence of ever consuming alcohol was 20.9%. Cannabis (12.3%) and tranquilizers (11%) had the highest rates of ever use among the drugs, whereas cocaine (3.3%) and hallucinogens (3.6%) had the lowest rates. Smoking cigarettes and waterpipes, going out at night, peer pressure and having no specific leisure time activity were associated with problematic substance use, while a better relationship with parents, reading and working were inversely associated with use. There is a high prevalence of substance use among university students in Lebanon. Multidisciplinary support for addicted students is needed to meet their diverse needs.

  14. Update on Substance Use in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Durand, Simone C; Fogger, Susanne A; McGuinness, Teena M

    2016-08-01

    With alarming frequency, an individual's first substance use occurs in childhood or adolescence. However, the use of many types of substances among individuals younger than 18 has been gradually declining over the past 6 years, and our understanding of risk factors for youth substance use has improved. Risk factors identified as possibly contributing to a young individual's first encounter with cigarettes or alcohol include parents' own substance use or mental health problems. Mental disorders of children have been implicated in substance use as well. Screening and interventions are available to reduce the frequency and intensity of adolescent substance use and are suggested in the current article. Nurses are in a position to identify adolescents who are at risk for substance use disorders and link the family system to effective intervention. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(8), 24-27.]. PMID:27479476

  15. Public awareness on cancerous substances.

    PubMed

    Jusufranic, Jasmin; Popovic, Himzo; Stefanov, Sonja; Biocanin, Rade

    2014-04-01

    The public can be defined as a mosaic consisting of various ethnic, religious and other social groups, hence the definition of public includes each individual persona. Public opinion is the voice of such public and is, therefore, considered a worthy element in political and economic discourse. Media can do much in providing education necessary for informing the public about cancerous substances in the environment. The purpose of this study is to inform the public about issues that truly matter instead of following the current trend and focus on the topics and issues of less importance.

  16. Public Awareness on Cancerous Substances

    PubMed Central

    Jusufranic, Jasmin; Popovic, Himzo; Stefanov, Sonja; Biocanin, Rade

    2014-01-01

    The public can be defined as a mosaic consisting of various ethnic, religious and other social groups, hence the definition of public includes each individual persona. Public opinion is the voice of such public and is, therefore, considered a worthy element in political and economic discourse. Media can do much in providing education necessary for informing the public about cancerous substances in the environment. The purpose of this study is to inform the public about issues that truly matter instead of following the current trend and focus on the topics and issues of less importance. PMID:24944542

  17. Concurrent Treatment of Substance Use and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Julianne C; Korte, Kristina J; Killeen, Therese K; Back, Sudie E

    2016-08-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are chronic, debilitating conditions that frequently co-occur. Individuals with co-occurring SUD and PTSD suffer a more complicated course of treatment and less favorable treatment outcomes compared to individuals with either disorder alone. The development of effective psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for co-occurring SUD and PTSD is an active and critically important area of investigation. Several integrated psychosocial treatments for co-occurring SUD and PTSD have demonstrated promising outcomes. While recent studies examining medications to treat co-occurring SUD and PTSD have yielded encouraging findings, there remain substantial gaps in the evidence base regarding the treatment of co-occurring SUD and PTSD. This review will summarize the findings from clinical trials targeting a reduction in SUD and PTSD symptoms simultaneously. These results may improve our knowledge base and subsequently enhance our ability to develop effective interventions for this complex comorbid condition. PMID:27278509

  18. Insulin-like substance and insulin-degrading complex of hemolysate of human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Matulyavichyus, V.A.; Vareikis, E.I.; Lashas, L.V.

    1986-08-20

    A lysate of human erythrocytes was fractionated on gel-filtration resins of different types and immunoreactive insulin, the insulinase activity and the effect of individual fractions on the insulinase activity was determined in the fractions obtained. It was established that the hemolysate contains a complex of insulin-metabolizing compounds, including an insulin-like substance, insulinase, and an inhibitor and activator of the insulinase activity. The insulin-like substance coincided with native insulin in site of elution from a column of Sephadex G-50 and its concentration in the lysate exceeded that of insulin in the blood plasma. Insulinase, which has a molecular weight of about 100,000, cleaved (/sup 125/I) insulin to fragments soluble in trichloroacetic acid, but had no effect on hypophyseal proteins and glycoprotein hormones. The insulinase activity was inhibited by low temperatures, atropine, and a newly discovered intraerythrocytic proteinase inhibitor, which also inhibits the serine proteinases trypsin and chymotrypsin. A substance eluted from a column of Sephadex G-100 in the region of low-molecular-weight substances increased the insulinase activity. The elution curve of substances with proteinase-inhibiting and insulinase-activating activities indicates that there is more than one inhibitory and activating factor. The results of the studies suggest that the insulin-degrading complex in human erythrocytes acts as a regulator of the insulin level in the blood plasma. It is also possible that the insulin-like substance is produced in the cytosol of the erythrocytes.

  19. Debating the Controlled Substances Act.

    PubMed

    Spillane, Joseph F

    2004-10-01

    In the United States, the basis of modern drug regulation is the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) of 1970. The CSA laid out the authority of the federal government and provided a framework within which all existing and new substances could be regulated on their abuse potential, safety, and medical utility. The debates over the CSA centered on several critical issues: where to place the authority to make scheduling designations, the impact of scheduling on drug research, and defining what constituted drug "abuse" for purposes of scheduling. Passage of the CSA was aided by broad language that provided a kind of "big tent" which could accommodate diverse points of view. A retrospective assessment of the CSA shows it to have greatly expanded federal administrative authority over the nation's drug supply, much as its authors intended. Other impacts of the CSA, however, are much less certain. This article concludes by highlighting the issues and questions that should guide future retrospective research on the efficacy of drug control regimes. PMID:15380285

  20. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    PubMed

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany.

  1. [Substance abuse in older adults].

    PubMed

    Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen

    2014-09-01

    In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective.

  2. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    PubMed

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany. PMID:24741950

  3. Production of bacteriocin-like substances by Yersinia frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii, and Y. intermedia strains.

    PubMed

    Calvo, C; Brault, J; Ramos-Cormenzana, A; Mollaret, H H

    1986-01-01

    The production of bacteriocin-like substances by strains of Yersinia frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii and Y. intermedia in broth culture was established. These substances showed a selective activity against Y. enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii and Y. intermedia strains. Electron micrographs revealed the presence of phage tails in culture media. The production of these substances was detected in cultures grown at 25 degrees C but not in those grown at 37 degrees C, while these bacteriocin-like substances were active at 25 and 37 degrees C. Y. enterocolitica serogroups 0:3 and 0:9 were more susceptible to these bacterin-like substances than strains of Yersinia isolated from environmental sources.

  4. [Determination of furbenicillin sodium and its related substances by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan; Tian, Ye; Ma, Yue; Hu, Chang-qin

    2015-12-01

    Furbenicillin is a broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin with strong antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Furbenicillin sodium is determined by volumetric method in current criteria. However, the criteria does not contain an assay of related substances of furbenicillin sodium. In this study, we established a method for detection and analysis of furbenicillin sodium and its related substances by HPLC. The analysis was performed with a C18 column under a gradient elution, the detection wavelength was 225 nm, and the column temperature was 35 degrees C. The reliability and accuracy of established method was validated in this study. Pure samples of furbenicillin sodium and its related substances were prepared. The structures, biological activities, and chromatographic retention behaviors of furbenicillin sodium and its related substances were identified using NMR, CLSI agar dilution method, and HPLC. All results in the current study provide ample evidence that this method is able to determine the reasonable limits in the quality-control protocol for furbenicillin sodium. PMID:27169288

  5. [Cephalopods as a Source of New Antimicrobial Substances].

    PubMed

    Besednova, N N; Kovalev, N N; Zaporozhets, T S; Kuznetsova, T A; Gazha, A K

    2016-01-01

    Under the conditions of emergence of microbial strains with new properties, including antibiotic resistance, in human and animal populations the search for new antimicrobial substances with improved pharmacological properties and new mechanisms of action from natural objects, in particular from aquatic organisms, is continued. This review presents extensive data on antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties of biologically active substances (BAS) of different chemical nature, recovered from representatives of the class of cephalopods (squid, octopus, cuttlefish, nautilus). Analysis of the literature shows that antibacterial activity of some BAS is not inferior, but in some cases is even superior to that of the available antibiotics. The authors note that the review includes the results, mainly of the in vitro studies. Adequate extrapolation of these data to the in vivo conditions is required, that could serve as foundation for development of new generations of medicinal compounds, functional foods and biologically active food supplements.

  6. [Cephalopods as a Source of New Antimicrobial Substances].

    PubMed

    Besednova, N N; Kovalev, N N; Zaporozhets, T S; Kuznetsova, T A; Gazha, A K

    2016-01-01

    Under the conditions of emergence of microbial strains with new properties, including antibiotic resistance, in human and animal populations the search for new antimicrobial substances with improved pharmacological properties and new mechanisms of action from natural objects, in particular from aquatic organisms, is continued. This review presents extensive data on antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties of biologically active substances (BAS) of different chemical nature, recovered from representatives of the class of cephalopods (squid, octopus, cuttlefish, nautilus). Analysis of the literature shows that antibacterial activity of some BAS is not inferior, but in some cases is even superior to that of the available antibiotics. The authors note that the review includes the results, mainly of the in vitro studies. Adequate extrapolation of these data to the in vivo conditions is required, that could serve as foundation for development of new generations of medicinal compounds, functional foods and biologically active food supplements. PMID:27337865

  7. Substance abuse in the refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Little, A. Jr. ); Ross, J.K. ); Lavorerio, R. ); Richards, T.A. )

    1989-01-01

    In order to provide some background for the NPRA Annual Meeting Management Session panel discussion on Substance Abuse in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries, NPRA distributed a questionnaire to member companies requesting information regarding the status of their individual substance abuse policies. The questionnaire was designed to identify general trends in the industry. The aggregate responses to the survey are summarized in this paper, as background for the Substance Abuse panel discussions.

  8. Substance abuse in African American women.

    PubMed

    Wingo, L K

    2001-01-01

    Substance abuse is a serious problem from which, regardless of sex or race, no one is immune. Each racial and gender group has specific etiological factors relating to the use of illicit drugs. Data regarding substance abuse in African American women has only recently begun to emerge in the literature. Issues such as socio-economic, racism, and sexism, place African American women at particular risk for substance abuse. Limited availability to treatment, a lack of appropriate treatment and poor social supports impact recovery and places these women at risk for relapse. This article provides an overview of the current literature regarding substance abuse, treatment and recovery in African American women.

  9. Psychoactive substances: Position statement on harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan Joseph; Manyedi For The Executive Committee Of The Central Drug Authority, Eva

    2016-09-01

    Psychoactive substances are subject to several international and national conventions and laws that have emphasised the importance of the 'war on drugs' and supply reduction. At the same time, it is increasingly clear that evidence-based, balanced policies are needed, which address the important differences between alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and other psychoactive substances or drugs. The Prevention of and Treatment for Substance Abuse Act 70 of 2008 speaks to the National Drug Master Plan, which emphasises a range of strategies for addressing the excessive use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and other psychoactive substances. PMID:27601125

  10. Implementing Key Strategies for Successful Network Integration in the Quebec Substance-Use Disorders Programme

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Michel; Grenier, Guy; Imboua, Armelle; Brochu, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fragmentation and lack of coordination often occur among organisations offering treatment for individuals with substance-use disorders. Better integration from a system perspective within a network of organisations offering substance-use disorder services can be developed using various integration strategies at the administrative and clinical levels. This study aims to identify integration strategies implemented in Quebec substance-use disorder networks and to assess their strengths and limitations. Methods: A total of 105 stakeholders representing two regions and four local substance-use disorder networks participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Thematic qualitative and descriptive quantitative analyses were conducted. Results: Six types of service integration strategies have been implemented to varying degrees in substance-use disorder networks. They are: 1) coordination activities-governance, 2) primary-care consolidation models, 3) information and monitoring management tools, 4) service coordination strategies, 5) clinical evaluation tools and 6) training activities. Conclusion: Important investments have been made in Quebec for the training and assessment of individuals with substance-use disorders, particularly in terms of support for emergency room liaison teams and the introduction of standardised clinical evaluation tools. However, the development of integration strategies was insufficient to ensure the implementation of successful networks. Planning, consolidation of primary care for substance-use disorders and systematic implementation of various clinical and administrative integration strategies are needed in order to ensure a better continuum of care for individuals with substance-use disorders. PMID:27616951

  11. Evidence for production of a bacteriocin-like substance by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, inhibitory to Staphylococcus aureus from foods.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Taiz Siqueira; de Oliveira, Cybelle Pereira; da Costa, Ana Carolina Vieira; Lima, Catiana Oliveira; Barreto, Humberto Medeiros; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Siqueira-Junior, José Pinto

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the production of a bacteriocin-like substance by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius S28, and evaluates its inhibitory effect against isolates of S. aureus from foods. All indicator isolates were sensitive to the substance produced from S. pseudintermedius S28, showing growth inhibition zones ranging from 14.2 to 28.3 mm. The inhibitory substance has no effect against the producer strain. The inhibitory substance was affected by proteolytic enzymes, while glycolytic and lipolytic enzymes had no effect, suggesting that the active substance could be considered as a bacteriocin-like substance. From these results, S. pseudintermedius S28 could be an interesting producer of a bacteriocin-like substance capable of strongly inhibiting S. aureus.

  12. Unification of force and substance.

    PubMed

    Wilczek, Frank

    2016-08-28

    Maxwell's mature presentation of his equations emphasized the unity of electromagnetism and mechanics, subsuming both as 'dynamical systems'. That intuition of unity has proved both fruitful, as a source of pregnant concepts, and broadly inspiring. A deep aspect of Maxwell's work is its use of redundant potentials, and the associated requirement of gauge symmetry. Those concepts have become central to our present understanding of fundamental physics, but they can appear to be rather formal and esoteric. Here I discuss two things: the physical significance of gauge invariance, in broad terms; and some tantalizing prospects for further unification, building on that concept, that are visible on the horizon today. If those prospects are realized, Maxwell's vision of the unity of field and substance will be brought to a new level.This article is part of the themed issue 'Unifying physics and technology in light of Maxwell's equations'. PMID:27458259

  13. Molecular aggregation of humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) form molecular aggregates in solution and on mineral surfaces. Elucidation of the mechanism of formation of these aggregates is important for an understanding of the interactions of HS in soils arid natural waters. The HS are formed mainly by enzymatic depolymerization and oxidation of plant biopolymers. These reactions transform the aromatic and lipid plant components into amphiphilic molecules, that is, molecules that consist of separate hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) parts. The nonpolar parts of the molecules are composed of relatively unaltered segments of plant polymers and the polar parts of carboxylic acid groups. These amphiphiles form membrane-like aggregates on mineral surfaces and micelle-like aggregates in solution. The exterior surfaces of these aggregates are hydrophilic, and the interiors constitute separate hydrophobic liquid-like phases.

  14. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction.

  15. Brain Reward Region Responsivity of Adolescents with and without Parental Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    The present study tested the competing hypotheses that adolescents at risk for future substance abuse and dependence by virtue of parental substance use disorders show either weaker or stronger responsivity of brain regions implicated in reward relative to youth without parental history of substance use disorders. Adolescents (N = 52) matched on demographics with and without parental substance use disorders, as determined by diagnostic interviews, who denied substance use in the past year were compared on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigms assessing neural response to receipt and anticipated receipt of monetary and food reward. Parental-history-positive versus -negative adolescents showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and bilateral putamen, and less activation in the fusiform gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus in response to anticipating winning money, as well as greater activation in the left midbrain and right paracentral lobule, and less activation in the right middle frontal gyrus in response to milkshake receipt. Results indicate that adolescents at risk for future onset of substance use disorders show elevated responsivity of brain regions implicated in reward, extending results from two smaller prior studies that found that individuals with versus without parental alcohol use disorders showed greater reward region response to anticipated monetary reward and pictures of alcohol. Collectively results provide support for the reward surfeit model of substance use disorders, rather than the reward deficit model. PMID:24128289

  16. Brain reward region responsivity of adolescents with and without parental substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja

    2014-09-01

    The present study tested the competing hypotheses that adolescents at risk for future substance abuse and dependence by virtue of parental substance use disorders show either weaker or stronger responsivity of brain regions implicated in reward relative to youth without parental history of substance use disorders. Adolescents (n = 52) matched on demographics with and without parental substance use disorders, as determined by diagnostic interviews, who denied substance use in the past year were compared on functional MRI (fMRI) paradigms assessing neural response to receipt and anticipated receipt of monetary and food reward. Parental-history-positive versus -negative adolescents showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and bilateral putamen, and less activation in the fusiform gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus in response to anticipating winning money, as well as greater activation in the left midbrain and right paracentral lobule, and less activation in the right middle frontal gyrus in response to milkshake receipt. Results indicate that adolescents at risk for future onset of substance use disorders show elevated responsivity of brain regions implicated in reward, extending results from 2 smaller prior studies that found that individuals with versus without parental alcohol use disorders showed greater reward region response to anticipated monetary reward and pictures of alcohol. Collectively, results provide support for the reward surfeit model of substance use disorders, rather than the reward deficit model.

  17. 78 FR 64017 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Pharmacore, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    .... Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on May... manufacture the listed controlled substance as active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for clinical...

  18. Inhibition of propionibacterium acnes by bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) produced by Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Whitney P; Filip, Jennifer C; DiRienzo, Joseph M; Volgina, Alla; Margolis, David J

    2006-10-01

    We report the in vitro inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) by a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS-like substance) produced by Streptococcus salivarius (S. salivarius). Bacteriocins are proteinaceous substances produced by bacteria that are capable of inhibiting the growth of similar bacterial strains. Unlike classical antibiotics, they have a relatively narrow spectrum of killing activity, resulting in a reduction in the intensity of selection for resistance. These findings suggest that BLIS may potentially be used for its anti-P. acnes activity in the treatment of acne. PMID:17039652

  19. Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes by Bacteriocin-Like Inhibitory Substances (BLIS) Produced by Streptococcus Salivarius

    PubMed Central

    Bowe, Whitney P.; Filip, Jennifer C.; DiRienzo, Joseph M.; Volgina, Alla; Margolis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the in vitro inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) by a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS-like substance) produced by Streptococcus salivarius (S. salivarius). Bacteriocins are proteinaceous substances produced by bacteria that are capable of inhibiting the growth of similar bacterial strains. Unlike classical antibiotics, they have a relatively narrow spectrum of killing activity, resulting in a reduction in the intensity of selection for resistance. These findings suggest that BLIS may potentially be used for its anti-P. acnes activity in the treatment of acne. PMID:17039652

  20. Childhood sexual abuse and substance abuse treatment utilization among substance-dependent incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony

    2011-10-01

    Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms.

  1. [Reconsideration of nicotine and other substance dependence: a clue from dependence-related mentation including reward, motivation, learning, delusion and hallucination toward understanding the concept of non-substance-related addiction].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hisatsugu

    2013-11-01

    Nicotine produces core symptoms of substance dependence (craving and withdrawal) without any psychotic symptoms. The psychopharmacological structure of craving is hypothesized to be constituted by three components: the primary reinforcing property of a substance, the secondary reinforcing property of that substance (conditioned aspects of the environment, such as contextual or specific cues associated with substance taking), and the negative affective motivational property during withdrawal (i.e. the desire to avoid the dysphoric withdrawal symptoms elicits craving). Among the three components, the primary reinforcing property of a substance forms the most fundamental factor for establishing substance dependence. Sensitization or reverse tolerance observed in locomotor activity of animals, which had been believed to be a methamphetamine psychosis model, is demonstrated to reflect the establishment of conditioned reinforcement. Finally, non-substance-related addiction such as gambling, internet, and sex is discussed. From the aspect of the above hypothetical psychopharmacological structure of craving, the most significant difference between substance dependence and non-substance-related addiction is that the primary reinforcing property of non-substance reward is relatively intangible in comparison with that of a substance of abuse.

  2. A Potent Phytotoxic Substance in Aglaia odorata Lour.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Suzuki, Masahiko; Noguchi, Kazutaka; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake; Laosinwattana, Chamroon

    2016-05-01

    Aglaia odorata Lour. (Meliaceae) was found to have very strong allelopathic activity and a bioherbicide PORGANIC(™) was developed from its leaf extracts. However, the phytotoxic substances causing the strong allelopathic activity of the plants have not yet been determined. Therefore, we investigated allelopathic properties and phytotoxic substances in A. odorata. Aqueous EtOH extracts of A. odorata leaves inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress (Lepidum sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), timothy (Phleum pratense), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and Echinochloa crus-galli with the extract concentration-dependent manner. The extracts were then purified and a major phytotoxic substance with allelopathic activity was isolated and identified by spectral data as rocaglaol. Rocaglaol inhibited the growth of garden cress and E. crus-galli at concentrations > 0.3 and 0.03 μm, respectively. The concentrations required for 50% inhibition ranged from 0.09 to 2.5 μm. The inhibitory activity of rocaglaol on the weed species, E. crus-galli, was much greater than that of abscisic acid. These results suggest that rocaglaol may be a major contributor to the allelopathic effect of A. odorata and bioherbicide PORGANIC(™) . PMID:27088639

  3. Historical Images and Reviews of Substance Use and Substance Abuse in the Teaching of Addiction Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolberg, Victor B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how images and historical reviews of substance use and abuse from different time periods can be used to provide a better understanding of the historical background of the discipline. Historical reviews of various substances, as well as approaches to addressing substance abuse at different time periods, and…

  4. Inactivation of food-borne viruses using natural biochemical substances.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Baert, Leen; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-08-01

    Food-borne viruses such as human Noroviruses (NoVs), hepatitis A virus (HAV), Rotaviruses (RoVs) are a public health concern worldwide. Biochemical substances, which occur naturally in plants, animals or microorganisms, might possess considerable antimicrobial properties. In this study, the reported effects of biochemical substances on food-borne viruses are reviewed. The biochemical substances are grouped into several categories including (i) polyphenols and proanthocyanins, (ii) saponin, (iii) polysaccharides, (iv) organic acids, (v) proteins and polypeptides, (vi) essential oils. Although not fully understood, the mechanism of action for the antiviral activity of the natural compounds is presented. Generally, it is thought to be the prevention of the viral attachment to host cells, either by causing damage on the viral capsids or change of the receptors on the cell membranes. It is recommended that further studies are undertaken not only on the wide-range screening for novel antiviral substances, but also on the mechanism in-depth as well as the exploration for their potential application in controlling virus contamination in foods or food processing. PMID:23628607

  5. Surveillance of hazardous substances releases due to system interruptions, 2002.

    PubMed

    Orr, Maureen F; Ruckart, Perri Zeitz

    2007-04-11

    The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system collected information on 9014 acute hazardous substance releases in 15 participating states in 2002. There were 3749 fixed-facility manufacturing events, of which 2100 involved "interruptions" to normal processing and 1649 "comparisons" that did not involve interruption. Equipment failure (69%) or intentional acts (20%) were the main root factor. Many events occurred in October and November in three states (Texas, Louisiana, and New Jersey), in three manufacturing industries (industrial and miscellaneous chemicals; petroleum refining; and plastics, synthetics, and resins). In interruption events, the substance categories most often released were mixtures, other inorganic substances, and volatile organic compounds and those most often causing injury were acids, chlorine, bases, and ammonia. Comparison events resulted in more acutely injured persons (408 versus 59) and more evacuees (11,318 versus 335) than interruption events and therefore may receive more public health attention. Because of the large number of interruption events, targeted prevention activities, including management of change procedures, lessons-learned implementation, process hazards analysis, and appropriate protection for workers could be economically advantageous and improve environmental quality. Efforts should focus on the identified areas of greater occurrence. The relationship of weather and equipment failure with interruption events needs further investigation.

  6. Substance Use, Abuse, and Dependency in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasser, Jon; Schmidt, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights the problem of substance use and abuse among adolescents and discusses the important role of school leaders in addressing this problem. Drug and alcohol use among adolescents is a significant and serious problem. In fact, an alarmingly high number of students report that they have used drugs or alcohol. Substance use and…

  7. Substance Abuse and the American Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    The first comprehensive assessment of substance abuse and women, this report arose from an analysis of more than 1,700 scientific and technical articles, surveys, government reports and books. Results show that American women are closing the gap with men in that they are increasingly likely to abuse substances at the same rate as men. Findings…

  8. Directions in Substance Abuse Counseling, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam W., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This volume of six lessons provides expert information on a variety of issues in substance abuse counseling. The lessons, which may be applied toward continuing education credits, are: (1) "Ethics in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation" (Robert L. Hewes); (2) "Addressing the Needs of Clients with Traumatic Injury and Alcoholism" (Charles H.…

  9. Academic Perspectives in Substance Abuse Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark

    Academic perspectives are reviewed for consultation in substance abuse within four general issues: consultation paradigms, research consultation and psychology, sources for consultation, and academic issues. The mental health/crisis intervention model is the most common consultation paradigm. Most consultation research in the substance abuse area…

  10. Harm Reduction in MSW Substance Abuse Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eversman, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…

  11. Perceptions of Elders' Substance Abuse and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…

  12. 21 CFR 1405.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE... controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11 through 1308.15....

  13. 21 CFR 1405.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE... controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11 through 1308.15....

  14. 21 CFR 1405.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE... controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11 through 1308.15....

  15. 21 CFR 1405.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE... controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11 through 1308.15....

  16. 21 CFR 1405.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE... controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11 through 1308.15....

  17. 43 CFR 423.44 - Controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Controlled substances. 423.44 Section 423.44 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Substance Act (21 U.S.C. 812) on Reclamation facilities, lands, or waterbodies, unless the...

  18. 43 CFR 423.44 - Controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Controlled substances. 423.44 Section 423.44 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Substance Act (21 U.S.C. 812) on Reclamation facilities, lands, or waterbodies, unless the...

  19. Substance Use, Distress, and Adolescent School Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations of substance use, psychological distress, and mental health services receipt with the structure and content of adolescent school-based networks. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we found that substance use was associated with receiving more, but making fewer, peer…

  20. Recipes for Prevention. Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine

    This handbook, which is the first in a series of materials being developed by an educational group in Albany, New York, for parents and caregivers of preschoolers, focuses on substance abuse prevention concepts. Its goals are to promote awareness that substance abuse prevention starts with very young children and to provide a format of activities…

  1. Substance Abuse and Counseling: An Epilogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    This chapter discusses current issues and future perspectives in relation to substance abuse counseling. Current issues include: abstinence versus controlled use; coercive versus voluntary treatment; and career development and counseling with clients with substance abuse problems. Future perspectives include: the impact of managed care; the…

  2. Anxiety and Substance Use during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary goal of this study was to examine the relationship between anxiety symptomatology and substance use (alcohol use and drug use) during adolescence, systematically by gender and race/ethnicity. Methods : Self-report surveys were administered to 905 15-17 year old adolescents (54% girls) in the spring of 2007. Results Results from multiple group analyses indicated that the relations between anxiety and substance use differs by gender and race/ethnicity. For Caucasian and African American boys, higher levels of social anxiety and separation anxiety were related to less substance use. In contrast, higher levels of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder were associated with more substance use for African American boys. The pattern was much less striking for girls. For Caucasian girls, higher levels of significant school avoidance were linked to more substance use and consistent with the results for boys, higher levels of separation anxiety were associated with less substance use. None of the anxiety disorders were related to substance use for African American girls or Hispanic girls or boys. Conclusions Findings from this study highlight the need to distinguish between different anxiety disorders. In addition, they underscore the importance of considering both gender and race/ethnicity when examining the relationship between anxiety and substance use during adolescence. PMID:25148293

  3. Substance abuse in an inpatient psychiatric sample.

    PubMed

    Brady, K; Casto, S; Lydiard, R B; Malcolm, R; Arana, G

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between psychoactive drug abuse and psychopathology is complex. There have been few systematic explorations of substance abuse in psychiatric populations since the recent epidemic of cocaine abuse. To update and further explore the relationship between psychiatric illness and substance abuse, 100 consecutively admitted patients to an inpatient psychiatry unit were administered a drug and alcohol use/abuse questionnaire. Sixty-four percent endorsed current or past problems with substance abuse and 29% met DSM-III-R criteria for substance abuse in the 30 days prior to admission. For the major diagnostic categories, there were no significant differences between groups in percentages of patients with substance abuse disorders. There was a trend (p less than or equal to .2) toward an increased number of lifetime psychiatric hospitalizations in the substance-abusing group. Alcohol was the most common drug of choice followed by stimulants, cannabis, and sedative hypnotics. Differences in drug choices between diagnostic categories are discussed. Forty-three percent of urine drug screens obtained were positive, and of those with positive urine drug screens, 42% denied drug use upon admission. Only 40% of patients with current or past substance abuse problems had received treatment for their chemical dependency. In our sample, while substance abuse was very prevalent, it was underreported and undertreated.

  4. Personality, Problem Solving, and Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, William B.; D'Zurilla, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to examine the role of social problem solving in the relationship between personality and substance use in adolescents. Although a number of studies have identified a relationship between personality and substance use, the precise mechanism by which this occurs is not clear. We hypothesized that problem-solving…

  5. Cultural Issues in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Dharma E.; Ja, Davis; Noboa, Abdin; Perry, Vincent; Robinson, Robert; Rodriguez, Domingo; Stubben, Jerry

    This monograph provides a tool to help providers and other substance abuse treatment professionals gain a greater understanding of the cultural, social, political, and economic forces affecting substance abuse treatment among Hispanic Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. An…

  6. Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

    Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

  7. Juvenile Drug Courts and Teen Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey A., Ed.; Roman, John, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substance abuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substance abuse treatment for drug-involved…

  8. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  9. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  10. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain young…

  11. Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Donald F.; Henriksen, Lisa; Christenson, Peter G.

    This study examines the frequency and nature of substance use in the most popular movie rentals and songs of 1996 and 1997. The intent was to determine the accuracy of public perceptions about extensive substance use in media popular among youth. Because teenagers are major consumers of movies and music, there is concern about the potential for…

  12. Substance Abuse Policies in Ohio Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, William

    Ohio substance abuse policies, discipline codes, and educational drug abuse prevention programs are reviewed. An effective substance abuse policy is an essential element in the school's efforts to deal with drug and alcohol use. In many U.S. schools, the use of alcohol and drugs interferes with the education process, and it appears that substance…

  13. Juvenile Offender Comprehensive Reentry Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Donnie W.

    2004-01-01

    The literature provides ample evidence of the relationship of substance abuse to crime. Research over the last 20 years has established a strong correlation between substance abuse and juvenile delinquency (held, 1998). Currently, there are more than 350,000 juveniles on probation and in continuing care programs in the U.S. who have substance…

  14. Toxic Substances in the Environment. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Ronald J.

    Modern society is very dependent upon numerous chemical substances. Chemicals have a wide variety of uses, including drugs to prolong our lives and pesticides to control insect and weed pests. Life would be drastically different without the availability of these chemical substances but, while the benefits of chemicals should be appreciated, the…

  15. Naturally occurring toxic substances in foods.

    PubMed

    Gross, R L; Newberne, P M

    1977-11-01

    Numerous chemical toxins, including normal components of natural foods, e.g., mycotoxins, and toxic chemicals as contaminants such as pesticides, fertilizers, food additives, and preservatives, which are potentially toxic to humans, are discussed. Potential toxicity, the hazard to man represented by most of these chemicals, may be low because the concentration in food may be low. The gap in our knowledge of long-term effects makes rational decisions as to allowable levels of these substances a major problem. On the other hand, nitrosamines and aflatoxins are toxins for which there exists a voluminous literature documentaing extreme biologic activity in experimental animals and indirect evidence for activity in man. Epidemiologic evidence has linked them to human cancers, and because of increasing evidence of long-term human exposure to these toxins either as inadvertent contaminants during food preparation or as the metabolites of mycotic infestation this possible hazard demands intensive investigation. An exhaustive review of data from epidemiologic surveys in various parts of the world, as well as from long-term laboratory studies, represents an impressive start in this direction.

  16. Translating Developmental Neuroscience to Substance Use Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Several preventive interventions have demonstrated efficacy in reducing substance use. However, opportunities exist to further improve prevention approaches. The application of recent advances in developmental neuroscience can inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs. This paper first briefly describes the developmental integration of the prefrontal cortex with emotion and motivation centers of the brain, and the implications of this process for substance use vulnerability. Discussed next are specific examples of how developmental neuroscience can inform prevention timing, development, and evaluation. Contextual considerations are then suggested including a critical role for schools in substance misuse prevention. Finally, current theoretical and methodological challenges to the translation of developmental neuroscience to substance use prevention are discussed. PMID:26236576

  17. Elevated Reward Region Responsivity Predicts Future Substance Use Onset But Not Overweight/Obesity Onset

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Burger, Kyle S.

    2013-01-01

    Background We tested the hypotheses that adolescents who show elevated reward region responsivity are at increased risk for initial onset of overweight/obesity and substance use, which is important because there have been no such prospective tests of the reward surfeit model of these motivated behaviors. Methods One hundred sixty-two adolescents (mean age = 15.3 ± 1.06 years) with healthy weights (mean body mass index = 20.8 ± 1.90) completed functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigms that assessed neural activation in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward; body fat and substance use were assessed at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Results Elevated caudate (r = .31, p < .001) and putamen (r = .28, p < .001) response to monetary reward predicted substance use onset over 1-year follow-up, but reward circuitry responsivity did not predict future overweight/obesity onset. Adolescents who reported substance use versus abstinence at baseline also showed less caudate (r = –.31, p < .001) response to monetary reward. Discussion Results show that hyper-responsivity of reward circuitry increases risk for future substance use onset, providing novel support for the reward surfeit model. Results also imply that even a limited substance use history was associated with reduced reward region responsivity, extending results from studies that compared substance-dependent individuals with healthy control subjects and suggesting that substance use downregulates reward circuitry. However, aberrant reward region responsivity did not predict initial unhealthy weight gain. PMID:23312561

  18. Fouling of enhanced biological phosphorus removal-membrane bioreactors by humic-like substances.

    PubMed

    Poorasgari, Eskandar; König, Katja; Fojan, Peter; Keiding, Kristian; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2014-12-01

    Fouling by free extracellular polymeric substances was studied in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal-membrane bioreactor. It was demonstrated that the free extracellular polymeric substances, primarily consisting of humic-like substances, were adsorbed to the membrane used in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal-membrane bioreactor plant. Infrared analyses indicated the presence of the humic-like substances on the membrane's active surface after filtration of the free extracellular polymeric substances suspension. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of a gel layer on the membrane surface after filtration of the free extracellular polymeric substances suspension. The gel layer caused a significant decline in water flux. This layer was not entirely removed by a backwashing, and the membrane's water flux could not be re-established. The membrane used in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal-membrane bioreactor plant showed infrared spectra similar to that fouled by the free extracellular polymeric substances suspension in the laboratory. Thus, the results of this study show the importance of humic-like substances in irreversible fouling of enhanced biological phosphorus removal-membrane bioreactor systems.

  19. Glial abnormalities in substance use disorders and depression: Does shared glutamatergic dysfunction contribute to comorbidity?

    PubMed Central

    Niciu, Mark J.; Henter, Ioline D.; Sanacora, Gerard; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Preclinical and clinical research in neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly mood and substance use disorders, have historically focused on neurons; however, glial cells – astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes – also play key roles in these disorders. Methods Peer-reviewed PubMed/Medline articles published through December 2012 were identified using the following keyword combinations: glia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes/glia, microglia, substance use, substance abuse, substance dependence, alcohol, opiate, opioid, cocaine, psychostimulants, stimulants, and glutamate. Results Depressive and substance use disorders are highly comorbid, suggesting a common or overlapping aetiology and pathophysiology. Reduced astrocyte cell number occurs in both disorders. Altered glutamate neurotransmission and metabolism – specifically changes in the levels/activity of transporters, receptors, and synaptic proteins potentially related to synaptic physiology – appear to be salient features of both disorders. Glial cell pathology may also underlie the pathophysiology of both disorders via impaired astrocytic production of neurotrophic factors. Microglial/neuroinflammatory pathology is also evident in both depressive and substance use disorders. Finally, oligodendrocyte impairment decreases myelination and impairs expression of myelin-related genes in both substance use and depressive disorders. Conclusions Glial-mediated glutamatergic dysfunction is a common neuropathological pathway in both substance use and depression. Therefore, glutamatergic neuromodulation is a rational drug target in this comorbidity. PMID:24024876

  20. Fouling of enhanced biological phosphorus removal-membrane bioreactors by humic-like substances.

    PubMed

    Poorasgari, Eskandar; König, Katja; Fojan, Peter; Keiding, Kristian; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2014-12-01

    Fouling by free extracellular polymeric substances was studied in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal-membrane bioreactor. It was demonstrated that the free extracellular polymeric substances, primarily consisting of humic-like substances, were adsorbed to the membrane used in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal-membrane bioreactor plant. Infrared analyses indicated the presence of the humic-like substances on the membrane's active surface after filtration of the free extracellular polymeric substances suspension. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of a gel layer on the membrane surface after filtration of the free extracellular polymeric substances suspension. The gel layer caused a significant decline in water flux. This layer was not entirely removed by a backwashing, and the membrane's water flux could not be re-established. The membrane used in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal-membrane bioreactor plant showed infrared spectra similar to that fouled by the free extracellular polymeric substances suspension in the laboratory. Thus, the results of this study show the importance of humic-like substances in irreversible fouling of enhanced biological phosphorus removal-membrane bioreactor systems. PMID:25014564