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Sample records for active surface layer

  1. Characterization of cathode keeper wear by surface layer activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the erosion rates of the discharge cathode keeper in a 30 cm NSTAR configuration ion thruster were measured using a technique known as Surface Layer Activation (SLA). This diagnostic technique involves producing a radioactive tracer in a given surface by bombardment with high energy ions. The decrease in activity of the tracer material may be monitored as the surface is subjected to wear processes and correlated to a depth calibration curve, yielding the eroded depth. Analysis of the activities was achieved through a gamma spectroscopy system. The primary objectives of this investigation were to reproduce erosion data observed in previous wear studies in order to validate the technique, and to determine the effect of different engine operating parameters on erosion rate. The erosion profile at the TH 15 (23 kw) setting observed during the 8200 hour Life Demonstration Test (LDT) was reproduced. The maximum keeper erosion rate at this setting was determined to be 0.085 pm/hr. Testing at the TH 8 (1.4 kw) setting demonstrated lower erosion rates than TH 15, along with a different wear profile. Varying the keeper voltage was shown to have a significant effect on the erosion, with a positive bias with respect to cathode potential decreasing the erosion rate significantly. Accurate measurements were achieved after operating times of only 40 to 70 hours, a significant improvement over other erosion diagnostic methods.

  2. Hematite Surface Activation by Chemical Addition of Tin Oxide Layer.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Waldemir M; Souza, Flavio L

    2016-09-05

    In this study, the effect of tin (Sn(4+) ) modification on the surface of hematite electrodes synthesized by an aqueous solution route at different times (2, 5, 10, 18, and 24 h) is investigated. As confirmed from X-ray diffraction results, the as-synthesized electrode exhibits an oxyhydroxide phase, which is converted into a pure hematite phase after being subjected to additional thermal treatment at 750 °C for 30 min. The tin-modified hematite electrode is prepared by depositing a solution of Sn(4+) precursor on the as-synthesized electrode, followed by thermal treatment under the same abovementioned conditions. This modification results in an enhancement of the photocurrent response for all hematite electrodes investigated and attains the highest values of around 1.62 and 2.3 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 and 1.4 V versus RHE, respectively, for electrodes obtained in short synthesis times (2 h). Contact angle measurements suggest that the deposition of Sn(4+) on the hematite electrode provides a more hydrophilic surface, which favors a chemical reaction at the interface between the electrode and electrolyte. This result generates new perspectives for understanding the deposition of Sn(4+) on the hematite electrode surface, which is in contrast with several studies previously reported; these studies state that the enhancement in photocurrent density is related to either the induction of an increased donor charge density or shift in the flat-band potential, which favors charge separation.

  3. Control of the boundary layer separation about an airfoil by active surface heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio; Badavi, Forooz F.; Noonan, Kevin W.

    1988-01-01

    Application of active control to separated flow on the RC(6)-08 airfoil at high angle of attack by localized surface heating is numerically simulated by integrating the compressible two-dimensional nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations solver. Active control is simulated by local modification of the temperature boundary condition over a narrow strip on the upper surface of the airfoil. Both mean and perturbed profiles are favorably altered when excited with the same natural frequency of the shear layer by moderate surface heating for both laminar and turbulent separation. The shear layer is found to be very sensitive to localized surface heating in the vicinity of the separation point. The excitation field at the surface sufficiently altered both the local as well as the global circulation to cause a significant increase in lift and reduction in drag.

  4. Extending the Diffuse Layer Model of Surface Acidity Behavior: III. Estimating Bound Site Activity Coefficients

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although detailed thermodynamic analyses of the 2-pK diffuse layer surface complexation model generally specify bound site activity coefficients for the purpose of accounting for those non-ideal excess free energies contributing to bound site electrochemical potentials, in applic...

  5. Surface and Active Layer Pore Water Chemistry from Ice Wedge Polygons, Barrow, Alaska, 2013-2014

    DOE Data Explorer

    David E. Graham; Baohua Gu; Elizabeth M. Herndon; Stan D. Wullschleger; Ziming Yang; Liyuan Liang

    2016-11-10

    This data set reports the results of spatial surveys of aqueous geochemistry conducted at Intensive Site 1 of the Barrow Environmental Observatory in 2013 and 2014 (Herndon et al., 2015). Surface water and soil pore water samples were collected from multiple depths within the tundra active layer of different microtopographic features (troughs, ridges, center) of a low-centered polygon (area A), high-centered polygon (area B), flat-centered polygon (area C), and transitional polygon (area D). Reported analytes include dissolved organic and inorganic carbon, dissolved carbon dioxide and methane, major inorganic anions, and major and minor cations.

  6. Murein hydrolase activity of surface layer proteins from Lactobacillus acidophilus against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jun; Gao, Shu-Ming; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Lu, Rong-Rong

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the murein hydrolase activities of the surface layer proteins (SLPs) from two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus using zymography. The influence of these hydrolase activities on Escherichia coli ATCC 43893 was also evaluated by analysing their growth curve, cell morphology and physiological state. After the incubation of E. coli with SLPs, growth was inhibited, the number of viable cells was significantly reduced, examination by transmission electron microscopy showed that the cell wall was damaged and flow cytometry results indicated that the majority of the cells were sublethally injured. All of these results suggested that the SLPs of both L. acidophilus strains possessed murein hydrolase activities that were sublethal to E. coli cells.

  7. A Novel Surface Structure Consisting of Contact-active Antibacterial Upper-layer and Antifouling Sub-layer Derived from Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Salt Polyurethanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jiehua; Gao, Yunlong; Luo, Feng; Tan, Hong; Wang, Kunjie; Fu, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Contact-active antibacterial surfaces play a vital role in preventing bacterial contamination of artificial surfaces. In the past, numerous researches have been focused on antibacterial surfaces comprising of antifouling upper-layer and antibacterial sub-layer. In this work, we demonstrate a reversed surface structure which integrate antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer. These surfaces are prepared by simply casting gemini quaternary ammonium salt waterborne polyurethanes (GWPU) and their blends. Due to the high interfacial energy of gemini quaternary ammonium salt (GQAS), chain segments containing GQAS can accumulate at polymer/air interface to form an antibacterial upper-layer spontaneously during the film formation. Meanwhile, the soft segments composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) formed the antifouling sub-layer. Our findings indicate that the combination of antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer endow these surfaces strong, long-lasting antifouling and contact-active antibacterial properties, with a more than 99.99% killing efficiency against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria attached to them.

  8. A Novel Surface Structure Consisting of Contact-active Antibacterial Upper-layer and Antifouling Sub-layer Derived from Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Salt Polyurethanes

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jiehua; Gao, Yunlong; Luo, Feng; Tan, Hong; Wang, Kunjie; Fu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Contact-active antibacterial surfaces play a vital role in preventing bacterial contamination of artificial surfaces. In the past, numerous researches have been focused on antibacterial surfaces comprising of antifouling upper-layer and antibacterial sub-layer. In this work, we demonstrate a reversed surface structure which integrate antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer. These surfaces are prepared by simply casting gemini quaternary ammonium salt waterborne polyurethanes (GWPU) and their blends. Due to the high interfacial energy of gemini quaternary ammonium salt (GQAS), chain segments containing GQAS can accumulate at polymer/air interface to form an antibacterial upper-layer spontaneously during the film formation. Meanwhile, the soft segments composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) formed the antifouling sub-layer. Our findings indicate that the combination of antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer endow these surfaces strong, long-lasting antifouling and contact-active antibacterial properties, with a more than 99.99% killing efficiency against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria attached to them. PMID:27561546

  9. Compliant layer chucking surface

    DOEpatents

    Blaedel, Kenneth L.; Spence, Paul A.; Thompson, Samuel L.

    2004-12-28

    A method and apparatus are described wherein a thin layer of complaint material is deposited on the surface of a chuck to mitigate the deformation that an entrapped particle might cause in the part, such as a mask or a wafer, that is clamped to the chuck. The harder particle will embed into the softer layer as the clamping pressure is applied. The material composing the thin layer could be a metal or a polymer for vacuum or electrostatic chucks. It may be deposited in various patterns to affect an interrupted surface, such as that of a "pin" chuck, thereby reducing the probability of entrapping a particle.

  10. Influence of active layer and support layer surface structures on organic fouling propensity of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinglin; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Ma, Jun; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-02-03

    In this study, we investigate the influence of surface structure on the fouling propensity of thin-film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes. Specifically, we compare membranes fabricated through identical procedures except for the use of different solvents (dimethylformamide, DMF and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, NMP) during phase separation. FO fouling experiments were carried out with a feed solution containing a model organic foulant. The TFC membranes fabricated using NMP (NMP-TFC) had significantly less flux decline (7.47 ± 0.15%) when compared to the membranes fabricated using DMF (DMF-TFC, 12.70 ± 2.62% flux decline). Water flux was also more easily recovered through physical cleaning for the NMP-TFC membrane. To determine the fundamental cause of these differences in fouling propensity, the active and support layers of the membranes were extensively characterized for physical and chemical characteristics relevant to fouling behavior. Polyamide surface roughness was found to dominate all other investigated factors in determining the fouling propensities of our membranes relative to each other. The high roughness polyamide surface of the DMF-TFC membrane was also rich in larger leaf-like structures, whereas the lower roughness NMP-TFC membrane polyamide layer contained more nodular and smaller features. The support layers of the two membrane types were also characterized for their morphological properties, and the relation between support layer surface structure and polyamide active layer formation was discussed. Taken together, our findings indicate that support layer structure has a significant impact on the fouling propensity of the active layer, and this impact should be considered in the design of support layer structures for TFC membranes.

  11. Nanoengineering Catalyst Supports via Layer-by Layer Surface Functionalization

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Wenfu; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H; Dai, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Recent progress in the layer-by-layer surface modification of oxides for the preparation of highly active and stable gold nanocatalysts is briefly reviewed. Through a layer-by-layer surface modification approach, the surfaces of various catalyst supports including both porous and nonporous silica materials and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were modified with monolayers or multilayers of distinct metal oxide ultra-thin films. The surface-modified materials were used as supports for Au nanoparticles, resulting in highly active nanocatalysts for low-temperature CO oxidation. Good stability against sintering under high-temperature treatment was achieved for a number of the Au catalysts through surface modification of the support material. The surface modification of supports can be a viable route to control both the composition and structure of support and nanoparticle interfaces, thereby tailoring the stability and activity of the supported catalyst systems.

  12. The Martian surface layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Philip R.; Moore, Henry J.

    1992-01-01

    The global characteristics of the Martian surface layer are discussed on the basis of thermal, albedo, color, and radar data for the region between approximately 60 deg S and 60 deg N. Thermal data reveal the presence of large low- and high-inertia regions of the northern hemisphere, with much of the south covered by material of moderate inertia. There is a strong anticorrelation between inertia and albedo, a correlation between inertia and rock abundance, and, over much of the planet, a correlation of radar-derived density with inertia. Viking Orbiter color data indicate the presence of three major surface materials: low-inertia, bright-red material that is presumably dust; high-inertia, dark-grey material interpreted to be lithic material mixed with palagonitelike dust; and moderate-inertia, dark-red material that is rough at subpixel scales and interpreted to be indurated. Observations from the Viking landing sites show rocks, fines of varying cohesion and crusts. These sites have indications of aeolian erosion and deposition in the recent past.

  13. Excellent c-Si surface passivation by thermal atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide after industrial firing activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, B.; Stangl, R.; Ma, F.; Mueller, T.; Lin, F.; Aberle, A. G.; Bhatia, C. S.; Hoex, B.

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate that by using a water (H2O)-based thermal atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) film, excellent surface passivation can be attained on planar low-resistivity silicon wafers. Effective carrier lifetime values of up to 12 ms and surface recombination velocities as low as 0.33 cm s-1 are achieved on float-zone wafers after a post-deposition thermal activation of the Al2O3 passivation layer. This post-deposition activation is achieved using an industrial high-temperature firing process which is commonly used for contact formation of standard screen-printed silicon solar cells. Neither a low-temperature post-deposition anneal nor a silicon nitride capping layer is required in this case. Deposition temperatures in the 100-400 °C range and peak firing temperatures of about 800 °C (set temperature) are investigated. Photoluminescence imaging shows that the surface passivation is laterally uniform. Corona charging and capacitance-voltage measurements reveal that the negative fixed charge density near the AlOx/c-Si interface increases from 1.4 × 1012 to 3.3 × 1012 cm-2 due to firing, while the midgap interface defect density reduces from 3.3 × 1011 to 0.8 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1. This work demonstrates that direct firing activation of thermal ALD Al2O3 is feasible, which could be beneficial for solar cell manufacturing.

  14. Lactobacillus acidophilus CP23 with weak immunomodulatory activity lacks anchoring structure for surface layer protein.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Sae; Kato, Shinji; Ashida, Nobuhisa; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2015-05-01

    To determine the reason for the low levels of Surface layer protein A (SlpA) on CP23 cells, which might play a crucial role in the immunomodulatory effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus, the DNA sequence of the slpA gene of CP23 and L-92 strains, including the upstream region, were analyzed. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in the predicted amino acid sequence of the C-terminus needed for cell anchoring, and only an additional Ala-Val-Ala sequence inserted in the N-terminal region of the mature CP23 protein. Therefore, anchoring of SlpA on the cell wall of CP23 and L-92 was evaluated by a reconstitution assay, which showed that SlpA released by LiCl treatment from both CP23 and L-92 was successfully anchored on LiCl-treated L-92 cells, but not on LiCl-treated CP23 cells. Moreover, quantitative analysis of SlpA protein in the culture medium of CP23 and L-92 by ELISA revealed higher levels of SlpA secretion in CP23 cells than in L-92 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that the lower levels of SlpA on the surface of CP23 cells might be caused by less cell wall capacity for SlpA anchoring, leading to an accumulation of SlpA in the culture medium of CP23 cells. The present study supports the importance of cell surface structure of L. acidophilus L-92 for SlpA anchoring on the cell surface needed for immunomodulatory effect.

  15. Improving Morphological Quality and Uniformity of Hydrothermally Grown ZnO Nanowires by Surface Activation of Catalyst Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Gonzalo; Lozano, Helena; Cases-Utrera, Joana; Lee, Minbaek; Esteve, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study about the dependence of the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) with the passivation level of the active surface of the Au catalyst layer. The hydrothermal method has many potential applications because of its low processing temperature, feasibility, and low cost. However, when a gold thin film is utilized as the seed material, the grown NWs often lack morphological homogeneity; their distribution is not uniform and the reproducibility of the growth is low. We hypothesize that the state or condition of the active surface of the Au catalyst layer has a critical effect on the uniformity of the NWs. Inspired by traditional electrochemistry experiments, in which Au electrodes are typically activated before the measurements, we demonstrate that such activation is a simple way to effectively assist and enhance NW growth. In addition, several cleaning processes are examined to find one that yields NWs with optimal quality, density, and vertical alignment. We find cyclic voltammetry measurements to be a reliable indicator of the seed-layer quality for subsequent NW growth. Therefore, we propose the use of this technique as a standard procedure prior to the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO NWs to control the growth reproducibility and to allow high-yield wafer-level processing.

  16. Surface modification of polypropylene non-woven fibers with TiO2 nanoparticles via layer-by-layer self assembly method: Preparation and photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Pavasupree, Suttipan; Dubas, Stephan T; Rangkupan, Ratthapol

    2015-11-01

    Polypropylene (PP) meltblown fibers were coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles using layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition technique. The fibers were first modified with 3 layers of poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSS) and poly(diallyl-dimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) to improve the anchoring of the TiO2 nanoparticle clusters. PDADMAC, which is positively charged, was then used as counter polyelectrolyte in tandem with anionic TiO2 nanoparticles to construct TiO2/PDADMAC bilayer in the LbL fashion. The number of deposited TiO2/PDADMAC layers was varied from 1 to 7 bilayer, and could be used to adjust TiO2 loading. The LbL technique showed higher TiO2 loading efficiency than the impregnation approach. The modified fibers were tested for their photocatalytic activity against a model dye, Methylene Blue (MB). Results showed that the TiO2 modified fibers exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity efficiency similar to that of TiO2 powder dispersed in solution. The deposition of TiO2 3 bilayer on the PP substrate was sufficient to produce nanocomposite fibers that could bleach the MB solution in less than 4hr. TiO2-LbL constructions also preserved TiO2 adhesion on substrate surface after 1cycle of photocatalytic test. Successive photocatalytic test showed decline in MB reduction rate with loss of TiO2 particles from the substrate outer surface. However, even in the third cycle, the TiO2 modified fibers are still moderately effective as it could remove more than 95% of MB after 8hr of treatment.

  17. Activity of radon (222Rn) in the lower atmospheric surface layer of a typical rural site in south India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. Charan; Prasad, T. Rajendra; Ratnam, M. Venkat; Nagaraja, Kamsali

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of one year measurements of in situ radon (222Rn) and its progenies along with surface air temperature, relative humidity and pressure near to the Earth's surface has been carried out for the first time at the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL, 13.5∘N and 79.2∘E) located in a rural site in Gadanki, south India. The dataset was analysed to understand the behaviour of radon in relation to the surface air temperature and relative humidity at a rural site. It was observed that over a period of the 24 hours in a day, the activity of radon and its progenies reaches a peak in the morning hours followed by a remarkable decrease in the afternoon hours. Relatively, a higher concentration of radon was observed at NARL during fair weather days, and this can be attributed to the presence of rocky hills and dense vegetation surrounding the site. The high negative correlation between surface air temperature and activity of radon ( R = - 0.70, on an annual scale) suggests that dynamical removal of radon due to increased vertical mixing is one of the most important controlling processes of the radon accumulation in the atmospheric surface layer. The annual averaged activity of radon was found to be 12.01±0.66 Bq m-3 and 4.25±0.18 Bq m-3 for its progenies, in the study period.

  18. The neutral surface layer above rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedman, Ann-Sofi; Sahlee, Erik

    2014-05-01

    It is generally accepted that turbulent fluxes (momentum and scalar fluxes) are approx. constant with height above horizontal surfaces with low roughness. But what will happen when the roughness sub-layer is large as found over cities, forests and rough seas? In a study of the kinematic structure of the near neutral atmospheric surface layer, Högström, Hunt and Smedman, 2002, it was demonstrated that a model with detached eddies from above the surface layer impinging on to the surface (Hunt and Morison, 2000) could explain some of the observed features in the neutral atmospheric boundary layer. Thus the detached eddy model proved successful in explaining the dynamic structure of the near neutral atmospheric surface layer, especially the shape of the spectra of the wind components and scalars and corresponding fluxes. Here we make the hypothesis that the detached-eddy model can also be used to explain the experimental results related to the 3-dimensional turbulence structure above rough surfaces. Measurements are taken both over land (grass and forest) and over sea (Baltic Sea and hurricane Fabian in the Atlantic) above the roughness sub-layer. Analysis of the turbulence structure shows a striking similarity between the different sites. Hunt, J.C.R and Morrison, J.F., 2000: Eddy structure in turbulent boundary layers, Euro. J. Mech. B-Fluids, 19, 673-694. Högström, U., Hunt, J.C.R., and Smedman, A., 2002: Theory and measurements for turbulence spectra and variances in the atmospheric neutral surface layer, Bound.-Layer Meteorol., 103,101-124.

  19. Surface layers of bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, T J; Graham, L L

    1991-01-01

    Since bacteria are so small, microscopy has traditionally been used to study them as individual cells. To this end, electron microscopy has been a most powerful tool for studying bacterial surfaces; the viewing of macromolecular arrangements of some surfaces is now possible. This review compares older conventional electron-microscopic methods with new cryotechniques currently available and the results each has produced. Emphasis is not placed on the methodology but, rather, on the importance of the results in terms of our perception of the makeup and function of bacterial surfaces and their interaction with the surrounding environment. Images PMID:1723487

  20. Room-temperature bonding method for polymer substrate of flexible electronics by surface activation using nano-adhesion layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumae, Takashi; Fujino, Masahisa; Suga, Tadatomo

    2015-10-01

    A sealing method for polymer substrates to be used in flexible electronics is studied. For this application, a low-temperature sealing method that achieves flexible bonding of inorganic bonding material is required, but no conventional technique satisfies these requirements simultaneously. In this study, a new polymer bonding method using thin Si and Fe layers and the surface activated bonding (SAB) method are applied to bond poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) films to each other. PEN films can be bonded via the proposed method without voids at room temperature, and the bonded samples are bendable. The adhesion strength of the bonded samples is so strong that fracture occurs in the polymer bulk rather than at the bond interface. Investigations of the bonded samples by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) reveal that bonding is achieved by chemical interactions between the polymer surface and deposited atoms.

  1. Polythiophene nanofibril bundles surface-embedded in elastomer: a route to a highly stretchable active channel layer.

    PubMed

    Shin, Minkwan; Oh, Jin Young; Byun, Kyung-Eun; Lee, Yu-Jeong; Kim, Bongsoo; Baik, Hong-Koo; Park, Jong-Jin; Jeong, Unyong

    2015-02-18

    A stretchable polymer channel layer for organic field-effect transistors is obtained by spin-coating a blend solution of polythiophene and rubber polymer. A network of the polythiophene nanofibril bundles surface-embedded in the rubber matrix allows large stretchability of the polythiophene film layer.

  2. Activation of Al–Cu–Fe quasicrystalline surface: fabrication of a fine nanocomposite layer with high catalytic performance

    PubMed Central

    Kameoka, Satoshi; Tanabe, Toyokazu; Satoh, Futami; Terauchi, Masami; Tsai, An Pang

    2014-01-01

    A fine layered nanocomposite with a total thickness of about 200 nm was formed on the surface of an Al63Cu25Fe12 quasicrystal (QC). The nanocomposite was found to exhibit high catalytic performance for steam reforming of methanol. The nanocomposite was formed by a self-assembly process, by leaching the Al–Cu–Fe QC using a 5 wt% Na2CO3 aqueous solution followed by calcination in air at 873 K. The quasiperiodic nature of theQC played an important role in the formation of such a structure. Its high catalytic activity originated from the presence of highly dispersed copper and iron species, which also suppressed the sintering of nanoparticles. PMID:27877642

  3. Chalk-Ex: Transport of Optically Active Particles from the Surface Mixed Layer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-02

    dissolution , aggregation, and grazing- related "repackaging" into fecal pellets). Approach The focus of the Chalk-Ex project was a sequence of...experiment in which the production term of optically-active particles could be defined, significantly reducing the uncertainty of the net loss rates of...suspended calcite algorithm. The NASA project paid for the 26 T of chalk and some of the ship time for the November 2001 experiments. A DURIP Grant to J

  4. Mars Surface Layers in Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 29 May 2002) Infrared imaging from NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows signs of layering exposed at the surface in a region of Mars called Terra Meridiani. The brightness levels show daytime surface temperatures, which range from about minus 20 degrees to zero degrees Celsius (minus 4 degrees to 32 degrees Fahrenheit). Many of the temperature variations are due to slope effects, with sun-facing slopes warmer than shaded slopes. However, several rock layers can be seen to have distinctly different temperatures, indicating that physical properties vary from layer to layer. These differences suggest that the environment on this part of Mars varied through time as these layers were formed. The image is a mosaic combining four exposures taken by the thermal emission imaging system aboard Odyssey during the first two months of the Odyssey mapping mission, which began in February 2002. The area shown is about 120 kilometers (75 miles) across, at approximately 358 degrees east (2 degrees west) longitude and 3 degrees north latitude.

  5. Mars Surface Layers in Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Infrared imaging from NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows signs of layering exposed at the surface in a region of Mars called Terra Meridiani.

    The brightness levels show daytime surface temperatures, which range from about minus 20 degrees to zero degrees Celsius (minus 4 degrees to 32 degrees Fahrenheit). Many of the temperature variations are due to slope effects, with sun-facing slopes warmer than shaded slopes. However, several rock layers can be seen to have distinctly different temperatures, indicating that physical properties vary from layer to layer. These differences suggest that the environment on this part of Mars varied through time as these layers were formed.

    The image is a mosaic combining four exposures taken by the thermal emission imaging system aboard Odyssey during the first two months of the Odyssey mapping mission, which began in February 2002. The area shown is about 120 kilometers (75 miles) across, at approximately 358 degrees east (2 degrees west) longitude and 3 degrees north latitude.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The thermal emission imaging system was provided by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Simulation and Fabrication of SAW-Based Gas Sensor with Modified Surface State of Active Layer and Electrode Orientation for Enhanced H2 Gas Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Md. Nazibul; Maity, Santanu; Sarkar, Argha; Bhunia, Chandan Tilak; Acharjee, Debabrata; Joseph, Aneesh M.

    2017-02-01

    The design, analysis, optimization, and fabrication of layered and nanostructure-based surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensors are presented. A lithium niobate and zinc oxide (ZnO) nano multilayer structure is proposed to enhance the sensitivity of the SAW-based gas sensor. Different materials are considered for the intermediate layer in the design for optimization purposes. The sensitivity of the sensor could be improved due to increased active surface area obtained by varying the aspect ratio of the nanorods, the thickness of the intermediate layer, and the gap between the electrodes. The total displacement and frequency shift of the device were significantly improved. Overall, the mechanically engineered surface-based (nanorod) SAW gas sensor offered better sensing response than the layered SAW gas sensor in terms of sensitivity performance.

  7. Analysis of low active-pharmaceutical-ingredient signal drugs based on thin layer chromatography and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Chen, Hui; Zhu, Qingxia; Liu, Yan; Lu, Feng

    2016-11-30

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) embedded in the excipients of the formula can usually be unravelled by normal Raman spectroscopy (NRS). However, more and more drugs with low API content and/or low Raman scattering coefficient were insensitive to NRS analysis, which was for the first time defined as Low API-Signal Drugs (LASIDs) in this paper. The NRS spectra of these LASIDs were similar to their dominant excipients' profiles, such as lactose, starch, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), etc., and were classified into three types as such. 21 out of 100 kinds of drugs were screened as LASIDs and characterized further by Raman microscopic mapping. Accordingly, we proposed a tailored solution to the qualitation and quantitation problem of these LASIDs, using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) detection on the thin layer chromatographic (TLC) plate both in situ and after-separation. Experimental conditions and parameters including TLC support matrix, SERS substrate, detection mode, similarity threshold, internal standard, etc., were optimized. All LASIDs were satisfactorily identified and the quantitation results agreed well with those of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For some structural analogues of LASIDs, although they presented highly similar SERS spectra and were tough to distinguish even with Raman microscopic mapping, they could be successfully discriminated from each other by coupling SERS (with portable Raman spectrometer) with TLC. These results demonstrated that the proposed solution could be employed to detect the LASIDs with high accuracy and cost-effectiveness.

  8. Monitoring of the ground surface temperature and the active layer in NorthEastern Canadian permafrost areas using remote sensing data assimilated in a climate land surface scheme.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, N.; Royer, A.; Krinner, G.; Roy, A.

    2014-12-01

    Projected future warming is particularly strong in the Northern high latitudes where increases of temperatures are up to 2 to 6 °C. Permafrost is present on 25 % of the northern hemisphere lands and contain high quantities of « frozen » carbon, estimated at 1400 Gt (40 % of the global terrestrial carbon). The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of the climate evolution in arctic areas, and more specifically of land areas covered by snow. The objective is to describe the ground temperature year round including under snow cover, and to analyse the active layer thickness evolution in relation to the climate variability. We use satellite data (fusion of MODIS land surface temperature « LST » and microwave AMSR-E brightness temperature « Tb ») assimilated in the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) of the Canadian climate model coupled with a simple radiative transfer model (HUT). This approach benefits from the advantages of each of the data type in order to complete two objectives : 1- build a solid methodology for retrieving the ground temperature, with and without snow cover, in taïga and tundra areas ; 2 - from those retrieved ground temperatures, derive the summer melt duration and the active layer depth. We describe the coupling of the models and the methodology that adjusts the meteorological input parameters of the CLASS model (mainly air temperature and precipitations derived from the NARR database) in order to minimise the simulated LST and Tb ouputs in comparison with satellite measurements. Using ground-based meteorological data as validation references in NorthEastern Canadian tundra, the results show that the proposed approach improves the soil temperatures estimates when using the MODIS LST and Tb at 10 and 19 GHz to constrain the model in comparison with the model outputs without satellite data. Error analysis is discussed for the summer period (2.5 - 4 K) and for the snow covered winter period (2 - 3.5 K). Further steps are

  9. Nanostructure of Poly(Acrylic Acid) Adsorption Layer on the Surface of Activated Carbon Obtained from Residue After Supercritical Extraction of Hops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniewska, M.; Nosal-Wiercińska, A.; Ostolska, I.; Sternik, D.; Nowicki, P.; Pietrzak, R.; Bazan-Wozniak, A.; Goncharuk, O.

    2017-01-01

    The nanostructure of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) adsorption layer on the surface of mesoporous-activated carbon HPA obtained by physical activation of residue after supercritical extraction of hops was characterized. This characterization has been done based on the analysis of determination of adsorbed polymer amount, surface charge density, and zeta potential of solid particles (without and in the PAA presence). The SEM, thermogravimetric, FTIR, and MS techniques have allowed one to examine the solid surface morphology and specify different kinds of HPA surface groups. The effects of solution pH, as well as polymer molecular weight and concentration, were studied. The obtained results indicated that the highest adsorption on the activated carbon surface was exhibited by PAA with lower molecular weight (i.e., 2000 Da) at pH 3. Under such conditions, polymeric adsorption layer is composed of nanosized PAA coils (slightly negatively charged) which are densely packed on the positive surface of HPA. Additionally, the adsorption of polymeric macromolecules into solid pores is possible.

  10. Nanostructure of Poly(Acrylic Acid) Adsorption Layer on the Surface of Activated Carbon Obtained from Residue After Supercritical Extraction of Hops.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, M; Nosal-Wiercińska, A; Ostolska, I; Sternik, D; Nowicki, P; Pietrzak, R; Bazan-Wozniak, A; Goncharuk, O

    2017-12-01

    The nanostructure of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) adsorption layer on the surface of mesoporous-activated carbon HPA obtained by physical activation of residue after supercritical extraction of hops was characterized. This characterization has been done based on the analysis of determination of adsorbed polymer amount, surface charge density, and zeta potential of solid particles (without and in the PAA presence). The SEM, thermogravimetric, FTIR, and MS techniques have allowed one to examine the solid surface morphology and specify different kinds of HPA surface groups. The effects of solution pH, as well as polymer molecular weight and concentration, were studied. The obtained results indicated that the highest adsorption on the activated carbon surface was exhibited by PAA with lower molecular weight (i.e., 2000 Da) at pH 3. Under such conditions, polymeric adsorption layer is composed of nanosized PAA coils (slightly negatively charged) which are densely packed on the positive surface of HPA. Additionally, the adsorption of polymeric macromolecules into solid pores is possible.

  11. Application of Minkowski layer for intergranular fractal surfaces of multiphase active microalloyed and alloyed aluminium-silicate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purenović, J. M.; Randjelović, M. S.; Matović, B. Z.; Purenović, M. M.

    2015-03-01

    Microalloyed and alloyed aluminium-silicate ceramics represents multiphase and multifunctional solid-solid system. The microstructure of aluminium-silicate ceramics matrix is arranged with favorable relationship between crystallinity and amorphousness. Numbered physical processes and interactions take place in very complex intergranular and interphase areas, making new boundaries and regions with fractal nature. Fractal nature of grains contours, macro, mezzo and micro pores and nanostructure phases at grain boundaries make this ceramics an active dielectric material. The synergistic effect of additives, dislocations and impurities leads to dislocations movement at grain boundaries and fragmentation of existing grains in a large number of micrograins with distinct fractal nature. Hence, permanent change of micromorphology occurs in intergranular area. Fractal analysis of intergranular microstructure has included application of Minkowski layer, correlated with fractal dimension. It represents convex layer of grains contour roughness and irregularity, determined in accordance with grain contours fractality. The introduction of fractal microstructure analysis allows better interpretation of many physical and physico-chemical processes, bearing in mind that Minkowski layer defines grains contact probability.

  12. Engineering long shelf life multi-layer biologically active surfaces on microfluidic devices for point of care applications

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Waseem; Yuksekkaya, Mehmet; Shafiee, Hadi; Zhang, Michael; Ozen, Mehmet O.; Inci, Fatih; Kocakulak, Mustafa; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-01

    Although materials and engineered surfaces are broadly utilized in creating assays and devices with wide applications in diagnostics, preservation of these immuno-functionalized surfaces on microfluidic devices remains a significant challenge to create reliable repeatable assays that would facilitate patient care in resource-constrained settings at the point-of-care (POC), where reliable electricity and refrigeration are lacking. To address this challenge, we present an innovative approach to stabilize surfaces on-chip with multiple layers of immunochemistry. The functionality of microfluidic devices using the presented method is evaluated at room temperature for up to 6-month shelf life. We integrated the preserved microfluidic devices with a lensless complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imaging platform to count CD4+ T cells from a drop of unprocessed whole blood targeting applications at the POC such as HIV management and monitoring. The developed immunochemistry stabilization method can potentially be applied broadly to other diagnostic immuno-assays such as viral load measurements, chemotherapy monitoring, and biomarker detection for cancer patients at the POC. PMID:26883474

  13. Identification of a Bacillus thuringiensis Surface-Layer-Protein with Cytotoxic Activity against MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Viviana P; Bravo, Alejandra; Olmos, Jorge

    2016-10-06

    In this work we isolated a Surface-Layer-Protein (SLP) from a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strain to evaluate it cytotoxic effects against MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. AP11 was selected from a group of Bt strains using SLP oligonucleotides developed from Bacillus conserved regions. AP11 strain was grown in Luria Bertani (LB) medium until late exponential phase; an 86 kDa protein was extracted using 5 M LiCl and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It corresponded to a multispecies S-layer protein highly similar to previously described SLP in B. thuringiensis. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells LC₅₀ was obtained using 0.25 µg/ml of the isolated SLP. HaCat non-cancerous cells presented 90% survival using the same protein concentration. Our data suggest that SLP cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 could be induced by an interaction with CDH11 cell membrane receptor.

  14. Uncertainties in Surface Layer Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendergrass, W.

    2015-12-01

    A central problem for micrometeorologists has been the relationship of air-surface exchange rates of momentum and heat to quantities that can be predicted with confidence. The flux-gradient profile developed through Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) provides an integration of the dimensionless wind shear expression where is an empirically derived expression for stable and unstable atmospheric conditions. Empirically derived expressions are far from universally accepted (Garratt, 1992, Table A5). Regardless of what form of these relationships might be used, their significance over any short period of time is questionable since all of these relationships between fluxes and gradients apply to averages that might rarely occur. It is well accepted that the assumption of stationarity and homogeneity do not reflect the true chaotic nature of the processes that control the variables considered in these relationships, with the net consequence that the levels of predictability theoretically attainable might never be realized in practice. This matter is of direct relevance to modern prognostic models which construct forecasts by assuming the universal applicability of relationships among averages for the lower atmosphere, which rarely maintains an average state. Under a Cooperative research and Development Agreement between NOAA and Duke Energy Generation, NOAA/ATDD conducted atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) research using Duke renewable energy sites as research testbeds. One aspect of this research has been the evaluation of legacy flux-gradient formulations (the ϕ functions, see Monin and Obukhov, 1954) for the exchange of heat and momentum. At the Duke Energy Ocotillo site, NOAA/ATDD installed sonic anemometers reporting wind and temperature fluctuations at 10Hz at eight elevations. From these observations, ϕM and ϕH were derived from a two-year database of mean and turbulent wind and temperature observations. From this extensive measurement database, using a

  15. Water molecules orientation in surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingo, V. V.

    2000-08-01

    The water molecules orientation has been investigated theoretically in the water surface layer. The surface molecule orientation is determined by the direction of a molecule dipole moment in relation to outward normal to the water surface. Entropy expressions of the superficial molecules in statistical meaning and from thermodynamical approach to a liquid surface tension have been found. The molecules share directed opposite to the outward normal that is hydrogen protons inside is equal 51.6%. 48.4% water molecules are directed along to surface outward normal that is by oxygen inside. A potential jump at the water surface layer amounts about 0.2 volts.

  16. Comparative study of the surface layer density of liquid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón, E.; Fernández, E. M.; Duque, D.; Delgado-Buscalioni, R.; Tarazona, P.

    2009-11-01

    Capillary wave fluctuations blur the inherent structure of liquid surfaces in computer simulations. The intrinsic sampling method subtracts capillary wave fluctuations and yields the intrinsic surface structure, leading to a generic picture of the liquid surface. The most relevant magnitude of the method is the surface layer density ns that may be consistently determined from different properties: the layering structure of the intrinsic density profiles, the turnover rate for surface layer particles, and the hydrodynamic damping rate of capillary waves. The good agreement among these procedures provides evidence for the physical consistency of the surface layering hypothesis, as an inherent physical property of the liquid surfaces. The dependence of the surface compactness, roughness, and exchange rate with temperature is analyzed for several molecular interaction models.

  17. Unravelling the Efficient Photocatalytic Activity of Boron-induced Ti3+ Species in the Surface Layer of TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ningdong; Liu, Fen; Huang, Min; Zheng, Anmin; Wang, Qiang; Chen, Tiehong; Cao, Gengyu; Xu, Jun; Fan, Jie; Deng, Feng

    2016-10-01

    Ti3+ species are highly unstable in air owing to their facile oxidation into Ti4+ species, and thus they cannot concentrate in the surface layer of TiO2 but are mainly present in its bulk. We report generation of abundant and stable Ti3+ species in the surface layer of TiO2 by boron doping for efficient utilization of solar irradiation. The resultant photocatalysts (denoted as B-TiO2‑x) exhibit extremely high and stable solar-driven photocatalytic activity toward hydrogen production. The origin of the solar-light activity enhancement in the B-TiO2‑x photocatalysts has been thoroughly investigated by various experimental techniques and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The unique structure invoked by presence of sufficient interstitial boron atoms can lead to substantial variations in density of states of B-TiO2‑x, which not only significantly narrow the band gap of TiO2 to improve its visible-light absorption, but also promote the photogenerated electron mobility to enhance its solar-light photocatalytic activity.

  18. Unravelling the Efficient Photocatalytic Activity of Boron-induced Ti(3+) Species in the Surface Layer of TiO2.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ningdong; Liu, Fen; Huang, Min; Zheng, Anmin; Wang, Qiang; Chen, Tiehong; Cao, Gengyu; Xu, Jun; Fan, Jie; Deng, Feng

    2016-10-06

    Ti(3+) species are highly unstable in air owing to their facile oxidation into Ti(4+) species, and thus they cannot concentrate in the surface layer of TiO2 but are mainly present in its bulk. We report generation of abundant and stable Ti(3+) species in the surface layer of TiO2 by boron doping for efficient utilization of solar irradiation. The resultant photocatalysts (denoted as B-TiO2-x) exhibit extremely high and stable solar-driven photocatalytic activity toward hydrogen production. The origin of the solar-light activity enhancement in the B-TiO2-x photocatalysts has been thoroughly investigated by various experimental techniques and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The unique structure invoked by presence of sufficient interstitial boron atoms can lead to substantial variations in density of states of B-TiO2-x, which not only significantly narrow the band gap of TiO2 to improve its visible-light absorption, but also promote the photogenerated electron mobility to enhance its solar-light photocatalytic activity.

  19. Unravelling the Efficient Photocatalytic Activity of Boron-induced Ti3+ Species in the Surface Layer of TiO2

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ningdong; Liu, Fen; Huang, Min; Zheng, Anmin; Wang, Qiang; Chen, Tiehong; Cao, Gengyu; Xu, Jun; Fan, Jie; Deng, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Ti3+ species are highly unstable in air owing to their facile oxidation into Ti4+ species, and thus they cannot concentrate in the surface layer of TiO2 but are mainly present in its bulk. We report generation of abundant and stable Ti3+ species in the surface layer of TiO2 by boron doping for efficient utilization of solar irradiation. The resultant photocatalysts (denoted as B-TiO2−x) exhibit extremely high and stable solar-driven photocatalytic activity toward hydrogen production. The origin of the solar-light activity enhancement in the B-TiO2−x photocatalysts has been thoroughly investigated by various experimental techniques and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The unique structure invoked by presence of sufficient interstitial boron atoms can lead to substantial variations in density of states of B-TiO2−x, which not only significantly narrow the band gap of TiO2 to improve its visible-light absorption, but also promote the photogenerated electron mobility to enhance its solar-light photocatalytic activity. PMID:27708430

  20. Leidenfrost Vapor Layer Stabilization on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakarelski, Ivan; Patankar, Neelesh; Marston, Jeremy; Chan, Derek; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2012-11-01

    We have performed experiments to investigate the influence of the wettability of a superheated metallic sphere on the stability of a thin vapor layer during the cooling of a sphere immersed in water. For high enough sphere temperatures, a continuous vapor layer (Leidenfrost regime) is observed on the surface of non-superhydrophobic spheres, but below a critical sphere temperature the layer becomes unstable and explosively switches to nuclear boiling regime. In contrast, when the sphere surface is textured and superhydrophobic, the vapor layer is stable and gradually relaxes to the sphere surface until the complete cooling of the sphere, thus avoiding the nuclear boiling transition altogether. This finding could help in the development of heat exchange devices and of vapor layer based drag reducing technologies.

  1. Surface layering effect of diluted Intralipid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foschum, F.; Bodenschatz, N.; Krauter, P.; Nothelfer, S.; Liemert, A.; Simon, E.; Kröner, S.; Kienle, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study the formation of a surface layer on top of an Intralipid dilution was studied. By use of spatial frequency reflectance and spatially resolved reflectance the surface layer could be characterized. The influence on the determination of the optical properties assuming a semi-infinite medium in the theory was investigated. By use of an angularly resolved reflectance device the formation even on a horizontally orientated glass slide could be shown.

  2. An insolation activated dust layer on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Beule, Caroline; Wurm, Gerhard; Kelling, Thorben; Koester, Marc; Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2015-11-01

    The illuminated dusty surface of Mars acts like a gas pump. It is driven by thermal creep at low pressure within the soil. In the top soil layer this gas flow has to be sustained by a pressure gradient. This is equivalent to a lifting force on the dust grains. The top layer is therefore under tension which reduces the threshold wind speed for saltation. We carried out laboratory experiments to quantify the thickness of this activated layer. We use basalt with an average particle size of 67 μm. We find a depth of the active layer of 100-200 μm. Scaled to Mars the activation will reduce threshold wind speeds for saltation by about 10%.

  3. InSAR analysis of surface deformation over permafrost to estimate active layer thickness based on one-dimensional heat transfer model of soils

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiwei; Zhao, Rong; Hu, Jun; Wen, Lianxing; Feng, Guangcai; Zhang, Zeyu; Wang, Qijie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to estimate active layer thickness (ALT) over permafrost based on InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) observation and the heat transfer model of soils. The time lags between the periodic feature of InSAR-observed surface deformation over permafrost and the meteorologically recorded temperatures are assumed to be the time intervals that the temperature maximum to diffuse from the ground surface downward to the bottom of the active layer. By exploiting the time lags and the one-dimensional heat transfer model of soils, we estimate the ALTs. Using the frozen soil region in southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) as examples, we provided a conceptual demonstration of the estimation of the InSAR pixel-wise ALTs. In the case study, the ALTs are ranging from 1.02 to 3.14 m and with an average of 1.95 m. The results are compatible with those sparse ALT observations/estimations by traditional methods, while with extraordinary high spatial resolution at pixel level (~40 meter). The presented method is simple, and can potentially be used for deriving high-resolution ALTs in other remote areas similar to QTP, where only sparse observations are available now. PMID:26480892

  4. Surface layering properties of Intralipid phantoms.

    PubMed

    Bodenschatz, Nico; Krauter, Philipp; Foschum, Florian; Nothelfer, Steffen; Liemert, André; Simon, Emanuel; Kröner, Sabrina; Kienle, Alwin

    2015-02-07

    Intralipid has become an extensively studied and widely used reference and calibration phantom for diffuse optical imaging technologies. In this study we call attention to the layering properties of Intralipid emulsions, which are commonly assumed to have homogeneous optical properties. By measurement of spatial frequency domain reflectance in combination with an analytical solution of the radiative transfer equation for two-layered media, we make quantitative investigations on the formation of a surface layer on different dilutions of Intralipid. Our findings are verified by an independent spatially resolved reflectance setup giving evidence of a time dependent, thin and highly scattering surface layer on top of Intralipid-water emulsions. This layer should be considered when using Intralipid as an optical calibration or reference phantom.

  5. Surface layering properties of Intralipid phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenschatz, Nico; Krauter, Philipp; Foschum, Florian; Nothelfer, Steffen; Liemert, André; Simon, Emanuel; Kröner, Sabrina; Kienle, Alwin

    2015-02-01

    Intralipid has become an extensively studied and widely used reference and calibration phantom for diffuse optical imaging technologies. In this study we call attention to the layering properties of Intralipid emulsions, which are commonly assumed to have homogeneous optical properties. By measurement of spatial frequency domain reflectance in combination with an analytical solution of the radiative transfer equation for two-layered media, we make quantitative investigations on the formation of a surface layer on different dilutions of Intralipid. Our findings are verified by an independent spatially resolved reflectance setup giving evidence of a time dependent, thin and highly scattering surface layer on top of Intralipid-water emulsions. This layer should be considered when using Intralipid as an optical calibration or reference phantom.

  6. Surface Chemistry in Electrochemical Atomic Layer Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    example, where a thin film of a material is formed an atomic layer at a time. That is, surface limited reactions are used to deposit individual atomic...The present studies were designed to investigate these surface limited reactions. To determine what the structures of the deposits were, and how that structure influenced subsequent deposition .

  7. Longitudinal vortices in concave surface boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, R. I.,; Winoto, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    Local measurements of mean and fluctuating velocity by laser anemometer were made inside the developing concave surface boundary layer in a free surface water channel at Reynolds numbers up to 16000. Concave surface radius was 3.5 times channel width and the ratio of spanwise mean boundary layer thickness to surface radius ranged between 0.03 and 0.11. Systems of longtitudinal vortices developed without artificial triggering. Vortex wavelength varied across the span by as much as a factor of 2, but mean wavelength was typically 1.3 times the boundary layer thickness and did not vary significantly in the flow direction. Continuous vortex growth at Reynolds number = 9800 contrasted with apparent breakup of the vortices at Reynolds number = 16000.

  8. Preservation of Archaeal Surface Layer Structure During Mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Adrienne; Miot, Jennyfer; Lombard, Carine; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bernard, Sylvain; Zirah, Séverine; Guyot, François

    2016-05-01

    Proteinaceous surface layers (S-layers) are highly ordered, crystalline structures commonly found in prokaryotic cell envelopes that augment their structural stability and modify interactions with metals in the environment. While mineral formation associated with S-layers has previously been noted, the mechanisms were unconstrained. Using Sulfolobus acidocaldarius a hyperthermophilic archaeon native to metal-enriched environments and possessing a cell envelope composed only of a S-layer and a lipid cell membrane, we describe a passive process of iron phosphate nucleation and growth within the S-layer of cells and cell-free S-layer “ghosts” during incubation in a Fe-rich medium, independently of metabolic activity. This process followed five steps: (1) initial formation of mineral patches associated with S-layer; (2) patch expansion; (3) patch connection; (4) formation of a continuous mineral encrusted layer at the cell surface; (5) early stages of S-layer fossilization via growth of the extracellular mineralized layer and the mineralization of cytosolic face of the cell membrane. At more advanced stages of encrustation, encrusted outer membrane vesicles are formed, likely in an attempt to remove damaged S-layer proteins. The S-layer structure remains strikingly well preserved even upon the final step of encrustation, offering potential biosignatures to be looked for in the fossil record.

  9. Preservation of Archaeal Surface Layer Structure During Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Kish, Adrienne; Miot, Jennyfer; Lombard, Carine; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bernard, Sylvain; Zirah, Séverine; Guyot, François

    2016-01-01

    Proteinaceous surface layers (S-layers) are highly ordered, crystalline structures commonly found in prokaryotic cell envelopes that augment their structural stability and modify interactions with metals in the environment. While mineral formation associated with S-layers has previously been noted, the mechanisms were unconstrained. Using Sulfolobus acidocaldarius a hyperthermophilic archaeon native to metal-enriched environments and possessing a cell envelope composed only of a S-layer and a lipid cell membrane, we describe a passive process of iron phosphate nucleation and growth within the S-layer of cells and cell-free S-layer “ghosts” during incubation in a Fe-rich medium, independently of metabolic activity. This process followed five steps: (1) initial formation of mineral patches associated with S-layer; (2) patch expansion; (3) patch connection; (4) formation of a continuous mineral encrusted layer at the cell surface; (5) early stages of S-layer fossilization via growth of the extracellular mineralized layer and the mineralization of cytosolic face of the cell membrane. At more advanced stages of encrustation, encrusted outer membrane vesicles are formed, likely in an attempt to remove damaged S-layer proteins. The S-layer structure remains strikingly well preserved even upon the final step of encrustation, offering potential biosignatures to be looked for in the fossil record. PMID:27221593

  10. Surface layer effects on waste glass corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.

    1993-12-31

    Water contact subjects waste glass to chemical attack that results in the formation of surface alteration layers. Two principal hypotheses have been advanced concerning the effect of surface alteration layers on continued glass corrosion: (1) they act as a mass transport barrier and (2) they influence the chemical affinity of the glass reaction. In general, transport barrier effects have been found to be less important than affinity effects in the corrosion of most high-level nuclear waste glasses. However, they can be important under some circumstances, for example, in a very alkaline solution, in leachants containing Mg ions, or under conditions where the matrix dissolution rate is very low. The latter suggests that physical barrier effect may affect the long-term glass dissolution rate. Surface layers influence glass reaction affinity through the effects of the altered glass and secondary phases on the solution chemistry. The reaction affinity may be controlled by various precipitates and crystalline phases, amorphous silica phases, gel layer, or all the components of the glass. The surface alteration layers influence radionuclide release mainly through colloid formation, crystalline phase incorporation, and gel layer retention. This paper reviews current understanding and uncertainties.

  11. Bidirectional diffusion of ammonium and sodium cations in forward osmosis: role of membrane active layer surface chemistry and charge.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinglin; Boo, Chanhee; Ma, Jun; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-12-16

    Systematic fundamental understanding of mass transport in osmosis-driven membrane processes is important for further development of this emerging technology. In this work, we investigate the role of membrane surface chemistry and charge on bidirectional solute diffusion in forward osmosis (FO). In particular, bidirectional diffusion of ammonium (NH4(+)) and sodium (Na(+)) is examined using FO membranes with different materials and surface charge characteristics. Using an ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) draw solution, we observe dramatically enhanced cation fluxes with sodium chloride feed solution compared to that with deionized water feed solution for thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane. However, the bidirectional diffusion of cations does not change, regardless of the type of feed solution, for cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane. We relate this phenomenon to the membrane fixed surface charge by employing different feed solution pH to foster different protonation conditions for the carboxyl groups on the TFC membrane surface. Membrane surface modification is also carried out with the TFC membrane using ethylenediamine to alter carboxyl groups into amine groups. The modified TFC membrane, with less negatively charged groups, exhibits a significant decrease in the bidirectional diffusion of cations under the same conditions employed with the pristine TFC membrane. Based on our experimental observations, we propose Donnan dialysis as a mechanism responsible for enhanced bidirectional diffusion of cations in TFC membranes.

  12. Transport of Optically Active Particles From the Surface Mixed Layer: Losses Due to Grazing and Focculation During the Chalk-Ex Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    and H.G. Dam. 1997. Particle size spectra between 1 mm and 1 cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments. Deep-Sea Res. I 44: 1739-1767...in the surface mixed layer at an oligotrophic site, outside the Gulf of Maine, and a more eutrophic site within the Gulf of Maine. The expectation

  13. Transport of Optically Active Particles from the Surface Mixed Layer: Losses due to Grazing and Focculation during the Chalk-Ex Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    spectra between 1 mm and 1 cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments. Deep-Sea Res. I 44: 1739-1767. Waite, A., S. Gallager and...in the surface mixed layer at an oligotrophic site, outside the Gulf of Maine, and a more eutrophic site within the Gulf of Maine. The expectation

  14. Microthermal Instrument for Measuring Surface Layer Seeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xue-Bao; Zheng, Yan-Fang; Deng, Lin Hua; Xu, Guang

    2012-02-01

    Microthermal fluctuations are introduced by atmospheric turbulence very near the ground. In order to detect microthermal fluctuations at Fuxian Solar Observatory (FSO), a microthermal instrument has been developed. The microthermal instrument consists of a microthermal sensor, which is based on a Wheatstone bridge circuit and uses fine tungsten filaments as resistance temperature detectors, an associated signal processing unit, and a data collection, & communication subsystem. In this paper, after a brief introduction to surface layer seeing, we discuss the instrumentation behind the microthermal detector we have developed and then present the results obtained. The results of the evaluation indicate that the effect of the turbulent surface boundary layer to astronomical seeing would become sufficiently small when installing a telescope at a height of 16m or higher from the ground at FSO.

  15. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Chan, Derek Y C; Marston, Jeremy O; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-09-03

    We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model.

  16. Diurnal ocean surface layer model validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, Jeffrey D.; May, Douglas A.; Abell, Fred, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The diurnal ocean surface layer (DOSL) model at the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center forecasts the 24-hour change in a global sea surface temperatures (SST). Validating the DOSL model is a difficult task due to the huge areas involved and the lack of in situ measurements. Therefore, this report details the use of satellite infrared multichannel SST imagery to provide day and night SSTs that can be directly compared to DOSL products. This water-vapor-corrected imagery has the advantages of high thermal sensitivity (0.12 C), large synoptic coverage (nearly 3000 km across), and high spatial resolution that enables diurnal heating events to be readily located and mapped. Several case studies in the subtropical North Atlantic readily show that DOSL results during extreme heating periods agree very well with satellite-imagery-derived values in terms of the pattern of diurnal warming. The low wind and cloud-free conditions necessary for these events to occur lend themselves well to observation via infrared imagery. Thus, the normally cloud-limited aspects of satellite imagery do not come into play for these particular environmental conditions. The fact that the DOSL model does well in extreme events is beneficial from the standpoint that these cases can be associated with the destruction of the surface acoustic duct. This so-called afternoon effect happens as the afternoon warming of the mixed layer disrupts the sound channel and the propagation of acoustic energy.

  17. Effect of gold subsurface layer on the surface activity and segregation in Pt/Au/Pt{sub 3}M (where M = 3d transition metals) alloy catalyst from first-principles

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chang-Eun; Lim, Dong-Hee; Jang, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Juhn; Yoon, Sung Pil; Han, Jonghee; Nam, Suk Woo; Hong, Seong-Ahn; Soon, Aloysius E-mail: hchahm@kist.re.kr; Ham, Hyung Chul E-mail: hchahm@kist.re.kr

    2015-01-21

    The effect of a subsurface hetero layer (thin gold) on the activity and stability of Pt skin surface in Pt{sub 3}M system (M = 3d transition metals) is investigated using the spin-polarized density functional theory calculation. First, we find that the heterometallic interaction between the Pt skin surface and the gold subsurface in Pt/Au/Pt{sub 3}M system can significantly modify the electronic structure of the Pt skin surface. In particular, the local density of states projected onto the d states of Pt skin surface near the Fermi level is drastically decreased compared to the Pt/Pt/Pt{sub 3}M case, leading to the reduction of the oxygen binding strength of the Pt skin surface. This modification is related to the increase of surface charge polarization of outmost Pt skin atoms by the electron transfer from the gold subsurface atoms. Furthermore, a subsurface gold layer is found to cast the energetic barrier to the segregation loss of metal atoms from the bulk (inside) region, which can enhance the durability of Pt{sub 3}M based catalytic system in oxygen reduction condition at fuel cell devices. This study highlights that a gold subsurface hetero layer can provide an additional mean to tune the surface activity toward oxygen species and in turn the oxygen reduction reaction, where the utilization of geometric strain already reaches its practical limit.

  18. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    SciTech Connect

    Tajoure, Meloud; Tajouri, Ali E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Abuzriba, Mokhtar E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Akreem, Mosbah

    2013-12-16

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A and the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  19. Surface boundary layer turbulence in the Southern ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrifield, Sophia; St. Laurent, Louis; Owens, Breck; Naveira Garabato, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Due to the remote location and harsh conditions, few direct measurements of turbulence have been collected in the Southern Ocean. This region experiences some of the strongest wind forcing of the global ocean, leading to large inertial energy input. While mixed layers are known to have a strong seasonality and reach 500m depth, the depth structure of near-surface turbulent dissipation and diffusivity have not been examined using direct measurements. We present data collected during the Diapycnal and Isopycnal Mixing Experiment in the Southern Ocean (DIMES) field program. In a range of wind conditions, the wave affected surface layer (WASL), where surface wave physics are actively forcing turbulence, is contained to the upper 15-20m. The lag-correlation between wind stress and turbulence shows a strong relationship up to 6 hours (˜1/2 inertial period), with the winds leading the oceanic turbulent response, in the depth range between 20-50m. We find the following characterize the data: i) Profiles that have a well-defined hydrographic mixed layer show that dissipation decays in the mixed layer inversely with depth, ii) WASLs are typically 15 meters deep and 30% of mixed layer depth, iii) Subject to strong winds, the value of dissipation as a function of depth is significantly lower than predicted by theory. Many dynamical processes are known to be missing from upper-ocean parameterizations of mixing in global models. These include surface-wave driven processes such as Langmuir turbulence, submesocale frontal processes, and nonlocal representations of mixing. Using velocity, hydrographic, and turbulence measurements, the existence of coherent structures in the boundary layer are investigated.

  20. Winter ocean-ice interactions under thin sea ice observed by IAOOS platforms during N-ICE2015: Salty surface mixed layer and active basal melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Zoé; Provost, Christine; Villacieros-Robineau, Nicolas; Sennéchael, Nathalie; Meyer, Amelie

    2016-10-01

    IAOOS (Ice Atmosphere Arctic Ocean Observing System) platforms, measuring physical parameters at the atmosphere-snow-ice-ocean interface deployed as part of the N-ICE2015 campaign, provide new insights on winter conditions North of Svalbard. The three regions crossed during the drifts, the Nansen Basin, the Sofia Deep, and the Svalbard northern continental slope featured distinct hydrographic properties and ice-ocean exchanges. In the Nansen Basin, the quiescent warm layer was capped by a stepped halocline (60 and 110 m) and a deep thermocline (110 m). Ice was forming and the winter mixed layer salinity was larger by ˜0.1 g/kg than previously observed. Over the Svalbard continental slope, the Atlantic Water (AW) was very shallow (20 m from the surface) and extended offshore from the 500 m isobath by a distance of about 70 km, sank along the slope (40 m from the surface) and probably shed eddies into the Sofia Deep. In the Sofia Deep, relatively warm waters of Atlantic origin extended from 90 m downward. Resulting from different pathways, these waters had a wide range of hydrographic characteristics. Sea-ice melt was widespread over the Svalbard continental slope and ocean-to-ice heat fluxes reached values of 400 W m-2 (mean of ˜150 W m-2 over the continental slope). Sea-ice melt events were associated with near 12 h fluctuations in the mixed-layer temperature and salinity corresponding to the periodicity of tides and near-inertial waves potentially generated by winter storms, large barotropic tides over steep topography, and/or geostrophic adjustments.

  1. Acoustic tomography in the atmospheric surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemann, A.; Arnold, K.; Raabe, A.

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic tomography is presented as a technique for remote monitoring of meteorological quantities. This method and a special algorithm of analysis can directly produce area-averaged values of meteorological parameters. As a result consistent data will be obtained for validation of numerical atmospheric micro-scale models. Such a measuring system can complement conventional point measurements over different surfaces. The procedure of acoustic tomography uses the horizontal propagation of sound waves in the atmospheric surface layer. Therefore, to provide a general overview of sound propagation under various atmospheric conditions a two-dimensional ray-tracing model according to a modified version of Snell's law is used. The state of the crossed atmosphere can be estimated from measurements of acoustic travel time between sources and receivers at different points. Derivation of area-averaged values of the sound speed and furthermore of air temperature results from the inversion of travel time values for all acoustic paths. Thereby, the applied straight ray two-dimensional tomographic model using SIRT (simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique) is characterised as a method with small computational requirements, satisfactory convergence and stability properties as well as simple handling, especially, during online evaluation.

  2. Surface Layer Turbulence During a Frontal Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, M; Lundquist, J K

    2004-06-15

    Some recent investigations have begun to quantify turbulence and dissipation in frontal zones to address the question of what physical mechanism counteracts the intensification of temperature and velocity gradients across a developing front. Frank (1994) examines the turbulence structure of two fronts that passed a 200m instrumented tower near Karlsruhe, Germany. In addition to showing the mean vertical structure of the fronts as they pass the tower, Frank demonstrates that there is an order of magnitude or more increase in turbulent kinetic energy across the frontal zone. Blumen and Piper (1999) reported turbulence statistics, including dissipation rate measurements, from the MICROFRONTS field experiment, where high-frequency turbulence data were collected from tower-mounted hotwire and sonic anemometers in a cold front and in a density current. Chapman and Browning (2001) measured dissipation rate in a precipitating frontal zone with high-resolution Doppler radar. Their measurements were conducted above the surface layer, to heights of 5km. The dissipation rate values they found are comparable to those measured in Kennedy and Shapiro (1975) in an upper-level front. Here, we expand on these recent studies by depicting the behavior of the fine scales of turbulence near the surface in a frontal zone. The primary objective of this study is to quantify the levels of turbulence and dissipation occurring in a frontal zone through the calculation of kinetic energy spectra and dissipation rates. The high-resolution turbulence data used in this study are taken during the cold front that passed the MICROFRONTS site in the early evening hours of 20 March 1995. These new measurements can be used as a basis for parameterizing the effects of surface-layer turbulence in numerical models of frontogenesis. We present three techniques for calculating the dissipation rate: direct dissipation technique, inertial dissipation technique and Kolmogorov's four-fifths law. Dissipation rate

  3. Interrelation of the construction of the metamorphic InAlAs/InGaAs nanoheterostructures with the InAs content in the active layer of 76-100% with their surface morphology and electrical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'evskii, I. S.; Galiev, G. B.; Klimov, E. A.; Kvanin, A. L.; Pushkarev, S. S. Pushkin, M. A.

    2011-09-15

    The influence of the construction of a metamorphic buffer on the surface morphology and electrical properties of InAlAs/InGaAs/InAlAs nanoheterostructures with InAs content in the active layer from 76 to 100% with the use of the GaAs and InP substrates is studied. It is shown that such parameters as the electron mobility and the concentration, as well as the root-mean-square surface roughness, substantially depend on the construction of the metamorphic buffer. It is established experimentally that these parameters largely depend on the maximal local gradient of the lattice constant of the metamorphic buffer in the growth direction of the layers rather than on its average value. It is shown that, with selection of the construction of the metamorphic buffer, it is possible to form nanostructured surfaces with a large-periodic profile.

  4. The Lowest Atmosphere: Atmospheric Boundary Layer Including Atmospheric Surface Layer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-01

    troposphere" as a result of frictional forces. A good definition of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) (provided to me by the late Dr. Rudy...wind extends light flag. Raises dust and loose paper; small branches are moved. Small trees in leaf begin to sway; crested wavelets form on inland...Calm. Sea like a mirror. Light air Ripples like scales, no foam crest. Light breeze Small wavelets ; crests have glassy appearance, do not break

  5. Hydrothermal regimes of the dry active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Mamoru; Zhang, Yinsheng; Kadota, Tsutomu; Ohata, Tetsuo

    2006-04-01

    Evaporation and condensation in the soil column clearly influence year-round nonconductive heat transfer dynamics in the dry active layer underlying semiarid permafrost regions. We deduced this from heat flux components quantified using state-of-the-art micrometeorological data sets obtained in dry and moist summers and in winters with various snow cover depths. Vapor moves easily through large pores, some of which connect to the atmosphere, allowing (1) considerable active layer warming driven by pipe-like snowmelt infiltration, and (2) direct vapor linkage between atmosphere and deeper soils. Because of strong adhesive forces, water in the dry active layer evaporates with great difficulty. The fraction of latent heat to total soil heat storage ranged from 26 to 45% in dry and moist summers, respectively. These values are not negligible, despite being smaller than those of arctic wet active layer, in which only freezing and thawing were considered.

  6. Layers of Porous Superhydrophobic Surfaces for Robust Water Repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Farzad; Boreyko, Jonathan; Nature-Inspired Fluids; Interfaces Team

    2015-11-01

    In nature, birds exhibit multiple layers of superhydrophobic feathers that repel water. Inspired by bird feathers, we utilize porous superhydrophobic surfaces and compare the wetting and dewetting characteristics of a single surface to stacks of multiple surfaces. The superhydrophobic surfaces were submerged in water in a closed chamber. Pressurized gas was regulated to measure the critical pressure for the water to fully penetrate through the surfaces. In addition to using duck feathers, two-tier porous superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated to serve as synthetic mimics with a controlled surface structure. The energy barrier for the wetting transition was modeled as a function of the number of layers and their orientations with respect to each other. Moreover, after partial impalement into a subset of the superhydrophobic layers, it was observed that a full dewetting transition was possible, which suggests that natural organisms can exploit their multiple layers to prevent irreversible wetting.

  7. Multi-layer topological transmissions of spoof surface plasmon polaritons

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Bai Cao; Zhao, Jie; Liao, Zhen; Zhang, Hao Chi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in microwave frequency provide a high field confinement in subwavelength scale and low-loss and flexible transmissions, which have been widely used in novel transmission waveguides and functional devices. To play more important roles in modern integrated circuits and systems, it is necessary and helpful for the SPP modes to propagate among different layers of devices and chips. Owing to the highly confined property and organized near-field distribution, we show that the spoof SPPs could be easily transmitted from one layer into another layer via metallic holes and arc-shaped transitions. Such designs are suitable for both the ultrathin and flexible single-strip SPP waveguide and double-strip SPP waveguide for active SPP devices. Numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrate the broadband and high-efficiency multi-layer topological transmissions with controllable absorption that is related to the superposition area of corrugated metallic strips. The transmission coefficient of single-strip SPP waveguide is no worse than −0.8 dB within frequency band from 2.67 GHz to 10.2 GHz while the transmission of double-strip SPP waveguide keeps above −1 dB within frequency band from 2.26 GHz to 11.8 GHz. The proposed method will enhance the realizations of highly complicated plasmonic integrated circuits. PMID:26939995

  8. Contact mechanics for layered materials with randomly rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J

    2012-03-07

    The contact mechanics model of Persson is applied to layered materials. We calculate the M function, which relates the surface stress to the surface displacement, for a layered material, where the top layer (thickness d) has different elastic properties than the semi-infinite solid below. Numerical results for the contact area as a function of the magnification are presented for several cases. As an application, we calculate the fluid leak rate for laminated rubber seals.

  9. Dense coating of surface mounted CuBTC Metal-Organic Framework nanostructures on silk fibers, prepared by layer-by-layer method under ultrasound irradiation with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Amir Reza; Akhbari, Kamran; Morsali, Ali

    2012-07-01

    The growth of Cu(3)(BTC)(2) (BTC=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate), also known as CuBTC and HKUST-1, Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) nanostructures on silk fibers were achieved by layer-by-layer technique in alternating bath of Cu(OAc)(2) · 2H(2)O and H(3)BTC solutions under ultrasound irradiation. The effect of pH, reaction time, ultrasound irradiation and sequential dipping steps in growth of the CuBTC Metal-Organic Framework nanostructures has been studied. These systems depicted a decrease in the size accompanying a decrease in the sequential dipping steps. In addition, dense coating of silk fibers with CuBTC MOF results in decrease the emission intensity of silk fibers. The silk fibers containing CuBTC Metal-Organic Framework exhibited high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The samples were characterized with powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD analyses indicated that the prepared CuBTC MOF nanostructures on silk fibers were crystalline.

  10. Characterization and use of crystalline bacterial cell surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleytr, Uwe B.; Sára, Margit; Pum, Dietmar; Schuster, Bernhard

    2001-10-01

    Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) are one of the most common outermost cell envelope components of prokaryotic organisms (archaea and bacteria). S-layers are monomolecular arrays composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membranes developed during evolution. S-layers as the most abundant of prokaryotic cellular proteins are appealing model systems for studying the structure, synthesis, genetics, assembly and function of proteinaceous supramolecular structures. The wealth of information existing on the general principle of S-layers have revealed a broad application potential. The most relevant features exploited in applied S-layer research are: (i) pores passing through S-layers show identical size and morphology and are in the range of ultrafiltration membranes; (ii) functional groups on the surface and in the pores are aligned in well-defined positions and orientations and accessible for chemical modifications and binding functional molecules in very precise fashion; (iii) isolated S-layer subunits from a variety of organisms are capable of recrystallizing as closed monolayers onto solid supports (e.g., metals, polymers, silicon wafers) at the air-water interface, on lipid films or onto the surface of liposomes; (iv) functional domains can be incorporated in S-layer proteins by genetic engineering. Thus, S-layer technologies particularly provide new approaches for biotechnology, biomimetics, molecular nanotechnology, nanopatterning of surfaces and formation of ordered arrays of metal clusters or nanoparticles as required for nanoelectronics.

  11. Tunable hybrid surface waves supported by a graphene layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorsh, I. V.; Shadrivov, I. V.; Belov, P. A.; Kivshar, Yu. S.

    2013-05-01

    We study electromagnetic waves localized near the surface of a semi-infinite dielectric medium covered by a graphene layer in the presence of a strong external magnetic field. We demonstrate that a novel type of hybrid TE-TM polarized surface plasmons can propagate along the graphene layer. We analyze the effect of the Hall conductivity on the polarization properties of these hybrid surface waves and suggest a possibility to tune the graphene plasmons by the external magnetic field.

  12. Ameriflux data used for verification of surface layer parameterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassone, Caterina; Ek, Mike

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric surface-layer parameterization is an important component in a coupled model, as its output, the surface exchange coefficients for momentum, heat and humidity, are used to determine the fluxes of these quantities between the land-surface and the atmosphere. An accurate prediction of these fluxes is therefore required in order to provide a correct forecast of the surface temperature, humidity and ultimately also the precipitation in a model. At the NOAA/NCEP Environmental Modeling Center, a one-dimensional Surface Layer Simulator (SLS) has been developed for simulating the surface layer and its interface. Two different configurations of the SLS exist, replicating in essence the way in which the surface layer is simulated in the GFS and the NAM, respectively. Input data for the SLS are the basic atmospheric quantities of winds, temperature, humidity and pressure evaluated at a specific height above the ground, surface values of temperature and humidity, and the momentum roughness length z0. The output values of the SLS are the surface exchange coefficients for heat and momentum. The exchange coefficients computed by the SLS are then compared with independent estimates derived from measured surface heat fluxes. The SLS is driven by a set of Ameriflux data acquired at 22 stations over a period of several years. This provides a large number of different vegetation characteristics and helps ensure statistical significance. Even though there are differences in the respective surface layer formulations between the GFS and the NAM, they are both based on similarity theory, and therefore lower boundary conditions, i.e. roughness lengths for momentum and heat, and profile functions are among the main components of the surface layer that need to be evaluated. The SLS is a very powerful tool for this type of evaluation. We present the results of the Ameriflux comparison and discuss the implications of our results for the surface layer parameterizations of the NAM

  13. Discovery of Cellulose Surface Layer Conformation by Nonlinear Vibrational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Libing; Fu, Li; Wang, Hong-Fei; Yang, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Significant questions remain in respect to cellulose’s structure and polymorphs, particularly the cellulose surface layers and the bulk crystalline core as well as the conformational differences. Total Internal Reflection Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy (TIR-SFG-VS) combined with conventional SFG-VS (non-TIR) enables selectively characterizing the molecular structures of surface layers and the crystalline core of cellulose, revealing their differences for the first time. From the SFG spectra in the C-H and O-H regions, we found that the surface layers of Avicel are essentially amorphous while the surface layers of Iβ cellulose are crystalline but with different structural and spectroscopic signatures compared with its crystalline core. The differences between hydrogen bonding networks of cellulose surface and crystalline core were also shown by the SFG signal. The discovery here represents yet another instance of the importance of spectroscopic observations in transformative advances to understand the structure of the cellulosic biomass.

  14. Discovery of Cellulose Surface Layer Conformation by Nonlinear Vibrational Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Libing; Fu, Li; Wang, Hong-fei; Yang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Significant questions remain in respect to cellulose’s structure and polymorphs, particularly the cellulose surface layers and the bulk crystalline core as well as the conformational differences. Total Internal Reflection Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy (TIR-SFG-VS) combined with conventional SFG-VS (non-TIR) enables selectively characterizing the molecular structures of surface layers and the crystalline core of cellulose, revealing their differences for the first time. From the SFG spectra in the C-H and O-H regions, we found that the surface layers of Avicel are essentially amorphous while the surface layers of Iβ cellulose are crystalline but with different structural and spectroscopic signatures compared with its crystalline core. The differences between hydrogen bonding networks of cellulose surface and crystalline core were also shown by the SFG signal. The discovery here represents yet another instance of the importance of spectroscopic observations in transformative advances to understand the structure of the cellulosic biomass. PMID:28290542

  15. Acoustic Tomography of the Atmospheric Surface Layer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-28

    resolution of an ultrasonic anemometer , it was suggested that one consider it is as a small acoustic tomography array and apply appropriate inverse...Fairall, D. Keith Wilson, Ludovic Bariteau. Sonic Anemometer as a Small Acoustic Tomography Array, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, (08 2013): 0. doi...Received Paper 3.00 S. N. Vecherin, V. E. Ostashev, D. K. Wilson, A. Grached. Utilization of an acoustic tomography array as a large sonic anemometer

  16. Improve oxidation resistance at high temperature by nanocrystalline surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Z. X.; Zhang, C.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, W. B.; Yang, Z. G.

    2015-08-01

    An interesting change of scale sequence occurred during oxidation of nanocrystalline surface layer by means of a surface mechanical attrition treatment. The three-layer oxide structure from the surface towards the matrix is Fe3O4, spinel FeCr2O4 and corundum (Fe,Cr)2O3, which is different from the typical two-layer scale consisted of an Fe3O4 outer layer and an FeCr2O4 inner layer in conventional P91 steel. The diffusivity of Cr, Fe and O is enhanced concurrently in the nanocrystalline surface layer, which causes the fast oxidation in the initial oxidation stage. The formation of (Fe,Cr)2O3 inner layer would inhabit fast diffusion of alloy elements in the nanocrystalline surface layer of P91 steel in the later oxidation stage, and it causes a decrease in the parabolic oxidation rate compared with conventional specimens. This study provides a novel approach to improve the oxidation resistance of heat resistant steel without changing its Cr content.

  17. Improve oxidation resistance at high temperature by nanocrystalline surface layer

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Z. X.; Zhang, C.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, W. B.; Yang, Z. G.

    2015-01-01

    An interesting change of scale sequence occurred during oxidation of nanocrystalline surface layer by means of a surface mechanical attrition treatment. The three-layer oxide structure from the surface towards the matrix is Fe3O4, spinel FeCr2O4 and corundum (Fe,Cr)2O3, which is different from the typical two-layer scale consisted of an Fe3O4 outer layer and an FeCr2O4 inner layer in conventional P91 steel. The diffusivity of Cr, Fe and O is enhanced concurrently in the nanocrystalline surface layer, which causes the fast oxidation in the initial oxidation stage. The formation of (Fe,Cr)2O3 inner layer would inhabit fast diffusion of alloy elements in the nanocrystalline surface layer of P91 steel in the later oxidation stage, and it causes a decrease in the parabolic oxidation rate compared with conventional specimens. This study provides a novel approach to improve the oxidation resistance of heat resistant steel without changing its Cr content. PMID:26269034

  18. Antimicrobial and antioxidant surface modification of cellulose fibers using layer-by-layer deposition of chitosan and lignosulfonates.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Peng, Lincai

    2015-06-25

    To confer cellulose fibers antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, chitosan (CS)/lignosulfonates (LS) multilayers were constructed on fibers surfaces through layer-by-layer deposition technique. The formation of CS/LS multilayers on cellulose fibers surfaces was verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta potential measurement. The surface morphologies of CS/LS multilayers on fibers surfaces were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that characteristic element (i.e. N and S element) content increased with increasing bilayers number, the surface LS content increased linearly as a function of bilayers. Zeta potential of modified fibers was inversed after deposition of each layer. AFM phase images indicated that the cellulose microfibrils on fibers surfaces were gradually covered by granular LS aggregate. The antimicrobial testing results demonstrated that CS/LS multilayers modified fibers with CS in the outermost layer exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. The antioxidant testing results showed that antioxidant activity of CS/LS multilayers modified fibers was better than that of original fibers under the same oxidation conditions.

  19. Permafrost Active Layer Seismic Interferometry Experiment (PALSIE).

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Robert; Knox, Hunter Anne; James, Stephanie; Lee, Rebekah; Cole, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We present findings from a novel field experiment conducted at Poker Flat Research Range in Fairbanks, Alaska that was designed to monitor changes in active layer thickness in real time. Results are derived primarily from seismic data streaming from seven Nanometric Trillium Posthole seismometers directly buried in the upper section of the permafrost. The data were evaluated using two analysis methods: Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and ambient noise seismic interferometry. Results from the HVSR conclusively illustrated the method's effectiveness at determining the active layer's thickness with a single station. Investigations with the multi-station method (ambient noise seismic interferometry) are continuing at the University of Florida and have not yet conclusively determined active layer thickness changes. Further work continues with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine if the ground based measurements can constrain satellite imagery, which provide measurements on a much larger spatial scale.

  20. Bioactive macroporous titanium surface layer on titanium substrate.

    PubMed

    Kim, H M; Kokubo, T; Fujibayashi, S; Nishiguchi, S; Nakamura, T

    2000-12-05

    A macroporous titanium surface layer is often formed on titanium and titanium alloy implants for morphological fixation of the implants to bone via bony ingrowth into the porous structure. The surface of titanium metal was recently shown to become highly bioactive by being subjected to 5.0 M-NaOH treatment at 60 degrees C for 24 h and subsequent heat treatment at 600 degrees C for 1 h. In the present study, the NaOH and heat treatments were applied to a macroporous titanium surface layer formed on titanium substrate by a plasma spraying method. The NaOH and heat treatments produced an uniform amorphous sodium titanate layer on the surface of the porous titanium. The sodium titanate induced a bonelike apatite formation in simulated body fluid at an early soaking period, whereby the apatite layer grew uniformly along the surface and cross-sectional macrotextures of the porous titanium. This indicates that the NaOH and heat treatments lead to a bioactive macroporous titanium surface layer on titanium substrate. Such a bioactive macroporous layer on an implant is expected not only to enhance bony ingrowth into the porous structure, but also to provide a chemical integration with bone via apatite formation on its surface in the body.

  1. Nanoscale Surface Modification of Layered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Aaron

    2011-11-01

    A scanning electron microscope can magnify a sample many times greater than a standard microscope, down to nanoscale dimensions. It can also be used to form patterns on the surfaces of certain materials, a technique used to create microchips. We have developed a technique that simplifies and expedites this process using an unmodified scanning electron microscope. Using this technique, we are able to alter the surface chemistry in a controlled pattern on a special class of materials called transition metal dichalcogenides. These materials have many useful applications: industrial lubricants; high strength nanocomposites; advanced solar cells; and next generation electronics. Altering the surface chemistry of these materials at the nanoscale results in unusual quantum behavior, which is useful in nanotechnology.

  2. Process Conditions of Forming the Surface Layer of Aluminum Powder Product by Layer-by-layer Laser Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saprykina, N. A.; Saprykin, A. A.; Ibragimov, E. A.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents data on state of the art in selective laser sintering of products. Layer-by-layer sintering is shown to be a future-oriented technology, making it possible to synthesize products of metal powder materials. Factors, influencing the quality of a sintered product, are revealed in the paper. It presents outcomes of experiments, focused on the dependence of surface layer thickness of sintered aluminum powder PA-4 on laser processing conditions. Basic factors, influencing the quality of a sintered surface layer include laser power, speeds of scanning and moving the laser beam on the layer of powder. Thickness of the sintered layer varies from 0.74 to 1.55 mm, as the result of changing the laser processing conditions.

  3. Amplification of nonlinear surface waves in an inhomogeneous transition layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodin, G.; Gradov, O. M.

    1991-12-01

    A plasma with a boundary transition layer of variable depth in the presence of a powerful electromagnetic field is considered. It is shown that a displacement of the boundary will grow, and will propagate as a nonlinear surface wave in the direction in which the depth of the transition layer decreases.

  4. Active Flow Control Stator With Coanda Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guendogdu; Vorreiter; Seume

    2010-01-01

    Active Flow Control increases the permissible aerodynamic loading. Curved surface near the trailing edge ("Coanda surface"): a) increases turning -> higher pressure ratio. b) controls boundary layer separation -> increased surge margin. Objective: Reduce the number of vanes or compressor stages. Constraints: 1. In a real compressor, the vane must still function entirely without blowing. 2. Maintain the flow exit angle of the reference stator despite the resulting increase in stator loading.

  5. Atomic layer deposition of ultrathin platinum films on tungsten atomic layer deposition adhesion layers: Application to high surface area substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Clancey, Joel W.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Kukreja, Ratandeep S.; Kongkanand, Anusorn; George, Steven M.

    2015-01-15

    Platinum (Pt) atomic layer deposition (ALD) usually yields Pt nanoparticles during initial film growth. In contrast, deposition of continuous and ultrathin Pt films is needed for many important applications, such as the oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. A continuous and high radius of curvature Pt film is more stable and has a higher area-specific activity than the Pt nanoparticles commonly used in PEM fuel cells. However, the Pt film must be ultrathin and have a large surface area to be cost effective. In this paper, a review of earlier Pt ALD studies on flat substrates is presented that demonstrates that tungsten, with a higher surface energy than platinum, can serve as an adhesion layer to achieve Pt ALD films that are continuous at ultrathin thicknesses of ∼1.5 nm. This work utilized MeCpPtMe{sub 3} and H{sub 2} plasma as the Pt ALD reactants. The deposition of continuous and ultrathin Pt ALD films using MeCpPtMe{sub 3} and H{sub 2} plasma as the reactants is then studied on two high surface area substrate materials: TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and 3M nanostructured thin film (NSTF). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed uniform and continuous Pt films with thicknesses of ∼4 nm on the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. TEM with electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis revealed W ALD and Pt ALD films with thicknesses of ∼3 nm that were continuous and conformal on the high aspect ratio NSTF substrates. These results demonstrate that cost effective use of Pt ALD on high surface area substrates is possible for PEM fuel cells.

  6. Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow over Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-10

    determined by the user via variable -frequency drive units that control the pumps . The water tunnel is able to produce friction Reynolds numbers up to 4000 and...gradient flow. The test surface is affixed to the bottom wall. Water from the holding tank is pumped into the tunnel at a specific speed ...as a plane moving through the air, a car driving down the road (through air), and a ship traveling through water. Based on an object’s geometry and

  7. Mass sensitivity of layered shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave devices for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Trinchi, Adrian; Wlodarski, Wojtek; Holland, Anthony; Galatsis, Kosmas

    2001-11-01

    Layered Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices that allow the propagation of Love mode acoustic waves will be studied in this paper. In these devices, the substrate allows the propagation of Surface Skimming Bulks Waves (SSBWs). By depositing layers, that the speed of Shear Horizontal (SH) acoustic wave propagation is less than that of the substrate, the propagation mode transforms to Love mode. Love mode devices which will be studied in this paper, have SiO2 and ZnO acoustic guiding layers. As Love mode of propagation has no movement of particles component normal to the active sensor surface, they can be employed for the sensing applications in the liquid media.

  8. Turbulent boundary layer on a convex, curved surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. C.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of strong convex curvature on boundary layer turbulence were investigated. The data gathered on the behavior of Reynolds stress suggested the formulation of a simple turbulence model. Three sets of data were taken on two separate facilities. Both rigs had flow from a flat surface, over a convex surface with 90 deg of turning, and then onto a flat recovery surface. The geometry was adjusted so that, for both rigs, the pressure gradient along the test surface was zero - thus avoiding any effects of streamwise acceleration on the wall layers. Results show that after a sudden introduction of curvature, the shear stress in the outer part of the boundary layer is sharply diminished and is even slightly negative near the edge. The wall shear also drops off quickly downstream. In contrast, when the surface suddenly becomes flat again, the wall shear and shear stress profiles recover very slowly towards flat wall conditions.

  9. Boundary layer flow visualisation patterns on a riblet surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. G.

    Boundary layer flow visualization methods, developed at Queen Mary and Westfield College, have been applied to a riblet surface. The results reveal cellular crossflows developing in the grooves between the riblets. These local flor regimes appear to have little direct effect on the flow in the wall layers immediately adjacent to them. Qualitatively, the behavior of the wall layers appears to be that which would be expected if a virtual surface existed at a level slightly above the riblet tops, but a tendency for the origin of longitudinal eddy pairs to become anchored to the top of a riblet is noted.

  10. Turbulent swirling layer with free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardet, Philippe; Peterson, Per; Savas, Omer

    2007-11-01

    A turbulent annular liquid wall jet, or vortex tube, generated by helical injection inside a tube was characterized experimentally. The resulting hollow confined swirling layer is proposed for use in a thick liquid first-wall chamber concept for inertial fusion power plants. The velocity fields were measured with a single camera split-screen stereoscopic particle image velocimetry scheme. The flow was studied at 5 stations between 1.5 and 4.5 ``vortex tube'' diameters downstream of the injection nozzle in a horizontal plane that coincides with the tube axis. Up to 1024 independent realizations were recorded and analyzed for Reynolds numbers ranging from 3,200 to 14,000 at each station. The turbulent structures are non-isotropic and non-homogeneous. Gradients in average velocity and Reynolds stress result in turbulent kinetic energy production. Between 1.5 and 3.5 diameters, the average azimuthal velocity profile alone is non uniform away from the wall. Persistent large vortical structures are observed. The turbulent kinetic energy decreases slowly with distance while the dissipation decreases rapidly. At 4.5 diameters, the wall effect influences strongly the average velocity profiles. The vortical structures disappear and the turbulent kinetic energy increases.

  11. Double Charged Surface Layers in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, Smritakshi P; Burlakov, Victor M; Yengel, Emre; Murali, Banavoth; Alarousu, Erkki; El-Zohry, Ahmed M; Yang, Chen; Alias, Mohd S; Zhumekenov, Ayan A; Saidaminov, Makhsud I; Cho, Namchul; Wehbe, Nimer; Mitra, Somak; Ajia, Idris; Dey, Sukumar; Mansour, Ahmed E; Abdelsamie, Maged; Amassian, Aram; Roqan, Iman S; Ooi, Boon S; Goriely, Alain; Bakr, Osman M; Mohammed, Omar F

    2017-03-08

    Understanding defect chemistry, particularly ion migration, and its significant effect on the surface's optical and electronic properties is one of the major challenges impeding the development of hybrid perovskite-based devices. Here, using both experimental and theoretical approaches, we demonstrated that the surface layers of the perovskite crystals may acquire a high concentration of positively charged vacancies with the complementary negatively charged halide ions pushed to the surface. This charge separation near the surface generates an electric field that can induce an increase of optical band gap in the surface layers relative to the bulk. We found that the charge separation, electric field, and the amplitude of shift in the bandgap strongly depend on the halides and organic moieties of perovskite crystals. Our findings reveal the peculiarity of surface effects that are currently limiting the applications of perovskite crystals and more importantly explain their origins, thus enabling viable surface passivation strategies to remediate them.

  12. Numerical Computations of Hypersonic Boundary-Layer over Surface Irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Surface irregularities such as protuberances inside a hypersonic boundary layer may lead to premature transition on the vehicle surface. Early transition in turn causes large localized surface heating that could damage the thermal protection system. Experimental measurements as well as numerical computations aimed at building a knowledge base for transition Reynolds numbers with respect to different protuberance sizes and locations have been actively pursued in recent years. This paper computationally investigates the unsteady wake development behind large isolated cylindrical roughness elements and the scaled wind-tunnel model of the trip used in a recent flight measurement during the reentry of space shuttle Discovery. An unstructured mesh, compressible flow solver based on the space-time conservation element, solution element (CESE) method is used to perform time-accurate Navier-Stokes calculations for the flow past a roughness element under several wind-tunnel conditions. For a cylindrical roughness element with a height to the boundary-layer thickness ratio from 0.8 to 2.5, the wake flow is characterized by a mushroom-shaped centerline streak and horse-shoe vortices. While time-accurate solutions converged to a steady-state for a ratio of 0.8, strong flow unsteadiness is present for a ratio of 1.3 and 2.5. Instability waves marked by distinct disturbance frequencies were found in the latter two cases. Both the centerline streak and the horse-shoe vortices become unstable downstream. The oscillatory vortices eventually reach an early breakdown stage for the largest roughness element. Spectral analyses in conjunction with the computed root mean square variations suggest that the source of the unsteadiness and instability waves in the wake region may be traced back to possible absolute instability in the front-side separation region.

  13. Layer-by-layer construction of the heparin/fibronectin coatings on titanium surface:stability and functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guicai; Yang, Ping; Huang, Nan

    Layer-by-layer assembly as a versatile bottom-up nanofabrication technique has been widely used in the development of biomimetic materials with superior mechanical and biological properties. In this study, layer-by-layer assembled heparin/fibronectin biofunctional films were fabricated on titanium (Ti) surface to enhance the blood anticoagulation and accelerate the endothelialization simultaneously. The wettability and chemical changes of the assembled films were investigated by static water contact angle measurement and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The morphology of modified Ti surfaces were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The real time assembly process was in-situ monitored by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The stability of the films was evaluated by measuring the changes in wettability and the quantity of heparin and fibronectin on the surfaces. The anticoagulation properties of the films were quantitatively rated using Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) analysis. New peaks of hydroxyl and amino group were observed on the assembled Ti srufaces by FTIR. The contact angles varied among the films with different bilayer numbers, indicating the successful graft of the heparin and fibronectin layer-by-layer. QCM-D results showed that the frequency shift increased with the bilayer numbers, and the heparin and fibronectin could form multilayers. The assembly films were stable after incubation in PBS for 24 h based on the results of the contact angle measurement and the quantity of heparin and fibronectin analysis. APTT results suggested that the assembled films kept excellent antithrombotic properties. All these results revealed that the assembled heparin/fibronectin films with stabiltiy and anticoagulation property could be firmly formed on titanium surfaces. Our study further demonstrates that layer-by-layer assembly of heparin and fibronectin will provide a potential and effective tool for

  14. Hyperbolic Spirals as Surface Structures in Thin Layers.

    PubMed

    Weh, Lothar

    2001-03-15

    When thin layers of 4-chloro-3-methylphenol and a copolymer of methyl(methacrylate) and maleic acid dissolved in acetone are dried by solvent evaporation, various surface structures appear. Besides linear surface deformations that can ramify like fractals, spirals of the hyperbolic type have been found. The surface structures are due to crystallization processes and flows caused by surface tension differences. The spirals are surface elevations with grooves on both sides as shown by surface profile measurements by means of a microscope interferometer. The addition of surfactants reduces the structure formation. A large surfactant concentration prevents the structure formation. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  15. Modeling cross-hatch surface morphology in growing mismatched layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, A. M.; Speck, J. S.; Romanov, A. E.; Bobeth, M.; Pompe, W.

    2002-02-01

    We propose and investigate a model for the development of cross-hatch surface morphology in growing mismatched layers. The model incorporates two important elements: (i) strain relaxation due to dislocation glide in the layer (film) interior that is also associated with misfit dislocation formation at the film/substrate interface and (ii) lateral surface transport that eliminates surface steps that originated from dislocation glide. A combination of dislocation-assisted strain relaxation and surface step flow leads to the appearance of surface height undulations during layer growth. A Monte Carlo simulation technique was applied to model dislocation nucleation events in the course of strain relaxation. The simulation was used to model the influence of dislocations on film surface height profiles. The surface height displacement was calculated from the analytic elasticity solutions for edge dislocations near a free surface. The results of the modeling predict that the average amplitude of the surface undulations and their apparent wavelength both increase with increasing film relaxation and film thickness. The developed cross-hatch pattern is characterized by an atomically smooth but mesoscopically (lateral dimensions ˜0.1-10 μm) rough surface morphology. The conclusions of the model are in agreement with atomic force microscopy observations of cross-hatch surface relief in In0.25Ga0.75As/GaAs samples grown well beyond the critical thickness for misfit dislocation formation.

  16. Boundary Layer Flow Over a Moving Wavy Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendin, Gali; Toledo, Yaron

    2016-04-01

    Boundary Layer Flow Over a Moving Wavy Surface Gali Hendin(1), Yaron Toledo(1) January 13, 2016 (1)School of Mechanical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Israel Understanding the boundary layer flow over surface gravity waves is of great importance as various atmosphere-ocean processes are essentially coupled through these waves. Nevertheless, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of this complex flow behaviour. The present work investigates the fundamentals of the boundary layer air flow over progressive, small-amplitude waves. It aims to extend the well-known Blasius solution for a boundary layer over a flat plate to one over a moving wavy surface. The current analysis pro- claims the importance of the small curvature and the time-dependency as second order effects, with a meaningful impact on the similarity pattern in the first order. The air flow over the ocean surface is modelled using an outer, inviscid half-infinite flow, overlaying the viscous boundary layer above the wavy surface. The assumption of a uniform flow in the outer layer, used in former studies, is now replaced with a precise analytical solution of the potential flow over a moving wavy surface with a known celerity, wavelength and amplitude. This results in a conceptual change from former models as it shows that the pressure variations within the boundary layer cannot be neglected. In the boundary layer, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are formulated in a curvilinear, orthogonal coordinate system. The formulation is done in an elaborate way that presents additional, formerly neglected first-order effects, resulting from the time-varying coordinate system. The suggested time-dependent curvilinear orthogonal coordinate system introduces a platform that can also support the formulation of turbulent problems for any surface shape. In order to produce a self-similar Blasius-type solution, a small wave-steepness is assumed and a perturbation method is applied. Consequently, a

  17. Certification of hardened surface layers by magnetic and electromagnetic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitropol'skaya, S. Yu.

    2013-07-01

    The possibilities of certification of hardened surface layers by measurement of coercive force, eddy current inspection and analysis of the field dependence of differential magnetic permeability μ d ( H) are considered. The advantages of analysis of the pattern of peaks on the μ d ( H) dependence for estimating the state of surface-hardened steels subjected to subsequent force loading are shown.

  18. Multi-layer enhancement to polysilicon surface-micromachining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.

    1997-10-01

    A multi-level polysilicon surface-micromachining technology consisting of 5 layers of polysilicon is presented. Surface topography and film mechanical stress are the major impediments encountered in the development of a multilayer surface-micromachining process. However, excellent mechanical film characteristics have been obtained through the use of chemical-mechanical polishing for planarization of topography and by proper sequencing of film deposition with thermal anneals. Examples of operating microactuators, geared power-transfer mechanisms, and optical elements demonstrate the mechanical advantages of construction with 5 polysilicon layers.

  19. Surface-stabilized nonferromagnetic ordering of a layered ferromagnetic manganite.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, V B; Freeland, J W; Saniz, R; Moore, R G; Mazur, D; Liu, H; Pan, M H; Rundgren, J; Gray, K E; Rosenberg, R A; Zheng, H; Mitchell, J F; Freeman, A J; Veltruska, K; Plummer, E W

    2009-11-27

    An outstanding question regarding the probing or possible device applications of correlated electronic materials (CEMs) with layered structure is the extent to which their bulk and surface properties differ or not. The broken translational symmetry at the surface can lead to distinct functionality due to the charge, lattice, orbital, and spin coupling. Here we report on the case of bilayered manganites with hole doping levels corresponding to bulk ferromagnetic order. We find that, although the hole doping level is measured to be the same as in the bulk, the surface layer is not ferromagnetic. Further, our low-energy electron diffraction and x-ray measurements show that there is a c-axis collapse in the outermost layer. Bulk theoretical calculations reveal that, even at fixed doping level, the relaxation of the Jahn-Teller distortion at the surface is consistent with the stabilization of an A-type antiferromagnetic state.

  20. Vapor layer evolution during drop impact on a heated surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sanghyeon; Lee, Sangjun; Lee, Jisan; Fezzaa, Kamel; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-11-01

    When a liquid drop impacts on a sufficiently hot surface above the boiling point, a vapor layer is formed between the drop and the surface, preventing direct contact between them and as a result levitating the drop, known as the Leidenfrost effect. Understanding the evolution of the vapor layer is largely unexplored despite its importance in estimating heat transfer in cooling systems of thermal or nuclear power plants. The side-profile visualization of the vapor layer, as absolutely required for investigating its evolution, has been however unavailable by conventional optical microscopy. In this study, by employing ultrafast X-ray phase contrast imaging, we directly visualize the profiles of the vapor layers during liquid drop impact on a hot surface and elucidate the evolution of the vapor layers during spreading and retraction of the drop as functions of impact height and surface temperature. We reveal that the evolution is governed by the propagation of capillary waves generated in retraction and the wavelength of capillary waves λ is inversely proportional to the impact height h with a relation ~σ/ρh ~We-1 where We is weber number. Capillary waves that converge at the center of the vapor layers are linked to the bouncing behavior of the drop.

  1. Nonlinear Surface Transport in the Thin Double-Layer Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Kevin; Bazant, Martin

    2006-03-01

    At high applied electric fields, ionic transport within the double layer plays a significant role in the overall response of electrokinetic systems. It is well-known that surface transport processes, including surface electromigration, surface diffusion and surface advection, may impact the strength of electrokinetic phenomena by affecting both the zeta-potential and the magnitude of the tangential electric field. Therefore, it is important to include these effects when formulating the effective boundary conditions for the equations that govern electrokinetic flow outside of the double layer. In this talk, we discuss the application of a general formulation of ``surface conservation laws'' for diffuse boundary layers to derive effective boundary conditions that capture the physics of electrokinetic surface transport. Previous analyses (e.g. Deryagin & Dukhin 1969) are only valid for weak applied fields and are based on a linearization of the concentration and potential about a reference solution, but our results are fully nonlinear and hold at large applied fields as long as the double layer is sufficiently thin. We compare our nonlinear surface transport theory with existing linear analogues and apply it to the canonical problem of induced-charge electro-osmosis around a metal sphere or cylinder in a strong DC field.

  2. Method for producing functionally graded nanocrystalline layer on metal surface

    DOEpatents

    Ajayi, Oyelayo O.; Hershberger, Jeffrey G.

    2010-03-23

    An improved process for the creation or formation of nanocrystalline layers on substrates' surfaces is provided. The process involves "prescuffing" the surface of a substrate such as a metal by allowing friction to occur on the surface by a load-bearing entity making rubbing contact and moving along and on the substrate's surface. The "prescuffing" action is terminated when the coefficient of friction between the surface and the noise is rising significantly. Often, the significant rise in the coefficient of friction is signaled by a change in pitch of the scuffing action sound emanating from the buffeted surface. The "prescuffing" gives rise to a harder and smoother surface which withstands better any inadequate lubrication that may take place when the "prescuffed" surface is contacted by other surfaces.

  3. Atomic and molecular layer deposition for surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Vähä-Nissi, Mika; Sievänen, Jenni; Salo, Erkki; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Kenttä, Eija; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Koskinen, Jorma T.; Harlin, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Atomic and molecular layer deposition (ALD and MLD, respectively) techniques are based on repeated cycles of gas–solid surface reactions. A partial monolayer of atoms or molecules is deposited to the surface during a single deposition cycle, enabling tailored film composition in principle down to molecular resolution on ideal surfaces. Typically ALD/MLD has been used for applications where uniform and pinhole free thin film is a necessity even on 3D surfaces. However, thin – even non-uniform – atomic and molecular deposited layers can also be used to tailor the surface characteristics of different non-ideal substrates. For example, print quality of inkjet printing on polymer films and penetration of water into porous nonwovens can be adjusted with low-temperature deposited metal oxide. In addition, adhesion of extrusion coated biopolymer to inorganic oxides can be improved with a hybrid layer based on lactic acid. - Graphical abstract: Print quality of a polylactide film surface modified with atomic layer deposition prior to inkjet printing (360 dpi) with an aqueous ink. Number of printed dots illustrated as a function of 0, 5, 15 and 25 deposition cycles of trimethylaluminum and water. - Highlights: • ALD/MLD can be used to adjust surface characteristics of films and fiber materials. • Hydrophobicity after few deposition cycles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to e.g. complex formation. • Same effect on cellulosic fabrics observed with low temperature deposited TiO{sub 2}. • Different film growth and oxidation potential with different precursors. • Hybrid layer on inorganic layer can be used to improve adhesion of polymer melt.

  4. Multi-layer surface profiling using gated wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Nordin, Nur Dalilla; Tik, Eddy Chow Mun; Tan, ChingSeong; Chew, Kuew Wai; Menoni, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, multi-layer surface profiling and inspection has been considered an emerging topic that can be used to solve various manufacturing inspection problems, such as graded index lenses, TSV (Thru-Silicon Via), and optical coating. In our study, we proposed a gated wavefront sensing approach to estimate the multi-layer surface profile. In this paper, we set up an experimental platform to validate our theoretical models and methods. Our test bed consists of pulse laser, collimator, prism, well-defined focusing lens, testing specimen, and gated wavefront sensing assembly (e.g., lenslet and gated camera). Typical wavefront measurement steps are carried out for the gated system, except the reflectance is timed against its time of flight as well as its intensity profile. By synchronizing the laser pulses to the camera gate time, it is possible to discriminate a multi-layer wavefront from its neighbouring discrete layer reflections.

  5. Patterning and pattern selection in a surface layer: Feedback between point defects population and surface layer temperature variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, Dmitrii O.; Kharchenko, Vasyl O.; Bashtova, Anna I.; Lysenko, Irina O.

    2016-12-01

    We study dynamics of pattern formation in a prototype system of nonequilibrium point defects in thin foils under sustained nonequilibrium conditions. A reaction-diffusion model describing spatio-temporal behaviour of both vacancy population and local temperature of a surface layer is used. It is shown that pattern selection processes caused by coupling between defect population and local temperature of a surface are realized. Associated oscillatory dynamics of main statistical moments of both vacancy concentration field and surface layer temperature is analysed in detail. It is found that during the system evolution spatial distribution of local temperature variations of the surface layer relates to vacancy population distribution. It is shown that the mean size of vacancy clusters (from 30 nm up to 300 nm) evolves in oscillatory manner due to pattern selection processes. Morphology of defect complexes can be controlled by defects generation rate.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of macromolecular layers grafted to polymer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtovyy, Oleksandr

    The composition and behavior of surfaces and interfaces play a pivotal role in dictating the overall efficiency of the majority of polymeric materials and devices. Surface properties of the materials can be altered using surface modification techniques. It is necessary to highlight that successful methods of surface modification should affect only the upper layer of the polymer material without changing bulk properties. The processes must introduce new functionalities to the surface, optimize surface roughness, lubrication, hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, adhesion, conductivity, and/or biocompatibility. Research presented in this dissertation is dedicated to the synthesis, characterization, and application of thin macromolecular layers anchored to polymer substrates. Specifically, attachment of functional polymers via a "grafting to" approach has been extensively studied using PET and nylon model substrates. First, poly(glycidyl methacrylate) was used to introduce permanent functionalities to the model substrates by anchoring it to model films. Then, three different functional polymers were grafted on top of the previous layer. As one part of this study, the temperature and time dependence of grafting functional layers were studied. The surface coverage by hydrophobic polymer was determined from experimental data and predicted by a model. In general, the model has a high degree of predictive capability. Next, surface modification of polymeric fibers and membranes is presented as an important application of the polymer thin layers targeted in the study. Specifically, the procedures developed for surface modification of model substrates was employed for modification of PET, nylon, and cotton fabrics as well as PET track-etched membranes. Since epoxy groups are highly reactive in various chemical reactions, the approach becomes virtually universal, allowing both various surfaces and end-functionalized macromolecules to be used in the grafted layer synthesis. PET

  7. Surface modes in sheared boundary layers over impedance linings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambley, E. J.

    2013-08-01

    Surface modes, being duct modes localized close to the duct wall, are analysed within a lined cylindrical duct with uniform flow apart from a thin boundary layer. As well as full numerical solutions of the Pridmore-Brown equation, simplified mathematical models are given where the duct lining and boundary layer are lumped together and modelled using a single boundary condition (a modification of the Myers boundary condition previously proposed by the author), from which a surface mode dispersion relation is derived. For a given frequency, up to six surface modes are shown to exist, rather than the maximum of four for uniform slipping flow. Not only is the different number and behaviour of surface modes important for frequency-domain mode-matching techniques, which depend on having found all relevant modes during matching, but the thin boundary layer is also shown to lead to different convective and absolute stability than for uniform slipping flow. Numerical examples are given comparing the predictions of the surface mode dispersion relation to full solutions of the Pridmore-Brown equation, and the accuracy with which surface modes are predicted is shown to be significantly increased compared with the uniform slipping flow assumption. The importance of not only the boundary layer thickness but also its profile (tanh or linear) is demonstrated. A Briggs-Bers stability analysis is also performed under the assumption of a mass-spring-damper or Helmholtz resonator impedance model.

  8. Surface stress of graphene layers supported on soft substrate

    PubMed Central

    Du, Feng; Huang, Jianyong; Duan, Huiling; Xiong, Chunyang; Wang, Jianxiang

    2016-01-01

    We obtain the surface stress of a single layer and multilayers of graphene supported on silicone substrates by measuring the deformation of the graphene-covered substrates induced by the surface tension of liquid droplets together with the Neumann’s triangle concept. We find that the surface stress of the graphene-covered substrate is significant larger than that of the bare substrate, and it increases with increasing graphene layers, and finally reaches a constant value of about 120 mN/m on three and more layers of graphene. This work demonstrates that the apparent surface stress of graphene-substrate systems can be tuned by the substrate and the graphene layers. The surface stress and the tuning effect of the substrate on it may have applications in design and characterization of graphene-based ultra-sensitive sensors and other devices. Moreover, the method may also be used to measure the surface stress of other ultrathin films supported on soft substrates. PMID:27166087

  9. Passive hypervelocity boundary layer control using an ultrasonically absorptive surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasheed, Adam

    A series of exploratory boundary layer transition experiments was performed on a sharp 5.06 degree half-angle round cone at zero angle-of-attack in the T5 Hypervelocity Shock Tunnel in order to test a novel hypersonic boundary layer control scheme. Recently performed linear stability analyses suggested that transition could be delayed in hypersonic boundary layers by using an ultrasonically absorptive surface that would damp the second mode (Mack mode). The cone used in the experiments was constructed with a smooth surface on half the cone (to serve as a control) and an acoustically absorptive porous surface on the other half. It was instrumented with flush-mounted thermocouples to detect the transition location. Test gases investigated included nitrogen and carbon dioxide at Mach 5 with specific reservoir enthalpy ranging from 1.3 MJ/kg to 13.0 MJ/kg and reservoir pressure ranging from 9.0 MPa to 50.0 MPa. Detailed comparisons were performed to insure that previous results obtained in similar boundary layer transition experiments (on a regular smooth surface) were reproduced and the results were extended to examine the effects of the porous surface. These experiments indicated that the porous surface was highly effective in delaying transition provided that the hole size was significantly smaller than the viscous length scale.

  10. Passive hypervelocity boundary layer control using an acoustically absortive surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasheed, Adam

    A series of exploratory boundary layer transition experiments was performed on a sharp 5.06 degree half-angle round cone at zero angle-of-attack in the T5 Hypervelocity Shock Tunnel in order to test a novel hypersonic boundary layer control scheme. Recently performed linear stability analyses suggested that transition could be delayed in hypersonic boundary layers by using an ultrasonically absorptive surface that would damp the second mode (Mack mode). The cone used in the experiments was constructed with a smooth surface on half the cone (to serve as a control) and an acoustically absorptive porous surface on the other half. It was instrumented with flush-mounted thermocouples to detect the transition location. Test gases investigated included nitrogen and carbon dioxide at M = 5 with specific reservoir enthalpy ranging from 1.3 MJ/kg to 13.0 MJ/kg and reservoir pressure ranging from 9.0 MPa to 50.0 MPa. Detailed comparisons were performed to insure that previous results obtained in similar boundary layer transition experiments (on a regular smooth surface) were reproduced and the results were extended to examine the effects of the porous surface. These experiments indicated that the porous surface was highly effective in delaying transition provided that the hole size was significantly smaller than the viscous length scale.

  11. Facing extremes: archaeal surface-layer (glyco)proteins.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Jerry

    2003-12-01

    Archaea are best known in their capacities as extremophiles, i.e. micro-organisms able to thrive in some of the most drastic environments on Earth. The protein-based surface layer that envelopes many archaeal strains must thus correctly assemble and maintain its structural integrity in the face of the physical challenges associated with, for instance, life in high salinity, at elevated temperatures or in acidic surroundings. Study of archaeal surface-layer (glyco)proteins has thus offered insight into the strategies employed by these proteins to survive direct contact with extreme environments, yet has also served to elucidate other aspects of archaeal protein biosynthesis, including glycosylation, lipid modification and protein export. In this mini-review, recent advances in the study of archaeal surface-layer (glyco)proteins are discussed.

  12. An experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layers along curved surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, R. M. C.; Mellor, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    A curved wall tunnel was designed, and an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer was set up on the straight section preceding the curved test section. Turbulent boundary layer flows with uniform and adverse pressure distributions along convex and concave walls were investigated. Hot-wire measurements along the convex surface indicated that turbulent mixing between fluid layers was very much reduced. However, the law of the wall held and the skin friction, thus determined, correlated well with other measurements. Hot-wire measurements along the concave test wall revealed a system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer and confirmed that concave curvature enhances mixing. A self-consistent set of turbulent boundary layer equations for flows along curved surfaces was derived together with a modified eddy viscosity. Solution of these equations together with the modified eddy viscosity gave results that correlated well with the present data on flows along the convex surface with arbitrary pressure distribution. However, it could only be used to predict the mean characteristics of the flow along concave walls because of the existence of the system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer.

  13. Effect of surface energy and seed layer annealing temperature on ZnO seed layer formation and ZnO nanowire growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Sub; Mahmud, Imtiaz; Shin, Han Jae; Park, Min-Kyu; Ranjkesh, Amid; Lee, Do Kyung; Kim, Hak-Rin

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the effects of surface energy and seed layer annealing temperature (Tannealing) on seed layer growth and hydrothermally-grown zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs). In this work, by varying the ultraviolet ozone (UVO) treatment times on a silicon surface, the surface energy conditions for the seed layer formation changed and the seed layer was annealed under different Tannealing conditions. Under a lower surface energy condition of the substrate, with increasing Tannealing, the coverage density and the average thickness of the seed layer increased, but island-like growth was observed. This case was inevitably accompanied by an increase in surface roughness, which resulted in agglomerated low density growth of ZnO NWs. After sufficient UVO treatment, hydroxyl groups on the silicon surface activated the ZnO seed layer formation in the chemical reaction and increased the bonding energy between the active nucleation sites of the seed layer and the substrate surface. This ensured higher coverage density of the seed layer with lower surface roughness under the same Tannealing condition, thereby providing the ZnO NW growth with an enhanced density and aspect ratio as well as good crystallinity.

  14. Modifying of Cotton Fabric Surface with Nano-ZnO Multilayer Films by Layer-by-Layer Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uğur, Şule S.; Sarıışık, Merih; Aktaş, A. Hakan; Uçar, M. Çiğdem; Erden, Emre

    2010-07-01

    ZnO nanoparticle-based multilayer nanocomposite films were fabricated on cationized woven cotton fabrics via layer-by-layer molecular self-assembly technique. For cationic surface charge, cotton fabrics were pretreated with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (EP3MAC) by pad-batch method. XPS and SEM were used to examine the deposited nano-ZnO multilayer films on the cotton fabrics. The nano-ZnO films deposited on cotton fabrics exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The results also showed that the coated fabrics with nano-ZnO multilayer films enhanced the protection of cotton fabrics from UV radiation. Physical tests (tensile strength of weft and warp yarns, air permeability and whiteness values) were performed on the fabrics before and after the treatment with ZnO nanoparticles to evaluate the effect of layer-by-layer (LbL) process on cotton fabrics properties.

  15. Modifying of Cotton Fabric Surface with Nano-ZnO Multilayer Films by Layer-by-Layer Deposition Method

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticle–based multilayer nanocomposite films were fabricated on cationized woven cotton fabrics via layer-by-layer molecular self-assembly technique. For cationic surface charge, cotton fabrics were pretreated with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (EP3MAC) by pad-batch method. XPS and SEM were used to examine the deposited nano-ZnO multilayer films on the cotton fabrics. The nano-ZnO films deposited on cotton fabrics exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The results also showed that the coated fabrics with nano-ZnO multilayer films enhanced the protection of cotton fabrics from UV radiation. Physical tests (tensile strength of weft and warp yarns, air permeability and whiteness values) were performed on the fabrics before and after the treatment with ZnO nanoparticles to evaluate the effect of layer-by-layer (LbL) process on cotton fabrics properties. PMID:20596450

  16. Wetting layer of copper on the tantalum (001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupraz, Maxime; Poloni, Roberta; Ratter, Kitti; Rodney, David; De Santis, Maurizio; Gilles, Bruno; Beutier, Guillaume; Verdier, Marc

    2016-12-01

    The heteroepitaxial interface formed by copper deposited onto the tantalum (001) surface is studied by surface x-ray diffraction and ab initio calculations. The analysis of the crystal truncation rods reveals the presence of a wetting layer of copper made of two atomic planes pseudomorphic to the tantalum substrate, with the upper most atomic planes significantly deformed. These findings are in total agreement with the results of density-functional-theory calculations. The presence of the wetting layer confirms a Stranski-Krastanov growth mode and is thought to explain the extremely fast atomic diffusion of copper during the dewetting process in the solid state at high temperature.

  17. Surface reactions on thin layers of silane coupling agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kurth, D.G.; Bein, T. )

    1993-11-01

    The reactivity of immobilized functional groups in thin layers of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APS), (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane, (3-bromopropyl)trimethoxysilane, and (8-bromooctyl)trimethoxysilane on oxidized aluminum substrates was studied with reflection-adsorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIR), optical ellipsometry and contact-angle measurements. Mass changes on the surface associated with the surface-confined reactions were measured with the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Single layers of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane on oxidized aluminum react with chlorodimethylsilane to give [(-O)[sub 3]Si(CH[sub 2])[sub 3]NH[sub 2][sup +]SiMe[sub 2]H]Cl[sup [minus

  18. Surface morphological evolution during annealing of epitaxial Cu(001) layers

    SciTech Connect

    Purswani, J. M.; Gall, D.

    2008-08-15

    Single crystal Cu(001) layers were grown on MgO(001) by ultrahigh vacuum magnetron sputtering at T{sub s}=100 deg. C. Quantitative surface morphological analyses by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy show that the surfaces exhibit self-affine mound structures with a scaling exponent of 0.82{+-}0.03 and a mound radius r{sub c} that increases from 31{+-}8 to 39{+-}6 nm for increasing layer thickness t=24-120 nm. In situ annealing at 200 and 300 deg. C leads to a thermodynamically driven mass transport that minimizes the surface step density, resulting in broader mounds and a smaller root mean square surface roughness {sigma}. This effect is most pronounced for t=24 nm, for which r{sub c} increases from 31{+-}8 to 70{+-}20 nm and {sigma} decreases from 1.3{+-}0.1 to 0.74{+-}0.08 nm, resulting in a decrease in the average surface slope from {chi}=7 deg. to 2 deg. and an increase in the average terrace width w{sub T} by more than a factor of 4. In contrast, w{sub T} increases by only 20% for t=120 nm. This remarkable difference between 'thin' and 'thick' layers is attributed to diverging surface morphological pathways during annealing: The strong smoothening for t=24 nm is due to a competitive coalescence process where some mounds grow laterally at the expense of their smaller neighbors, which die out. In contrast, the initially wider mounds of thicker layers (t=120 nm) combine to form a quasistable surface morphology that exhibits anisotropic mound structures, which limit mass transport and stabilize the surface step density.

  19. Super-hydrophobic surfaces of layer-by-layer structured film-coated electrospun nanofibrous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Tasuku; Ding, Bin; Sone, Yuji; Shiratori, Seimei

    2007-04-01

    We have recently fabricated super-hydrophobic membrane surfaces based on the inspiration of self-cleaning silver ragwort leaves. This biomimetic super-hydrophobic surface was composed of fluoroalkylsilane (FAS)-modified layer-by-layer (LBL) structured film-coated electrospun nanofibrous membranes. The rough fibre surface caused by the electrostatic LBL coating of TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was used to imitate the rough surface of nanosized grooves along the silver ragwort leaf fibre axis. The results showed that the FAS modification was the key process for increasing the surface hydrophobicity of the fibrous membranes. Additionally, the dependence of the hydrophobicity of the membrane surfaces upon the number of LBL coating bilayers was affected by the membrane surface roughness. Moreover, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results further indicated that the surface of LBL film-coated fibres absorbed more fluoro groups than the fibre surface without the LBL coating. A (TiO2/PAA)10 film-coated cellulose acetate nanofibrous membrane with FAS surface modification showed the highest water contact angle of 162° and lowest water-roll angle of 2°.

  20. Surface modification of layered zirconium phosphate with PNIPAM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuezhen; Zhao, Di; Medina, Ilse B Nava; Diaz, Agustin; Wang, Huiliang; Clearfield, Abraham; Mannan, M Sam; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2016-04-04

    A new method was reported to modify layered zirconium phosphate (ZrP) with thermoresponsive polymer PNIPAM (poly N-isopropylacrylamide). PNIPAM was proved to be covalently grafted onto ZrP. (60)Co γ-rays irradiation produced peroxide groups on the surface which, upon heating, initiated free radical polymerization and subsequent attachment of PNIPAM.

  1. Laminarization of Turbulent Boundary Layer on Flexible and Rigid Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio

    2001-01-01

    An investigation of the control of turbulent boundary layer flow over flexible and rigid surfaces downstream of a concave-convex geometry has been made. The concave-convex curvature induces centrifugal forces and a pressure gradient on the growth of the turbulent boundary layer. The favorable gradient is not sufficient to overcome the unfavorable; thus, the net effect is a destabilizing, of the flow into Gortler instabilities. This study shows that control of the turbulent boundary layer and structural loading can be successfully achieved by using localized surface heating because the subsequent cooling and geometrical shaping downstream over a favorable pressure gradient is effective in laminarization of the turbulence. Wires embedded in a thermally insulated substrate provide surface heating. The laminarized velocity profile adjusts to a lower Reynolds number, and the structure responds to a lower loading. In the laminarization, the turbulent energy is dissipated by molecular transport by both viscous and conductivity mechanisms. Laminarization reduces spanwise vorticity because of the longitudinal cooling gradient of the sublayer profile. The results demonstrate that the curvature-induced mean pressure gradient enhances the receptivity of the flow to localized surface heating, a potentially viable mechanism to laminarize turbulent boundary layer flow; thus, the flow reduces the response of the flexible structure and the resultant sound radiation.

  2. NMR of thin layers using a meanderline surface coil

    DOEpatents

    Cowgill, Donald F.

    2001-01-01

    A miniature meanderline sensor coil which extends the capabilities of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to provide analysis of thin planar samples and surface layer geometries. The sensor coil allows standard NMR techniques to be used to examine thin planar (or curved) layers, extending NMRs utility to many problems of modern interest. This technique can be used to examine contact layers, non-destructively depth profile into films, or image multiple layers in a 3-dimensional sense. It lends itself to high resolution NMR techniques of magic angle spinning and thus can be used to examine the bonding and electronic structure in layered materials or to observe the chemistry associated with aging coatings. Coupling this sensor coil technology with an arrangement of small magnets will produce a penetrator probe for remote in-situ chemical analysis of groundwater or contaminant sediments. Alternatively, the sensor coil can be further miniaturized to provide sub-micron depth resolution within thin films or to orthoscopically examine living tissue. This thin-layer NMR technique using a stationary meanderline coil in a series-resonant circuit has been demonstrated and it has been determined that the flat meanderline geometry has about he same detection sensitivity as a solenoidal coil, but is specifically tailored to examine planar material layers, while avoiding signals from the bulk.

  3. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Patankar, Neelesh A; Marston, Jeremy O; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-09-13

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling--by heat transfer--the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating.

  4. Surface modification of active material structures in battery electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Michael; Tikhonov, Konstantin

    2016-02-02

    Provided herein are methods of processing electrode active material structures for use in electrochemical cells or, more specifically, methods of forming surface layers on these structures. The structures are combined with a liquid to form a mixture. The mixture includes a surface reagent that chemically reacts and forms a surface layer covalently bound to the structures. The surface reagent may be a part of the initial liquid or added to the mixture after the liquid is combined with the structures. In some embodiments, the mixture may be processed to form a powder containing the structures with the surface layer thereon. Alternatively, the mixture may be deposited onto a current collecting substrate and dried to form an electrode layer. Furthermore, the liquid may be an electrolyte containing the surface reagent and a salt. The liquid soaks the previously arranged electrodes in order to contact the structures with the surface reagent.

  5. Tuning surface plasmons in graphene ribbons with liquid crystal layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, Viktor Yu.; Bunning, Timothy J.; Evans, Dean R.

    2016-09-01

    Surface plasmons in graphene possess stronger mode confinement and lower propagation loss. One way to excite the surface plasmons is placing a periodic array of graphene nano-ribbons on top of a dielectric substrate. However once the system is fabricated it is not possible to change its optical properties. Liquid crystals (LC) are a uniaxial medium with an optical axis easily controlled by external stimuli. We suggest tuning the surface plasmons in an array of graphene ribbons by placing a LC slab on top of the ribbons. A voltage applied to the LC layer shifts the graphene ribbons plasmonic notch and changes its depth.

  6. All-nanoparticle layer-by-layer surface modification of micro- and ultrafiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Ferrand, Luis; Li, Diya; Lee, Daeyeon; Durning, Christopher J

    2014-05-20

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition using primarily inorganic silica nanoparticles is employed for surface modification of polymeric micro- and ultrafiltration (MF/UF) membranes to produce novel thin film composite (TFC) membranes intended for nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) applications. A wide variety of porous substrate membranes with different surface characteristics are successfully employed. This report gives detailed results for polycarbonate track etched (PCTE), polyethersulfone (PES), and sulfonated PES (SPEES) MF/UF substrates. Both spherical (cationic/anionic) and eccentric elongated (anionic) silica nanoparticles are deposited using conditions similar to those in prior works for solid substrates (e.g., Lee et al.). Appropriate selection of the pH for anionic and cationic particle deposition enables construction of nanoparticle-only layers 100-1200 nm in thickness atop the original porous membrane substrates. The surface layer thickness appears to vary linearly with the number of bilayers deposited, i.e., with the number of anionic/cationic deposition cycles. The deposition process is optimized to eliminate drying-induced cracking and improve mechanical durability via thickness control and postdeposition hydrothermal treatment. "Dead-end" permeation tests using dextran standards reveal the hydraulic characteristics and separations capability for the PCTE-based TFC membranes. The results show that nanoparticle-based LbL surface modification of MF and UF rated media can produce TFC membranes with NF capabilities.

  7. The Role of Surface Layer Processes in Solid Propellant Combustion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarthy, Satyanarayanan R.

    The qualitative multidimensional theory of composite solid propellant combustion based on the sandwich burning methodology was applied to certain specific problems: (a) burning rate enhancement by ferric oxide, (b) plateau burning behavior caused by binder melt flow effects, and (c) characterization of the combustion of new energetic oxidizers--ADN and HNIW. Exothermic reactions at the interfacial contact lines between AP particles and the binder in the surface layer of the burning propellant assume significance in the presence of ferric oxide, and control the burning rate. Binder melt flow covers adjacent AP particle surfaces increasingly at higher pressures, and disperses the O/F leading edge flames attached to coarse particles. It also causes fine AP/binder matrix areas on the surface not to support a steady premixed flame at intermediate pressures, resulting in an overall decrease in the burning rate with increasing pressure, which implies plateau or mesa effects. ADN self -deflagration rate is significantly higher than that of AP, and controls the sandwich burning rate to a great extent. The O/F flame of ADN and binder still behaves as rate limiting, although strongly supported by ADN self-deflagration. ADN melts and vaporizes substantially before the binder, allowing for the possibility of complex physical processes in the surface layer. The strong exothermic decomposition of HNIW at moderate temperatures causes the oxidizer particles in the surface layer to be the sites of burning rate control. The problems addressed in this study combinedly point to the significance of crucial surface layer processes under the situations of interest, and signal a need to characterize such processes directly and in greater detail.

  8. Experimental study of shear layer instability below a free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Matthieu A.; Bardet, Philippe M.

    2015-11-01

    Relaxation of a laminar boundary layer at a free surface is an inviscidly unstable process and can lead to millimeter-scale surface waves, influencing interfacial processes. Due to the small time- and length-scales involved, previous experimental studies have been limited to visual observations and point-wise measurements of the surface profile to determine instability onset and frequency. However, effects of viscosity, surface tension, and non-linearity of the wave profile have not been systematically studied. In fact, no data have been reported on the velocity fields associated with this instability. In the present study, planar laser induced fluorescence and particle image velocimetry provide surface profiles coupled with liquid phase velocity fields for this instability in a time resolved manner. Wave steepness (ak, with a the amplitude and k the wave number) and Reynolds and Weber numbers based on momentum thickness range from 0 to 1.2, 143 to 177, and 4.79 to 6.61, respectively. Large datasets are analyzed to gain statistical information on the surface behavior. Discrete vortices are resolved, showing that the shear layer becomes unstable and rolls up above a Reynolds number of 140. The detection onset and steepness of the subsequent surface deformation by the vortices depend upon the Weber number. Non-linear behavior such as vortex motion and wave profile asymmetry are observed at steepness larger than 0.5.

  9. Electron Scattering at Surfaces of Epitaxial Metal Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Jasmeet Singh

    In the field of electron transport in metal films and wires, the 'size effect' refers to the increase in the resistivity of the films and wires as their critical dimensions (thickness of film, width and height of wires) approach or become less than the electron mean free path lambda, which is, for example, 39 nm for bulk copper at room temperature. This size-effect is currently of great concern to the semiconductor industry because the continued downscaling of feature sizes has already lead to Cu interconnect wires in this size effect regime, with a reported 2.5 times higher resistivity for 40 nm wide Cu wires than for bulk Cu. Silver is a possible alternate material for interconnect wires and titanium nitride is proposed as a gate metal in novel field-effect-transistors. Therefore, it is important to develop an understanding of how the growth, the surface morphology, and the microstructure of ultrathin (few nanometers) Cu, Ag and TiN layers affect their electrical properties. This dissertation aims to advance the scientific knowledge of electron scattering at surfaces (external surfaces and grain boundaries), that are, the primary reasons for the size-effect in metal conductors. The effect of surface and grain boundary scattering on the resistivity of Cu thin films and nanowires is separately quantified using (i) in situ transport measurements on single-crystal, atomically smooth Cu(001) layers, (ii) textured polycrystalline Cu(111) layers and patterned wires with independently varying grain size, thickness and line width, and (iii) in situ grown interfaces including Cu-Ta, Cu-MgO, Cu-vacuum and Cu-oxygen. In addition, the electron surface scattering is also measured in situ for single-crystal Ag(001), (111) twinned epitaxial Ag(001), and single-crystal TiN(001) layers. Cu(001), Ag(001), and TiN(001) layers with a minimum continuous thickness of 4, 3.5 and 1.8 nm, respectively, are grown by ultra-high vacuum magnetron sputter deposition on MgO(001) substrates with

  10. Oxygen inhibition layer of composite resins: effects of layer thickness and surface layer treatment on the interlayer bond strength.

    PubMed

    Bijelic-Donova, Jasmina; Garoushi, Sufyan; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-02-01

    An oxygen inhibition layer develops on surfaces exposed to air during polymerization of particulate filling composite. This study assessed the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer of short-fiber-reinforced composite in comparison with conventional particulate filling composites. The effect of an oxygen inhibition layer on the shear bond strength of incrementally placed particulate filling composite layers was also evaluated. Four different restorative composites were selected: everX Posterior (a short-fiber-reinforced composite), Z250, SupremeXT, and Silorane. All composites were evaluated regarding the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer and for shear bond strength. An equal amount of each composite was polymerized in air between two glass plates and the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer was measured using a stereomicroscope. Cylindrical-shaped specimens were prepared for measurement of shear bond strength by placing incrementally two layers of the same composite material. Before applying the second composite layer, the first increment's bonding site was treated as follows: grinding with 1,000-grit silicon-carbide (SiC) abrasive paper, or treatment with ethanol or with water-spray. The inhibition depth was lowest (11.6 μm) for water-sprayed Silorane and greatest (22.9 μm) for the water-sprayed short-fiber-reinforced composite. The shear bond strength ranged from 5.8 MPa (ground Silorane) to 36.4 MPa (water-sprayed SupremeXT). The presence of an oxygen inhibition layer enhanced the interlayer shear bond strength of all investigated materials, but its absence resulted in cohesive and mixed failures only with the short-fiber-reinforced composite. Thus, more durable adhesion with short-fiber-reinforced composite is expected.

  11. Sono-incorporation of CuO nanoparticles on the surface and into the mesoporous hexatitanate layers: Enhanced Fenton-like activity in degradation of orange-G at its neutral pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehati, S.; Entezari, M. H.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, for the first time, CuO/Ti6O13 mesoporous nanocomposite was synthesized by direct intercalation of CuO nanoparticles into hexatitanate layers in the presence of ultrasound. In fact mesoporous potassium hexatitanate with high pore size (44.94 nm) was used as a support. CuO nanoparticles were grown into the titanate pores which caused formation of ultra small CuO with uniform size and high surface area. In fact, titanate is considered as a substrate for better dispersion and nucleation of the CuO nanoparticles which prevented the agglomeration and overgrowth of guest molecules. The prepared sample was characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, UV-vis spectra, N2 adsorption-desorption, Raman spectra and FT-IR techniques. The product was used as a heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst for the degradation of Orang G (OG). The effect of important parameters, including pH, H2O2 addition rate and catalyst loading on the decolorization of OG were investigated. Based on the results, CuO/Ti6O13 catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity for OG degradation in aqueous solution at neutral pH of the dye. Moreover, breaking of H2O2 during the catalytic reaction was monitored by spectroscopic method. The results confirmed the decomposition of H2O2 to produce rad OH which is the main active species for the degradation of OG.

  12. Active layer hydrology for Imnavait Creek, Toolik, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    In the annual hydrologic cycle, snowmelt is the most significant event at Imnavait Creek located near Toolik Lake, Alaska. Precipitation that has accumulated for more than 6 months on the surface melts in a relatively short period of 7 to 10 days once sustained melting occurs. During the ablation period, runoff dominates the hydrologic cycle. Some meltwater goes to rewetting the organic soils in the active layer. The remainder is lost primarily because of evaporation, since transpiration is not a very active process at this time. Following the snowmelt period, evapotranspiration becomes the dominate process, with base flow contributing the other watershed losses. It is important to note that the water initally lost by evapotranspiration entered the organic layer during melt. This water from the snowpack ensures that each year the various plant communities will have sufficient water to start a new summer of growth.

  13. Surface properties of solids and surface acoustic waves: Application to chemical sensors and layer characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, V. V.

    1995-09-01

    A general phenomenological approach is given for the description of mechanical surface properties of solids and their influence on surface acoustic wave propogation. Surface properties under consideration may be changes of the stress distribution in subsurface atomic layers, the presence of adsorbed gas molecules, surface degradation as a result of impacts from an aggressive environment, damage due to mechanical manufacturing or polishing, deposition of thin films or liquid layers, surface corrugations, etc. If the characteristic thickness of the affected layers is much less than the wavelengths of the propagating surface waves, then the effects of all these irregularities can be described by means of non-classical boundary conditions incorporating the integral surface parameters such as surface tension, surface moduli of elasticity and surface mass density. The effect of surface properties on the propagation of Rayleigh surface waves is analysed in comparison with the results of traditional approaches, in particular with Auld's energy perturbation method. One of the important implications of the above-mentioned boudnary conditions is that they are adequate for the description of the effect of rarely distributed adsorbed atoms or molecules. This allows, in particular, to obtain a rigorous theoretical description of chemical sensors using surface acoustic waves and to derive analytical expressions for their sensitivity.

  14. The measurement of boundary layers on a compressor blade in cascade. II - Suction surface boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Steven; Zierke, William C.

    1987-01-01

    A one-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) has been used to measure the two-dimensional, periodic flow field about a double circular arc, compressor blade in cascade. Eleven boundary layer profiles were taken on both the pressure and suction surfaces of the blade, and two were taken in the near wake. In this part of the study, the LDV system is described and the suction surface flow field is documented. The suction surface profiles appear to separate both at the leading edge and again somewhat beyond midchord; the leading edge separation apparently reattaches by 2.6 percent chord.

  15. Layer-by-layer rose petal mimic surface with oleophilicity and underwater oleophobicity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiu-chin; Zacharia, Nicole S

    2015-01-20

    Surfaces designed with specific wetting properties are still a key challenge in materials science. We present here a facile preparation of a surface assembled by the layer-by-layer technique, using a colloidal dispersion of ionomer particles and linear polyethylene imine. The colloidal ethylene-co-methacrylic acid (EMAA) particles are on the order of half a micron in size with surface features from 40 to 100 nm in width. The resultant surface has roughness on two length scales, one on the micron scale due to the packing of particles and one on the nanoscale due to these surface features on the EMAA particles. This hierarchical structure results in a hydrophobic surface with good water pinning properties (∼550 μN). We show that there is a balance between maximizing contact angle and water pinning force. Furthermore, this surface is oleophilic with regard to many organic solvents, also demonstrating underwater oleophobicity, and given the difference in wetting between aqueous and organic phases, this material may be a candidate material for oil/water separations.

  16. Functionalised nanoscale coatings using layer-by-layer assembly for imparting antibacterial properties to polylactide-co-glycolide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Piergiorgio; Frongia, Maria E; Cardellach, Mar; Miller, Cheryl A; Stafford, Graham P; Leggett, Graham J; Hatton, Paul V

    2015-07-01

    In order to achieve high local biological activity and reduce the risk of side effects of antibiotics in the treatment of periodontal and bone infections, a localised and temporally controlled delivery system is desirable. The aim of this research was to develop a functionalised and resorbable surface to contact soft tissues to improve the antibacterial behaviour during the first week after its implantation in the treatment of periodontal and bone infections. Solvent-cast poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) films were aminolysed and then modified by Layer-by-Layer technique to obtain a nano-layered coating using poly(sodium4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) as polyelectrolytes. The water-soluble antibiotic, metronidazole (MET), was incorporated from the ninth layer. Infrared spectroscopy showed that the PSS and PAH absorption bands increased with the layer number. The contact angle values had a regular alternate behaviour from the ninth layer. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy evidenced two distinct peaks, N1s and S2p, indicating PAH and PSS had been introduced. Atomic Force Microscopy showed the presence of polyelectrolytes on the surface with a measured roughness about 10nm after 20 layers' deposition. The drug release was monitored by Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy showing 80% loaded-drug delivery in 14 days. Finally, the biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro with L929 mouse fibroblasts and the antibacterial properties were demonstrated successfully against the keystone periodontal bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis, which has an influence on implant failure, without compromising in vitro biocompatibility. In this study, PLGA was successfully modified to obtain a localised and temporally controlled drug delivery system, demonstrating the potential value of LbL as a coating technology for the manufacture of medical devices with advanced functional properties.

  17. Lag model for turbulent boundary layers over rough bleed surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Sloan, M. L.; Paynter, G. C.

    1994-07-01

    Boundary-layer mass removal (bleed) through spanwise bands of holes on a surface is used to prevent or control separation and to stabilize the normal shock in supersonic inlets. The addition of a transport equation lag relationship for eddy viscosity to the rough wall algebraic turbulence model of Cebeci and Chang was found to improve agreement between predicted and measured mean velocity distributions downstream of a bleed band. The model was demonstrated for a range of bleed configurations, bleed rates, and local freestream Mach numbers. In addition, the model was applied to the boundary-layer development over acoustic lining materials for the inlets and nozzles of commercial aircraft. The model was found to yield accurate results for integral boundary-layer properties unless there was a strong adverse pressure gradient.

  18. Active particles on curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fily, Yaouen; Baskaran, Aparna; Hagan, Michael

    Active systems have proved to be very sensitive to the geometry of their environment. This is often achieved by spending significant time at the boundary, probing its shape by gliding along it. I will discuss coarse graining the microscopic dynamics of self-propelled particles on a general curved surface to predict the way the density profile on the surface depends on its geometry. Beyond confined active particles, this formalism is a natural starting point to study objects that cannot leave the boundary at all, such as cells crawling on a curved substrate, animals running on uneven ground, or active colloids trapped at an interface.

  19. Surface morphological evolution of epitaxial CrN(001) layers

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, J.R.; Gall, D.

    2005-09-01

    CrN layers, 57 and 230 nm thick, were grown on MgO(001) at T{sub s}=600-800 deg. C by ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputter deposition in pure N{sub 2} discharges from an oblique deposition angle {alpha}=80 deg. . Layers grown at 600 deg. C nucleate as single crystals with a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship with the substrate. However, rough surfaces with cauliflower-type morphologies cause the nucleation of misoriented CrN grains that develop into cone-shaped grains that protrude out of the epitaxial matrix to form triangular faceted surface mounds. The surface morphology of epitaxial CrN(001) grown at 700 deg. C is characterized by dendritic ridge patterns extending along the orthogonal <110> directions superposed by square-shaped super mounds with <100> edges. The ridge patterns are attributed to a Bales-Zangwill instability while the supermounds form due to atomic shadowing which leads to the formation of epitaxial inverted pyramids that are separated from the surrounding layer by tilted nanovoids. Growth at 800 deg. C yields complete single crystals with smooth surfaces. The root-mean-square surface roughness for 230-nm-thick layers decreases from 18.8 to 9.3 to 1.1 nm as T{sub s} is raised from 600 to 700 to 800 deg. C. This steep decrease is due to a transition in the roughening mechanism from atomic shadowing to kinetic roughening. Atomic shadowing is dominant at 600 and 700 deg. C, where misoriented grains and supermounds, respectively, capture a larger fraction of the oblique deposition flux in comparison to the surrounding epitaxial matrix, resulting in a high roughening rate that is described by a power law with an exponent {beta}>0.5. In contrast, kinetic roughening controls the surface morphology for T{sub s}=800 deg. C, as well as the epitaxial fraction of the layers grown at 600 and 700 deg. C, yielding relatively smooth surfaces and {beta}{<=}0.27.

  20. Air-sea fluxes and surface layer turbulence around a sea surface temperature front

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friehe, C. A.; Shaw, W. J.; Davidson, K. L.; Rogers, D. P.; Large, W. G.; Stage, S. A.; Crescenti, G. H.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Greenhut, G. K.; Li, F.

    1991-01-01

    The observed effects of sharp changes in sea surface temperature (SST) on the air-sea fluxes, surface roughness, and the turbulence structure in the surface layer and the marine atmospheric boundary layer are discussed. In situ flux and turbulence observations were carried out from three aircraft and two ships within the FASINEX framework. Three other aircraft used remote sensors to measure waves, microwave backscatter, and lidar signatures of cloud tops. Descriptions of the techniques, intercomparison of aircraft and ship flux data, and use of different methods for analyzing the fluxes from the aircraft data are described. Changing synoptic weather on three successive days yielded cases of wind direction both approximately parallel and perpendicular to a surface temperature front. For the wind perpendicular to the front, wind over both cold-to-warm and warm-to-cold surface temperatures occurred. Model results consistent with the observations suggest that an internal boundary layer forms at the SST.

  1. Arctic Cloud-driven Mixed Layers and Surface Coupling State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, M.; Persson, O. P.; Solomon, A.; de Boer, G.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic low-level clouds interact with the atmosphere and underlying surface via many inter-related processes. The balance of cloud radiative warming and cooling effects imparts a strong control on the net surface energy budget. Cloud-driven atmospheric circulations can impact surface turbulent heat fluxes and influence the vertical mixing of atmospheric state parameters and aerosols. Large-scale advection of heat and moisture provides the background context within which these local interactions unfold. Importantly, these radiative, dynamical, and advective processes also contribute to a complex web of self-sustaining cloud processes that can promote cloud maintenance over long periods of time. We examine many of these processes, with a specific focus on the dynamical linkages between Arctic clouds and the surface that influence low-level atmospheric structure and mixing. Comprehensive, ground-based observations from meteorological towers, remote-sensors, and radiosondes are used to simultaneously characterize surface fluxes, atmospheric structure, cloud properties, in-cloud motions, and the depth of the cloud-driven mixed layer in multiple Arctic environments. Relationships among these parameters are explored to elucidate the properties of the system that determine the degree of vertical atmospheric mixing and the coupling state between cloud and surface. The influence of temperature and moisture inversions on this system is also explored. Transitions in the coupling state are utilized to illustrate the relative roles of different processes. Cases from a coastal Arctic site at Barrow, Alaska and a station embedded in the Arctic sea-ice pack are used to contrast conditional influences related to season and surface type. It is found that over sea-ice, where surface turbulent fluxes are weak, the coupling of cloud-level processes to the surface layer is largely due to proximity of the cloud-driven mixed layer to the surface, which appears to be primarily influenced by

  2. Leaching of cement: Study of the surface layer

    SciTech Connect

    Faucon, P.; Le Bescop, P.; Adenot, F.; Bonville, P.; Jacquinot, J.F.; Pineau, F.; Felix, B.

    1996-11-01

    Short-lived, and possibly long-lived, radioactive waste is, or will be, stored in concrete containers (casks, disposal structures, etc.). To predict the safety of these containers, the composition and structure of the material when degraded must be known. Leaching of cement pastes shows that the properties of the surface layer are similar whether or not the cement paste contains slag. Substantial amounts of calcium, and smaller amounts of silicon, are leached out. Iron and magnesium are not released, but their content in the surface layer increases, with respect to an internal reference. Magnesium precipitates in the form of hydrotalcite, whereas the calcium of calcium silicate hydrates (CSH) is replaced by iron and dissolves out. Hydrogarnets undergo little, or no, leaching.

  3. Active Boundary Layer Trip for Supersonic Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloegel, F.; Panigua, G.; Tirtey, S.

    2009-01-01

    The last decade has been full of excitement and success for the hypersonic community thanks to various Scramjet ground tests and launches. These studies have shown promising potentials but the viability to perform commercial flights at Mach 8 is still to be demonstrated. An ideal Scramjet is one which is capable of self- starting over a wide range of angles of attack and Mach number. The Scramjet designer has to ensure that the boundary layer over the inlet ramp is fully turbulent where shocks impact, hence reducing the risks of chocked flow conditions. Most studies have issued the efficiency of roughness trip to trigger the boundary layer transition. At hypersonic speed, heat transfer and drag dramatically increase resulting in skin friction averaging at 40% of the overall drag. This study investigates the possibility of triggering transition using perpendicular air jets on a flat plate place in a hypersonic cross-flow. Experiments were conducted in the von Karman Institute hypersonic blow down wind tunnel H3. This facility is mounted with a Mach 6 contoured nozzles and provides flows with Reynolds number in the range of 10x106/m to 30x106/m. The model consist of a flat plate manufactured with a built -in settling chamber, equipped with a pressure tap and a thermocouple to monitor the jet conditions. A first flat plate was manufactured with a black-coated Plexiglas top, for surface heat transfer measurement using an infrared camera. On the second model, a Upilex sheet equipped with 32 thin film gages was glued, time dependent heat transfer measurements up to 60kHz. The jet injection conditions have been varied and a Mach number of 5.5 kept constant. The flow topology was investigated using fast schlieren techniques and oil flow, in order to gain a better understanding.

  4. Magnetic Or Optical Surface Layer Would Indicate Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.

    1995-01-01

    In proposed method of obtaining information on strain at surface of material specimen, magnetic coat (like that on magnetic tape) or optical coat (like that on compact disk) applied to all or part of surface monitored. Coating layer and associated measuring equipment, taken together, constitute system called "material strain monitor" (MSM). MSM important in research in materials and mechanics; in particular, expected to compete strongly with systems based on image-analysis and laser techniques now being developed to obtain information on strain fields.

  5. Application of Satellite SAR Imagery in Mapping the Active Layer of Arctic Permafrost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Shu-Sun; Romanovsky, V.; Lovick, Joe; Wang, Z.; Peterson, Rorik

    2003-01-01

    A method of mapping the active layer of Arctic permafrost using a combination of conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) backscatter and more sophisticated interferometric SAR (INSAR) techniques is proposed. The proposed research is based on the sensitivity of radar backscatter to the freeze and thaw status of the surface soil, and the sensitivity of INSAR techniques to centimeter- to sub-centimeter-level surface differential deformation. The former capability of SAR is investigated for deriving the timing and duration of the thaw period for surface soil of the active layer over permafrost. The latter is investigated for the feasibility of quantitative measurement of frost heaving and thaw settlement of the active layer during the freezing and thawing processes. The resulting knowledge contributes to remote sensing mapping of the active layer dynamics and Arctic land surface hydrology.

  6. Active Free Surface Density Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çelen, S.

    2016-10-01

    Percolation problems were occupied to many physical problems after their establishment in 1957 by Broadbent and Hammersley. They can be used to solve complex systems such as bone remodeling. Volume fraction method was adopted to set some algorithms in the literature. However, different rate of osteoporosis could be observed for different microstructures which have the same mass density, mechanical stimuli, hormonal stimuli and nutrition. Thus it was emphasized that the bone might have identical porosity with different specific surfaces. Active free surface density of bone refers the used total area for its effective free surface. The purpose of this manuscript is to consolidate a mathematical approach which can be called as “active free surface density maps” for different surface patterns and derive their formulations. Active free surface density ratios were calculated for different Archimedean lattice models according to Helmholtz free energy and they were compared with their site and bond percolation thresholds from the background studies to derive their potential probability for bone remodeling.

  7. Surface Passivation by Quantum Exclusion Using Multiple Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A semiconductor device has a multilayer doping to provide improved passivation by quantum exclusion. The multilayer doping includes at least two doped layers fabricated using MBE methods. The dopant sheet densities in the doped layers need not be the same, but in principle can be selected to be the same sheet densities or to be different sheet densities. The electrically active dopant sheet densities are quite high, reaching more than 1.times.10.sup.14 cm.sup.-2, and locally exceeding 10.sup.22 per cubic centimeter. It has been found that silicon detector devices that have two or more such dopant layers exhibit improved resistance to degradation by UV radiation, at least at wavelengths of 193 nm, as compared to conventional silicon p-on-n devices.

  8. Surfactant-associated bacteria in the near-surface layer of the ocean.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Naoko; Vella, Kate; Hamilton, Bryan; Shivji, Mahmood; Soloviev, Alexander; Matt, Silvia; Tartar, Aurélien; Perrie, William

    2016-01-12

    Certain marine bacteria found in the near-surface layer of the ocean are expected to play important roles in the production and decay of surface active materials; however, the details of these processes are still unclear. Here we provide evidence supporting connection between the presence of surfactant-associated bacteria in the near-surface layer of the ocean, slicks on the sea surface, and a distinctive feature in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery of the sea surface. From DNA analyses of the in situ samples using pyrosequencing technology, we found the highest abundance of surfactant-associated bacterial taxa in the near-surface layer below the slick. Our study suggests that production of surfactants by marine bacteria takes place in the organic-rich areas of the water column. Produced surfactants can then be transported to the sea surface and form slicks when certain physical conditions are met. This finding has potential applications in monitoring organic materials in the water column using remote sensing techniques. Identifying a connection between marine bacteria and production of natural surfactants may provide a better understanding of the global picture of biophysical processes at the boundary between the ocean and atmosphere, air-sea exchange of greenhouse gases, and production of climate-active marine aerosols.

  9. Surfactant-associated bacteria in the near-surface layer of the ocean

    PubMed Central

    Kurata, Naoko; Vella, Kate; Hamilton, Bryan; Shivji, Mahmood; Soloviev, Alexander; Matt, Silvia; Tartar, Aurélien; Perrie, William

    2016-01-01

    Certain marine bacteria found in the near-surface layer of the ocean are expected to play important roles in the production and decay of surface active materials; however, the details of these processes are still unclear. Here we provide evidence supporting connection between the presence of surfactant-associated bacteria in the near-surface layer of the ocean, slicks on the sea surface, and a distinctive feature in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery of the sea surface. From DNA analyses of the in situ samples using pyrosequencing technology, we found the highest abundance of surfactant-associated bacterial taxa in the near-surface layer below the slick. Our study suggests that production of surfactants by marine bacteria takes place in the organic-rich areas of the water column. Produced surfactants can then be transported to the sea surface and form slicks when certain physical conditions are met. This finding has potential applications in monitoring organic materials in the water column using remote sensing techniques. Identifying a connection between marine bacteria and production of natural surfactants may provide a better understanding of the global picture of biophysical processes at the boundary between the ocean and atmosphere, air-sea exchange of greenhouse gases, and production of climate-active marine aerosols. PMID:26753514

  10. Study on tribological properties of multi-layer surface texture on Babbitt alloys surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongya; Zhao, Feifei; Li, Yan; Li, Pengyang; Zeng, Qunfeng; Dong, Guangneng

    2016-12-01

    To improve tribological properties of Babbitt alloys, multi-layer surface texture consisted of the main grooves and secondary micro-dimples are fabricated on the Babbitt substrate through laser pulse ablation. The tribological behaviors of multi-layer surface texture are investigated using a rotating type pin-on-disc tribo-meter under variation sliding speeds, and the film pressure distributions on the textured surfaces are simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for elucidating the possible mechanisms. The results suggest that: (i) the multi-layer surface texture can reduce friction coefficient of Babbitt alloy, which has lowest friction coefficient of 0.03, in case of the groove parameter of 300 μm width and 15% of area density; (ii) the improvement effect may be more sensitive to the groove area density and the siding speed, and the textured surface with lower area density has lower friction coefficient under high sliding speed. Based on the reasons of (i) the secondary micro-dimples on Babbitt alloy possesses a hydrophobicity surface and (ii) the CFD analysis indicates that main grooves enhancing hydrodynamic effect, thus the multi-layer surface texture is regarded as dramatically improve the lubricating properties of the Babbitt alloy.

  11. Turbulence effects on concentration statistics in the atmospheric surface layer

    SciTech Connect

    Biltoft, C.; Bowers, J.; Yee, E.; Klewicki, J.; Metzger, M.

    1996-12-31

    The dispersion of windborne material released near the earth`s surface is strongly influenced by this impenetrable boundary, which inhibits downward mixing and creates sharp vertical gradients in wind, temperature, turbulence. These strong gradients and the continuous creation of turbulence at the surface cause a rapid evolution of the vertical concentration structure for material released into the atmospheric surface layer (ASL). Recent developments in fast-response instrumentation and an increased realization of potential hazards from the release of common industrial chemicals into the ASL have led to a series of tripartite (US, UK, Canada) field experiments at the US Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This paper contains a preliminary analysis of the data from the most recent follow-on experiments, which included measurements of the vertical profiles of mean and peak concentrations.

  12. Nanoscale Structuring of Surfaces by Using Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Nicolas; Hess, Christian

    2015-12-07

    Controlled structuring of surfaces is interesting for a wide variety of areas, including microelectronic device fabrication, optical devices, bio(sensing), (electro-, photo)catalysis, batteries, solar cells, fuel cells, and sorption. A unique feature of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is the possibility to form conformal uniform coatings on arbitrarily shaped materials with controlled atomic-scale thickness. In this Minireview, we discuss the potential of ALD for the nanoscale structuring of surfaces, highlighting its versatile application to structuring both planar substrates and powder materials. Recent progress in the application of ALD to porous substrates has even made the nanoscale structuring of high-surface-area materials now feasible, thereby enabling novel applications, such as those in the fields of catalysis and alternative energy.

  13. Surface structure and surface kinetics of InN grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy: A HREELS study

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, Ananta R. E-mail: anantaach@gmail.com; Thoms, Brian D.; Nepal, Neeraj; Eddy, Charles R.

    2015-03-15

    The surface bonding configuration and kinetics of hydrogen desorption from InN grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy have been investigated. High resolution electron energy loss spectra exhibited loss peaks assigned to a Fuchs–Kliewer surface phonon, N-N and N-H surface species. The surface N-N vibrations are attributed to surface defects. The observation of N-H but no In-H surface species suggested N-terminated InN. Isothermal desorption data were best fit by the first-order desorption kinetics with an activation energy of (0.88 ± 0.06) eV and pre-exponential factor of (1.5 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 5 }s{sup −1}.

  14. Turbulent boundary layer measurements over high-porosity surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstathiou, Christoph; Luhar, Mitul

    2016-11-01

    Porous surfaces are ubiquitous across a variety of turbulent boundary layer flows of scientific and engineering interest. While turbulent flows over smooth and rough walls have been studied extensively, experimental measurements over porous walls have thus far focused on packed beds, which are limited in porosity (Φ = 0 . 3 - 0 . 5) by their geometry. The current project seeks to address this limitation. A two-component laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) is used to generate velocity measurements in turbulent boundary layer flows over commercially available reticulated foams and 3D-printed porous media at Reynolds number Reθ 3000 - 4000 . Smooth wall profiles for mean and turbulent quantities are compared to data over substrates with porosity Φ > 0 . 8 and average pore sizes in the range 0.4-2.5mm (corresponding to 8 - 50 viscous units). Previous analytical and simulation efforts indicate that the effects of porous substrates on boundary layer flows depend on a modified Reynolds number defined using the length scale √{ κ}, where κ is substrate permeability. A custom permeameter is currently being developed to estimate κ for the substrates tested in the boundary layer experiments.

  15. Soil moisture sensor calibration for organic soil surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bircher, S.; Andreasen, M.; Vuollet, J.; Vehviläinen, J.; Rautiainen, K.; Jonard, F.; Weihermüller, L.; Zakharova, E.; Wigneron, J.-P.; Kerr, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper's objective is to present generic calibration functions for organic surface layers derived for the soil moisture sensors Decagon ECH2O 5TE and Delta-T ThetaProbe ML2x, using material from northern regions, mainly from the Finish Meteorological Institute's Arctic Research Center in Sodankylä and the study area of the Danish Center for Hydrology HOBE. For the Decagon 5TE sensor such a function is currently not reported in literature. Data were compared with measurements from underlying mineral soils including laboratory and field measurements. Shrinkage and charring during drying were considered. For both sensors all field and lab data showed consistent trends. For mineral layers with low soil organic matter (SOM) content the validity of the manufacturer's calibrations was demonstrated. Deviating sensor outputs in organic and mineral horizons were identified: for the Decagon 5TE apparent relative permittivities at a given moisture content decreased for increased SOM content, which was attributed to an increase of bound water in organic materials with large surface areas compared to the studied mineral soils. ThetaProbe measurements from organic horizons showed stronger non-linearity in the sensor response and signal saturation in the high level data. The derived calibration fit functions between sensor response and volumetric water content hold for samples spanning a wide range of humus types with differing SOM characteristics. This strengthens confidence in their validity under various conditions, rendering them highly suitable for large-scale applications in remote sensing and land surface modeling studies. Agreement between independent Decagon 5TE and ThetaProbe time series from an organic surface layer at the Sodankylä site was significantly improved when the here proposed fit functions were used. Decagon 5TE data also well-reflected precipitation events. Thus, Decagon 5TE network data from organic surface layers at the Sodankylä and HOBE sites are

  16. Soil moisture sensor calibration for organic soil surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bircher, Simone; Andreasen, Mie; Vuollet, Johanna; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Jonard, François; Weihermüller, Lutz; Zakharova, Elena; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Kerr, Yann H.

    2016-04-01

    This paper's objective is to present generic calibration functions for organic surface layers derived for the soil moisture sensors Decagon ECH2O 5TE and Delta-T ThetaProbe ML2x, using material from northern regions, mainly from the Finnish Meteorological Institute's Arctic Research Center in Sodankylä and the study area of the Danish Center for Hydrology (HOBE). For the Decagon 5TE sensor such a function is currently not reported in the literature. Data were compared with measurements from underlying mineral soils including laboratory and field measurements. Shrinkage and charring during drying were considered. For both sensors all field and lab data showed consistent trends. For mineral layers with low soil organic matter (SOM) content the validity of the manufacturer's calibrations was demonstrated. Deviating sensor outputs in organic and mineral horizons were identified. For the Decagon 5TE, apparent relative permittivities at a given moisture content decreased for increased SOM content, which was attributed to an increase of bound water in organic materials with large specific surface areas compared to the studied mineral soils. ThetaProbe measurements from organic horizons showed stronger nonlinearity in the sensor response and signal saturation in the high-level data. The derived calibration fit functions between sensor response and volumetric water content hold for samples spanning a wide range of humus types with differing SOM characteristics. This strengthens confidence in their validity under various conditions, rendering them highly suitable for large-scale applications in remote sensing and land surface modeling studies. Agreement between independent Decagon 5TE and ThetaProbe time series from an organic surface layer at the Sodankylä site was significantly improved when the here-proposed fit functions were used. Decagon 5TE data also well-reflected precipitation events. Thus, Decagon 5TE network data from organic surface layers at the Sodankylä and

  17. Atmospheric surface and boundary layers of the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garstang, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Three phases of work were performed: design of and preparation for the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2-A); execution of the ABLE 2-A field program; and analysis of the ABLE 2-A data. Three areas of experiment design were dealt with: surface based meteorological measurements; aircraft missions; and project meteorological support. The primary goal was to obtain a good description of the structure of the atmosphere immediately above the rain forest canopy (top of canopy to a few thousand meters), to describe this region during the growing daytime phase of the boundary layer; and to examine the nighttime stratified state. A secondary objective was to examine the role that deep convective storms play in the vertical transport of heat, water vapor, and other trace gases. While significant progress was made, much of the analysis remains to be done.

  18. Melanin as an active layer in biosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Piacenti da Silva, Marina Congiu, Mirko Oliveira Graeff, Carlos Frederico de; Fernandes, Jéssica Colnaghi Biziak de Figueiredo, Natália Mulato, Marcelo

    2014-03-15

    The development of pH sensors is of great interest due to its extensive application in several areas such as industrial processes, biochemistry and particularly medical diagnostics. In this study, the pH sensing properties of an extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET) based on melanin thin films as active layer are investigated and the physical mechanisms related to the device operation are discussed. Thin films were produced from different melanin precursors on indium tin oxide (ITO) and gold substrates and were investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. Experiments were performed in the pH range from 2 to 12. EGFETs with melanin deposited on ITO and on gold substrates showed sensitivities ranging from 31.3 mV/pH to 48.9 mV/pH, depending on the melanin precursor and the substrate used. The pH detection is associated with specific binding sites in its structure, hydroxyl groups and quinone imine.

  19. Corrosion of Metal Films with Defective Surface Protection Layers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Evaporation 5 x I0- 100-150 25-35 S-Gun Sputtering 2 x 10-3 (argon) 6 35 was applied and patterned. Aqua regia was used to remove the platinum down to...Dielectric Layers Electrochemical Measurements Aluminum Thin Films Surface pH Measurements Gold Thin Films TRACT (Contfne o- reverse aide Hf nec.eary...between lines and line resis- tance were monitored at intervals. In one case, the potential was reversed after a certain time. Cathodic corrosion was

  20. Development of the camshaft with surface remelted chilled layer

    SciTech Connect

    Nonoyama, H.; Morita, A.; Fukuizumi, T.; Nakakobara, T.

    1986-01-01

    A camshaft for an automobile engine is generally made of chilled case iron. But, because of increased demand for higher performance engines, a camshaft with many cam-faces has been expected. The cam intervals were necessarily narrow. So it was difficult to manufacture the conventional chilled cast iron camshaft at a moderate price. In the case of a rocker-arm type valve mechanism, higher wear resistance was necessary. After due consideration to solve these problems, development of surface remelted chilled layer camshafts by Toyota's unique manufacturing method has been accomplished. In this paper, the excellent wear resistance, the low manufacturing cost and the characteristic manufacturing method are described.

  1. Surface layer proteins isolated from Clostridium difficile induce clearance responses in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Collins, Laura E; Lynch, Mark; Marszalowska, Izabela; Kristek, Maja; Rochfort, Keith; O'Connell, Mary; Windle, Henry; Kelleher, Dermot; Loscher, Christine E

    2014-05-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhoea worldwide, and if the bacterium is not cleared effectively it can pose a risk of recurrent infections and complications such as colitis, sepsis and death. In this study we demonstrate that surface layer proteins from the one of the most frequently acquired strains of C. difficile, activate mechanisms in murine macrophage in vitro that are associated with clearance of bacterial infection. Surface layer proteins (SLPs) isolated from C. difficile induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and increased macrophage migration and phagocytotic activity in vitro. Furthermore, we also observed up-regulation of a number of cell surface markers on the macrophage, which are important in pathogen recognition and antigen presentation. The effects of SLPs on macrophages were reversed in the presence of a p38 inhibitor, indicating the potential importance of this signalling protein in how SLP activates the immune system. In conclusion this study shows that surface layer proteins from a common strain of C. difficile can activate a clearance response in macrophage and suggests that these proteins are important in clearance of C. difficile infection. Understanding how the immune system clears C. difficile infection could offer important insights for new treatment strategies.

  2. Nanofilms of hyaluronan/chitosan assembled layer-by-layer: An antibacterial surface for Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Montelongo, Jacobo; Nascimento, Vicente F; Murillo, Duber; Taketa, Thiago B; Sahoo, Prasana; de Souza, Alessandra A; Beppu, Marisa M; Cotta, Monica A

    2016-01-20

    In this work, nanofilms of hyaluronan/chitosan (HA/CHI) assembled layer by layer were synthesized; their application as a potential antimicrobial material was demonstrated for the phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative bacterium, here used as a model. For the synthesis, the influence of pH and ionic strength of these natural polymer stem-solutions on final characteristics of the HA/CHI nanofilms was studied in detail. The antibacterial effect was evaluated using widefield fluorescence microscopy. These results were correlated with the chemical properties of the nanofilms, studied by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, as well as with their morphology and surface properties characterized using SEM and AFM. The present findings can be extended to design and optimize HA/CHI nanofilms with enhanced antimicrobial behavior for other type of phytopathogenic gram-negative bacteria species, such as Xanthomonas citri, Xanthomas campestri and Ralstonia solanacearum.

  3. Surface potentials and layer charge distributions in few-layer graphene films.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sujit S; Strachan, Douglas R; Mele, E J; Johnson, A T Charlie

    2009-01-01

    Graphene-derived nanomaterials are emerging as ideal candidates for postsilicon electronics. Elucidating the electronic interaction between an insulating substrate and few-layer graphene (FLG) films is crucial for device applications. Here, we report electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) measurements revealing that the FLG surface potential increases with film thickness, approaching a "bulk" value for samples with five or more graphene layers. This behavior is in sharp contrast with that expected for conventional conducting or semiconducting films, and derives from unique aspects of charge screening by graphene's relativistic low energy carriers. EFM measurements resolve previously unseen electronic perturbations extended along crystallographic directions of structurally disordered FLGs, likely resulting from long-range atomic defects. These results have important implications for graphene nanoelectronics and provide a powerful framework by which key properties can be further investigated.

  4. Aqueous oxidation reaction enabled layer-by-layer corrosion of semiconductor nanoplates into single-crystalline 2D nanocrystals with single layer accuracy and ionic surface capping.

    PubMed

    Ji, Muwei; Xu, Meng; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Jiajia; Zhang, Jiatao

    2016-02-25

    A controllable aqueous oxidation reaction enabled layer-by-layer corrosion has been proposed to prepare high-quality two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor nanocrystals with single layer accuracy and well-retained hexagonal shapes. The appropriate oxidizing agent, such as H2O2, Fe(NO3)3, and HNO3, could not only corrode the layered-crystalline-structured Bi2Te3 nanoplates layer-by-layer to be a single quintuple layer, but also replace the organic barriers to be ionic ligands on the surface synergistically. AFM analysis was used to confirm the layer-by-layer exfoliation from the side to the center. Together with precise XRD, LRTEM and HRTEM characterizations, the controllable oxidation reaction enabled aqueous layer-by-layer corrosion mechanism has been studied.

  5. Multi-layer relaxations of Li surfaces from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Weiben; Staikov, Pavlin; Kara, Abdelkader; Rahman, Talat. S.

    1996-03-01

    We have undertaken a systematic study of the multi-layer relaxations of low Miller indices Li surfaces for both bcc and fcc structures. These calculations are done using ab initio, norm-conserving, non-local and soft pseudopotentials with partial core correction, and a plane wave basis. A preconditioned steepest descent method (N. Chetty, M. Weinert, T. S. Rahman, and J. W. Davenport, Phys. Rev. B 52) (1995) 6313. is used to solve iteratively Kohn-Sham equations for a given set of atomic positions. The different relaxation patterns are interpreted in terms of the surface electronic environments. The charge density profiles for these fully relaxed systems are examined and contrasted with the unrelaxed counterparts.

  6. Thermodynamics of elastic strength of the metal surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Yu. Ya.; Kiselev, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a physicochemical model that establishes a connection between the elastic strength of the surface layer (SL) of metal and its surface Gibbs energy. The elastic limit of SL along the low-index face of the metal single crystal under stress during the transition from elastic to plastic deformation was calculated. Calculation shows that the elastic limit of metal SL with fcc and bcc structures is approximately three orders of magnitude higher than the yield strength of these metals in bulk and close to nanohardness of the metals, in particular; for Cu(111) и Al(111), it is 5.3 and 2.8 GPa, respectively. In the light of the proposed model, the effect of lowering the elastic strength of metal SL due to adsorption of surfactant is formulated.

  7. Enhancing surface coverage and growth in layer-by-layer assembly of protein nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Vaishakhi; Patil, Satish

    2013-10-29

    Thin films of bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles are fabricated via layer-by-layer assembly. The surface of BSA nanoparticles have two oppositely acting functional groups on the surface: amine (NH2) and carboxylate (COO(-)). The protonation and deprotonation of these functional groups at different pH vary the charge density on the particle surface, and entirely different growth can be observed by varying the nature of the complementary polymer and the pH of the particles. The complementary polymers used in this study are poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) (PDDAC) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The assembly of BSA nanoparticles based on electrostatic interaction with PDDAC suffers from the poor loading of the nanoparticles. The assembly with PAA aided by a hydrogen bonding interaction shows tremendous improvement in the growth of the assembly over PDDAC. Moreover, the pH of the BSA nanoparticles was observed to affect the loading of nanoparticles in the LbL assembly with PAA significantly.

  8. Active and responsive polymer surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jilin; Han, Yanchun

    2010-02-01

    A central challenge in polymer science today is creating materials that dynamically alter their structures and properties on demand, or in response to changes in their environment. Surfaces represent an attractive area of focus, since they exert disproportionately large effects on properties such as wettability, adhesiveness, optical appearance, and bioactivity, enabling pronounced changes in properties to be accomplished through subtle changes in interfacial structure or chemistry. In this critical review, we review the recent research progress into active and responsive polymer surfaces. The chief purpose of this article is to summarize the advanced preparation techniques and applications in this field from the past decade. This review should be of interest both to new scientists in this field and the interdisciplinary researchers who are working on "intelligent" polymer surfaces (117 references).

  9. Layer by Layer, Nano-particle "Only" Surface Modification of Filtration Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar-Ferrand, Luis

    Layer by Layer (LbL) deposition using primarily inorganic silica nanoparticles is employed for the modification of polymeric micro and ultrafiltration (MF/UF) membranes to produce thin film composites (TFC) with potential nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) capabilities.. A variety of porous substrate membranes with different membrane surface characteristics are employed, but exhibiting in common that wicking of water does not readily occur into the pore structure, including polycarbonate track etched (PCTE), polyethersulfone (PES) and sulfonated PES (SPEES) MF/UF membranes. Both spherical (cationic/anionic) and eccentric elongated (anionic) silica nanoparticles are deposited using conditions similar to those reported by Lee et al. Appropriate selection of the pH's for anionic and cationic particle deposition enables the construction of nanoparticle only layers 100--1200 nm in thickness atop the original membrane substrates. The surface layer thickness varies monotonically with the number of bilayers (anionic/cationic deposition cycles) as expected. The deposition process is optimized to eliminate drying induced cracking and to improve mechanical durability via thickness control and post-deposition hydro-thermal treatment. The hydrodynamic permeability of these TFC membranes is measured to evaluate their performance under typical NF operating conditions using dead-end permeation experiments and their performance compared quantitatively with realistic hydrodynamic models, with favorable results. For track etched polycarbonate MF substrates, surface modification causes a permeability reduction of approximately two orders of magnitude with respect to the bare substrates, to values comparable to those for typical commercial NF membranes. Good quantitative agreement with hydrodynamic models with no adjustable parameters was also established for this case, providing indirect confirmation that the LbL deposited surface layers are largely defect (crack) free

  10. Water-soluble sacrificial layers for surface micromachining.

    PubMed

    Linder, Vincent; Gates, Byron D; Ryan, Declan; Parviz, Babak A; Whitesides, George M

    2005-07-01

    This manuscript describes the use of water-soluble polymers for use as sacrificial layers in surface micromachining. Water-soluble polymers have two attractive characteristics for this application: 1) They can be deposited conveniently by spin-coating, and the solvent removed at a low temperature (95-150 degrees C), and 2) the resulting layer can be dissolved in water; no corrosive reagents or organic solvents are required. This technique is therefore compatible with a number of fragile materials, such as organic polymers, metal oxides and metals-materials that might be damaged during typical surface micromachining processes. The carboxylic acid groups of one polymer-poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-can be transformed by reversible ion-exchange from water-soluble (Na+ counterion) to water-insoluble (Ca2+ counterion) forms. The use of PAA and dextran polymers as sacrificial materials is a useful technique for the fabrication of microstructures: Examples include metallic structures formed by the electrodeposition of nickel, and freestanding, polymeric structures formed by photolithography.

  11. Imaging Layers Based on Surface-Initiated Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montague, Martha; Edwards, Erik; Nealey, Paul

    2002-03-01

    Photoresist structures at the 70 nm and 50 nm technology nodes are of molecular dimensions, and allowable tolerances and margins are of atomic dimensions. It is unclear whether current resist processing based on preferential solubility of protected or deprotected polymer molecules in aqueous base will afford the necessary process latitude at this scale. We are developing thin film imaging materials (100 to 200 nm thick) composed of polymer chains that are grafted (polymerized) directly on the surface of the substrate. These brushes have been grown from silicon wafers using "living" free radical initiators that are tethered to the surface of the wafer. We pattern this system by taking advantage of chemical amplification. An acid-labile linkage was incorporated into the tether of the polymer brush, and by using a photo acid generator we can create acid in exposed regions of our imaging layer. This strategy allows us to decouple the imaging process from the chemistry of the polymer. The resist then can be designed to optimize properties such as transparency and etch resistance. We will evaluate the imaging layers for process latitude and resolution.

  12. Possible Albedo Proton Signature of Hydrated Lunar Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, N.; Wilson, J. K.; Looper, M. D.; Jordan, A.; Spence, H. E.; Blake, J. B.; Case, A. W.; Iwata, Y.; Kasper, J. C.; Farrell, W. M.; Lawrence, D. J.; Livadiotis, G.; Mazur, J. E.; Petro, N. E.; Pieters, C. M.; Robinson, M. S.; Smith, S. S.; Townsend, L. W.; Zeitlin, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    We find evidence for a surface layer of hydrated material in the lunar regolith using "albedo protons" measured by the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Fluxes of these albedo protons, which are emitted from the regolith due to steady bombardment by high-energy radiation (Galactic Cosmic Rays), are observed to peak near the poles, and cannot be accounted for by either heavy element enrichment (e.g., enhanced Fe abundance), or by deeply buried (> 50 cm) hydrogenous material. The latitudinal distribution of albedo protons does not correlate with that of epithermal or high-energy neutrons. The high latitude enhancement may be due to the conversion of upward directed secondary neutrons from the lunar regolith into tertiary protons due to neutron-proton collisions in a thin (~ 1-10 cm) layer of hydrated regolith near the surface that is more prevalent near the poles. The CRaTER instrument thus provides critical measurements of volatile distributions within lunar regolith and potentially, with similar sensors and observations, at other bodies within the Solar System.

  13. Evolution of vortex-surface fields in transitional boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yue; Zhao, Yaomin; Xiong, Shiying

    2016-11-01

    We apply the vortex-surface field (VSF), a Lagrangian-based structure-identification method, to the DNS database of transitional boundary layers. The VSFs are constructed from the vorticity fields within a sliding window at different times and locations using a recently developed boundary-constraint method. The isosurfaces of VSF, representing vortex surfaces consisting of vortex lines with different wall distances in the laminar stage, show different evolutionary geometries in transition. We observe that the vortex surfaces with significant deformation evolve from wall-parallel planar sheets through hairpin-like structures and packets into a turbulent spot with regeneration of small-scale hairpins. From quantitative analysis, we show that a small number of representative or influential vortex surfaces can contribute significantly to the increase of the drag coefficient in transition, which implies a reduced-order model based on VSF. This work has been supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11472015, 11522215 and 11521091), and the Thousand Young Talents Program of China.

  14. Effects of surface barrier layer in AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urabe, Hiroyuki; Kuramoto, Makoto; Nakano, Tomohiro; Kawaharazuka, Atsushi; Makimoto, Toshiki; Horikoshi, Yoshiji

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we report the effects of surface barrier layers on the characteristics of AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) spectra for AlGaAs barrier samples with different barrier layer AlAs fractions and thickness of the surface barrier layer were measured to increase the solar cell efficiency. The results show that the surface barrier layer is effective to block diffusing photoexcited electrons to the surface while the thicker barrier layer absorbs higher energy photons to generate carriers which recombine at the surface. The optimal surface barrier structure is a 50 nm thick Al0.7Ga0.3As.

  15. Effects of spatial variation of skull and cerebrospinal fluid layers on optical mapping of brain activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuping; Shibahara, Nanae; Kuramashi, Daishi; Okawa, Shinpei; Kakuta, Naoto; Okada, Eiji; Maki, Atsushi; Yamada, Yukio

    2010-07-01

    In order to investigate the effects of anatomical variation in human heads on the optical mapping of brain activity, we perform simulations of optical mapping by solving the photon diffusion equation for layered-models simulating human heads using the finite element method (FEM). Particularly, the effects of the spatial variations in the thicknesses of the skull and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layers on mapping images are investigated. Mapping images of single active regions in the gray matter layer are affected by the spatial variations in the skull and CSF layer thicknesses, although the effects are smaller than those of the positions of the active region relative to the data points. The increase in the skull thickness decreases the sensitivity of the images to active regions, while the increase in the CSF layer thickness increases the sensitivity in general. The images of multiple active regions are also influenced by their positions relative to the data points and by their depths from the skin surface.

  16. Real-time assessment of surface interactions with titanium passivation layer by surface plasmon resonance

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Isao; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; Hiasa, Kyou; Abe, Yasuhiko; Maekawa, Kenji; Kuboki, Takuo; Akagawa, Yasumasa; Suzuki, Kazuomi; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Messersmith, Phillip B.; Okazaki, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    The high corrosion resistance and strength-to-density ratio makes titanium widely used in major industry, but also in a gamut of medical applications. Here we report for the first time on our development of a titanium passivation layer sensor that makes use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The deposited titanium metal layer on the sensor was passivated in air, like titanium medical devices. Our ‘Ti-SPR sensor’ enables analysis of biomolecules interactions with the passivated surface of titanium in real time. As a proof of concept, corrosion of titanium passivation layer exposed to acid was monitored in real time. Also, the Ti-SPR sensor can accurately measure the time-dependence of protein adsorption onto titanium passivation layer with a sub-nanogram per square millimeter accuracy. Besides such SPR analyses, an SPR-imaging (SPRI) enables real-time assessment of chemical surface processes that occur simultaneously at ‘multiple independent spots’ on the Ti-SPR sensor, such as acid-corrosion or adhesion of cells. Our Ti-SPR sensor will therefore be very useful to study titanium-corrosion phenomena and biomolecular titanium-surface interactions with application in a broad range of industrial and biomedical fields. PMID:22154862

  17. Crystalline Bacterial Surface Layer (S-Layer) Opens Golden Opportunities for Nanobiotechnology in Textiles.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Narges; Chand, Nima; Rassa, Mehdi

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on the successful recrystallization of bacterial S-layer arrays of the Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 at textile surfaces to create a novel method and material. Optimum bacterial growth was obtained at approximately 45 °C, pH 5.0, and 14 h pi. The cells were resuspended in guanidine hydrochloride and the 43 kDa S-protein was dialyzed and purified. The optimum reassembly on the polypropylene fabric surface in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), reflectance, and uniformity (spectrophotometry) was obtained at 30 °C, pH 5.0 for 30 minutes in the presence of 2 gr/l (liquor ratio; 1:40) of the S-protein. Overall, our data showed that the functional aspects and specialty applications of the fabric would be very attractive for the textile and related sciences, and result in advanced technical textiles.

  18. Surface-imprinted nanostructured layer-by-layer film for molecular recognition of theophylline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jia; Liu, Zhihua; Fu, Long; Shi, Feng; Ma, Hongwei; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Zhang, Xi

    2008-10-21

    In this article we report the introduction of the cooperativity of various specific interactions combined with photo-cross-linking of the interlayers to yield binding sites that can realize better selectivity and imprinting efficiency of a surface molecularly imprinted LbL film (SMILbL), thus providing a new approach toward fabrication of nanostructured molecularly imprinted thin films. It involves preassembly of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) conjugated of the theophylline residue template via a disulfide bridge, denoted as PAAtheo 15, in solution, and layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of PAAtheo 15 and a positively charged photoreactive diazo resin (DAR) to form multilayer thin film with designed architecture. After photo-cross-linking of the film and template removal, binding sites specific to 7-(beta-hydroxyethyl)theophylline (Theo-ol) molecules are introduced within the film. Binding assay demonstrates that the SMILbL has a high selectivity of SMILbL to Theo-ol over caffeine. A control experiment demonstrates that the selectivity of SMILbL derives from nanostructured recognition sites among the layers. The imprinting amount per unit mass of the film can be 1 order of magnitude larger than that of the conventional bulk molecular imprinting systems. As this concept of construction SMILbL can be easily extended to the other molecules by the following similar protocol: its applications in building many other different molecular recognition systems are greatly anticipated.

  19. Role of the endothelial surface layer in neutrophil recruitment.

    PubMed

    Marki, Alex; Esko, Jeffrey D; Pries, Axel R; Ley, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    Neutrophil recruitment in most tissues is limited to postcapillary venules, where E- and P-selectins are inducibly expressed by venular endothelial cells. These molecules support neutrophil rolling via binding of PSGL-1 and other ligands on neutrophils. Selectins extend ≤ 38 nm above the endothelial plasma membrane, and PSGL-1 extends to 50 nm above the neutrophil plasma membrane. However, endothelial cells are covered with an ESL composed of glycosaminoglycans that is ≥ 500 nm thick and has measurable resistance against compression. The neutrophil surface is also covered with a surface layer. These surface layers would be expected to completely shield adhesion molecules; thus, neutrophils should not be able to roll and adhere. However, in the cremaster muscle and in many other models investigated using intravital microscopy, neutrophils clearly roll, and their rolling is easily and quickly induced. This conundrum was thought to be resolved by the observation that the induction of selectins is accompanied by ESL shedding; however, ESL shedding only partially reduces the ESL thickness (to 200 nm) and thus is insufficient to expose adhesion molecules. In addition to its antiadhesive functions, the ESL also presents neutrophil arrest-inducing chemokines. ESL heparan sulfate can also bind L-selectin expressed by the neutrophils, which contributes to rolling and arrest. We conclude that ESL has both proadhesive and antiadhesive functions. However, most previous studies considered either only the proadhesive or only the antiadhesive effects of the ESL. An integrated model for the role of the ESL in neutrophil rolling, arrest, and transmigration is needed.

  20. Generic nitric oxide (NO) generating surface by immobilizing organoselenium species via layer-by-layer assembly.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Welby, Jenna L; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2008-09-16

    A universal nitric oxide (NO) generating surface is assembled via Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition of sodium alginate (Alg) and organoselenium modified polyethyleneimine (SePEI) on quartz and polymeric substrates. The immobilized SePEI species is capable of catalytically decomposing S-nitrosothiol species (RSNO) to NO in the presence of thiol reducing agents (e.g., glutathione, cysteine, etc.). The stepwise buildup of the multilayer films is monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy, SEM and surface contact angle measurements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to study the stoichiometry between the polyanion and polycation, and also the presence of Se in the catalytic LbL film. A reductive annealing process is necessary to improve the stability of freshly coated multilayer films via chain rearrangement. Chemiluminescence measurements illustrate the ability of the LbL films to generate NO from S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) in the presence of glutathione (GSH). Enhanced NO fluxes can be achieved by increasing the number of catalytic (SePEI/Alg) bilayers coated on the substrates. Nitric oxide generation is observed even after prolonged contact with sheep whole blood. Preliminary applications of this LbL on silicone rubber tubings and polyurethane catheters reveal similar NO generation behavior from these biomedical grade polymeric substrates.

  1. Active Flow Control on a Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorton, Susan Althoff; Owens, Lewis R.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Allan, Brian G.; Schuster, Ernest P.

    2004-01-01

    Boundary layer ingestion (BLI) is explored as means to improve overall system performance for Blended Wing Body configuration. The benefits of BLI for vehicle system performance benefit are assessed with a process derived from first principles suitable for highly-integrated propulsion systems. This performance evaluation process provides framework within which to assess the benefits of an integrated BLI inlet and lays the groundwork for higher-fidelity systems studies. The results of the system study show that BLI provides a significant improvement in vehicle performance if the inlet distortion can be controlled, thus encouraging the pursuit of active flow control (AFC) as a BLI enabling technology. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet distortion was assessed using a 6% scale model of a 30% BLI offset, diffusing inlet. The experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel with a model inlet designed specifically for this type of testing. High mass flow pulsing actuators provided the active flow control. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion was determined by 120 total pressure measurements located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum freestream Mach number of 0.15 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the pulsed actuation can reduce distortion from 29% to 4.6% as measured by the circumferential distortion descriptor DC60 using less than 1% of inlet mass flow. Closed loop control of the actuation was also demonstrated using a sidewall surface static pressure as the response sensor.

  2. Modelling boundary layer flow over barnacle-fouled surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadique, Jasim; Yang, Xiang; Meneveau, Charles; Mittal, Rajat

    2014-11-01

    Macro-biofouling is a critical concern for the marine industry. However, there is little data on flow and drag over such surfaces. Accurate modelling of such multi-scale flows remains a big challenge. Such simulations are vital in providing insights into the fundamental flow physics, and they can be used to estimate the timing, need and effectiveness of measures used to counteract bio-fouling. This talk focuses on the use of a sharp-interface immersed boundary method coupled with a wall model and large-eddy simulations to carry out accurate simulations of a turbulent boundary layer flow over macro-fouled surfaces. For the current study, high resolution scans of barnacles were used to create simple geometrical representations. Simulations were then carried out to test how well these simpler geometric models mimic the flow over actual barnacles. Simulations of array of modeled barnacles, with different barnacle densities have also been carried out and we present results on the effect distribution density on the flow physics and drag on the surfaces. This work is funded by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0582.

  3. Surface plasma source with anode layer plasma accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim

    2012-02-15

    Proposed plasma generation system can be used for high current negative ion beam production and for directed deposition by flux of sputtered neutrals and negative ions. The main mechanism of negative ion formation in surface plasma sources is the secondary emission from low work function surface bombarded by a flux of positive ion or neutrals. The emission of negative ions is enhanced significantly by introducing a small amount of cesium or other substance with low ionization potential. In the proposed source are used positive ions generated by Hall drift plasma accelerator (anode layer plasma accelerator or plasma accelerator with insulated channel, with cylindrical or race track configuration of emission slit). The target-emitter is bombarded by the ion beam accelerated in crossed ExB fields. Negative ions are extracted from the target surface with geometrical focusing and are accelerated by negative voltage applied between emitter and plasma, contacting with the plasma accelerator. Hall drift ion source has a special design with a space for passing of the emitted negative ions and sputtered particles through the positive ion source.

  4. Thermal modeling of the near surface layer at the Beagle 2 landing site in Isidis Planitia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbert, J.; Benkhoff, J.

    2003-04-01

    Beagle 2, the Lander of the ESA Mars Express mission, is scheduled to land in the Isidis Planitia basin in January 2004. The lander has a strong focus on exobiological studies. Therefore the prime question is, whether the landing site might provide an environment suitable for hosting exobiological activity. In order to address this question we have performed a detailed thermal modeling of the near surface temperature distribution using the Mars Surface Layer Thermal Model (MaSLaTMo) recently developed in our group. The model includes a detailed treatment of the energy transfer into the surface, including energy transported by gas flux and energy used to sublimate and provided by recondensation of volatiles within the surface. It allows to study the thermal and physical propertied of a near surface layer on Mars with a high spatial resolution. For the study presented here we have performed a 1D analysis up to a depth of 50m below the surface. We have assumed a porous base material layer with a constant heat conductivity, covered by a dust layer on the surface. The thermal properties of the dust layer have been derived from the the albedo and thermal inertia measurements as provided by the TES instrument on Mars Global Surveyor (Mellon 2000, Christensen 2001). A number of scenarios have been studied for the thermal and physical properties of the base material. As expected this has a significant effects on the temperature distribution in the first 1-2m below the surface. The modeling has shown that the first few centimeters below the surface are highly thermal stressed and therefore are most probably a hostile environment for biological activity. However the temperature gradient with depth is very steep and in only 10cm depth the temperatures do not vary more than approximately 10K over an annual cycle with a medium value of 200-230K depending on the thermal and physical parameters of the base material and dust cover. Farmer et al. (1979) noted, that subsurface pore

  5. Application of Satellite SAR Imagery in Mapping the Active Layer of Arctic Permafrost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ting-Jun; Li, Shu-Sun

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to map the spatial variation of the active layer over the arctic permafrost in terms of two parameters: (i) timing and duration of thaw period and (ii) differential frost heave and thaw settlement of the active layer. To achieve this goal, remote sensing, numerical modeling, and related field measurements are required. Tasks for the University of Colorado team are to: (i) determine the timing of snow disappearance in spring through changes in surface albedo (ii) simulate the freezing and thawing processes of the active layer and (iii) simulate the impact of snow cover on permafrost presence.

  6. Interaction of compliant surfaces with transitional and turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gad-El-Hak, M.; Riley, J. J.; Blackwelder, R. F.

    The interaction of plastisol gel coatings of different thicknesses and shear moduli with transitional and turbulent boundary layers was investigated over a range of velocities. Whenever the free-stream velocity within the fluid was comparable to the transverse wave speed within the solid, large-amplitude static-divergence waves appeared on the surface of the solid. The amplitude of the waves was always of the order of the coating thickness. As the free-stream velocity increased, the waves became less two-dimensional and developed larger variations in their amplitude along the crests. This disturbance led to the formation of additional waves downstream having a shorter span. Ways of reducing or eliminating the static-divergence waves are briefly discussed.

  7. Measurement of atmospheric surface layer turbulence using unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, Brandon; Smith, Lorli; Schlagenhauf, Cornelia; Bailey, Sean

    2016-11-01

    We describe measurements of the turbulence within the atmospheric surface layer using highly instrumented and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Results from the CLOUDMAP measurement campaign in Stillwater Oklahoma are presented including turbulence statistics measured during the transition from stably stratified to convective conditions. The measurements were made using pre-fabricated fixed-wing remote-control aircraft adapted to fly autonomously and carry multi-hole pressure probes, pressure, temperature and humidity sensors. Two aircraft were flown simultaneously, with one flying a flight path intended to profile the boundary layer up to 100 m and the other flying at a constant fixed altitude of 50 m. The evolution of various turbulent statistics was determined from these flights, including Reynolds stresses, correlations, spectra and structure functions. These results were compared to those measured by a sonic anemometer located on a 7.5 m tower. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant #CBET-1351411 and by National Science Foundation award #1539070, Collaboration Leading Operational UAS Development for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (CLOUDMAP).

  8. Surface Layer Turbulence Measurements during a Frontal Passage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, M.; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2004-07-01

    Very little is known about the nature of turbulence in the transition zone of a synoptic-scale cold front, especially at the dissipative scales. Lacking this knowledge, accurate models of surface frontogenesis are compromised. To address this problem, high-frequency measurements from sonic and hot-wire anemometers are used to analyze the finescale turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) within a cold front observed in the MICROFRONTS field experiment. To quantify the turbulence in the front, velocity spectra and dissipation rates are calculated as functions of time and stability in the ASL. The normalized first and second moments of the one-dimensional velocity spectrum conform to the scaling suggested by Kolmogorov's equilibrium hypotheses, even during the intense turbulence associated with the frontal passage. The spectra compare well with other data collected at high Reλ in the ASL, but not as well with a recent model of the dissipative range of turbulence. Dissipation rate is calculated with one direct and two indirect techniques. The calculations from the different techniques compare well with one another and, when nondimensionalized, with a historical expression for dissipation rate as a function of ASL stability. The magnitude of the dissipation rate increases by an order of magnitude to a maximum value of 1.2 m2 s-3 during the frontal passage compared to prefrontal values of 0.05 m2 s-3; the latter is typical for a slightly stable nighttime boundary layer over land. These results can be used in assessing the effects of turbulence in traditional semigeostrophic models of frontal collapse. The dissipation rate calculations may be of particular use to modelers.


  9. Modification of Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows by Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gose, James W.; Golovin, Kevin; Barros, Julio; Schultz, Michael P.; Tuteja, Anish; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of near zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer (TBL) flow over several superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) are presented and compared to those for a hydraulically smooth baseline. The surfaces were developed at the University of Michigan as part of an ongoing research thrust to investigate the feasibility of SHSs for skin-friction drag reduction in turbulent flow. The SHSs were previously evaluated in fully-developed turbulent channel flow and have been shown to provide meaningful drag reduction. The TBL experiments were conducted at the USNA in a water tunnel with a test section 2.0 m (L) x 0.2 m (W) x 0.2 m (H). The free-stream speed was set to 1.26 m/s which corresponded to a friction Reynolds number of 1,500. The TBL was tripped at the test section inlet with a 0.8 mm diameter wire. The upper and side walls provided optical access, while the lower wall was either the smooth baseline or a spray coated SHS. The velocity measurements were obtained with a TSI FSA3500 two-component Laser-Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) and custom-designed beam displacer operated in coincidence mode. The LDV probe volume diameter was 45 μm (approx. one wall-unit). The measurements were recorded 1.5 m downstream of the trip. When the measured quantities were normalized using the inner variables, the results indicated a significant reduction in the near wall viscous and total stresses with little effect on the flow outside the inner layer.

  10. Water Surface Ripples Generated by the Turbulent Boundary Layer of a Surface-Piercing Moving Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washuta, N.; Masnadi, N.; Duncan, J. H.

    2014-11-01

    Free surface ripples created by subsurface turbulence along a surface-piercing moving wall are studied experimentally. In this experiment, a meter-wide stainless steel belt travels horizontally in a loop around two rollers with vertically oriented axes, which are separated by 7.5 meters. One of the two 7.5-m-long belt sections between the rollers is in contact with the water in a large open-surface water tank and the water level is adjusted so that the top of the belt pierces the water free surface. The belt is launched from rest with a 3 g acceleration in order to quickly reach a steady state velocity. This belt motion creates a temporally evolving boundary layer analogous to the spatially evolving boundary layer created along the side of a ship hull moving at the belt velocity, with a length equivalent to the length of belt that has passed the measurement region. The water surface ripples generated by the subsurface turbulence are measured in a plane normal to the belt using a cinematic LIF technique. It is found that the overall RMS surface fluctuations increase linearly with belt speed and that the spatial distributions of the fluctuations show a sharp increase near the wall. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.

  11. Layer uniformity in glucose oxidase immobilization on SiO 2 surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libertino, Sebania; Scandurra, Antonino; Aiello, Venera; Giannazzo, Filippo; Sinatra, Fulvia; Renis, Marcella; Fichera, Manuela

    2007-09-01

    The goal of this work was the characterization, step by step, of the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization on silicon oxide surfaces, mainly by means of X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The immobilization protocol consists of four steps: oxide activation, silanization, linker molecule deposition and GOx immobilization. The linker molecule, glutaraldehyde (GA) in this study, must be able to form a uniform layer on the sample surface in order to maximize the sites available for enzyme bonding and achieve the best enzyme deposition. Using a thin SiO 2 layer grown on Si wafers and following the XPS Si2p signal of the Si substrate during the immobilization steps, we demonstrated both the glutaraldehyde layer uniformity and the possibility to use XPS to monitor thin layer uniformity. In fact, the XPS substrate signal, not shielded by the oxide, is suppressed only when a uniform layer is deposited. The enzyme correct immobilization was monitored using the XPS C1s and N1s signals. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements carried out on the same samples confirmed the results.

  12. Surfactant-free carnauba wax dispersion and its use for layer-by-layer assembled protective surface coatings on wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozhechnikova, Alina; Bellanger, Hervé; Michen, Benjamin; Burgert, Ingo; Österberg, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Protection from liquid water and UV radiation are equally important, and a sophisticated approach is needed when developing surface coatings that preserve the natural and well-appreciated aesthetic appearance of wood. In order to prevent degradation and prolong the service life of timber, a protective coating was assembled using carnauba wax particles and zinc oxide nanoparticles via layer-by-layer deposition in water. For this purpose, a facile sonication route was developed to produce aqueous wax dispersion without any surfactants or stabilizers. The suspension was stable above pH 4 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged wax particles. The particle size could be controlled by the initial wax concentration with average particle sizes ranging from 260 to 360 nm for 1 and 10 g/L, respectively. The deposition of wax particles onto the surface of spruce wood introduced additional roughness to the wood surface at micron level, while zinc oxide provided nano roughness and UV-absorbing properties. In addition to making wood superhydrophobic, this novel multilayer coating enhanced the natural moisture buffering capability of spruce. Moreover, wood surfaces prepared in this fashion showed a significant reduction in color change after exposure to UV light. A degradation of the wax through photocatalytic activity of the ZnO particles was measured by FTIR, indicating that further studies are required to achieve long-term stability. Nevertheless, the developed coating showed a unique combination of superhydrophobicity and excellent moisture buffering ability and some UV protection, all achieved using an environmentally friendly coating process, which is beneficial to retain the natural appearance of wood and improve indoor air quality and comfort.

  13. Surface layer ozone and nitric oxides in the Arctic: The inuence of boundary layer dynamics, snowpack chemistry, surface exchanges, and seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Brie A.

    The snowpack is a region of active chemistry. Aqueous chemistry in a quasi-liquid layer on snow grains and gas-phase chemical reactions in snow interstitial air can lead to the production or destruction of important trace gases. Physical transport parameters such as wind pumping and diffusion affect the vertical distribution of gases within the snowpack. The resulting emission or uptake of trace gases at the atmosphere-snowpack interface can have significant in uence on the chemistry of the lower atmosphere. In this work the dynamic interactions between the snowpack and atmosphere are examined from multiple perspectives. The primary focus is on ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the Arctic, a region undergoing widespread environmental change. To investigate an ice-sheet location with year round snow cover, data from a two-year campaign at Summit, Greenland are implemented. At Summit this study examines (1) the processes contributing to vigorous chemistry in snow interstitial air, and (2) the role of the boundary layer over snow in determining surface layer NOx. Physical and chemical processes are shown to contribute to distinct seasonal and diurnal cycles of O3, NO, and NO2 in the snowpack. Boundary layer depths estimated from sonic anemometer turbulence quantities are used alongside sodar-derived values to show that the depth of the stable to weakly stable boundary layer at Summit was not a primary factor in determining NO x in early summer. Motivated by observations of an increase in the length of the snow-free season in the Arctic in recent decades, data from a one-year experiment at the seasonally-snow covered location of Toolik Lake, AK are also incorporated. This study shows the first observations of springtime ozone depletion events at a location over 200 km from the coast in the Arctic. FLEXPART analysis is used to illustrate that these inland events are linked to transport conditions. Lastly at this location, eddy-covariance O3 uxes were calculated to

  14. Reduction of microbial contamination on the surfaces of layer houses using slightly acidic electrolyzed water.

    PubMed

    Ni, L; Cao, W; Zheng, W C; Zhang, Q; Li, B M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) in reducing pathogens on pure cultures and on cotton fabric surfaces in the presence of organic matter and estimate its efficacy in comparison with povidone iodine solution for reducing pathogenic microorganisms on internal surfaces of layer houses. Pure cultures of E.coli, S.enteritidis, and S.aureus and cotton fabric surfaces inoculated with these strains were treated with SAEW in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). In the absence of BSA, complete inactivation of all strains in pure cultures and on cotton fabric surfaces was observed after 2.5 and 5 min treatment with SAEW at 40 mg/L of available chlorine concentration (ACC), respectively. The bactericidal efficiency of SAEW increased with increasing ACC, but decreased with increasing BSA concentration. Then, the surfaces of the layer houses were sprayed with SAEW at 60, 80, and 100 mg/L of ACC and povidone iodine using the automated disinfection system at a rate of 110 mL/m(2), respectively. Samples from the floor, wall, feed trough, and egg conveyor belt surfaces were collected with sterile cotton swabs before and after spraying disinfection. Compared to tap water, SAEW and povidone iodine significantly reduced microbial populations on each surface of the layer houses. SAEW with 80 or 100 mg/L of ACC showed significantly higher efficacy than povidone iodine for total aerobic bacteria, staphylococci, coliforms, or yeasts and moulds on the floor and feed trough surfaces (P < 0.05). SAEW was more effective than povidone iodine at reducing total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and yeasts and moulds on the wall surface. Additionally, SAEW had similar bactericidal activity with povidone iodine on the surface of the egg conveyor belt. Results suggest that SAEW exerts a higher or equivalent bactericidal efficiency for the surfaces compared to povidone iodine, and it may be used as an effective alternative

  15. Extending the Diffuse Layer Model of Surface Acidity Constant Behavior: IV. Diffuse Layer Charge/Potential Relationships

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most current electrostatic surface complexation models describing ionic binding at the particle/water interface rely on the use of Poisson - Boltzmann (PB) theory for relating diffuse layer charge densities to diffuse layer electrostatic potentials. PB theory is known to contain ...

  16. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeong Y.; Aliaga, Cesar; Renzas, J. Russell; Lee, Hyunjoo; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-12-17

    We report the catalytic activity of colloid platinum nanoparticles synthesized with different organic capping layers. On the molecular scale, the porous organic layers have open spaces that permit the reactant and product molecules to reach the metal surface. We carried out CO oxidation on several platinum nanoparticle systems capped with various organic molecules to investigate the role of the capping agent on catalytic activity. Platinum colloid nanoparticles with four types of capping layer have been used: TTAB (Tetradecyltrimethylammonium Bromide), HDA (hexadecylamine), HDT (hexadecylthiol), and PVP (poly(vinylpyrrolidone)). The reactivity of the Pt nanoparticles varied by 30%, with higher activity on TTAB coated nanoparticles and lower activity on HDT, while the activation energy remained between 27-28 kcal/mol. In separate experiments, the organic capping layers were partially removed using ultraviolet light-ozone generation techniques, which resulted in increased catalytic activity due to the removal of some of the organic layers. These results indicate that the nature of chemical bonding between organic capping layers and nanoparticle surfaces plays a role in determining the catalytic activity of platinum colloid nanoparticles for carbon monoxide oxidation.

  17. Active unjamming of confluent cell layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, M. Cristina

    Cell motion inside dense tissues governs many biological processes, including embryonic development and cancer metastasis, and recent experiments suggest that these tissues exhibit collective glassy behavior. Motivated by these observations, we have studied a model of dense tissues that combines self-propelled particle models and vertex models of confluent cell layers. In this model, referred to as self-propelled Voronoi (SPV), cells are described as polygons in a Voronoi tessellation with directed noisy cell motility and interactions governed by a shape energy that incorporates the effects of cell volume incompressibility, contractility and cell-cell adhesion. Using this model, we have demonstrated a new density-independent solid-liquid transition in confluent tissues controlled by cell motility and a cell-shape parameter measuring the interplay of cortical tension and cell-cell adhesion. An important insight of this work is that the rigidity and dynamics of cell layers depends sensitively on cell shape. We have also used the SPV model to test a new method developed by our group to determine cellular forces and tissue stresses from experimentally accessible cell shapes and traction forces, hence providing the spatio-temporal distribution of stresses in motile dense tissues. This work was done with Dapeng Bi, Lisa Manning and Xingbo Yang. MCM was supported by NSF-DMR-1305184 and by the Simons Foundation.

  18. Study of interface formation on the cleavage surfaces of A3{B}6 layered semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiy, P. V.; Nenchuk, T. M.; Stakhira, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    The adsorption activity of In4Se3, In4Se3(Ag), InSe, GaSe and TlGaSe2 semiconductor crystal interlayer cleavage surfaces relatively to N2, O2, CO gases and water vapour has been studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. It has been determined that atomically clean layered crystal surfaces do not adsorb N2 and water vapour but reveal a low activity with respect to O2. The kinetics of CO adsorption on surfaces obtained by cleavage in an UHV have been investigated. Indium and gallium selenides adsorb CO with the tendency increasing in the sequence GaSe→TlGaSe2→ InSe→In4Se3 crystals; In4Se3 is essentially more active than the others. The adsorption model with dissociations of the CO molecule and carbon adsorption resulting from the layered structure and peculiarities in the electron-energy spectra of the crystals and their surfaces is discussed with the In4Se3 crystal serving as example.

  19. The Houston Urban Heat Island: Surface Temperature, Aerosol Mixing Layer Height, and Surface Wind Field Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darby, L. S.; Senff, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    Both Dallas and Houston, Texas have comprehensive networks of surface meteorology and chemistry sensors. The similarities of the networks and lack of terrain in Dallas and Houston allow for the comparison of their urban heat islands (UHI). The Dallas UHI, unperturbed by thermal flows driven by the land/sea temperature difference, is a well-defined phenomenon over the summers of 2000-2006. Including all weather conditions, the average nighttime T(urban) - T(rural) temperature difference was between 1.5° and 2.0° C and the average daytime difference was ~ 1.0° C. Analysis of Houston temperature data, however, revealed a different picture due to the bay and gulf breezes. While the Houston UHI was a distinct phenomenon, even when including all weather conditions, the bay or gulf breeze modified the Houston UHI by cooling the city. Average nighttime T(urban) - T(rural) temperature differences in Houston were between 1.75° and 2.75° C. However, during the day, the rural areas to the north and west of the city were often warmer than the downtown area during afternoon hours as a result of the sea breeze. Averaging the Houston T(urban) - T(rural) temperature differences over the summers of 2000-2006 indicated a very small urban-rural temperature difference between 1400 to 1600 LST. In some individual years, such as 2000, 2003, 2005 and 2006, the urban areas were actually cooler than the rural areas, on average, in the mid-afternoon. These years had more bay breeze/gulf breeze activity to cool the urban area. We will also look at how land use, the UHI, and boundary-layer winds impact the horizontal distribution of boundary layer heights over the Houston area, as calculated from backscatter measurements from TOPAZ, an ozone and aerosol profiling lidar deployed on a NOAA Twin Otter in the summer of 2006 during the Texas Air Quality Study II.

  20. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio-degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser-print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running-in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  1. Enrichment and association of lead and bacteria at particulate surfaces in a salt-marsh surface layer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.; Lion, Leonard W.; Young, L.Y.; Leckie, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    The particle-laden surface layer (approx 150-370 mu m) and subsurface waters of a South San Francisco Bay salt marsh were sampled over 2 tidal cycles and analyzed for particle numbers and particulate-associated and total concentrations of Pb and bacteria. Laboratory studies examined the ability of a bacterial isolate from the surface layer and a bacterial 'film-former' to sorb Pb at environmentally significant concentrations in seawater. Degrees by which Pb concentrated in the surface layer relative to the subsurface strongly correlated with enrichments of surface layer bacteria (bacterioneuston). A significant fraction of the bacterioneuston and surface layer Pb were associated with particles. Particle-bound bacterioneuston may interact with Pb at particulate surfaces in this microenvironment.

  2. Surface defect states in MBE-grown CdTe layers

    SciTech Connect

    Olender, Karolina; Wosinski, Tadeusz; Fronc, Krzysztof; Tkaczyk, Zbigniew; Chusnutdinow, Sergij; Karczewski, Grzegorz

    2014-02-21

    Semiconductor surface plays an important role in the technology of semiconductor devices. In the present work we report results of our deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) investigations of surface defect states in nitrogen doped p-type CdTe layers grown by the molecular-beam epitaxy technique. We observed a deep-level trap associated with surface states, with the activation energy for hole emission of 0.33 eV. DLTS peak position in the spectra for this trap, and its ionization energy, strongly depend on the electric field. Our measurements allow to determine a mechanism responsible for the enhancement of hole emission rate from the traps as the phonon-assisted tunnel effect. Density of surface defect states significantly decreased as a result of passivation in ammonium sulfide. Capacitance-voltage measurements confirmed the results obtained by the DLTS technique.

  3. IMMUNO-ELECTRON MICROSCOPE ANALYSIS OF THE SURFACE LAYERS OF THE UNFERTILISED SEA URCHIN EGG

    PubMed Central

    Baxandall, Jane; Perlmann, P.; Afzelius, B. A.

    1964-01-01

    The response of unfertilised Paracentrotus lividus eggs to γ-globulin fractions of antisera against isolated homologous jelly coat substance or homologous homogenates of jellyless eggs has been studied at the ultrastructural level. The antijelly γ-globulin caused precipitation of the jelly layer, the density of precipitation varying between different eggs and being proportional to the γ-globulin concentration. Agglutination of the jelly substance of adjacent eggs, which is species specific, occurred frequently with higher γ-globulin concentrations. Antiegg γ-globulins (from antiserum against total homogenates of jelly-free eggs or the heat-stable fraction thereof) did not produce these effects. Instead, these γ-globulins caused various structural alterations mostly representing stages in parthenogenetic activation. This species-specific activation was induced by the reaction of antibodies with some heat-stable egg antigens different from those involved in jelly precipitation. Surface alterations included the formation of small papillae, membrane blisters, hyaline layer, and activation membrane, the release of material from the cell surface, and the breakdown of cortical granules. These alterations were dependent on both γ-globulin concentration and the variable reactivity among different females. Aster formation, found intracellularly, verified that the surface responses represented real parthenogenetic activation and were not the result of immune lysis. No such alterations appeared in the controls. PMID:14245438

  4. Layer-by-layer structured polysaccharides-based multilayers on cellulose acetate membrane: Towards better hemocompatibility, antibacterial and antioxidant activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Lincai; Li, Hui; Meng, Yahong

    2017-04-01

    The development of multifunctional cellulose acetate (CA) membranes with enhanced hemocompatibility and antibacterial and antioxidant activities is extremely important for biomedical applications. In this work, significant improvements in hemocompatibility and antibacterial and antioxidant activities of cellulose acetate (CA) membranes were achieved via layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition of chitosan (CS) and water-soluble heparin-mimicking polysaccharides (i.e., sulfated Cantharellus cibarius polysaccharides, SCP) onto their surface. The surface chemical compositions, growth manner, surface morphologies, and wetting ability of CS/SCP multilayer-modified CA membranes were characterized, respectively. The systematical evaluation of hemocompatibility revealed that CS/SCP multilayer-modified CA membranes significantly improved blood compatibility including resistance to non-specific protein adsorption, suppression of platelet adhesion and activation, prolongation of coagulation times, inhibition of complement activation, as well as reduction in blood hemolysis. Meanwhile, CS/SCP multilayer-modified CA membranes exhibited strong growth inhibition against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as high scavenging abilities against superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. In summary, the CS/SCP multilayers could confer CA membranes with integrated hemocompatibility and antibacterial and antioxidant activities, which might have great potential application in the biomedical field.

  5. Surface Passivation by Quantum Exclusion Using Multiple Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A semiconductor device has a multilayer doping to provide improved passivation by quantum exclusion. The multilayer doping includes a plurality M of doped layers, where M is an integer greater than 1. The dopant sheet densities in the M doped layers need not be the same, but in principle can be selected to be the same sheet densities or to be different sheet densities. M-1 interleaved layers provided between the M doped layers are not deliberately doped (also referred to as "undoped layers"). Structures with M=2, M=3 and M=4 have been demonstrated and exhibit improved passivation.

  6. Vibration control through passive constrained layer damping and active control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Margaretha J.; Inman, Daniel J.; Saunders, William R.

    1997-05-01

    To add damping to systems, viscoelastic materials (VEM) are added to structures. In order to enhance the damping effects of the VEM, a constraining layer is attached. When this constraining layer is an active element, the treatment is called active constrained layer damping (ACLD). Recently, the investigation of ACLD treatments has shown it to be an effective method of vibration suppression. In this paper, the treatment of a beam with a separate active element and passive constrained layer (PCLD) element is investigated. A Ritz- Galerkin approach is used to obtain discretized equations of motion. The damping is modeled using the GHM method and the system is analyzed in the time domain. By optimizing on the performance and control effort for both the active and passive case, it is shown that this treatment is capable of lower control effort with more inherent damping, and is therefore a better approach to damp vibration.

  7. Oxygen vacancies in SnO2 surface coating to enhance the activation of layered Li-Rich Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Geng, Tianfeng; Du, Chunyu; Zuo, Pengjian; Cheng, Xinqun; Ma, Yulin; Yin, Geping

    2016-11-01

    This work reports the facile surface coating of lithium-rich Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 cathode material by nano-SnO2 for lithium ion batteries. Thus-obtained nano-SnO2 coated Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 (denoted as NTO-LMO) material is characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It is revealed that the SnO2 layer with a thickness of 4-8 nm is uniformly coated on the surface of Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2. This NTO-LMO material exhibits outstanding rate capability and cyclic stability in comparison with pristine material, which should be ascribed to the nano-SnO2 coating layer that limits the side reactions and produces a thin and stable solid electrolyte interface film. More importantly, in contrast to the conventional surface coatings that usually reduce the reversible capacity of active materials, the discharge capacity of our NTO-LMO material increases by 38 mAh g-1 at the current density of 30 mA g-1, which is attributed to the enhanced activation of Li2MnO3 component. The oxygen vacancies in nano-SnO2 coating layer are revealed to facilitate the transfer of high valence state oxygen through the coating layer and be responsible for the promoted activation of Li2MnO3. These insightful findings are very helpful to developing effective strategies for the surface modification of Li-rich oxide materials.

  8. Surface pressure fluctuations in hypersonic turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    The surface pressure fluctuations on a flat plate model at hypersonic Mach numbers of 5.2, 7.4 and 10.4 with an attached turbulent boundary layer were measured using flush mounted small piezoelectric sensors. A high frequency resolution of the pressure field was achieved using specially designed small piezoelectric sensors that had a good frequency response well above 300 KHz. The RMS pressures and non-dimensional energy spectra for all above Mach numbers are presented. The convective velocities, obtained from space time correlation considerations are equal to 0.7 U sub infinity. The results indicate the RMS pressures vary from 5 to 25 percent of the mean static pressures. The ratios of RMS pressure to dynamic pressure are less than the universally accepted subsonic value of 6 x 10/3. The ratio decreases in value as the Mach number or the dynamic pressure is increased. The ratio of RMS pressure to wall shear for Mach number 7.4 satisfies one smaller than or equal to p/tau sub w smaller than or equal to three.

  9. Galvanostatic interruption of lithium insertion into magnetite: Evidence of surface layer formation

    DOE PAGES

    Nicholas W. Brady; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Knehr, K. W.; ...

    2016-04-24

    Magnetite is a known lithium intercalation material, and the loss of active, nanocrystalline magnetite can be inferred from the open-circuit potential relaxation. Specifically, for current interruption after relatively small amounts of lithium insertion, the potential first increases and then decreases, and the decrease is hypothesized to be due to a formation of a surface layer, which increases the solid-state lithium concentration in the remaining active material. Comparisons of simulation to experiment suggest that the reactions with the electrolyte result in the formation of a thin layer of electrochemically inactive material, which is best described by a nucleation and growth mechanism.more » Simulations are consistent with experimental results observed for 6, 8 and 32-nm crystals. As a result, simulations capture the experimental differences in lithiation behavior between the first and second cycles.« less

  10. Galvanostatic interruption of lithium insertion into magnetite: Evidence of surface layer formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas W. Brady; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Knehr, K. W.; Cama, Christina A.; Lininger, Christianna N.; Lin, Zhou; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; West, Alan C.

    2016-04-24

    Magnetite is a known lithium intercalation material, and the loss of active, nanocrystalline magnetite can be inferred from the open-circuit potential relaxation. Specifically, for current interruption after relatively small amounts of lithium insertion, the potential first increases and then decreases, and the decrease is hypothesized to be due to a formation of a surface layer, which increases the solid-state lithium concentration in the remaining active material. Comparisons of simulation to experiment suggest that the reactions with the electrolyte result in the formation of a thin layer of electrochemically inactive material, which is best described by a nucleation and growth mechanism. Simulations are consistent with experimental results observed for 6, 8 and 32-nm crystals. As a result, simulations capture the experimental differences in lithiation behavior between the first and second cycles.

  11. Galvanostatic interruption of lithium insertion into magnetite: Evidence of surface layer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Nicholas W.; Knehr, K. W.; Cama, Christina A.; Lininger, Christianna N.; Lin, Zhou; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.; West, Alan C.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetite is a known lithium intercalation material, and the loss of active, nanocrystalline magnetite can be inferred from the open-circuit potential relaxation. Specifically, for current interruption after relatively small amounts of lithium insertion, the potential first increases and then decreases, and the decrease is hypothesized to be due to a formation of a surface layer, which increases the solid-state lithium concentration in the remaining active material. Comparisons of simulation to experiment suggest that the reactions with the electrolyte result in the formation of a thin layer of electrochemically inactive material, which is best described by a nucleation and growth mechanism. Simulations are consistent with experimental results observed for 6, 8 and 32-nm crystals. Furthermore, simulations capture the experimental differences in lithiation behavior between the first and second cycles.

  12. Mesoporous layer-by-layer ordered nanohybrids of layered double hydroxide and layered metal oxide: highly active visible light photocatalysts with improved chemical stability.

    PubMed

    Gunjakar, Jayavant L; Kim, Tae Woo; Kim, Hyo Na; Kim, In Young; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2011-09-28

    Mesoporous layer-by-layer ordered nanohybrids highly active for visible light-induced O(2) generation are synthesized by self-assembly between oppositely charged 2D nanosheets of Zn-Cr-layered double hydroxide (Zn-Cr-LDH) and layered titanium oxide. The layer-by-layer ordering of two kinds of 2D nanosheets is evidenced by powder X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional high resolution-transmission electron microscopy. Upon the interstratification process, the original in-plane atomic arrangements and electronic structures of the component nanosheets remain intact. The obtained heterolayered nanohybrids show a strong absorption of visible light and a remarkably depressed photoluminescence signal, indicating an effective electronic coupling between the two component nanosheets. The self-assembly between 2D inorganic nanosheets leads to the formation of highly porous stacking structure, whose porosity is controllable by changing the ratio of layered titanate/Zn-Cr-LDH. The resultant heterolayered nanohybrids are fairly active for visible light-induced O(2) generation with a rate of ∼1.18 mmol h(-1) g(-1), which is higher than the O(2) production rate (∼0.67 mmol h(-1) g(-1)) by the pristine Zn-Cr-LDH material, that is, one of the most effective visible light photocatalysts for O(2) production, under the same experimental condition. This result highlights an excellent functionality of the Zn-Cr-LDH-layered titanate nanohybrids as efficient visible light active photocatalysts. Of prime interest is that the chemical stability of the Zn-Cr-LDH is significantly improved upon the hybridization, a result of the protection of the LDH lattice by highly stable titanate layer. The present findings clearly demonstrate that the layer-by-layer-ordered assembly between inorganic 2D nanosheets is quite effective not only in improving the photocatalytic activity of the component semiconductors but also in synthesizing novel porous LDH-based hybrid materials with improved chemical

  13. Surface plasmon resonance sensor for detecting of arsenic in aqueous solution using polypyrrole-chitosan-cobalt ferrite nanoparticles composite layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Naseri, Mahmoud; Kamari, Halimah Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The detection and measurement of low concentrations of arsenic (V) are the subjects of intense research interest in chemistry and environmental activity. In this research, a polypyrrole-chitosan/cobalt ferrite nanoparticles composite layer was prepared using an electrodeposition method on a gold-coated glass slide. The composite layer was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersed spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and a high surface stylus profilometer. The composite layer was used to detect the arsenic in water, and the sensor limitation was about 0.001 ppm. The composite layer was tested using atomic-force microscopy before and after the detection of arsenic. As a result, the roughness was disoriented, as the arsenic was bound on the surface of the composite layer.

  14. IMMUNO-ELECTRON MICROSCOPE ANALYSIS OF THE SURFACE LAYERS OF THE UNFERTILISED SEA URCHIN EGG. II. LOCALISATION OF SURFACE ANTIGENS.

    PubMed

    BAXANDALL, J; PERLMANN, P; AFZELIUS, B A

    1964-12-01

    The immunological properties of the surface layers of Paracentrotus lividus eggs have been studied further by using ferritin-labelled antibody to localise specific antigenic sites. In order to detect a wider spectrum of antigenic determinants, several antisera against egg and jelly substance have been employed in combination with absorption procedures using lyophilised antigen. This use of absorbed antisera was made feasible by adding ferritin label in a second antiserum layer of ferritin-anti-gamma-globulin. Eggs were treated with antibody for short periods to detect antigenic sites without incurring structural changes (shown in previous paper) resulting from long antibody treatment. Unspecific ferritin uptake, found in pinocytotic vesicles and yolk granules, is considered in relation to yolk formation. The jelly layer, found to be immunologically heterogeneous, included one component interacting with antijelly gamma-globulin and one with antiegg gamma-globulin. The vitelline membrane proved to be rich in egg antigens (heat-stable and heat-labile). The role of this layer in specificity of fertilisation, parthenogenetic activation, and the possibility of being analogous to a basement membrane are discussed. Few antigenic sites were found on the plasma membrane with antiegg gamma-globulin. This gamma-globulin resulted in some specific labelling of cortical granules and its action is considered in relation to the permeability properties of the egg.

  15. Modification of surface oxide layers of titanium targets for increasing lifetime of neutron tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, A. M. Dvoichenkova, O. A.; Evsin, A. E.

    2015-12-15

    The peculiarities of interaction of hydrogen ions with a titanium target and its surface oxide layer were studied. Two ways of modification of the surface oxide layers of titanium targets for increasing the lifetime of neutron tubes were proposed: (1) deposition of an yttrium oxide barrier layer on the target surface; (2) implementation of neutron tube work regime in which the target is irradiated with ions with energies lower than 1000 eV between high-energy ion irradiation pulses.

  16. Modification of surface oxide layers of titanium targets for increasing lifetime of neutron tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A. M.; Dvoichenkova, O. A.; Evsin, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    The peculiarities of interaction of hydrogen ions with a titanium target and its surface oxide layer were studied. Two ways of modification of the surface oxide layers of titanium targets for increasing the lifetime of neutron tubes were proposed: (1) deposition of an yttrium oxide barrier layer on the target surface; (2) implementation of neutron tube work regime in which the target is irradiated with ions with energies lower than 1000 eV between high-energy ion irradiation pulses.

  17. Fine-scale wavelike structures in the surface-based turbulent layer at Dome C, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petenko, Igor; Argentini, Stefania; Kallistratova, Margarita; Mastrantonio, Giangiuseppe; Casasanta, Giampietro; Sozzi, Roberto; Conidi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    A long-term experiment to study the spatial and temporal structure of thermal turbulence in the extremely stable boundary layer was carried out at the Concordia station, Dome C in Antarctica during 2012. The atmospheric boundary layer at this site during the winter is strongly stably stratified with temperature inversions reaching a strength 35°C in 100-200 m. Despite high static stability, intense thermal turbulence occurs sometimes in the surface layer extending from the surface to heights of a few - a few tens of metres. The spatial and temporal structure of the turbulence was observed by an advanced high-resolution sodar in the height range from 2 m to 150 m with vertical resolution ≈ 2 m and time resolution of 2 s. The variation and statistics of the depth of the surface-based turbulent layer (STL) is determined for the entire winter period. The median value of the STL depth is found to be l6 m, while the depth of the inversion layer is of 125 m. The wind speed is a parameter that affects the formation and development of the STL. Typical patterns of turbulence structure as shown by the sodar echograms are analysed and classified. Wave activity within the STL is observed for a significant part of the time; the time scales that characterize these undulation processes are determined. Often regular trains of waves with periods of 30-60 s and a periodicity of 5-10 minutes are observed. Some characteristics of the wavelike structures (form, spatial and temporal scales) are determined and the correlation with meteorological parameters is analysed. The Richardson number estimated using the vertical profiles of temperature and wind velocity from the 45-m meteorological tower, indicates that in some cases significant turbulence may occurr even when Ri is larger than the critical value equal to 0.25.

  18. Sporadic Layer es and Siesmic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimov, Obid; Blokhin, Alexandr; Kalashnikova, Tatyana

    2016-07-01

    To determine the influence of seismogenic disturbances on the calm state of the iono-sphere and assess the impact of turbulence development in sporadic-E during earthquake prepa-ration period we calculated the variation in the range of semitransparency ∆fES = f0ES - fbES. The study was based primarily on the ionograms obtained by vertical sounding of the ionosphere at Dushanbe at nighttime station from 15 to 29 August 1986. In this time period four successive earthquakes took place, which serves the purpose of this study of the impact of seis-mogenic processes on the intensity of the continuous generation of ionospheric turbulence. Analysis of the results obtained for seismic-ionospheric effects of 1986 earthquakes at station Dushanbe has shown that disturbance of ionospheric parameters during earthquake prepa-ration period displays a pronounced maximum with a duration of t = 1-6 hours. Ionospheric effects associated with the processes of earthquake preparation emerge quite predictably, which verifies seismogenic disturbances in the ionosphere. During the preparation of strong earthquakes, ionograms of vertical sounding produced at station Dushanbe - near the epicenter area - often shown the phenomenon of spreading traces of sporadic Es. It is assumed that the duration of manifestation of seismic ionospheric precursors in Du-shanbe τ = 1 - 6 hours may be associated with deformation processes in the Earth's crust and var-ious faults, as well as dissimilar properties of the environment of the epicentral area. It has been shown that for earthquakes with 4.5 ≤ M ≤ 5.5 1-2 days prior to the event iono-spheric perturbations in the parameters of the sporadic layer Es and an increase in the value of the range of semitransparency Es - ΔfEs were observed, which could lead to turbulence at altitudes of 100-130 km.

  19. High power ion beam (HPIB) modification of one- and two-layer metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, T.J.; Sorensen, N.R.; Senft, D.C.; Buchheit, R.G.; Thompson, M.O.; Grabowski, K.S.

    1997-11-01

    Intense pulsed high-power ion beams have been demonstrated to produce enhanced surface properties by changes in microstructure caused by rapid heating and cooling of the surface. Additional improvements can be effected by the mixing of a previously deposited thin-film layer (surface alloying or ion beam mixing) into any number of substrate materials. The authors have conducted surface treatment and alloying experiments with Al, Fe, and Ti-based metals on the RHEPP-1 accelerator (0.8 MV, 20 W, 80 ns FHWM, up to 1 Hz repetition rate) at Sandia National Laboratories. Ions are generated by the MAP gas-breakdown active anode, which can yield a number of different beam species including H, N, and Xe, depending upon the injected gas. Enhanced hardness and wear resistance have been produced by treatment of 440C stainless steel, and by the mixing of Pt into Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Mixing of a thin-film Hf layer into Al 6061-T6 alloy (Al-1.0Mg-0.6Si) has improved its corrosion resistance by as much as four orders of magnitude in electrochemical testing, compared with untreated and uncoated Al6061. Experiments are ongoing to further understand the microstructural basis for these surface improvements.

  20. Measurements of turbulent boundary layer flow and surface fluxes over roughness and temperature transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markfort, Corey; Zhang, Wei; Porte-Agel, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Often natural and engineered surfaces have spatially heterogeneous properties at a variety of scales that affect the structure of the turbulent boundary layer, which is no longer in equilibrium with the local surface. Predicting the spatial distributions of surface momentum and scalar fluxes over heterogeneous surfaces remains a challenge. We present measurements made in a thermally stratified boundary layer wind tunnel to characterize the turbulent flow and surface fluxes for abrupt transitions in surface temperature and roughness. We compare the development of internal boundary layers for momentum and heat, and associated mean surface flux for two cases. The first is a smooth boundary layer with an abrupt change in surface temperature and the second also involves a change from a fully rough to a smooth wall. The effects of roughness change on surface heat flux and implications for prediction are examined. The data will be compared to typical models that utilize Monin-Obukhov similarity theory.

  1. Piezocomposites for Active Surface Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-19

    section of 100 mm single layer SmartPanel 3 Figure 4. Preliminary design for 2-layer SmartPanel 3 Figure 5. Baseline SonoPanel configuration 4 Figure 6...baseline SonoPanel design 10 Figure 12. TVR of 100 x 100 mm baseline SonoPanel design 10 Figure 13. FFVS of 250 x 250 mm baseline SonoPanel design ...12 Figure 14. TVR of 250 x 250 mm baseline SonoPanel design 12 Figure15. 100 mm, 250 mm, and 750 mm SonoPanel transducers 13 Figure 16

  2. Heat budget of the surface mixed layer south of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, Vincent; Arhan, Michel; Speich, Sabrina; Gladyshev, Sergey

    2011-10-01

    ARGO hydrographic profiles, two hydrographic transects and satellite measurements of air-sea exchange parameters were used to characterize the properties and seasonal heat budget variations of the Surface Mixed Layer (SML) south of Africa. The analysis distinguishes the Subtropical domain (STZ) and the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ), Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) and Antarctic Zone (AZ) of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. While no Subantarctic Mode Water forms in that region, occurrences of deep SML (up to ˜450 m) are observed in the SAZ in anticyclones detached from the Agulhas Current retroflection or Agulhas Return Current. These are present latitudinally throughout the SAZ, but preferentially at longitudes 10-20° E where, according to previous results, the Subtropical Front is interrupted. Likely owing to this exchange window and to transfers at the Subantarctic Front also enhanced by the anticyclones, the SAZ shows a wide range of properties largely encroaching upon those of the neighbouring domains. Heat budget computations in each zone reveal significant meridional changes of regime. While air-sea heat fluxes dictate the heat budget seasonal variability everywhere, heat is mostly brought through lateral geostrophic advection by the Agulhas Current in the STZ, through lateral diffusion in the SAZ and through air-sea fluxes in the PFZ and AZ. The cooling contributions are by Ekman advection everywhere, lateral diffusion in the STZ (also favoured by the ˜10° breach in the Subtropical Front) and geostrophic advection in the SAZ. The latter likely reflects an eastward draining of water warmed through mixing of the subtropical eddies.

  3. Accurate Sound Velocity Measurement in Ocean Near-Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarralde, D.; Xu, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate sound velocity measurement is essential in oceanography because sound is the only wave that can propagate in sea water. Due to its measuring difficulties, sound velocity is often not measured directly but instead calculated from water temperature, salinity, and depth, which are much easier to obtain. This research develops a new method to directly measure the sound velocity in the ocean's near-surface layer using multi-channel seismic (MCS) hydrophones. This system consists of a device to make a sound pulse and a long cable with hundreds of hydrophones to record the sound. The distance between the source and each receiver is the offset. The time it takes the pulse to arrive to each receiver is the travel time.The errors of measuring offset and travel time will affect the accuracy of sound velocity if we calculated with just one offset and one travel time. However, by analyzing the direct arrival signal from hundreds of receivers, the velocity can be determined as the slope of a straight line in the travel time-offset graph. The errors in distance and time measurement result in only an up or down shift of the line and do not affect the slope. This research uses MCS data of survey MGL1408 obtained from the Marine Geoscience Data System and processed with Seismic Unix. The sound velocity can be directly measured to an accuracy of less than 1m/s. The included graph shows the directly measured velocity verses the calculated velocity along 100km across the Mid-Atlantic continental margin. The directly measured velocity shows a good coherence to the velocity computed from temperature and salinity. In addition, the fine variations in the sound velocity can be observed, which is hardly seen from the calculated velocity. Using this methodology, both large area acquisition and fine resolution can be achieved. This directly measured sound velocity will be a new and powerful tool in oceanography.

  4. Annual dynamics within the active layer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    We have continued our meteorological and hydrologic data collection in support of our process-oriented research. The six years of data collected to date is unique in its scope and continuity in a North Hemisphere Arctic setting. This valuable data base has allowed us to further our understanding of the interconnections and interactions between the atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere. The increased understanding of the heat and mass transfer processes has allowed us to increase our model-oriented research efforts. Examples of applications are the following. (1) Spring snowmelt on the North Slope of Alaska is the dominant hydrologic event of the year. This event provides most of the moisture for use by vegetation in the spring and early summer period. The mechanisms and timing of snowmelt are important factors in predicting runoff, the migrations of birds and large mammals and the diversity of plant communities. It is important globally due to the radical and abrupt change in the surface energy balance over vast areas. (2) We were able to explore the trends and differences in the snowmelt process along a transect from the Brooks Range to the Arctic Coastal plain. Snowpack ablation was monitored at three sites. These data were analyzed along with meteorologic data at each site. The initiation of ablation was site specific being largely controlled by the complementary addition of energy from radiation and sensible heat flux.

  5. Surface-confined single-layer covalent organic framework on single-layer graphene grown on copper foil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lirong; Zhou, Xin; Tian, Wei Quan; Gao, Teng; Zhang, Yan Feng; Lei, Shengbin; Liu, Zhong Fan

    2014-09-01

    The integration of 2D covalent organic frameworks (COFs) with atomic thickness with graphene will lead to intriguing two-dimensional materials. A surface-confined covalently bonded Schiff base network was prepared on single-layer graphene grown on copper foil and the dynamic reaction process was investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy. DFT simulations provide an understanding of the electronic structures and the interactions between the surface COF and graphene. Strong coupling between the surface COF and graphene was confirmed by the dispersive bands of the surface COF after interaction with graphene, and also by the experimental observation of tunneling condition dependent contrast of the surface COF.

  6. Structural complexities in the active layers of organic electronics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephanie S; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2010-01-01

    The field of organic electronics has progressed rapidly in recent years. However, understanding the direct structure-function relationships between the morphology in electrically active layers and the performance of devices composed of these materials has proven difficult. The morphology of active layers in organic electronics is inherently complex, with heterogeneities existing across multiple length scales, from subnanometer to micron and millimeter range. A major challenge still facing the organic electronics community is understanding how the morphology across all of the length scales in active layers collectively determines the device performance of organic electronics. In this review we highlight experiments that have contributed to the elucidation of structure-function relationships in organic electronics and also point to areas in which knowledge of such relationships is still lacking. Such knowledge will lead to the ability to select active materials on the basis of their inherent properties for the fabrication of devices with prespecified characteristics.

  7. Surface-charging behavior of Zn-Cr layered double hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Rojas Delgado, R; Arandigoyen Vidaurre, M; De Pauli, C P; Ulibarri, M A; Avena, M J

    2004-12-15

    A Zn-Cr layered double hydroxide (LDH) having the formula Zn(2)Cr(OH)(6)Cl(0.7)(CO(3))(0.15)2.1H(2)O was synthesized and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, acid-base potentiometric titration, mass titration, electrophoretic mobility, and modeling of the electrical double layer. Adsorption of alizarin was also performed in order to show some particular features of the HDL. Net hydroxyl adsorption, which increases with increasing pH and decreasing supporting electrolyte concentration, takes place above pH 5. The electrophoretic mobility of the particles was always positive and it decreased when the pH was higher than 9. An isoelectric point of 12 could be estimated by extrapolating the data. The modified MUSIC model was used to estimate deprotonation constants of surface groups and different adsorption models were compared. Good fit of hydroxyl adsorption and electrophoresis could be achieved by considering both OH(-)/Cl(-) exchange at structural sites and proton desorption from surface hydroxyl groups. The modeling, in agreement with alizarin adsorption, indicates that most of the structural positive charge of the LDH is screened at the surface by exchanged anions and negatively charged surface groups. It also suggests that only structural charge sites initially neutralized by chloride ions are active for anion exchange. The remaining sites are blocked by carbonate and do not participate in the exchange.

  8. Depth heterogeneity of fully aromatic polyamide active layers in reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Coronell, Orlando; Mariñas, Benito J; Cahill, David G

    2011-05-15

    We studied the depth heterogeneity of fully aromatic polyamide (PA) active layers in commercial reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes by quantifying near-surface (i.e., top 6 nm) and volume-averaged properties of the active layers using X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), respectively. Some membranes (e.g., ESPA3 RO) had active layers that were depth homogeneous with respect to the concentration and pK(a) distribution of carboxylic groups, degree of polymer cross-linking, concentration of barium ion probe that associated with ionized carboxylic groups, and steric effects experienced by barium ion. Other membranes (e.g., NF90 NF) had active layers that were depth heterogeneous with respect to the same properties. Our results therefore support the existence of both depth-homogeneous and depth-heterogeneous active layers. It remains to be assessed whether the depth heterogeneity consists of gradually changing properties throughout the active layer depth or of distinct sublayers with different properties.

  9. Activation Layer Stabilization of High Polarization Photocathodes in Sub-Optimal RF Gun Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory A. Mulhollan

    2010-11-16

    Specific activation recipes for bulk, 100 nm thick MBE grown and high polarization III-V photocathode material have been developed which mitigate the effects of exposure to background gasses. Lifetime data using four representative gasses were acquired for bulk GaAs, 100 nm unstrained GaAs and strained superlattice GaAs/GaAsP, all activated both with Cs and then Cs and Li (bi-alkali). Each photoemitter showed marked resilience improvement when activated using the bi-alkali recipe compared to the standard single alkali recipe. A dual alkali activation system at SLAC was constructed, baked and commissioned with the purpose of performing spin-polarization measurements on electrons emitted from the bi-alkali activated surfaces. An end station at SSRL was configured with the required sources for energy resolved photoemission measurements on the bi-alkali activated and CO2 dosed surfaces. The bi-alkali recipes were successfully implemented at SLAC/SSRL. Measurements at SLAC of the photoelectron spin-polarization from the modified activation surface showed no sign of a change in value compared to the standard activated material, i.e., no ill effects. Analysis of photoemission data indicates that the addition of Li to the activation layer results in a multi-layer structure. The presence of Li in the activation layer also acts as an inhibitor to CO2 absorption, hence better lifetimes in worse vacuum were achieved. The bi-alkali activation has been tested on O2 activated GaAs for comparison with NF3 activated surfaces. Comparable resilience to CO2 exposure was achieved for the O2 activated surface. An RF PECVD amorphous silicon growth system was modified to allow high temperature heat cleaning of GaAs substrates prior to film deposition. Growth versus thickness data were collected. Very thin amorphous silicon germanium layers were optimized to exhibit good behavior as an electron emitter. Growth of the amorphous silicon germanium films on the above substrates was fine tuned

  10. Surface coating for flame retardant behavior of cotton fabric by layer-by-layer processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flame retardant behavior has been prepared by the layer-by layer assemblies of branched polyethylenimine (BPEI), kaolin, urea, diammonium phosphate (dibasic) on cotton fabrics. Three different kinds of cotton fabrics (print cloth, mercerized print cloth, and mercerized twill fabric) were prepared wi...

  11. Turbulent structure of scalars in the eddy surface layer over land and sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedman, Ann-Sofi; Sahlee, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Turbulent structure of scalars in the 'eddy surface layer' over land and sea. In a study of the kinematic structure of the near neutral atmospheric surface layer, Högström, Hunt and Smedman, 2002, it was demonstrated that a model with detached eddies from above the surface layer impinging on to the surface (Hunt and Morison, 2000) could explain some of the observed features in the neutral atmospheric boundary layer. Thus the detached eddy model proved successful in explaining the dynamic structure of the near neutral atmospheric surface layer (eddy surface layer), especially the shape of the spectra of the wind components and corresponding fluxes. However, the structure of temperature and humidity fluctuations in the eddy surface layer shows quite different behaviour. In particular the efficiency of turbulent exchange of sensible and latent heat is observed to be more strongly enhanced than is consistent with standard similarity theory. Also the profiles of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy and temperature fluctuation variance are found to depend on the height of the eddy surface layer and not the height above the surface. All these features are found to be similar in measurements at a marine site, a flat land site and during hurricane conditions (hurricane Fabian and Isabel). Hunt, J.C.R and Morrison, J.F., 2000: Eddy structure in turbulent boundary layers, Euro. J. Mech. B-Fluids, 19, 673-694.. Högström, U., Hunt, J.C.R., and Smedman, A., 2002: Theory and measurements for turbulence spectra and variances in the atmospheric neutral surface layer, Bound.-Layer Meteorol., 103,101-124.

  12. Metal ceramic alloy structure and surface layer modification during electron-ion-plasma irradiation of its surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovcharenko, V. E.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Shilko, E. V.; Mokhovikov, A. A.; Baohai, Yu; Tianyng, Xiong; Hua, Xu Yun; Lisheng, Zhong

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents research findings on the problems of electron-beam irradiation in noble gases plasma with different indexes of ionizing energy and atomic weight, and a surface layer structure modification versus a surface layer microhardness, wear and bending resistances and corrosion stability of 50% TiC/50% (Ni + 20% Cr) metal ceramic alloy samples. Discussions on the issues of the ways impulse electron-beam irradiation in the conditions of various types of noble gas plasma influences the mechanism of a metal ceramic alloy surface layer structure-phase state modification has been also presented.

  13. Active layer hydrology for Imnavait Creek, Toolik, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, L.D.; Kane, D.L.

    1987-04-01

    The hydrology of the active layer of a watershed is described. In the annual hydrologic cycle, snowmelt is the most significant event at Imnavait Creek located near Toolik Lake, Alaska. Precipitation that has accumulated for more than 6 months on the surface melts in a relatively short period of 7 to 10 days once sustained melting occurs. Significant runoff events are few. Convective storms covering relatively small areas on the North Slope of Alaska can produce significant small-scale events in a small watershed scale,but these events are rapidly attenuated outside the basin. Data collection began in August 1984. We have continuously monitored the hydrologic, the meteorologic, and the soil`s physical conditions. Information was collected through implementation of four snowmelt runoff plots and measurements of essential microclimate parameters. Soil moisture and temperature profiles were measured adjacent to each snowmelt runoff plot, and heat flux is collected adjacent to one of these plots. Meteorological parameters were measured locally. The water content of the snowpack prior to snowmelt was measured throughout the watershed and measured daily adjacent to each plot during snowmelt. The stream draining the basin was measured regularly during the spring melt event to provide information on watershed runoff rates and the volume of snowmelt.

  14. Active layer hydrology for Imnavait Creek, Toolik, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, L.D.; Kane, D.L.

    1987-04-01

    The hydrology of the active layer of a watershed is described. In the annual hydrologic cycle, snowmelt is the most significant event at Imnavait Creek located near Toolik Lake, Alaska. Precipitation that has accumulated for more than 6 months on the surface melts in a relatively short period of 7 to 10 days once sustained melting occurs. Significant runoff events are few. Convective storms covering relatively small areas on the North Slope of Alaska can produce significant small-scale events in a small watershed scale,but these events are rapidly attenuated outside the basin. Data collection began in August 1984. We have continuously monitored the hydrologic, the meteorologic, and the soil's physical conditions. Information was collected through implementation of four snowmelt runoff plots and measurements of essential microclimate parameters. Soil moisture and temperature profiles were measured adjacent to each snowmelt runoff plot, and heat flux is collected adjacent to one of these plots. Meteorological parameters were measured locally. The water content of the snowpack prior to snowmelt was measured throughout the watershed and measured daily adjacent to each plot during snowmelt. The stream draining the basin was measured regularly during the spring melt event to provide information on watershed runoff rates and the volume of snowmelt.

  15. IMMUNO-ELECTRON MICROSCOPE ANALYSIS OF THE SURFACE LAYERS OF THE UNFERTILISED SEA URCHIN EGG

    PubMed Central

    Baxandall, Jane; Perlmann, P.; Afzelius, B. A.

    1964-01-01

    The immunological properties of the surface layers of Paracentrotus lividus eggs have been studied further by using ferritin-labelled antibody to localise specific antigenic sites. In order to detect a wider spectrum of antigenic determinants, several antisera against egg and jelly substance have been employed in combination with absorption procedures using lyophilised antigen. This use of absorbed antisera was made feasible by adding ferritin label in a second antiserum layer of ferritin-anti-γ-globulin. Eggs were treated with antibody for short periods to detect antigenic sites without incurring structural changes (shown in previous paper) resulting from long antibody treatment. Unspecific ferritin uptake, found in pinocytotic vesicles and yolk granules, is considered in relation to yolk formation. The jelly layer, found to be immunologically heterogeneous, included one component interacting with antijelly γ-globulin and one with antiegg γ-globulin. The vitelline membrane proved to be rich in egg antigens (heat-stable and heat-labile). The role of this layer in specificity of fertilisation, parthenogenetic activation, and the possibility of being analogous to a basement membrane are discussed. Few antigenic sites were found on the plasma membrane with antiegg γ-globulin. This γ-globulin resulted in some specific labelling of cortical granules and its action is considered in relation to the permeability properties of the egg. PMID:14245439

  16. Cu and Cu(Mn) films deposited layer-by-layer via surface-limited redox replacement and underpotential deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J. S.; Sun, S. L.; Cheng, Y. L.; Chen, G. S.; Chin, T. S.

    2016-02-01

    The present paper reports Cu and Cu(Mn) films prepared layer-by-layer using an electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ECALD) method. The structure and properties of the films were investigated to elucidate their suitability as Cu interconnects for microelectronics. Previous studies have used primarily a vacuum-based atomic layer deposition to form a Cu metallized film. Herein, an entirely wet chemical process was used to fabricate a Cu film using the ECALD process by combining underpotential deposition (UPD) and surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR). The experimental results indicated that an inadequate UPD of Pb affected the subsequent SLRR of Cu and lead to the formation of PbSO4. A mechanism is proposed to explain the results. Layer-by-layer deposition of Cu(Mn) films was successfully performed by alternating the deposition cycle-ratios of SLRR-Cu and UPD-Mn. The proposed self-limiting growth method offers a layer-by-layer wet chemistry-based deposition capability for fabricating Cu interconnects.

  17. Turbulent boundary layer over solid and porous surfaces with small roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, F. Y.; Schetz, J. A.; Collier, F.

    1982-01-01

    Skin friction and profiles of mean velocity, axial and normal turbulence intensity, and Reynolds stress in the untripped boundary layer were measured directly on a large diameter, axisymmetric body with: (1) a smooth, solid surface; (2) a sandpaper-roughened, solid surface; (3) a sintered metal, porous surface; (4) a smooth, perforated titanium surface; (5) a rough solid surface made of fine, diffusion bonded screening, and (6) a rough, porous surface of the same screening. Results obtained for each of these surfaces are discussed. It is shown that a rough, porous wall simply does not influence the boundary layer in the same way as a rough solid wall. Therefore, turbulent transport models for boundary layers over porous surfaces either with or without injection or suction, must include both surface roughness and porosity effects.

  18. Photocatalytic activity of layered perovskite-like oxides in practically valuable chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionov, I. A.; Zvereva, I. A.

    2016-03-01

    The photocatalytic properties of layered perovskite-like oxides corresponding to the Ruddlesen-Popper, Dion-Jacobson and Aurivillius phases are considered. Of the photocatalytic reactions, the focus is on the reactions of water splitting, hydrogen evolution from aqueous solutions of organic substances and degradation of model organic pollutants. Possibilities to conduct these reactions under UV and visible light in the presence of layered perovskite-like oxides and composite photocatalysts based on them are shown. The specific surface area, band gap energy, particle morphology, cation and anion doping and surface modification are considered as factors that affect the photocatalytic activity. Special attention is paid to the possibilities to enhance the photocatalytic activity by intercalation, ion exchange and exfoliation, which are inherent in this class of compounds. Conclusions are made about the prospects for the use of layered perovskite-like oxides in photocatalysis. The bibliography includes 253 references.

  19. Contribution of S-Layer Proteins to the Mosquitocidal Activity of Lysinibacillus sphaericus

    PubMed Central

    Allievi, Mariana Claudia; Palomino, María Mercedes; Prado Acosta, Mariano; Lanati, Leonardo; Ruzal, Sandra Mónica; Sánchez-Rivas, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains belonging the antigenic group H5a5b produce spores with larvicidal activity against larvae of Culex mosquitoes. C7, a new isolated strain, which presents similar biochemical characteristics and Bin toxins in their spores as the reference strain 2362, was, however, more active against larvae of Culex mosquitoes. The contribution of the surface layer protein (S-layer) to this behaviour was envisaged since this envelope protein has been implicated in the pathogenicity of several bacilli, and we had previously reported its association to spores. Microscopic observation by immunofluorescence detection with anti S-layer antibody in the spores confirms their attachment. S-layers and BinA and BinB toxins formed high molecular weight multimers in spores as shown by SDS-PAGE and western blot detection. Purified S-layer from both L. sphaericus C7 and 2362 strain cultures was by itself toxic against Culex sp larvae, however, that from C7 strain was also toxic against Aedes aegypti. Synergistic effect between purified S-layer and spore-crystal preparations was observed against Culex sp. and Aedes aegypti larvae. This effect was more evident with the C7 strain. In silico analyses of the S-layer sequence suggest the presence of chitin-binding and hemolytic domains. Both biochemical characteristics were detected for both S-layers strains that must justify their contribution to pathogenicity. PMID:25354162

  20. Growth and behavior of chondrocytes on nano engineered surfaces and construction of micropatterned co-culture platforms using layer-by-layer platforms using layer-by-layer assembly lift-off method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaik, Jameel

    Several approaches such as self-assembled monolayers and layer-by-layer assembled multilayer films are being used as tools to study the interactions of cells with biomaterials in vitro. In this study, the layer-by-layer assembly approach was used to create monolayer, bilayer, trilayer, five, ten and twenty-bilayer beds of eleven different biomaterials. The various biomaterials used were poly(styrene-sulfonate), fibronectin, poly-L-lysine, poly-D-lysine, laminin, bovine serum albumin, chondroitin sulfate, poly(ethyleneimine), polyethylene glycol amine, collagen and poly(dimethyldiallyl-ammonium chloride) with unmodified tissue-culture polystyrene as standard control. Three different cell lines---primary bovine articular chondrocytes, and two secondary cell lines, human chondrosarcoma cells and canine chondrocytes were used in these studies. Chondrocyte morphology and attachment, viability, proliferation, and functionality were determined using bright field microscopy, the Live/Dead viability assay, MTT assay, and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Atomic force microscopy of the nanofilms indicated an increase in surface roughness with increasing number of layers. The most important observations from the studies on primary bovine articular chondrocytes were that these cells exhibited increasing viability and cell metabolic activity with increasing number of bilayers. The increase in viability was more pronounced than the increase in cell metabolic activity. Also, bovine chondrocytes on bilayers of poly(dimethyldiallyl-ammonium chloride, poly-L-lysine, poly(styrene-sulfonate), and bovine serum albumin were substantially bigger in size and well-attached when compared to the cells grown on monolayer and trilayers. Lactate dehydrogenase assay performed on chondrosarcoma cells grown on 5- and 10-bilayer multilayer beds indicated that the 10-bilayer beds had reduced cytotoxicity compared to the 5-bilayer beds. MTT assay performed on canine chondrocytes grown on 5-, 10

  1. Low Temperature Plasma Surface Interactions: Atomic Layer Etching And Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet Modification Of Biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehrlein, Gottlieb

    2013-09-01

    Control of plasma-surface interactions is essential for successful application of low temperature plasma to materials processing. We review work performed in our laboratory in two areas: First, low pressure plasma surface interaction mechanisms aimed at achieving atomic precision in etching materials in the semiconductor industry. We discuss sequential reactions of surface passivation followed by directional low energy ion attack for ``volatile product'' removal to establish for what conditions self-limiting behavior required for Atomic Layer Etching (ALE) can be established using prototypical SiO2 -Si/fluorocarbon-Ar materials/etching systems. Second, studies of plasma-surface interactions related to application of a non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) for modification of biomaterials are discussed. Changes in surface chemistry/biological activity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposed to the APPJ plume/effluent in a controlled environment are reviewed. The results clarify how jet chemistry and interactions of plasma with the environment impact the consequences of APPJ-biomaterial-surface interactions. Based on collaborations with D. Metzler, S. Engelmann, R. Bruce, E. Joseph, E. Bartis, C. Hart, Q.-Y. Yang, J. Seog, T.-Y. Chung, H.-W. Chang, and D.B. Graves. We gratefully acknowledge funding from US Department of Energy (DE-SC0005105; DE-SC0001939) and National Science Foundation (CBET-1134273; PHY-1004256).

  2. Overlap region in turbulent boundary layer over a rough surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, Noor

    2010-11-01

    The one term non-linear outer layer in George & Castillo (1997, AMR 50, 689), based on their AIP argument, was matched with inner wall layer leading to power law velocity, which denied very existence of traditional log law, while Clauser (1956) patched same outer layer with inner wall log law. Jones, Nickles & Marusic (2008, JFM 616, 195) proposal that free stream velocity (in GC97) and friction velocity (in Coles 1956) are potentially valid scalings according to their theoretical criterion in the outer layer, is misleading, being not correct. Further, in Nishioka (2010, FDR 42, 45502-5) and Prandtl (1935, AT) the additive constant in power law velocity is singular at large Reynolds numbers is also not correct, and this constant is shown to be zero. In the present work, two terms outer layer expansion is considered where leading term scales with free steam velocity and first order with friction velocity. The leading term turns out to be a non-linear wake type equation through application of Izakson-Millikan- Kolmogorov hypothesis. The first order terms lead to alternate functional equations, arising from ratios of two successive derivatives of the functional equations, each of which admits two functional solutions, the power law velocity profile in addition to log law velocity profile. The comparison with extensive data on rough & smooth walls also provide strong support to present work.

  3. Rough SERS substrate based on gold coated porous silicon layer prepared on the silicon backside surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dridi, H.; Haji, L.; Moadhen, A.

    2017-04-01

    We report in this paper a novel method to elaborate rough Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrate. A single layer of porous silicon was formed on the silicon backside surface. Morphological characteristics of the porous silicon layer before and after gold deposition were influenced by the rough character (gold size). The reflectance measurements showed a dependence of the gold nano-grains size on the surface nature, through the Localized Surface Plasmon (LSP) band properties. SERS signal of Rhodamine 6G used as a model analyte, adsorbed on the rough porous silicon layer revealed a marked enhancement of its vibrational modes intensities.

  4. Effect of Surface Layer on Electromechanical Stability of Tweezers and Cantilevers Fabricated from Conductive Cylindrical Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keivani, Maryam; Koochi, Ali; Sedighi, Hamid M.; Abadyan, Mohamadreza; Farrokhabadi, Amin; Shahedin, Abed Moheb

    2016-12-01

    Herein, the impact of surface layer on the stability of nanoscale tweezers and cantilevers fabricated from nanowires with cylindrical cross section is studied. A modified continuum based on the Gurtin-Murdoch surface elasticity is applied for incorporating the presence of surface layer. Considering the cylindrical geometry of the nanowire, the presence of the Coulomb attraction and dispersion forces are incorporated in the derived formulations. Three different approaches, i.e. numerical differential quadrature method (DQM), an approximated homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and developing lumped parameter model (LPM) have been employed to solve the governing equations. The impact of surface layer on the instability of the system is demonstrated.

  5. A literature review of surface alteration layer effects on waste glass behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    When in contact with an aqueous solution, nuclear waste glass is subject to a chemical attack that results in progressive alteration. During tills alteration, constituent elements of the glass pass into the solution; elements initially in solution diffuse into, or are adsorbed onto, the solid; and new phases appear. This results in the formation of surface layers on the reacted glass. The glass corrosion and radionuclide release can be better understood by investigating these surface layer effects. In the past decade, there have been numerous studies regarding the effects of surface layers on glass reactions. This paper presents a systematic analysis and summary of the past knowledge regarding the effects of surface layers on glass-water interaction. This paper describes the major formation mechanisms of surface layers; reviews the role of surface layers in controlling mass transport and glass reaction affinity (through crystalline phases, an amorphous silica, a gel layer, or all the components in the glass); and discusses how the surface layers contribute to the retention of radionuclides during glass dissolution.

  6. A literature review of surface alteration layer effects on waste glass behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1993-05-01

    When in contact with an aqueous solution, nuclear waste glass is subject to a chemical attack that results in progressive alteration. During tills alteration, constituent elements of the glass pass into the solution; elements initially in solution diffuse into, or are adsorbed onto, the solid; and new phases appear. This results in the formation of surface layers on the reacted glass. The glass corrosion and radionuclide release can be better understood by investigating these surface layer effects. In the past decade, there have been numerous studies regarding the effects of surface layers on glass reactions. This paper presents a systematic analysis and summary of the past knowledge regarding the effects of surface layers on glass-water interaction. This paper describes the major formation mechanisms of surface layers; reviews the role of surface layers in controlling mass transport and glass reaction affinity (through crystalline phases, an amorphous silica, a gel layer, or all the components in the glass); and discusses how the surface layers contribute to the retention of radionuclides during glass dissolution.

  7. Turbulent boundary layer on perforated surfaces with vector injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroshenko, V. M.; Zaichik, L. I.; Klimov, A. A.; Ianovskii, L. S.; Kondratev, V. I.

    1980-10-01

    The paper presents an experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer on perforated plates with uniform vector injection at various angles to gas flow. It was shown that with strong injection at angles oriented in the flow direction the intensity of turbulent pulsation is decreased, while injection at angles in the opposite direction increase the intensity. A relationship was established between the critical parameters of the boundary layer injection angles; it was concluded that the asymptotic theory of Kutateladze and Leontiev can be used for determining the coefficient of friction of vector injection.

  8. Expansible apparatus for removing the surface layer from a concrete object

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles H.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing the surface layer from a concrete object. The method consists of providing a hole having a circular wall in the surface layer of the object, the hole being at least as deep as the thickness of the surface layer to be removed, and applying an outward wedging pressure on the wall of the hole sufficient to spall the surface layer around the hole. By the proper spacing of an appropriate number of holes, it is possible to remove the entire surface layer from an object. The apparatus consists of an elongated tubular-shaped body having a relatively short handle with a solid wall at one end, the wall of the remainder of the body containing a plurality of evenly spaced longitudinal cuts to form a relatively long expandable section, the outer end of the expandable section having an expandable, wedge-shaped spalling edge extending from the outer surface of the wall, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body, and expanding means in the body for outwardly expanding the expandable section and forcing the spalling edge into the wall of a hole with sufficient outward pressure to spall away the surface layer of concrete. The method and apparatus are particularly suitable for removing surface layers of concrete which are radioactively contaminated.

  9. Ionic Referencing in Surface Plasmon Microscopy: Visualization of the Difference in Surface Properties of Patterned Monomolecular Layers.

    PubMed

    Nizamov, Shavkat; Scherbahn, Vitali; Mirsky, Vladimir M

    2017-04-04

    An approach for visualization of patterned monomolecular layers in surface plasmon microscopy (SPM) is suggested. The development of hidden image in SPM is achieved by referencing of images obtained in the presence of electrolytes with a high molar refraction of either anions or cations. A formation of diffuse layer near the charged surface areas leads to the redistribution of ions. The ratio of SPM images allows one to visualize this redistribution and to distinguish surface areas with different properties. The approach is unobtrusive and robust; it can be used with most surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging instruments.

  10. Method for removing surface-damaged layers from nickel alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fawley, R. W.

    1968-01-01

    Electrical discharge machining /EDM/ damaged layer can be effectively removed from Rene 41, Inconel 625, Inconel 718, and Monel K-500 by abrasive-grit blasting or electropolishing /at room temperature/ at a current density of 5A/inches squared in a water solution of phosphoric and sulfuric acids.

  11. Surface structure of thin pseudomorphous GeSi layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, A. I.; Timofeev, V. F.; Pchelyakov, O. P.

    2015-11-01

    Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) was used to study the evolution of thin GexSi1-x film surface superstructures s in the course of molecular beam epitaxy. The (2 × N) superstructure of the epitaxial film surface at periodicity N from 14 to 8, the latter being characteristic of pure germanium at the Si(1 0 0) surface. The epitaxial film thickness that is required for the formation of the (2 × 8) superstructure depends on the deposition temperature and germanium content in the solid solution. The germanium segregation on the growing film surface is shown to be responsible for the observed superstructural changes.

  12. Deformation and annealing textures of surface layers of copper sheets cold-rolled under unlubricated condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyun-Sik; Han, Heung Nam; Lee, Dong Nyung

    2017-01-01

    The texture of rolled sheets is known to vary with depth from the shear texture in the surface layer to the planestrain-compression texture in the center layer. This study has interpreted the deformation and annealing textures evolved in the surface layer of a four-layered-copper sheet cold-rolled by 93% reduction in thickness without lubrication at room temperature. The surface and center layers were separated from the cold-rolled four-layered copper sheet. The deformed surface layer was annealed for 1 h at 823 K. The deformation texture of the surface layer could be simulated by straining the {112}<111> oriented fcc crystals by a true strain of 2.66 in the rolling direction at 0 ≤ | e 13/ e 11| ≤ 1.4, where eij are the displacement gradients and the subscripts 1 and 3 represent the sheet rolling and sheet surface normal directions, respectively, using a visco-plastic self-consistent scheme. The annealing texture could be approximated by the simulated shear deformation orientations plus near the {001}<100> orientation that was approximated by the recrystallization orientations calculated from the simulated deformation orientations. The recrystallization orientations were calculated by the strain-energy-release-maximization theory for the recrystallization texture evolution.

  13. Deformation of graphene on an oxidizing nickel surface: the role of graphene layer number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Lijin; Shaina, P. R.; Gupta, Aparna; Das Gupta, Nandita; Jaiswal, Manu

    2016-11-01

    Few-layer graphene grown on nickel substrates by chemical vapour deposition is typically characterised by thickness inhomogeneity. In this work, we investigate the thickness-dependent changes induced in graphene during the surface oxidation of the underlying metal. Temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy are used to monitor the lattice strain and defect formation induced in graphene, as well as the oxidation of Ni surface. Significant lattice strain is induced in thin layers of graphene (1-2 layers) during the oxidation process, for T > 400 °C. This is followed by the formation of boundary-type defects, and graphene loses structural integrity. In contrast, lattice strain induced in thicker graphene (up to 7 layers) during the metal surface oxidation is quite subdued. These thicker layers de-pin and remain structurally intact even after the underneath metal surface has oxidized.

  14. Homogeneous near surface activity distribution by double energy activation for TLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Tárkányi, F.

    2007-10-01

    Thin layer activation (TLA) is a versatile tool for activating thin surface layers in order to study real-time the surface loss by wear, corrosion or erosion processes of the activated parts, without disassembling or stopping running mechanical structures or equipment. The research problem is the determination of the irradiation parameters to produce point-like or large area optimal activity-depth distribution in the sample. Different activity-depth profiles can be produced depending on the type of the investigated material and the nuclear reaction used. To produce activity that is independent of the depth up to a certain depth is desirable when the material removed from the surface by wear, corrosion or erosion can be collected completely. By applying dual energy irradiation the thickness of this quasi-constant activity layer can be increased or the deviation of the activity distribution from a constant value can be minimized. In the main, parts made of metals and alloys are suitable for direct activation, but by using secondary particle implantation the wear of other materials can also be studied in a surface range a few micrometers thick. In most practical cases activation of a point-like spot (several mm2) is enough to monitor the wear, corrosion or erosion, but for special problems relatively large surfaces areas of complicated spatial geometry need to be activated uniformly. Two ways are available for fulfilling this task, (1) production of large area beam spot or scanning the beam over the surface in question from the accelerator side, or (2) a programmed 3D movement of the sample from the target side. Taking into account the large variability of tasks occurring in practice, the latter method was chosen as the routine solution in our cyclotron laboratory.

  15. Evolution of the surface area of a snow layer

    SciTech Connect

    Hanot, L.; Domine, F.

    1999-12-01

    Atmospheric trace gases can partition between the atmosphere and the snow surface. Because snow has a large surface-to-volume ratio, an important interaction potential between ice and atmospheric trace gases exists. Quantifying this partitioning requires the knowledge of the surface area (SA) of snow. Eleven samples were taken from a 50 cm thick snow fall at Col de Porte, near Grenoble (French Alps) between January 20 and February 4, 1998. Fresh snow and 3, 8, and 15-day-old snow were sampled at three different depths. Surface hoar, formed after the fall, was also sampled. Air and surface snow temperature, snow density, and snow fall rate were measured. Snow temperature always remained below freezing. Snow SA was measured using methane adsorption at 77.15 K. Values ranged from 2.25 m{sup 2}/g for fresh snow to 0.25 m{sup 2}/g for surface hoar and surface snow after 15 days. These values are much too high to be explained by the macroscopic aspect of snow crystals, and microstructures such as small rime droplets must have been present. Large decrease in SA with time were observed. The first meter of snowpack had a total surface area of about 50,000 m{sup 2} per m{sup 2} of ground. Reduction in SA will lead to the emission of adsorbed species by the snowpack, with possible considerable increase in atmospheric concentrations.

  16. Highly effective electronic passivation of silicon surfaces by atomic layer deposited hafnium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jie; Wan, Yimao; Cui, Yanfeng; Chen, Yifeng; Verlinden, Pierre; Cuevas, Andres

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of hafnium oxide (HfO2) thin films to crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. Excellent passivation of both n- and p-type crystalline silicon surfaces has been achieved by the application of thin HfO2 films prepared by atomic layer deposition. Effective surface recombination velocities as low as 3.3 and 9.9 cm s-1 have been recorded with 15 nm thick films on n- and p-type 1 Ω cm c-Si, respectively. The surface passivation by HfO2 is activated at 350 °C by a forming gas anneal. Capacitance voltage measurement shows an interface state density of 3.6 × 1010 cm-2 eV-1 and a positive charge density of 5 × 1011 cm-2 on annealed p-type 1 Ω cm c-Si. X-ray diffraction unveils a positive correlation between surface recombination and crystallinity of the HfO2 and a dependence of the crystallinity on both annealing temperature and film thickness. In summary, HfO2 is demonstrated to be an excellent candidate for surface passivation of crystalline silicon solar cells.

  17. Transient Heat Transfer in a Semitransparent Radiating Layer with Boundary Convection and Surface Reflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Surface convection and refractive index are examined during transient radiative heating or cooling of a grey semitransparent layer with internal absorption, emission and conduction. Each side of the layer is exposed to hot or cold radiative surroundings, while each boundary is heated or cooled by convection. Emission within the layer and internal reflections depend on the layer refractive index. The reflected energy and heat conduction distribute energy across the layer and partially equalize the transient temperature distributions. Solutions are given to demonstrate the effect of radiative heating for layers with various optical thicknesses, the behavior of the layer heated by radiation on one side and convectively cooled on the other, and a layer heated by convection while being cooled by radiation. The numerical method is an implicit finite difference procedure with non-uniform space and time increments. The basic method developed in earlier work is expanded to include external convection and incident radiation.

  18. Origin and consequences of silicate glass passivation by surface layers

    PubMed Central

    Gin, Stéphane; Jollivet, Patrick; Fournier, Maxime; Angeli, Frédéric; Frugier, Pierre; Charpentier, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    Silicate glasses are durable materials, but are they sufficiently durable to confine highly radioactive wastes for hundreds of thousands years? Addressing this question requires a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underpinning aqueous corrosion of these materials. Here we show that in silica-saturated solution, a model glass of nuclear interest corrodes but at a rate that dramatically drops as a passivating layer forms. Water ingress into the glass, leading to the congruent release of mobile elements (B, Na and Ca), is followed by in situ repolymerization of the silicate network. This material is at equilibrium with pore and bulk solutions, and acts as a molecular sieve with a cutoff below 1 nm. The low corrosion rate resulting from the formation of this stable passivating layer enables the objective of durability to be met, while progress in the fundamental understanding of corrosion unlocks the potential for optimizing the design of nuclear glass-geological disposal. PMID:25695377

  19. Aminosilane layers on the plasma activated thermoplastics: influence of solvent on its structure and morphology.

    PubMed

    Sunkara, Vijaya; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2013-12-01

    The chemistry and the structure of aminosilane layer on the plasma activated thermoplastic substrates, e.g., polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and cyclic olefin co-polymer (COC) were investigated at the molecular level. The nature of the surface functional groups of the silane layers prepared by solution phase deposition in aqueous and anhydrous solvents were studied using various techniques including ellipsometry, goniometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The XPS analyses revealed the presence of various oxygen functionalities on the plasma activated thermoplastics. Considerable differences were observed for the structure of aminosilane depending on the solvent used for the reaction. Deposition from aqueous solution resulted in relatively flat and smooth surfaces with consistent thickness compared to the anhydrous solution deposition. In the former case, 33% of the total nitrogen accounted for protonated amine and 16% for the free amino groups. In the latter, only 6% accounted for the protonated amine. The point of zero charge (pzc), on the aminosilane modified PC was found to be around 7, indicated that the surface is positively charged below pH 7 and negatively charged above pH 7. The surface analysis data suggested that various interactions are possible between the plasma activated thermoplastic surface and the aminosilane. In general, they are bound to the surface through covalent bond formation between the oxygen functionalities on the thermoplastic surface and the amino or the silanol groups of the aminosilane.

  20. Microporous structure with layered interstitial surface treatment, and method and apparatus for preparation thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A microporous structure with layered interstitial surface treatments, and method and apparatus for preparation thereof is presented. The structure is prepared by sequentially subjecting a uniformly surface-treated structure to atomic oxygen treatment to remove an outer layer of surface treatment to a generally uniform depth, and then surface treating the so exposed layer with another surface treating agent. The atomic oxygen/surface treatment steps may optionally be repeated, each successive time to a lesser depth, to produce a microporous structure having multilayered surface treatments. The apparatus employs at least one side arm from a main atomic oxygen-containing chamber. The side arm has characteristic relaxation times such that a uniform atomic oxygen dose rate is delivered to a specimen positioned transversely in the side arm spaced from the main gas chamber.

  1. Microporous structure with layered interstitial surface treatment, and method and apparatus for preparation thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A microporous structure with layered interstitial surface treatments, and the method and apparatus for its preparation are disclosed. The structure is prepared by sequentially subjecting a uniformly surface treated structure to atomic oxygen treatment to remove an outer layer of surface treatment to a generally uniform depth, and then surface treating the so exposed layer with another surface treating agent. The atomic oxygen/surface treatment steps may optionally be repeated, each successive time to a lesser depth, to produce a microporous structure having multilayered surface treatments. The apparatus employs at least one side arm from a main oxygen-containing chamber. The side arm has characteristic relaxation times such that a uniform atomic oxygen dose rate is delivered to a specimen positioned transversely in the side arm spaced from the main gas chamber.

  2. Formation and Characterization of Stacked Nanoscale Layers of Polymers and Silanes on Silicon Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Rosie; Davis, Brian; Conley, Hiram; Hurd, Katie; Linford, Matthew R.; Davis, Robert C.

    2008-10-01

    Chemical surface patterning at the nanoscale is a critical component of chemically directed assembly of nanoscale devices or sensitive biological molecules onto surfaces. Complete and consistent formation of nanoscale layers of silanes and polymers is a necessary first step for chemical patterning. We explored methods of silanizing silicon substrates for the purpose of functionalizing the surfaces. The chemical functionalization, stability, flatness, and repeatability of the process was characterized by use of ellipsometry, water contact angle, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). We found that forming the highest quality functionalized surfaces was accomplished through use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Specifically, surfaces were plasma cleaned and hydrolyzed before the silane was applied. A polymer layer less then 2 nm in thickness was electrostatically bound to the silane layer. The chemical functionalization, stability, flatness, and repeatability of the process was also characterized for the polymer layer using ellipsometry, water contact angle, and AFM.

  3. Epigenetic Salt Accumulation and Water Movement in the Active Layer of Central Yakutia in Eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Caceres, M.; Brouchkov, A.; Nakayama, H.; Takakai, F.; Fedorov, A.; Fukuda, M.

    2005-12-01

    Observations of soil moisture and salt content were conducted from May to August at Neleger station in Eastern Siberia. Seasonal changes of salt and soil moisture distribution in the active layer of larch forest (undisturbed) and a thermokarst depression known as alas (disturbed) were studied. Electric conductivity (ECe) of the intact forest revealed higher concentrations that increased with depth from the soil surface into the active layer and the underlying permafrost, 1 mS cm-1 at 1.1m to 2.6 mS cm-1 at 160 cm depth in the permafrost. However, maximum value of 5.4 mS cm-1 at 0.6 m depth was found in the dry area of alas. The concentration of ions, especially Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42-as well as HCO3- in the upper layers of this long-term disturbed site indicates the upward movement of ions together with water. Higher concentration of solutes was found in profiles with deeper seasonal thawing. The accumulation of salts in alas occurs from spring through the growing season. The low concentration of salt in the surface soil layers appears to be linked to leaching of salts by rainfall. There are substantial differences between water content and electric conductivity of soil in forest and alas. Modern salinization of the active layer in alas is epigenetic, and it happens in summer as a result of spring water collection and high summer evaporation; the gradual salt accumulation in alas in comparison to forest is controlled by annual balance of water and salts in the active layer. Present climatic trends point to continuous permafrost degradation in eastern Siberia increasing the risk of surface salinization which has already contributed to change the landscape by hindering the growth of forests.

  4. Epigenetic salt accumulation and water movement in the active layer of central Yakutia in eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, C. M. Larry; Brouchkov, A.; Nakayama, H.; Takakai, F.; Fedorov, A. N.; Fukuda, M.

    2007-01-01

    Observations of soil moisture and salt content were conducted from May to August at Neleger station in eastern Siberia. Seasonal changes of salt and soil moisture distribution in the active layer of larch forest (undisturbed) and a thermokarst depression known as an alas (disturbed) were studied. Electric conductivity ECe of the intact forest revealed higher concentrations that increased with depth from the soil surface into the active layer and the underlying permafrost: 1 mS cm-1 at 1.1 m, to 2.6 mS cm-1 at 160 cm depth in the permafrost. However, a maximum value of 5.4 mS cm-1 at 0.6 m depth was found in the dry area of the alas. The concentration of ions, especially Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42- and HCO3- in the upper layers of this long-term disturbed site, indicates the upward movement of ions together with water. A higher concentration of solutes was found in profiles with deeper seasonal thawing. The accumulation of salts in the alas occurs from spring through into the growing season. The low concentration of salt in the surface soil layers appears to be linked to leaching of salts by rainfall. There are substantial differences between water content and electric conductivity of soil in the forest and alas. Modern salinization of the active layer in the alas is epigenetic, and it happens in summer as a result of spring water collection and high summer evaporation; the gradual salt accumulation in the alas in comparison with the forest is controlled by the annual balance of water and salts in the active layer. Present climatic trends point to continuous permafrost degradation in eastern Siberia increasing the risk of surface salinization, which has already contributed to changing the landscape by hindering the growth of forest. Copyright

  5. Shape-selective sieving layers on an oxide catalyst surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canlas, Christian P.; Lu, Junling; Ray, Natalie A.; Grosso-Giordano, Nicolas A.; Lee, Sungsik; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Winans, Randall E.; van Duyne, Richard P.; Stair, Peter C.; Notestein, Justin M.

    2012-12-01

    New porous materials such as zeolites, metal-organic frameworks and mesostructured oxides are of immense practical utility for gas storage, separations and heterogeneous catalysis. Their extended pore structures enable selective uptake of molecules or can modify the product selectivity (regioselectivity or enantioselectivity) of catalyst sites contained within. However, diffusion within pores can be problematic for biomass and fine chemicals, and not all catalyst classes can be readily synthesized with pores of the correct dimensions. Here, we present a novel approach that adds reactant selectivity to existing, non-porous oxide catalysts by first grafting the catalyst particles with single-molecule sacrificial templates, then partially overcoating the catalyst with a second oxide through atomic layer deposition. This technique is used to create sieving layers of Al2O3 (thickness, 0.4-0.7 nm) with ‘nanocavities’ (<2 nm in diameter) on a TiO2 photocatalyst. The additional layers result in selectivity (up to 9:1) towards less hindered reactants in otherwise unselective, competitive photocatalytic oxidations and transfer hydrogenations.

  6. Comparison of surface fluxes and boundary-layer measurements at Arctic terrestrial sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grachev, Andrey; Uttal, Taneil; Persson, Ola; Stone, Robert; Crepinsek, Sara; Albee, Robert; Makshtas, Alexander; Kustov, Vasily; Repina, Irina; Artamonov, Arseniy

    2014-05-01

    Observational evidence suggests that atmospheric energy fluxes are a major contributor to the decrease of the Arctic pack ice, seasonal land snow cover and the warming of the surrounding land areas and permafrost layers. To better understand the atmosphere-surface exchange mechanisms, improve models, and to diagnose climate variability in the Arctic, accurate measurements are required of all components of the net surface energy budget and the carbon dioxide cycle over representative areas and over multiple years. This study analyzes and discusses variability of surface fluxes and basic meteorological parameters based on measurements made at several long-term research observatories near the coast of the Arctic Ocean located in USA (Barrow), Canada (Eureka), and Russia (Tiksi). Tower-based eddy covariance and solar radiation measurements provide a long-term near continuous temporal record of hourly average mass and energy fluxes respectively. The turbulent fluxes of the momentum, sensible heat, water vapor, and carbon dioxide are supported by additional atmospheric and surface/snow/permafrost measurements (mean wind speed, air temperature and humidity, upwelling and downwelling short-wave and long-wave atmospheric and surface radiation, snow depth, surface albedo, soil heat flux, active layer temperature profiles etc.) In this study we compare annual cycles of surface fluxes including solar radiation and other ancillary data to describe four seasons in the Arctic including spring onset of melt and fall onset of snow accumulation. Particular interest is a transition through freezing point, i.e. during transition from winter to spring and from summer to fall, when the carbon dioxide and/or water vapor turbulent fluxes change their direction. According to our data, in a summer period observed temporal variability of the carbon dioxide flux was generally in anti-phase with water vapor flux (downward CO2 flux and upward H2O flux). On average the turbulent flux of carbon

  7. Layer-by-layer assembly of conjugated polyelectrolytes on magnetic nanoparticle surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bin; Zhang, Yang; Gu, Ke-Jun; Shen, Qun-Dong; Yang, Yan; Song, Heng

    2009-05-19

    Composite nanoparticles with magnetic core and fluorescent shell were facilely prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition of conjugated polyelectrolytes over the negatively charged nanoparticles (NPs) of superparamagnetic iron oxide. The alternate assembly of cationic and anionic fluorescent polyelectrolytes leads to reversal in the sign of zeta-potentials. The even numbers of adsorption layer corresponding to the anionic polyelectrolyte (PFS) have negative values (-13 to -24 mV), whereas odd numbers of coating relative to the cationic polyelectrolyte (PFN) have positive values (26 to 28 mV). The composite nanoparticles can respond to both external magnetic field and ultraviolet light excitation. Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between oppositely charged polyelectrolytes (PFN and ThPFS) layers was also found, indicating dense packing of the polymer coatings. The fluorescence of the positively charged nanoparticles (NPs/PFN) can be quenched with very high efficiency by a small molecule anionic quencher [Fe(CN)6(4-)], while the same quencher has far less effect on the fluorescence of the negatively charged nanoparticles (NPs/PFN/PFS).

  8. Shear-induced surface alignment of polymer dispersed liquid crystal microdroplets on the boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.; Singh, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin films have been deposited on a glass substrate, utilizing the processes of polymerization and solvent evaporation induced phase separation. Liquid crystal microdroplets trapped on the upper surface of the thin film respond to the shear stress due to air or gas flow on the surface layer. Response to an applied step shear stress input on the surface layer has been measured by measuring the time response of the transmitted light intensity. Initial results on the measurements of the light transmission as a function of the air flow differential pressure indicate that these systems offer features suitable for boundary layer and gas flow sensors.

  9. Surface Display of Foreign Epitopes on the Lactobacillus brevis S-Layer

    PubMed Central

    Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Kylä-Nikkilä, Kari; Kahala, Minna; Miikkulainen-Lahti, Terhi; Palva, Airi

    2002-01-01

    So far, the inability to establish viable Lactobacillus surface layer (S-layer) null mutants has hampered the biotechnological applications of Lactobacillus S-layers. In this study, we demonstrate the utilization of Lactobacillus brevis S-layer subunits (SlpA) for the surface display of foreign antigenic epitopes. With an inducible expression system, L. brevis strains producing chimeric S-layers were obtained after testing of four insertion sites in the slpA gene for poliovirus epitope VP1, that comprises 10 amino acids. The epitope insertion site allowing the best surface expression was used for the construction of an integration vector carrying the gene region encoding the c-Myc epitopes from the human c-myc proto-oncogene, which is composed of 11 amino acids. A gene replacement system was optimized for L. brevis and used for the replacement of the wild-type slpA gene with the slpA-c-myc construct. A uniform S-layer, displaying on its surface the desired antigen in all of the S-layer protein subunits, was obtained. The success of the gene replacement and expression of the uniform SlpA-c-Myc recombinant S-layer was confirmed by PCR, Southern blotting MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, the integrity of the recombinant S-layer was studied by electron microscopy, which indicated that the S-layer lattice structure was not affected by the presence of c-Myc epitopes. To our knowledge, this is the first successful expression of foreign epitopes in every S-layer subunit of a Lactobacillus S-layer while still maintaining the S-layer lattice structure. PMID:12450814

  10. Surface display of foreign epitopes on the Lactobacillus brevis S-layer.

    PubMed

    Avall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Kylä-Nikkilä, Kari; Kahala, Minna; Miikkulainen-Lahti, Terhi; Palva, Airi

    2002-12-01

    So far, the inability to establish viable Lactobacillus surface layer (S-layer) null mutants has hampered the biotechnological applications of Lactobacillus S-layers. In this study, we demonstrate the utilization of Lactobacillus brevis S-layer subunits (SlpA) for the surface display of foreign antigenic epitopes. With an inducible expression system, L. brevis strains producing chimeric S-layers were obtained after testing of four insertion sites in the slpA gene for poliovirus epitope VP1, that comprises 10 amino acids. The epitope insertion site allowing the best surface expression was used for the construction of an integration vector carrying the gene region encoding the c-Myc epitopes from the human c-myc proto-oncogene, which is composed of 11 amino acids. A gene replacement system was optimized for L. brevis and used for the replacement of the wild-type slpA gene with the slpA-c-myc construct. A uniform S-layer, displaying on its surface the desired antigen in all of the S-layer protein subunits, was obtained. The success of the gene replacement and expression of the uniform SlpA-c-Myc recombinant S-layer was confirmed by PCR, Southern blotting MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, the integrity of the recombinant S-layer was studied by electron microscopy, which indicated that the S-layer lattice structure was not affected by the presence of c-Myc epitopes. To our knowledge, this is the first successful expression of foreign epitopes in every S-layer subunit of a Lactobacillus S-layer while still maintaining the S-layer lattice structure.

  11. Surface Disinfection Enabled by a Layer-by-Layer Thin Film of Polyelectrolyte-Stabilized Reduced Graphene Oxide upon Solar Near-Infrared Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hui, Liwei; Auletta, Jeffrey T; Huang, Zhiyu; Chen, Xiang; Xia, Fei; Yang, Shangfeng; Liu, Haitao; Yang, Lihua

    2015-05-20

    We report an antibacterial surface that kills airborne bacteria on contact upon minutes of solar near-infrared (NIR) irradiation. This antibacterial surface employs reduced graphene oxide (rGO), a well-known near-infrared photothermal conversion agent, as the photosensitizer and is prepared by assembling oppositely charged polyelectrolyte-stabilized rGO sheets (PEL-rGO) on a quartz substrate with the layer-by-layer (LBL) technique. Upon solar irradiation, the resulting PEL-rGO LBL multilayer efficiently generates rapid localized heating and, within minutes, kills >90% airborne bacteria, including antibiotic-tolerant persisters, on contact, likely by permeabilizing their cellular membranes. The observed activity is retained even when the PEL-rGO LBL multilayer is placed underneath a piece of 3 mm thick pork tissue, indicating that solar light in the near-infrared region plays dominant roles in the observed activity. This work may pave the way toward NIR-light-activated antibacterial surfaces, and our PEL-rGO LBL multilayer may be a novel surface coating material for conveniently disinfecting biomedical implants and common objects touched by people in daily life in the looming postantibiotic era with only minutes of solar exposure.

  12. Surface-Activated Coupling Reactions Confined on a Surface.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lei; Liu, Pei Nian; Lin, Nian

    2015-10-20

    Chemical reactions may take place in a pure phase of gas or liquid or at the interface of two phases (gas-solid or liquid-solid). Recently, the emerging field of "surface-confined coupling reactions" has attracted intensive attention. In this process, reactants, intermediates, and products of a coupling reaction are adsorbed on a solid-vacuum or a solid-liquid interface. The solid surface restricts all reaction steps on the interface, in other words, the reaction takes place within a lower-dimensional, for example, two-dimensional, space. Surface atoms that are fixed in the surface and adatoms that move on the surface often activate the surface-confined coupling reactions. The synergy of surface morphology and activity allow some reactions that are inefficient or prohibited in the gas or liquid phase to proceed efficiently when the reactions are confined on a surface. Over the past decade, dozens of well-known "textbook" coupling reactions have been shown to proceed as surface-confined coupling reactions. In most cases, the surface-confined coupling reactions were discovered by trial and error, and the reaction pathways are largely unknown. It is thus highly desirable to unravel the mechanisms, mechanisms of surface activation in particular, of the surface-confined coupling reactions. Because the reactions take place on surfaces, advanced surface science techniques can be applied to study the surface-confined coupling reactions. Among them, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are the two most extensively used experimental tools. The former resolves submolecular structures of individual reactants, intermediates, and products in real space, while the latter monitors the chemical states during the reactions in real time. Combination of the two methods provides unprecedented spatial and temporal information on the reaction pathways. The experimental findings are complemented by theoretical modeling. In particular, density

  13. Three-layer model for the surface second-harmonic generation yield including multiple reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Sean M.; Mendoza, Bernardo S.

    2016-09-01

    We present the three-layer model to calculate the surface second-harmonic generation (SSHG) yield. This model considers that the surface is represented by three regions or layers. The first layer is the vacuum region with a dielectric function ɛv(ω ) =1 from where the fundamental electric field impinges on the material. The second layer is a thin layer (ℓ ) of thickness d characterized by a dielectric function ɛℓ(ω ) , and it is in this layer where the SSHG takes place. The third layer is the bulk region denoted by b and characterized by ɛb(ω ) . Both the vacuum and bulk layers are semi-infinite. The model includes the multiple reflections of both the fundamental and the second-harmonic (SH) fields that take place at the thin layer ℓ . We obtain explicit expressions for the SSHG yield for the commonly used s and p polarizations of the incoming 1 ω and outgoing 2 ω electric fields, where no assumptions for the symmetry of the surface are made. These symmetry assumptions ultimately determine which components of the surface nonlinear second-order susceptibility tensor χ (-2 ω ;ω ,ω ) are different from zero, and thus contribute to the SSHG yield. Then, we particularize the results for the most commonly investigated surfaces, the (001), (110), and (111) crystallographic faces, taking their symmetries into account. We use the three-layer model and compare it against the experimental results of a Si(111)(1 ×1 ):H surface, as a test case, and use it to predict the SSHG yield of a Si(001)(2 ×1 ) surface.

  14. Surface activation-based nanobonding and interconnection at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howlader, M. M. R.; Yamauchi, A.; Suga, T.

    2011-02-01

    Flip chip nanobonding and interconnect system (NBIS) equipment with high precision alignment has been developed based on the surface activated bonding method for high-density interconnection and MEMS packaging. The 3σ alignment accuracy in the IR transmission system was approximately ±0.2 µm. The performance of the NBIS has been preliminarily investigated through bonding between relatively rough surfaces of copper through silicon vias (Cu-TSVs) and gold-stud bumps (Au-SBs), and smooth surfaces of silicon wafers. The Cu-TSVs of 55 µm diameter and the Au-SBs of 35 µm diameter with ~6-10 nm surface roughness (RMS) were bonded at room temperature after surface activation using an argon fast atom beam (Ar-FAB) under 0.16 N per bump. Silicon wafers of 50 mm diameter with ~0.2 nm RMS surface roughness were bonded without heating after surface activation. Void-free interfaces both in Cu-TSV/Au-SB and silicon/silicon with bonding strength equivalent to bulk fracture of Au and silicon, respectively, were achieved. A few nm thick amorphous layers were observed across the silicon/silicon interface that was fabricated by the Ar-FAB. This study in the interconnection and bonding facilitates the required three-dimensional integration on the same surface for high-density electronic and biomedical systems.

  15. Surface chemistry for molecular layer deposition of organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymers.

    PubMed

    George, Steven M; Yoon, Byunghoon; Dameron, Arrelaine A

    2009-04-21

    The fabrication of many devices in modern technology requires techniques for growing thin films. As devices miniaturize, manufacturers will need to control thin film growth at the atomic level. Because many devices have challenging morphologies, thin films must be able to coat conformally on structures with high aspect ratios. Techniques based on atomic layer deposition (ALD), a special type of chemical vapor deposition, allow for the growth of ultra-thin and conformal films of inorganic materials using sequential, self-limiting reactions. Molecular layer deposition (MLD) methods extend this strategy to include organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymeric materials. In this Account, we provide an overview of the surface chemistry for the MLD of organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymers and examine a variety of surface chemistry strategies for growing polymer thin films. Previously, surface chemistry for the MLD of organic polymers such as polyamides and polyimides has used two-step AB reaction cycles using homo-bifunctional reactants. However, these reagents can react twice and eliminate active sites on the growing polymer surface. To avoid this problem, we can employ alternative precursors for MLD based on hetero-bifunctional reactants and ring-opening reactions. We can also use surface activation or protected chemical functional groups. In addition, we can combine the reactants for ALD and MLD to grow hybrid organic-inorganic polymers that should display interesting properties. For example, using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and various diols as reactants, we can achieve the MLD of alucone organic-inorganic polymers. We can alter the chemical and physical properties of these organic-inorganic polymers by varying the organic constituent in the diol or blending the alucone MLD films with purely inorganic ALD films to build a nanocomposite or nanolaminate. The combination of ALD and MLD reactants enlarges the number of possible sequential self-limiting surface

  16. Quantitative Collection and Enzymatic Activity of Glucose Oxidase Nanotubes Fabricated by Templated Layer-by-Layer Assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouwei; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Jonas, Alain M

    2015-08-10

    We report on the fabrication of enzyme nanotubes in nanoporous polycarbonate membranes via the layer-by-layer (LbL) alternate assembly of polyethylenimine (PEI) and glucose oxidase (GOX), followed by dissolution of the sacrificial template in CH2Cl2, collection, and final dispersion in water. An adjuvant-assisted filtration methodology is exploited to extract quantitatively the nanotubes without loss of activity and morphology. Different water-soluble CH2Cl2-insoluble adjuvants are tested for maximal enzyme activity and nanotube stability; whereas NaCl disrupts the tubes by screening electrostatic interactions, the high osmotic pressure created by fructose also contributes to loosening the nanotubular structures. These issues are solved when using neutral, high molar mass dextran. The enzymatic activity of intact free nanotubes in water is then quantitatively compared to membrane-embedded nanotubes, showing that the liberated nanotubes have a higher catalytic activity in proportion to their larger exposed surface. Our study thus discloses a robust and general methodology for the fabrication and quantitative collection of enzymatic nanotubes and shows that LbL assembly provides access to efficient enzyme carriers for use as catalytic swarming agents.

  17. A model for the volume regulatory mechanism of the Airway Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Michael; Rubinstein, Michael; Davis, C. William; Tarran, Robert; Boucher, Richard

    2006-03-01

    The airway surface layer (ASL) of a lung consists of two parts: a mucus layer with thickness of about 30 μm in contact with air and a periciliary layer (PCL) of about 7 μm below. Mucus collects dust and bacteria and is swept to throat by beating cilia, while riding on top of PCL. It is important that the thickness of PCL is matched with the length of cilia in order to optimize clearance of mucus. Decrease of PCL thickness would finally lead to an occlusion of the respiratory system. Experiments show that the height of PCL stays constant after removing mucus. When modifying height or composition of this open PCL by removing fluid or adding isotonic solution leads to the same final height of PCL. Thus, there must be a regulatory mechanism, that controls height, i.e. ASL volume. Additional experiments show that mechanical stimulus of the cells like shear leads to an increase of ASL volume, thus, the cell is able to actively adjust this volume. Based on these observations a class of models is introduced that describes the experiments and a specific minimum model for the given problem is proposed.

  18. Surface modification of silk fibroin fabric using layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition and heparin immobilization for small-diameter vascular prostheses.

    PubMed

    Elahi, M Fazley; Guan, Guoping; Wang, Lu; Zhao, Xinzhe; Wang, Fujun; King, Martin W

    2015-03-03

    There is an urgent need to develop a biologically active implantable small-diameter vascular prosthesis with long-term patency. Silk-fibroin-based small-diameter vascular prosthesis is a promising candidate having higher patency rate; however, the surface modification is indeed required to improve its further hemocompatibility. In this study, silk fibroin fabric was modified by a two-stage process. First, the surface of silk fibroin fabric was coated using a layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition technique by stepwise dipping the silk fibroin fabric into a solution of cationic poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and anionic poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) solution. The dipping procedure was repeated to obtain the PAH/PAA multilayers deposited on the silk fibroin fabrics. Second, the polyelectrolyte-deposited silk fibroin fabrics were treated in EDC/NHS-activated low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) solution at 4 °C for 24 h, resulting in immobilization of LMWH on the silk fibroin fabrics surface. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray data revealed the accomplishment of LMWH immobilization on the polyelectrolyte-deposited silk fibroin fabric surface. The higher the number of PAH/PAA coating layers on the silk fibroin fabric, the more surface hydrophilicity could be obtained, resulting in a higher fetal bovine serum protein and platelets adhesion resistance properties when tested in vitro. In addition, compared with untreated sample, the surface-modified silk fibroin fabrics showed negligible loss of bursting strength and thus reveal the acceptability of polyelectrolytes deposition and heparin immobilization approach for silk-fibroin-based small-diameter vascular prostheses modification.

  19. Characteristics of surface layer proteins from two new and native strains of Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Mobarak Qamsari, Elahe; Kasra Kermanshahi, Rouha; Erfan, Mohammad; Ghadam, Parinaz; Sardari, Soroush; Eslami, Neda

    2017-02-01

    In this work, some important characteristics of surface layer (S-layer) proteins extracted from two new and native Lactobacillus strains, L.brevis KM3 and L.brevis KM7, were investigated. The presence of S-layer on the external surface of L.brevis KM3 was displayed by thin sectioning and negative staining. SDS-PAGE analysis were shown same dominant protein bands approximately around 48kDa for both S-layer proteins. Moreover, the S-layer reappeared when LiCl treated cells were allowed to grow again. Protein secondary structure and thermal behavior were evaluated by using circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. Both S-layer proteins had high content of β-sheet and low amount of α-helix. The thermograms of lyophilized S-layer proteins of L.brevis KM3 and L.brevis KM7 showed one transition peak at 67.9°C and 59.14°C, respectively. To determine monodispersity of extracted S-layer proteins, dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used. The results indicated that the main population of S-layer molecules in two tested lactobacillus strains were composed of monomer with an expected diameter close to 10nm. Furthermore, Zeta potential measurements were showed positive potential for both S-layer proteins, as expected. Our results could be used as the basis for biotechnological applications of these two new S-layer proteins.

  20. Fluid-membrane tethers: Minimal surfaces and elastic boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Thomas R.; Huber, Greg; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2002-04-01

    Thin cylindrical tethers are common lipid bilayer membrane structures, arising in situations ranging from micromanipulation experiments on artificial vesicles to the dynamic structure of the Golgi apparatus. We study the shape and formation of a tether in terms of the classical soap-film problem, which is applied to the case of a membrane disk under tension subject to a point force. A tether forms from the elastic boundary layer near the point of application of the force, for sufficiently large displacement. Analytic results for various aspects of the membrane shape are given.

  1. Evaluation of parameterization for turbulent fluxes of momentum and heat in stably stratified surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodemann, H.; Foken, Th.

    2003-04-01

    General Circulation Models calculate the energy exchange between surface and atmosphere by means of parameterisations for turbulent fluxes of momentum and heat in the surface layer. However, currently implemented parameterisations after Louis (1979) create large discrepancies between predictions and observational data, especially in stably stratified surface layers. This work evaluates a new surface layer parameterisation proposed by Zilitinkevich et al. (2002), which was specifically developed to improve energy flux predictions in stable stratification. The evaluation comprises a detailed study of important surface layer characteristics, a sensitivity study of the parameterisation, and a direct comparison to observational data from Antarctica and predictions by the Louis (1979) parameterisation. The stability structure of the stable surface layer was found to be very complex, and strongly influenced fluxes in the surface layer. The sensitivity study revealed that the new parameterisation depends strongly on the ratio between roughness length and roughness temperature, which were both observed to be very variable parameters. The comparison between predictions and measurements showed good agreement for momentum fluxes, but large discrepancies for heat fluxes. A stability dependent evaluation of selected data showed better agreement for the new parameterisation of Zilitinkevich et al. (2002) than for the Louis (1979) scheme. Nevertheless, this comparison underlines the need for more detailed and physically sound concepts for parameterisations of heat fluxes in stably stratified surface layers. Zilitinkevich, S. S., V. Perov and J. C. King (2002). "Near-surface turbulent fluxes in stable stratification: Calculation techniques for use in General Circulation Models." Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128(583): 1571--1587. Louis, J. F. (1979). "A Parametric Model of Vertical Eddy Fluxes in the Atmosphere." Bound.-Layer Meteor. 17(2): 187--202.

  2. Theoretical study for heterojunction surface of NEA GaN photocathode dispensed with Cs activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Wang, Honggang; Wang, Meishan; Kong, Yike

    2016-09-01

    For the disadvantages of conventional negative electron affinity (NEA) GaN photocathodes activated by Cs or Cs/O, new-type NEA GaN photocathodes with heterojunction surface dispensed with Cs activation are investigated based on first-principle study with density functional theory. Through the growth of an ultrathin n-type GaN cap layer on p-type GaN emission layer, a p-n heterojunction is formed on the surface. According to the calculation results, it is found that Si atoms tend to replace Ga atoms to result in an n-type doped cap layer which contributes to the decreasing of work function. After the growth of n-type GaN cap layer, the atom structure near the p-type emission layer is changed while that away from the surface has no obvious variations. By analyzing the E-Mulliken charge distribution of emission surface with and without cap layer, it is found that the positive charge of Ga and Mg atoms in the emission layer decrease caused by the cap layer, while the negative charge of N atom increases. The conduction band moves downwards after the growth of cap layer. Si atom produces donor levels around the valence band maximum. The absorption coefficient of GaN emission layer decreases and the reflectivity increases caused by n-type GaN cap layer.

  3. Stormwater infiltration and surface runoff pollution reduction performance of permeable pavement layers.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhi-Guang; Lv, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Zhen-Zhen

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the laboratory-scale permeable pavement layers, including a surface permeable brick layer, coarse sand bedding layers (thicknesses = 2, 3.5, and 5 cm), and single-graded gravel sub-base layers (thicknesses = 15, 20, 25, and 30 cm), were built to evaluate stormwater infiltration and surface runoff pollution reduction performance. And, the infiltration rate (I) and concentrations of suspended solids (SS), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen (TN) were measured under the simulated rainfall intensity of 72.4 mm/h over duration of 60 min. The results indicate that the thickness factor primarily influences the infiltration rate and pollutant removal rate. The highest steady infiltration rate was for surface brick layer 51.0 mm/h, for 5-cm sand bedding layer 32.3 mm/h, and for 30-cm gravel sub-base layer 42.3 mm/h, respectively. The SS average removal rate was relative higher (79.8 ∼ 98.6 %) for all layers due to the interception and filtration. The average removal rates of TP and COD were for surface layer 71.2 and 24.1 %, for 5-cm bedding layer 54.8 and 9.0 %, and for 20-cm sub-base layer 72.2 and 26.1 %. Ammonia nitrogen and TN cannot steadily be removed by layers according to the experiment results. The optimal thickness of bedding sands was 5 cm, and that of sub-base gravels was 20 ∼ 30 cm.

  4. Modification of surface layer of magnesium oxide via partial dissolution and re-growth of crystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiming; Wei, Lingyan; Yan, Tingting; Zhou, Ming

    2011-02-01

    A procedure to modify surface layer of metal oxide is presented. By way of partial dissolution and re-growth of crystallites, a new MgO surface layer on the “core” of the original MgO particles was formed. XRD analyses indicate that the new surface layer is different from the original MgO particles in crystallinity. Thus a higher reducibility of surface non-lattice oxygen species is generated. As the extent of dissolution and re-growth of crystallites increased, reducible surface non-lattice oxygen species increased, which led to a lowering of surface non-lattice oxygen concentration on the X%-MgO catalysts in the OCM reaction atmosphere. This is considered to be the major reason for decreasing of CO2 formation.

  5. Two-Layer Variable Infiltration Capacity Land Surface Representation for General Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, L.

    1994-01-01

    A simple two-layer variable infiltration capacity (VIC-2L) land surface model suitable for incorporation in general circulation models (GCMs) is described. The model consists of a two-layer characterization of the soil within a GCM grid cell, and uses an aerodynamic representation of latent and sensible heat fluxes at the land surface. The effects of GCM spatial subgrid variability of soil moisture and a hydrologically realistic runoff mechanism are represented in the soil layers. The model was tested using long-term hydrologic and climatalogical data for Kings Creek, Kansas to estimate and validate the hydrological parameters. Surface flux data from three First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiments (FIFE) intensive field compaigns in the summer and fall of 1987 in central Kansas, and from the Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) in Brazil were used to validate the mode-simulated surface energy fluxes and surface temperature.

  6. Performance surfaces of a single-layer perceptron.

    PubMed

    Shynk, J J

    1990-01-01

    A perceptron learning algorithm may be viewed as a steepest-descent method whereby an instantaneous performance function is iteratively minimized. An appropriate performance function for the most widely used perceptron algorithm is described and it is shown that the update term of the algorithm is the gradient of this function. An example is given of the corresponding performance surface based on Gaussian assumptions and it is shown that there is an infinity of stationary points. The performance surfaces of two related performance functions are examined. Computer simulations that demonstrate the convergence properties of the adaptive algorithms are given.

  7. Surface characterization and orientation interaction between diamond- like carbon layer structure and dimeric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naradikian, H.; Petrov, M.; Katranchev, B.; Milenov, T.; Tinchev, S.

    2017-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) and amorphous carbon films are very promising type of semiconductor materials. Depending on the hybridization sp2/sp3 ratio, the material’s band gap varies between 0.8 and 3 eV. Moreover carbon films possess different interesting for practice properties: comparable to the Silicon, Diamond like structure has 22-time better thermal conductivity etc. Here we present one type of implementation of such type nanostructure. That is one attempt for orientation of dimeric LC by using of pre-deposited DLC layer with different ratio of sp2/sp3 hybridized carbon content. It could be expected a pronounced π1-π2interaction between s and p orbital levels on the surface and the dimeric ring of LC. We present comparison of surface anchoring strengths of both orientation inter-surfaces DLC/dimeric LC and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)/dimeric LC. The mechanism of interaction of dimeric LC and activated surfaces with DLC or SWCNT will be discussed. In both cases we have π-π interaction, which in combination with hydrogen bonding, typical for the dimeric LCs, influence the LC alignment. The Raman spectroscopy data evidenced the presence of charge transfer between contacting hexagonal rings of DLC and the C = O groups of the LC molecules.

  8. Excellent c-Si surface passivation by low-temperature atomic layer deposited titanium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Baochen; Hoex, Bram; Aberle, Armin G.; Chi, Dongzhi; Bhatia, Charanjit S.

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that thermal atomic layer deposited (ALD) titanium oxide (TiOx) films are able to provide a—up to now unprecedented—level of surface passivation on undiffused low-resistivity crystalline silicon (c-Si). The surface passivation provided by the ALD TiOx films is activated by a post-deposition anneal and subsequent light soaking treatment. Ultralow effective surface recombination velocities down to 2.8 cm/s and 8.3 cm/s, respectively, are achieved on n-type and p-type float-zone c-Si wafers. Detailed analysis confirms that the TiOx films are nearly stoichiometric, have no significant level of contaminants, and are of amorphous nature. The passivation is found to be stable after storage in the dark for eight months. These results demonstrate that TiOx films are also capable of providing excellent passivation of undiffused c-Si surfaces on a comparable level to thermal silicon oxide, silicon nitride, and aluminum oxide. In addition, it is well known that TiOx has an optimal refractive index of 2.4 in the visible range for glass encapsulated solar cells, as well as a low extinction coefficient. Thus, the results presented in this work could facilitate the re-emergence of TiOx in the field of high-efficiency silicon wafer solar cells.

  9. Excellent c-Si surface passivation by low-temperature atomic layer deposited titanium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Baochen; Hoex, Bram; Aberle, Armin G.; Bhatia, Charanjit S.; Chi, Dongzhi

    2014-06-23

    In this work, we demonstrate that thermal atomic layer deposited (ALD) titanium oxide (TiO{sub x}) films are able to provide a—up to now unprecedented—level of surface passivation on undiffused low-resistivity crystalline silicon (c-Si). The surface passivation provided by the ALD TiO{sub x} films is activated by a post-deposition anneal and subsequent light soaking treatment. Ultralow effective surface recombination velocities down to 2.8 cm/s and 8.3 cm/s, respectively, are achieved on n-type and p-type float-zone c-Si wafers. Detailed analysis confirms that the TiO{sub x} films are nearly stoichiometric, have no significant level of contaminants, and are of amorphous nature. The passivation is found to be stable after storage in the dark for eight months. These results demonstrate that TiO{sub x} films are also capable of providing excellent passivation of undiffused c-Si surfaces on a comparable level to thermal silicon oxide, silicon nitride, and aluminum oxide. In addition, it is well known that TiO{sub x} has an optimal refractive index of 2.4 in the visible range for glass encapsulated solar cells, as well as a low extinction coefficient. Thus, the results presented in this work could facilitate the re-emergence of TiO{sub x} in the field of high-efficiency silicon wafer solar cells.

  10. Rapid Melt and Resolidification of Surface Layers Using Intense, Pulsed Ion Beams Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, Timothy J. Turman, Bob Senft, Donna Sorensen, Neil R. Stinnett, Regan Greenly, John B. Thompson, Michael O. Buchheit, Rudolph G.

    1998-10-02

    The emerging technology of pulsed intense ion beams has been shown to lead to improvements in surface characteristics such as hardness and wear resistance, as well as mechanical smoothing. We report hereon the use of this technology to systematically study improvements to three types of metal alloys - aluminum, iron, and titanium. Ion beam tieatment produces a rapid melt and resolidification (RMR) of the surface layer. In the case of a predeposited thin-fihn layer, the beam mixes this layer into the substrate, Ieading to improvements that can exceed those produced by treatment of the alloy alone, In either case, RMR results in both crystal refinement and metastable state formation in the treated surface layer not accessible by conventional alloy production. Although more characterization is needed, we have begun the process of relating these microstructural changes to the surface improvements we discuss in this report.

  11. A manufacturing method for multi-layer polysilicon surface-micromachining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    An advanced manufacturing technology which provides multi-layered polysilicon surface micromachining technology for advanced weapon systems is presented. Specifically, the addition of another design layer to a 4 levels process to create a 5 levels process allows consideration of fundamentally new architecture in designs for weapon advanced surety components.

  12. [Study on the modified surface layers of the CIGS thin films by Raman spectra].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Sun, Yun; Li, Feng-Yan; He, Qing; Li, Chang-Jian; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2007-04-01

    In the present paper, the properties of Cu(In(1-x) Ga(x)) Se2 (CIGS) thin film absorber materials for the solar cells obtained by selenization of the precursors with In-rich or CuGa-rich surface layers were studied by XRD, SEM and Raman spectra. The photovoltaic devices based on the absorbers were measured and analyzed by illuminated J-V curve subsequently. The performance of the device constructed by the absorbers obtained by selenization of the precursors with CuGa-rich surface layer was improved greatly compared to that with In-rich surface layer. Through Raman spectra measurement, it was found that the Raman peak of the A1 mode was shifted for the CuGa-rich one, which is verified that the band gap of the surface layers was elevated. Moreover the value of increased Ga contents within the surface region of films were calculated by the relation between the Raman shifts and the Ga contents. As a result, the devices based on the thin films with the elevated surface energy band by selenizing the precursors with the CuGa-rich surface layer improved further the V(oc) and FF by about 74 mV and 8% respectively compared to that of corresponding to the one with In-rich surface layers, so that the conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic devices based on these thin films with CuGa-rich surface layer was improved by up to 9.4%. Meanwhile Raman scattering spectroscopy has proven to be a very powerful and useful technique for the surface analysis of such thin film solar cell semiconducuor materials.

  13. Local and Sustained Activity of Doxycycline Delivered with Layer-by-Layer Microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dong; Gould, David J; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2016-04-11

    Achieving localized delivery of small molecule drugs has the potential to increase efficacy and reduce off target and side effects associated with systemic distribution. Herein, we explore the potential use of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled microcapsules for the delivery of doxycycline. Absorbance of doxycycline onto core dextran sulfate of preassembled microcapsules provides an efficient method to load both synthetic and biodegradable microcapsules with the drug. Application of an outer layer lipid coat enhances the sustained in vitro release of doxycycline from both microcapsule types. To monitor doxycycline delivery in a biological system, C2C12 mouse myoblasts are engineered to express EGFP under the control of the optimized components of the tetracycline regulated gene expression system. Microcapsules are not toxic to these cells, and upon delivery to the cells, EGFP is more efficiently induced in those cells that contain engulfed microcapsules and monitored EGFP expression clearly demonstrates that synthetic microcapsules with a DPPC coat are the most efficient for sustain intracellular delivery. Doxycycline released from microcapsules also displayed sustained activity in an antimicrobial growth inhibition assay compared with doxycycline solution. This study reveals the potential for LbL microcapsules in small molecule drug delivery and their feasible use for achieving prolonged doxycycline activity.

  14. Coat formation of surface-active proteins on aqueous surfaces during drying.

    PubMed

    Nijdam, J; Trouillet, V; Kachel, S; Scharfer, P; Schabel, W; Kind, M

    2014-11-01

    Segregation of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lactose in thin aqueous films during drying was investigated by examining the composition of the dried films using inverse micro Raman spectroscopy (IMRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) sputter-depth profiling. The composition was uniform through the thickness of the dried films except within a 10nm region at the exposed surface where BSA had accumulated, most likely due to its surface activity. The thickness of the BSA layer was similar to the diameter of a BSA molecule, which suggests that a single monolayer of BSA adsorbed at the exposed surface. The BSA surface concentration of the dried films was constant over a wide range of BSA bulk concentrations, indicating that the aqueous surface became saturated with BSA during drying. The BSA surface layer of order 10nm was significantly thinner than the film thickness of order 10 μm, which implies that BSA formed a surface coating rather than a shell, and thus lent no structural rigidity to the film.

  15. Immobilization of Active Bacteriophages on Polyhydroxyalkanoate Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chanchan; Sauvageau, Dominic; Elias, Anastasia

    2016-01-20

    A rapid, efficient technique for the attachment of bacteriophages (phages) onto polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) surfaces has been developed and compared to three reported methods for phage immobilization. Polymer surfaces were modified to facilitate phage attachment using (1) plasma treatment alone, (2) plasma treatment followed by activation by 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS), (3) plasma-initiated acrylic acid grafting, or (4) plasma-initiated acrylic acid grafting with activation by EDC and sulfo-NHS. The impact of each method on the surface chemistry of PHA was investigated using contact angle analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Each of the four treatments was shown to result in both increased hydrophilicity and in the modification of the surface functional groups. Modified surfaces were immersed in suspensions of phage T4 for immobilization. The highest level of phage binding was observed for the surfaces modified by plasma treatment alone. The change in chemical bond states observed for surfaces that underwent plasma treatment is suspected to be the cause of the increased binding of active phages. Plasma-treated surfaces were further analyzed through phage-staining and fluorescence microscopy to assess the surface density of immobilized phages and their capacity to capture hosts. The infective capability of attached phages was confirmed by exposing the phage-immobilized surfaces to the host bacteria Escherichia coli in both plaque and infection dynamic assays. Plasma-treated surfaces with immobilized phages displayed higher infectivity than surfaces treated with other methods; in fact, the equivalent initial multiplicity of infection was 2 orders of magnitude greater than with other methods. Control samples - prepared by immersing polymer surfaces in phage suspensions (without prior plasma treatment) - did not show any bacterial growth inhibition, suggesting they did not bind

  16. Submesoscale Flows and Mixing in the Ocean Surface Layer Using the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Submesoscale Flows and Mixing in the Ocean Surface Layer Using the Regional...long-term goals of this project are to further the insight into the dynamics of submesoscale flow in the oceanic surface layer. Using the regional...oceanic modeling system (ROMS) we aim to understand the impact of submesoscale processes on the mixing at small scales of tracers and the transfer of

  17. Submesoscale Flows and Mixing in the Oceanic Surface Layer Using the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Submesoscale Flows and Mixing in the Oceanic Surface Layer Using the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS) M. Jeroen Molemaker (PI) James C...long-term goals of this project are to further the insight into the dynamics of submesoscale flow in the oceanic surface layer. Using the Regional...Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS), we aim to understand the impact of submesoscale processes on tracer mixing at small scales and the transfer of energy

  18. Nanostructured Hardening of Hard Alloys Surface Layers Through Electron Irradiation in Heavy Inert Gas Plasma Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovcharenko, V. E.; Ivanov, Yu F.; Ivanov, K. V.; Mokhovikov, A. A.; Baohai, Yu; Hua, Xu Yun

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents research and experimental findings which prove that metal ceramic composite surface layer contains micro constituents’ hierarchies in the form of secondary nano sized inclusions inside ceramic phases. These inclusions have typical dimensions from several tens to several hundreds of nano meters. It has been shown that multi level structure-phase condition, developed in a nano sized area, effects physical and tribological properties of a metal ceramic composite surface layer.

  19. The near-neutral atmospheric surface layer: turbulence and non-stationarity.

    PubMed

    Metzger, M; McKeon, B J; Holmes, H

    2007-03-15

    The neutrally stable atmospheric surface layer is used as a physical model of a very high Reynolds number, canonical turbulent boundary layer. Challenges and limitations with this model are addressed in detail, including the inherent thermal stratification, surface roughness and non-stationarity of the atmosphere. Concurrent hot-wire and sonic anemometry data acquired in Utah's western desert provide insight to Reynolds number trends in the axial velocity statistics and spectra.

  20. Formation of monolayer and few-layer hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets via surface segregation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingsheng; Fujita, Daisuke; Chen, Hongzheng; Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2011-07-01

    We report that few-layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets can be produced by using a surface segregation method. The formation of h-BN sheets is via an intermediate boron-nitrogen buffer layer. Our results suggest that surface segregation of boron and nitrogen from a solid source is an alternative approach to tailoring synthesis of h-BN sheets for potential applications such as in graphene electronics.

  1. Radiation and surface waves of a microstrip antenna covered with a dielectric layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoorfar, Ahmad; Gupta, K. C.; Chang, D. C.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a thick cover layer on the radiation characteristics of a microstrip patch antenna are investigated. A magnetic line source model has been used to derive explicit expressions for the far field, radiated power, directivity, and surface wave of the antenna. Numerical results are presented to show the effects of a lossless as well as a lossy dielectric cover layer on the surface waves and the radiated power.

  2. Highly stable surface functionalization of microgas chromatography columns using layer-by-layer self-assembly of silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Shakeel, Hamza; Lovette, John; Rice, Gary W; Heflin, James R; Agah, Masoud

    2013-09-03

    A controllable and high-yield surface functionalization of silicon microchannels using layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of SiO2 nanoparticles (SNPs) is presented. The application of SNPs (45 nm average diameter) coating as a stationary phase for chromatographic separation is also demonstrated with surface functionalization using chloroalkylsilanes. This method facilitates a simple, low-cost, and parallel processing scheme that also provides homogeneous and stable nanoparticle-based stationary phases with ease of control over the coating thickness. The SNP-functionalized microfabricated columns with either single capillary channels (1 m long, 150 μm wide, 240 μm deep) or very narrow multicapillary channels (25 cm long, 30 μm wide, 240 μm deep, 16 parallel channels) successfully separated a multicomponent gas mixture with a wide range of boiling points with high reproducibility.

  3. Near Surface Vapor Bubble Layers in Buoyant Low Stretch Burning of Polymethylmethacrylate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Tien, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Large-scale buoyant low stretch stagnation point diffusion flames over solid fuel (polymethylmethacrylate) were studied for a range of aerodynamic stretch rates of 2-12/ sec which are of the same order as spacecraft ventilation-induced stretch in a microgravity environment. An extensive layer of polymer material above the glass transition temperature is observed. Unique phenomena associated with this extensive glass layer included substantial swelling of the burning surface, in-depth bubble formation, and migration and/or elongation of the bubbles normal to the hot surface. The bubble layer acted to insulate the polymer surface by reducing the effective conductivity of the solid. The reduced in-depth conduction stabilized the flame for longer than expected from theory neglecting the bubble layer. While buoyancy acts to move the bubbles deeper into the molten polymer, thermocapillary forces and surface regression both act to bring the bubbles to the burning surface. Bubble layers may thus be very important in low gravity (low stretch) burning of materials. As bubbles reached the burning surface, monomer fuel vapors jetted from the surface, enhancing burning by entraining ambient air flow. Popping of these bubbles at the surface can expel burning droplets of the molten material, which may increase the fire propagation hazards at low stretch rates.

  4. Enabling organosilicon chemistries on inert polymer surfaces with a vapor-deposited silica layer.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A; Ashurst, W R

    2009-10-06

    Given the large surface area-to-volume ratios commonly encountered in microfluidics applications, the ability to engineer the chemical properties of surfaces encountered in these applications is critically important. However, as various polymers are rapidly replacing glass and silicon as the chosen materials for microfluidics devices, the ability to easily modify the surface chemistry has been diminished by the relatively inert nature of some commonly employed polymer surfaces, such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polystyrene, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This paper describes the low-temperature, vapor-phase deposition of robust silica layers to PMMA, polystyrene, and PDMS surfaces, which enables the functionalization of these surfaces by standard organosilane chemistries. Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy, contact angle goniometry, ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy are used to characterize the silica layers that form on these surfaces. Aqueous immersion experiments indicate that the silica layer has excellent stability in aqueous environments, which is a prerequisite for microfluidics applications, but for PMMA surfaces, low adhesion of the silica layer to the underlying substrate is problematic. For PDMS substrates, the presence of the silica layer helps to slow the process of hydrophobic recovery, which is an additional advantage.

  5. Effect of Initial Microtopography and Ultrasonic Treatment Mode on Steel Surface Layer Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, K. V.; Lychagin, D. V.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-04-01

    The article presents results of studies on the effect of pre-lathed surface micro-relief on surface micro-hardness after ultrasonic plastic treatment, as well as the effect of ultrasonic treatment on structure and properties of surface layers of steels 20 and 40X. The effect of ultrasonic treatment processing modes on roughness and micro-hardness of the surface layers was studied. It is shown that roughness values as well as form of ridges and grooves, obtained by pre-lathing, effect the growth of micro-hardness values after ultrasonic plastic treatment.

  6. Microstructures of Si surface layers implanted with Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follstaedt, D. M.; Myers, S. M.

    Microstructures of Si ion-implanted with Cu have been characterized by TEM after annealing. For 1.2 at.%, the Cu is trapped at planar defects, but for 10 at.%, (eta)-Cu3Si forms and Cu diffuses at its equilibrium solubility. These observations allow proper evaluation of the binding energies of Cu to previously formed internal cavities (2.2 eV) and (eta)-Cu3Si (1.7 eV). The 10 at.% Cu layer promotes oxidation of Si catalyzed by (eta)-Cu3Si. The microstructures also indicate that Si implanted with (approximately)2 at.% Cu reforms epitaxially with embedded defects after 8 hr at 700C, but for (approximately)10 at.% Cu, epitaxy is not recovered after 6 hours at 600C.

  7. Microstructures of Si surface layers implanted with Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Follstaedt, D.M.; Myers, S.M.

    1993-12-31

    Microstructures of Si ion-implanted with Cu have been characterized by TEM after annealing. For 1.2 at.%, the Cu is trapped at planar defects, but for 10 at.%, {eta}-Cu{sub 3}Si forms and Cu diffuses at its equilibrium solubility. These observations allow proper evaluation of the binding energies of Cu to previously formed internal cavities (2.2 eV) and {eta}-Cu{sub 3}Si (1.7 eV). The 10 at.% Cu layer promotes oxidation of Si catalyzed by {eta}-Cu{sub 3}Si. The microstructures also indicate that Si implanted with {approximately}2 at.% Cu reforms epitaxially with embedded defects after 8 hr at 700C, but for {approximately}10 at.% Cu, epitaxy is not recovered after 6 hours at 600C.

  8. On the coupling between a supersonic boundary layer and a flexible surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frendi, Abdelkader; Maestrello, Lucio; Bayliss, Alvin

    1992-01-01

    The coupling between a two-dimensional, supersonic, laminar boundary layer and a flexible surface is studied using direct numerical computations of the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the plate equation. The flexible surface is forced to vibrate by plane acoustic waves at normal incidence emanated by a sound source located on the side of the flexible surface opposite to the boundary layer. The effect of the source excitation frequency on the surface vibration and boundary layer stability is analyzed. We find that, for frequencies near the fifth natural frequency of the surface or lower, large disturbances are introduced in the boundary layer which may alter its stability characteristics. The interaction between a stable two-dimensional disturbance of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) type with the vibrating surface is also studied. We find that the disturbance level is higher over the vrating flexible surface than that obtained when the surface is rig id, which indicates a strong coupling between flow and structure. However, in the absence of the sound source the disturbance level over the rigid and flexible surfaces are identical. This result is due to the high frequency of the TS disturbance which does not couple with the flexible surface.

  9. Discrete-Layer Piezoelectric Plate and Shell Models for Active Tip-Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyliger, P. R.; Ramirez, G.; Pei, K. C.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to develop computational tools for the analysis of active-sensory composite structures with added or embedded piezoelectric layers. The targeted application for this class of smart composite laminates and the analytical development is the accomplishment of active tip-clearance control in turbomachinery components. Two distinct theories and analytical models were developed and explored under this contract: (1) a discrete-layer plate theory and corresponding computational models, and (2) a three dimensional general discrete-layer element generated in curvilinear coordinates for modeling laminated composite piezoelectric shells. Both models were developed from the complete electromechanical constitutive relations of piezoelectric materials, and incorporate both displacements and potentials as state variables. This report describes the development and results of these models. The discrete-layer theories imply that the displacement field and electrostatic potential through-the-thickness of the laminate are described over an individual layer rather than as a smeared function over the thickness of the entire plate or shell thickness. This is especially crucial for composites with embedded piezoelectric layers, as the actuating and sensing elements within these layers are poorly represented by effective or smeared properties. Linear Lagrange interpolation polynomials were used to describe the through-thickness laminate behavior. Both analytic and finite element approximations were used in the plane or surface of the structure. In this context, theoretical developments are presented for the discrete-layer plate theory, the discrete-layer shell theory, and the formulation of an exact solution for simply-supported piezoelectric plates. Finally, evaluations and results from a number of separate examples are presented for the static and dynamic analysis of the plate geometry. Comparisons between the different approaches are provided when

  10. EMF measurements across the front of combustion wave during layer by layer surface laser sintering of exothermal powder compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkovskiy, I.; Sherbakov, V.; Morozov, Yu.

    2007-06-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) and manufacturing (M) is a novel layer-by-layer fabrication technique which has become increasingly popular due to its inherent flexibility for the manufacture of simple and complex 3D parts. Early we had been shown opportunity of selective laser sintering (SLS) of different type powder systems (intermetallics, ceramics, ferrites, high-temperature superconductors), traditional use for self-propagated high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The non-thermal heating affect of an external electromagnetic field during SHS is related to the specific system under study due to differences in movement of defects and ions at the 'plasma-like' molten combustion wave front. We have developed and refined the testing scheme for electro-thermal phenomena studies which can directly influence on the SHS combustion wave front. This work studies electromotive force (EMF) measurements across the front of combustion wave during layer by layer surface laser sintering of exothermal powder compositions (Ni-Ti, Ni-Al). Analysis using an analog-digital-analog computer converter allowed some control of the laser movement and hence some control of the exothermal reaction - in so doing it provided near optimum conditions for forming layered 3D articles. Comparative results of structural-phase transformation during laser control SHS in reaction-capable compositions are presented.

  11. Formation of nanocrystalline layers by surface severe plastic deformation and pulsed plasma electrolytic carburizing.

    PubMed

    Aliofkhazraei, M; Rouhaghdam, A Sabour

    2010-07-01

    Surfaces of various kinds of metallic materials spheres were treated by nanocrystalline surface severe plastic deformation and then pulsed nanocrystalline plasma electrolytic carburizing to study nanocrystalline substrate effect on formation and nano-hardness of hard nanocrystalline layer. The surface layers of the metallic materials developed by the nanocrystalline surface severe plastic deformation were characterized by means of high resolution scanning electron microscope. Nearly equiaxed nanocrystals with grain sizes ranging from 15 to 90 nm were observed in the near surface regions of all metallic materials, which are low carbon steel and commercially pure titanium. The effect of substrate nanocrystallization on growth kinetics and hardness of formed nanocrystalline carbide layer was studied with the means of figure analysis and nanohardness tests. Figure analysis show the length to diameter ratio and distribution curve of nanocrystals and it has been found that the achieved properties of hard layer (growth rate, nano-hardness, nanostructure...) are related to these factors. It was also clarified that these techniques and surface nanocrystallization can be easily achieved in most of metallic materials. Results indicate that the resultant hardened carburized layers exhibited excellent hardness profile. Investigation of the layer characteristics showed strong dependence followed from the treatment experimental parameters as well as the shape of nanocrystals.

  12. Methane oxidation and methane fluxes in the ocean surface layer and deep anoxic waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, B. B.; Kilpatrick, K. A.; Novelli, P. C.; Scranton, M. I.

    1987-01-01

    Measured biological oxidation rates of methane in near-surface waters of the Cariaco Basin are compared with the diffusional fluxes computed from concentration gradients of methane in the surface layer. Methane fluxes and oxidation rates were investigated in surface waters, at the oxic/anoxic interface, and in deep anoxic waters. It is shown that the surface-waters oxidation of methane is a mechanism which modulates the flux of methane from marine waters to the atmosphere.

  13. Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer and Its Application to Electromagnetic Wave Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    An important application of the atmospheric surface layer research is to characterize the near surface vertical gradients in temperature and humidity in order to predict radar and radio communication conditions in the environment. In this presentation, we will give an overview of a new research initiative funded under the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Multi-University Research Initiative (MURI): the Coupled Air-Sea Processes and EM Ducting Research (CASPER). The objective is to fully characterize the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) as an electromagnetic (EM) propagation environment with the emphasis of spatial and temporal heterogeneities and surface wave/swell effects, both of which contravene the underlying assumptions of Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) used in coupled environmental forecast models. Furthermore, coastal variability in the inversion atop the MABL presents a challenge to forecast models and also causes practical issues in EM prediction models. These issues are the target of investigation of CASPER. CASPER measurement component includes two major field campaigns: CASPER-East (2015 Duck, NC) and CASPER-West (2018 southern California). This presentation will show the extensive measurements to be made during the CASPER -East field campaign with the focus on the marine atmospheric surface layer measurements with two research vessels, two research aircraft, surface flux buoy, wave gliders, ocean gliders, tethered balloons, and rawinsondes. Unlike previous research on the marine surface layer with the focus on surface fluxes and surface flux parameterization, CASPER field campaigns also emphasize of the surface layer profiles and the validation of the surface layer flux-profile relationship originally derived over land surfaces. Results from CASPER pilot experiment and preliminary results from CASPER-East field campaign will be discussed.

  14. Synthesis of superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers via combination of surface roughness and fluorination

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun-Kyeong; Yeong Kim, Ji; Sub Kim, Sang

    2013-01-15

    We describe the preparation of superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers through a combination of surface roughness and fluorination. Electrospraying SiO{sub 2} precursor solutions that were prepared by a sol-gel route and included trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane as a fluorination source produced highly rough, fluorinated SiO{sub 2} layers. In sharp contrast to the fluorinated flat SiO{sub 2} layer, the fluorinated rough SiO{sub 2} layer showed much enhanced repellency toward liquid droplets of different surface tensions. The surface fraction and the work of adhesion of the superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers were determined, respectively, based on Cassie-Baxter and Young-Dupre equations. The satisfactory long-term stability for 30 days, the ultraviolet resistance and the thermal stability up to 400 {sup o}C of the superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers prepared in this work confirm a promising practical application. - Graphical abstract: A schematic illustration of the electrospray deposition used for preparing SiO{sub 2} layers. Shapes of liquid droplets of water, glycerol, coffee, juice and milk created on the fluorinated rough SiO{sub 2} layer deposited on a silicon wafer. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers are realized by a combination of surface roughness and fluorination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorinated rough SiO{sub 2} layer shows enhanced repellency toward various liquid droplets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wetting behavior is explained based on Cassie-Baxter and Young-Dupre equations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers confirm a promising practical application.

  15. Layered shielding design for an active neutron interrogation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetstone, Zachary D.; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2016-08-01

    The use of source and detector shields in active neutron interrogation can improve detector signal. In simulations, a shielded detector with a source rotated π/3 rad relative to the opening decreased neutron flux roughly three orders of magnitude. Several realistic source and detector shield configurations were simulated. A layered design reduced neutron and secondary photon flux in the detector by approximately one order of magnitude for a deuterium-tritium source. The shield arrangement can be adapted for a portable, modular design.

  16. A surface layer variance heat budget for ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucharel, Julien; Timmermann, Axel; Santoso, Agus; England, Matthew H.; Jin, Fei-Fei; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.

    2015-05-01

    Characteristics of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), such as frequency, propagation, spatial extent, and amplitude, strongly depend on the climatological background state of the tropical Pacific. Multidecadal changes in the ocean mean state are hence likely to modulate ENSO properties. To better link background state variations with low-frequency amplitude changes of ENSO, we develop a diagnostic framework that determines locally the contributions of different physical feedback terms on the ocean surface temperature variance. Our analysis shows that multidecadal changes of ENSO variance originate from the delicate balance between the background-state-dependent positive thermocline feedback and the atmospheric damping of sea surface temperatures anomalies. The role of higher-order processes and atmospheric and oceanic nonlinearities is also discussed. The diagnostic tool developed here can be easily applied to other tropical ocean areas and climate phenomena.

  17. Cloud layer thicknesses from a combination of surface and upper-air observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poore, Kirk D.; Wang, Junhong; Rossow, William B.

    1995-01-01

    Cloud layer thicknesses are derived from base and top altitudes by combining 14 years (1975-1988) of surface and upper-air observations at 63 sites in the Northern Hemisphere. Rawinsonde observations are employed to determine the locations of cloud-layer top and base by testing for dewpoint temperature depressions below some threshold value. Surface observations serve as quality checks on the rawinsonde-determined cloud properties and provide cloud amount and cloud-type information. The dataset provides layer-cloud amount, cloud type, high, middle, or low height classes, cloud-top heights, base heights and layer thicknesses, covering a range of latitudes from 0 deg to 80 deg N. All data comes from land sites: 34 are located in continental interiors, 14 are near coasts, and 15 are on islands. The uncertainties in the derived cloud properties are discussed. For clouds classified by low-, mid-, and high-top altitudes, there are strong latitudinal and seasonal variations in the layer thickness only for high clouds. High-cloud layer thickness increases with latitude and exhibits different seasonal variations in different latitude zones: in summer, high-cloud layer thickness is a maximum in the Tropics but a minimum at high latitudes. For clouds classified into three types by base altitude or into six standard morphological types, latitudinal and seasonal variations in layer thickness are very small. The thickness of the clear surface layer decreases with latitude and reaches a summer minimum in the Tropics and summer maximum at higher latitudes over land, but does not vary much over the ocean. Tropical clouds occur in three base-altitude groups and the layer thickness of each group increases linearly with top altitude. Extratropical clouds exhibit two groups, one with layer thickness proportional to their cloud-top altitude and one with small (less than or equal to 1000 m) layer thickness independent of cloud-top altitude.

  18. Spatio-temporal modeling of Active Layer Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touyz, J.; Apanasovich, T. V.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Shiklomanov, N. I.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic Regions are experiencing an unprecedented rate of environmental and climate change. The active layer (the uppermost layer of soil between the atmosphere and permafrost that freezes in winter and thaws in summer) is sensitive to both climate and environmental changes and plays an important role in the functioning of Arctic ecosystems, planning, and economic activities. Knowledge about spatio-temporal variability of ALT is crucial for environmental and engineering applications. The objective of this study is to provide the methodology to model and estimate spatio-temporal variation in the active layer thickness (ALT) at several sites located in the Circumpolar region spanning the Alaska North Slope, and to demonstrate its use in spatio-temporal interpolation as well as time-forward prediction. In our data analysis we estimate a parametric trend and examine residuals for the presence of spatial and temporal dependence. We propose models that provide a description of residual space-time variability in ALT. Formulations that take into account interaction among spatial and temporal components are also developed. Moreover, we compare our models to naive models in which residual spatio-temporal and temporal correlations are not considered. The predicted root mean squared and absolute errors are significantly reduced when our approach is employed. While the methodology is developed in the context of ALT, it can also be applied to model and predict other environmental variables which use similar spatio-temporal sampling designs.

  19. Remote sensing of Arctic boundary layer clouds above snow surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, André; Bierwirth, Eike; Wendisch, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    In the Arctic remote sensing of clouds using reflected solar radiation is mostly related to high uncertainties as the contrast between the bright sea ice and snow surface and the clouds is low. Additionally, uncertainties result from variation of the snow grain size which changes the absorption of solar radiation similarly to the size of cloud particles. This is a major issue for understanding the response of Arctic clouds to climate warming as the quantification of cloud properties in this remote region mostly relies on satellite observations. We used spectral radiation measurements of the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART-Albedometer) to improve common used cloud remote sensing algorithms in case of snow surfaces. The measurements were collected during the airborne research campaign Vertical distribution of ice in Arctic mixed-phase clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) above the Canadian Beaufort where both sea ice covered and ice free ocean areas were present during the observation period. Based on the spectral absorption characteristics of snow and clouds (assuming to be dominated by the liquid fraction) a combination of wavelengths was found which allows to separate the impact of clouds and snow surface on the reflected radiation measured above the clouds. While snow grain size dominates the absorption at a wavelength of 1.0 μm, information on cloud optical thickness and cloud particle effective radius can be extracted at wavelengths of 1.7 μm and 2.1 μm, respectively. Based on radiative transfer simulations lookup tables for the retrieval algorithm were calculated and used to estimate the theoretical uncertainties of the retrieval. It was found that using ratios instead of absolute radiances reduces the uncertainties significantly. The new algorithm was applied to a specific case observed during the VERDI campaign where a stratocumulus clouds was located above an ice edge. It could be shown that the method works also over water

  20. Self-assembled anchor layers/polysaccharide coatings on titanium surfaces: a study of functionalization and stability

    PubMed Central

    Zemek, Josef; Neykova, Neda; Demianchuk, Roman; Chánová, Eliška Mázl; Šlouf, Miroslav; Houska, Milan; Rypáček, František

    2015-01-01

    Summary Composite materials based on a titanium support and a thin, alginate hydrogel could be used in bone tissue engineering as a scaffold material that provides biologically active molecules. The main objective of this contribution is to characterize the activation and the functionalization of titanium surfaces by the covalent immobilization of anchoring layers of self-assembled bisphosphonate neridronate monolayers and polymer films of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and biomimetic poly(dopamine). These were further used to bind a bio-functional alginate coating. The success of the titanium surface activation, anchoring layer formation and alginate immobilization, as well as the stability upon immersion under physiological-like conditions, are demonstrated by different surface sensitive techniques such as spectroscopic ellipsometry, infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The changes in morphology and the established continuity of the layers are examined by scanning electron microscopy, surface profilometry and atomic force microscopy. The changes in hydrophilicity after each modification step are further examined by contact angle goniometry. PMID:25821702

  1. Sum-Frequency Generation Spectroscopy for Studying Organic Layers at Water-Air Interfaces: Microlayer Monitoring and Surface Reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laß, Kristian; Kleber, Joscha; Bange, Hermann; Friedrichs, Gernot

    2015-04-01

    The sea surface microlayer, according to commonly accepted terminology, comprises the topmost millimetre of the oceanic water column. It is often enriched with organic matter and is directly influenced by sunlight exposure and gas exchange with the atmosphere, hence making it a place for active biochemistry and photochemistry as well as for heterogeneous reactions. In addition, surface active material either is formed or accumulates directly at the air-water interface and gives rise to very thin layers, sometimes down to monomolecular thickness. This "sea surface nanolayer" determines the viscoelastic properties of the seawater surface and thus may impact the turbulent air-sea gas exchange rates. To this effect, this small scale layer presumably plays an important role for large scale changes of atmospheric trace gas concentrations (e.g., by modulating the ocean carbon sink characteristics) with possible implications for coupled climate models. To date, detailed knowledge about the composition, structure, and reactivity of the sea surface nanolayer is still scarce. Due to its small vertical dimension and the small amount of material, this surfactant layer is very difficult to separate and analyse. A way out is the application of second-order nonlinear optical methods, which make a direct surface-specific and background-free detection of this interfacial layer possible. In recent years, we have introduced the use of vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy to gain insight into natural and artificial organic monolayers at the air-water interface. In this contribution, the application of VSFG spectroscopy for the analysis of the sea surface nanolayer will be illustrated. Resulting spectra are interpreted in terms of layer composition and surfactant classes, in particular with respect to carbohydrate-containing molecules such as glycolipids. The partitioning of the detected surfactants into soluble and non-soluble ("wet" and "dry") surfactants will be

  2. Surface Ages and Resurfacing Rates of the Polar Layered Deposits on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Plaut, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Interpretation of the polar stratigraphy of Mars in terms of global climate changes is complicated by the significant difference in surface ages between the north and south polar layered terrains inferred from crater statistics. We have reassessed the cratering record in both polar regions using Viking Orbiter and Mariner 9 images. No craters have been found in the north polar layered terrain, but the surface of most of the south polar layered deposits appears to have been stable for many of the orbital/axial cycles that are thought to have induced global climate changes on Mars. The inferred surface age of the south polar layered deposits (about 10 Ma) is two orders of magnitude greater than the surface age of the north polar layered deposits and residual cap (at most 100 ka). Similarly, modeled resurfacing rates are at least 20 times greater in the north than in the south. These results are consistent with the hypotheses that polar layered deposit resurfacing rates are highest in areas covered by perennial ice and that the differences in polar resurfacing rates result from the 6.4 km difference in elevation between the polar regions. Deposition on the portion of the south polar layered deposits that is not covered by the perennial ice cap may have ceased about 5 million years ago when the obliquity of Mars no longer exceeded 40??. ?? 2000 Academic Press.

  3. Influence of transverse surface waves on turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Ash, R. L.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Bushnell, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    Wavy wall experiments using solid waves and progressive waves have been reported. For this paper, the major effects of waviness of the wall on the flow are identified as due to oscillatory curvature (convex-concavity) and oscillatory acceleration/deceleration of the flow, which imposes a highly nonequilibrium influence upon the turbulence structure. The theoretical analysis in this presentation takes into account proper turbulence modeling (including the nonequilibrium effects) for the wavy wall problem. The analysis proceeds in three stages: (1) inviscid solution for induced pressure due to the physical wall, (2) solution of a turbulent boundary layer with pressure gradients and curvature effects in the modeling from which the profile correction is computed, and (3) induced pressure computations for the corrected profile. The phase shift of pressure perturbations with respect to the physical wall can be predicted, and pressure drag and skin friction drag can be estimated, with nonlinear viscous effects included. Comparison of the theoretical estimates with experimental data are also presented.

  4. Polyethylenimine surface layer for enhanced virus immobilization on cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiliket, Ghania; Ladam, Guy; Nguyen, Quang Trong; Lebrun, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    Thin regenerated cellulose films are prepared by hydrolysis of cellulose acetate (CA). A polycation, namely polyethylenimine (PEI), is then adsorbed onto the films. From QCM-D analysis, PEI readily adsorbs from a 0.1% w/v solution in NaCl 0.2 M (ca. 100 ng cm-2). Further PEI adsorption steps at higher PEI concentrations induce a linear growth of the PEI films, suggesting that free adsorption sites still exist after the initial adsorption. The adsorbed PEI chains are resistant to variations of the ionic strength up to NaCl 1 M. Promisingly, the adsorption of T4D bacteriophages are 15-fold more efficient onto the PEI-treated, compared to the native regenerated cellulose films, as measured by QCM-D. This confirms the strong affinity between the negatively charged viruses and PEI, even at low PEI concentration, probably governed by strong electrostatic attractive interactions. This result explains the remarkable improvement of the affinity of medical masks for virus droplets when one of their cellulose layers was changed by two-PEI-functionalized cellulose-based filters.

  5. Vibration control of cylindrical shells using active constrained layer damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Manas C.; Chen, Tung-Huei; Baz, Amr M.

    1997-05-01

    The fundamentals of controlling the structural vibration of cylindrical shells treated with active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatments are presented. The effectiveness of the ACLD treatments in enhancing the damping characteristics of thin cylindrical shells is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. A finite element model (FEM) is developed to describe the dynamic interaction between the shells and the ACLD treatments. The FEM is used to predict the natural frequencies and the modal loss factors of shells which are partially treated with patches of the ACLD treatments. The predictions of the FEM are validated experimentally using stainless steel cylinders which are 20.32 cm in diameter, 30.4 cm in length and 0.05 cm in thickness. The cylinders are treated with ACLD patches of different configurations in order to target single or multi-modes of lobar vibrations. The ACLD patches used are made of DYAD 606 visco-elastic layer which is sandwiched between two layers of PVDF piezo-electric films. Vibration attenuations of 85% are obtained with maximum control voltage of 40 volts. Such attenuations are attributed to the effectiveness of the ACLD treatment in increasing the modal damping ratios by about a factor of four over those of conventional passive constrained layer damping (PCLD) treatments. The obtained results suggest the potential of the ACLD treatments in controlling the vibration of cylindrical shells which constitute the major building block of many critical structures such as cabins of aircrafts, hulls of submarines and bodies of rockets and missiles.

  6. Effect of tethering on the surface dynamics of a thin polymer melt layer

    SciTech Connect

    Uğur, Gökçe; Akgun, Bulent; Jiang, Zhang; Narayanan, Suresh; Satija, Sushil; Foster, Mark D.

    2016-05-13

    The surface height fluctuations of a layer of low molecular weight (2.2k) untethered perdeuterated polystyrene (dPS) chains adjacent to a densely grafted polystyrene brush are slowed dramatically. Due to the interpenetration of the brush with the layer of “untethered chains” a hydrodynamic continuum theory can only describe the fluctuations when the effective thickness of the film is taken to be that which remains above the swollen brush. Furthermore, the portion of the film of initially untethered chains that interpenetrates with the brush becomes so viscous as to effectively play the role of a rigid substrate. They provide a route for tailoring polymer layer surface properties such as wetting, adhesion and friction, since these hybrid samples contain a covalently tethered layer at the bottom, does not readily dewet, and are more robust than thin layers of untethered short chains on rigid substrates.

  7. Effect of tethering on the surface dynamics of a thin polymer melt layer

    DOE PAGES

    Uğur, Gökçe; Akgun, Bulent; Jiang, Zhang; ...

    2016-05-13

    The surface height fluctuations of a layer of low molecular weight (2.2k) untethered perdeuterated polystyrene (dPS) chains adjacent to a densely grafted polystyrene brush are slowed dramatically. Due to the interpenetration of the brush with the layer of “untethered chains” a hydrodynamic continuum theory can only describe the fluctuations when the effective thickness of the film is taken to be that which remains above the swollen brush. Furthermore, the portion of the film of initially untethered chains that interpenetrates with the brush becomes so viscous as to effectively play the role of a rigid substrate. They provide a route formore » tailoring polymer layer surface properties such as wetting, adhesion and friction, since these hybrid samples contain a covalently tethered layer at the bottom, does not readily dewet, and are more robust than thin layers of untethered short chains on rigid substrates.« less

  8. Leaf Area Influence on Surface Layer in a Deciduous Forest. Part I; Site Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakai, Ricardo K.; Fitzjarrald, David R.; Moore, Kathleen E.; Sicker, John W.; Munger, William; Goulden, Michael L.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    1996-01-01

    A study over a deciduous forest located in middle Massachusetts (USA) has been performed to examine the role of leaves in the forest-atmosphere interaction. Due to the seasonal presence of leaves, a deciduous forest is a 'good laboratory' to study this interaction. In this first part, a description of a 30 m micrometeorological tower as well a qualitative description of some meteorological parameters are presented. The presence of leaves affects the forest in several ways. There is a decrease of upward PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) due to absorption of visible light in the canopy. Water vapor concentration increases, and the CO2 concentration decreases in the surface layer as the canopy starts to be foliated. The physical presence of the leaves is felt in other quantities such as the global albedo and the subcanopy environment.

  9. Surfactant-Associated Bacteria in the Near Surface Layer of the Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurata, Naoko; Vella, Katie; Soloviev, Alexander; Matt, Silvia; Tartar, Aurelien; Shivji, Mahmood; Perrie, William

    2013-04-01

    It has recently been realized that biogeochemical processes in the ocean are, to a large extent, the result of nanoscale processes in the microbial part of the pelagic food web. Bacteria found in thin near-surface layers of the ocean - bacterioneuston - are of special interest due to a number of practical applications, including air-sea gas exchange, production of climate-active marine aerosols and remote sensing of the ocean. In particular, bacteria involved in the production of the surface active materials resulting in slicks on the sea surface can potentially be observed from space using high-resolution remote sensing techniques. In this work done by a multidisciplinary team, we demonstrate a direct connection between surfactant-associated bacteria, identified with an advanced DNA analysis, and fine-scale features on the sea surface in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. Experiments were conducted in the Straits of Florida during RASRASAT 2 satellite overpasses. The sea surface microlayer sampling method was designed to enable aseptic bacterial sampling. A 47 mm polycarbonate membrane was utilized at each sampling site to obtain a snapshot of the bacteria community structure at a specific space and time. Microbial composition was determined using DNA analysis of 16S rRNA genes. A new generation high-throughput sequencing method (454) was employed to compensate for the small sample size. A total of 27,006 nucleotide sequences with an average 437.8 bp in length were analyzed. From in situ samples taken during satellite overpasses, we found a higher abundance of surfactant-associated bacteria in slick (visible in SAR from space) as compared to non-slick areas; furthermore, higher abundance of this type of bacteria was observed in subsurface samples than in those taken from the sea surface. These observations suggest that surfactants are produced by marine bacteria mostly in the water column and migrate up to the sea surface by diffusion, air bubbles, or

  10. Typology of nonlinear activity waves in a layered neural continuum.

    PubMed

    Koch, Paul; Leisman, Gerry

    2006-04-01

    Neural tissue, a medium containing electro-chemical energy, can amplify small increments in cellular activity. The growing disturbance, measured as the fraction of active cells, manifests as propagating waves. In a layered geometry with a time delay in synaptic signals between the layers, the delay is instrumental in determining the amplified wavelengths. The growth of the waves is limited by the finite number of neural cells in a given region of the continuum. As wave growth saturates, the resulting activity patterns in space and time show a variety of forms, ranging from regular monochromatic waves to highly irregular mixtures of different spatial frequencies. The type of wave configuration is determined by a number of parameters, including alertness and synaptic conditioning as well as delay. For all cases studied, using numerical solution of the nonlinear Wilson-Cowan (1973) equations, there is an interval in delay in which the wave mixing occurs. As delay increases through this interval, during a series of consecutive waves propagating through a continuum region, the activity within that region changes from a single-frequency to a multiple-frequency pattern and back again. The diverse spatio-temporal patterns give a more concrete form to several metaphors advanced over the years to attempt an explanation of cognitive phenomena: Activity waves embody the "holographic memory" (Pribram, 1991); wave mixing provides a plausible cause of the competition called "neural Darwinism" (Edelman, 1988); finally the consecutive generation of growing neural waves can explain the discontinuousness of "psychological time" (Stroud, 1955).

  11. Surface treatment for the atomic layer deposition of HfO2 on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damlencourt, J.-F.; Renault, O.; Martin, F.; Séméria, M.-N.; Billon, T.; Bedu, F.

    2005-04-01

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO2 on silicon with a Cl2 surface treatment is investigated by physicochemical and electrical techniques. The specificity of this treatment is to create, on a HF-dipped silicon surface, the nucleation sites necessary for the ALD growth. The growth rates obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry and total x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy indicate that the nucleation sites (i.e., the -OH groups), which are necessary to perform some bidimensional ALD growth, are generated during this surface treatment. After deposition of thin HfO2 layers (from a few monolayers up to 8.7nm), a very thin parasitic SiOx layer, underneath 1 monolayer of Hf silicate, is observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Nevertheless, an equivalent oxide thickness of 1.1nm is obtained with an as-deposited 3.7nm thick HfO2 layer.

  12. Contribution of material’s surface layer on charge state distribution in laser ablation plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumaki, Masafumi; Steski, Dannie; Kanesue, Takeshi; Ikeda, Shunsuke; Okamura, Masahiro; Washio, Masakazu

    2016-02-15

    To generate laser ablation plasma, a pulse laser is focused onto a solid target making a crater on the surface. However, not all the evaporated material is efficiently converted to hot plasma. Some portion of the evaporated material could be turned to low temperature plasma or just vapor. To investigate the mechanism, we prepared an aluminum target coated by thin carbon layers. Then, we measured the ablation plasma properties with different carbon thicknesses on the aluminum plate. The results showed that C{sup 6+} ions were generated only from the surface layer. The deep layers (over 250 nm from the surface) did not provide high charge state ions. On the other hand, low charge state ions were mainly produced by the deeper layers of the target. Atoms deeper than 1000 nm did not contribute to the ablation plasma formation.

  13. Critical CuI buffer layer surface density for organic molecular crystal orientation change

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Kwangseok; Kim, Jong Beom; Lee, Dong Ryeol; Kim, Hyo Jung; Lee, Hyun Hwi

    2015-01-21

    We have determined the critical surface density of the CuI buffer layer inserted to change the preferred orientation of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) crystals grown on the buffer layer. X-ray reflectivity measurements were performed to obtain the density profiles of the buffer layers and out-of-plane and 2D grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction measurements were performed to determine the preferred orientations of the molecular crystals. Remarkably, it was found that the preferred orientation of the CuPc film is completely changed from edge-on (1 0 0) to face-on (1 1 −2) by a CuI buffer layer with a very low surface density, so low that a large proportion of the substrate surface is bare.

  14. Identification and characterization of the surface-layer protein of Clostridium tetani.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Omar; Brailsford, Alan; Wright, Anne; Faraar, Jeremy; Campbell, Jim; Fairweather, Neil

    2007-09-01

    Many bacterial species produce a paracrystalline layer, the surface layer, which completely surrounds the exterior of the cell. In some bacteria, the surface layer is implicated in pathogenesis. Two proteins present in cell wall extracts from Clostridium tetani have been investigated and identified one of these has been unambiguously as the surface-layer protein (SLP). The gene, slpA, has been located in the genome of C. tetani E88 that encodes the SLP. The molecular mass of the protein as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is considerably larger than that predicted from the gene; however the protein does not appear to be glycosylated. Furthermore, analysis of five C. tetani strains, including three recent clinical isolates, shows considerable variation in the sizes of the SLP.

  15. Enhanced magneto-optical imaging of internal stresses in the removed surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agalidi, Yuriy; Kozhukhar, Pavlo; Levyi, Sergii; Turbin, Dmitriy

    2015-10-01

    The paper describes a software method of reconstructing the state of the removed surface layer by visualising internal stresses in the underlying layers of the sample. Such a problem typically needs to be solved as part of forensic investigation that aims to reveal original marking of a sample with removed surface layer. For example, one may be interested in serial numbers of weapons or vehicles that had the surface layer of metal removed from the number plate. Experimental results of studying gradient internal stress fields in ferromagnetic sample using the NDI method of magneto-optical imaging (MOI) are presented. Numerical modelling results of internal stresses enclosed in the surface marking region are analysed and compared to the experimental results of magneto-optical imaging (MOI). MOI correction algorithm intended for reconstructing internal stress fields in the removed surface layer by extracting stresses retained by the underlying layers is described. Limiting ratios between parameters of a marking font are defined for the considered correction algorithm. Enhanced recognition properties for hidden stresses left by marking symbols are experimentally verified and confirmed.

  16. CHARACTERIZING SURFACE LAYERS IN NITINOL USING X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Christopfel, R.; Mehta, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nitinol is a shape memory alloy whose properties allow for large reversible deformations and a return to its original geometry. This nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy has become a material used widely in the biomedical fi eld as a stent to open up collapsed arteries. Both ambient and biological conditions cause surface oxidation in these devices which in turn change its biocompatibility. The thickness of oxidized layers can cause fractures in the material if too large and can allow for penetration if too thin. Depending on the type and abundance of the chemical species on or near the surface, highly toxic metal ions can leak into the body causing cell damage or even cell death. Thus, biocompatibility of such devices is crucial. By using highly surface sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to probe the surface of these structures, it is possible to decipher both layer composition and layer thickness. Two samples, both of which were mechanically polished, were investigated. Of the two samples, one was then exposed to a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution to mimic the chemical properties of blood, while the other remained unexposed. Although both samples were found to have oxide layers of appropriate thickness (on the order of a few nm), it was found that the sample exposed to the saline solution had a slightly thicker oxide layer and more signifi cantly, a phosphate layer very near the surface suggesting toxic metal components are well contained within the sample. These are considerable indications of a biocompatible device.

  17. Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming

    SciTech Connect

    Branch; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold G.

    2011-05-17

    An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.

  18. Semi-analytical model for quasi-double-layer surface electrode ion traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Shuming; Wang, Yaohua

    2016-11-01

    To realize scale quantum processors, the surface-electrode ion trap is an effective scaling approach, including single-layer, double-layer, and quasi-double-layer traps. To calculate critical trap parameters such as the trap center and trap depth, the finite element method (FEM) simulation was widely used, however, it is always time consuming. Moreover, the FEM simulation is also incapable of exhibiting the direct relationship between the geometry dimension and these parameters. To eliminate the problems above, House and Madsen et al. have respectively provided analytic models for single-layer traps and double-layer traps. In this paper, we propose a semi-analytical model for quasi-double-layer traps. This model can be applied to calculate the important parameters above of the ion trap in the trap design process. With this model, we can quickly and precisely find the optimum geometry design for trap electrodes in various cases.

  19. Research into preparation and properties of graded cemented carbides with face center cubic-rich surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Deng, Xin; Gong, Manfeng; Liu, Wei; Wu, Shanghua

    2016-09-01

    This paper systematically investigated a set of functionally graded WC-TiC-Mo-Co cemented carbides with modified surface layer (called fcc-rich surface layer in this study), which is mainly composed of fcc phases (Ti(CN) and TiN) and WC. Nitridation at liquid phase sintering temperature is the key process making this fcc-rich surface layer. The functionally graded WC-TiC-Mo-Co cemented carbides synthesized in this study show 3 layer structure: the outer layer, i.e. the fcc-rich surface layer; the intermediate layer, which is characterized by abnormally large WC and high Co content; and the inner layer. It was found that TiC is the most critical component for the formation of fcc-rich surface layer. The higher content of TiC results in the thicker fcc-rich outer layer, higher (Ti(CN) and TiN) content in the outer layer, and higher hardness of the fcc-rich outer layer. The formation of this fcc-rich surface layer is mainly due to the nitridation process between Ti and N, which leads to the diffusion of Ti outwards (from the inside of the sample to the surface) and the subsequent migration of liquid cobalt inwards (from surface to the inside of the sample). The three-layer structure developed in this study provides the excellent combination of high wear resistance and high toughness, which is favorable for some applications.

  20. Turbulent Structures and Coherence in the Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Träumner, K.; Damian, Th.; Stawiarski, Ch.; Wieser, A.

    2015-01-01

    Organized structures in turbulent flow fields are a well-known and still fascinating phenomenon. Although these so-called coherent structures are obvious from visual inspection, quantitative assessment is a challenge and many aspects e.g., formation mechanisms and contribution to turbulent fluxes, are discussed controversially. During the "High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for Advancing Climate Prediction" Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) from April to May 2013, an advanced dual Doppler lidar technique was used to image the horizontal wind field near the surface for approximately 300 h. A visual inspection method, as well as a two-dimensional integral length scale analysis, were performed to characterize the observations qualitatively and quantitatively. During situations with forcing due to shear, the wind fields showed characteristic patterns in the form of clearly bordered, elongated areas of enhanced or reduced wind speed, which can be associated with near-surface streaks. During calm situations with strong buoyancy forcing, open cell patterns in the horizontal divergence field were observed. The measurement technique used enables the calculation of integral length scales of both horizontal wind components in the streamwise and cross-stream directions. The individual length scales varied considerably during the observation period but were on average shorter during situations with compared to strongly stable situations. During unstable situations, which were dominated by wind fields with structures, the streamwise length scales increased with increasing wind speed, whereas the cross-stream length scales decreased. Consequently, the anisotropy increased from 1 for calm situations to values of 2-3 for wind speeds of 8-10. During neutral to stable situations, the eddies were on average quite isotropic in the horizontal plane.

  1. Investigation of shock wave-boundary layer instability on the heated ramp surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushneva, A. V.; Saveliev, A. S.; Son, E. E.; Tereshonok, D. V.

    2015-11-01

    By means of particle image velocimetry method shock-wave boundary layer interaction on the pre-heated ramp surface was investigated. The influence of surface heating on separation region unsteadiness was proved. It was found experimentally that increasing of wall to outer flow temperature ratio raises amplitude of separation region oscillation.

  2. Surface waves and space charge layers in a spatially inhomogeneous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzelev, M. V.; Romanov, R. V.; Rukhadze, A. A.; Khundzhua, N. G.

    2007-12-15

    A theory of surface waves in a layer of a spatially inhomogeneous cold electron plasma is presented. Four types of surface waves are revealed, and the conditions under which they can exist are determined. Complex frequency spectra are obtained, and the mechanisms for wave damping by plasma inhomogeneity are discussed.

  3. Tunable Dipole Surface Plasmon Resonances of Silver Nanoparticles by Cladding Dielectric Layers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaotong; Li, Dabing; Sun, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhiming; Song, Hang; Jiang, Hong; Chen, Yiren

    2015-01-01

    The tunability of surface plasmon resonance can enable the highest degree of localised surface plasmon enhancement to be achieved, based on the emitting or absorbing wavelength. In this article, tunable dipole surface plasmon resonances of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are realized by modification of the SiO2 dielectric layer thicknesses. SiO2 layers both beneath and over the Ag NPs affected the resonance wavelengths of local surface plasmons (LSPs). By adjusting the SiO2 thickness beneath the Ag NPs from 5 nm to 20 nm, the dipole surface plasmon resonances shifted from 470 nm to 410 nm. Meanwhile, after sandwiching the Ag NPs by growing SiO2 before NPs fabrication and then overcoating the NPs with various SiO2 thicknesses from 5 nm to 20 nm, the dipole surface plasmon resonances changed from 450 nm to 490 nm. The SiO2 cladding dielectric layer can tune the Ag NP surface charge, leading to a change in the effective permittivity of the surrounding medium, and thus to a blueshift or redshift of the resonance wavelength. Also, the quadrupole plasmon resonances were suppressed by the SiO2 cladding layer because the dielectric SiO2 can suppress level splitting of surface plasmon resonances caused by the Ag NP coupling effect. PMID:26218501

  4. Surface Layer Effects on the Mechanical Behavior of Metals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    specimen as compa red with those obtained by changing the current density of the polishing bath. The activation energy of high-purity polycrystalline...at various stresses increased continously durin the exposure time (Figure 82). The values for specimens exposed to the stane temperature and stresses...is found from observations that " the dislocation density increases in the region of the neutral axis of specimens fatigued in reverse bending. In

  5. Electronic passivation of silicon surfaces by thin films of atomic layer deposited gallium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T. G. Cuevas, A.

    2014-07-21

    This paper proposes the application of gallium oxide (Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films to crystalline silicon solar cells. Effective passivation of n- and p-type crystalline silicon surfaces has been achieved by the application of very thin Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films prepared by atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMGa) and ozone (O{sub 3}) as the reactants. Surface recombination velocities as low as 6.1 cm/s have been recorded with films less than 4.5 nm thick. A range of deposition parameters has been explored, with growth rates of approximately 0.2 Å/cycle providing optimum passivation. The thermal activation energy for passivation of the Si-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface has been found to be approximately 0.5 eV. Depassivation of the interface was observed for prolonged annealing at increased temperatures. The activation energy for depassivation was measured to be 1.9 eV.

  6. Layered Model for Radiation-Induced Chemical Evolution of Icy Surface Composition on Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Hill, Matthew E.; Richardson, John D.; Sturner, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of albedos and surface colors on observed Kuiper Belt and Inner Oort Cloud objects remains to be explained in terms of competition between primordial intrinsic versus exogenic drivers of surface and near-surface evolution. Earlier models have attempted without success to attribute this diversity to the relations between surface radiolysis from cosmic ray irradiation and gardening by meteoritic impacts. A more flexible approach considers the different depth-dependent radiation profiles produced by low-energy plasma, suprathermal, and maximally penetrating charged particles of the heliospheric and local interstellar radiation environments. Generally red objects of the dynamically cold (low inclination, circular orbit) Classical Kuiper Belt might be accounted for from erosive effects of plasma ions and reddening effects of high energy cosmic ray ions, while suprathermal keV-MeV ions could alternatively produce more color neutral surfaces. The deepest layer of more pristine ice can be brought to the surface from meter to kilometer depths by larger impact events and potentially by cryovolcanic activity. The bright surfaces of some larger objects, e.g. Eris, suggest ongoing resurfacing activity. Interactions of surface irradiation, resultant chemical oxidation, and near-surface cryogenic fluid reservoirs have been proposed to account for Enceladus cryovolcanism and may have further applications to other icy irradiated bodies. The diversity of causative processes must be understood to account for observationally apparent diversities of the object surfaces.

  7. Experimental Study on Surface Characteristics of Laser Cladding Layer Regulated by High-Frequency Microforging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiang Fang; Zhou, Ju; Qiu, Chang Jun; He, Bin; Ye, Jiang; Yuan, Bo; Pi, Zhengqing

    2011-03-01

    High-frequency microforging technology is used to produce micrometer-scale plastic deformation on the surface of material out of the vibration impact of a forging punch, and the cumulative effect of its various frequencies on micrometer-scale plastic deformation can cause changes of surface microstructure and mechanical properties. This study used (1) a self-made machine to treat NiCrBSi alloy, (2) a mechanical comparator and optical microscopy (OM) to study the geometric characteristics of plastic deformation, (3) OM and scanning electric microscopy (SEM) to observe influence on surface microstructure and cracking behavior of the laser cladding layer under microforging, (4) x-ray diffractometer (XRD) to measure the surface residual stress of laser cladding layer before and after forging, and (5) microhardness tester and wearing experimental machine to study changes of microhardness, friction coefficient, and wear characteristics of laser cladding layer after microforging. The results have shown that high-frequency microforging could produce plastic deformation about 150 μm deep on the surface of NiCrBSi alloy clad by laser. Regular dendrite and eutectic crystallization microstructure, which is a peculiar characteristic of the laser cladding layer, was broken into pieces and formed residual compression residual stress on the surface. Resistance to cracking of laser cladding layer improved greatly, microhardness and wearability increased, and the friction coefficient did not under go a noticeable change.

  8. Active layer hydrology in an arctic tundra ecosystem: quantifying water sources and cycling using water stable isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Throckmorton, Heather M.; Newman, Brent D.; Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Perkins, George B.; Feng, Xiahong; Graham, David E.; O'Malley, Daniel; Vesselinov, Velimir V.; Young, Jessica; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Wilson, Cathy J.

    2016-04-16

    Climate change and thawing permafrost in the Arctic will significantly alter landscape hydro-geomorphology and the distribution of soil moisture, which will have cascading effects on climate feedbacks (CO2 and CH4) and plant and microbial communities. Fundamental processes critical to predicting active layer hydrology are not well understood. This study applied water stable isotope techniques (δ2H and δ18O) to infer sources and mixing of active layer waters in a polygonal tundra landscape in Barrow, Alaska (USA), in August and September of 2012. Results suggested that winter precipitation did not contribute substantially to surface waters or subsurface active layer pore waters measured in August and September. Summer rain was the main source of water to the active layer, with seasonal ice melt contributing to deeper pore waters later in the season. Surface water evaporation was evident in August from a characteristic isotopic fractionation slope (δ2H vs δ18O). Freeze-out isotopic fractionation effects in frozen active layer samples and textural permafrost were indistinguishable from evaporation fractionation, emphasizing the importance of considering the most likely processes in water isotope studies, in systems where both evaporation and freeze-out occur in close proximity. The fractionation observed in frozen active layer ice was not observed in liquid active layer pore waters. Such a discrepancy between frozen and liquid active layer samples suggests mixing of meltwater, likely due to slow melting of seasonal ice. In conclusion, this research provides insight into fundamental processes relating to sources and mixing of active layer waters, which should be considered in process-based fine-scale and intermediate-scale hydrologic models.

  9. Active layer hydrology in an arctic tundra ecosystem: quantifying water sources and cycling using water stable isotopes

    DOE PAGES

    Throckmorton, Heather M.; Newman, Brent D.; Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; ...

    2016-04-16

    Climate change and thawing permafrost in the Arctic will significantly alter landscape hydro-geomorphology and the distribution of soil moisture, which will have cascading effects on climate feedbacks (CO2 and CH4) and plant and microbial communities. Fundamental processes critical to predicting active layer hydrology are not well understood. This study applied water stable isotope techniques (δ2H and δ18O) to infer sources and mixing of active layer waters in a polygonal tundra landscape in Barrow, Alaska (USA), in August and September of 2012. Results suggested that winter precipitation did not contribute substantially to surface waters or subsurface active layer pore waters measuredmore » in August and September. Summer rain was the main source of water to the active layer, with seasonal ice melt contributing to deeper pore waters later in the season. Surface water evaporation was evident in August from a characteristic isotopic fractionation slope (δ2H vs δ18O). Freeze-out isotopic fractionation effects in frozen active layer samples and textural permafrost were indistinguishable from evaporation fractionation, emphasizing the importance of considering the most likely processes in water isotope studies, in systems where both evaporation and freeze-out occur in close proximity. The fractionation observed in frozen active layer ice was not observed in liquid active layer pore waters. Such a discrepancy between frozen and liquid active layer samples suggests mixing of meltwater, likely due to slow melting of seasonal ice. In conclusion, this research provides insight into fundamental processes relating to sources and mixing of active layer waters, which should be considered in process-based fine-scale and intermediate-scale hydrologic models.« less

  10. Nanostructure of NiTi surface layers after Ta ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girsova, S. L.; Poletika, T. M.; Meisner, L. L.; Schmidt, E. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    The elemental and phase composition and structure of the surface and near-surface layers of NiTi specimens after the Ta ion implantation with the fluency D = 3 × 1017 and 6 × 1017 cm-2 are examined. The methods of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron dispersion analysis (EDS) are used. It is found that a nonuniform distribution of elements along the depth of the surface layer after the ion implantation of NiTi specimens, regardless of the regime, is accompanied by the formation of a number of sublayer structures.

  11. Improvement of the surface wettability of silicone hydrogel contact lenses via layer-by-layer self-assembly technique.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Hong; Cho, Hsien-Lung; Yeh, Yi-Hsing; Yang, Ming-Chien

    2015-12-01

    The surface wettability and anti-protein adsorption of a silicone-based hydrogel that was synthesized by a block copolymer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and poly (ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) was improved via polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) immobilization. Polysaccharide PEMs of chitosan (CS, as a positive-charged agent) and hyaluronic acid (HA, as a negative-charged and anti-adhesive agent) were successfully assembled on the PDMS-PU-PEGMA silicone hydrogel in a layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly manner. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dyeing data verified the progressive buildup of the PEM silicone hydrogel. The results showed that the contact angle of the silicone hydrogel decreased with an increase in the number of PEM grafting layers. Furthermore, after immobilizing five layers of CS/HA, the protein adsorption decreased from 78 ± 11 to 26 ± 4 μg/cm(2) for HSA and from 55 ± 10 to 20 ± 4 μg/cm(2) for lysozymes. This indicates that CS/HA PEM-immobilized silicone hydrogels can resist protein adsorption. Furthermore, these hydrogels were non-cytotoxic according to an in vitro L929 fibroblast assay. Overall, the results demonstrated that the modified silicone hydrogels exhibited hydrophilicity and anti-protein adsorption, as well as relatively high oxygen permeability and optical transparency. Therefore, they would be applicable as a contact lens material.

  12. Catalytically active single-atom niobium in graphitic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Guo, Junjie; Guan, Pengfei; Liu, Chunjing; Huang, Hao; Xue, Fanghong; Dong, Xinglong; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2013-05-01

    Carbides of groups IV through VI (Ti, V and Cr groups) have long been proposed as substitutes for noble metal-based electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. However, their catalytic activity has been extremely limited because of the low density and stability of catalytically active sites. Here we report the excellent performance of a niobium-carbon structure for catalysing the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction. A large number of single niobium atoms and ultra small clusters trapped in graphitic layers are directly identified using state-of-the-art aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. This structure not only enhances the overall conductivity for accelerating the exchange of ions and electrons, but it suppresses the chemical/thermal coarsening of the active particles. Experimental results coupled with theory calculations reveal that the single niobium atoms incorporated within the graphitic layers produce a redistribution of d-band electrons and become surprisingly active for O2 adsorption and dissociation, and also exhibit high stability.

  13. Structure of the surface layer of the methanogenic archaean Methanosarcina acetivorans

    SciTech Connect

    Arbing, Mark A.; Chan, Sum; Shin, Annie; Phan, Tung; Ahn, Christine J.; Rohlin, Lars; Gunsalus, Robert P.

    2012-09-05

    Archaea have a self-assembling proteinaceous surface (S-) layer as the primary and outermost boundary of their cell envelopes. The S-layer maintains structural rigidity, protects the organism from adverse environmental elements, and yet provides access to all essential nutrients. We have determined the crystal structure of one of the two 'homologous' tandem polypeptide repeats that comprise the Methanosarcina acetivorans S-layer protein and propose a high-resolution model for a microbial S-layer. The molecular features of our hexameric S-layer model recapitulate those visualized by medium resolution electron microscopy studies of microbial S-layers and greatly expand our molecular view of S-layer dimensions, porosity, and symmetry. The S-layer model reveals a negatively charged molecular sieve that presents both a charge and size barrier to restrict access to the cell periplasmic-like space. The {beta}-sandwich folds of the S-layer protein are structurally homologous to eukaryotic virus envelope proteins, suggesting that Archaea and viruses have arrived at a common solution for protective envelope structures. These results provide insight into the evolutionary origins of primitive cell envelope structures, of which the S-layer is considered to be among the most primitive: it also provides a platform for the development of self-assembling nanomaterials with diverse functional and structural properties.

  14. Analysis of the cell surface layer ultrastructure of the oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia.

    PubMed

    Sekot, Gerhard; Posch, Gerald; Oh, Yoo Jin; Zayni, Sonja; Mayer, Harald F; Pum, Dietmar; Messner, Paul; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Schäffer, Christina

    2012-06-01

    The Gram-negative oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia is decorated with a 2D crystalline surface (S-) layer, with two different S-layer glycoprotein species being present. Prompted by the predicted virulence potential of the S-layer, this study focused on the analysis of the arrangement of the individual S-layer glycoproteins by a combination of microscopic, genetic, and biochemical analyses. The two S-layer genes are transcribed into mRNA and expressed into protein in equal amounts. The S-layer was investigated on intact bacterial cells by transmission electron microscopy, by immune fluorescence microscopy, and by atomic force microscopy. The analyses of wild-type cells revealed a distinct square S-layer lattice with an overall lattice constant of 10.1 ± 0.7 nm. In contrast, a blurred lattice with a lattice constant of 9.0 nm was found on S-layer single-mutant cells. This together with in vitro self-assembly studies using purified (glyco)protein species indicated their increased structural flexibility after self-assembly and/or impaired self-assembly capability. In conjunction with TEM analyses of thin-sectioned cells, this study demonstrates the unusual case that two S-layer glycoproteins are co-assembled into a single S-layer. Additionally, flagella and pilus-like structures were observed on T. forsythia cells, which might impact the pathogenicity of this bacterium.

  15. Structure of the surface layer of the methanogenic archaean Methanosarcina acetivorans.

    PubMed

    Arbing, Mark A; Chan, Sum; Shin, Annie; Phan, Tung; Ahn, Christine J; Rohlin, Lars; Gunsalus, Robert P

    2012-07-17

    Archaea have a self-assembling proteinaceous surface (S-) layer as the primary and outermost boundary of their cell envelopes. The S-layer maintains structural rigidity, protects the organism from adverse environmental elements, and yet provides access to all essential nutrients. We have determined the crystal structure of one of the two "homologous" tandem polypeptide repeats that comprise the Methanosarcina acetivorans S-layer protein and propose a high-resolution model for a microbial S-layer. The molecular features of our hexameric S-layer model recapitulate those visualized by medium resolution electron microscopy studies of microbial S-layers and greatly expand our molecular view of S-layer dimensions, porosity, and symmetry. The S-layer model reveals a negatively charged molecular sieve that presents both a charge and size barrier to restrict access to the cell periplasmic-like space. The β-sandwich folds of the S-layer protein are structurally homologous to eukaryotic virus envelope proteins, suggesting that Archaea and viruses have arrived at a common solution for protective envelope structures. These results provide insight into the evolutionary origins of primitive cell envelope structures, of which the S-layer is considered to be among the most primitive: it also provides a platform for the development of self-assembling nanomaterials with diverse functional and structural properties.

  16. Measurements of surface layer of the articular cartilage using microscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryniewicz, A. M.; Ryniewicz, A.; Ryniewicz, W.; Gaska, A.

    2010-07-01

    The articular cartilage is the structure that directly cooperates tribologically in biobearing. It belongs to the connective tissues and in the joints it assumes two basic forms: hyaline cartilage that builds joint surfaces and fibrocartilage which may create joint surfaces. From this fibrocartilage are built semilunar cartilage and joint disc are built as well. The research of articular cartilage have been done in macro, micro and nano scale. In all these measurement areas characteristic features occur which can identify biobearing tribology. The aim of the research was the identification of surface layer of articular cartilage by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) and the analysis of topography of these layers. The material used in the research of surface layer was the animal articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

  17. Dynamics of cathode spots in low-pressure arc plasma removing oxide layer on steel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Z. L.; Yang, K.; Liu, H. X.; Zhang, Y. C.; Li, H.; Zhu, X. D.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of cathode spots has been investigated in low-pressure arc plasma for removing oxide layer on low carbon steel surfaces. The motion of cathode spots was observed with a high speed camera, and the arc voltage was analyzed by fast Fourier transform. The spots move on clean steel surface as a random walk, and the low-frequency components dominated the voltage waveform. However, the spots on steel surfaces with oxide layer tend to burn on the rim of the eroded area formed in the previous arcing, and the low-frequency components decrease correspondingly. The "color" of the colored random noise for arc voltage varies from the approximate brown noise for clean steel surface to pink noise for thick oxide layer, where the edge effect of boundary is considered to play a significant role.

  18. Archaeal surface layer proteins contain beta propeller, PKD, and beta helix domains and are related to metazoan cell surface proteins.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hua; Takagi, Junichi; Liu, Jin-huan; Lindgren, Sara; Zhang, Rong-guang; Joachimiak, A; Wang, Jia-huai; Springer, Timothy A

    2002-10-01

    The surface layer of archaeobacteria protects cells from extreme environments and, in Methanosarcina, may regulate cell adhesion. We identify three domain types that account for the complete architecture of numerous Methanosarcina surface layer proteins (SLPs). We solve the crystal structure for two of these domains, which correspond to the two N-terminal domains of an M. mazei SLP. One domain displays a unique, highly symmetrical, seven-bladed beta propeller fold, and the other belongs to the polycystic kidney disease (PKD) superfamily fold. The third domain is predicted to adopt a beta helix fold. These domains have homologs in metazoan cell surface proteins, suggesting remarkable relationships between domains in archaeal SLPs and metazoan cell surface proteins.

  19. Seasonality of submesoscale flows in the ocean surface boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham, Christian E.; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.; Thompson, Andrew F.; Brannigan, Liam; Lazar, Ayah; Marshall, David P.; George Nurser, A. J.; Damerell, Gillian; Heywood, Karen J.; Belcher, Stephen E.

    2016-03-01

    A signature of submesoscale flows in the upper ocean is skewness in the distribution of relative vorticity. Expected to result for high Rossby number flows, such skewness has implications for mixing, dissipation, and stratification within the upper ocean. An array of moorings deployed in the Northeast Atlantic for 1 year as part of the experiment of the Ocean Surface Mixing, Ocean Submesoscale Interaction Study (OSMOSIS) reveals that relative vorticity is positively skewed during winter even though the scale of the Rossby number is less than 0.5. Furthermore, this skewness is reduced to zero during spring and autumn. There is also evidence of modest seasonal variations in the gradient Rossby number. The proposed mechanism by which relative vorticity is skewed is that the ratio of lateral to vertical buoyancy gradients, as summarized by the inverse gradient Richardson number, restricts its range during winter but less so at other times of the year. These results support recent observations and model simulations suggesting that the upper ocean is host to a seasonal cycle in submesoscale turbulence.

  20. Correlation between active layer thickness and ambient gas stability in IGZO thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xu; Lin, Meng-Fang; Mao, Bao-Hua; Shimizu, Maki; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Kizu, Takio; Ou-Yang, Wei; Nabatame, Toshihide; Liu, Zhi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Decreasing the active layer thickness has been recently reported as an alternative way to achieve fully depleted oxide thin-film transistors for the realization of low-voltage operations. However, the correlation between the active layer thickness and device resistivity to environmental changes is still unclear, which is important for the optimized design of oxide thin-film transistors. In this work, the ambient gas stability of IGZO thin-film transistors is found to be strongly correlated to the IGZO thickness. The TFT with the thinnest IGZO layer shows the highest intrinsic electron mobility in a vacuum, which is greatly reduced after exposure to O2/air. The device with a thick IGZO layer shows similar electron mobility in O2/air, whereas the mobility variation measured in the vacuum is absent. The thickness dependent ambient gas stability is attributed to a high-mobility region in the IGZO surface vicinity with less sputtering-induced damage, which will become electron depleted in O2/air due to the electron transfer to adsorbed gas molecules. The O2 adsorption and deduced IGZO surface band bending is demonstrated by the ambient-pressure x-ray photoemission spectroscopy results.

  1. Turbulence interaction with fractal trees in a turbulent boundary layer over a rough surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyung-Suk; Meneveau, Charles

    2008-11-01

    An experimental study is performed of turbulence interacting with multi-scale fractal objects placed in turbulent boundary layer flows. The main objectives of the study are to quantify drag forces generated by such interactions and to compare with the simulation results of Chester et al. (Journal of Computational Physics, volume 225, 2007) who used renormalized numerical simulation (RNS) to predict the forces. In the present study, fractal trees with branches in a single cross-plane are considered. Each branch has three subbranches and the scale ratio is 0.5, so the similarity fractal dimension is about 1.58. The models are placed in a wind-tunnel model of the atmospheric-like turbulent boundary layer over a rough surface. The inflow is generated by a combination of an active grid and a row of strakes. Six trees corresponding to increasing generations of branchings are considered. The fractal trees are mounted on a load cell unit, which enables us to measure the drag forces depending on the included generation of branches. The averaged total drag coefficients agree well with a branch-resolved simulation (Chester et al. 2007). Also, turbulence data are sampled at 4 different downstream locations of the fractal trees by using an X-type hot-wire probe. The effects of generation number on the turbulence spectra and PDFs are quantified.

  2. Groundwater hydrochemistry in the active layer of the proglacial zone, Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, R.J.; Wadham, J.L.; Tranter, M.; Hodgkins, R.; Peters, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    Glacial bulk meltwaters and active-layer groundwaters were sampled from the proglacial zone of Finsterwalderbreen during a single melt season in 1999, in order to determine the geochemical processes that maintain high chemical weathering rates in the proglacial zone of this glacier. Results demonstrate that the principle means of solute acquisition is the weathering of highly reactive moraine and fluvial active-layer sediments by supra-permafrost groundwaters. Active-layer groundwater derives from the thaw of the proglacial snowpack, buried ice and glacial bulk meltwaters. Groundwater evolves by sulphide oxidation and carbonate dissolution. Evaporation- and freeze-concentration of groundwater in summer and winter, respectively produce Mg-Ca-sulphate salts on the proglacial surface. Re-dissolution of these salts in early summer produces groundwaters that are supersaturated with respect to calcite. There is a pronounced spatial pattern to the geochemical evolution of groundwater. Close to the main proglacial channel, active layer sediments are flushed diurnally by bulk meltwaters. Here, Mg-Ca-sulphate deposits become exhausted in the early season and geochemical evolution proceeds by a combination of sulphide oxidation and carbonate dissolution. At greater distances from the channel, the dissolution of Mg-Ca-sulphate salts is a major influence and dilution by the bulk meltwaters is relatively minor. The influence of sulphate salt dissolution decreases during the sampling season, as these salts are exhausted and waters become increasingly routed by subsurface flowpaths. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling the snow surface temperature with a one-layer energy balance snowmelt model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, J.; Tarboton, D. G.; Luce, C. H.

    2013-12-01

    ⪉bel{sec:abstract} Snow surface temperature is a key control on energy exchanges at the snow surface, particularly net longwave radiation and turbulent energy fluxes. The snow surface temperature is in turn controlled by the balance between various external fluxes and the conductive heat flux, internal to the snowpack. Because of the strong insulating properties of snow, thermal gradients in snow packs are large and nonlinear, a fact that has led many to advocate multiple layer snowmelt models over single layer models. In an effort to keep snowmelt modeling simple and parsimonious, the Utah Energy Balance (UEB) snowmelt model used only one layer but allowed the snow surface temperature to be different from the snow average temperature by using an equilibrium gradient parameterization based on the surface energy balance. Although this procedure was considered an improvement over the ordinary single layer snowmelt models, it still resulted in discrepancies between modeled and measured snowpack energy contents. In this paper we examine the parameterization of snow surface temperature in single layer snowmelt models from the perspective of heat conduction into a semi-infinite medium. We evaluate the equilibrium gradient approach, the force-restore approach, and a modified force-restore approach. In addition, we evaluate a scheme for representing the penetration of a refreezing front in cold periods following melt. We also introduce a method to adjust effective conductivity to account for the presence of ground near to a shallow snow surface. These parameterizations were tested against data from the Central Sierra Snow Laboratory, CA, Utah State University experimental farm, UT, and Subnivean snow laboratory at Niwot Ridge, CO. These tests compare modeled and measured snow surface temperature, snow energy content, snow water equivalent, and snowmelt outflow. We found that with these refinements the model is able to better represent the snowpack energy balance and

  4. Influences and interactions of inundation, peat, and snow on active layer thickness

    DOE PAGES

    Atchley, Adam L.; Coon, Ethan T.; Painter, Scott L.; ...

    2016-05-18

    The effect of three environmental conditions: 1) thickness of organic soil, 2) snow depth, and 3) soil moisture content or water table height above and below the soil surface, on active layer thickness (ALT) are investigated using an ensemble of 1D thermal hydrology models. Sensitivity analyses of the ensemble exposed the isolated influence of each environmental condition on ALT and their multivariate interactions. The primary and interactive influences are illustrated in the form of color maps of ALT change. Results show that organic layer acts as a strong insulator, and its thickness is the dominant control of ALT, but themore » strength of the effect of organic layer thickness is dependent on the saturation state. Snow depth, subsurface saturation, and ponded water depth are strongly codependent and positively correlated to ALT.« less

  5. Influences and interactions of inundation, peat, and snow on active layer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Atchley, Adam L.; Coon, Ethan T.; Painter, Scott L.; Harp, Dylan R.; Wilson, Cathy J.

    2016-05-18

    The effect of three environmental conditions: 1) thickness of organic soil, 2) snow depth, and 3) soil moisture content or water table height above and below the soil surface, on active layer thickness (ALT) are investigated using an ensemble of 1D thermal hydrology models. Sensitivity analyses of the ensemble exposed the isolated influence of each environmental condition on ALT and their multivariate interactions. The primary and interactive influences are illustrated in the form of color maps of ALT change. Results show that organic layer acts as a strong insulator, and its thickness is the dominant control of ALT, but the strength of the effect of organic layer thickness is dependent on the saturation state. Snow depth, subsurface saturation, and ponded water depth are strongly codependent and positively correlated to ALT.

  6. Ultrathin platinum nanowires grown on single-layered nickel hydroxide with high hydrogen evolution activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Huajie; Zhao, Shenlong; Zhao, Kun; Muqsit, Abdul; Tang, Hongjie; Chang, Lin; Zhao, Huijun; Gao, Yan; Tang, Zhiyong

    2015-03-01

    Design and synthesis of effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline environments is critical to reduce energy losses in alkaline water electrolysis. Here we report a hybrid nanomaterial comprising of one-dimensional ultrathin platinum nanowires grown on two-dimensional single-layered nickel hydroxide. Judicious surface chemistry to generate the fully exfoliated nickel hydroxide single layers is explored to be the key for controllable growth of ultrathin platinum nanowires with diameters of about 1.8 nm. Impressively, this hybrid nanomaterial exhibits superior electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline solution, which outperforms currently reported catalysts, and the obviously improved catalytic stability. We believe that this work may lead towards the development of single-layered metal hydroxide-based hybrid materials for applications in catalysis and energy conversion.

  7. Activation of Al2O3 passivation layers on silicon by microwave annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Johannes; Otto, Martin; Sprafke, Alexander N.; Wehrspohn, Ralf B.

    2013-11-01

    Thin aluminum oxide layers deposited on silicon by thermal atomic layer deposition can be used to reduce the electronic recombination losses by passivating the silicon surfaces. To activate the full passivation ability of such layers, a post-deposition annealing step at moderate temperatures (≈400 ∘C, duration≈30 min) is required. Such an annealing step is commonly done in an oven in air, nitrogen, or forming gas atmosphere. In this work, we investigate the ability to reduce the duration of the annealing step by heating the silicon wafer with a microwave source. The annealing time is significantly reduced to durations below 1 min while achieving effective minority carrier lifetimes similar or higher to that of conventionally oven-annealed samples.

  8. Isolation and comparison of the paracrystalline surface layer proteins of freshwater caulobacters.

    PubMed

    Walker, S G; Smith, S H; Smit, J

    1992-03-01

    Several methods for isolation of the paracrystalline surface (S) layer protein (RsaA) of Caulobacter crescentus CB15A were evaluated. Treatment of cells with HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid) buffer at pH 2 was the most effective means of selectively removing RsaA from cells, and after neutralization, the protein was capable of reassembling into a paracrystalline structure. Ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid treatment could also be used to extract RsaA and yielded protein capable of reassembly. The success of the methods was likely related to disruption of calcium-mediated bonding; calcium was required for recrystallization, while magnesium and strontium ions were ineffective. Antibody was raised against purified RsaA and, along with the S-layer extraction techniques, was used to evaluate 42 strains of caulobacters isolated from a variety of aquatic and wastewater treatment locations. A single characteristic protein could be isolated from the 35 strains that produced an S layer; with one exception, no proteins were extracted from strains that had no S layer. The presumed S-layer proteins ranged in size from 100 to 193 kDa. All of these proteins specifically reacted with anti-RsaA serum by Western immunoblot analysis. In strain CB15A, a specific S-layer-associated oligosaccharide has been proposed to be involved in a calcium-mediated attachment of the S layer to the cell surface. This molecule was detected by Western immunoblotting with a specific antiserum and on polyacrylamide gels stained for polysaccharides. A comparable band was found in all S-layer-producing strains and for most, S-layer-associated oligosaccharide-specific antibody reacted with them in Western analysis. Overall, in freshwater caulobacters at least portions of their S-layer structures appear to be strongly conserved entities, as well as the means of attachment to the cell surface.

  9. The measurement of boundary layers on a compressor blade in cascade. III - Pressure surface boundary layers and the near wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Steven; Zierke, William C.

    1987-01-01

    A one-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) has been used to measure the two-dimensional periodic flow field about a double circular arc, compressor blade in cascade. Eleven boundary layer profiles were taken on both the pressure and suction surfaces of the blade, and two profiles were taken in the near wake. In this part of the study, the detailed LDV studies are described. The measurements indicate that the onset of transition occurs near 60 percent chord. The lack of a logarithmic region in the data measured at 97.9 percent chord indicates that transition is not complete. The thin laminar boundary layers near the leading edge led to some measurement problems, characterized by large turbulence intensities, in using the LDV.

  10. Wrinkled substrate and Indium Tin Oxide-free transparent electrode making organic solar cells thinner in active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kong; Lu, Shudi; Yue, Shizhong; Ren, Kuankuan; Azam, Muhammad; Tan, Furui; Wang, Zhijie; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2016-11-01

    To enable organic solar cells with a competent charge transport efficiency, reducing the thickness of active layer without sacrificing light absorption efficiency turns out to be of high feasibility. Herein, organic solar cells on wrinkled metal surface are designed. The purposely wrinkled Al/Au film with a smooth surface provides a unique scaffold for constructing thin organic photovoltaic devices by avoiding pinholes and defects around sharp edges in conventional nanostructures. The corresponding surface light trapping effect enables the thin active layer (PTB7-Th:PC71BM) with a high absorption efficiency. With the innovative MoO3/Ag/ZnS film as the top transparent electrode, the resulting Indium Tin Oxide-free wrinkled devices show a power conversion efficiency as 7.57% (50 nm active layer), higher than the planner counterparts. Thus, this paper provides a new methodology to improve the performance of organic solar cells by balancing the mutual restraint factors to a high level.

  11. Technique for surface oxidation of activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sircar, S.; Golden, T.C.

    1987-10-27

    A method of activating a carbon adsorbent is described, which comprises oxidizing the surface of the carbon adsorbent with a mild oxidizing acid in the presence of a metal oxidation catalyst at an elevated temperature and boiling the mixture of the carbon adsorbent, mild oxidizing acid and metal oxidation catalyst to dryness. Then rinse the surface oxidizing carbon adsorbent with water; and dry the rinsed surface oxidized carbon adsorbent. In a process for the removal of water or carbon dioxide from a gas stream containing water or carbon dioxide of the type wherein the gas stream containing water or carbon dioxide is contacted with a solid phase adsorbent under pressure-swing adsorption or thermal-swing adsorption processing conditions, the improvement is described comprising utilizing an adsorbent produced by the activation of a carbon adsorbent. The activation comprises oxidizing the surface of the carbon adsorbent with a mold oxidizing acid in the presence of a metal oxidation catalyst at an elevated temperature and boiling the mixture of the carbon adsorbent, mild oxidizing acid and metal oxidation catalyst to dryness. Then rinse the surface oxidized carbon adsorbent with water; and dry the rinsed surface oxidized carbon adsorbent.

  12. Insight in layer-by-layer assembly of cysteamine and L-cysteine on the copper surface by electrochemistry and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ping; Shen, Shu; Li, Chuan-Chuan; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Wen, Ying; Yang, Hai-Feng

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we examined the relationship between the anticorrosion behavior and the structure of the cysteamine/L-cysteine layer-by-layer coating on the copper surface via the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) technique with electrochemistry and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. SERS results elucidated the layer-by-layer adsorption mechanism of cysteamine/L-cysteine at the copper surface. Electrochemical investigations explored the inhibition behavior of cysteamine/L-cysteine for copper from corrosion with a high protection efficiency of 91.4%.

  13. Optical Activity of Anisotropic Achiral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Verbiest, T.; Kauranen, M.; Van Rompaey, Y.; Persoons, A. |

    1996-08-01

    Anisotropic achiral surfaces respond differently to left- and right-hand circularly polarized light. This occurs when the orientation of the surface with respect to an otherwise achiral experimental setup makes the total geometry chiral. Such optical activity is demonstrated in second-harmonic generation from an anisotropic thin molecular film. The circular-difference response reverses sign as the handedness of the geometry is reversed and vanishes when the setup possesses a mirror plane. The results are explained within the electric-dipole-allowed second-order surface nonlinearity. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  14. Covalently-layers of PVA and PAA and in situ formed Ag nanoparticles as versatile antimicrobial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fragal, Vanessa H; Cellet, Thelma S P; Pereira, Guilherme M; Fragal, Elizângela H; Costa, Marco Antonio; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Asefa, Tewodros; Rubira, Adley F; Silva, Rafael

    2016-10-01

    The in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) within covalently-modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films possessing ultra-thin layer of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) is successfully demonstrated. The resulting polymeric films are shown to exhibit antimicrobial activities toward Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungus (Candida albicans). To make the films, first PET surfaces were subject to photo-oxidation and subsequent solid-state grafting to attach a PVA layer, followed by a PAA layer. To synthesize the AgNPs inside the films, the PVA and PAA-modified PET was soaked in AgNO3 solution and the polymeric film was modified with the Ag(+) ions via Ag(+)-carboxylate interaction, and then the Ag(+) ions-containing polymer film was subject to either photo-reduction or thermal reduction processes. The PVA and PAA thin layers attached by covalent bonds to the PET surface uniquely promoted not only the in situ synthesis but also the stabilization of AgNPs. The formation of the AgNPs was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy or by monitoring the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak associated with AgNPs. The resulting PVA and PAA ultrathin layers modified and AgNPs containing PET served as bactericide and fungicide, inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi on the surfaces. Given PET's versatility and common use in many commercial processes, the method can be used for producing plastic surfaces with versatile antimicrobial and antibacterial properties.

  15. Active Surfaces and Interfaces of Soft Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiming

    A variety of intriguing surface patterns have been observed on developing natural systems, ranging from corrugated surface of white blood cells at nanometer scales to wrinkled dog skins at millimeter scales. To mimetically harness functionalities of natural morphologies, artificial transformative skin systems by using soft active materials have been rationally designed to generate versatile patterns for a variety of engineering applications. The study of the mechanics and design of these dynamic surface patterns on soft active materials are both physically interesting and technologically important. This dissertation starts with studying abundant surface patterns in Nature by constructing a unified phase diagram of surface instabilities on soft materials with minimum numbers of physical parameters. Guided by this integrated phase diagram, an electroactive system is designed to investigate a variety of electrically-induced surface instabilities of elastomers, including electro-creasing, electro-cratering, electro-wrinkling and electro-cavitation. Combing experimental, theoretical and computational methods, the initiation, evolution and transition of these instabilities are analyzed. To apply these dynamic surface instabilities to serving engineering and biology, new techniques of Dynamic Electrostatic Lithography and electroactive anti-biofouling are demonstrated.

  16. Effects of mixed discrete surface charges on the electrical double layer.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ángeles, Felipe

    2012-08-01

    Adsorption of surface coions and charge reversal are induced at the electrical double layer of a wall charged with positive and negative surface sites next to an electrolyte solution. While for the considered surface charge density these effects are found over a wide range of conditions, they are not observed for the typically employed surface models in equivalent conditions. Important consequences in electrophoresis experiments for different colloids with equal effective surface charge density are foreseen. This study is carried out by means of molecular dynamics simulations.

  17. Active Constrained Layer Damping of Thin Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RAY, M. C.; OH, J.; BAZ, A.

    2001-03-01

    The effectiveness of the active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatments in enhancing the damping characteristics of thin cylindrical shells is presented. A finite element model (FEM) is developed to describe the dynamic interaction between the shells and the ACLD treatments. Experiments are performed to verify the numerical predictions. The obtained results suggest the potential of the ACLD treatments in controlling the vibration of cylindrical shells which constitute the major building block of many critical structures such as cabins of aircrafts, hulls of submarines and bodies of rockets and missiles.

  18. On the Mechanisms of Hydrogen Implantation Induced Silicon Surface Layer Cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Hochbauer, Tobias Franz

    2002-08-01

    The “Ion-Cut”, a layer splitting process by hydrogen ion implantation and subsequent annealing is a versatile and efficient technique of transferring thin silicon surface layers from bulk substrates onto other substrates, thus enabling the production of silicon-oninsulator (SOI) materials. Cleavage is induced by the coalescence of the highly pressurized sub-surface H2-gas bubbles, which form upon thermal annealing. A fundamental understanding of the basic mechanisms on how the cutting process occurs is still unclear, inhibiting further optimization of the Ion-Cut process. This work elucidates the physical mechanisms behind the Ion-Cut process in hydrogen-implanted silicon. The investigation of the cleavage process reveals the cut to be largely controlled by the lattice damage, generated by the hydrogen ion irradiation process, and its effects on the local stress field and the fracture toughness within the implantation zone rather than by the depth of maximum H-concentration. Furthermore, this work elucidates the different kinetics in the H-complex formations in silicon crystals with different conductivity types, and examines the mechanically induced damage accumulation caused by the crack propagation through the silicon sample in the splitting step of the Ion-Cut process. Additionally, the influence of boron pre-implantation on the Ion-Cut in hydrogen implanted silicon is investigated. These studies reveal, that both, the atomic interaction between the boron implant and the hydrogen implant and the shift of the Fermi level due to the electrical activation of the implanted boron have a tremendous enhancing effect on the Ion-Cut process.

  19. On the Mechanisms of Hydrogen Implantation Induced Silicon Surface Layer Cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Hochbauer, Tobias

    2001-11-01

    The “Ion-Cut”, a layer splitting process by hydrogen ion implantation and subsequent annealing is a versatile and efficient technique of transferring thin silicon surface layers from bulk substrates onto other substrates, thus enabling the production of silicon-oninsulator (SOI) materials. Cleavage is induced by the coalescence of the highly pressurized sub-surface H2-gas bubbles, which form upon thermal annealing. A fundamental understanding of the basic mechanisms on how the cutting process occurs is still unclear, inhibiting further optimization of the Ion-Cut process. This work elucidates the physical mechanisms behind the Ion-Cut process in hydrogen-implanted silicon. The investigation of the cleavage process reveals the cut to be largely controlled by the lattice damage, generated by the hydrogen ion irradiation process, and its effects on the local stress field and the fracture toughness within the implantation zone rather than by the depth of maximum H-concentration. Furthermore, this work elucidates the different kinetics in the H-complex formations in silicon crystals with different conductivity types, and examines the mechanically induced damage accumulation caused by the crack propagation through the silicon sample in the splitting step of the Ion-Cut process. Additionally, the influence of boron pre-implantation on the Ion-Cut in hydrogen implanted silicon is investigated. These studies reveal, that both, the atomic interaction between the boron implant and the hydrogen implant and the shift of the Fermi level due to the electrical activation of the implanted boron have a tremendous enhancing effect on the Ion-Cut process.

  20. Computer graphic visualization of orbiter lower surface boundary-layer transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throckmorton, D. A.; Hartung, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    Computer graphic techniques are applied to the processing of Shuttle Orbiter flight data in order to create a visual presentation of the extent and movement of the boundary-layer transition front over the orbiter lower surface during entry. Flight-measured surface temperature-time histories define the onset and completion of the boundary-layer transition process at any measurement location. The locus of points which define the spatial position of the boundary-layer transition front on the orbiter planform is plotted at each discrete time for which flight data are available. Displaying these images sequentially in real-time results in an animated simulation of the in-flight boundary-layer transition process.

  1. Electrical conductivity of reconstructed Si(111) surface with sodium-doped C{sub 60} layers

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukanov, D. A. Saranin, A. A.; Ryzhkova, M. V.; Borisenko, E. A.; Zotov, A. V.

    2015-01-05

    Electrical conductance of sodium-doped C{sub 60} ultra-thin layers (1–6 monolayers) grown on the Na-adsorbed Si(111)√3 × √3-Au surface has been studied in situ by four-point probe technique, combined with low-energy electron diffraction observations. Evidence of conductance channel formation through the C{sub 60} ultrathin layer is demonstrated as a result of Na dosing of 3 and 6 monolayers thick C{sub 60} layers. The observed changes in surface conductivity can be attributed to the formation of fulleride-like NaC{sub 60} and Na{sub 2}C{sub 60} compound layers.

  2. Aerodynamically-driven condensate layer thickness distributions on isothermal cylindrical surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, D. E.; Gunes, D.; Nazih-Anous, N.

    1983-01-01

    A simple yet rather general mathematical model is presented for predicting the distribution of condensate layer thickness when aerodynamic shear is the dominant mechanism of liquid flow along the surface. The Newtonian condensate film is treated using well-known thin-layer (lubrication theory) approximations, and condensate supply is taken to be the result of either convective diffusion or inertial impaction. Illustrative calculations for a circular cylinder in a crossflow at Re = 100,000 reveal the consequences of alternate condensate arrival mechanisms and the existence of thicker reverse-flow films behind the position of gas boundary-layer separation. The present formulation is readily generalized to include transient liquid layer flows on noncircular objects of variable surface temperature, as encountered in turbine-blade materials testing or operation.

  3. Properties of surface layers on titanium alloys produced by plasma carboxynitriding process

    SciTech Connect

    Wierzchon, T.; Fleszar, A.; Krupaand, D.; Narbutta, L.

    1995-12-31

    The recent rapid progress in technique requires that the titanium alloys should have better resistance to frictional wear and to the action of corrosive agents. These requirements can be satisfied by producing surface layers of specified microstructure and phase composition. The present paper describes a modification of the plasma discharge nitriding treatment of titanium alloys, i.e., the glow discharge assisted oxycarbonitriding, which by introducing oxygen, nitrogen and carbon into the surface zone of the layer (a TI(NCO) type layer) improves its useful properties, primarily the resistance to frictional wear and the resistance to corrosion. This is so since titanium shows a good affinity to oxygen, carbon and nitrogen, whereas the chemical composition of the layer depends on the chemical composition of the low-temperature plasma that forms under the conditions of glow discharge.

  4. Aerodynamically-driven condensate layer thickness distributions on isothermal cylindrical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, D. E.; Gunes, D.; Nazih-Anous, N.

    A simple yet rather general mathematical model is presented for predicting the distribution of condensate layer thickness when aerodynamic shear is the dominant mechanism of liquid flow along the surface. The Newtonian condensate film is treated using well-known thin-layer (lubrication theory) approximations, and condensate supply is taken to be the result of either convective diffusion or inertial impaction. Illustrative calculations for a circular cylinder in a crossflow at Re = 100,000 reveal the consequences of alternate condensate arrival mechanisms and the existence of thicker reverse-flow films behind the position of gas boundary-layer separation. The present formulation is readily generalized to include transient liquid layer flows on noncircular objects of variable surface temperature, as encountered in turbine-blade materials testing or operation.

  5. Indium phosphide negative electron affinity photocathodes: Surface cleaning and activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yun

    InP(100) is a very important semi-conductor for many applications. When activated by Cs and oxygen, the InP surface achieves the state of Negative Electron Affinity (NEA) making the Cs+O/InP system a very efficient electron source. Despite many years of study, the chemical cleaning and activation of InP are still not well understood. In our work, we have established an understanding of the basic physics and chemistry for the chemical cleaning and activation of the InP(100) surface. Synchrotron Radiation Photoelectron Spectroscopy is the main technique used in this study because of its high surface sensitivity and ability to identify chemical species present on the surface at each stage of our process. A clean, stoichiometric InP(100) surface is crucial for obtaining high performance of NEA photocathodes. Therefore, the first part of our study focused on the chemical cleaning of InP(100). We found that hydrogen peroxide based solutions alone, originally developed to clean GaAs(100) surfaces and widely used for InP(100), do not result in clean InP(I00) surfaces because oxide is left on the surface. A second cleaning step, which uses acid solutions like HCl or H2SO4, can remove all the oxide and leave a 0.4 ML protective layer of elemental phosphorous on the surface. The elemental phosphorous can be removed by annealing at 330°C and a clean InP(100) surface can be obtained. Cs deposition on InP(100) surface shows clear charge transfer from the Cs ad-atoms to the substrate. When the Cs/InP(100) surface is dosed with oxygen, the charge transfer from the Cs to substrate is reduced and substrate is oxidized. The activation of InP as a NEA photocathode is carried out by an alternating series of steps consisting of Cs deposition and Cs+O co-deposition. Two types of oxygen are found after activation. The first is dissociated oxygen and the other is a di-oxygen species (peroxide or superoxide). The decay of quantum-yield with time and with annealing is studied and changes in

  6. Effect of Thermal Conductivity on the Knudsen Layer at Ablative Surfaces (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-13

    Enskog expansion method for solving the Boltz- mann equation22 based on the assumption that the molecular mean-free path is much smaller than...Following Anisimov’s method ,9 let us write the velocity distribution function in the kinetic layer with the evaporating surface in the following form, Fig. 1...kinetic layer and xT= dln T /dx−1 is the characteristic gradient length. Condition 11 is needed for the Chapman–Enskog expansion method and Eq. 7

  7. The influence of surface layer salinity on wintertime convection in Wilkinson Basin, Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Maureen H.; Mountain, David G.

    2009-02-01

    Observations suggest that the interannual variability of wintertime convection in Wilkinson Basin (WB) during 1977-2005 is related to the variation in the surface layer salinity in the western Gulf of Maine (wGOM). When the winter convection is stronger (weaker), the resulting deep-layer temperatures in the wGOM are colder (warmer), and the likelihood of deep winter mixing is greater when the wGOM salinities are high. This hypothesis was tested using a one-dimensional mixed layer model to simulate the water column structure over the cooling period. Comparisons were made between the convection potential for the range of observed late-fall salinity values. Model results indicated that the mixed layer depth could deepen by as much as 50% when the surface layer salinities in the wGOM were high. Sensitivity tests revealed that the surface layer salinity variability, and its influence on the water column density structure, was a significant factor, along with local climate variability, in determining the observed time series trend in springtime bottom layer temperatures. Density distributions in the wGOM in high salinity years suggested that winter-cooled water from the adjacent shallow coastal areas could become sufficiently dense to cascade into the deeper layers of WB and enhanced the convective cooling. The interannual variation in wintertime convection and in the resulting density structure has important implications for biological processes. The associated variation in deeper layer temperatures has been shown to influence the spatial distribution, timing of spawning, and growth rates of many demersal and mid-water fishery populations.

  8. Anomalous hexagonal superstructure of aluminum oxide layer grown on NiAl(110) surface.

    PubMed

    Krukowski, Pawel; Chaunchaiyakul, Songpol; Minagawa, Yuto; Yajima, Nami; Akai-Kasaya, Megumi; Saito, Akira; Kuwahara, Yuji

    2016-11-11

    A modified method for the fabrication of a highly crystallized layer of aluminum oxide on a NiAl(110) surface is reported. The fabrication method involves the multistep selective oxidation of aluminum atoms on a NiAl(110) surface resulting from successive oxygen deposition and annealing. The surface morphology and local electronic structure of the novel aluminum oxide layer were investigated by high-resolution imaging using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and current imaging tunneling spectroscopy. In contrast to the standard fabrication method of aluminum oxide on a NiAl(110) surface, the proposed method produces an atomically flat surface exhibiting a hexagonal superstructure. The superstructure exhibits a slightly distorted hexagonal array of close-packed bright protrusions with a periodicity of 4.5 ± 0.2 nm. Atomically resolved STM imaging of the aluminum oxide layer reveals a hexagonal arrangement of dark contrast spots with a periodicity of 0.27 ± 0.02 nm. On the basis of the atomic structure of the fabricated layer, the formation of α-Al2O3(0001) on the NiAl(110) surface is suggested.

  9. Magnetic field-related heating instabilities in the surface layers of the sun and stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, A.; Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    The stability of a magnetized low-density plasma to current-driven filamentation instabilities is investigated and the results are applied to the surface layers of stars. Unlike previous studies, the initial (i.e., precoronal) state of the stellar surface atmosphere is taken to be a low-density, optically thin magnetized plasma in radiative equilibrium. The linear analysis shows that the surface layers of main-sequence stars (including the sun) which are threaded by magnetic fields are unstable; the instabilities considered lead to structuring perpendicular to the ambient magnetic fields. These results suggest that relatively modest surface motions, in conjunction with the presence of magnetic fields, suffice to account for the presence of inhomogeneous chromospheric and coronal plasma overlying a star's surface.

  10. Manufacture of silicon-based devices having disordered sulfur-doped surface layers

    DOEpatents

    Carey, III, James Edward; Mazur, Eric

    2008-04-08

    The present invention provides methods of fabricating a radiation-absorbing semiconductor wafer by irradiating at least one surface location of a silicon substrate, e.g., an n-doped crystalline silicon, by a plurality of temporally short laser pulses, e.g., femtosecond pulses, while exposing that location to a substance, e.g., SF.sub.6, having an electron-donating constituent so as to generate a substantially disordered surface layer (i.e., a microstructured layer) that incorporates a concentration of that electron-donating constituent, e.g., sulfur. The substrate is also annealed at an elevated temperature and for a duration selected to enhance the charge carrier density in the surface layer. For example, the substrate can be annealed at a temperature in a range of about 700 K to about 900 K.

  11. Hardening of the surface layers of commercial pure titanium VT1-0 under combined treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashchenko, Lyudmila P.; Gromov, Viktor E.; Budovskikh, Evgenii A.; Ivanov, Yurii F.; Soskova, Nina A.

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of VT1-0 titanium samples was carried out by concentrated energy fluxes. The combined treatment included surface carburizing with the joint use of powder samples of compounds with high physical and mechanical properties (namely, titanium diboride TiB2, silicon carbide SiC and zirconium oxide ZrO2) and subsequent electron beam treatment of surface layers formed in electroexplosive treatment. The combined treatment of surface layers resulted in the multifold increase in microhardness, which reduces depending on the depth of hardening zone. After electron-beam treatment, the depth of hardening zone is increased. During electron-beam treatment, the two-layer hardening zone forms.

  12. Scaling laws of passive tracer dispersion in the turbulent surface layer.

    PubMed

    Skvortsov, Alex; Jamriska, Milan; Dubois, Timothy C

    2010-11-01

    Experimental results for passive tracer dispersion in the turbulent surface layer under stable conditions are presented. In this case, the dispersion of tracer particles is determined by the interplay of three mechanisms: relative dispersion (celebrated Richardson's mechanism), shear dispersion (particle separation due to variation of the mean velocity field) and specific surface-layer dispersion (induced by the gradient of the energy dissipation rate in the turbulent surface layer). The latter mechanism results in the rather slow (ballistic) law for the mean squared particle separation. Based on a simplified Langevin equation for particle separation we found that the ballistic regime always dominates at large times. This conclusion is supported by our extensive atmospheric observations. Exit-time statistics are derived from the experimental data set and show a reasonable match with the simple dimensional asymptotes for different mechanisms of tracer dispersion, as well as predictions of the multifractal model and experimental data from other sources.

  13. Hardening of the surface layers of commercial pure titanium VT1-0 under combined treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bashchenko, Lyudmila P. Gromov, Viktor E. Budovskikh, Evgenii A. Soskova, Nina A.; Ivanov, Yurii F.

    2015-10-27

    The treatment of VT1-0 titanium samples was carried out by concentrated energy fluxes. The combined treatment included surface carburizing with the joint use of powder samples of compounds with high physical and mechanical properties (namely, titanium diboride TiB{sub 2}, silicon carbide SiC and zirconium oxide ZrO{sub 2}) and subsequent electron beam treatment of surface layers formed in electroexplosive treatment. The combined treatment of surface layers resulted in the multifold increase in microhardness, which reduces depending on the depth of hardening zone. After electron-beam treatment, the depth of hardening zone is increased. During electron-beam treatment, the two-layer hardening zone forms.

  14. Synthesis and sorption properties of porous layers of cyclames on a modified polyvinyl chloride surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsivadse, A. Yu.; Fridman, A. Ya.; Morozova, E. M.; Sokolova, N. P.; Voloshchuk, A. M.; Petukhova, G. A.; Bardyshev, I. I.; Gorbunov, A. M.; Polyakova, I. Ya.; Shapokhina, O. P.

    2012-03-01

    The structure and adsorption properties of the porous layers of synthesized ethanol-cyclames and sodium acetate cyclames on a surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) encapsulating fibers of the asbestos tissue of chrysotile asbestos are studied. It is established that PVC is linked to the silicon-oxygen chains of magnesium hydrosilicate; the capsule ensures the stability of the asbestos tissue under the action of the concentrated solutions of acids and alkalis; its exterior reproduces the fiber surface and has a typical microrelief; and there are voids in the layers. We conclude that the specific surface of layers and the volume of the adsorption space are larger than those of the initial fibers, and the statistical capacity upon the adsorption of water vapor and polar and nonpolar organic molecules depends on the nature and affinity for cyclames.

  15. Transport numbers in the surface layers of asymmetric membranes from initial time measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Compan, V.; Lopez, M.L. ); Sorensen, T.S. ); Garrido, J. )

    1994-09-08

    The initial time asymmetry potentials of two ultra filtration membranes (cellulose acetate and polysulfone membranes) were measured in electrochemical cells using Ag/AgCl electrodes and NaCl solutions. The concentration in the two electrode chambers differed slightly by a fixed concentration difference. Either the membranes were brought to equilibrium with the left-hand solution and subsequently exposed to the right-hand solution at the right-hand face, or the procedure was reversed. From such measurements it is possible to evaluate the transport numbers corresponding to each of the two surface layers of the membrane under conditions such that the effects of autoprotolysis of water and of foreign ions may be neglected. These measurements permit a description of each of the surface layers of the membranes and make possible an electrochemical characterization of the asymmetry of ultrafiltration membranes. The asymmetry is given by the difference between surface layer transport numbers. 31 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. The effects of oxalate treatment on the smear layer of ground surfaces of human dentine.

    PubMed

    Pashley, D H; Galloway, S E

    1985-01-01

    The layer was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and by measurement of hydraulic conductance before and after 2-min topical treatment with potassium chloride, neutral potassium oxalate, half-neutralized oxalic acid or both neutral and acidic oxalates. The treated smear layers were then re-evaluated microscopically and functionally both before and after acid challenge. The layers treated with KCl were not altered either microscopically or functionally and were susceptible to acid etching. Dentine surfaces treated with either oxalate solutions became less permeable and were acid-resistant.

  17. Resonance oscillation damping of a scanning microscope probe by a near-surface viscous liquid layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslenikov, I. I.; Reshetov, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    Viscous liquid layer motion between a probe with a tip shaped as a paraboloid of revolution and a surface is considered for semicontact-mode operation of a scanning probe microscope. The presence of a viscous liquid layer leads to energy dissipation and is one of the factors responsible for the decrease in the probe oscillation amplitude. The Reynolds equation for viscous liquid motion is used to obtain an analytic solution to the problem. The formula derived for the loss is compared with experimental data obtained for probes and layers with various curvature radii and viscosities.

  18. Removal of the organic surface layer in combined sewer sediment using a flushing gate.

    PubMed

    Laplace, D; Oms, C; Ahyerre, M; Chebbo, O; Lemasson, J; Felouzis, L

    2003-01-01

    Recent research identified the different sources of pollution of wet weather Combined Sewers Overflows (CSOs): it appeared that the deposits in sewers, and especially an organic layer situated at the water-sediment interface, may contribute 40-70% to the total pollution load of CSOs. Using the cyclic flush Hydrass gate, we generated increased water flows during dry weather. The effects of flushing the deposits have been analysed: the eroded particles sampled during the first flush wave show pollutant characteristics similar to characteristics measured in the organic layer. The organic layer that has formed on the surface of deposits can thus be washed off before rainstorms occur using the cyclic flushing technique.

  19. Surface characterization of artificial corrosion layers on copper alloy reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinides, I.; Adriaens, A.; Adams, F.

    2002-04-01

    This paper describes the surface characterization of artificial patina layers on five different copper alloys. The chemical composition of the examined bronzes covers the major families of archaeological copper alloys from antiquity until the Roman period. The patina layers of the five samples were formed under identical conditions by electrochemical means. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray micro analysis (SEM-EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to describe the main properties of the patina layers. The results were interpreted and classified according to an existing corrosion model for copper alloys.

  20. Dissimilarity between temperature-humidity in the atmospheric surface layer and implications for estimates of evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancelli, D. M.; Dias, N. L.; Chamecki, M.

    2012-12-01

    In several methods used in water resources to estimate evaporation from land and water surfaces, a fundamental assumption is that temperature (T) and specific humidity (q) fluctuations behave similarly in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL). In the Energy-Budget Bowen Ratio method it is assumed that both eddy diffusivities are equal, while in the variance method it is often assumed that all the Monin-Obukhov Similarity (MOS) functions for the two scalars are equal. However, it is well-known that the T-q similarity does not always hold and that the dissimilarity found in practice can significantly impact the estimates of evaporation. Given the frequent dissimilarity between temperature and humidity, two important problems arise. The first one is related to the choice of the function used to characterize scalar similarity, given that not all commonly used functions are equally capable of identifying scalar dissimilarity. The second problem is associated with the identification of the physical mechanisms behind scalar dissimilarity in each particular case: local advection, nonstationarity, surface heterogeneity, active/passive roles of the scalars, entrainment fluxes at the top of the atmospheric boundary layer are typically cited as possible causes, but seldom a convincing argument is presented. In this work we combine experimental data and numerical simulations to study similarity between T and q in the ASL. Data measured over a lake in Brazil suggests a strong relationship between scalar similarity and the balance between local production and dissipation of scalar variance, which is in practice related to the strength of the surface forcing. Scalar variance and covariance budgets are used to derive a set of dimensionless Scalar Flux numbers that are capable of diagnosing the balance between gradient production and molecular dissipation of scalar variance and covariance. Experimental data shows that these Scalar Flux numbers are good predictors of scalar (dis

  1. Turbulent dusty boundary layer in an ANFO surface-burst explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, A. L.; Ferguson, R. E.; Chien, K. Y.; Collins, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the results of numerical simulations of the dusty, turbulent boundary layer created by a surface burst explosion. The blast wave was generated by the detonation of a 600-T hemisphere of ANFO, similar to those used in large-scale field tests. The surface was assumed to be ideally noncratering but contained an initial loose layer of dust. The dust-air mixture in this fluidized bed was modeled as a dense gas (i.e., an equilibrium model, valid for very small-diameter dust particles). The evolution of the flow was calculated by a high-order Godunov code that solves the nonsteady conservation laws. Shock interactions with dense layer generated vorticity near the wall, a result that is similar to viscous, no-slip effects found in clean flows. The resulting wall shear layer was unstable, and rolled up into large-scale rotational structures. These structures entrained dense material from the wall layer and created a chaotically striated flow. The boundary layer grew due to merging of the large-scale structures and due to local entrainment of the dense material from the fluidized bed. The chaotic flow was averaged along similarity lines (i.e., lines of constant values of x = r/Rs and y = z/Rs where R(sub s) = ct(exp alpha)) to establish the mean-flow profiles and the r.m.s. fluctuating-flow profiles of the boundary layer.

  2. Tribological Properties of the Fe-Al-Cr Alloyed Layer by Double Glow Plasma Surface Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xixi; Yao, Zhengjun; Zhang, Pingze; Zhou, Keyin; Wang, Zhangzhong

    2016-09-01

    A Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer was deposited onto the surface of Q235 low-carbon steel via double glow plasma surface metallurgy (DGPSM) to improve the steel's wear resistance. After the DGPSM treatment, the Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer grown on the Q235 low-carbon steel was homogeneous and compact and had a thickness of 25 µm. The layer was found to be metallurgically adhered to the substrate. The frictional coefficient and specific wear rate of the sample with a Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer (treated sample) were both lower than those of the bare substrate (untreated sample) at the measured temperatures (25, 250 and 450 °C). The results indicated that the substrate and the alloyed layer suffered oxidative wear and abrasive wear, respectively, and that the treated samples exhibited much better tribological properties than did the substrate. The formation of Fe2AlCr, Fe3Al(Cr), FeAl(Cr), Fe(Cr) sosoloid and Cr23C6 phases in the alloyed layer dramatically enhanced the wear resistance of the treated sample. In addition, the alloyed layer's oxidation film exhibited a self-healing capacity with lubrication action that also contributed to the improvement of the wear resistance at high temperature. In particular, at 450 °C, the specific wear rate of treated sample was 2.524 × 10-4 mm3/N m, which was only 45.2% of the untreated sample.

  3. Tuning high-harmonic generation by controlled deposition of ultrathin ionic layers on metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Néstor F.; Martín, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    High-harmonic generation (HHG) from semiconductors and insulators has become a very active area of research due to its great potential for developing compact HHG devices. Here we show, that by growing monolayers (ML) of insulators on single-crystal metal surfaces, one can tune the harmonic spectrum by just varying the thickness of the ultrathin layer, rather than the laser properties. This is shown from numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for Cu(111)/n -ML NaCl systems (n =1 -50 ) based on realistic potentials. Remarkably, the harmonic cutoff increases linearly with n and as much as an order of magnitude when going from n =1 to 30, while keeping the laser intensity low and the wavelength in the near-infrared range. The origin of this behavior is twofold: the initial localization of electrons in a Cu-surface state and the reduction of electronic "friction" when moving from the essentially discrete energy spectrum associated with a few-ML system to the continuous spectrum (bands) inherent in extended periodic systems. Our findings are valid for both few- and multicycle IR pulses and wavelengths ˜1 -2 μ m .

  4. Zipper and layer-by-layer assemblies of artificial photosystems analyzed by combining optical and piezoelectric surface techniques.

    PubMed

    Porus, Mariya; Maroni, Plinio; Bhosale, Rajesh; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan; Borkovec, Michal

    2011-06-07

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) were used to study zipper and layer-by-layer multilayer assemblies of artificial photosystems based on naphthalenediimides (NDIs) attached to an oligophenylethynyl (OPE-NDI) or p-oligophenyl (POP-NDI) backbone in dry and wet state. For the most interesting OPE-NDI zipper, one obtains for the dry film a monolayer thickness of 1.85 nm and a density of 1.58 g/cm(3), while the wet film has a larger monolayer thickness of 3.6 nm with a water content of 36%. The dry thickness of a monolayer in OPE-NDI zippers corresponds to about one-half of the length of the OPE scaffold in agreement with the proposed structure of the zipper. The low water content of the OPE-NDI films confirms their compact structure. The dry monolayer thickness of the POP-NDI films of 1.45 nm is smaller than that for the OPE-NDI films, which is probably related to a tilt of the POP scaffolds within the adsorbed layer. The POP-NDI films swell in water much more substantially, suggesting a much more open structure. These features are in excellent agreement with the better photophysical performance of the OPE-NDI assemblies when compared to the POP-NDI films.

  5. Optical activity of transparent polymer layers characterized by spectral means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosutchi, Andreea Irina; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe; Zelinschi, Carmen Beatrice; Breaban, Iuliana; Dorohoi, Dana Ortansa

    2015-06-01

    The method based on the channeled spectrum, validated for inorganic optical active layers, is used now to determine the optical activity of some transparent polymer solutions in different solvents. The circular birefringence, the dispersion parameter and the specific rotation were estimated in the visible range by using the measurements of wavelengths in the channeled spectra of Hydroxypropyl cellulose in water, methanol and acetic acid. The experiments showed the specific rotation dependence on the polymer concentration and also on the solvent nature. The decrease of the specific rotation in the visible range with the increase in wavelength was evidenced. The method has some advantages as the rapidity of the experiments and the large spectral range in which it can be applied. One disadvantage is the fact that the channeled spectrum does not allow to establish the rotation sense of the electric field intensity.

  6. Surface modification induced phase transformation and structure variation on the rapidly solidified recast layer of titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Ming-Hung; Haung, Chiung-Fang; Shyu, Shih-Shiun; Chou, Yen-Ru; Lin, Ming-Hong; Peng, Pei-Wen; and others

    2015-08-15

    In this study, neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO{sub 4}) as a laser source with different scanning speeds was used on biomedical Ti surface. The microstructural and biological properties of laser-modified samples were investigated by means of optical microscope, electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness instrument, contact angle and cell cytotoxicity assay. After laser modification, the rough volcano-like recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure and wave-like recast layer with nanoporous structure were generated on the surfaces of laser-modified samples, respectively. It was also found out that, an α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition occurred on the recast layers of laser-modified samples. The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. Moreover, the cell cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that laser-modified samples did not influence the cell adhesion and proliferation behaviors of osteoblast (MG-63) cell. The laser with 50 mm/s scanning speed induced formation of rough volcano-like recast layer accompanied with micro-/nanoporous structure, which can promote cell adhesion and proliferation of MG-63 cell on Ti surface. The results indicated that the laser treatment was a potential technology to enhance the biocompatibility for titanium. - Highlights: • Laser induced the formation of recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure on Ti. • An α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition was observed within the recast layer. • The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. • Laser-modified samples exhibit good biocompatibility to osteoblast (MG-63) cell.

  7. Impact of Bay-Breeze Circulations on Surface Air Quality and Boundary Layer Export

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Follette-Cook, Melanie; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Goldberg, Daniel; Satam, Chinmay; Weinheimer, Andrew; Crawford, James H.; Knapp, David J.; Montzka, Denise D.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological and air-quality model simulations are analyzed alongside observations to investigate the role of the Chesapeake Bay breeze on surface air quality, pollutant transport, and boundary layer venting. A case study was conducted to understand why a particular day was the only one during an 11-day ship-based field campaign on which surface ozone was not elevated in concentration over the Chesapeake Bay relative to the closest upwind site and why high ozone concentrations were observed aloft by in situ aircraft observations. Results show that southerly winds during the overnight and early-morning hours prevented the advection of air pollutants from the Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan areas over the surface waters of the bay. A strong and prolonged bay breeze developed during the late morning and early afternoon along the western coastline of the bay. The strength and duration of the bay breeze allowed pollutants to converge, resulting in high concentrations locally near the bay-breeze front within the Baltimore metropolitan area, where they were then lofted to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Near the top of the PBL, these pollutants were horizontally advected to a region with lower PBL heights, resulting in pollution transport out of the boundary layer and into the free troposphere. This elevated layer of air pollution aloft was transported downwind into New England by early the following morning where it likely mixed down to the surface, affecting air quality as the boundary layer grew.

  8. Optimizing pentacene thin-film transistor performance: Temperature and surface condition induced layer growth modification.

    PubMed

    Lassnig, R; Hollerer, M; Striedinger, B; Fian, A; Stadlober, B; Winkler, A

    2015-11-01

    In this work we present in situ electrical and surface analytical, as well as ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on temperature and surface condition induced pentacene layer growth modifications, leading to the selection of optimized deposition conditions and entailing performance improvements. We prepared p(++)-silicon/silicon dioxide bottom-gate, gold bottom-contact transistor samples and evaluated the pentacene layer growth for three different surface conditions (sputtered, sputtered + carbon and unsputtered + carbon) at sample temperatures during deposition of 200 K, 300 K and 350 K. The AFM investigations focused on the gold contacts, the silicon dioxide channel region and the highly critical transition area. Evaluations of coverage dependent saturation mobilities, threshold voltages and corresponding AFM analysis were able to confirm that the first 3-4 full monolayers contribute to the majority of charge transport within the channel region. At high temperatures and on sputtered surfaces uniform layer formation in the contact-channel transition area is limited by dewetting, leading to the formation of trenches and the partial development of double layer islands within the channel region instead of full wetting layers. By combining the advantages of an initial high temperature deposition (well-ordered islands in the channel) and a subsequent low temperature deposition (continuous film formation for low contact resistance) we were able to prepare very thin (8 ML) pentacene transistors of comparably high mobility.

  9. Optimizing pentacene thin-film transistor performance: Temperature and surface condition induced layer growth modification

    PubMed Central

    Lassnig, R.; Hollerer, M.; Striedinger, B.; Fian, A.; Stadlober, B.; Winkler, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present in situ electrical and surface analytical, as well as ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on temperature and surface condition induced pentacene layer growth modifications, leading to the selection of optimized deposition conditions and entailing performance improvements. We prepared p++-silicon/silicon dioxide bottom-gate, gold bottom-contact transistor samples and evaluated the pentacene layer growth for three different surface conditions (sputtered, sputtered + carbon and unsputtered + carbon) at sample temperatures during deposition of 200 K, 300 K and 350 K. The AFM investigations focused on the gold contacts, the silicon dioxide channel region and the highly critical transition area. Evaluations of coverage dependent saturation mobilities, threshold voltages and corresponding AFM analysis were able to confirm that the first 3–4 full monolayers contribute to the majority of charge transport within the channel region. At high temperatures and on sputtered surfaces uniform layer formation in the contact–channel transition area is limited by dewetting, leading to the formation of trenches and the partial development of double layer islands within the channel region instead of full wetting layers. By combining the advantages of an initial high temperature deposition (well-ordered islands in the channel) and a subsequent low temperature deposition (continuous film formation for low contact resistance) we were able to prepare very thin (8 ML) pentacene transistors of comparably high mobility. PMID:26543442

  10. Bactericidal activity of biomimetic diamond nanocone surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Leanne E; Yang, Yang; Yuen, Muk-Fung; Zhang, Wenjun; Nobbs, Angela H; Su, Bo

    2016-03-17

    The formation of biofilms on implant surfaces and the subsequent development of medical device-associated infections are difficult to resolve and can cause considerable morbidity to the patient. Over the past decade, there has been growing recognition that physical cues, such as surface topography, can regulate biological responses and possess bactericidal activity. In this study, diamond nanocone-patterned surfaces, representing biomimetic analogs of the naturally bactericidal cicada fly wing, were fabricated using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition, followed by bias-assisted reactive ion etching. Two structurally distinct nanocone surfaces were produced, characterized, and the bactericidal ability examined. The sharp diamond nanocone features were found to have bactericidal capabilities with the surface possessing the more varying cone dimension, nonuniform array, and decreased density, showing enhanced bactericidal ability over the more uniform, highly dense nanocone surface. Future research will focus on using the fabrication process to tailor surface nanotopographies on clinically relevant materials that promote both effective killing of a broader range of microorganisms and the desired mammalian cell response. This study serves to introduce a technology that may launch a new and innovative direction in the design of biomaterials with capacity to reduce the risk of medical device-associated infections.

  11. The Diurnal Cycle of the Boundary Layer, Convection, Clouds, and Surface Radiation in a Coastal Monsoon Environment (Darwin Australia)

    SciTech Connect

    May, Peter T.; Long, Charles N.; Protat, Alain

    2012-08-01

    The diurnal variation of convection and associated cloud and radiative properties remains a significant issue in global NWP and climate models. This study analyzes observed diurnal variability of convection in a coastal monsoonal environment examining the interaction of convective rain clouds, their associated cloud properties, and the impact on the surface radiation and corresponding boundary layer structure during periods where convection is suppressed or active on the large scale. The analysis uses data from the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) as well as routine measurements from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Both active monsoonal and large-scale suppressed (buildup and break) conditions are examined and demonstrate that the diurnal variation of rainfall is much larger during the break periods and the spatial distribution of rainfall is very different between the monsoon and break regimes. During the active monsoon the total net radiative input to the surface is decreased by more than 3 times the amount than during the break regime - this total radiative cloud forcing is found to be dominated by the shortwave (SW) cloud effects because of the much larger optical thicknesses and persistence of long-lasting anvils and cirrus cloud decks associated with the monsoon regime. These differences in monsoon versus break surface radiative energy contribute to low-level air temperature differences in the boundary layer over the land surfaces.

  12. Microtopographic and depth controls on active layer chemistry in Arctic polygonal ground

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Brent D.; Throckmorton, Heather M.; Graham, David E.; Gu, Baohua; Hubbard, Susan S.; Liang, Liyuan; Wu, Yuxin; Heikoop, J. M.; Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Wilson, Cathy; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-03-24

    Polygonal ground is a signature characteristic of Arctic lowlands, and carbon release from permafrost thaw can alter feedbacks to Arctic ecosystems and climate. This study describes the first comprehensive spatial examination of active layer biogeochemistry that extends across high- and low-centered, ice wedge polygons, their features, and with depth. Water chemistry measurements of 54 analytes were made on surface and active layer pore waters collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA. Significant differences were observed between high- and low-centered polygons suggesting that polygon types may be useful for landscape-scale geochemical classification. However, differences were found for polygon features (centers and troughs) for analytes that were not significant for polygon type, suggesting that finer-scale features affect biogeochemistry differently from polygon types. Depth variations were also significant, demonstrating important multidimensional aspects of polygonal ground biogeochemistry. These results have major implications for understanding how polygonal ground ecosystems function, and how they may respond to future change.

  13. Microtopographic and depth controls on active layer chemistry in Arctic polygonal ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, B. D.; Throckmorton, H. M.; Graham, D. E.; Gu, B.; Hubbard, S. S.; Liang, L.; Wu, Y.; Heikoop, J. M.; Herndon, E. M.; Phelps, T. J.; Wilson, C. J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2015-03-01

    Polygonal ground is a signature characteristic of Arctic lowlands, and carbon release from permafrost thaw can alter feedbacks to Arctic ecosystems and climate. This study describes the first comprehensive spatial examination of active layer biogeochemistry that extends across high- and low-centered, ice wedge polygons, their features, and with depth. Water chemistry measurements of 54 analytes were made on surface and active layer pore waters collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA. Significant differences were observed between high- and low-centered polygons suggesting that polygon types may be useful for landscape-scale geochemical classification. However, differences were found for polygon features (centers and troughs) for analytes that were not significant for polygon type, suggesting that finer-scale features affect biogeochemistry differently from polygon types. Depth variations were also significant, demonstrating important multidimensional aspects of polygonal ground biogeochemistry. These results have major implications for understanding how polygonal ground ecosystems function, and how they may respond to future change.

  14. Active layer hydrology for Imnavait Creek, Toolik, Alaska. Annual progress report, July 1984--January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1986-12-31

    In the annual hydrologic cycle, snowmelt is the most significant event at Imnavait Creek located near Toolik Lake, Alaska. Precipitation that has accumulated for more than 6 months on the surface melts in a relatively short period of 7 to 10 days once sustained melting occurs. During the ablation period, runoff dominates the hydrologic cycle. Some meltwater goes to rewetting the organic soils in the active layer. The remainder is lost primarily because of evaporation, since transpiration is not a very active process at this time. Following the snowmelt period, evapotranspiration becomes the dominate process, with base flow contributing the other watershed losses. It is important to note that the water initally lost by evapotranspiration entered the organic layer during melt. This water from the snowpack ensures that each year the various plant communities will have sufficient water to start a new summer of growth.

  15. Metal Surface Modification for Obtaining Nano- and Sub-Nanostructured Protective Layers.

    PubMed

    Ledovskykh, Volodymyr; Vyshnevska, Yuliya; Brazhnyk, Igor; Levchenko, Sergiy

    2017-12-01

    Regularities of the phase protective layer formation in multicomponent systems involving inhibitors with different mechanism of protective action have been investigated. It was shown that optimization of the composition of the inhibition mixture allows to obtain higher protective efficiency owing to improved microstructure of the phase layer. It was found that mechanism of the film formation in the presence of NaNO2-PHMG is due to deposition of slightly soluble PHMG-Fe complexes on the metal surface. On the basis of the proposed mechanism, the advanced surface engineering methods for obtaining nanoscaled and sub-nanostructured functional coatings may be developed.

  16. Martian Buried Basins and Implications for Characteristics of the Burial Layer and Underlying Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarid, A. R.; Frey, H. V.; Roark, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    Deciphering the cratering record on Mars has been challenging because it may reflect the changes in both the population of impactors and in the resurfacing processes on Mars. However, it is possible to determine the breadth of impactors captured in the cratering record. Extensive areas of resurfacing are of particular interest because they likely contain material from various ages in Martian history. By deducing the impact populations in both surface and underlying layers of terrain, it is possible to determine the age of the layers and constrain theories on the development of the Martian surface. However, to do so requires a method of "seeing" impact features which are no longer visible.

  17. Metal Surface Modification for Obtaining Nano- and Sub-Nanostructured Protective Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledovskykh, Volodymyr; Vyshnevska, Yuliya; Brazhnyk, Igor; Levchenko, Sergiy

    2017-03-01

    Regularities of the phase protective layer formation in multicomponent systems involving inhibitors with different mechanism of protective action have been investigated. It was shown that optimization of the composition of the inhibition mixture allows to obtain higher protective efficiency owing to improved microstructure of the phase layer. It was found that mechanism of the film formation in the presence of NaNO2-PHMG is due to deposition of slightly soluble PHMG-Fe complexes on the metal surface. On the basis of the proposed mechanism, the advanced surface engineering methods for obtaining nanoscaled and sub-nanostructured functional coatings may be developed.

  18. Surface modification of carbon post arrays by atomic layer deposition of ZnO film.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ae; Byun, Young-Chul; Singh, Umesh; Cho, Hyoung J; Kim, Hyoungsub

    2011-08-01

    The applicability of atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to the carbon microelectromechanical system technology was studied for a surface modification method of the carbon post electrodes. A conformal coating of the ALD-ZnO film was successfully demonstrated on the carbon post arrays which were fabricated by the traditional photolithography and subsequent two-step pyrolysis. A significant Zn diffusion into the underlying carbon posts was observed during the ALD process. The addition of a sputter-deposited ZnO interfacial layer efficiently blocked the Zn diffusion without altering the microstructure and surface morphology of the ALD-ZnO film.

  19. Macro-carriers of plastic deformation of steel surface layers detected by digital image correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Kopanitsa, D. G. Ustinov, A. M.; Potekaev, A. I.; Klopotov, A. A.; Kopanitsa, G. D.

    2016-01-15

    This paper presents a study of characteristics of an evolution of deformation fields in surface layers of medium-carbon low-alloy specimens under compression. The experiments were performed on the “Universal Testing Machine 4500” using a digital stereoscopic image processing system Vic-3D. A transition between stages is reflected as deformation redistribution on the near-surface layers. Electronic microscopy shows that the structure of the steel is a mixture of pearlite and ferrite grains. A proportion of pearlite is 40% and ferrite is 60%.

  20. The effect of surface layer properties on bendability of ultra-high strength steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arola, Anna-Maija; Kaijalainen, Antti; Kesti, Vili

    2016-10-01

    Bendability is an important property for ultra-high strength steel because air-bending is the most common forming process for the material. In this paper the bendability of two ultra-high strength steels with similar mechanical properties but different bendability was investigated using tensile testing with optical strain measurements. The tensile tests were conducted also for specimens cut from the surface layer and the middle layer of the sheet. It was discovered that the mechanical properties of the surface of the sheet affect the bendability in great manner.

  1. Layer-by-layer TiO(2)/WO(3) thin films as efficient photocatalytic self-cleaning surfaces.

    PubMed

    Patrocinio, Antonio Otavio T; Paula, Leonardo F; Paniago, Roberto M; Freitag, Janna; Bahnemann, Detlef W

    2014-10-08

    New TiO2/WO3 films were produced by the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique and successfully applied as self-cleaning photocatalytic surfaces. The films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates from the respective metal oxide nanoparticles obtained by the sol-gel method. Thirty alternative immersions in pH = 2 TiO2 and pH = 10 WO3 sols resulted in ca. 400 nm thick films that exhibited a W(VI)/Ti(IV) molar ratio of 0.5, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy, along with atomic force images, showed that the resulting layers are constituted by aggregates of very small nanoparticles (<20 nm) and exhibited nanoporous and homogeneous morphology. The electronic and optical properties of the films were investigated by UV-vis spectrophotometry and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The films behave as nanoscale heterojunctions, and the presence of WO3 nanoparticles caused a decrease in the optical band gap of the bilayers compared to that of pure LbL TiO2 films. The TiO2/WO3 thin films exhibited high hydrophilicity, which is enhanced after exposition to UV light, and they can efficiently oxidize gaseous acetaldehyde under UV(A) irradiation. Photonic efficiencies of ξ = 1.5% were determined for films constituted by 30 TiO2/WO3 bilayers in the presence of 1 ppm of acetaldehyde, which are ∼2 times higher than those observed for pure LbL TiO2 films. Therefore, these films can act as efficient and cost-effective layers for self-cleaning, antifogging applications.

  2. Mechanotransductive surfaces for reversible biocatalysis activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertz, Damien; Vogt, Cédric; Hemmerlé, Joseph; Mutterer, Jérôme; Ball, Vincent; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Schaaf, Pierre; Lavalle, Philippe

    2009-09-01

    Fibronectin, like other proteins involved in mechanotransduction, has the ability to exhibit recognition sites under mechanical stretch. Such cryptic sites are buried inside the protein structure in the native fold and become exposed under an applied force, thereby activating specific signalling pathways. Here, we report the design of new active polymeric nanoassembled surfaces that show some similarities to these cryptic sites. These nanoassemblies consist of a first polyelectrolyte multilayer stratum loaded with enzymes and capped with a second polyelectrolyte multilayer acting as a mechanically sensitive nanobarrier. The biocatalytic activity of the film is switched on/off reversibly by mechanical stretching, which exposes enzymes through the capping barrier, similarly to mechanisms involved in proteins during mechanotransduction. This first example of a new class of biologically inspired surfaces should have great potential in the design of various devices aimed to trigger and modulate chemical reactions by mechanical action with applications in the field of microfluidic devices or mechanically controlled biopatches for example.

  3. Improvement and protection of niobium surface superconductivity by atomic layer deposition and heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Proslier, T.; Zasadzinski, J.; Moore, J.; Pellin, M.; Elam, J.; Cooley, L.; Antoine, C.; /Saclay

    2008-11-01

    A method to treat the surface of Nb is described, which potentially can improve the performance of superconducting rf cavities. We present tunneling and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements at the surface of cavity-grade niobium samples coated with a 3 nm alumina overlayer deposited by atomic layer deposition. The coated samples baked in ultrahigh vacuum at low temperature degraded superconducting surface. However, at temperatures above 450 C, the tunneling conductance curves show significant improvements in the superconducting density of states compared with untreated surfaces.

  4. Effects of the Thickness of Niobium Surface Oxide Layers on Field Emission

    SciTech Connect

    A.T. Wu, S. Jin, J.D. Mammosser, R.A. Rimmer, X.Y. Lu, K. Zhao

    2011-09-01

    Field emission on the inner surfaces of niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities is still one of the major obstacles for reaching high accelerating gradients for SRF community. Our previous experimental results* seemed to imply that the threshold of field emission was related to the thickness of Nb surface oxide layers. In this contribution, a more detailed study on the influences of the surface oxide layers on the field emission on Nb surfaces will be reported. By anodization technique, the thickness of the surface pentoxide layer was artificially fabricated from 3 nm up to 460 nm. A home-made scanning field emission microscope was employed to perform the scans on the surfaces. Emitters were characterized using a scanning electron microscope together with an energy dispersive x-ray analyzer. The SFEM experimental results were analyzed in terms of surface morphology and oxide thickness of Nb samples and chemical composition and geographic shape of the emitters. A model based on the classic electromagnetic theory was developed trying to understand the experimental results. Possibly implications for Nb SRF cavity applications from this study will be discussed.

  5. Critical heat flux maxima resulting from the controlled morphology of nanoporous hydrophilic surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetreault-Friend, Melanie; Azizian, Reza; Bucci, Matteo; McKrell, Thomas; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Rubner, Michael; Cohen, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Porous hydrophilic surfaces have been shown to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF) in boiling heat transfer. In this work, the separate effects of pore size and porous layer thickness on the CHF of saturated water at atmospheric pressure were experimentally investigated using carefully engineered surfaces. It was shown that, for a fixed pore diameter (˜20 nm), there is an optimum layer thickness (˜2 μm), for which the CHF value is maximum, corresponding to ˜115% enhancement over the value for uncoated surfaces. Similarly, a maximum CHF value (˜100% above the uncoated surface CHF) was observed while changing the pore size at a constant layer thickness (˜1 μm). To explain these CHF maxima, we propose a mechanistic model that can capture the effect of pore size and pore thickness on CHF. The good agreement found between the model and experimental data supports the hypothesis that CHF is governed by the competition between capillary wicking, viscous pressure drop and evaporation, as well as conduction heat transfer within the porous layer. The model can be used to guide the development of engineered surfaces with superior boiling performance.

  6. A general process for in situ formation of functional surface layers on ceramics.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Toshihiro; Yamaoka, Hiroyuki; Harada, Yoshikatsu; Fujii, Teruaki; Nagasawa, Toshio

    2002-03-07

    Ceramics are often prepared with surface layers of different composition from the bulk, in order to impart a specific functionality to the surface or to act as a protective layer for the bulk material. Here we describe a general process by which functional surface layers with a nanometre-scale compositional gradient can be readily formed during the production of bulk ceramic components. The basis of our approach is to incorporate selected low-molecular-mass additives into either the precursor polymer from which the ceramic forms, or the binder polymer used to prepare bulk components from ceramic powders. Thermal treatment of the resulting bodies leads to controlled phase separation ('bleed out') of the additives, analogous to the normally undesirable outward loss of low-molecular-mass components from some plastics; subsequent calcination stabilizes the compositionally changed surface region, generating a functional surface layer. This approach is applicable to a wide range of materials and morphologies, and should find use in catalysts, composites and environmental barrier coatings.

  7. A stable lithium-rich surface structure for lithium-rich layered cathode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangryun; Cho, Woosuk; Zhang, Xiaobin; Oshima, Yoshifumi; Choi, Jang Wook

    2016-11-01

    Lithium ion batteries are encountering ever-growing demand for further increases in energy density. Li-rich layered oxides are considered a feasible solution to meet this demand because their specific capacities often surpass 200 mAh g-1 due to the additional lithium occupation in the transition metal layers. However, this lithium arrangement, in turn, triggers cation mixing with the transition metals, causing phase transitions during cycling and loss of reversible capacity. Here we report a Li-rich layered surface bearing a consistent framework with the host, in which nickel is regularly arranged between the transition metal layers. This surface structure mitigates unwanted phase transitions, improving the cycling stability. This surface modification enables a reversible capacity of 218.3 mAh g-1 at 1C (250 mA g-1) with improved cycle retention (94.1% after 100 cycles). The present surface design can be applied to various battery electrodes that suffer from structural degradations propagating from the surface.

  8. Surface Layer Evolution on Graphite During Electrochemical Sodium-tetraglyme Co-intercalation.

    PubMed

    Maibach, Julia; Jeschull, Fabian; Brandell, Daniel; Edström, Kristina; Valvo, Mario

    2017-04-12

    One obstacle in sodium ion batteries is the lack of suitable anode materials. As recently shown, the most common anode material of the state of the art lithium ion batteries, graphite, can be used for sodium ion storage as well, if ether-based electrolyte solvents are used. These solvents cointercalate with the sodium ions leading to the highly reversible formation of ternary graphite intercalation compounds (t-GIC). In order for the solvent cointercalation to work efficiently, it is expected that only a very thin surface layer forms during electrochemical cycling. In this article, we therefore present the first dedicated study of the surface layer evolution on t-GICs using soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This technique with its inherent high surface sensitivity and low probing depth is an ideal tool to study the underlying interfacial reactions during the sodiation and desodiation of graphite. In this report, we apply this approach to graphite composite electrodes cycled in Na half cells with a 1 M sodium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (NaFSI/TEG-DME) electrolyte. We have found a surface layer on the cycled electrodes, mainly composed of salt decomposition products and hydrocarbons, in line with irreversible capacity losses observed in the electrochemical cycling. Although this surface layer does not seem to block cointercalation completely, it seems to affect its efficiency resulting in a low Coulombic efficiency of the studied battery system.

  9. Experimental data and model for the turbulent boundary layer on a convex, curved surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. C.; Johnson, J. P.; Moffat, R. J.; Kays, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine how boundary layer turbulence is affected by strong convex curvature. The data gathered on the behavior of the Reynolds stress suggested the formulation of a simple turbulence model. Data were taken on two separate facilities. Both rigs had flow from a flat surface, over a convex surface with 90 deg of turning and then onto a flat recovery surface. The geometry was adjusted so that, for both rigs, the pressure gradient along the test surface was zero. Two experiments were performed at delta/R approximately 0.10, and one at weaker curvature with delta/R approximately 0.05. Results show that after a sudden introduction of curvature the shear stress in the outer part of the boundary layer is sharply diminished and is even slightly negative near the edge. The wall shear also drops off quickly downstream. When the surface suddenly becomes flat again, the wall shear and shear stress profiles recover very slowly towards flat wall conditions. A simple turbulence model, which was based on the theory that the Prandtl mixing length in the outer layer should scale on the velocity gradient layer, was shown to account for the slow recovery.

  10. A stable lithium-rich surface structure for lithium-rich layered cathode materials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangryun; Cho, Woosuk; Zhang, Xiaobin; Oshima, Yoshifumi; Choi, Jang Wook

    2016-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries are encountering ever-growing demand for further increases in energy density. Li-rich layered oxides are considered a feasible solution to meet this demand because their specific capacities often surpass 200 mAh g−1 due to the additional lithium occupation in the transition metal layers. However, this lithium arrangement, in turn, triggers cation mixing with the transition metals, causing phase transitions during cycling and loss of reversible capacity. Here we report a Li-rich layered surface bearing a consistent framework with the host, in which nickel is regularly arranged between the transition metal layers. This surface structure mitigates unwanted phase transitions, improving the cycling stability. This surface modification enables a reversible capacity of 218.3 mAh g−1 at 1C (250 mA g−1) with improved cycle retention (94.1% after 100 cycles). The present surface design can be applied to various battery electrodes that suffer from structural degradations propagating from the surface. PMID:27886178

  11. Gallium nitride surface protection during RTA annealing with a GaOxNy cap-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalfaoui, Wahid; Oheix, T.; Cayrel, F.; Benoit, R.; Yvon, A.; Collard, E.; Alquier, D.

    2016-04-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is generally considered a good candidate for power electronic devices such as Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs). Nevertheless, GaN has a strong sensitivity to high temperature treatments and a cap-layer is mandatory to protect the material surface during annealing at high temperature such as post-implantation treatments. In this work, an oxidized gallium nitride layer (GaOxNy) was generated with Oxford PECVD equipment using a N2O plasma treatment to protect the GaN surface during a rapid thermal annealing (RTA), in the range of 1000 °C-1150 °C for a few minutes. Before annealing, c-TLM patterns were processed on the GaOxNy/GaN sample to characterize its sheet resistance. After the N2O plasma treatment, the sample exhibited lower sheet resistance, indicating a better n-type conduction of the GaOxNy layer due to an excess of free carriers, compared to the as-grown GaN layer. The GaOxNy/GaN surface was then annealed at 1150 °C for 3 min and observed through AFM imaging. The surface exhibited a good quality with a low roughness, nevertheless, a low density of small hexagonal pits appeared after annealing. Finally, studies to determine an efficient etching process of the GaOxNy cap-layer were conducted using both chemical and physical approaches. We observed that efficient etching of the layer was achieved using a heated hydrofluoridric acid (HF 25%) solution. To conclude, GaOxNy has proved to be an efficient cap-layer for GaN protection at high temperature.

  12. Shear rheology of mixed protein adsorption layers vs their structure studied by surface force measurements.

    PubMed

    Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Radulova, Gergana M; Basheva, Elka S; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Pelan, Eddie G

    2015-08-01

    The hydrophobins are proteins that form the most rigid adsorption layers at liquid interfaces in comparison with all other investigated proteins. The mixing of hydrophobin HFBII with other conventional proteins is expected to reduce the surface shear elasticity and viscosity, E(sh) and η(sh), proportional to the fraction of the conventional protein. However, the experiments show that the effect of mixing can be rather different depending on the nature of the additive. If the additive is a globular protein, like β-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin, the surface rigidity is preserved, and even enhanced. The experiments with separate foam films indicate that this is due to the formation of a bilayer structure at the air/water interface. The more hydrophobic HFBII forms the upper layer adjacent to the air phase, whereas the conventional globular protein forms the lower layer that faces the water phase. Thus, the elastic network formed by the adsorbed hydrophobin remains intact, and even reinforced by the adjacent layer of globular protein. In contrast, the addition of the disordered protein β-casein leads to softening of the HFBII adsorption layer. Similar (an even stronger) effect is produced by the nonionic surfactant Tween 20. This can be explained with the penetration of the hydrophobic tails of β-casein and Tween 20 between the HFBII molecules at the interface, which breaks the integrity of the hydrophobin interfacial elastic network. The analyzed experimental data for the surface shear rheology of various protein adsorption layers comply with a viscoelastic thixotropic model, which allows one to determine E(sh) and η(sh) from the measured storage and loss moduli, G' and G″. The results could contribute for quantitative characterization and deeper understanding of the factors that control the surface rigidity of protein adsorption layers with potential application for the creation of stable foams and emulsions with fine bubbles or droplets.

  13. Synergistic antibacterial mechanism of the Lactobacillus crispatus surface layer protein and nisin on Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhilan; Li, Pengpeng; Liu, Fang; Bian, Huan; Wang, Daoying; Wang, Xiaomeng; Zou, Ye; Sun, Chong; Xu, Weimin

    2017-03-21

    SlpB, a surface layer protein isolated from Lactobacillus crispatus, has the potential to enhance the antimicrobial activity of nisin. Previous research indicated that, when combined with nisin, SlpB acted synergistically to inhibit Staphylococcus saprophyticus growth, thus extending the shelf life of chicken meat. In order to understand how SlpB enhances the antibacterial activity of nisin, electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, flow cytometry and transmembrane electrical potential analysis were used to study cell wall organization and cell membrane integrity. No remarkable bacteriolytic effects were observed, indicating that cell death could not be attributed to cell lysis, although SlpB caused dramatic modifications of cell wall, thereby altering cell shape. The combination of SlpB and nisin also induced the release of ATP or UV-absorbing materials, as well as sudden dissipation of the transmembrane electrical potential by compromising membrane integrity. Considering that SlpB led to structural disorganization of the cell wall, and nisin access is enhanced to form a stable pore, cell death is a predictable outcome. SlpB significantly enhanced the effect of nisin at half of the minimum inhibitory concentration, which resulted in cell death by destroying the cell wall and cell membrane, therefore providing a new, feasible approach in food preservation.

  14. Spectroscopic study on uranyl carboxylate complexes formed at the surface layer of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Thomas; Rossberg, Andre; Barkleit, Astrid; Steudtner, Robin; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja; Merroun, Mohamed L

    2015-02-14

    The complexation of U(vi) at the proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer) of the archaeal strain Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was investigated over a pH range from pH 1.5 to 6 at the molecular scale using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and U L(III)-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The S-layer, which represents the interface between the cell and its environment, is very stable against high temperatures, proteases, and detergents. This allowed the isolation and purification of S-layer ghosts (= empty cells) that maintain the size and shape of the cells. In contrast to many other microbial cell envelope compounds the studied S-layer is not phosphorylated, enabling the investigation of uranyl carboxylate complexes formed at microbial surfaces. The latter are usually masked by preferentially formed uranyl phosphate complexes. We demonstrated that at highly acidic conditions (pH 1.5 to 3) no uranium was bound by the S-layer. In contrast to that, at moderate acidic pH conditions (pH 4.5 and 6) a complexation of U(vi) at the S-layer via deprotonated carboxylic groups was stimulated. Titration studies revealed dissociation constants for the carboxylic groups of glutamic and aspartic acid residues of pK(a) = 4.78 and 6.31. The uranyl carboxylate complexes formed at the S-layer did not show luminescence properties at room temperature, but only under cryogenic conditions. The obtained luminescence maxima are similar to those of uranyl acetate. EXAFS spectroscopy demonstrated that U(vi) in these complexes is mainly coordinated to carboxylate groups in a bidentate binding mode. The elucidation of the molecular structure of these complexes was facilitated by the absence of phosphate groups in the studied S-layer protein.

  15. Analysis of corrosion layers in ancient Roman silver coins with high resolution surface spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keturakis, Christopher J.; Notis, Ben; Blenheim, Alex; Miller, Alfred C.; Pafchek, Rob; Notis, Michael R.; Wachs, Israel E.

    2016-07-01

    Determination of the microchemistry of surface corrosion layers on ancient silver alloy coins is important both in terms of understanding the nature of archaeological environmental conditions to which these ancient coins were exposed and also to help in their conservation. In this present study, five ancient silver alloy coins (225 BCE-244 CE) were used as test vehicles to measure their immediate surface microchemistry and evaluate the appropriateness and limitations of High Sensitivity-Low Energy Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (HS-LEIS, 0.3 nm depth analysis), High Resolution-X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HR-XPS, 1-3 nm depth analysis) and High Resolution-Raman Spectroscopy (HR-Raman, ∼1000 nm depth analysis). Additional information about the deeper corrosion layers, up to ∼300-1000 nm, was provided by dynamic HS-LEIS and HR-Raman spectroscopy. While not archeologically significant, the use of these coins of small commercial value provides data that is more representative of the weaker signals typically obtained from ancient corroded objects, which can be in stark contrast to pristine data often obtained from carefully prepared alloys of known composition. The oldest coins, from 225 to 214 BCE, possessed an outermost surface layer containing Cu2O, Na, Al, Pb, and adsorbed hydrocarbons, while the more recent coins, from 98 to 244 CE, contained Cu2O, Ag, N, F, Na, Al, S, Cl, and adsorbed hydrocarbons in similar corresponding surface layers. It thus appears that alloying with copper, even in small amounts, leads to the formation of an outer Cu2O layer. Depth profiling revealed the presence of K, Na, Cl, and S as key corrosion components for both sets of coins with S, most likely as Ag2S, concentrated towards the surface while the Cl, most likely as AgCl, penetrated deeper. Schema to understand the overall chemistry of the corrosion layers present on these silver alloy coins were developed from the equipment limitations encountered and are presented.

  16. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal: Main characteristics and related mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thadathil, Pankajakshan; Suresh, I.; Gautham, S.; Prasanna Kumar, S.; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Rao, R. R.; Neetu, S.; Hegde, Akshay

    2016-08-01

    Surface layer temperature inversion (SLTI), a warm layer sandwiched between surface and subsurface colder waters, has been reported to frequently occur in conjunction with barrier layers in the Bay of Bengal (BoB), with potentially commensurable impacts on climate and postmonsoon tropical cyclones. Lack of systematic measurements from the BoB in the past prevented a thorough investigation of the SLTI spatiotemporal variability, their formation mechanisms, and their contribution to the surface temperature variations. The present study benefits from the recent Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA) buoys located in BoB along 90°E at 4°N, 8°N, 12°N, and 15°N over the 2006-2014 period. Analysis of data from these RAMA buoys indicates that SLTI forms after the summer monsoon and becomes fully developed during winter (December-February). SLTI exhibits a strong geographical dependency, with more frequent (80% times during winter) and intense inversions (amplitude, ΔT ˜ 0.7°C) occurring only in the northern BoB compared to central and southern Bay. SLTI also exhibits large interannual and intraseasonal variations, with intraseasonal amplitude significantly larger (ΔT ˜ 0.44°C) than the interannual amplitude (˜0.26°C). Heat budget analysis of the mixed layer reveals that the net surface heat loss is the most dominant process controlling the formation and maintenance of SLTI. However, there are instances of episodic advection of cold, low-saline waters over warm-saline waters leading to the formation of SLTI as in 2012-2013. Vertical processes contribute significantly to the mixed layer heat budget during winter, by warming the surface layer through entrainment and vertical diffusion.

  17. Deformation characteristics of the near-surface layers of zirconia ceramics implanted with aluminum ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghyngazov, S. A.; Vasiliev, I. P.; Frangulyan, T. S.; Chernyavski, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of ion treatment on the phase composition and mechanical properties of the near-surface layers of zirconium ceramic composition 97 ZrO2-3Y2O3 (mol%) was studied. Irradiation of the samples was carried out by accelerated ions of aluminum with using vacuum-arc source Mevva 5-Ru. Ion beam had the following parameters: the energy of the accelerated ions E = 78 keV, the pulse current density Ji = 4mA / cm2, current pulse duration equal τ = 250 mcs, pulse repetition frequency f = 5 Hz. Exposure doses (fluence) were 1016 и 1017 ion/cm2. The depth distribution implanted ions was studied by SIMS method. It is shown that the maximum projected range of the implanted ions is equal to 250 nm. Near-surface layers were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at fixed glancing incidence angle. It is shown that implantation of aluminum ions into the ceramics does not lead to a change in the phase composition of the near-surface layer. The influence of implanted ions on mechanical properties of ceramic near-surface layers was studied by the method of dynamic nanoindentation using small loads on the indenter P=300 mN. It is shown that in ion- implanted ceramic layer the processes of material recovery in the deformed region in the unloading mode proceeds with higher efficiency as compared with the initial material state. The deformation characteristics of samples before and after ion treatment have been determined from interpretation of the resulting P-h curves within the loading and unloading sections by the technique proposed by Oliver and Pharr. It was found that implantation of aluminum ions in the near-surface layer of zirconia ceramics increases nanohardness and reduces the Young's modulus.

  18. An Optimal Estimation Method to Obtain Surface Layer Turbulent Fluxes from Profile Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, D.

    2015-12-01

    In the absence of direct turbulence measurements, the turbulence characteristics of the atmospheric surface layer are often derived from measurements of the surface layer mean properties based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST). This approach requires two levels of the ensemble mean wind, temperature, and water vapor, from which the fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and water vapor can be obtained. When only one measurement level is available, the roughness heights and the assumed properties of the corresponding variables at the respective roughness heights are used. In practice, the temporal mean with large number of samples are used in place of the ensemble mean. However, in many situations the samples of data are taken from multiple levels. It is thus desirable to derive the boundary layer flux properties using all measurements. In this study, we used an optimal estimation approach to derive surface layer properties based on all available measurements. This approach assumes that the samples are taken from a population whose ensemble mean profile follows the MOST. An optimized estimate is obtained when the results yield a minimum cost function defined as a weighted summation of all error variance at each sample altitude. The weights are based one sample data variance and the altitude of the measurements. This method was applied to measurements in the marine atmospheric surface layer from a small boat using radiosonde on a tethered balloon where temperature and relative humidity profiles in the lowest 50 m were made repeatedly in about 30 minutes. We will present the resultant fluxes and the derived MOST mean profiles using different sets of measurements. The advantage of this method over the 'traditional' methods will be illustrated. Some limitations of this optimization method will also be discussed. Its application to quantify the effects of marine surface layer environment on radar and communication signal propagation will be shown as well.

  19. Dual Active Surface Heat Flux Gage Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  20. Dual active surface heat flux gage probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-02-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  1. Roughness Characterization of and Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow over flat Snow Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromke, C.; Guala, M.; Manes, C.; Walter, B.; Lehning, M.

    2009-12-01

    The surface roughness is essential for all turbulent exchange processes within the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer. Consequently, a proper representation of the surfaces roughness is needed in every mathematical description of near surface mass-, energy- and momentum exchange processes. Considering the vertical mean velocity profile of turbulent boundary layer flow, this is done by assigning an aerodynamic roughness length z0 to the surface. We followed two procedures to describe the roughness of freshly fallen snow surfaces. First, photographs of snow surfaces have been taken and evaluated using digital image analysis giving snow surface contour line coordinates. Applying structure functions to the snow surface coordinates and statistical fitting procedures, resulted in classes of surface characteristic length scales and scaling exponents. These results allow to identify the deposition process of snow fall as scaling exponents corresponded to that of Ballistic Deposition. Moreover, the resulting characteristic length scales can be assigned to typical particle size and aggregation size length scales consistent with results found by Lowe et al. (2007) and Manes et al. (2008). Second, aerodynamic roughness lengths z0 have been estimated from log-law fitting of velocity profiles over the snow surfaces measured in the SLF cold atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel. The aerodynamic roughness lengths found are in general agreement with available literature data and suggest the presence of aerodynamically rough regimes with flow independent z0. In the synthesis of both approaches, we found evidence for a linear relationship between one class of surface characteristic length scales, which is associated with typical snow particle sizes, and aerodynamic roughness lengths z0. The correlation with the aggregation length scale is weaker for the few (4) samples analyzed thus far. The relatively weak pronounced scale separation between particle and aggregation size

  2. Actomyosin dynamics drive local membrane component organization in an in vitro active composite layer

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Kabir; Iljazi, Elda; Bhat, Abrar; Bieling, Peter; Mullins, R. Dyche; Rao, Madan; Mayor, Satyajit

    2016-01-01

    The surface of a living cell provides a platform for receptor signaling, protein sorting, transport, and endocytosis, whose regulation requires the local control of membrane organization. Previous work has revealed a role for dynamic actomyosin in membrane protein and lipid organization, suggesting that the cell surface behaves as an active composite composed of a fluid bilayer and a thin film of active actomyosin. We reconstitute an analogous system in vitro that consists of a fluid lipid bilayer coupled via membrane-associated actin-binding proteins to dynamic actin filaments and myosin motors. Upon complete consumption of ATP, this system settles into distinct phases of actin organization, namely bundled filaments, linked apolar asters, and a lattice of polar asters. These depend on actin concentration, filament length, and actin/myosin ratio. During formation of the polar aster phase, advection of the self-organizing actomyosin network drives transient clustering of actin-associated membrane components. Regeneration of ATP supports a constitutively remodeling actomyosin state, which in turn drives active fluctuations of coupled membrane components, resembling those observed at the cell surface. In a multicomponent membrane bilayer, this remodeling actomyosin layer contributes to changes in the extent and dynamics of phase-segregating domains. These results show how local membrane composition can be driven by active processes arising from actomyosin, highlighting the fundamental basis of the active composite model of the cell surface, and indicate its relevance to the study of membrane organization. PMID:26929326

  3. Active layer temperature in two Cryosols from King George Island, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Roberto F. M.; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Poelking, Everton L.; Simas, Felipe N. B.; Fernandes Filho, Elpidio I.; Bockheim, James G.

    2012-06-01

    This study presents soil temperature and moisture regimes from March 2008 to January 2009 for two active layer monitoring (CALM-S) sites at King George Island, Maritime Antarctica. The monitoring sites were installed during the summer of 2008 and consist of thermistors (accuracy of ± 0.2 °C), arranged vertically with probes at different depths and one soil moisture probe placed at the bottommost layer at each site (accuracy of ± 2.5%), recording data at hourly intervals in a high capacity datalogger. The active layer thermal regime in the studied period for both soils was typical of periglacial environments, with extreme variation in surface temperature during summer resulting in frequent freeze and thaw cycles. The great majority of the soil temperature readings during the eleven month period was close to 0 °C, resulting in low values of freezing and thawing degree days. Both soils have poor thermal apparent diffusivity but values were higher for the soil from Fildes Peninsula. The different moisture regimes for the studied soils were attributed to soil texture, with the coarser soil presenting much lower water content during all seasons. Differences in water and ice contents may explain the contrasting patterns of freezing of the studied soils, being two-sided for the coarser soil and one-sided for the loamy soil. The temperature profile of the studied soils during the eleven month period indicates that the active layer reached a maximum depth of approximately 92 cm at Potter and 89 cm at Fildes. Longer data sets are needed for more conclusive analysis on active layer behaviour in this part of Antarctica.

  4. Surface-sensitive reflection-mode EXAFS from layered sample systems: the influence of surface and interface roughness.

    PubMed

    Keil, P; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D

    2009-07-01

    The calculation of reflection-mode grazing-incidence X-ray absorption spectra from single surfaces and (multi-)layered systems is studied here. In particular, the influence of the surface and interface roughness was investigated in detail. Simulations of grazing-incidence reflection-mode EXAFS spectra using a simple Fresnel theory neglecting any effect of roughness are compared with the Névot-Croce model and the elaborated distorted-wave Born approximation which both include surface and interface roughness. Data are presented for clean gold surfaces, where the strong influence of the surface roughness on the resulting spectra is demonstrated. Furthermore, in the case of layered systems, the influence of both the outer (air or vacuum side) surface roughness and the inner interface roughness on the reflection-mode EXAFS spectra is evaluated. The practical consequences of the observed correlations are discussed, and a quantitative data analysis of a copper sample that was oxidized in ambient air for several months is shown, including the evaluation of specular reflectivity profiles at fixed energy.

  5. Minimum Thickness Requirements for Asphalt Surface Course and Base Layer in Airfield Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    e.g., Donovan and Tutumluer 2008, 2009; Tao et al. 2010), a waterproof surface, protection from foreign object damage (FOD), and a durable surface...mechanisms for premature deterioration, and quantify the service life of thin asphalt concrete pavements. Six sections with different layer...32,500 7,794 The full-scale test data analysis led to a conclusion that the Department of Defense’s (DoD) minimum asphalt concrete thickness

  6. Helioseismic Imaging of Supergranulation throughout the Sun’s Near-Surface Shear Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Benjamin J.; Hindman, Bradley W.; Toomre, Juri

    2016-06-01

    We present measurements of the Sun’s sub-surface convective flows and provide evidence that the pattern of supergranulation is driven at the surface. The pattern subsequently descends slowly throughout the near-surface shear layer in a manner that is inconsistent with a 3D cellular structure. The flow measurements are obtained through the application of a new helioseismic technique based on traditional ring analysis. We measure the flow field over the course of eleven days and perform a correlation analysis between all possible pairs of depths and temporal separations. In congruence with previous studies, we find that the supergranulation pattern remains coherent at the surface for slightly less than two days and the instantaneous surface pattern is imprinted to a depth of 7 Mm. However, these correlation times and depths are deceptive. When we admit a potential time lag in the correlation, we find that peak correlation in the convective flows descends at a rate of 10-40 m s-1 (or equivalently 1-3 Mm per day). Furthermore, the correlation extends throughout all depths of the near-surface shear layer. This pattern-propagation rate is well matched by estimates of the speed of downflows obtained through the anelastic approximation. Direct integration of the measured speed indicates that the supergranulation pattern that first appears at the surface eventually reaches the bottom of the near-surface shear layer a month later. Thus, the downflows have a Rossby radius of deformation equal to the depth of the shear layer and we suggest that this equality may not be coincidental.

  7. Finishing and Inspection of Model Surfaces for Boundary Layer Transition Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, Max E.; Darsow, John F.

    1959-01-01

    Techniques which have been used for finishing and quantitatively specifying surface roughness on boundary-layer-transition models are reviewed. The appearance of a surface as far as roughness is concerned can be misleading when viewed either by the eye or with the aid of a microscope. The multiple-beam interferometer and the wire shadow method provide the best simple means of obtaining quantitative measurements.

  8. Atomic Layer Epitaxy of Group IV Materials: Surface Processes, Thin Films, Devices and their Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    U AD-A274 325 Semiannual Technical Report U Atomic Layer Epitaxy of Group IV Materials: Surface Processes, Thin Films, Devices and Their... Group IV Materials: Surface Processes, Thin 414v001---01 Films, Devices and Their Characterization 1114SS S. AUTHOS) N00179 Robert F. Davis, Salah... Conformal deposition of SiC has been demonstrated within trenches etched into Si(100) wafers. P-type films have also been achieved using Al as a

  9. Self-surface charge exfoliation and electrostatically coordinated 2D hetero-layered hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min-Quan; Xu, Yi-Jun; Lu, Wanheng; Zeng, Kaiyang; Zhu, Hai; Xu, Qing-Hua; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2017-01-01

    At present, the technological groundwork of atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) hetero-layered structures realized by successive thin film epitaxial growth is in principle constrained by lattice matching prerequisite as well as low yield and expensive production. Here, we artificially coordinate ultrathin 2D hetero-layered metal chalcogenides via a highly scalable self-surface charge exfoliation and electrostatic coupling approach. Specifically, bulk metal chalcogenides are spontaneously exfoliated into ultrathin layers in a surfactant/intercalator-free medium, followed by unconstrained electrostatic coupling with a dissimilar transition metal dichalcogenide, MoSe2, into scalable hetero-layered hybrids. Accordingly, surface and interfacial-dominated photocatalysis reactivity is used as an ideal testbed to verify the reliability of diverse 2D ultrathin hetero-layered materials that reveal high visible-light photoreactivity, efficient charge transfer and intimate contact interface for stable cycling and storage purposes. Such a synthetic approach renders independent thickness and composition control anticipated to advance the development of ‘design-and-build' 2D layered heterojunctions for large-scale exploration and applications. PMID:28146147

  10. Self-surface charge exfoliation and electrostatically coordinated 2D hetero-layered hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Min-Quan; Xu, Yi-Jun; Lu, Wanheng; Zeng, Kaiyang; Zhu, Hai; Xu, Qing-Hua; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2017-02-01

    At present, the technological groundwork of atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) hetero-layered structures realized by successive thin film epitaxial growth is in principle constrained by lattice matching prerequisite as well as low yield and expensive production. Here, we artificially coordinate ultrathin 2D hetero-layered metal chalcogenides via a highly scalable self-surface charge exfoliation and electrostatic coupling approach. Specifically, bulk metal chalcogenides are spontaneously exfoliated into ultrathin layers in a surfactant/intercalator-free medium, followed by unconstrained electrostatic coupling with a dissimilar transition metal dichalcogenide, MoSe2, into scalable hetero-layered hybrids. Accordingly, surface and interfacial-dominated photocatalysis reactivity is used as an ideal testbed to verify the reliability of diverse 2D ultrathin hetero-layered materials that reveal high visible-light photoreactivity, efficient charge transfer and intimate contact interface for stable cycling and storage purposes. Such a synthetic approach renders independent thickness and composition control anticipated to advance the development of `design-and-build' 2D layered heterojunctions for large-scale exploration and applications.

  11. Neutrally Stratified Turbulent Ekman Boundary Layer: Universal Similarity for a Transitional Rough Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, Noor

    2009-08-01

    The geostrophic Ekman boundary layer for large Rossby number ( Ro) has been investigated by exploring the role played by the mesolayer (intermediate layer) lying between the traditional inner and outer layers. It is shown that the velocity and Reynolds shear stress components in the inner layer (including the overlap region) are universal relations, explicitly independent of surface roughness. This universality of predictions has been supported by observations from experiment, field and direct numerical simulation (DNS) data for fully smooth, transitionally rough and fully rough surfaces. The maxima of Reynolds shear stresses have been shown to be located in the mesolayer of the Ekman boundary layer, whose scale corresponds to the inverse square root of the friction Rossby number. The composite wall-wake universal relations for geostrophic velocity profiles have been proposed, and the two wake functions of the outer layer have been estimated by an eddy viscosity closure model. The geostrophic drag and cross-isobaric angle predictions yield universal relations, which are also supported by extensive field, laboratory and DNS data. The proposed predictions for the geostrophic drag and the cross-isobaric angle compare well with data for Rossby number Ro ≥ 105. The data show low Rossby number effects for Ro < 105 and higher-order effects due to the mesolayer compare well with the data for Ro ≥ 103.

  12. Surface ventilation of the Black Sea's cold intermediate layer in the middle of the western gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, M. C.; Yakushev, E.

    2005-02-01

    Understanding the origin of the shallow temperature minimum, known as the Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL), in the Black Sea has long been hampered by the scarcity of winter observations. During March 2003, we observed a cold-air outbreak over the center of the Black Sea's Western Gyre. Freezing winds drove convection that cooled the surface mixed layer to 6.1°C and deepened it to 40 m, directly ventilating the upper 80% of the CIL, whose lower boundary was at 49 m. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen were 350 μM in the mixed layer and decreased rapidly to 70 μM at the base of the CIL, 9 m below the mixed layer. A few meters deeper, at the top of the Sub-Oxic Layer (SOL), both oxygen and hydrogen sulfide became undetectable (<5 μM and <1 μM, respectively). Microstructure profiles revealed intermittent turbulence in the oxycline below the mixed layer. Average rates of turbulent dissipation were 10-9-10-8 W kg-1. The accompanying mixing produced diapycnal diffusivities, Kρ, that were only (1-4) × 10-6 m2 s-1. Consequently, turbulent fluxes were too weak to renew significantly either the lower 20% of the CIL or the SOL, whose top was 4 m below the bottom of the CIL and hence well-removed from direct surface replenishment.

  13. SH surface acoustic wave propagation in a cylindrically layered piezomagnetic/piezoelectric structure.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianke; Xian, Kai; Wang, Ji

    2009-01-01

    SH surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) propagation in a cylindrically layered magneto-electro-elastic structure is investigated analytically, where a piezomagnetic (or piezoelectric) material layer is bonded to a piezoelectric (or piezomagnetic) substrate. By means of transformation, the governing equations of the coupled waves are reduced to Bessel equation and Laplace equation. The boundary conditions imply that the displacements, shear stresses, electric potential, and electric displacements are continuous across the interface between the layer and the substrate together with the traction free at the surface of the layer. The magneto-electrically open and shorted conditions at cylindrical surface are taken to solve the problem. The phase velocity is numerically calculated for different thickness of the layer and wavenumber for piezomagnetic ceramics CoFe(2)O(4) and piezoelectric ceramics BaTiO(3). The effects of magnetic permeability on propagation properties of SH-SAW are discussed in detail. The distributions of displacement, magnetic potential and magneto-electromechanical coupling factor are also figured and discussed.

  14. Different determinants of soil carbon decomposition between active and permafrost layers: evidence from alpine permafrost on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Chen, L.; Qin, S.; Ding, J.; Yang, G.; Li, F.

    2015-12-01

    The fate of permafrost carbon is of great concern among global change community due to its potential positive feedback to climate warming. However, the determinants of soil carbon decomposition between active layer and permafrost layers remain poorly understood. This incubation study was designed to test the following two hypotheses: 1) low carbon quantity and microbial abundances in permafrost soils limit decomposition rates compared with active layer soils; 2) carbon losses from active layer are more controlled by environmental factors, whereas those from permafrost depth are primarily determined by the microbial condition. We collected five active layer and permafrost soils from alpine grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau and compared the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at -5 and 5 °C in a 80-days aerobic incubation. The availability of organic carbon and microbial abundances (fungi, bacteria, and actinomycete) within permafrost soils were significantly lower than active layer soils, which, together with the environmental data supports the reduced cumulative CO2 emissions in permafrost depth. However, the decomposability of SOC from permafrost was similar or even higher than surface soils. The carbon loss not only depended on SOC quantity and microbial abundance, but also nitrogen availability and soil pH. Nevertheless, the controls on carbon emissions between active and permafrost layers were significantly different. Cumulative CO2 emission from active layers was best predicted by soil moisture, and carbon emission from permafrost depths was highly associated with fungal-PLFAs. Taken together, these results demonstrate that different controls on carbon emission between active layer and permafrost soils. These differences highlight the importance of distinguishing permafrost depth in Earth System Models when predicting the responses of deep soil carbon to environmental change.

  15. Antifouling Surface Layers for Improved Signal-to-Noise of Particle-Based Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Annie; Kozak, Darby; Battersby, Bronwyn J.; Forrest, Robin M.; Scholler, Nathalie; Urban, Nicole; Trau, Matt

    2010-01-01

    A ten fold improvement in the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of an optically encoded silica particle-based immunoassay was achieved through incorporating a protein resistant poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) surface layer and optimizing antibody immobilization conditions. PEG was activated using 2,2,2-trifluoroethanesulfonyl chloride (tresyl) and required a minimum reaction time of 1.5 hrs. The activated PEG had a reactive half life of approximately 5 hrs when stored in acidified dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). By increasing the protein incubation time and concentration, a maximum antibody loading on the particle surface of 1.6×10−2 molecules per nm2 was achieved. The assay S/N ratio was assessed using a multiplexed multicomponent optically encoded species-specific immunoassay. Encoded particles were covalently grafted or nonspecifically coated with either bovine or mouse IgG for the simultaneous detection of complimentary anti-IgG `target' or uncomplimentary anti-IgG `noise'. The versatility and potential as a serum-based assay platform was demonstrated by immobilizing either a polyclonal antibody or an engineered single-chain variable fragment (scFv) capture probe on particles for the detection of the ovarian cancer biomarker, mesothelin (MSLN). The MLSN antigen was spiked into PBS buffer or 50% human serum. Both capture probe orientations and media conditions showed similar low level detection limits of 5 ng/mL; however, a 40% decrease in maximum signal intensity was observed for assays run in 50% serum. PMID:19928944

  16. Effects of surface source/sink distributions on the flux-gradient similarity in the unstable surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Qing; Cai, Xuhui; Kang, Ling; Zhang, Hongsheng; Song, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the micrometeorological measurements at a heterogeneous farmland in the North China Plain, this study focused on the effects of surface source/sink distributions on the flux-gradient similarity theory in the unstable surface layer. Firstly, the quality of the micrometeorological measurements was evaluated by the analysis of the surface energy balance closure and the integral turbulence characteristics. In general, a 22 % deficit of energy balance was found at this site, with the sum of sensible and latent heat being smaller than the available energy. The normalized standard deviations of turbulent quantities behaved in accordance with Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. However, slight departures from the classical formulations might be caused by the surface heterogeneity. Then, the applicability of flux-gradient similarity over the heterogeneous surface was examined. The observed normalized wind gradients agreed with the classical universal function established over homogeneous surface. However, due to the effects of surface source/sink distributions, the observed normalized humidity and temperature gradients deviated from the classical universal functions. Our study shows that the classical universal functions, when adjusted by a coefficient considering the effects of surface heterogeneity, can be utilized to estimate fluxes via gradient method even though over the heterogeneous surface. This adjustment coefficient was found to decrease linearly from unity with the increase of the absolute value of the vertical flux divergence.

  17. Endothelial Surface Layer Degradation by Chronic Hyaluronidase Infusion Induces Proteinuria in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuikhoven, Mayella; Heeneman, Sylvia; Lutgens, Esther; Gijbels, Marion J. J.; Nieuwdorp, Max; Peutz, Carine J.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Vink, Hans; van den Berg, Bernard M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Functional studies show that disruption of endothelial surface layer (ESL) is accompanied by enhanced sensitivity of the vasculature towards atherogenic stimuli. However, relevance of ESL disruption as causal mechanism for vascular dysfunction remains to be demonstrated. We examined if loss of ESL through enzymatic degradation would affect vascular barrier properties in an atherogenic model. Methods Eight week old male apolipoprotein E deficient mice on Western-type diet for 10 weeks received continuous active or heat-inactivated hyaluronidase (10 U/hr, i.v.) through an osmotic minipump during 4 weeks. Blood chemistry and anatomic changes in both macrovasculature and kidneys were examined. Results Infusion with active hyaluronidase resulted in decreased ESL (0.32±0.22 mL) and plasma volume (1.03±0.18 mL) compared to inactivated hyaluronidase (0.52±0.29 mL and 1.28±0.08 mL, p<0.05 respectively).Active hyaluronidase increased proteinuria compared to inactive hyaluronidase (0.27±0.02 vs. 0.15±0.01 µg/µg protein/creatinin, p<0.05) without changes in glomerular morphology or development of tubulo-interstitial inflammation. Atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic branches showed increased matrix production (collagen, 32±5 vs. 18±3%; glycosaminoglycans, 11±5 vs. 0.1±0.01%, active vs. inactive hyaluronidase, p<0.05). Conclusion ESL degradation in apoE deficient mice contributes to reduced increased urinary protein excretion without significant changes in renal morphology. Second, the induction of compositional changes in atherogenic plaques by hyaluronidase point towards increased plaque vulnerability. These findings support further efforts to evaluate whether ESL restoration is a valuable target to prevent (micro) vascular disease progression. PMID:21170388

  18. Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M; Nordlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Asta, Mark D; Xin, Huolin L; Doeff, Marca M

    2014-03-27

    The present study sheds light on the long-standing challenges associated with high-voltage operation of LiNi(x)Mn(x)Co(1-2x)O2 cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Using correlated ensemble-averaged high-throughput X-ray absorption spectroscopy and spatially resolved electron microscopy and spectroscopy, here we report structural reconstruction (formation of a surface reduced layer, to transition) and chemical evolution (formation of a surface reaction layer) at the surface of LiNi(x)Mn(x)Co(1-2x)O2 particles. These are primarily responsible for the prevailing capacity fading and impedance buildup under high-voltage cycling conditions, as well as the first-cycle coulombic inefficiency. It was found that the surface reconstruction exhibits a strong anisotropic characteristic, which predominantly occurs along lithium diffusion channels. Furthermore, the surface reaction layer is composed of lithium fluoride embedded in a complex organic matrix. This work sets a refined example for the study of surface reconstruction and chemical evolution in battery materials using combined diagnostic tools at complementary length scales.

  19. Non-linear boundary-layer receptivity due to distributed surface roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Tahani Reffet; Selby, Gregory V.

    1995-01-01

    The process by which a laminar boundary layer internalizes the external disturbances in the form of instability waves is known as boundary-layer receptivity. The objective of the present research was to determine the effect of acoustic excitation on boundary-layer receptivity for a flat plate with distributed variable-amplitude surface roughness through measurements with a hot-wire probe. Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) mode shapes due to surface-roughness receptivity have also been determined, analyzed, and shown to be in agreement with theory and other experimental work. It has been shown that there is a linear relationship between the surface roughness and receptivity for certain roughness configurations with constant roughness wavelength. In addition, strong nonlinear receptivity effects exist for certain surface roughness configurations over a band where the surface roughness and T-S wavelength are matched. The results from the present experiment follow the trends predicted by theory and other experimental work for linear receptivity. In addition, the results show the existence of nonlinear receptivity effects for certain combinations of surface roughness elements.

  20. Non-linear boundary-layer receptivity due to distributed surface roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Tahani Reffet

    1995-01-01

    The process by which a laminar boundary layer internalizes the external disturbances in the form of instability waves is known as boundary-layer receptivity. The objective of the present research was to determine the effect of acoustic excitation on boundary-layer receptivity for a flat plate with distributed variable-amplitude surface roughness through measurements with a hot-wire probe. Tollmien-Schlichting mode shapes due to surface roughness receptivity have also been determined, analyzed, and shown to be in agreement with theory and other experimental work. It has been shown that there is a linear relationship between the surface roughness and receptivity for certain roughness configurations with constant roughness wavelength. In addition, strong non-linear receptivity effects exist for certain surface roughness configurations over a band where the surface roughness and T-S wavelength are matched. The results from the present experiment follow the trends predicted by theory and other experimental work for linear receptivity. In addition, the results show the existence of non-linear receptivity effects for certain combinations of surface roughness elements.

  1. [Investigation of the surface layer of 3D-matrices for tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Chernonosova, V S; Kvon, R I; Kiseleva, E V; Stepanova, A O; Laktionov, P P

    2017-01-01

    Electrospinning is a convenient and promising manufacturing method a variety of materials for tissue engineering. 3D matrices fabricated by electrospinning from solutions of polycaprolactone with human serum albumin or gelatin in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol were studied. The microstructure of the 3D matrices and surface of the fibers were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Protein distribution in the surface layer was studied by modification of protein amino groups with N-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenazine and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was shown, that concentration of the proteins in the surface layer of fibers exceeded their concentration in the initial electrospun solution up to 12 times and the surface layer was enriched in the protein inversely to the concentration of the protein in solution. The minor part of the proteins was released from fibers during first 30-60 min after swelling in water. Treatment of matrices with proteinase K hydrolyzed about 1/3 of the surface exposed human serum albumin. Thus, both methods can be used to study the surface content of the materials produced by electrospinning from blends of synthetic and natural polymers, however X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy appears to be more convenient and informative.

  2. A unified account of perceptual layering and surface appearance in terms of gamut relativity.

    PubMed

    Vladusich, Tony; McDonnell, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    When we look at the world--or a graphical depiction of the world--we perceive surface materials (e.g. a ceramic black and white checkerboard) independently of variations in illumination (e.g. shading or shadow) and atmospheric media (e.g. clouds or smoke). Such percepts are partly based on the way physical surfaces and media reflect and transmit light and partly on the way the human visual system processes the complex patterns of light reaching the eye. One way to understand how these percepts arise is to assume that the visual system parses patterns of light into layered perceptual representations of surfaces, illumination and atmospheric media, one seen through another. Despite a great deal of previous experimental and modelling work on layered representation, however, a unified computational model of key perceptual demonstrations is still lacking. Here we present the first general computational model of perceptual layering and surface appearance--based on a boarder theoretical framework called gamut relativity--that is consistent with these demonstrations. The model (a) qualitatively explains striking effects of perceptual transparency, figure-ground separation and lightness, (b) quantitatively accounts for the role of stimulus- and task-driven constraints on perceptual matching performance, and (c) unifies two prominent theoretical frameworks for understanding surface appearance. The model thereby provides novel insights into the remarkable capacity of the human visual system to represent and identify surface materials, illumination and atmospheric media, which can be exploited in computer graphics applications.

  3. The mechanical properties of a surface-modified layer on poly(dimethylsiloxane)

    PubMed Central

    Mills, K. L.; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Takayama, Shuichi; Thouless, M. D.

    2009-01-01

    Surface-modification of the elastomer poly(dimethylsiloxane) by exposure to oxygen plasma for four minutes creates a thin, stiff film. In this study, the thickness and mechanical properties of this surface-modified layer were determined. Using the phase image capabilities of a tapping-mode atomic-force microscope, the surface-modified region was distinguished from the bulk PDMS; specifically, it suggested a graded surface layer to a depth of about 200 nm. Load-displacement data for elastic indentation using a compliant AFM cantilever was analyzed as a plate bending on an elastic foundation to determine the elastic modulus of the surface (37 MPa). An applied uniaxial strain generated a series of parallel nano-cracks with spacing on the order of a few microns. Numerical analyses of this cracking phenomenon showed that the depth of these cracks was in the range of 300–600 nm and that the surface layer was extremely brittle, with its toughness in the range of 0.1–0.3 J/m2. PMID:19779588

  4. The dynamic deformation of a layered viscoelastic medium under surface excitation

    PubMed Central

    Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Wang, Shang; Karpiouk, Andrei B.; Li, Jiasong; Twa, Michael; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the dynamic behavior of a layered viscoelastic medium in response to the harmonic and impulsive acoustic radiation force applied to its surface was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. An analytical solution for a layered viscoelastic compressible medium in frequency and time domains was obtained using the Hankel transform. A special incompressible case was considered to model soft biological tissues. To verify our theoretical model, experiments were performed using tissue-like gel-based phantoms with varying mechanical properties. A 3.5 MHz single-element focused ultrasound transducer was used to apply the radiation force at the surface of the phantoms. A phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) system was used to track the displacements of the phantom surface. Theoretically predicted displacements were compared with experimental measurements. The role of the depth dependence of the elastic properties of a medium in its response to an acoustic pulse at the surface was studied. It was shown that the low-frequency vibrations at the surface are more sensitive to the deep layers than high-frequency ones. Therefore, the proposed model in combination with spectral analysis can be used to evaluate depth-dependent distribution of the mechanical properties based on the measurements of the surface deformation. PMID:25974168

  5. Incorporation of alkaline phosphatase into layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte films on the surface of affi-gel heparin beads: physicochemical characterization and evaluation of the enzyme stability.

    PubMed

    Derbal, Lylia; Lesot, Hervé; Voegel, Jean Claude; Ball, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    The preparation of functionalized beads in the micrometer size range that can be used to probe the action of immobilized biomolecules on cell cultures during controlled periods of time is of fundamental importance in cell biology. However, the preparation and characterization of such particles is tedious because of their fast sedimentation. It is hence difficult to prepare such beads in a reproducible manner. This highlights the need to prepare an important batch of functionnalized particles and to store them under conditions where the loss of biological activity is minimized. The aim of this paper was to immobilize alkaline phosphatase (AP) as a model enzyme on the surface of Affi-gel heparin beads functionnalized by means of a layer-by-layer (LBL) film made of poly-l-glutamic (PGA) acid and poly-l-lysine (PLL). The enzyme has been adsorbed either on the top of the LBL film or embedded under five polyelectrolyte layers. When embedded, the enzyme was not released in buffer and retained more than 30% of its initial activity after 3 months of storage at 4 degrees C. However, when the enzyme was adsorbed on top of the LBL film, about 80% of the adsorbed enzyme was released in the buffer after a few days of storage. Longer storage did not lead to any further desorption and the remaining enzyme displayed the same evolution of its activity with time as the embedded enzyme. The time evolution of the enzyme activity on the beads is compared with that in solution alone and in the presence of PGA and PLL separately.

  6. Sensitivity of climate simulations to land-surface and atmospheric boundary-layer treatments - a review

    SciTech Connect

    Garratt, J.R. )

    1993-03-01

    Aspects of the land-surface and boundary-layer treatments in 20 or so atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) are summarized. only a few of these have had significant sensitivity studies published. The sensitivity studies focus upon the parameterization of land- surface processes and specification of land-surface properties including albedo, roughness length, soil moisture status, and vegetation density. The impacts of surface albedo and soil moisture upon the climate simulated in GCMs with bare-soil land surfaces are well known. Continental evaporation and precipitation tend to decrease with increased albedo and decreased soil moisture availability. Few conclusive studies have been carried out on the impact of a gross roughness-length change. A canopy scheme in a GCM ensures the combined impacts of roughness, albedo, and soil-moisture availability upon the simulated climate. The most revealing studies to date involve the regional impact of Amazonian deforestation. Four studies show that replacing tropical forest with a degraded pasture results in decreased evaporation and precipitation, and increased near-surface air temperatures. Sensitivity studies suggest the need for a realistic surface representation in general circulation models of the atmosphere. It is not yet clear how detailed this representation needs to be, but the parameterization of boundary-layer and convective clouds probably represents a greater challenge to improved climate simulations. This is illustrated in the case of surface net radiation for Amazonia, which is not well simulated and tends to be overestimated, leading to evaporation rates that are too large. Underestimates in cloudiness, cloud albedo, and clear-sky shortwave absorption, rather than in surface albedo, appear to be the main culprits. Three major tasks for the researcher of development and validation of atmospheric boundary-layer and surface schemes are detailed.

  7. Influence of substrate preparation on the shaping of the topography of the surface of nanoceramic oxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bara, Marek; Kubica, Marek

    2014-02-01

    The paper discusses the shaping mechanism and changes occurring in the structure and topography of the surface of nanoceramic oxide layers during their formation. The paper presents the influence of substrate preparation on the surface topography of oxide layers. The layers were produced via hard anodizing on the EN AW-5251 aluminum alloy. The layers obtained were subjected to microscope examinations, image and chemical composition analyses, and stereometric examinations. Heredity of substrate properties in the topography of the surface of nanoceramic oxide layers formed as a result of electrochemical oxidation has been shown.

  8. In vitro surface reaction layer formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate cement-bioactive glass composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changsheng; Chen, Chien-Wen; Ducheyne, Paul

    2008-09-01

    Composites of hydrated calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and bioactive glass (BG) containing Si were immersed in vitro to study the effect of chemical composition on surface reaction layer formation and dissolution/precipitation behavior. The solutions used were 0.05 M tris hydroxymethyl aminomethane/HCl (tris buffer), tris buffer supplemented with plasma electrolyte (TE) with pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C, and this solution complemented with 10% newborn bovine serum (TES). The post-immersion solutions were analyzed for changes in Ca, PO(4) and Si concentrations. The reacted surfaces were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The sample weight variations after immersion were also determined. The results showed that the composition of the bioactive composite CPCs greatly affected their behavior in solution and the formation of apatite bioactive surface reaction layers. After immersion in the TE solution, Ca ions were taken up by all samples during the entire immersion duration. Initially, the P ion concentration increased sharply, and then decreased. This reaction pattern reveals the formation of an amorphous calcium phosphate layer on the surface of these composite CPCs. FTIR revealed that the layer was, in fact, poorly crystallized Ca-deficient carbonate apatite. The thickness of the layer was 12-14 microm and it was composed of rod-like apatite with directional arrangement. For immersion in the TES solution, the Ca and Si ion concentrations showed a similar behavior to that in TE, but the release rate of Si ions was higher. FTIR revealed that after TES immersion, not only did the typical, poorly crystallized, Ca-deficient carbonated apatite form, as it did in TE, but also the serum proteins co-adsorbed on the surface and thereby affected the surface reaction layer formation. A thinner apatite layer was formed and was composed of a micro-porous layer comprising rounded particles in a glue

  9. Chemical characterization of the regularly arranged surface layers of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum and Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum.

    PubMed

    Sleytr, U B; Thorne, K J

    1976-04-01

    Clostridum thermosaccharolyticum and Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum possess as outermost cell wall layer a tetragonal or hexagonal ordered array of macromolecules. The subunits of the surface layer can be detached from isolated cell walls with urea (8M) or guanidine-HCl (4 to 5 M). Triton X-100, dithiothreitol, ethylenediaminetetracetate, and KCl (3 M) had no visible effect on the regular arrays. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophroesis showed that, in both organisms, the surface layer is composed of glycoprotein of molecular weight 140,000. The glycoprotein from both microorganisms has a predominantly acidic amino acid composition and an acidic isoelectric point after isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gels. The glycocomponent is composed of glucose, galactose, mannose, and rhamnose.

  10. The development of self-expanding peripheral stent with ion-modified surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotkov, Alexander I.; Kashin, Oleg A.; Kudryashov, Andrey N.; Krukovskii, Konstantin V.; Kuznetsov, Vladimir M.; Borisov, Dmitry P.; Kretov, Evgenii I.

    2016-11-01

    In work researches of chemical composition of surface layers of self-expanding stents of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and their functional and mechanical properties after plasma immersion processing by ions of silicon (Si). It is established that in the treatment in the inner and outer surfaces of stents formed doped silicon layer with a thickness of 80 nm. The formation of the doped layer does not impair the functional properties of the stent. At human body temperature, the stent is fully restore its shape after removing the deforming load. The resulting graph of loading of stents during their compression between parallel plates. The research results allow the conclusion that Si-doped stents are promising for treatment of peripheral vascular disease. However, related studies on laboratory animals are required.

  11. Optical luminescence studies of the ethyl xanthate adsorption layer on the surface of sphalerite minerals.

    PubMed

    Todoran, R; Todoran, D; Szakács, Zs

    2016-01-05

    In this work we propose optical luminescence measurements as a method to evaluate the kinetics of adsorption processes. Measurement of the intensity of the integral optical radiation obtained from the mineral-xanthate interface layer, stimulated with a monochromatic pulsating optical signal, as a function of time were made. The luminescence radiation was obtained from the thin interface layer formed at the separation surface between the sphalerite natural mineral and potassium ethyl xanthate solution, for different solution concentrations and pH-es at the constant industry standard temperature. This method enabled us to determine the time to achieve dynamic equilibrium in the formation of the interface layer of approximately 20min, gaining information on the adsorption kinetics in the case of xanthate on mineral surface and leading to the optimization of the industrial froth flotation process.

  12. Electron microscopy of an aluminum layer grown on the vicinal surface of a gallium arsenide substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Lovygin, M. V. Borgardt, N. I.; Kazakov, I. P.; Seibt, M.

    2015-03-15

    A thin Al layer grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on a misoriented GaAs (100) substrate is studied by transmission electron microscopy. Electron diffraction data and bright-field, dark-field, and high-resolution images show that, in the layer, there are Al grains of three types of crystallographic orientation: Al (100), Al (110), and Al (110)R. The specific structural features of the interfaces between the differently oriented grains and substrate are studied by digital processing of the high-resolution images. From quantitative analysis of the dark-field images, the relative content and sizes of the differently oriented grains are determined. It is found that atomic steps at the substrate surface cause an increase in the fraction and sizes of Al (110)R grains and a decrease in the fraction of Al (100) grains, compared to the corresponding fractions and sizes in the layer grown on a singular substrate surface.

  13. Mass transport in a thin layer of power-law mud under surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Bai, Yuchuan; Xu, Dong

    2017-02-01

    The mass transport velocity in a two-layer system is studied theoretically. The wave motion is driven by a periodic pressure load on the free water surface, and mud in the lower layer is described by a power-law rheological model. Perturbation analysis is performed to the second order to find the mean Eulerian velocity. A numerical iteration method is employed to solve the non-linear governing equation at the leading order. The influence of rheological properties on fluid motion characteristics including the flow field, the surface displacement, the mass transport velocity, and the net discharge rates are investigated based on theoretical results. Theoretical analysis shows that under the action of interfacial shearing, a recirculation structure may appear near the interface in the upper water layer. A higher mass transport velocity at the interface does not necessarily mean a higher discharge rate for a pseudo-plastic fluid mud.

  14. The surface layer protein of Bacillus thuringiensis CTC forms unique intracellular parasporal inclusion body.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chenguang; Yu, Ziniu

    2008-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. finitimus strain CTC forms round parasporal inclusion body. The inclusion body protein gene ctc has been cloned and characterized. Sequence homology analysis reveals that the amino acid sequence of CTC protein shows 87% identity with the surface layer (S-layer) protein Sap (GenBank Z36946) in B. anthracis. In this report, transmission electron microscope observation showed that CTC formed intracellular parasporal inclusion body and sheet structure of S-layer-like protein at the spore phase. Furthermore, the ctc gene was transformed into an acrystalliferous B. thuringiensis strain BMB171. The resulting transformant could form parasporal body which had the same shape and molecular weight of protein with that of B. thuringiensis CTC. These results, together with the sequence homology analysis of ctc gene, confirmed that the unique intracellular parasporal inclusion body of B. thuringiensis was comprised of S-layer protein.

  15. Goertler instability in compressible boundary layers along curved surfaces with suction and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Hady, N.; Verma, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    The Goertler instability of the laminar compressible boundary layer flows along concave surfaces is investigated. The linearized disturbance equations for the three-dimensional, counter-rotating streamwise vortices in two-dimensional boundary layers are presented in an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate. The basic approximation of the disturbance equations, that includes the effect of the growth of the boundary layer, is considered and solved numerically. The effect of compressibility on critical stability limits, growth rates, and amplitude ratios of the vortices is evaluated for a range of Mach numbers for 0 to 5. The effect of wall cooling and suction of the boundary layer on the development of Goertler vortices is investigated for different Mach numbers.

  16. Computation of turbulent boundary layers on curved surfaces, 1 June 1975 - 31 January 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, D. C.; Chambers, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    An accurate method was developed for predicting effects of streamline curvature and coordinate system rotation on turbulent boundary layers. A new two-equation model of turbulence was developed which serves as the basis of the study. In developing the new model, physical reasoning is combined with singular perturbation methods to develop a rational, physically-based set of equations which are, on the one hand, as accurate as mixing-length theory for equilibrium boundary layers and, on the other hand, suitable for computing effects of curvature and rotation. The equations are solved numerically for several boundary layer flows over plane and curved surfaces. For incompressible boundary layers, results of the computations are generally within 10% of corresponding experimental data. Somewhat larger discrepancies are noted for compressible applications.

  17. Surface recombination velocity and diffusion length of minority carriers in heavily doped silicon layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Watanabe, M.; Actor, G.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the electron beam-induced current and the dependence of the effective diffusion length of the minority carriers on the penetration depth of the electron beam were employed for the analysis of the carrier recombination characteristics in heavily doped silicon layers. The analysis is based on the concept of the effective excitation strength of the carriers which takes into consideration all possible recombination sources. Two dimensional mapping of the surface recombination velocity of P-diffused Si layers will be presented together with a three dimensional mapping of minority carrier lifetime in ion implanted Si. Layers heavily doped with As exhibit improved recombination characteristics as compared to those of the layers doped with P.

  18. Structure fragmentation of a surface layer of commercial purity titanium during ultrasonic impact treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kozelskaya, Anna Kazachenok, Marina Sinyakova, Elena Pochivalov, Yurii Perevalova, Olga; Panin, Alexey Hairullin, Rustam

    2015-10-27

    The mechanisms of surface layer fragmentation of titanium specimens subjected to ultrasonic impact treatment is investigated by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. It is shown that the twin boundaries Σ7b and Σ11b are unable to be strong obstacles for propagation of dislocations and other twins.

  19. A SIMPLE, EFFICIENT SOLUTION OF FLUX-PROFILE RELATIONSHIPS IN THE ATMOSPHERIC SURFACE LAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This note describes a simple scheme for analytical estimation of the surface layer similarity functions from state variables. What distinguishes this note from the many previous papers on this topic is that this method is specifically targeted for numerical models where simplici...

  20. Tensile strength of oxygen plasma-created surface layer of PDMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohishi, Taiki; Noda, Haruka; Matsui, Tsubasa S.; Jile, Huge; Deguchi, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a commonly used silicone elastomer with broad applications. Particularly for bioengineering use, PDMS is treated with oxygen plasma with which its surface is oxidized to allow positive interaction with water and live cells. In exchange for the acquisition of hydrophilicity, the oxidized PDMS becomes mechanically brittle so that resulting formation of cracks affects the system in various ways. However, tensile strength (TS), which is an inherent capacity of a material to withstand tensile loads before breaking and is thus a key parameter limiting the use of the material, remains unclear regarding oxidized PDMS. Here we determine the TS of oxide layers created on the surface of PDMS based on micro-stretch experiments using a custom-made device. We show that the surface layer displays cracks upon tensile loading of small strains of within 10% to have a TS of ~10-100 kPa, which is approximately two orders of magnitude lower than that of unmodified PDMS. We further show that the TS sharply decreases with oxidation duration to become highly brittle, while the thickness of the resulting oxide layer finally reaches a plateau even with prolonged plasma treatment. Consequently, we suggest that gradual surface modification of PDMS takes place only within a finite region even with prolonged plasma treatment, as distinct from previously held assumptions. These quantitative data provide critical design information for the oxide layer of plasma-hydrophilized PDMS.

  1. Influence of intermediate aminodextran layers on the signal response of surface acoustic wave biosensors.

    PubMed

    Länge, Kerstin; Rapp, Michael

    2008-06-15

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on horizontally polarized surface shear waves enable direct and label-free detection of proteins in real time. Binding reactions on the sensor surface are detected by determining changes in surface wave velocity caused mainly by mass adsorption or change of viscoelasticity in the sensing layer. Intermediate hydrogel layers have been proven to be useful to immobilize capture molecules or ligands corresponding to the analyte. However, the SAW signal response strongly depends on the morphology of the hydrogel due to different relative changes of its acoustomechanical parameters such as viscoelasticity and density. In this work five aminodextrans (AMD) and one diamino polyethylene glycol (DA-PEG) were used as intermediate hydrogel layers. Sensors with immobilized streptavidin and samples containing biotinylated bovine serum albumin were used to exemplify affinity assays based on immobilized capture molecules for protein detection. The effects of the three-dimensional AMDs and the two-dimensional (2D) DA-PEG on the SAW signal response were investigated. The signal height decreased with increasing molar mass and increasing amount of immobilized AMD. Consequently, thin hydrogel layers are ideal to obtain optimum signal responses in this type of assay, whereas it is not necessarily a 2D hydrogel that gives the best results.

  2. Asphaltenes as a surface active agent

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, E.Y.; Shields, M.B.; Storm, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Asphaltene represents the heavy-end materials of the crude oil, conventionally defined via solvent solubility (either heptane or pentane). Chemically, it consists of polynuclear aromatics with the H/C ratio close to unity. Additionally, it contains a great deal of heteroatoms, such as sulfur, nitrogen, nickel, vanadium, etc. Several experiments have revealed the surface activity of asphaltenes in some selected solvents through measurements of their rheology or critical micelle concentrations in these solvents. The asphaltene micelles were found thermodynamically reversible. In a two phase asphaltene/water system, asphaltenes appear to vary their surface activities depending upon the polarity of the aqueous phase. Our recent experiment further showed that asphaltene/water/toluene may form, water-in-oil emulsion under certain conditions.

  3. Layers: A molecular surface peeling algorithm and its applications to analyze protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Karampudi, Naga Bhushana Rao; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad

    2015-01-01

    We present an algorithm ‘Layers’ to peel the atoms of proteins as layers. Using Layers we show an efficient way to transform protein structures into 2D pattern, named residue transition pattern (RTP), which is independent of molecular orientations. RTP explains the folding patterns of proteins and hence identification of similarity between proteins is simple and reliable using RTP than with the standard sequence or structure based methods. Moreover, Layers generates a fine-tunable coarse model for the molecular surface by using non-random sampling. The coarse model can be used for shape comparison, protein recognition and ligand design. Additionally, Layers can be used to develop biased initial configuration of molecules for protein folding simulations. We have developed a random forest classifier to predict the RTP of a given polypeptide sequence. Layers is a standalone application; however, it can be merged with other applications to reduce the computational load when working with large datasets of protein structures. Layers is available freely at http://www.csb.iitkgp.ernet.in/applications/mol_layers/main. PMID:26553411

  4. Correction of localized shape errors on optical surfaces by altering the localized density of surface or near-surface layers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, John S.; Folta, James A.; Montcalm, Claude

    2005-01-18

    Figure errors are corrected on optical or other precision surfaces by changing the local density of material in a zone at or near the surface. Optical surface height is correlated with the localized density of the material within the same region. A change in the height of the optical surface can then be caused by a change in the localized density of the material at or near the surface.

  5. Energetic basis of catalytic activity of layered nanophase calcium manganese oxides for water oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Birkner, Nancy; Nayeri, Sara; Pashaei, Babak; Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Casey, William H.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Previous measurements show that calcium manganese oxide nanoparticles are better water oxidation catalysts than binary manganese oxides (Mn3O4, Mn2O3, and MnO2). The probable reasons for such enhancement involve a combination of factors: The calcium manganese oxide materials have a layered structure with considerable thermodynamic stability and a high surface area, their low surface energy suggests relatively loose binding of H2O on the internal and external surfaces, and they possess mixed-valent manganese with internal oxidation enthalpy independent of the Mn3+/Mn4+ ratio and much smaller in magnitude than the Mn2O3-MnO2 couple. These factors enhance catalytic ability by providing easy access for solutes and water to active sites and facile electron transfer between manganese in different oxidation states. PMID:23667149

  6. LDV measurement of boundary layer on rotating blade surface in wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Murata, Junsuke; Suzuki, Daiki; Kaga, Norimitsu; Kagisaki, Yosuke

    2014-12-01

    Wind turbines generate electricity due to extracting energy from the wind. The rotor aerodynamics strongly depends on the flow around blade. The surface flow on the rotating blade affects the sectional performance. The wind turbine surface flow has span-wise component due to span-wise change of airfoil section, chord length, twisted angle of blade and centrifugal force on the flow. These span-wise flow changes the boundary layer on the rotating blade and the sectional performance. Hence, the thorough understanding of blade surface flow is important to improve the rotor performance. For the purpose of clarification of the flow behaviour around the rotor blade, the velocity in the boundary layer on rotating blade surface of an experimental HAWT was measured in a wind tunnel. The velocity measurement on the blade surface was carried out by a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). As the results of the measurement, characteristics of surface flow are clarified. In optimum tip speed operation, the surface flow on leading edge and r/R=0.3 have large span-wise velocity which reaches 20% of sectional inflow velocity. The surface flow inboard have three dimensional flow patterns. On the other hand, the flow outboard is almost two dimensional in cross sectional plane.

  7. Suppression of surface segregation of the phosphorous δ-doping layer by insertion of an ultra-thin silicon layer for ultra-shallow Ohmic contacts on n-type germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Michihiro; Uematsu, Masa