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Sample records for active surface layer

  1. Characterization of cathode keeper wear by surface layer activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the erosion rates of the discharge cathode keeper in a 30 cm NSTAR configuration ion thruster were measured using a technique known as Surface Layer Activation (SLA). This diagnostic technique involves producing a radioactive tracer in a given surface by bombardment with high energy ions. The decrease in activity of the tracer material may be monitored as the surface is subjected to wear processes and correlated to a depth calibration curve, yielding the eroded depth. Analysis of the activities was achieved through a gamma spectroscopy system. The primary objectives of this investigation were to reproduce erosion data observed in previous wear studies in order to validate the technique, and to determine the effect of different engine operating parameters on erosion rate. The erosion profile at the TH 15 (23 kw) setting observed during the 8200 hour Life Demonstration Test (LDT) was reproduced. The maximum keeper erosion rate at this setting was determined to be 0.085 pm/hr. Testing at the TH 8 (1.4 kw) setting demonstrated lower erosion rates than TH 15, along with a different wear profile. Varying the keeper voltage was shown to have a significant effect on the erosion, with a positive bias with respect to cathode potential decreasing the erosion rate significantly. Accurate measurements were achieved after operating times of only 40 to 70 hours, a significant improvement over other erosion diagnostic methods.

  2. Surface activation of CNT Webs towards layer by layer assembly of biosensors.

    PubMed

    Musameh, Mustafa; Huynh, Chi P; Hickey, Mark; Kyratzis, Ilias Louis

    2016-04-25

    Several surface activation methods such as chemical, electrochemical and plasma have been used for enhancing the electrochemical performance of carbon based electrodes for various applications. However, some of these surface activation methods may not be useful depending on the chemical and physical properties of the activated surface. Herein we investigate the surface activation of carbon nanotube (CNT) webs by electrochemical and plasma techniques to enhance their electrochemical performance and enable the fabrication of a biosensor using the layer-by-layer (LBL) approach. The pretreated CNT webs were characterized by SEM, TEM, Raman, XPS and electrochemical methods. TEM images and Raman analysis showed an increase in the level of surface defects upon pretreatment with higher number of defects after electrochemical pretreatment. XPS analysis showed an increase in the level of oxygen functional groups after pretreatment (4 to 5 times increase) which resulted in enhanced water wettability especially for plasma pretreated CNT webs. The pretreated CNT web electrodes also showed an enhanced electrochemical activity towards the oxidation and reduction of different redox probes with higher sensitivity for the electrochemically pretreated CNT web electrode that was accompanied by a higher level of noise in amperometric measurements. A highly linear response was obtained for the untreated and the electrochemically pretreated CNT web electrodes towards the amperometric detection of NADH (R(2) of 0.9996 and 0.9986 respectively) while a non-linear response was observed for the plasma pretreated CNT web electrode (R(2) of 0.8538). The pretreated CNT web electrodes enabled the fabrication of a LBL biosensor for alcohol detection with highest operational stability obtained for the plasma pretreated CNT web surface. PMID:26818435

  3. Extending the Diffuse Layer Model of Surface Acidity Behavior: III. Estimating Bound Site Activity Coefficients

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although detailed thermodynamic analyses of the 2-pK diffuse layer surface complexation model generally specify bound site activity coefficients for the purpose of accounting for those non-ideal excess free energies contributing to bound site electrochemical potentials, in applic...

  4. Influences of Peat, Surface and Subsurface Water, and Snow on Active Layer Thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Atchley, Adam; Coon, Ethan T.; Painter, Scott L; Harp, Dylan; Wilson, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    The effect of three environmental conditions: 1) thickness of organic soil, 2) snow depth, and 3) soil moisture content or water table height above and below the soil surface, on active layer thickness (ALT) are investigated using an ensemble of 1D thermal hydrology models. Sensitivity analyses of the ensemble exposed the isolated influence of each environmental condition on ALT and their multivariate interactions. The primary and interactive influences are illustrated in the form of color maps of ALT change. Results show that organic layer acts as a strong insulator, and its thickness is the dominant control of ALT, but the strength of the effect of organic layer thickness is dependent on the saturation state. Snow depth, subsurface saturation, and ponded water depth are strongly codependent and positively correlated to ALT.

  5. Influences of Peat, Surface and Subsurface Water, and Snow on Active Layer Thickness

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Atchley, Adam; Coon, Ethan T.; Painter, Scott L; Harp, Dylan; Wilson, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    The effect of three environmental conditions: 1) thickness of organic soil, 2) snow depth, and 3) soil moisture content or water table height above and below the soil surface, on active layer thickness (ALT) are investigated using an ensemble of 1D thermal hydrology models. Sensitivity analyses of the ensemble exposed the isolated influence of each environmental condition on ALT and their multivariate interactions. The primary and interactive influences are illustrated in the form of color maps of ALT change. Results show that organic layer acts as a strong insulator, and its thickness is the dominant control of ALT, but themore » strength of the effect of organic layer thickness is dependent on the saturation state. Snow depth, subsurface saturation, and ponded water depth are strongly codependent and positively correlated to ALT.« less

  6. Long-term active layer and ground surface temperature trends: results of 12 years of observations at Alaskan CALM sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, N. I.; Nelson, F. E.; Streletskyi, D. A.; Klene, A. E.; Schimek, M.; Little, J.

    2006-12-01

    The uppermost layer of seasonal thawing above permafrost (the active layer) is an important regulator of energy and mass fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere in the polar regions. The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) program is a network of sites at which data about active-layer thickness (ALT) and dynamics are collected. CALM was established in the 1990s to observe and detect the long-term response of the active layer and near-surface permafrost to changes in climate. Active layer monitoring is an important component of efforts to assess the effects of global change in permafrost environments. CALM strategies are evolving; this presentation showcases some additions to CALM observation procedures designed to monitor processes and detect changes not anticipated in the original CALM protocol of the early 1990s. In this study we used data from 12 (1995-2006) years of extensive, spatially oriented field observations at CALM sites in northern Alaska to examine landscape-specific spatial and temporal trends in active-layer thickness and air and ground surface temperature. Despite an observed increase in air temperature, active-layer thickness exhibited a decreasing trend over the study period. This result indicates that soil consolidation accompanying penetration of thaw into an ice-rich stratum at the base of the active layer has resulted in subsidence of the surface with little or no apparent thickening of the active layer, as traditionally defined. Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS) technology was used to detect frost heave and thaw settlement within representative landscapes. Preliminary results indicate that heave and settlement follow patterns of spatial variation similar to those of active-layer thickness. To evaluate the effect of vegetation on ground surface temperature, several heat-transfer coefficients were estimated, including land cover specific thermal diffusivity and empirical n-factors.

  7. Electrical activity of the Hartmann layers relative to surface viscous shearing in an annular magnetohydrodynamic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacroix, Jules; Davoust, Laurent

    2014-03-01

    As a first step towards two-phase magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), this paper addresses an original analytical coupling between surface rheology, e.g., a gradually oxidizing liquid metal surface, ruled by the Boussinesq number Bo, and a supporting annular MHD flow, ruled by the Hartmann number Ha, in the general layout of a classical annular deep-channel viscometer, as developed by Mannheimer and Schechter [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 32, 195-211 (1970)]. Using a matched asymptotic expansion based on the small parameter 1/Ha, we can express the surface velocity as a coupling variable in the jump momentum balance at the liquid surface. By solving the latter through the determination of the Green's function, the whole flow can be analytically calculated. A modified Boussinesq number, tilde{B_o}, is produced as a new non-dimensional parameter that provides the balance between surface viscous shearing and the Lorentz force. It is shown that the tilde{B_o} number drives the electrical activation of the Hartmann layers, heavily modifying the MHD flow topology and leading to the emergence of the Lorentz force, for which interaction with the flow is not classical. Finally, the evolution laws given in this study allow the determination of scaling laws for an original experimental protocol, which would make it possible to accurately determine the surface shear viscosity of a liquid metal with respect to the quality of the ambient atmosphere.

  8. A Novel Surface Structure Consisting of Contact-active Antibacterial Upper-layer and Antifouling Sub-layer Derived from Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Salt Polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jiehua; Gao, Yunlong; Luo, Feng; Tan, Hong; Wang, Kunjie; Fu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Contact-active antibacterial surfaces play a vital role in preventing bacterial contamination of artificial surfaces. In the past, numerous researches have been focused on antibacterial surfaces comprising of antifouling upper-layer and antibacterial sub-layer. In this work, we demonstrate a reversed surface structure which integrate antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer. These surfaces are prepared by simply casting gemini quaternary ammonium salt waterborne polyurethanes (GWPU) and their blends. Due to the high interfacial energy of gemini quaternary ammonium salt (GQAS), chain segments containing GQAS can accumulate at polymer/air interface to form an antibacterial upper-layer spontaneously during the film formation. Meanwhile, the soft segments composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) formed the antifouling sub-layer. Our findings indicate that the combination of antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer endow these surfaces strong, long-lasting antifouling and contact-active antibacterial properties, with a more than 99.99% killing efficiency against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria attached to them. PMID:27561546

  9. A Novel Surface Structure Consisting of Contact-active Antibacterial Upper-layer and Antifouling Sub-layer Derived from Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Salt Polyurethanes

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jiehua; Gao, Yunlong; Luo, Feng; Tan, Hong; Wang, Kunjie; Fu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Contact-active antibacterial surfaces play a vital role in preventing bacterial contamination of artificial surfaces. In the past, numerous researches have been focused on antibacterial surfaces comprising of antifouling upper-layer and antibacterial sub-layer. In this work, we demonstrate a reversed surface structure which integrate antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer. These surfaces are prepared by simply casting gemini quaternary ammonium salt waterborne polyurethanes (GWPU) and their blends. Due to the high interfacial energy of gemini quaternary ammonium salt (GQAS), chain segments containing GQAS can accumulate at polymer/air interface to form an antibacterial upper-layer spontaneously during the film formation. Meanwhile, the soft segments composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) formed the antifouling sub-layer. Our findings indicate that the combination of antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer endow these surfaces strong, long-lasting antifouling and contact-active antibacterial properties, with a more than 99.99% killing efficiency against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria attached to them. PMID:27561546

  10. Enhancing photocatalytic activity of LaTiO2N by removal of surface reconstruction layer.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Michinori; Ishikawa, Ryo; Hisatomi, Takashi; Moriya, Yosuke; Shibata, Naoya; Kubota, Jun; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Domen, Kazunari

    2014-02-12

    LaTiO2N is an oxynitride photocatalyst that has ability to generate H2 and O2 from water under irradiation of light with wavelengths up to 600 nm. However, LaTiO2N necessitates sacrificial reagents that capture either photoexcited electrons or holes efficiently to be active in the photocatalytic reactions because of a considerable number of defects that cause trapping and recombination of photoexcited carriers. Therefore, identifying defect structures of LaTiO2N is important. In this study, using atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, we evidence that eliminating defective surface reconstructed layers of LaTiO2N particles by the treatment with aqua regia can double the photocatalytic activity. PMID:24460145

  11. Compliant layer chucking surface

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, Kenneth L.; Spence, Paul A.; Thompson, Samuel L.

    2004-12-28

    A method and apparatus are described wherein a thin layer of complaint material is deposited on the surface of a chuck to mitigate the deformation that an entrapped particle might cause in the part, such as a mask or a wafer, that is clamped to the chuck. The harder particle will embed into the softer layer as the clamping pressure is applied. The material composing the thin layer could be a metal or a polymer for vacuum or electrostatic chucks. It may be deposited in various patterns to affect an interrupted surface, such as that of a "pin" chuck, thereby reducing the probability of entrapping a particle.

  12. Surface analytical characterization of chromium-stabilized protecting oxide layers on stainless steel referring to activity buildup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieme, M.; Scharnweber, D.; Drechsler, L.; Heiser, C.; Adolphi, B.; Weiss, A.

    1992-08-01

    Surface analytical methods were used to characterize both protecting oxide layers formed by hydrothermal chromate treatment (HTCT) on stabilized austenitic stainless steel and hydrothermally grown corrosion product layers (CPL) within the scope of lowering the activity buildup in the primary circuit of nuclear power plants. Morphology, thickness and chromium depth distribution of the layers proved to be considerably different from each other. According to Raman microspectrometry, there were also alterations in the chemical nature of the oxide species. Preceding electropolishing gave rise to particular properties of the respective layers. Prerequisites for an optimal corrosion behaviour of the protecting layers are discussed. Titanium-containing precipitations were oxidatively transformed by HTCT.

  13. Monitoring of the permafrost surface active layer in Quebec and in the Arctic using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, Nicolas; Royer, Alain; Krinner, Gerhard; Roy, Alexandre

    2014-05-01

    Projected future warming is particularly strong in the Northern high latitudes. Increases of temperatures are up to 2 to 6°C in the northern high latitudes, and up to 3 to 8°C in the North Pole area. Permafrosts (grounds with negative temperatures at least two years in a row) are present on 25 % of the northern hemisphere lands and contain high quantities of « frozen » carbon, estimated at 1400 Gt (40 % of the global terrestrial carbon). Recent studies have shown that a significant part (50%) of the first meters of the permafrost could melt within 2050, and 90 % within 2100. The aim of this study is to help understand the climate evolution in arctic areas, and more specifically of land areas covered by snow. We want to describe the ground temperature all year round even under snow cover. We hope to be able to deduce the active layer thickness evolution over the last ten years in northern Quebec. With the use of satellite data (fusion of Modis land surface temperature « LST » and AMSR-E brillance temperature « Tb », land cover …), and with the assimilation of these observations in the Canadian Landscape Surface Scheme (CLASS, CLASS-SSA) and in a simple radiative transfert model (HUT), we try to benefit from the advantages of each one of the sources in order to complete two objectives : 1- build a solid methodology in order to retrieve the land surface temperature, with and without snow cover, in taïga and toundra areas ; 2 - from those retrieved land surface temperatures, describe the ground temperature during summer as well as in winter (under snow) so that we can have a better look at the summer melt of the permafrost active layer. We have proposed a methodology that takes into account the evolution of two main input parameters of the CLASS model (air temperature and precipitations) in order to minimise the LST and Tb ouput. The proposed methodology seems to improve the results on the LST and Tb at 10 and 19 GHz in summer in a toundra environment

  14. Influence of active layer and support layer surface structures on organic fouling propensity of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinglin; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Ma, Jun; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the influence of surface structure on the fouling propensity of thin-film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes. Specifically, we compare membranes fabricated through identical procedures except for the use of different solvents (dimethylformamide, DMF and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, NMP) during phase separation. FO fouling experiments were carried out with a feed solution containing a model organic foulant. The TFC membranes fabricated using NMP (NMP-TFC) had significantly less flux decline (7.47 ± 0.15%) when compared to the membranes fabricated using DMF (DMF-TFC, 12.70 ± 2.62% flux decline). Water flux was also more easily recovered through physical cleaning for the NMP-TFC membrane. To determine the fundamental cause of these differences in fouling propensity, the active and support layers of the membranes were extensively characterized for physical and chemical characteristics relevant to fouling behavior. Polyamide surface roughness was found to dominate all other investigated factors in determining the fouling propensities of our membranes relative to each other. The high roughness polyamide surface of the DMF-TFC membrane was also rich in larger leaf-like structures, whereas the lower roughness NMP-TFC membrane polyamide layer contained more nodular and smaller features. The support layers of the two membrane types were also characterized for their morphological properties, and the relation between support layer surface structure and polyamide active layer formation was discussed. Taken together, our findings indicate that support layer structure has a significant impact on the fouling propensity of the active layer, and this impact should be considered in the design of support layer structures for TFC membranes. PMID:25564877

  15. Influence of Shielding Gas and Mechanical Activation of Metal Powders on the Quality of Surface Sintered Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saprykina, N. A.; Saprykin, A. A.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-04-01

    The thesis analyses the influence of argon shielding gas and mechanical activation of PMS-1 copper powder and DSK-F75 cobalt chrome molybdenum powder on the surface sintered layer quality under various sintering conditions. Factors affecting the quality of the sintered surface and internal structure are studied. The obtained results prove positive impact of the shielding gas and mechanical activation. Sintering PMS-1 copper powder in argon shielding gas after mechanical activation leads to reduced internal stresses and roughness, as well as improved strength characteristics of the sintered surface. Analysis of sintered samples of mechanically activated DSK-F75 cobalt chrome molybdenum powder shows that the strength of the sintered surface grows porosity and coagulation changes.

  16. Method for making high resistance chromium-free semiconductor substrate body with low resistance active semiconductor layer by surface irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kniepkamp, H.

    1984-10-30

    A high resistance semiconductor substrate body with a thin low resistance active semiconductor layer thereon is generated by a method including the steps of subjecting the semiconductor substrate body to neutron bombardment to a degree which produces high resistance in the semiconductor body and whereby doping substances are generated in the substrate body by the thermal neutron bombardment. A thin low resistant active semiconductor layer is then generated on the substrate body by annealing, a surface of the semiconductor substrate body up to a selected depth by laser radiation or electron radiation such that the lattice deterioration which was caused by the neutron bombardment is eliminated but the doping which was generated by the transmutation of elements during neutron bombardment remains. The annealing can be undertaken only in selected regions on the surface of the semiconductor substrate body, thereby facilitating the construction of integrated circuit components thereon.

  17. Characterization and seasonal variations of surface active substances in the natural sea surface micro-layers of the coastal Middle Adriatic stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frka, Sanja; Kozarac, Zlatica; Ćosović, Božena

    2009-12-01

    Surface micro-layer (ML) samples were collected in different seasons over a long time period in the coastal area of the Middle Adriatic Sea including the seawater Rogoznica lake location and the semi-enclosed estuarine Martinska station. Natural surface micro-layers were studied as original samples and as ex-situ reconstructed films after previous extraction by organic solvents of different polarities ( n-hexane and dichloromethane). Using alternating current (AC) voltammetry (out-of-phase mode) the concentration of surface active substances (SAS) in original ML of both locations was determined, and the enrichment factor (EF) in the ML was related to the underlayer water (ULW) samples collected at 0.5 m depth. Seasonal variability of SAS concentrations of the ML was observed at both locations. The ex-situ films were studied using a modified AC voltammetry method (out-of-phase mode) transferring an organic extract of natural micro-layers spread onto electrolyte from the air-water interface to the mercury electrode surface. The comparison of adsorption characteristics for model lipids of different polarities and those of transferred ex-situ reconstructed films has revealed that different types of lipid material were present in each ex-situ film of the same micro-layer. Additional characterization of the surface active material of natural MLs was carried out by AC voltammetry (in-phase mode) using cathodic reduction of cadmium ions as an indicator of permeability of different films adsorbed at the mercury electrode. The SAS of ML of both investigated locations induced an inhibition effect to the reduction of cadmium ions. Seasonal variations of inhibition have also been noticed. The electrochemical study contributed to the physicochemical characterization of the surface active matter of the surface micro-layer with the emphasis to the role of lipids which, although they represent a minor fraction of the total micro-layer organic material, contribute considerably to

  18. Surface modification of polypropylene non-woven fibers with TiO2 nanoparticles via layer-by-layer self assembly method: Preparation and photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Pavasupree, Suttipan; Dubas, Stephan T; Rangkupan, Ratthapol

    2015-11-01

    Polypropylene (PP) meltblown fibers were coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles using layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition technique. The fibers were first modified with 3 layers of poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSS) and poly(diallyl-dimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) to improve the anchoring of the TiO2 nanoparticle clusters. PDADMAC, which is positively charged, was then used as counter polyelectrolyte in tandem with anionic TiO2 nanoparticles to construct TiO2/PDADMAC bilayer in the LbL fashion. The number of deposited TiO2/PDADMAC layers was varied from 1 to 7 bilayer, and could be used to adjust TiO2 loading. The LbL technique showed higher TiO2 loading efficiency than the impregnation approach. The modified fibers were tested for their photocatalytic activity against a model dye, Methylene Blue (MB). Results showed that the TiO2 modified fibers exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity efficiency similar to that of TiO2 powder dispersed in solution. The deposition of TiO2 3 bilayer on the PP substrate was sufficient to produce nanocomposite fibers that could bleach the MB solution in less than 4hr. TiO2-LbL constructions also preserved TiO2 adhesion on substrate surface after 1cycle of photocatalytic test. Successive photocatalytic test showed decline in MB reduction rate with loss of TiO2 particles from the substrate outer surface. However, even in the third cycle, the TiO2 modified fibers are still moderately effective as it could remove more than 95% of MB after 8hr of treatment. PMID:26574088

  19. Orientation Control in Thin Films of a High-χ Block Copolymer with a Surface Active Embedded Neutral Layer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jieqian; Clark, Michael B; Wu, Chunyi; Li, Mingqi; Trefonas, Peter; Hustad, Phillip D

    2016-01-13

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs) is an attractive advanced patterning technology being considered for future integrated circuit manufacturing. By controlling interfacial interactions, self-assembled microdomains in thin films of polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate), PS-b-PMMA, can be oriented perpendicular to surfaces to form line/space or hole patterns. However, its relatively weak Flory interaction parameter, χ, limits its capability to pattern sub-10 nm features. Many BCPs with higher interaction parameters are capable of forming smaller features, but these "high-χ" BCPs typically have an imbalance in surface energy between the respective blocks that make it difficult to achieve the required perpendicular orientation. To address this challenge, we devised a polymeric surface active additive mixed into the BCP solution, referred to as an embedded neutral layer (ENL), which segregates to the top of the BCP film during casting and annealing and balances the surface tensions at the top of the thin film. The additive comprises a second BCP with a "neutral block" designed to provide matched surface tensions with the respective polymers of the main BCP and a "surface anchoring block" with very low surface energy that drives the material to the air interface during spin-casting and annealing. The surface anchoring block allows the film to be annealed above the glass transition temperature of the two materials without intermixing of the two components. DSA was also demonstrated with this embedded neutral top layer formulation on a chemical patterned template using a single step coat and simple thermal annealing. This ENL technology holds promise to enable the use of high-χ BCPs in advanced patterning applications. PMID:26682931

  20. Surface layers of bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, T J; Graham, L L

    1991-01-01

    Since bacteria are so small, microscopy has traditionally been used to study them as individual cells. To this end, electron microscopy has been a most powerful tool for studying bacterial surfaces; the viewing of macromolecular arrangements of some surfaces is now possible. This review compares older conventional electron-microscopic methods with new cryotechniques currently available and the results each has produced. Emphasis is not placed on the methodology but, rather, on the importance of the results in terms of our perception of the makeup and function of bacterial surfaces and their interaction with the surrounding environment. Images PMID:1723487

  1. Study of wear and galling in aircraft fuel pump drive shafts and gears using the surface layer activation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallmann, A.; Natter, B.; Molinari, M. A.

    1988-10-01

    The surface layer activation technique (SLA) has been applied to study galling and wear in moving parts of Boeing 747 engines. Radioactive 56Co was formed by the reaction 56Fe(p, n) 56Co in fuel pump drive shafts and gears, and their residual activities in these activated parts were measured in situ during routine inspections over more than one year. The study of the wear was done on shafts made of a new alloy and on gears having a new tooth geometry. Wear determined by SLA was corroborated by a profile measurement made when one of the pumps was disassembled. The study of the galling (with release of metallic fragments) of a drive shaft consisted in checking the condition of the critical zone of the splines with the SLA technique. The main originality of the present work is that for the first time such measurements were performed on engines in revenue service.

  2. [Surface layers of methanotrophic bacteria].

    PubMed

    Khmelenina, V N; Suzina, N E; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    Structural and functional characteristics of the regular glycoprotein layers in prokaryotes are analyzed with a special emphasis on aerobic methanotrophic bacteria. S-layers are present at the surfaces of Methylococcus, Methylothermus, and Methylomicrobium cells. Different Methylomicrobium species either synthesize S-layers with planar (p2, p4) symmetry or form cup-shaped or conicalstructures with hexagonal (p6) symmetry. A unique, copper-binding polypeptide 'CorA'/MopE (27/45 kDa), which is coexpressed with the diheme periplasmic cytochrome c peroxidase 'CorB'/Mca (80 kDa) was found in Methylomicrobium album BG8, Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z, and Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. This tandem of the surface proteins is functionally analogous to a new siderophore, methanobactin. Importantly, no 'CorA'/MopE homologue was found in methanotrophs not forming S-layers. The role of surface proteins in copper metabolism and initial methane oxidation is discussed. PMID:25509389

  3. [Preparation of anodic oxidation layer on the surface of pure titanium and its biological activity study].

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuchun; Zhai, Yuchun; Hu, Jinling

    2010-09-01

    This paper introduces how TiO2 film was prepared on pure titanium by anodic oxidation. Surface morphology and composition of the oxide film were analyzed by SEM coupled with EDAX. The deposition ability of hydroxyapatite of the anodized titanium in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 degrees C was evaluated. The results indicated that the oxide film was rough and honeycomb holes, connecting with each other, could be found on the surface. The holes with the diameter of 1-2 microm were distributed uniformly, which was typical for anodic oxidation. After alkaline treatment, hydroxyapatite deposition on the oxidized specimens in SBF was improved significantly. PMID:21179705

  4. Glycobiology of surface layer proteins.

    PubMed

    Schäffer, C; Messner, P

    2001-07-01

    Over the last two decades, a significant change of perception has taken place regarding prokaryotic glycoproteins. For many years, protein glycosylation was assumed to be limited to eukaryotes; but now, a wealth of information on structure, function, biosynthesis and molecular biology of prokaryotic glycoproteins has accumulated, with surface layer (S-layer) glycoproteins being one of the best studied examples. With the designation of Archaea as a second prokaryotic domain of life, the occurrence of glycosylated S-layer proteins had been considered a taxonomic criterion for differentiation between Bacteria and Archaea. Extensive structural investigations, however, have demonstrated that S-layer glycoproteins are present in both domains. Among Gram-positive bacteria, S-layer glycoproteins have been identified only in bacilli. In Gram-negative organisms, their presence is still not fully investigated; presently, there is no indication for their existence in this class of bacteria. Extensive biochemical studies of the S-layer glycoprotein from Halobacterium halobium have, at least in part, unravelled the glycosylation pathway in Archaea; molecular biological analyses of these pathways have not been performed, so far. Significant observations concern the occurrence of unusual linkage regions both in archaeal and bacterial S-layer glycoproteins. Regarding S-layer glycoproteins of bacteria, first genetic data have shed some light into the molecular organization of the glycosylation machinery in this domain. In addition to basic S-layer glycoprotein research, the biotechnological application potential of these molecules has been explored. With the development of straightforward molecular biological methods, fascinating possibilities for the expression of prokaryotic glycoproteins will become available. S-layer glycoprotein research has opened up opportunities for the production of recombinant glycosylation enzymes and tailor-made S-layer glycoproteins in large quantities

  5. Monitoring of the ground surface temperature and the active layer in NorthEastern Canadian permafrost areas using remote sensing data assimilated in a climate land surface scheme.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, N.; Royer, A.; Krinner, G.; Roy, A.

    2014-12-01

    Projected future warming is particularly strong in the Northern high latitudes where increases of temperatures are up to 2 to 6 °C. Permafrost is present on 25 % of the northern hemisphere lands and contain high quantities of « frozen » carbon, estimated at 1400 Gt (40 % of the global terrestrial carbon). The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of the climate evolution in arctic areas, and more specifically of land areas covered by snow. The objective is to describe the ground temperature year round including under snow cover, and to analyse the active layer thickness evolution in relation to the climate variability. We use satellite data (fusion of MODIS land surface temperature « LST » and microwave AMSR-E brightness temperature « Tb ») assimilated in the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) of the Canadian climate model coupled with a simple radiative transfer model (HUT). This approach benefits from the advantages of each of the data type in order to complete two objectives : 1- build a solid methodology for retrieving the ground temperature, with and without snow cover, in taïga and tundra areas ; 2 - from those retrieved ground temperatures, derive the summer melt duration and the active layer depth. We describe the coupling of the models and the methodology that adjusts the meteorological input parameters of the CLASS model (mainly air temperature and precipitations derived from the NARR database) in order to minimise the simulated LST and Tb ouputs in comparison with satellite measurements. Using ground-based meteorological data as validation references in NorthEastern Canadian tundra, the results show that the proposed approach improves the soil temperatures estimates when using the MODIS LST and Tb at 10 and 19 GHz to constrain the model in comparison with the model outputs without satellite data. Error analysis is discussed for the summer period (2.5 - 4 K) and for the snow covered winter period (2 - 3.5 K). Further steps are

  6. Surface shear rheology of saponin adsorption layers.

    PubMed

    Golemanov, Konstantin; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai; Pelan, Edward; Stoyanov, Simeon D

    2012-08-21

    Saponins are a wide class of natural surfactants, with molecules containing a rigid hydrophobic group (triterpenoid or steroid), connected via glycoside bonds to hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains. These surfactants are very good foam stabiliziers and emulsifiers, and show a range of nontrivial biological activities. The molecular mechanisms behind these unusual properties are unknown, and, therefore, the saponins have attracted significant research interest in recent years. In our previous study (Stanimirova et al. Langmuir 2011, 27, 12486-12498), we showed that the triterpenoid saponins extracted from Quillaja saponaria plant (Quillaja saponins) formed adsorption layers with unusually high surface dilatational elasticity, 280 ± 30 mN/m. In this Article, we study the shear rheological properties of the adsorption layers of Quillaja saponins. In addition, we study the surface shear rheological properties of Yucca saponins, which are of steroid type. The experimental results show that the adsorption layers of Yucca saponins exhibit purely viscous rheological response, even at the lowest shear stress applied, whereas the adsorption layers of Quillaja saponins behave like a viscoelastic two-dimensional body. For Quillaja saponins, a single master curve describes the data for the viscoelastic creep compliance versus deformation time, up to a certain critical value of the applied shear stress. Above this value, the layer compliance increases, and the adsorption layers eventually transform into viscous ones. The experimental creep-recovery curves for the viscoelastic layers are fitted very well by compound Voigt rheological model. The obtained results are discussed from the viewpoint of the layer structure and the possible molecular mechanisms, governing the rheological response of the saponin adsorption layers. PMID:22830458

  7. Engineering long shelf life multi-layer biologically active surfaces on microfluidic devices for point of care applications

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Waseem; Yuksekkaya, Mehmet; Shafiee, Hadi; Zhang, Michael; Ozen, Mehmet O.; Inci, Fatih; Kocakulak, Mustafa; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-01

    Although materials and engineered surfaces are broadly utilized in creating assays and devices with wide applications in diagnostics, preservation of these immuno-functionalized surfaces on microfluidic devices remains a significant challenge to create reliable repeatable assays that would facilitate patient care in resource-constrained settings at the point-of-care (POC), where reliable electricity and refrigeration are lacking. To address this challenge, we present an innovative approach to stabilize surfaces on-chip with multiple layers of immunochemistry. The functionality of microfluidic devices using the presented method is evaluated at room temperature for up to 6-month shelf life. We integrated the preserved microfluidic devices with a lensless complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imaging platform to count CD4+ T cells from a drop of unprocessed whole blood targeting applications at the POC such as HIV management and monitoring. The developed immunochemistry stabilization method can potentially be applied broadly to other diagnostic immuno-assays such as viral load measurements, chemotherapy monitoring, and biomarker detection for cancer patients at the POC. PMID:26883474

  8. Uncertainties in Surface Layer Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendergrass, W.

    2015-12-01

    A central problem for micrometeorologists has been the relationship of air-surface exchange rates of momentum and heat to quantities that can be predicted with confidence. The flux-gradient profile developed through Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) provides an integration of the dimensionless wind shear expression where is an empirically derived expression for stable and unstable atmospheric conditions. Empirically derived expressions are far from universally accepted (Garratt, 1992, Table A5). Regardless of what form of these relationships might be used, their significance over any short period of time is questionable since all of these relationships between fluxes and gradients apply to averages that might rarely occur. It is well accepted that the assumption of stationarity and homogeneity do not reflect the true chaotic nature of the processes that control the variables considered in these relationships, with the net consequence that the levels of predictability theoretically attainable might never be realized in practice. This matter is of direct relevance to modern prognostic models which construct forecasts by assuming the universal applicability of relationships among averages for the lower atmosphere, which rarely maintains an average state. Under a Cooperative research and Development Agreement between NOAA and Duke Energy Generation, NOAA/ATDD conducted atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) research using Duke renewable energy sites as research testbeds. One aspect of this research has been the evaluation of legacy flux-gradient formulations (the ϕ functions, see Monin and Obukhov, 1954) for the exchange of heat and momentum. At the Duke Energy Ocotillo site, NOAA/ATDD installed sonic anemometers reporting wind and temperature fluctuations at 10Hz at eight elevations. From these observations, ϕM and ϕH were derived from a two-year database of mean and turbulent wind and temperature observations. From this extensive measurement database, using a

  9. Water molecules orientation in surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingo, V. V.

    2000-08-01

    The water molecules orientation has been investigated theoretically in the water surface layer. The surface molecule orientation is determined by the direction of a molecule dipole moment in relation to outward normal to the water surface. Entropy expressions of the superficial molecules in statistical meaning and from thermodynamical approach to a liquid surface tension have been found. The molecules share directed opposite to the outward normal that is hydrogen protons inside is equal 51.6%. 48.4% water molecules are directed along to surface outward normal that is by oxygen inside. A potential jump at the water surface layer amounts about 0.2 volts.

  10. Reaction kinetics during the thermal activation of the silicon surface passivation with atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Armin Benick, Jan; Hermle, Martin; Glunz, Stefan W.

    2014-02-10

    The excellent surface passivation of crystalline silicon provided by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} requires always an activation by a thermal post-deposition treatment. In this work, we present an indirect study of the reaction kinetics during such thermal activation treatments for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} synthesized by atomic layer deposition. The study was performed for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited at varying temperatures, which results in different micro-structures of the films and, in particular, different hydrogen concentrations. The effective carrier lifetime was measured sequentially as a function of the annealing time and temperature. From these data, the reaction rate R{sub act} and the activation energy E{sub A} were extracted. The results revealed a rather constant E{sub A} in the range of 1.4 to 1.5 eV, independent of the deposition temperature. The reaction rate, however, was found to increase with decreasing deposition temperature, which correlates with an increasing amount of hydrogen being incorporated in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. This is a strong indication for an interface hydrogenation that takes place during the thermal activation, which is limited by the amount of hydrogen provided by the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer.

  11. Changes in active-layer thickness and near-surface permafrost between 2002 and 2012 in alpine ecosystems, Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingbai; Hou, Yandong; Yun, Hanbo; Liu, Yongzhi

    2015-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2012, daily soil temperature measurements were made at 10 sites within five alpine ecosystems in the Beiluhe area of the central Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Changes in freeze-thaw occurrence, active-layer thickness and near-surface permafrost temperature in barren, desert grassland, alpine steppe and alpine meadow ecosystems indicate that alpine ecosystems are sensitive to climate variability. During this time, the average onset of spring thawing at 50-cm depth advanced by at least 16 days in all but the barren alpine settings, and the duration of thaw increased by at least 14 days for all but the desert grassland and barren ecosystems. All sites showed an increase in active-layer thickness (ALT) and near-surface permafrost temperature: the average increase of ALT was ~ 4.26 cm/a and the average increase in permafrost temperatures at 6 m and 10 m depths were, respectively, ~ 0.13 °C and ~ 0.14 °C. No apparent trend in mean annual air temperature was detected at the Beiluhe weather station. However, an increasing trend in precipitation was measured. This suggests that the primary control on the ALT increase was an increase in summer rainfall and the primary control on increasing permafrost temperature was probably the combined effects of increasing rainfall and the asymmetrical seasonal changes in subsurface soil temperatures.

  12. InSAR analysis of surface deformation over permafrost to estimate active layer thickness based on one-dimensional heat transfer model of soils

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiwei; Zhao, Rong; Hu, Jun; Wen, Lianxing; Feng, Guangcai; Zhang, Zeyu; Wang, Qijie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to estimate active layer thickness (ALT) over permafrost based on InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) observation and the heat transfer model of soils. The time lags between the periodic feature of InSAR-observed surface deformation over permafrost and the meteorologically recorded temperatures are assumed to be the time intervals that the temperature maximum to diffuse from the ground surface downward to the bottom of the active layer. By exploiting the time lags and the one-dimensional heat transfer model of soils, we estimate the ALTs. Using the frozen soil region in southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) as examples, we provided a conceptual demonstration of the estimation of the InSAR pixel-wise ALTs. In the case study, the ALTs are ranging from 1.02 to 3.14 m and with an average of 1.95 m. The results are compatible with those sparse ALT observations/estimations by traditional methods, while with extraordinary high spatial resolution at pixel level (~40 meter). The presented method is simple, and can potentially be used for deriving high-resolution ALTs in other remote areas similar to QTP, where only sparse observations are available now. PMID:26480892

  13. InSAR analysis of surface deformation over permafrost to estimate active layer thickness based on one-dimensional heat transfer model of soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiwei; Zhao, Rong; Hu, Jun; Wen, Lianxing; Feng, Guangcai; Zhang, Zeyu; Wang, Qijie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to estimate active layer thickness (ALT) over permafrost based on InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) observation and the heat transfer model of soils. The time lags between the periodic feature of InSAR-observed surface deformation over permafrost and the meteorologically recorded temperatures are assumed to be the time intervals that the temperature maximum to diffuse from the ground surface downward to the bottom of the active layer. By exploiting the time lags and the one-dimensional heat transfer model of soils, we estimate the ALTs. Using the frozen soil region in southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) as examples, we provided a conceptual demonstration of the estimation of the InSAR pixel-wise ALTs. In the case study, the ALTs are ranging from 1.02 to 3.14 m and with an average of 1.95 m. The results are compatible with those sparse ALT observations/estimations by traditional methods, while with extraordinary high spatial resolution at pixel level (~40 meter). The presented method is simple, and can potentially be used for deriving high-resolution ALTs in other remote areas similar to QTP, where only sparse observations are available now. PMID:26480892

  14. Stable water layers on solid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ying-Jhan; Tai, Lin-Ai; Chen, Hung-Jen; Chang, Pin; Yang, Chung-Shi; Yew, Tri-Rung

    2016-02-17

    Liquid layers adhered to solid surfaces and that are in equilibrium with the vapor phase are common in printing, coating, and washing processes as well as in alveoli in lungs and in stomata in leaves. For such a liquid layer in equilibrium with the vapor it faces, it has been generally believed that, aside from liquid lumps, only a very thin layer of the liquid, i.e., with a thickness of only a few nanometers, is held onto the surface of the solid, and that this adhesion is due to van der Waals forces. A similar layer of water can remain on the surface of a wall of a microchannel after evaporation of bulk water creates a void in the channel, but the thickness of such a water layer has not yet been well characterized. Herein we showed such a water layer adhered to a microchannel wall to be 100 to 170 nm thick and stable against surface tension. The water layer thickness was measured using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and the water layer structure was characterized by using a quantitative nanoparticle counting technique. This thickness was found for channel gap heights ranging from 1 to 5 μm. Once formed, the water layers in the microchannel, when sealed, were stable for at least one week without any special care. Our results indicate that the water layer forms naturally and is closely associated only with the surface to which it adheres. Our study of naturally formed, stable water layers may shed light on topics from gas exchange in alveoli in biology to the post-wet-process control in the semiconductor industry. We anticipate our report to be a starting point for more detailed research and understanding of the microfluidics, mechanisms and applications of gas-liquid-solid systems. PMID:26856872

  15. Layering of ionic liquids on rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Alexis; Jurado, L. Andres; Ramakrishna, Shivaprakash N.; Arcifa, Andrea; Rossi, Antonella; Spencer, Nicholas D.; Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the behavior of ionic liquids (ILs) either confined between rough surfaces or in rough nanoscale pores is of great relevance to extend studies performed on ideally flat surfaces to real applications. In this work we have performed an extensive investigation of the structural forces between two surfaces with well-defined roughness (<9 nm RMS) in 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide by atomic force microscopy. Statistical studies of the measured layer thicknesses, layering force, and layering frequency reveal the ordered structure of the rough IL-solid interface. Our work shows that the equilibrium structure of the interfacial IL strongly depends on the topography of the contact.Understanding the behavior of ionic liquids (ILs) either confined between rough surfaces or in rough nanoscale pores is of great relevance to extend studies performed on ideally flat surfaces to real applications. In this work we have performed an extensive investigation of the structural forces between two surfaces with well-defined roughness (<9 nm RMS) in 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide by atomic force microscopy. Statistical studies of the measured layer thicknesses, layering force, and layering frequency reveal the ordered structure of the rough IL-solid interface. Our work shows that the equilibrium structure of the interfacial IL strongly depends on the topography of the contact. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Optimized geometries and sizes for [HMIM] Ntf2, SEM images of the smooth and rough colloids, frequency of occurrence of layering in the resolved force-distance curves for all investigated systems with [HMIM] Ntf2, layer size and layering force measured with a sharp tip on mica for the same IL, and results of the kinetics experiments. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07805a

  16. Effect of surface ionization on wetting layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    A surface ionization model due to Langmuir is generalized to liquid mixtures of polar and nonpolar components in contact with ionizable substrates. When a predominantly nonpolar mixture is near a miscibility gap, thick wetting layers of the conjugate polar phase form on the substrate. Such charged layers can be much thicker than similar wetting layers stabilized by dispersion forces. This model may explain the 0.4- to 0.6-micron-thick wetting layers formed in stirred mixtures of nitromethane and carbon disulfide in contact with glass.

  17. Phonon-assisted stimulated emission and ultra-thin active layers in cleaved-cavity and vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    Unique lasing processes in III-V semiconductor lasers are examined. The dynamics of stimulated photon emissions in thin AlGaAs/GaAs single quantum well lasers are observed experimentally and modeled by rate equations describing the electron and photon densities. Agreement between experiment and theory are achieved when the transition probability matrix, calculated with the spreading out of electron and hole wave functions taken into account, is used. The phonon assisted stimulated photon emission observed in this work is delayed with respect to the unassisted emission. This observation is modeled by using a weaker matrix element for the unassisted process which is expected from theory and thus supports the author' claim that this emission is phonon assisted. Rate equations developed to simulate doubly stimulated emission of photons and phonons do not describe the experimental data so the possibility of stimulated phonon emission is ruled out for the samples studied in this work. Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers are also studied since they can be designed to support unique lasing processes. The design and growth of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers are discussed and these concepts are applied to the realization of a vertical cavity surface emitting laser with the thinnest active layer of any laser yet reported. Stimulated emission supported across the sub-monolayer thick InAs single quantum well active region can be understood by considering the spreading of the electron and hole wavefunctions beyond the confines of the quantum well to increase the length of the effective gain region.

  18. Preservation of Archaeal Surface Layer Structure During Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Kish, Adrienne; Miot, Jennyfer; Lombard, Carine; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bernard, Sylvain; Zirah, Séverine; Guyot, François

    2016-01-01

    Proteinaceous surface layers (S-layers) are highly ordered, crystalline structures commonly found in prokaryotic cell envelopes that augment their structural stability and modify interactions with metals in the environment. While mineral formation associated with S-layers has previously been noted, the mechanisms were unconstrained. Using Sulfolobus acidocaldarius a hyperthermophilic archaeon native to metal-enriched environments and possessing a cell envelope composed only of a S-layer and a lipid cell membrane, we describe a passive process of iron phosphate nucleation and growth within the S-layer of cells and cell-free S-layer “ghosts” during incubation in a Fe-rich medium, independently of metabolic activity. This process followed five steps: (1) initial formation of mineral patches associated with S-layer; (2) patch expansion; (3) patch connection; (4) formation of a continuous mineral encrusted layer at the cell surface; (5) early stages of S-layer fossilization via growth of the extracellular mineralized layer and the mineralization of cytosolic face of the cell membrane. At more advanced stages of encrustation, encrusted outer membrane vesicles are formed, likely in an attempt to remove damaged S-layer proteins. The S-layer structure remains strikingly well preserved even upon the final step of encrustation, offering potential biosignatures to be looked for in the fossil record. PMID:27221593

  19. Preservation of Archaeal Surface Layer Structure During Mineralization.

    PubMed

    Kish, Adrienne; Miot, Jennyfer; Lombard, Carine; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bernard, Sylvain; Zirah, Séverine; Guyot, François

    2016-01-01

    Proteinaceous surface layers (S-layers) are highly ordered, crystalline structures commonly found in prokaryotic cell envelopes that augment their structural stability and modify interactions with metals in the environment. While mineral formation associated with S-layers has previously been noted, the mechanisms were unconstrained. Using Sulfolobus acidocaldarius a hyperthermophilic archaeon native to metal-enriched environments and possessing a cell envelope composed only of a S-layer and a lipid cell membrane, we describe a passive process of iron phosphate nucleation and growth within the S-layer of cells and cell-free S-layer "ghosts" during incubation in a Fe-rich medium, independently of metabolic activity. This process followed five steps: (1) initial formation of mineral patches associated with S-layer; (2) patch expansion; (3) patch connection; (4) formation of a continuous mineral encrusted layer at the cell surface; (5) early stages of S-layer fossilization via growth of the extracellular mineralized layer and the mineralization of cytosolic face of the cell membrane. At more advanced stages of encrustation, encrusted outer membrane vesicles are formed, likely in an attempt to remove damaged S-layer proteins. The S-layer structure remains strikingly well preserved even upon the final step of encrustation, offering potential biosignatures to be looked for in the fossil record. PMID:27221593

  20. Surface layer effects on waste glass corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.

    1993-12-31

    Water contact subjects waste glass to chemical attack that results in the formation of surface alteration layers. Two principal hypotheses have been advanced concerning the effect of surface alteration layers on continued glass corrosion: (1) they act as a mass transport barrier and (2) they influence the chemical affinity of the glass reaction. In general, transport barrier effects have been found to be less important than affinity effects in the corrosion of most high-level nuclear waste glasses. However, they can be important under some circumstances, for example, in a very alkaline solution, in leachants containing Mg ions, or under conditions where the matrix dissolution rate is very low. The latter suggests that physical barrier effect may affect the long-term glass dissolution rate. Surface layers influence glass reaction affinity through the effects of the altered glass and secondary phases on the solution chemistry. The reaction affinity may be controlled by various precipitates and crystalline phases, amorphous silica phases, gel layer, or all the components of the glass. The surface alteration layers influence radionuclide release mainly through colloid formation, crystalline phase incorporation, and gel layer retention. This paper reviews current understanding and uncertainties.

  1. The surface layer for free-surface turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lian; Zhang, Xiang; Yue, Dick K. P.; Triantafyllou, George S.

    1999-05-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to examine low Froude number free-surface turbulence (FST) over a two-dimensional mean shear flow. The Navier Stokes equations are solved using a finite-difference scheme with a grid resolution of 1283. Twenty separate simulations are conducted to calculate the statistics of the flow. Based on the velocity deficit and the vertical extent of the shear of the mean flow, the Reynolds number is 1000 and the Froude number is 0.7. We identify conceptually and numerically the surface layer, which is a thin region adjacent to the free surface characterized by fast variations of the horizontal vorticity components. This surface layer is caused by the dynamic zero-stress boundary conditions at the free surface and lies inside a thicker blockage (or ‘source’) layer, which is due to the kinematic boundary condition at the free surface. The importance of the outer blockage layer is manifested mainly in the redistribution of the turbulence intensity, i.e. in the increase of the horizontal velocity fluctuations at the expense of the vertical velocity fluctuation. A prominent feature of FST is vortex connections to the free surface which occur inside the surface layer. It is found that as hairpin-shaped vortex structures approach the free surface, their ‘head’ part is dissipated quickly in the surface layer, while the two ‘legs’ connect almost perpendicularly to the free surface. Analysis of the evolution of surface-normal vorticity based on vortex surface-inclination angle shows that both dissipation and stretching decrease dramatically after connection. As a result, vortex structures connected to the free surface are persistent and decay slowly relative to non-connected vorticities. The effects of surface and blockage layers on the turbulence statistics of length scales, Reynolds-stress balance, and enstrophy dynamics are examined, which elucidate clearly the different turbulence mechanisms operating in the respective near-surface

  2. Single-layer-coated surfaces with linearized reflectance versus angle of incidence: application to passive and active silicon rotation sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzam, R. M. A.; Howlader, M. M. K.; Georgiou, T. Y.

    1995-08-01

    A transparent or absorbing substrate can be coated with a transparent thin film to produce a linear reflectance-versus-angle-of-incidence response over a certain range of angles. Linearization at and near normal incidence is a special case that leads to a maximally flat response for p -polarized, s -polarized, or unpolarized light. For midrange and high-range linearization with moderate and high slopes, respectively, the best results are obtained when the incident light is s polarized. Application to a Si substrate that is coated with a SiO2 film leads to novel passive and active reflection rotation sensors. Experimental results and an error analysis of this rotation sensor are presented.

  3. Surface state and normal layer effects

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, R.A.; Ledvij, M.; Liu, S.H.

    1995-08-01

    In addition to the conducting CuO{sub 2} (S) layers, most high-T{sub c} superconductors also contain other conducting (N) layers, which are only superconducting due to the proximity effect. The combination of S and N layers can give rise to complicated electronic densities of states, leading to quasilinear penetration depth and NMR relaxation rate behavior at low temperatures. Surface states can also complicate the analysis of tunneling and, photoemission measurements. Moreover, geometrical considerations and in homogeneously trapped flux axe possible explanations of the paramagnetic Meissner effect and of corner and ring SQUID experiments. Hence, all of the above experiments could be consistent with isotropic s-wave superconductivity within the S layers.

  4. Atomically Precise Growth of Catalytically Active Cobalt Sulfide on Flat Surfaces and within a Metal-Organic Framework via Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Peters, Aaron W; Li, Zhanyong; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2015-08-25

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been employed as a new synthetic route to thin films of cobalt sulfide on silicon and fluorine-doped tin oxide platforms. The self-limiting nature of the stepwise synthesis is established through growth rate studies at different pulse times and temperatures. Additionally, characterization of the materials by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the crystalline phase of these films has the composition Co9S8. The nodes of the metal-organic framework (MOF) NU-1000 were then selectively functionalized with cobalt sulfide via ALD in MOFs (AIM). Spectroscopic techniques confirm uniform deposition of cobalt sulfide throughout the crystallites, with no loss in crystallinity or porosity. The resulting material, CoS-AIM, is catalytically active for selective hydrogenation of m-nitrophenol to m-aminophenol, and outperforms the analogous oxide AIM material (CoO-AIM) as well as an amorphous CoSx reference material. These results reveal AIM to be an effective method of incorporating high surface area and catalytically active cobalt sulfide in metal-organic frameworks. PMID:26241521

  5. Characteristics of the Martian atmosphere surface layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clow, G. D.; Haberle, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Elements of various terrestrial boundary layer models are extended to Mars in order to estimate sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum fluxes within the Martian atmospheric surface ('constant flux') layer. The atmospheric surface layer consists of an interfacial sublayer immediately adjacent to the ground and an overlying fully turbulent surface sublayer where wind-shear production of turbulence dominates buoyancy production. Within the interfacial sublayer, sensible and latent heat are transported by non-steady molecular diffusion into small-scale eddies which intermittently burst through this zone. Both the thickness of the interfacial sublayer and the characteristics of the turbulent eddies penetrating through it depend on whether airflow is aerodynamically smooth or aerodynamically rough, as determined by the Roughness Reynold's number. Within the overlying surface sublayer, similarity theory can be used to express the mean vertical windspeed, temperature, and water vapor profiles in terms of a single parameter, the Monin-Obukhov stability parameter. To estimate the molecular viscosity and thermal conductivity of a CO2-H2O gas mixture under Martian conditions, parameterizations were developed using data from the TPRC Data Series and the first-order Chapman-Cowling expressions; the required collision integrals were approximated using the Lenard-Jones potential. Parameterizations for specific heat and binary diffusivity were also determined. The Brutsart model for sensible and latent heat transport within the interfacial sublayer for both aerodynamically smooth and rough airflow was experimentally tested under similar conditions, validating its application to Martian conditions. For the surface sublayer, the definition of the Monin-Obukhov length was modified to properly account for the buoyancy forces arising from water vapor gradients in the Martian atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that under most Martian conditions, the interfacial and surface

  6. Electronic structure of bacterial surface protein layers

    SciTech Connect

    Maslyuk, Volodymyr V.; Mertig, Ingrid; Bredow, Thomas; Mertig, Michael; Vyalikh, Denis V.; Molodtsov, Serguei L.

    2008-01-15

    We report an approach for the calculation of the electronic density of states of the dried two-dimensional crystalline surface protein layer (S layer) of the bacterium Bacillus sphaericus NCTC 9602. The proposed model is based on the consideration of individual amino acids in the corresponding conformation of the peptide chain which additively contribute to the electronic structure of the entire protein complex. The derived results agree well with the experimental data obtained by means of photoemission (PE), resonant PE, and near-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  7. Regular surface layer of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed Central

    Bingle, W H; Doran, J L; Page, W J

    1984-01-01

    Washing Azotobacter vinelandii UW1 with Burk buffer or heating cells at 42 degrees C exposed a regular surface layer which was effectively visualized by freeze-etch electron microscopy. This layer was composed of tetragonally arranged subunits separated by a center-to-center spacing of approximately 10 nm. Cells washed with distilled water to remove an acidic major outer membrane protein with a molecular weight of 65,000 did not possess the regular surface layer. This protein, designated the S protein, specifically reattached to the surface of distilled-water-washed cells in the presence of the divalent calcium, magnesium, strontium, or beryllium cations. All of these cations except beryllium supported reassembly of the S protein into a regular tetragonal array. Although the surface localization of the S protein has been demonstrated, radioiodination of exposed envelope proteins in whole cells did not confirm this. The labeling behavior of the S protein could be explained on the basis of varying accessibilities of different tyrosine residues to iodination. Images PMID:6735982

  8. Layer-by-layer nanoencapsulation of camptothecin with improved activity

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Gaurav; Pattekari, Pravin; Joshi, Chaitanya; Shutava, Tatsiana; DeCoster, Mark; Levchenko, Tatyana; Torchilin, Vladimir; Lvov, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    160 nm nanocapsules containing up to 60% of camptothecin in the core and 7–8 polyelectrolyte bilayers in the shell were produced by washless layer-by-layer assembly of heparin and block-copolymer of poly-L-lysine and polyethylene glycol. The outer surface of the nanocapsules was additionally modified with polyethylene glycol of 5 kDa or 20 kDa molecular weight to attain protein resistant properties, colloidal stability in serum and prolonged release of the drug from the capsules. An advantage of the LbL coated capsules is the preservation of camptothecin lactone form with the shell assembly starting at acidic pH and improved chemical stability of encapsulated drug at neutral and basic pH, especially in the presence of albumin that makes such formulation more active than free camptothecin. LbL nanocapsules preserve the camptothecin lactone form at pH 7.4 resulting in triple activity of the drug toward CRL2303 glioblastoma cell. PMID:24508806

  9. Surface layer effect on nuclear deformation energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomietz, V. M.; Sanzhur, A. I.; Reznychenko, B. V.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we apply the direct variational method to derive the nuclear deformation energy. The extended Thomas-Fermi approximation (ETFA) for the energy functional with Skyrme forces is used. We study the influence of the finite surface layer of the nuclear density profile function on the formation of the fission barrier and the scission configuration. Comparison of the variational approach with the traditional liquid drop model (LDM) is presented. We show the sensitivity of the numerical results to the surface diffuseness parameter.

  10. Characteristics of the Martian atmosphere surface layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clow, G. D.; Haberle, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers extend elements of various terrestrial boundary layer models to Mars in order to estimate sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum fluxes within the Martian atmospheric surface layer. To estimate the molecular viscosity and thermal conductivity of a CO2-H2O gas mixture under Martian conditions, parameterizations were developed. Parameterizations for specific heat and and binary diffusivity were also determined. The Prandtl and Schmidt numbers derived from these thermophysical properties were found to range from 0.78 - 1.0 and 0.47 - 0.70, respectively, for Mars. Brutsaert's model for sensible and latent heat transport within the interfacial sublayer for both aerodynamically smooth and rough airflow was experimentally tested under similar conditions, validating its application to Martian conditions. For the surface sublayer, the researchers modified the definition of the Monin-Obukhov length to properly account for the buoyancy forces arising from water vapor gradients in the Martian atmospheric boundary layer. This length scale was then utilized with similarity theory turbulent flux profiles with the same form as those used by Businger et al. and others. It was found that under most Martian conditions, the interfacial and surface sublayers offer roughly comparable resistance to sensible heat and water vapor transport and are thus both important in determining the associated fluxes.

  11. Surface rheology of saponin adsorption layers.

    PubMed

    Stanimirova, R; Marinova, K; Tcholakova, S; Denkov, N D; Stoyanov, S; Pelan, E

    2011-10-18

    Extracts of the Quillaja saponaria tree contain natural surfactant molecules called saponins that very efficiently stabilize foams and emulsions. Therefore, such extracts are widely used in several technologies. In addition, saponins have demonstrated nontrivial bioactivity and are currently used as essential ingredients in vaccines, food supplements, and other health products. Previous preliminary studies showed that saponins have some peculiar surface properties, such as a very high surface modulus, that may have an important impact on the mechanisms of foam and emulsion stabilization. Here we present a detailed characterization of the main surface properties of highly purified aqueous extracts of Quillaja saponins. Surface tension isotherms showed that the purified Quillaja saponins behave as nonionic surfactants with a relatively high cmc (0.025 wt %). The saponin adsorption isotherm is described well by the Volmer equation, with an area per molecule of close to 1 nm(2). By comparing this area to the molecular dimensions, we deduce that the hydrophobic triterpenoid rings of the saponin molecules lie parallel to the air-water interface, with the hydrophilic glucoside tails protruding into the aqueous phase. Upon small deformation, the saponin adsorption layers exhibit a very high surface dilatational elasticity (280 ± 30 mN/m), a much lower shear elasticity (26 ± 15 mN/m), and a negligible true dilatational surface viscosity. The measured dilatational elasticity is in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions of the Volmer adsorption model (260 mN/m). The measured characteristic adsorption time of the saponin molecules is 4 to 5 orders of magnitude longer than that predicted theoretically for diffusion-controlled adsorption, which means that the saponin adsorption is barrier-controlled around and above the cmc. The perturbed saponin layers relax toward equilibrium in a complex manner, with several relaxation times, the longest of them being around 3

  12. Surface roughness scattering in multisubband accumulation layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Han; Reich, K. V.; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2016-06-01

    Accumulation layers with very large concentrations of electrons where many subbands are filled became recently available due to ionic liquid and other new methods of gating. The low-temperature mobility in such layers is limited by the surface roughness scattering. However, theories of roughness scattering so far dealt only with the small-density single subband two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Here we develop a theory of roughness-scattering limited mobility for the multisubband large concentration case. We show that with growing 2D electron concentration n the surface dimensionless conductivity σ /(2 e2/h ) first decreases as ∝n-6 /5 and then saturates as ˜(d aB/Δ2)≫1 , where d and Δ are the characteristic length and height of the surface roughness and aB is the effective Bohr radius. This means that in spite of the shrinkage of the 2DEG thickness and the related increase of the scattering rate the 2DEG remains a good metal.

  13. Diurnal ocean surface layer model validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, Jeffrey D.; May, Douglas A.; Abell, Fred, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The diurnal ocean surface layer (DOSL) model at the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center forecasts the 24-hour change in a global sea surface temperatures (SST). Validating the DOSL model is a difficult task due to the huge areas involved and the lack of in situ measurements. Therefore, this report details the use of satellite infrared multichannel SST imagery to provide day and night SSTs that can be directly compared to DOSL products. This water-vapor-corrected imagery has the advantages of high thermal sensitivity (0.12 C), large synoptic coverage (nearly 3000 km across), and high spatial resolution that enables diurnal heating events to be readily located and mapped. Several case studies in the subtropical North Atlantic readily show that DOSL results during extreme heating periods agree very well with satellite-imagery-derived values in terms of the pattern of diurnal warming. The low wind and cloud-free conditions necessary for these events to occur lend themselves well to observation via infrared imagery. Thus, the normally cloud-limited aspects of satellite imagery do not come into play for these particular environmental conditions. The fact that the DOSL model does well in extreme events is beneficial from the standpoint that these cases can be associated with the destruction of the surface acoustic duct. This so-called afternoon effect happens as the afternoon warming of the mixed layer disrupts the sound channel and the propagation of acoustic energy.

  14. Effect of gold subsurface layer on the surface activity and segregation in Pt/Au/Pt3M (where M = 3d transition metals) alloy catalyst from first-principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang-Eun; Lim, Dong-Hee; Jang, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Juhn; Yoon, Sung Pil; Han, Jonghee; Nam, Suk Woo; Hong, Seong-Ahn; Soon, Aloysius; Ham, Hyung Chul

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a subsurface hetero layer (thin gold) on the activity and stability of Pt skin surface in Pt3M system (M = 3d transition metals) is investigated using the spin-polarized density functional theory calculation. First, we find that the heterometallic interaction between the Pt skin surface and the gold subsurface in Pt/Au/Pt3M system can significantly modify the electronic structure of the Pt skin surface. In particular, the local density of states projected onto the d states of Pt skin surface near the Fermi level is drastically decreased compared to the Pt/Pt/Pt3M case, leading to the reduction of the oxygen binding strength of the Pt skin surface. This modification is related to the increase of surface charge polarization of outmost Pt skin atoms by the electron transfer from the gold subsurface atoms. Furthermore, a subsurface gold layer is found to cast the energetic barrier to the segregation loss of metal atoms from the bulk (inside) region, which can enhance the durability of Pt3M based catalytic system in oxygen reduction condition at fuel cell devices. This study highlights that a gold subsurface hetero layer can provide an additional mean to tune the surface activity toward oxygen species and in turn the oxygen reduction reaction, where the utilization of geometric strain already reaches its practical limit.

  15. Effect of gold subsurface layer on the surface activity and segregation in Pt/Au/Pt3M (where M = 3d transition metals) alloy catalyst from first-principles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Eun; Lim, Dong-Hee; Jang, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Juhn; Yoon, Sung Pil; Han, Jonghee; Nam, Suk Woo; Hong, Seong-Ahn; Soon, Aloysius; Ham, Hyung Chul

    2015-01-21

    The effect of a subsurface hetero layer (thin gold) on the activity and stability of Pt skin surface in Pt3M system (M = 3d transition metals) is investigated using the spin-polarized density functional theory calculation. First, we find that the heterometallic interaction between the Pt skin surface and the gold subsurface in Pt/Au/Pt3M system can significantly modify the electronic structure of the Pt skin surface. In particular, the local density of states projected onto the d states of Pt skin surface near the Fermi level is drastically decreased compared to the Pt/Pt/Pt3M case, leading to the reduction of the oxygen binding strength of the Pt skin surface. This modification is related to the increase of surface charge polarization of outmost Pt skin atoms by the electron transfer from the gold subsurface atoms. Furthermore, a subsurface gold layer is found to cast the energetic barrier to the segregation loss of metal atoms from the bulk (inside) region, which can enhance the durability of Pt3M based catalytic system in oxygen reduction condition at fuel cell devices. This study highlights that a gold subsurface hetero layer can provide an additional mean to tune the surface activity toward oxygen species and in turn the oxygen reduction reaction, where the utilization of geometric strain already reaches its practical limit. PMID:25612725

  16. Effect of gold subsurface layer on the surface activity and segregation in Pt/Au/Pt{sub 3}M (where M = 3d transition metals) alloy catalyst from first-principles

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chang-Eun; Lim, Dong-Hee; Jang, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Juhn; Yoon, Sung Pil; Han, Jonghee; Nam, Suk Woo; Hong, Seong-Ahn; Soon, Aloysius E-mail: hchahm@kist.re.kr; Ham, Hyung Chul E-mail: hchahm@kist.re.kr

    2015-01-21

    The effect of a subsurface hetero layer (thin gold) on the activity and stability of Pt skin surface in Pt{sub 3}M system (M = 3d transition metals) is investigated using the spin-polarized density functional theory calculation. First, we find that the heterometallic interaction between the Pt skin surface and the gold subsurface in Pt/Au/Pt{sub 3}M system can significantly modify the electronic structure of the Pt skin surface. In particular, the local density of states projected onto the d states of Pt skin surface near the Fermi level is drastically decreased compared to the Pt/Pt/Pt{sub 3}M case, leading to the reduction of the oxygen binding strength of the Pt skin surface. This modification is related to the increase of surface charge polarization of outmost Pt skin atoms by the electron transfer from the gold subsurface atoms. Furthermore, a subsurface gold layer is found to cast the energetic barrier to the segregation loss of metal atoms from the bulk (inside) region, which can enhance the durability of Pt{sub 3}M based catalytic system in oxygen reduction condition at fuel cell devices. This study highlights that a gold subsurface hetero layer can provide an additional mean to tune the surface activity toward oxygen species and in turn the oxygen reduction reaction, where the utilization of geometric strain already reaches its practical limit.

  17. Surface Properties of PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect

    WoodIII, David L; Rulison, Christopher; Borup, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    The wetting properties of PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers (GDLs) were quantified by surface characterization measurements and modeling of material properties. Single-fiber contact-angle and surface energy (both Zisman and Owens-Wendt) data of a wide spectrum of GDL types is presented to delineate the effects of hydrophobic post-processing treatments. Modeling of the basic sessile-drop contact angle demonstrates that this value only gives a fraction of the total picture of interfacial wetting physics. Polar forces are shown to contribute 10-20 less than dispersive forces to the composite wetting of GDLs. Internal water contact angles obtained from Owens-Wendt analysis were measured at 13-19 higher than their single-fiber counterparts. An inverse relationship was found between internal contact angle and both Owens-Wendt surface energy and % polarity of the GDL. The most sophisticated PEMFC mathematical models use either experimentally measured capillary pressures or the standard Young-Laplace capillary-pressure equation. Based on the results of the Owens-Wendt analysis, an advancement to the Young-Laplace equation is proposed for use in these mathematical models, which utilizes only solid surface energies and fractional surface coverage of fluoropolymer. Capillary constants for the spectrum of analyzed GDLs are presented for the same purpose.

  18. Atmospheric boundary layer over steep surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Sergeev, Daniil A.; Druzhinin, Oleg; Kandaurov, Alexander A.; Ermakova, Olga S.; Ezhova, Ekaterina V.; Esau, Igor; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2014-08-01

    Turbulent air-sea interactions coupled with the surface wave dynamics remain a challenging problem. The needs to include this kind of interaction into the coupled environmental, weather and climate models motivate the development of a simplified approximation of the complex and strongly nonlinear interaction processes. This study proposes a quasi-linear model of wind-wave coupling. It formulates the approach and derives the model equations. The model is verified through a set of laboratory (direct measurements of an airflow by the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique) and numerical (a direct numerical simulation (DNS) technique) experiments. The experiments support the central model assumption that the flow velocity field averaged over an ensemble of turbulent fluctuations is smooth and does not demonstrate flow separation from the crests of the waves. The proposed quasi-linear model correctly recovers the measured characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer over the waved water surface.

  19. Thermal characteristics of the lunar surface layer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremers, C. J.; Birkebak, R. C.; White, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of the fines from the Apollo 12 landing site have been determined as a function of their relevant parameters. These properties include the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, directional reflectance and emittance. The density used was the same as that observed from the returned core-tube samples and so should be close to the true density of the surface layer at the Apollo 12 site. The measured properties are used to calculate the diurnal temperature variation of the moon's surface as well as for several depths below the surface. The maximum surface of 389 K is obtained at lunar noon while the minimum temperature of 86.1 K is obtained at sunrise. It is shown that the most significant effects on temperature, as compared with previous calculations, are caused by using the directional reflectance which controls the amount of solar energy absorption during the day in place of a constant hemispherical reflectance. The results are compared with previous analyses and remote measurements.

  20. Surface shear stress fluctuations in the atmospheric surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monty, Jason; Hutchins, Nick; Chong, Min

    2005-11-01

    A lightweight, high frequency response (25Hz), floating element sensor was used to measure wall shear stress fluctuations in the atmospheric surface layer formed over a salt flat at the SLTEST site, Utah, USA. The sensor uses a laser position measurement system to track the motion of the floating element which consisted of a 50mm diameter foam disc, as described by Heuer & Marusic (Meas. Sci. Tech., Vol. 16, 1644- -1649, 2005). The measurements were taken as part of an internationally coordinated experimental program designed to make extensive spatial and temporal measurements of velocity, temperature and wall shear stress of the surface layer. Velocity measurements were made with both a 30m high vertical array and a 100m wide horizontal array of sonic anemometers; 18 anemometers in total were employed. Cross-correlations of shear stress and streamwise velocity fluctuations were analysed in an attempt to identify structure angles in the flow. The results were also compared with experimental data from controlled, laboratory turbulent boundary layers having three orders of magnitude lower Reynolds number.

  1. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    SciTech Connect

    Tajoure, Meloud; Tajouri, Ali E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Abuzriba, Mokhtar E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Akreem, Mosbah

    2013-12-16

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A and the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  2. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajoure, Meloud; Tajouri, Ali; Abuzriba, Mokhtar; Akreem, Mosbah

    2013-12-01

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A & the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  3. Turbulent boundary layer over porous surfaces with different surface geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, F. Y.; Schetz, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The turbulent boundary layer over three porous walls with different surface geometries was studied in order to investigate the individual influences of porosity and small roughness, as well as their combined effects, on turbulent boundary layer behavior. The tests were conducted in a 2 m x 2 m tunnel on a large axisymmetric model at speeds corresponding to Re(L) = 5,000,000-6,000,000. The development of the turbulent boundary layer was compared for that of sintered metal, bonded screening, and perforated sheet and then to that for the flow over a solid smooth wall and a solid, sand-roughened wall. The comparisons reveal that the effect of porosity is to shift the logarithmic region of the wall law down by a certain amount from the solid wall results and to increase the skin friction values by about 30-40%. The downward shift of the logarithmic region of the wall law and the increase of the skin friction value by the combined effects of small roughness and porosity are found to be roughly the sum of their individual effects.

  4. Surface Layer Turbulence During a Frontal Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, M; Lundquist, J K

    2004-06-15

    Some recent investigations have begun to quantify turbulence and dissipation in frontal zones to address the question of what physical mechanism counteracts the intensification of temperature and velocity gradients across a developing front. Frank (1994) examines the turbulence structure of two fronts that passed a 200m instrumented tower near Karlsruhe, Germany. In addition to showing the mean vertical structure of the fronts as they pass the tower, Frank demonstrates that there is an order of magnitude or more increase in turbulent kinetic energy across the frontal zone. Blumen and Piper (1999) reported turbulence statistics, including dissipation rate measurements, from the MICROFRONTS field experiment, where high-frequency turbulence data were collected from tower-mounted hotwire and sonic anemometers in a cold front and in a density current. Chapman and Browning (2001) measured dissipation rate in a precipitating frontal zone with high-resolution Doppler radar. Their measurements were conducted above the surface layer, to heights of 5km. The dissipation rate values they found are comparable to those measured in Kennedy and Shapiro (1975) in an upper-level front. Here, we expand on these recent studies by depicting the behavior of the fine scales of turbulence near the surface in a frontal zone. The primary objective of this study is to quantify the levels of turbulence and dissipation occurring in a frontal zone through the calculation of kinetic energy spectra and dissipation rates. The high-resolution turbulence data used in this study are taken during the cold front that passed the MICROFRONTS site in the early evening hours of 20 March 1995. These new measurements can be used as a basis for parameterizing the effects of surface-layer turbulence in numerical models of frontogenesis. We present three techniques for calculating the dissipation rate: direct dissipation technique, inertial dissipation technique and Kolmogorov's four-fifths law. Dissipation rate

  5. Active frequency selective surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwald, Walter R.; Hendrickson, Joshua; Cleary, Justin W.; Guo, Junpeng

    2013-05-01

    Split ring resonator arrays are investigated for use as active elements for the realization of voltage controllable frequency selective surfaces. Finite difference time domain simulations suggest the absorptive and reflective properties of such surfaces can be externally controlled through modifications of the split ring resonator gap impedance. In this work, such voltage-controlled resonance tuning is obtained through the addition of an appropriately designed high electron mobility transistor positioned across the split ring resonator gap. It is shown that a 0.5μm gate length high electron mobility transistor allows voltage controllable switching between the two resonant conditions associated with a split ring resonator and that of a closed loop geometry when the surface is illuminated with THz radiation. Partial switching between these two resonant conditions is observed at larger gate lengths. Such active frequency selective surfaces are proposed, for example, for use as modulators in THz detection schemes and as RF filters in radar applications when scaled to operate at GHz frequencies.

  6. Neutral surface layer turbulence over complex terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, B.M.

    1995-09-01

    Accurate turbulence estimates are important input to atmospheric dispersion models since they characterize downwind dispersion and hence, potential pollutant concentrations. When only basic wind information is available, an atmospheric modeler must first estimate roughness length (z{sub 0},) at the location of interest, ({mu}*) from similarity theory using average wind speed ({mu}) and z{sub 0}, and finally apply experimentally derived relationships to determine the turbulence intensities. Even when turbulence coefficients are measured, the turbulence profile must be estimated in the surface layer, using, for example, the power law recommended in a US Environmental Protection Agency guidance document. In this study, turbulent intensities and wind profiles are analyzed in eight direction sectors during near neutral stability. ``Local`` and ``regional`` roughness lengths are calculated from wind speed profiles and from longitudinal turbulence intensities ({sigma}{sub {mu}}) at both sites. With ``regional`` roughness length, complex terrain features are in effect the roughness elements. Profiles of median, 15-minute averaged turbulence intensities {sigma}{sub {mu}}, {sigma}{sub {nu}} and {sigma}{sub w} are calculated at both sites. Profiles of median {sigma}{sub {theta}} and {sigma}{sub {phi}} are also calculated using four mean values of regional z{sub 0} at both sites. Finally, differences between widely-used turbulence relationships and the relationships determined in this study, and their possible effect on model results, are discussed.

  7. A Turbulent Boundary Layer over Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunwook; Kim, John

    2015-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer (TBL) developing over superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) were performed in order to investigate the underlying physics of turbulent flow over SHS. SHS were modeled through the shear-free boundary condition, assuming that the gas-liquid interfaces remained as non-deformable. Pattern-averaged turbulence statistics were examined in order to determine the effects of SHS on turbulence in no-slip and slip regions separately. Near-wall turbulence over the slip region was significantly affected by SHS due to insufficient mean shear required to sustain near-wall turbulence. SHS also indirectly affected near-wall turbulence over the no-slip region. In addition to the effects of the spanwise width of SHS on skin-friction drag reduction reported previously, spatial effects in the streamwise direction were examined. A guideline for optimal design of SHS geometry will be discussed. This research was supported by the ONR (Grant No. N000141410291).

  8. Modification of surfaces and surface layers by non equilibrium processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beamson, G.; Brennan, W. J.; Clark, D. T.; Howard, J.

    1988-01-01

    Methods for using plasma in the synthesis and modification of materials in ways impossible by conventional routes are introduced. The equipment used in these methods is described. The chemical analysis of polymer surfaces undergoing modification by inert gas, hydrogen or oxygen plasmas is shown to give physical information regarding the relative roles of diffusion of active species and direct and radiative energy transfer from the plasma. Surface modification by plasma depositing a new material onto an existing substrate is discussed with particular reference to the deposition of amorphous carbon films. Applications of the unique properties of these films are outlined together with current understanding of these properties based on chemical and physical methods of analysis of both the films and the plasmas producing them. Finally, surface modification by ion beams is briefly illustrated using examples from the electronics and metals industries.

  9. Surface-cooling effects on compressible boundary-layer instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seddougui, Sharon O.; Bowles, R. I.; Smith, F. T.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of surface cooling on compressible boundary layer instability is discussed theoretically for both viscous and inviscid modes, at high Reynolds numbers. The cooling enhances the surface heat transfer and shear stress, creating a high heat transfer sublayer. This has the effect of distorting and accentuating the viscous Tollmien-Schlichting modes to such an extent that their spatial growth rates become comparable with, and can even exceed, the growth rates of inviscid modes, including those found previously. This is for moderate cooling, and it applies at any Mach number. In addition, the moderate cooling destabilizes otherwise stable viscous or inviscid modes, in particular triggering outward-traveling waves at the edge of the boundary layer in the supersonic regime. Severe cooling is also discussed as it brings compressible dynamics directly into play within the viscous sublayer. All the new cooled modes found involve the heat transfer sublayer quite actively, and they are often multi-structured in form and may be distinct from those observed in previous computational and experimental investigations. The corresponding nonlinear processes are also pointed out with regard to transition in the cooled compressible boundary layer. Finally, comparisons with Lysenko and Maslov's (1984) experiments on surface cooling are presented.

  10. Multi-layer topological transmissions of spoof surface plasmon polaritons.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bai Cao; Zhao, Jie; Liao, Zhen; Zhang, Hao Chi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in microwave frequency provide a high field confinement in subwavelength scale and low-loss and flexible transmissions, which have been widely used in novel transmission waveguides and functional devices. To play more important roles in modern integrated circuits and systems, it is necessary and helpful for the SPP modes to propagate among different layers of devices and chips. Owing to the highly confined property and organized near-field distribution, we show that the spoof SPPs could be easily transmitted from one layer into another layer via metallic holes and arc-shaped transitions. Such designs are suitable for both the ultrathin and flexible single-strip SPP waveguide and double-strip SPP waveguide for active SPP devices. Numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrate the broadband and high-efficiency multi-layer topological transmissions with controllable absorption that is related to the superposition area of corrugated metallic strips. The transmission coefficient of single-strip SPP waveguide is no worse than -0.8 dB within frequency band from 2.67 GHz to 10.2 GHz while the transmission of double-strip SPP waveguide keeps above -1 dB within frequency band from 2.26 GHz to 11.8 GHz. The proposed method will enhance the realizations of highly complicated plasmonic integrated circuits. PMID:26939995

  11. Multi-layer topological transmissions of spoof surface plasmon polaritons

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Bai Cao; Zhao, Jie; Liao, Zhen; Zhang, Hao Chi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in microwave frequency provide a high field confinement in subwavelength scale and low-loss and flexible transmissions, which have been widely used in novel transmission waveguides and functional devices. To play more important roles in modern integrated circuits and systems, it is necessary and helpful for the SPP modes to propagate among different layers of devices and chips. Owing to the highly confined property and organized near-field distribution, we show that the spoof SPPs could be easily transmitted from one layer into another layer via metallic holes and arc-shaped transitions. Such designs are suitable for both the ultrathin and flexible single-strip SPP waveguide and double-strip SPP waveguide for active SPP devices. Numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrate the broadband and high-efficiency multi-layer topological transmissions with controllable absorption that is related to the superposition area of corrugated metallic strips. The transmission coefficient of single-strip SPP waveguide is no worse than −0.8 dB within frequency band from 2.67 GHz to 10.2 GHz while the transmission of double-strip SPP waveguide keeps above −1 dB within frequency band from 2.26 GHz to 11.8 GHz. The proposed method will enhance the realizations of highly complicated plasmonic integrated circuits. PMID:26939995

  12. Layers of Porous Superhydrophobic Surfaces for Robust Water Repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Farzad; Boreyko, Jonathan; Nature-Inspired Fluids; Interfaces Team

    2015-11-01

    In nature, birds exhibit multiple layers of superhydrophobic feathers that repel water. Inspired by bird feathers, we utilize porous superhydrophobic surfaces and compare the wetting and dewetting characteristics of a single surface to stacks of multiple surfaces. The superhydrophobic surfaces were submerged in water in a closed chamber. Pressurized gas was regulated to measure the critical pressure for the water to fully penetrate through the surfaces. In addition to using duck feathers, two-tier porous superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated to serve as synthetic mimics with a controlled surface structure. The energy barrier for the wetting transition was modeled as a function of the number of layers and their orientations with respect to each other. Moreover, after partial impalement into a subset of the superhydrophobic layers, it was observed that a full dewetting transition was possible, which suggests that natural organisms can exploit their multiple layers to prevent irreversible wetting.

  13. Modeling of turbulent transport in the surface layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    The turbulence equations as written by Donaldson using the method of invariant modeling have been applied to the following limiting cases of the surface or constant flux layer of the planetary boundary layer: (1) Neutrally stable; (2) stable (above influence of surface roughness); (3) nearly neutrally stable; and (4) very unstable (free convection). For the neutrally stable case, the equations are shown to admit as a solution the familiar logarithmic profile. By use of this result, boundary conditions suitable for the surface layer are defined and are simple to apply to rough surfaces.

  14. ac conductance of surface layer in lithium tetraborate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chung-Sik; Park, Jong-Ho; Moon, Byung Kee; Seo, Hyo-Jin; Choi, Byung-Chun; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae; Kim, Hyung Kook; Kim, Jung Nam

    2003-12-01

    ac conductance for the electrode effect in Li2B4O7 single crystal was investigated by use of a coplanar electrode applied on the surface of a (001) plate. A coplanar electrode in this material more clearly shows conduction of the electrode effect than a conventional parallel planar electrode. The electrode effect in ac conductance is likely to be controlled by the surface layer, which is a poorly conductive depletion layer possibly filled with vacancies of lithium ions. We found that the surface layer is not locally distributed near the electrodes, but, rather, on the broad area of the surface (001) plane of the material. So we conclude that the electrode effect in ac conduction of Li2B4O7 single crystal is mainly due to the poor conductive surface layer distributed over the whole surface of the (001) plane and is not a secondary phase formed by reaction with the electrode material.

  15. Equilibrium of wetting layers on rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kuang-Yu

    The objective of this dissertation is to study physical adsorption on solids with complex surface geometry--especially on self-similar and self-affine fractal surfaces--in the context of three phase equilibria. Such studies will facilitate the prediction of the adsorbed film from known surface properties, e.g., topography or interactions (direct problem), and the inference of unknown surface properties from experimental data (inverse problem). These results will then be compared against wetting phenomena on planar surfaces and with other methods of probing complex surface geometries of solids. Chapter One offers the basic context, including wetting phenomena on planar surfaces, the cornerstone prediction of wetting transition on planar surfaces by Cahn, the concepts of fractal geometry, and the formation of fractal objects, for later comparison. The rest of this dissertation will be devoted to the study of multilayer adsorption on fractal surfaces. When a liquid film completely wets the surface, the number of adsorbed molecules as a function of the vapor pressure will depend strongly on the underlying surface geometry. The fractal structure leads to the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill type isotherms with the exponents in the corresponding power laws depending on the fractal dimension and on whether the dominant influence is from the substrate potential (van der Waals wetting) or from the film-vapor surface tension (capillary wetting). The transition between the two is the analog of Cahn's transition: The thermal disorder is replaced by the quenched disorder. This analogy is studied in Chapter Two for self-similar surfaces, and in Chapter Four for self-affine surfaces. In Chapter Two the derivation framework also automatically identifies well-defined coexistence lines in the pressure-dimension diagram. The effect of the repulsive part is examined there too. A simple analysis of adsorption/desorption hysteresis on self-similar surfaces in Chapter Three concludes that the

  16. Permafrost Active Layer Seismic Interferometry Experiment (PALSIE).

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Robert; Knox, Hunter Anne; James, Stephanie; Lee, Rebekah; Cole, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We present findings from a novel field experiment conducted at Poker Flat Research Range in Fairbanks, Alaska that was designed to monitor changes in active layer thickness in real time. Results are derived primarily from seismic data streaming from seven Nanometric Trillium Posthole seismometers directly buried in the upper section of the permafrost. The data were evaluated using two analysis methods: Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and ambient noise seismic interferometry. Results from the HVSR conclusively illustrated the method's effectiveness at determining the active layer's thickness with a single station. Investigations with the multi-station method (ambient noise seismic interferometry) are continuing at the University of Florida and have not yet conclusively determined active layer thickness changes. Further work continues with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine if the ground based measurements can constrain satellite imagery, which provide measurements on a much larger spatial scale.

  17. Surface and interface properties of thin pentacene and parylene layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincze, Andrej; Jakabovič, Ján; Srnánek, Rudolf; Šatka, Alexander; Kováč, Jaroslav; Kováč, Jaroslav

    2009-06-01

    To improve Organic Thin Film Transistor (OTFT) properties we study OTFT semiconductor/dielectric interfacial properties via examination of the gate dielectric using thin Parylene C layer. Structural and morphology properties of pentacene layers deposited on parylene layer and SiO2/Si substrate structure were compared. The surface morphology was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). AFM topography of pentacene layer in non-contact mode confirmed the preferable pentacene grain formation on parylene surface in dependence on layer thickness. The distribution of chemical species on the surfaces and composition depth profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and surface imaging. The depth profiles of the analyzed structures show a homogenous pentacene layer, characterized with C or C2 ions. Relatively sharp interface between pentacene and parylene layers was estimated by characteristic increased intensity of CCl ions peak. For revealing the pentacene phases in the structures the Micro-Raman spectroscopy was utilized. Conformal coatings of parylene and pentacene layers without pinholes resulted from the deposition process as was confirmed by SIMS surface imaging. For the pentacene layers thicker than 20 nm, both thin and bulk pentacene phases were detected by Micro-Raman spectroscopy, while for the pentacene layer thickness of 5 and 10 nm the preferable thin phase was detected. The complete characterisation of pentacene layers deposited on SiO2 and parylene surface revealed that the formation of large grains suggests 3D pentacene growth at parylene layer with small voids between grains and more than one monolayer step growth. The results will be utilized for optimization of the deposition process.

  18. Active Flow Control Stator With Coanda Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guendogdu; Vorreiter; Seume

    2010-01-01

    Active Flow Control increases the permissible aerodynamic loading. Curved surface near the trailing edge ("Coanda surface"): a) increases turning -> higher pressure ratio. b) controls boundary layer separation -> increased surge margin. Objective: Reduce the number of vanes or compressor stages. Constraints: 1. In a real compressor, the vane must still function entirely without blowing. 2. Maintain the flow exit angle of the reference stator despite the resulting increase in stator loading.

  19. TEM studies of the nitrided Ni-Ti surface layer.

    PubMed

    Lelatko, J; Paczkowski, P; Wierzchoń, T; Morawiec, H

    2006-09-01

    The structure of surface layer, obtained on the nearly equiatomic Ni-Ti alloy after nitriding under glow discharge conditions at temperatures 700 or 800 degrees C, was investigated. The structural characterization of the intruded layer was performed on cross-sectional thin foils by the use of the transmission and scanning electron microscopes. The obtained results show that the nitrided layers consist mainly of the nanocrystalline TiN phase and small amount of Ti(2)N. Between the nitrided layers and beta-NiTi matrix an intermediate Ti(2)Ni phase layer was observed. PMID:17059538

  20. Generation and characterization of surface layers on acoustically levitated drops.

    PubMed

    Tuckermann, Rudolf; Bauerecker, Sigurd; Cammenga, Heiko K

    2007-06-15

    Surface layers of natural and technical amphiphiles, e.g., octadecanol, stearic acid and related compounds as well as perfluorinated fatty alcohols (PFA), have been investigated on the surface of acoustically levitated drops. In contrast to Langmuir troughs, traditionally used in the research of surface layers at the air-water interface, acoustic levitation offers the advantages of a minimized and contact-less technique. Although the film pressure cannot be directly adjusted on acoustically levitated drops, it runs through a wide pressure range due to the shrinking surface of an evaporating drop. During this process, different states of the generated surface layer have been identified, in particular the phase transition from the gaseous or liquid-expanded to the liquid-condensed state of surface layers of octadecanol and other related amphiphiles. Characteristic parameters, such as the relative permeation resistance and the area per molecule in a condensed surface layer, have been quantified and were found comparable to results obtained from surface layers generated on Langmuir troughs. PMID:17376468

  1. Observation of Surface Layering in a Nonmetallic Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Mo,H.; Evmenenko, G.; Kewalramani, S.; Kim, K.; Ehrlich, S.; Dutta, P.

    2006-01-01

    Oscillatory density profiles (layers) have previously been observed at the free surfaces of liquid metals but not in other isotropic liquids. We have used x-ray reflectivity to study a molecular liquid, tetrakis(2-ethylhexoxy)silane. When cooled to T/T{sub c}{approx}0.25 (well above the freezing point for this liquid), density oscillations appear at the surface. Lateral order within the layers is liquidlike. Our results confirm theoretical predictions that a surface-layered state will appear even in dielectric liquids at sufficiently low temperatures, if not preempted by freezing.

  2. Improve oxidation resistance at high temperature by nanocrystalline surface layer.

    PubMed

    Xia, Z X; Zhang, C; Huang, X F; Liu, W B; Yang, Z G

    2015-01-01

    An interesting change of scale sequence occurred during oxidation of nanocrystalline surface layer by means of a surface mechanical attrition treatment. The three-layer oxide structure from the surface towards the matrix is Fe3O4, spinel FeCr2O4 and corundum (Fe,Cr)2O3, which is different from the typical two-layer scale consisted of an Fe3O4 outer layer and an FeCr2O4 inner layer in conventional P91 steel. The diffusivity of Cr, Fe and O is enhanced concurrently in the nanocrystalline surface layer, which causes the fast oxidation in the initial oxidation stage. The formation of (Fe,Cr)2O3 inner layer would inhabit fast diffusion of alloy elements in the nanocrystalline surface layer of P91 steel in the later oxidation stage, and it causes a decrease in the parabolic oxidation rate compared with conventional specimens. This study provides a novel approach to improve the oxidation resistance of heat resistant steel without changing its Cr content. PMID:26269034

  3. Improve oxidation resistance at high temperature by nanocrystalline surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Z. X.; Zhang, C.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, W. B.; Yang, Z. G.

    2015-08-01

    An interesting change of scale sequence occurred during oxidation of nanocrystalline surface layer by means of a surface mechanical attrition treatment. The three-layer oxide structure from the surface towards the matrix is Fe3O4, spinel FeCr2O4 and corundum (Fe,Cr)2O3, which is different from the typical two-layer scale consisted of an Fe3O4 outer layer and an FeCr2O4 inner layer in conventional P91 steel. The diffusivity of Cr, Fe and O is enhanced concurrently in the nanocrystalline surface layer, which causes the fast oxidation in the initial oxidation stage. The formation of (Fe,Cr)2O3 inner layer would inhabit fast diffusion of alloy elements in the nanocrystalline surface layer of P91 steel in the later oxidation stage, and it causes a decrease in the parabolic oxidation rate compared with conventional specimens. This study provides a novel approach to improve the oxidation resistance of heat resistant steel without changing its Cr content.

  4. Improve oxidation resistance at high temperature by nanocrystalline surface layer

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Z. X.; Zhang, C.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, W. B.; Yang, Z. G.

    2015-01-01

    An interesting change of scale sequence occurred during oxidation of nanocrystalline surface layer by means of a surface mechanical attrition treatment. The three-layer oxide structure from the surface towards the matrix is Fe3O4, spinel FeCr2O4 and corundum (Fe,Cr)2O3, which is different from the typical two-layer scale consisted of an Fe3O4 outer layer and an FeCr2O4 inner layer in conventional P91 steel. The diffusivity of Cr, Fe and O is enhanced concurrently in the nanocrystalline surface layer, which causes the fast oxidation in the initial oxidation stage. The formation of (Fe,Cr)2O3 inner layer would inhabit fast diffusion of alloy elements in the nanocrystalline surface layer of P91 steel in the later oxidation stage, and it causes a decrease in the parabolic oxidation rate compared with conventional specimens. This study provides a novel approach to improve the oxidation resistance of heat resistant steel without changing its Cr content. PMID:26269034

  5. Thermal stability of nanocrystalline layers fabricated by surface nanocrystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Yong-jin; Jie, Xiao-hua; Liu, Li-li; Yu, Neng; Zheng, Xiang-xin

    2010-01-01

    A nanocrystalline layer with ultrafine grains (about 30-40 nm) on the surface of 7050 aluminum alloy was fabricated by a new technique called High Pressure Shot Peening (HPSP) which is the combination of common Shot Peening equipment with a pressurizing vessel. Relationship between hot flow and temperature was observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and the activation energy, calculated by Kisssinger equation, of the as-treated sample increased 26.6 kJ/mol when it is compared with the as-reserved sample. The Bragg peaks of the as-prepared samples, respectively treated with various annealing treatments were characterized by XRD and the microhardness distribution along the depth from the treated surface were measured at the same time, which indicated that the broadening of Bragg peaks decreased with the increasing of anneal temperature; the grain size, calculated by Scherrer-Wilson equation, increased obviously during 180-220 °C, accordingly, the microhardness obviously decreased. According to the results of DSC, XRD and microhardness, it is reasonable to deduce that the temperature range of thermal stability for aluminum alloy nanocrystalline layer is lower than 200 °C.

  6. Characterization of Floating Surface Layers of Lipids and Lipopolymers by Surface-Sensitive Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Peter; Lösche, Mathias

    Nanotechnology and molecular (bio-)engineering are making ever deepening inroads into everybodys daily life. Physicochemical and biotechnological achievements in the design of physiologically active supramolecular assemblies have brought about the quest for their submolecular-level characterization. We employ surface-sensitive scattering techniques for the investigation of planar lipid membranes - floating monolayers on aqueous surfaces - to correlate structural, functional and dynamic aspects of biomembrane models. This chapter surveys recent work on the submolecular structure of floating phospholipid monolayers - where the advent of third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources has driven the development of realistic, submolecular-scale quasi-chemical models - as well as of more complex systems: cation binding to anionic lipid surfaces; conformational changes of lipopolymers undergoing phase transitions; the conformational organization of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositides, as examples of physiologically important lipids; and the adsorption of peptides (neuropeptide Y, NPY) or solvents (dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO) onto phospholipid surface layers.

  7. Process Conditions of Forming the Surface Layer of Aluminum Powder Product by Layer-by-layer Laser Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saprykina, N. A.; Saprykin, A. A.; Ibragimov, E. A.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents data on state of the art in selective laser sintering of products. Layer-by-layer sintering is shown to be a future-oriented technology, making it possible to synthesize products of metal powder materials. Factors, influencing the quality of a sintered product, are revealed in the paper. It presents outcomes of experiments, focused on the dependence of surface layer thickness of sintered aluminum powder PA-4 on laser processing conditions. Basic factors, influencing the quality of a sintered surface layer include laser power, speeds of scanning and moving the laser beam on the layer of powder. Thickness of the sintered layer varies from 0.74 to 1.55 mm, as the result of changing the laser processing conditions.

  8. Thin gold layer in Ni electroforming process: optical surface characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, G.; Spiga, D.; Pareschi, G.; Missaglia, N.; Paganini, L.

    2009-08-01

    Mandrel replication by Nickel electroforming is a well-suited process to manufacture X-ray mirrors, making use of Gold layer playing the twofold role of release agent and reflective coating. To increase the optical performances of mirrors it is crucial to minimize the impact of X-ray scattering effects related to surface microroughness, especially when the mirror is intended to operate in hard X-rays. In this case, the Gold layer simply acts as release agent because the reflection is demanded to interferential over-coatings. Even though the replicated optical surface is usually believed to reproduce the smooth topography of the master, a surface degradation is commonly observed. Such a worsening can also suffer from a contribution from the spontaneous roughness growth of the Gold layer itself: if this is the case, the mirror's optical quality could potentially benefit from the utilization of a thin Gold layer (< 100 nm) instead of the traditional thick gold layer (> 100 nm). To prove the effectiveness of the Gold thickness reduction, a microroughness characterization of replicated thin gold layers has been achieved. We report here a preliminary roughness study of 3 electroformed Ni samples replicated from a super-polished Zerodur flat master with various Gold layer thicknesses, in the spectral range 0.02-1000 μm. The study is organized as follows: (a) characterization of the 3 replicated samples; (b) comparison of the Gold roughness for thin vs. thick layers; (c) comparison of the two sides of Gold layers.

  9. Atomic layer deposition of ultrathin platinum films on tungsten atomic layer deposition adhesion layers: Application to high surface area substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Clancey, Joel W.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Kukreja, Ratandeep S.; Kongkanand, Anusorn; George, Steven M.

    2015-01-15

    Platinum (Pt) atomic layer deposition (ALD) usually yields Pt nanoparticles during initial film growth. In contrast, deposition of continuous and ultrathin Pt films is needed for many important applications, such as the oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. A continuous and high radius of curvature Pt film is more stable and has a higher area-specific activity than the Pt nanoparticles commonly used in PEM fuel cells. However, the Pt film must be ultrathin and have a large surface area to be cost effective. In this paper, a review of earlier Pt ALD studies on flat substrates is presented that demonstrates that tungsten, with a higher surface energy than platinum, can serve as an adhesion layer to achieve Pt ALD films that are continuous at ultrathin thicknesses of ∼1.5 nm. This work utilized MeCpPtMe{sub 3} and H{sub 2} plasma as the Pt ALD reactants. The deposition of continuous and ultrathin Pt ALD films using MeCpPtMe{sub 3} and H{sub 2} plasma as the reactants is then studied on two high surface area substrate materials: TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and 3M nanostructured thin film (NSTF). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed uniform and continuous Pt films with thicknesses of ∼4 nm on the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. TEM with electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis revealed W ALD and Pt ALD films with thicknesses of ∼3 nm that were continuous and conformal on the high aspect ratio NSTF substrates. These results demonstrate that cost effective use of Pt ALD on high surface area substrates is possible for PEM fuel cells.

  10. Subgrid-scale Modeling in the Atmospheric Surface Layer^1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, S.; Wyngaard, J. C.; Brasseur, J. G.

    1996-11-01

    Subgrid-scale (SGS) modeling is crucial in the surface layer of wall-bounded flows where the vertical velocity fluctuations cannot be well resolved. We focus on the distinct characteristics of the surface layer of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), and analyze, from a highly resolved surface-layer field of a moderately convective ABL, the extent to which Smagorinsky-based SGS models predict these characteristics. The fields were generated using a nested-mesh large-eddy simulation (LES) with the finest mesh having an effective grid resolution of 512^3 covering 1/16^th of the boundary-layer depth. At a height where the fine mesh resolves 90 % of the total fluxes and variances, the resolved fields were treated as surrogate fully resolved fields that were filtered onto a coarser mesh to get ``resolvable'' and ``subgrid'' fields. Preliminary results show that Smagorinsky-based models fail to capture many of the distinctive characteristics of the ABL surface layer. For example, they do not capture the anisotropic distribution of subgrid-scale energy among the horizontal and the vertical components, and they grossly underestimate the SGS horizontal temperature flux. Currently we are focusing on more suitable closures for the atmospheric surface layer. A DNS-based study is also underway and will be used to supplement this analysis. ^1 supported by ARO (# DAAL03-92-G-0117) and ONR (# N00014-92-J-1688)

  11. Turbulent boundary layer on a convex, curved surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. C.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of strong convex curvature on boundary layer turbulence were investigated. The data gathered on the behavior of Reynolds stress suggested the formulation of a simple turbulence model. Three sets of data were taken on two separate facilities. Both rigs had flow from a flat surface, over a convex surface with 90 deg of turning, and then onto a flat recovery surface. The geometry was adjusted so that, for both rigs, the pressure gradient along the test surface was zero - thus avoiding any effects of streamwise acceleration on the wall layers. Results show that after a sudden introduction of curvature, the shear stress in the outer part of the boundary layer is sharply diminished and is even slightly negative near the edge. The wall shear also drops off quickly downstream. In contrast, when the surface suddenly becomes flat again, the wall shear and shear stress profiles recover very slowly towards flat wall conditions.

  12. Nanoshells made easy: improving Au layer growth on nanoparticle surfaces.

    PubMed

    Brinson, Bruce E; Lassiter, J Britt; Levin, Carly S; Bardhan, Rizia; Mirin, Nikolay; Halas, Naomi J

    2008-12-16

    The growth of a continuous, uniform Au layer on a dielectric nanoparticle is the critical step in the synthesis of nanoparticles such as nanoshells or nanorice, giving rise to their unique geometry-dependent plasmon resonant properties. Here, we report a novel, streamlined method for Au layer metallization on prepared nanoparticle surfaces using carbon monoxide as the reducing agent. This approach consistently yields plasmonic nanoparticles with highly regular shell layers and is immune to variations in precursor or reagent preparation. Single particle spectroscopy combined with scanning electron microscopy reveal that thinner, more uniform shell layers with correspondingly red-shifted optical resonances are achievable with this approach. PMID:19360963

  13. Numerical Computations of Hypersonic Boundary-Layer over Surface Irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Surface irregularities such as protuberances inside a hypersonic boundary layer may lead to premature transition on the vehicle surface. Early transition in turn causes large localized surface heating that could damage the thermal protection system. Experimental measurements as well as numerical computations aimed at building a knowledge base for transition Reynolds numbers with respect to different protuberance sizes and locations have been actively pursued in recent years. This paper computationally investigates the unsteady wake development behind large isolated cylindrical roughness elements and the scaled wind-tunnel model of the trip used in a recent flight measurement during the reentry of space shuttle Discovery. An unstructured mesh, compressible flow solver based on the space-time conservation element, solution element (CESE) method is used to perform time-accurate Navier-Stokes calculations for the flow past a roughness element under several wind-tunnel conditions. For a cylindrical roughness element with a height to the boundary-layer thickness ratio from 0.8 to 2.5, the wake flow is characterized by a mushroom-shaped centerline streak and horse-shoe vortices. While time-accurate solutions converged to a steady-state for a ratio of 0.8, strong flow unsteadiness is present for a ratio of 1.3 and 2.5. Instability waves marked by distinct disturbance frequencies were found in the latter two cases. Both the centerline streak and the horse-shoe vortices become unstable downstream. The oscillatory vortices eventually reach an early breakdown stage for the largest roughness element. Spectral analyses in conjunction with the computed root mean square variations suggest that the source of the unsteadiness and instability waves in the wake region may be traced back to possible absolute instability in the front-side separation region.

  14. Dusty boundary layer in a surface-burst explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.; Ferguson, R.E.; Chien, K.Y.; Collins, J.P.

    1993-08-01

    Dusty boundary layers are an inherent feature of explosions over ground surfaces. Detailed knowledge of dusty boundary layer characteristics is needed in explosion safety analysis (e.g., to calculate the drag loads on structures). Also, to predicct the amount of dust in the rising fireball of an explsion, one must know the dusty boundary layer swept up during the positive and negative phases of the blast wave and how much of this boundary layer dust is entrained into the stem of the dust cloud. This paper describes the results of numerical simulations of the dusty boundary layer created by a surface burst explosion. The evolution of the flow was calculated by a high-order Godunov code that solves the nonsteady conservation laws.

  15. Thermocapillary convection in two immiscible liquid layers with free surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doi, Takao; Koster, Jean N.

    1993-01-01

    Thermocapillary convection is studied in two immiscible liquid layers with one free surface, one liquid/liquid interface, and differential heating applied parallel to the interfaces. An analytical solution is introduced for infinite horizontal layers. The defining parameter for the flow pattern is lambda, the ratio of the temperature coefficient of the interfacial tension to that of the surface tension. Four different flow patterns exist under zero gravity conditions. 'Halt' conditions which halt the fluid motion in the lower encapsulated liquid layer have been found. A numerical experiment is carried out to study effects of vertical end walls on the double layer convection in a 2D cavity. The halt condition obtained from the analytical study is found to be valid in the limit of small Reynolds numbers. The flow in the encapsulated liquid layer can be suppressed substantially.

  16. Boundary Layer Flow Over a Moving Wavy Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendin, Gali; Toledo, Yaron

    2016-04-01

    Boundary Layer Flow Over a Moving Wavy Surface Gali Hendin(1), Yaron Toledo(1) January 13, 2016 (1)School of Mechanical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Israel Understanding the boundary layer flow over surface gravity waves is of great importance as various atmosphere-ocean processes are essentially coupled through these waves. Nevertheless, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of this complex flow behaviour. The present work investigates the fundamentals of the boundary layer air flow over progressive, small-amplitude waves. It aims to extend the well-known Blasius solution for a boundary layer over a flat plate to one over a moving wavy surface. The current analysis pro- claims the importance of the small curvature and the time-dependency as second order effects, with a meaningful impact on the similarity pattern in the first order. The air flow over the ocean surface is modelled using an outer, inviscid half-infinite flow, overlaying the viscous boundary layer above the wavy surface. The assumption of a uniform flow in the outer layer, used in former studies, is now replaced with a precise analytical solution of the potential flow over a moving wavy surface with a known celerity, wavelength and amplitude. This results in a conceptual change from former models as it shows that the pressure variations within the boundary layer cannot be neglected. In the boundary layer, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are formulated in a curvilinear, orthogonal coordinate system. The formulation is done in an elaborate way that presents additional, formerly neglected first-order effects, resulting from the time-varying coordinate system. The suggested time-dependent curvilinear orthogonal coordinate system introduces a platform that can also support the formulation of turbulent problems for any surface shape. In order to produce a self-similar Blasius-type solution, a small wave-steepness is assumed and a perturbation method is applied. Consequently, a

  17. Surface charge and wetting characteristics of layered silicate minerals.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xihui; Gupta, Vishal; Du, Hao; Wang, Xuming; Miller, Jan D

    2012-11-01

    The surface characteristics, including surface charge and wettability, of layered silicates are reviewed based on experimental results and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) results. The surface charge features of important layered silicates including mica, talc, and kaolinite are described from atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements, electrophoresis measurements, and/or results from potentiometric titration. In addition, the wetting characteristics of the silica tetrahedral surface which is common to all layered silicates are examined with different experimental techniques and results are discussed. The wettability of trilayer silicates and bilayer silicates is discussed, particularly the wettability of the silica tetrahedral face and alumina octahedral face of kaolinite based on MDS results as well as recent AFM results. PMID:22809732

  18. Wettability of terminally anchored polymer brush layers on a polyamide surface.

    PubMed

    Varin, Kari J Moses; Cohen, Yoram

    2014-12-15

    Surface wettability of terminally anchored hydrophilic polymer brush layers on polyamide-silicon (PA-Si) surfaces was evaluated with respect to surface topography at the nanoscale. Hydrophilic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyacrylamide (PAAm) brush layers were synthesized via graft polymerization onto a PA-Si surface previously activated by surface treatment with atmospheric pressure plasma. Hydrophilicity (or wettability) of the PA substrate, as quantified by the free energy of hydration, was increased upon surface coverage with the PVP and PAAm brush layers by 13-24% (-101.4 to -111.3 mJ/m(2)) and 19-37% (-106.1 to -122.4 mJ/m(2)), respectively. Surface hydrophilicity increased with both increasing surface roughness (0.55-2.89 nm and 1.54-5.84 nm for PVP and PAAm, respectively) and polymer volume (1.3×10(6)-7.3×10(6) nm(3)/μm(2) and 3.3×10(6)-2.8×10(7) nm(3)/μm(2) for PVP and PAAm surfaces, respectively). The present study suggests that a specific level of surface wettability can be attained by tailor-designing the polymer brush layer's physicochemical characteristics (e.g., surface roughness, wettability, and polymer water affinity) by adjusting surface topography and surface chemistry, which are controlled by surface activation and polymerization conditions. The above indicates that there is merit in structuring various surfaces with hydrophilic brush layers to increase surface wettability in membrane filtration, biomedical devices, and lubrication applications. PMID:25305445

  19. Vapor layer evolution during drop impact on a heated surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sanghyeon; Lee, Sangjun; Lee, Jisan; Fezzaa, Kamel; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-11-01

    When a liquid drop impacts on a sufficiently hot surface above the boiling point, a vapor layer is formed between the drop and the surface, preventing direct contact between them and as a result levitating the drop, known as the Leidenfrost effect. Understanding the evolution of the vapor layer is largely unexplored despite its importance in estimating heat transfer in cooling systems of thermal or nuclear power plants. The side-profile visualization of the vapor layer, as absolutely required for investigating its evolution, has been however unavailable by conventional optical microscopy. In this study, by employing ultrafast X-ray phase contrast imaging, we directly visualize the profiles of the vapor layers during liquid drop impact on a hot surface and elucidate the evolution of the vapor layers during spreading and retraction of the drop as functions of impact height and surface temperature. We reveal that the evolution is governed by the propagation of capillary waves generated in retraction and the wavelength of capillary waves λ is inversely proportional to the impact height h with a relation ~σ/ρh ~We-1 where We is weber number. Capillary waves that converge at the center of the vapor layers are linked to the bouncing behavior of the drop.

  20. Method for producing functionally graded nanocrystalline layer on metal surface

    DOEpatents

    Ajayi, Oyelayo O.; Hershberger, Jeffrey G.

    2010-03-23

    An improved process for the creation or formation of nanocrystalline layers on substrates' surfaces is provided. The process involves "prescuffing" the surface of a substrate such as a metal by allowing friction to occur on the surface by a load-bearing entity making rubbing contact and moving along and on the substrate's surface. The "prescuffing" action is terminated when the coefficient of friction between the surface and the noise is rising significantly. Often, the significant rise in the coefficient of friction is signaled by a change in pitch of the scuffing action sound emanating from the buffeted surface. The "prescuffing" gives rise to a harder and smoother surface which withstands better any inadequate lubrication that may take place when the "prescuffed" surface is contacted by other surfaces.

  1. Directional dependence of surface morphological stability of heteroepitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obayashi, Y.; Shintani, K.

    1998-09-01

    Surface morphological stability in coherent heteroepitaxial layers is analyzed focusing on the directional dependence of surface undulations created by surface diffusion. The critical stability condition is defined in terms of the free energy of the system which is assumed to be the sum of the elastic strain energy and the surface free energy. The displacement and stress fields of the semi-infinite anisotropic solid with the slightly undulating surface are calculated by using the surface admittance tensor and the vector complex potential function. Numerical results for the Si1-xGex/Si systems show that the critical wavelength of the <100> surface undulations is smaller than that of the <110> surface undulations, which means that surface undulations are likely to be formed in the <100> directions. It is also found that the critical wavelength decreases with the increase of Ge fraction. These tendencies are in good agreement with the observations in annealing experiments for the Si1-xGex/Si systems in the literature. If the substrate is assumed to be rigid, the range of layer thickness where the system is absolutely stable against a surface undulation of any wavelength exists. Finally, the growth rate of the amplitude of surface undulations is estimated from an evolution equation for the surface shape. It is shown that even if anisotropy is taken into account, the growth rate of the amplitude takes the maximum value when the wavelength is 4/3 times the critical wavelength, which is the same as in the isotropic approximation.

  2. Atomic and molecular layer deposition for surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Vähä-Nissi, Mika; Sievänen, Jenni; Salo, Erkki; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Kenttä, Eija; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Koskinen, Jorma T.; Harlin, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Atomic and molecular layer deposition (ALD and MLD, respectively) techniques are based on repeated cycles of gas–solid surface reactions. A partial monolayer of atoms or molecules is deposited to the surface during a single deposition cycle, enabling tailored film composition in principle down to molecular resolution on ideal surfaces. Typically ALD/MLD has been used for applications where uniform and pinhole free thin film is a necessity even on 3D surfaces. However, thin – even non-uniform – atomic and molecular deposited layers can also be used to tailor the surface characteristics of different non-ideal substrates. For example, print quality of inkjet printing on polymer films and penetration of water into porous nonwovens can be adjusted with low-temperature deposited metal oxide. In addition, adhesion of extrusion coated biopolymer to inorganic oxides can be improved with a hybrid layer based on lactic acid. - Graphical abstract: Print quality of a polylactide film surface modified with atomic layer deposition prior to inkjet printing (360 dpi) with an aqueous ink. Number of printed dots illustrated as a function of 0, 5, 15 and 25 deposition cycles of trimethylaluminum and water. - Highlights: • ALD/MLD can be used to adjust surface characteristics of films and fiber materials. • Hydrophobicity after few deposition cycles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to e.g. complex formation. • Same effect on cellulosic fabrics observed with low temperature deposited TiO{sub 2}. • Different film growth and oxidation potential with different precursors. • Hybrid layer on inorganic layer can be used to improve adhesion of polymer melt.

  3. Multi-layer surface profiling using gated wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Nordin, Nur Dalilla; Tik, Eddy Chow Mun; Tan, ChingSeong; Chew, Kuew Wai; Menoni, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, multi-layer surface profiling and inspection has been considered an emerging topic that can be used to solve various manufacturing inspection problems, such as graded index lenses, TSV (Thru-Silicon Via), and optical coating. In our study, we proposed a gated wavefront sensing approach to estimate the multi-layer surface profile. In this paper, we set up an experimental platform to validate our theoretical models and methods. Our test bed consists of pulse laser, collimator, prism, well-defined focusing lens, testing specimen, and gated wavefront sensing assembly (e.g., lenslet and gated camera). Typical wavefront measurement steps are carried out for the gated system, except the reflectance is timed against its time of flight as well as its intensity profile. By synchronizing the laser pulses to the camera gate time, it is possible to discriminate a multi-layer wavefront from its neighbouring discrete layer reflections.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of macromolecular layers grafted to polymer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtovyy, Oleksandr

    The composition and behavior of surfaces and interfaces play a pivotal role in dictating the overall efficiency of the majority of polymeric materials and devices. Surface properties of the materials can be altered using surface modification techniques. It is necessary to highlight that successful methods of surface modification should affect only the upper layer of the polymer material without changing bulk properties. The processes must introduce new functionalities to the surface, optimize surface roughness, lubrication, hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, adhesion, conductivity, and/or biocompatibility. Research presented in this dissertation is dedicated to the synthesis, characterization, and application of thin macromolecular layers anchored to polymer substrates. Specifically, attachment of functional polymers via a "grafting to" approach has been extensively studied using PET and nylon model substrates. First, poly(glycidyl methacrylate) was used to introduce permanent functionalities to the model substrates by anchoring it to model films. Then, three different functional polymers were grafted on top of the previous layer. As one part of this study, the temperature and time dependence of grafting functional layers were studied. The surface coverage by hydrophobic polymer was determined from experimental data and predicted by a model. In general, the model has a high degree of predictive capability. Next, surface modification of polymeric fibers and membranes is presented as an important application of the polymer thin layers targeted in the study. Specifically, the procedures developed for surface modification of model substrates was employed for modification of PET, nylon, and cotton fabrics as well as PET track-etched membranes. Since epoxy groups are highly reactive in various chemical reactions, the approach becomes virtually universal, allowing both various surfaces and end-functionalized macromolecules to be used in the grafted layer synthesis. PET

  5. Surface stress of graphene layers supported on soft substrate

    PubMed Central

    Du, Feng; Huang, Jianyong; Duan, Huiling; Xiong, Chunyang; Wang, Jianxiang

    2016-01-01

    We obtain the surface stress of a single layer and multilayers of graphene supported on silicone substrates by measuring the deformation of the graphene-covered substrates induced by the surface tension of liquid droplets together with the Neumann’s triangle concept. We find that the surface stress of the graphene-covered substrate is significant larger than that of the bare substrate, and it increases with increasing graphene layers, and finally reaches a constant value of about 120 mN/m on three and more layers of graphene. This work demonstrates that the apparent surface stress of graphene-substrate systems can be tuned by the substrate and the graphene layers. The surface stress and the tuning effect of the substrate on it may have applications in design and characterization of graphene-based ultra-sensitive sensors and other devices. Moreover, the method may also be used to measure the surface stress of other ultrathin films supported on soft substrates. PMID:27166087

  6. Surface stress of graphene layers supported on soft substrate.

    PubMed

    Du, Feng; Huang, Jianyong; Duan, Huiling; Xiong, Chunyang; Wang, Jianxiang

    2016-01-01

    We obtain the surface stress of a single layer and multilayers of graphene supported on silicone substrates by measuring the deformation of the graphene-covered substrates induced by the surface tension of liquid droplets together with the Neumann's triangle concept. We find that the surface stress of the graphene-covered substrate is significant larger than that of the bare substrate, and it increases with increasing graphene layers, and finally reaches a constant value of about 120 mN/m on three and more layers of graphene. This work demonstrates that the apparent surface stress of graphene-substrate systems can be tuned by the substrate and the graphene layers. The surface stress and the tuning effect of the substrate on it may have applications in design and characterization of graphene-based ultra-sensitive sensors and other devices. Moreover, the method may also be used to measure the surface stress of other ultrathin films supported on soft substrates. PMID:27166087

  7. Surface stress of graphene layers supported on soft substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Feng; Huang, Jianyong; Duan, Huiling; Xiong, Chunyang; Wang, Jianxiang

    2016-05-01

    We obtain the surface stress of a single layer and multilayers of graphene supported on silicone substrates by measuring the deformation of the graphene-covered substrates induced by the surface tension of liquid droplets together with the Neumann’s triangle concept. We find that the surface stress of the graphene-covered substrate is significant larger than that of the bare substrate, and it increases with increasing graphene layers, and finally reaches a constant value of about 120 mN/m on three and more layers of graphene. This work demonstrates that the apparent surface stress of graphene-substrate systems can be tuned by the substrate and the graphene layers. The surface stress and the tuning effect of the substrate on it may have applications in design and characterization of graphene-based ultra-sensitive sensors and other devices. Moreover, the method may also be used to measure the surface stress of other ultrathin films supported on soft substrates.

  8. The Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Rough Curvilinear Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Droblenkov, V. F.

    1958-01-01

    A number of semiempirical approximate methods exist for determining the characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer on a curvilinear surface. At present, among these methods, the one proposed by L. G. Loitsianskii is given frequent practical application. This method is sufficiently effective and permits, in the case of wing profiles with technically smooth surfaces, calculating the basic characteristics of the boundary layer and the values of the overall drag with an accuracy which suffices for practical purposes. The idea of making use of the basic integral momentum equation ((d delta(sup xx))/dx) + ((V' delta(sup xx))/V) (2 + H) = (tau(sub 0))/(rho V(exp 2)) proves to be fruitful also for the solution of the problems in the determination of the characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer on a rough surface.

  9. An experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layers along curved surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, R. M. C.; Mellor, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    A curved wall tunnel was designed, and an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer was set up on the straight section preceding the curved test section. Turbulent boundary layer flows with uniform and adverse pressure distributions along convex and concave walls were investigated. Hot-wire measurements along the convex surface indicated that turbulent mixing between fluid layers was very much reduced. However, the law of the wall held and the skin friction, thus determined, correlated well with other measurements. Hot-wire measurements along the concave test wall revealed a system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer and confirmed that concave curvature enhances mixing. A self-consistent set of turbulent boundary layer equations for flows along curved surfaces was derived together with a modified eddy viscosity. Solution of these equations together with the modified eddy viscosity gave results that correlated well with the present data on flows along the convex surface with arbitrary pressure distribution. However, it could only be used to predict the mean characteristics of the flow along concave walls because of the existence of the system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer.

  10. Experiments on the active control of transitional boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P. A.; Rioual, J.-L.; Fisher, M. J.

    Experimental results are presented which demonstrate that the streamwise position of the transition region of a flat plate boundary layer can be actively controlled. The means of control is through the application of suction through the surface of the plate, a progressive increase in suction rate being capable of producing transition at progressively larger distances downstream from the plate leading edge. A simple digital feedback regulator based on an integral control law is shown to be most effective in regulating the position of transition, an error signal being derived from measurements of pressure fluctuations on the surface of the plate.

  11. Effect of surface energy and seed layer annealing temperature on ZnO seed layer formation and ZnO nanowire growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Sub; Mahmud, Imtiaz; Shin, Han Jae; Park, Min-Kyu; Ranjkesh, Amid; Lee, Do Kyung; Kim, Hak-Rin

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the effects of surface energy and seed layer annealing temperature (Tannealing) on seed layer growth and hydrothermally-grown zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs). In this work, by varying the ultraviolet ozone (UVO) treatment times on a silicon surface, the surface energy conditions for the seed layer formation changed and the seed layer was annealed under different Tannealing conditions. Under a lower surface energy condition of the substrate, with increasing Tannealing, the coverage density and the average thickness of the seed layer increased, but island-like growth was observed. This case was inevitably accompanied by an increase in surface roughness, which resulted in agglomerated low density growth of ZnO NWs. After sufficient UVO treatment, hydroxyl groups on the silicon surface activated the ZnO seed layer formation in the chemical reaction and increased the bonding energy between the active nucleation sites of the seed layer and the substrate surface. This ensured higher coverage density of the seed layer with lower surface roughness under the same Tannealing condition, thereby providing the ZnO NW growth with an enhanced density and aspect ratio as well as good crystallinity.

  12. Modifying of Cotton Fabric Surface with Nano-ZnO Multilayer Films by Layer-by-Layer Deposition Method.

    PubMed

    Uğur, Sule S; Sarıışık, Merih; Aktaş, A Hakan; Uçar, M Ciğdem; Erden, Emre

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticle-based multilayer nanocomposite films were fabricated on cationized woven cotton fabrics via layer-by-layer molecular self-assembly technique. For cationic surface charge, cotton fabrics were pretreated with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (EP3MAC) by pad-batch method. XPS and SEM were used to examine the deposited nano-ZnO multilayer films on the cotton fabrics. The nano-ZnO films deposited on cotton fabrics exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The results also showed that the coated fabrics with nano-ZnO multilayer films enhanced the protection of cotton fabrics from UV radiation. Physical tests (tensile strength of weft and warp yarns, air permeability and whiteness values) were performed on the fabrics before and after the treatment with ZnO nanoparticles to evaluate the effect of layer-by-layer (LbL) process on cotton fabrics properties. PMID:20596450

  13. Modifying of Cotton Fabric Surface with Nano-ZnO Multilayer Films by Layer-by-Layer Deposition Method

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticle–based multilayer nanocomposite films were fabricated on cationized woven cotton fabrics via layer-by-layer molecular self-assembly technique. For cationic surface charge, cotton fabrics were pretreated with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (EP3MAC) by pad-batch method. XPS and SEM were used to examine the deposited nano-ZnO multilayer films on the cotton fabrics. The nano-ZnO films deposited on cotton fabrics exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The results also showed that the coated fabrics with nano-ZnO multilayer films enhanced the protection of cotton fabrics from UV radiation. Physical tests (tensile strength of weft and warp yarns, air permeability and whiteness values) were performed on the fabrics before and after the treatment with ZnO nanoparticles to evaluate the effect of layer-by-layer (LbL) process on cotton fabrics properties. PMID:20596450

  14. Assessment of surface turbulent fluxes using geostationary satellite surface skin temperatures and a mixed layer planetary boundary layer scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diak, George R.; Stewart, Tod R.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for evaluating the fluxes of sensible and latent heating at the land surface, using satellite-measured surface temperature changes in a composite surface layer-mixed layer representation of the planetary boundary layer. The basic prognostic model is tested by comparison with synoptic station information at sites where surface evaporation climatology is well known. The remote sensing version of the model, using satellite-measured surface temperature changes, is then used to quantify the sharp spatial gradient in surface heating/evaporation across the central United States. An error analysis indicates that perhaps five levels of evaporation are recognizable by these methods and that the chief cause of error is the interaction of errors in the measurement of surface temperature change with errors in the assigment of surface roughness character. Finally, two new potential methods for remote sensing of the land-surface energy balance are suggested which will relay on space-borne instrumentation planned for the 1990s.

  15. Surface reactions on thin layers of silane coupling agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kurth, D.G.; Bein, T. )

    1993-11-01

    The reactivity of immobilized functional groups in thin layers of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APS), (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane, (3-bromopropyl)trimethoxysilane, and (8-bromooctyl)trimethoxysilane on oxidized aluminum substrates was studied with reflection-adsorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIR), optical ellipsometry and contact-angle measurements. Mass changes on the surface associated with the surface-confined reactions were measured with the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Single layers of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane on oxidized aluminum react with chlorodimethylsilane to give [(-O)[sub 3]Si(CH[sub 2])[sub 3]NH[sub 2][sup +]SiMe[sub 2]H]Cl[sup [minus

  16. Europa's Active Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A newly discovered impact crater can be seen just right of the center of this image of Jupiter's moon Europa returned by NASA's Galileo spacecraft camera. The crater is about 30 kilometers (18.5 miles) in diameter. The impact excavated into Europa's icy crust, throwing debris (seen as whitish material) across the surrounding terrain. Also visible is a dark band, named Belus Linea, extending east-west across the image. This type of feature, which scientists call a 'triple band,' is characterized by a bright stripe down the middle. The outer margins of this and other triple bands are diffuse, suggesting that the dark material was put there as a result of possible geyser-like activity which shot gas and rocky debris from Europa's interior. The curving 'X' pattern seen in the lower left corner of the image appears to represent fracturing of the icy crust and infilling by slush which froze in place. The crater is centered at about 2 degrees north latitude by 239 degrees west longitude. The image was taken from a distance of 156,000 kilometers (about 96,300 miles) on June 27, 1996, during Galileo's first orbit around Jupiter. The area shown is 860 by 700 kilometers (530 by 430 miles), or about the size of Oregon and Washington combined. The Galileo mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  17. Evolving surface cusps during strained-layer epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Jesson, D.E.; Pennycook, S.J.; Baribeau, J.M.; Houghton, D.C.

    1993-04-01

    We have combined Z-contrast imaging and Ge marker layer experiments to study the evolving surface morphology of Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Surface cusps are seen to arise as the intersection lines between coherent islands. The potential implications of stress concentrations associated with cusps are considered with a view to strain relaxation in the film via dislocation nucleation.

  18. Surface morphological evolution during annealing of epitaxial Cu(001) layers

    SciTech Connect

    Purswani, J. M.; Gall, D.

    2008-08-15

    Single crystal Cu(001) layers were grown on MgO(001) by ultrahigh vacuum magnetron sputtering at T{sub s}=100 deg. C. Quantitative surface morphological analyses by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy show that the surfaces exhibit self-affine mound structures with a scaling exponent of 0.82{+-}0.03 and a mound radius r{sub c} that increases from 31{+-}8 to 39{+-}6 nm for increasing layer thickness t=24-120 nm. In situ annealing at 200 and 300 deg. C leads to a thermodynamically driven mass transport that minimizes the surface step density, resulting in broader mounds and a smaller root mean square surface roughness {sigma}. This effect is most pronounced for t=24 nm, for which r{sub c} increases from 31{+-}8 to 70{+-}20 nm and {sigma} decreases from 1.3{+-}0.1 to 0.74{+-}0.08 nm, resulting in a decrease in the average surface slope from {chi}=7 deg. to 2 deg. and an increase in the average terrace width w{sub T} by more than a factor of 4. In contrast, w{sub T} increases by only 20% for t=120 nm. This remarkable difference between 'thin' and 'thick' layers is attributed to diverging surface morphological pathways during annealing: The strong smoothening for t=24 nm is due to a competitive coalescence process where some mounds grow laterally at the expense of their smaller neighbors, which die out. In contrast, the initially wider mounds of thicker layers (t=120 nm) combine to form a quasistable surface morphology that exhibits anisotropic mound structures, which limit mass transport and stabilize the surface step density.

  19. Surface modification of active material structures in battery electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Michael; Tikhonov, Konstantin

    2016-02-02

    Provided herein are methods of processing electrode active material structures for use in electrochemical cells or, more specifically, methods of forming surface layers on these structures. The structures are combined with a liquid to form a mixture. The mixture includes a surface reagent that chemically reacts and forms a surface layer covalently bound to the structures. The surface reagent may be a part of the initial liquid or added to the mixture after the liquid is combined with the structures. In some embodiments, the mixture may be processed to form a powder containing the structures with the surface layer thereon. Alternatively, the mixture may be deposited onto a current collecting substrate and dried to form an electrode layer. Furthermore, the liquid may be an electrolyte containing the surface reagent and a salt. The liquid soaks the previously arranged electrodes in order to contact the structures with the surface reagent.

  20. A scheme for computing surface layer turbulent fluxes from mean flow surface observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffert, M. I.; Storch, J.

    1978-01-01

    A physical model and computational scheme are developed for generating turbulent surface stress, sensible heat flux and humidity flux from mean velocity, temperature and humidity at some fixed height in the atmospheric surface layer, where conditions at this reference level are presumed known from observations or the evolving state of a numerical atmospheric circulation model. The method is based on coupling the Monin-Obukov surface layer similarity profiles which include buoyant stability effects on mean velocity, temperature and humidity to a force-restore formulation for the evolution of surface soil temperature to yield the local values of shear stress, heat flux and surface temperature. A self-contained formulation is presented including parameterizations for solar and infrared radiant fluxes at the surface. Additional parameters needed to implement the scheme are the thermal heat capacity of the soil per unit surface area, surface aerodynamic roughness, latitude, solar declination, surface albedo, surface emissivity and atmospheric transmissivity to solar radiation.

  1. Laminarization of Turbulent Boundary Layer on Flexible and Rigid Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio

    2001-01-01

    An investigation of the control of turbulent boundary layer flow over flexible and rigid surfaces downstream of a concave-convex geometry has been made. The concave-convex curvature induces centrifugal forces and a pressure gradient on the growth of the turbulent boundary layer. The favorable gradient is not sufficient to overcome the unfavorable; thus, the net effect is a destabilizing, of the flow into Gortler instabilities. This study shows that control of the turbulent boundary layer and structural loading can be successfully achieved by using localized surface heating because the subsequent cooling and geometrical shaping downstream over a favorable pressure gradient is effective in laminarization of the turbulence. Wires embedded in a thermally insulated substrate provide surface heating. The laminarized velocity profile adjusts to a lower Reynolds number, and the structure responds to a lower loading. In the laminarization, the turbulent energy is dissipated by molecular transport by both viscous and conductivity mechanisms. Laminarization reduces spanwise vorticity because of the longitudinal cooling gradient of the sublayer profile. The results demonstrate that the curvature-induced mean pressure gradient enhances the receptivity of the flow to localized surface heating, a potentially viable mechanism to laminarize turbulent boundary layer flow; thus, the flow reduces the response of the flexible structure and the resultant sound radiation.

  2. Surface modification of layered zirconium phosphate with PNIPAM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuezhen; Zhao, Di; Medina, Ilse B Nava; Diaz, Agustin; Wang, Huiliang; Clearfield, Abraham; Mannan, M Sam; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2016-04-01

    A new method was reported to modify layered zirconium phosphate (ZrP) with thermoresponsive polymer PNIPAM (poly N-isopropylacrylamide). PNIPAM was proved to be covalently grafted onto ZrP. (60)Co γ-rays irradiation produced peroxide groups on the surface which, upon heating, initiated free radical polymerization and subsequent attachment of PNIPAM. PMID:26966882

  3. Active layer hydrology for Imnavait Creek, Toolik, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    In the annual hydrologic cycle, snowmelt is the most significant event at Imnavait Creek located near Toolik Lake, Alaska. Precipitation that has accumulated for more than 6 months on the surface melts in a relatively short period of 7 to 10 days once sustained melting occurs. During the ablation period, runoff dominates the hydrologic cycle. Some meltwater goes to rewetting the organic soils in the active layer. The remainder is lost primarily because of evaporation, since transpiration is not a very active process at this time. Following the snowmelt period, evapotranspiration becomes the dominate process, with base flow contributing the other watershed losses. It is important to note that the water initally lost by evapotranspiration entered the organic layer during melt. This water from the snowpack ensures that each year the various plant communities will have sufficient water to start a new summer of growth.

  4. NMR of thin layers using a meanderline surface coil

    DOEpatents

    Cowgill, Donald F.

    2001-01-01

    A miniature meanderline sensor coil which extends the capabilities of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to provide analysis of thin planar samples and surface layer geometries. The sensor coil allows standard NMR techniques to be used to examine thin planar (or curved) layers, extending NMRs utility to many problems of modern interest. This technique can be used to examine contact layers, non-destructively depth profile into films, or image multiple layers in a 3-dimensional sense. It lends itself to high resolution NMR techniques of magic angle spinning and thus can be used to examine the bonding and electronic structure in layered materials or to observe the chemistry associated with aging coatings. Coupling this sensor coil technology with an arrangement of small magnets will produce a penetrator probe for remote in-situ chemical analysis of groundwater or contaminant sediments. Alternatively, the sensor coil can be further miniaturized to provide sub-micron depth resolution within thin films or to orthoscopically examine living tissue. This thin-layer NMR technique using a stationary meanderline coil in a series-resonant circuit has been demonstrated and it has been determined that the flat meanderline geometry has about he same detection sensitivity as a solenoidal coil, but is specifically tailored to examine planar material layers, while avoiding signals from the bulk.

  5. Temperature distribution in a layer of an active thermal insulation system heated by a gas burner

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Shigenao . Inst. of Fluid Science); Shimizu, Naotaka . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    The temperature distribution in a layer of an active thermal insulation system was measured. A semitransparent porous layer was heated by a gas burner, and air was injected from the back face of the layer. The temperature in the layer was measured by thermocouples. The temperature distributions were compared with numerical solutions. The thermal penetration depth of the active thermal insulation layer with gas injection can be reduced to 3 mm. When the surface temperature of a conventional insulation layer without gas injection reached 1,500 K, the temperature at the back surface of a 10-mm-thick layer reached 600 K. The transient temperature of the active thermal insulation reached a steady state very quickly compared with that of the conventional insulation. These characteristics agreed qualitatively with the numerical solutions.

  6. Mercurian megaregolith layer and surface heat flows constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egea-Gonzalez, Isabel; Ruiz, Javier

    2013-04-01

    Mercury is covered by a thermally insulating megaregolith layer. Despite the fact that it is known that this poor conducting layer has important influences on surface heat flows, most thermal modeling studies have overlooked it. Mercurian megaregolith is not very well known, but data provided by MESSENGER suggest that mercurian megaregolith is less insulating than its lunar counterpart. This information together with brittle-ductile transition (BDT) depths, estimated from the analysis of fault geometries associated with lobate scarps, allow us to constrain the surface heat flow on Mercury at the time of scarps formation. In this work, we have solved the heat conduction equation in order to constrain surface heat flows. Firstly, we obtain an upper limit in surface heat flows by using published values of the BDT depth and by neglecting the megaregolith layer. Then, we calculate a lower limit by including in the heat equation a top layer with thermal properties representative of the lunar megaregolith. In our calculations we have taken into account volumetric heat production rates obtained from the surface abundances of radioactive elements provided by MESSENGER. Heat equation solutions constrain surface heat flows to a range of 6 - 29 mWm-2. These results suggest the possibility that surface heat flows could be lower than those calculated in previous works, which is in agreement with the small amount of radial contraction detected on Mercury. Furthermore, the procedure followed in this article can be easily applied to other planets and satellites, which will improve our knowledge about the thermal evolution of these bodies.

  7. Hierarchy of adhesion forces in patterns of photoreactive surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlawacek, Gregor; Shen, Quan; Teichert, Christian; Lex, Alexandra; Trimmel, Gregor; Kern, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Precise control of surface properties including electrical characteristics, wettability, and friction is a prerequisite for manufacturing modern organic electronic devices. The successful combination of bottom up approaches for aligning and orienting the molecules and top down techniques to structure the substrate on the nano- and micrometer scale allows the cost efficient fabrication and integration of future organic light emitting diodes and organic thin film transistors. One possibility for the top down patterning of a surface is to utilize different surface free energies or wetting properties of a functional group. Here, we used friction force microscopy (FFM) to reveal chemical patterns inscribed by a photolithographic process into a photosensitive surface layer. FFM allowed the simultaneous visualization of at least three different chemical surface terminations. The underlying mechanism is related to changes in the chemical interaction between probe and film surface.

  8. Active particles on curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fily, Yaouen; Baskaran, Aparna; Hagan, Michael

    Active systems have proved to be very sensitive to the geometry of their environment. This is often achieved by spending significant time at the boundary, probing its shape by gliding along it. I will discuss coarse graining the microscopic dynamics of self-propelled particles on a general curved surface to predict the way the density profile on the surface depends on its geometry. Beyond confined active particles, this formalism is a natural starting point to study objects that cannot leave the boundary at all, such as cells crawling on a curved substrate, animals running on uneven ground, or active colloids trapped at an interface.

  9. Effects of mesoscale surface inhomogeneities on atmospheric boundary layer transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, W.J.; Doran, J.C.; Hubbe, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    Defining the nature of turbulent transfer over horizontally inhomogeneous surfaces remains one of the challenges in meteorology. Because the transfer of energy and momentum through the atmospheric boundary layer forms part of the lower boundary condition for global climate models (GCMs), the problem is important. Over the last two decades, advances in sensor and computer technology wave made good point measurements of turbulent fluxes fairly routine. A fundamental question with respect to climate models, however, is how such point measurements are related to average fluxes over the area of a GCM grid box. In this paper we will use data from the field program to depict the evolution of the boundary layer over adjacent, sharply contrasting surface types on two separate occasions. We will then use simple scaling based on the observations to argue that sub-gridscale motions would often be likely to significantly alter the estimates and resulting parameterizations of GCM-scale surface fluxes in the region.

  10. Nucleation and Early Stages of Layer-by-Layer Growth of Metal Organic Frameworks on Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    High resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to resolve the evolution of crystallites of a metal organic framework (HKUST-1) grown on Au(111) using a liquid-phase layer-by-layer methodology. The nucleation and faceting of individual crystallites is followed by repeatedly imaging the same submicron region after each cycle of growth and we find that the growing surface is terminated by {111} facets leading to the formation of pyramidal nanostructures for [100] oriented crystallites, and triangular [111] islands with typical lateral dimensions of tens of nanometres. AFM images reveal that crystallites can grow by 5–10 layers in each cycle. The growth rate depends on crystallographic orientation and the morphology of the gold substrate, and we demonstrate that under these conditions the growth is nanocrystalline with a morphology determined by the minimum energy surface. PMID:26709359

  11. Synergistic effects of the Lactobacillus acidophilus surface layer and nisin on bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Prado-Acosta, Mariano; Ruzal, Sandra M; Allievi, Mariana C; Palomino, María Mercedes; Sanchez Rivas, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    We have previously described a murein hydrolase activity for the surface layer (S-layer) of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356. Here we show that, in combination with nisin, this S-layer acts synergistically to inhibit the growth of pathogenic Gram-negative Salmonella enterica and potential pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. In addition, bacteriolytic effects were observed for the Gram-positive species tested. We postulate that the S-layer enhances the access of nisin into the cell membrane by enabling it to cross the cell wall, while nisin provides the sudden ion-nonspecific dissipation of the proton motive force required to enhance the S-layer murein hydrolase activity. PMID:19948852

  12. Ultrastructure of the Bacteroides nodosus cell envelope layers and surface.

    PubMed Central

    Every, D; Skerman, T M

    1980-01-01

    The surface structure and cell envelope layers of various virulent Bacteroides nodosus strains were examined by light microscopy and by electron microscopy by using negative staining, thin-section, and freeze-fracture-etch techniques. Three surface structures were described: pili and a diffuse material, both of which emerged from one or both poles of the bacteria (depending on the stage of growth and division), and large rodlike structures (usually 30 to 40 nm in diameter) associated with a small proportion of the bacterial population. No capsule was detected. The cell envelope consisted of four layers: a plasma membrane, a peptidoglycan layer, an outer membrane, and an outermost additional layer. The additional layer was composed of subunits, generally hexagonally packed with center-to-center spacing of 6 to 7 nm. The outer membrane and plasma membrane freeze-fractured through their hydrophobic regions revealing four fracture faces with features similar to those of other gram-negative bacteria. However, some unusual features were seen on the fracture faces of the outer membrane: large raised ring structure (11 to 12 nm in diameter) on cw 3 at the poles of the bacteria; complementary pits or ring-shaped depressions on cw 2; and small raised ring structures (7 to 8 nm in diameter) all over cw 2. Images PMID:6154040

  13. Friedel oscillations at the surfaces of rhombohedral N -layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutreix, C.; Katsnelson, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    The low-energy physics of rhombohedral N -layer graphene mainly arises on the external layers, where most of the π electrons are located. Their Bloch band structure defines a two-band semimetal; the dispersion relation scales as ±qN with the momentum norm q in the vicinity of two nonequivalent valleys. In this paper, we address the problem of elastic scattering through a localized impurity located either on the surface of the material or within the bulk, and focus on the quantum interferences it induces on the two external layers. It is apprehended in the framework of a T -matrix approach, both numerically and analytically, regardless of the impurity magnitude, which enables the description of realistic scatters. In rhombohedral multilayer graphene, the impurity induces Friedel oscillations that always decay as 1 /r . As a result, monolayer graphene is the only material of the rhombohedral class that exhibits 1 /r2 -decaying Friedel oscillations. The interference patterns are subsequently analyzed in momentum space. This analysis enables a clear distinction between monolayer graphene and multilayer graphene. It also shows that the interference pattern reveals the whole Bloch band structure, and highlights the number of layers stacked in the material, as well as the π -quantized Berry phases that characterize the existence of nodal points in the semimetallic spectrum. Experimentally, these features may be probed from scanning tunneling microscopy, when imaging the local density of states at the surfaces of suspended rhombohedral N -layer graphene.

  14. The Role of Surface Layer Processes in Solid Propellant Combustion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarthy, Satyanarayanan R.

    The qualitative multidimensional theory of composite solid propellant combustion based on the sandwich burning methodology was applied to certain specific problems: (a) burning rate enhancement by ferric oxide, (b) plateau burning behavior caused by binder melt flow effects, and (c) characterization of the combustion of new energetic oxidizers--ADN and HNIW. Exothermic reactions at the interfacial contact lines between AP particles and the binder in the surface layer of the burning propellant assume significance in the presence of ferric oxide, and control the burning rate. Binder melt flow covers adjacent AP particle surfaces increasingly at higher pressures, and disperses the O/F leading edge flames attached to coarse particles. It also causes fine AP/binder matrix areas on the surface not to support a steady premixed flame at intermediate pressures, resulting in an overall decrease in the burning rate with increasing pressure, which implies plateau or mesa effects. ADN self -deflagration rate is significantly higher than that of AP, and controls the sandwich burning rate to a great extent. The O/F flame of ADN and binder still behaves as rate limiting, although strongly supported by ADN self-deflagration. ADN melts and vaporizes substantially before the binder, allowing for the possibility of complex physical processes in the surface layer. The strong exothermic decomposition of HNIW at moderate temperatures causes the oxidizer particles in the surface layer to be the sites of burning rate control. The problems addressed in this study combinedly point to the significance of crucial surface layer processes under the situations of interest, and signal a need to characterize such processes directly and in greater detail.

  15. Oxygen inhibition layer of composite resins: effects of layer thickness and surface layer treatment on the interlayer bond strength.

    PubMed

    Bijelic-Donova, Jasmina; Garoushi, Sufyan; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-02-01

    An oxygen inhibition layer develops on surfaces exposed to air during polymerization of particulate filling composite. This study assessed the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer of short-fiber-reinforced composite in comparison with conventional particulate filling composites. The effect of an oxygen inhibition layer on the shear bond strength of incrementally placed particulate filling composite layers was also evaluated. Four different restorative composites were selected: everX Posterior (a short-fiber-reinforced composite), Z250, SupremeXT, and Silorane. All composites were evaluated regarding the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer and for shear bond strength. An equal amount of each composite was polymerized in air between two glass plates and the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer was measured using a stereomicroscope. Cylindrical-shaped specimens were prepared for measurement of shear bond strength by placing incrementally two layers of the same composite material. Before applying the second composite layer, the first increment's bonding site was treated as follows: grinding with 1,000-grit silicon-carbide (SiC) abrasive paper, or treatment with ethanol or with water-spray. The inhibition depth was lowest (11.6 μm) for water-sprayed Silorane and greatest (22.9 μm) for the water-sprayed short-fiber-reinforced composite. The shear bond strength ranged from 5.8 MPa (ground Silorane) to 36.4 MPa (water-sprayed SupremeXT). The presence of an oxygen inhibition layer enhanced the interlayer shear bond strength of all investigated materials, but its absence resulted in cohesive and mixed failures only with the short-fiber-reinforced composite. Thus, more durable adhesion with short-fiber-reinforced composite is expected. PMID:25556290

  16. Plasma behavior in the boundary layer near a railgun surface

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.W.; McCallen, R. )

    1989-01-01

    Viscous flow and thermal characteristics are theoretically analyzed for the plasma behind a moving projectile inside a railgun. When only convective effects are included in the turbulent boundary layer analysis, the results suggest a temperature maximum in the wall region for very high velocity flows. The case of radiative as well as convective transport has also been investigated for an optically thick boundary layer flow by application of an approximate method. Results show a sizable effect of radiation on the flow characteristics, especially on the heat transfer rate to the railgun surface.

  17. Plasma behavior in the boundary layer near a railgun surface

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sang-Wook; McCallen, R.E.

    1988-03-01

    Viscous flow and thermal characteristics are theoretically analyzed for the plasma behind a moving projectile inside a railgun. When only convective effects are included in the turbulent boundary layer analysis, the results suggest a temperature maximum in the wall region for very high velocity flows. The case of radiative as well as convective transport has also been investigated for an optically-thick boundary layer flow by application of an approximate method. Results show a sizable effect of radiation on the flow characteristics, especially on the heat-transfer rate to the railgun surface. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Modification of Surface Layers by Surfacing Intermetallic Coatings with Variable Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeev, D. N.; Zakharov, O. V.; Vinogradov, A. N.; Kochetkov, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    The paper considers the possibility of forming coating layers for parts within wide limits of microhardness. The technology uses surfacing of intermetallic coatings provided by a unique experimental setup. Theoretical and experimental dependence of the coating layer microhardness on the filler concentration using the changes in the speed of the filler wire feed and current intensity were determined.

  19. Surface (S)-layer proteins of Deinococcus radiodurans and their utility as vehicles for surface localization of functional proteins.

    PubMed

    Misra, Chitra Seetharam; Basu, Bhakti; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2015-12-01

    The radiation resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans contains two major surface (S)-layer proteins, Hpi and SlpA. The Hpi protein was shown to (a) undergo specific in vivo cleavage, and (b) closely associate with the SlpA protein. Using a non-specific acid phosphatase from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, PhoN as a reporter, the Surface Layer Homology (SLH) domain of SlpA was shown to bind deinococcal peptidoglycan-containing cell wall sacculi. The association of SlpA with Hpi on one side and peptidoglycan on the other, localizes this protein in the 'interstitial' layer of the deinoccocal cell wall. Gene chimeras of hpi-phoN and slh-phoN were constructed to test efficacy of S-layer proteins, as vehicles for cell surface localization in D. radiodurans. The Hpi-PhoN protein localized exclusively in the membrane fraction, and displayed cell-based phosphatase activity in vivo. The SLH-PhoN, which localized to both cytosolic and membrane fractions, displayed in vitro activity but no cell-based in vivo activity. Hpi, therefore, emerged as an efficient surface localizing protein and can be exploited for suitable applications of this superbug. PMID:26450150

  20. Application of Satellite SAR Imagery in Mapping the Active Layer of Arctic Permafrost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Shu-Sun; Romanovsky, V.; Lovick, Joe; Wang, Z.; Peterson, Rorik

    2003-01-01

    A method of mapping the active layer of Arctic permafrost using a combination of conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) backscatter and more sophisticated interferometric SAR (INSAR) techniques is proposed. The proposed research is based on the sensitivity of radar backscatter to the freeze and thaw status of the surface soil, and the sensitivity of INSAR techniques to centimeter- to sub-centimeter-level surface differential deformation. The former capability of SAR is investigated for deriving the timing and duration of the thaw period for surface soil of the active layer over permafrost. The latter is investigated for the feasibility of quantitative measurement of frost heaving and thaw settlement of the active layer during the freezing and thawing processes. The resulting knowledge contributes to remote sensing mapping of the active layer dynamics and Arctic land surface hydrology.

  1. Functionalised nanoscale coatings using layer-by-layer assembly for imparting antibacterial properties to polylactide-co-glycolide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Piergiorgio; Frongia, Maria E; Cardellach, Mar; Miller, Cheryl A; Stafford, Graham P; Leggett, Graham J; Hatton, Paul V

    2015-07-01

    In order to achieve high local biological activity and reduce the risk of side effects of antibiotics in the treatment of periodontal and bone infections, a localised and temporally controlled delivery system is desirable. The aim of this research was to develop a functionalised and resorbable surface to contact soft tissues to improve the antibacterial behaviour during the first week after its implantation in the treatment of periodontal and bone infections. Solvent-cast poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) films were aminolysed and then modified by Layer-by-Layer technique to obtain a nano-layered coating using poly(sodium4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) as polyelectrolytes. The water-soluble antibiotic, metronidazole (MET), was incorporated from the ninth layer. Infrared spectroscopy showed that the PSS and PAH absorption bands increased with the layer number. The contact angle values had a regular alternate behaviour from the ninth layer. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy evidenced two distinct peaks, N1s and S2p, indicating PAH and PSS had been introduced. Atomic Force Microscopy showed the presence of polyelectrolytes on the surface with a measured roughness about 10nm after 20 layers' deposition. The drug release was monitored by Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy showing 80% loaded-drug delivery in 14 days. Finally, the biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro with L929 mouse fibroblasts and the antibacterial properties were demonstrated successfully against the keystone periodontal bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis, which has an influence on implant failure, without compromising in vitro biocompatibility. In this study, PLGA was successfully modified to obtain a localised and temporally controlled drug delivery system, demonstrating the potential value of LbL as a coating technology for the manufacture of medical devices with advanced functional properties. PMID:25871538

  2. Surface morphological evolution of epitaxial CrN(001) layers

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, J.R.; Gall, D.

    2005-09-01

    CrN layers, 57 and 230 nm thick, were grown on MgO(001) at T{sub s}=600-800 deg. C by ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputter deposition in pure N{sub 2} discharges from an oblique deposition angle {alpha}=80 deg. . Layers grown at 600 deg. C nucleate as single crystals with a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship with the substrate. However, rough surfaces with cauliflower-type morphologies cause the nucleation of misoriented CrN grains that develop into cone-shaped grains that protrude out of the epitaxial matrix to form triangular faceted surface mounds. The surface morphology of epitaxial CrN(001) grown at 700 deg. C is characterized by dendritic ridge patterns extending along the orthogonal <110> directions superposed by square-shaped super mounds with <100> edges. The ridge patterns are attributed to a Bales-Zangwill instability while the supermounds form due to atomic shadowing which leads to the formation of epitaxial inverted pyramids that are separated from the surrounding layer by tilted nanovoids. Growth at 800 deg. C yields complete single crystals with smooth surfaces. The root-mean-square surface roughness for 230-nm-thick layers decreases from 18.8 to 9.3 to 1.1 nm as T{sub s} is raised from 600 to 700 to 800 deg. C. This steep decrease is due to a transition in the roughening mechanism from atomic shadowing to kinetic roughening. Atomic shadowing is dominant at 600 and 700 deg. C, where misoriented grains and supermounds, respectively, capture a larger fraction of the oblique deposition flux in comparison to the surrounding epitaxial matrix, resulting in a high roughening rate that is described by a power law with an exponent {beta}>0.5. In contrast, kinetic roughening controls the surface morphology for T{sub s}=800 deg. C, as well as the epitaxial fraction of the layers grown at 600 and 700 deg. C, yielding relatively smooth surfaces and {beta}{<=}0.27.

  3. Electrografted diazonium salt layers for antifouling on the surface of surface plasmon resonance biosensors.

    PubMed

    Zou, Qiongjing; Kegel, Laurel L; Booksh, Karl S

    2015-02-17

    Electrografted diazonium salt layers on the surface of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors present potential for a significant improvement in antifouling coatings. A pulsed potential deposition profile was used in order to circumvent mass-transport limitations for layer deposition rate. The influence of number of pulses with respect to antifouling efficacy was evaluated by nonspecific adsorption surface coverage of crude bovine serum proteins. Instead of using empirical and rough estimated values, the penetration depth and sensitivity of the SPR instrument were experimentally determined for the calculation of nonspecific adsorption surface coverage. This provides a method to better examine antifouling surface coatings and compare crossing different coatings and experimental systems. Direct comparison of antifouling performance of different diazonium salts was facilitated by a tripad SPR sensor design. The electrografted 4-phenylalanine diazonium chloride (4-APhe) layers with zwitterionic characteristic demonstrate ultralow fouling. PMID:25526646

  4. Arctic Cloud-driven Mixed Layers and Surface Coupling State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, M.; Persson, O. P.; Solomon, A.; de Boer, G.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic low-level clouds interact with the atmosphere and underlying surface via many inter-related processes. The balance of cloud radiative warming and cooling effects imparts a strong control on the net surface energy budget. Cloud-driven atmospheric circulations can impact surface turbulent heat fluxes and influence the vertical mixing of atmospheric state parameters and aerosols. Large-scale advection of heat and moisture provides the background context within which these local interactions unfold. Importantly, these radiative, dynamical, and advective processes also contribute to a complex web of self-sustaining cloud processes that can promote cloud maintenance over long periods of time. We examine many of these processes, with a specific focus on the dynamical linkages between Arctic clouds and the surface that influence low-level atmospheric structure and mixing. Comprehensive, ground-based observations from meteorological towers, remote-sensors, and radiosondes are used to simultaneously characterize surface fluxes, atmospheric structure, cloud properties, in-cloud motions, and the depth of the cloud-driven mixed layer in multiple Arctic environments. Relationships among these parameters are explored to elucidate the properties of the system that determine the degree of vertical atmospheric mixing and the coupling state between cloud and surface. The influence of temperature and moisture inversions on this system is also explored. Transitions in the coupling state are utilized to illustrate the relative roles of different processes. Cases from a coastal Arctic site at Barrow, Alaska and a station embedded in the Arctic sea-ice pack are used to contrast conditional influences related to season and surface type. It is found that over sea-ice, where surface turbulent fluxes are weak, the coupling of cloud-level processes to the surface layer is largely due to proximity of the cloud-driven mixed layer to the surface, which appears to be primarily influenced by

  5. Characterization of carbides composite surface layers produced by PTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajoure, M.; Tajouri, A.

    2015-03-01

    Composite surface layer of nickel base with titanium carbide in powder form was deposited on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard by using plasma transferred arc technique. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hardfacin process was successfully conducted by using PMNICr50P alloy plus titanium carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 754 HV and minimum dilution of 4.6 % were achieved by using an arc current of 80 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A& the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base with titanium carbide feature uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with irregular grain shape and relatively small particles size, and regular boundary line between the substrate and over layer with presence of black area along the boundary line. A few micro - porosities are located in the matrix.

  6. On the Effects of Surface Roughness on Boundary Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Edwards, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Surface roughness can influence laminar-turbulent transition in many different ways. This paper outlines selected analyses performed at the NASA Langley Research Center, ranging in speed from subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers and highlighting the beneficial as well as adverse roles of the surface roughness in technological applications. The first theme pertains to boundary-layer tripping on the forebody of a hypersonic airbreathing configuration via a spanwise periodic array of trip elements, with the goal of understanding the physical mechanisms underlying roughness-induced transition in a high-speed boundary layer. The effect of an isolated, finite amplitude roughness element on a supersonic boundary layer is considered next. The other set of flow configurations examined herein corresponds to roughness based laminar flow control in subsonic and supersonic swept wing boundary layers. A common theme to all of the above configurations is the need to apply higher fidelity, physics based techniques to develop reliable predictions of roughness effects on laminar-turbulent transition.

  7. Rotating compact bodies with a disk surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggag, Salah

    2016-03-01

    The Senovilla family for a subclass of Petrov type-D stationary axisymmetric differentially rotating perfect fluids is considered. A scheme is presented to construct from a solution an interior of a rotating compact body satisfying dominant energy conditions and with a boundary of vanishing pressure. The equatorial disk of the body is a surface layer due to a jump in the second fundamental form. However, unlike previous results, the body is free from curvature singularities.

  8. Surface-plasmons lasing in double-graphene-layer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, A. A.; Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Ryzhii, V.; Shur, M. S.; Otsuji, T.

    2014-01-28

    We consider the concept of injection terahertz lasers based on double-graphene-layer (double-GL) structures with metal surface-plasmon waveguide and study the conditions of their operation. The laser under consideration exploits the resonant radiative transitions between GLs. This enables the double-GL laser room temperature operation and the possibility of voltage tuning of the emission spectrum. We compare the characteristics of the double-GL lasers with the metal surface-plasmon waveguides with those of such laser with the metal-metal waveguides.

  9. Moored surface buoy observations of the diurnal warm layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prytherch, J.; Farrar, J. T.; Weller, R. A.

    2013-09-01

    An extensive data set is used to examine the dynamics of diurnal warming in the upper ocean. The data set comprises more than 4700 days of measurements at five sites in the tropics and subtropics, obtained from surface moorings equipped to make comprehensive meteorological, incoming solar and infrared radiation, and high-resolution subsurface temperature (and, in some cases, velocity) measurements. The observations, which include surface warmings of up to 3.4°C, are compared with a selection of existing models of the diurnal warm layer (DWL). A simple one-layer physical model is shown to give a reasonable estimate of both the magnitude of diurnal surface warming (model-observation correlation 0.88) and the structure and temporal evolution of the DWL. Novel observations of velocity shear obtained during 346 days at one site, incorporating high-resolution (1 m) upper ocean (5-15 m) acoustic Doppler current profile measurements, are also shown to be in reasonable agreement with estimates from the physical model (daily maximum shear model-observation correlation 0.77). Physics-based improvements to the one-layer model (incorporation of rotation and freshwater terms) are discussed, though they do not provide significant improvements against the observations reported here. The simplicity and limitations of the physical model are used to discuss DWL dynamics. The physical model is shown to give better model performance under the range of forcing conditions experienced across the five sites than the more empirical models.

  10. Laser-Based Transient Surface Acceleration of Thermoelastic Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CETINKAYA, CETIN; WU, CUNLI; LI, CHEN

    2000-03-01

    The removal of particles from elastic substrates has been an important practical problem in the electronics industry especially as the sizes of electronic units shrink. In recent years, there has been an interest in removingsubmicron level particles from surfaces. The use of traditional surface cleaning methods, such as ultrasonically induced fluid flow, vibrational methods, centrifugal techniques, is limited to particles that require surface acceleration lower than 107m/s2. For the effective removal of submicron particles, a higher level surface acceleration is needed since the adhesion forces (mainly van der Waals force for dry surfaces) are related to the particle size and increase approximately linearly as the characteristic radius of small particles that are to be removed decreases. In current work, based on the generalized dynamic theory of thermoelasticity reported, a transfer matrix formulation including the second sound effect is developed for a thermoelastic layer. The transfer matrix for axisymmetric wave propagation in a thermoelastic layer is obtained by adopting a double integral transform approach. The second sound effect is included to eliminate the thermal wave travelling with infinite velocity as predicted by the diffusion heat transfer model, and, consequently, the immediate arrival of waves. Using the current formulation and the periodic systems framework, a transfer function formulation for calculating the accelerations is developed for transient analysis. A double integral transform inversion method is used for transient response calculations. Acceleration levels, sufficient for submicron particle removal, are reported. Various processes such as thermoelastic stresses, surface evaporation, and optical breakdown may be responsible for surface acceleration components and particle removal. In current work, only the surface acceleration due to transient thermoelastic wave propagation is under investigation.

  11. Tailored surface engineering of pigments by layer-by-layer coating.

    PubMed

    Dähne, Lars; Schneider, Julia; Lewe, Dirk; Petersen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    We have evaluated the feasibility of layer-by-layer encapsulation technology for the improvement of dye pigments used for tattoos or permanent make-up. The formation of core-shell structures is possible by coating pigments with thin films of several different polyelectrolytes using this technology. The physicochemical surface properties, such as charge density and chemical functionality, can be reproducibly varied in a wide range. Tailoring the surface properties independently from the pigment core allows one to control the rheological behaviour of pigment suspensions, to prevent aggregation between different pigments, to reduce the cytotoxicity, and to influence the response of phagocytes in order to have similar or the same uptake and bioclearance for all pigments. These properties determine the durability and colour tone stability of tattoos and permanent make-up. PMID:25833634

  12. Melanin as an active layer in biosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Piacenti da Silva, Marina Congiu, Mirko Oliveira Graeff, Carlos Frederico de; Fernandes, Jéssica Colnaghi Biziak de Figueiredo, Natália Mulato, Marcelo

    2014-03-15

    The development of pH sensors is of great interest due to its extensive application in several areas such as industrial processes, biochemistry and particularly medical diagnostics. In this study, the pH sensing properties of an extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET) based on melanin thin films as active layer are investigated and the physical mechanisms related to the device operation are discussed. Thin films were produced from different melanin precursors on indium tin oxide (ITO) and gold substrates and were investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. Experiments were performed in the pH range from 2 to 12. EGFETs with melanin deposited on ITO and on gold substrates showed sensitivities ranging from 31.3 mV/pH to 48.9 mV/pH, depending on the melanin precursor and the substrate used. The pH detection is associated with specific binding sites in its structure, hydroxyl groups and quinone imine.

  13. Melanin as an active layer in biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piacenti da Silva, Marina; Fernandes, Jéssica Colnaghi; de Figueiredo, Natália Biziak; Congiu, Mirko; Mulato, Marcelo; de Oliveira Graeff, Carlos Frederico

    2014-03-01

    The development of pH sensors is of great interest due to its extensive application in several areas such as industrial processes, biochemistry and particularly medical diagnostics. In this study, the pH sensing properties of an extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET) based on melanin thin films as active layer are investigated and the physical mechanisms related to the device operation are discussed. Thin films were produced from different melanin precursors on indium tin oxide (ITO) and gold substrates and were investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. Experiments were performed in the pH range from 2 to 12. EGFETs with melanin deposited on ITO and on gold substrates showed sensitivities ranging from 31.3 mV/pH to 48.9 mV/pH, depending on the melanin precursor and the substrate used. The pH detection is associated with specific binding sites in its structure, hydroxyl groups and quinone imine.

  14. Surface Passivation by Quantum Exclusion Using Multiple Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A semiconductor device has a multilayer doping to provide improved passivation by quantum exclusion. The multilayer doping includes at least two doped layers fabricated using MBE methods. The dopant sheet densities in the doped layers need not be the same, but in principle can be selected to be the same sheet densities or to be different sheet densities. The electrically active dopant sheet densities are quite high, reaching more than 1.times.10.sup.14 cm.sup.-2, and locally exceeding 10.sup.22 per cubic centimeter. It has been found that silicon detector devices that have two or more such dopant layers exhibit improved resistance to degradation by UV radiation, at least at wavelengths of 193 nm, as compared to conventional silicon p-on-n devices.

  15. Surfactant-associated bacteria in the near-surface layer of the ocean.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Naoko; Vella, Kate; Hamilton, Bryan; Shivji, Mahmood; Soloviev, Alexander; Matt, Silvia; Tartar, Aurélien; Perrie, William

    2016-01-01

    Certain marine bacteria found in the near-surface layer of the ocean are expected to play important roles in the production and decay of surface active materials; however, the details of these processes are still unclear. Here we provide evidence supporting connection between the presence of surfactant-associated bacteria in the near-surface layer of the ocean, slicks on the sea surface, and a distinctive feature in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery of the sea surface. From DNA analyses of the in situ samples using pyrosequencing technology, we found the highest abundance of surfactant-associated bacterial taxa in the near-surface layer below the slick. Our study suggests that production of surfactants by marine bacteria takes place in the organic-rich areas of the water column. Produced surfactants can then be transported to the sea surface and form slicks when certain physical conditions are met. This finding has potential applications in monitoring organic materials in the water column using remote sensing techniques. Identifying a connection between marine bacteria and production of natural surfactants may provide a better understanding of the global picture of biophysical processes at the boundary between the ocean and atmosphere, air-sea exchange of greenhouse gases, and production of climate-active marine aerosols. PMID:26753514

  16. Surfactant-associated bacteria in the near-surface layer of the ocean

    PubMed Central

    Kurata, Naoko; Vella, Kate; Hamilton, Bryan; Shivji, Mahmood; Soloviev, Alexander; Matt, Silvia; Tartar, Aurélien; Perrie, William

    2016-01-01

    Certain marine bacteria found in the near-surface layer of the ocean are expected to play important roles in the production and decay of surface active materials; however, the details of these processes are still unclear. Here we provide evidence supporting connection between the presence of surfactant-associated bacteria in the near-surface layer of the ocean, slicks on the sea surface, and a distinctive feature in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery of the sea surface. From DNA analyses of the in situ samples using pyrosequencing technology, we found the highest abundance of surfactant-associated bacterial taxa in the near-surface layer below the slick. Our study suggests that production of surfactants by marine bacteria takes place in the organic-rich areas of the water column. Produced surfactants can then be transported to the sea surface and form slicks when certain physical conditions are met. This finding has potential applications in monitoring organic materials in the water column using remote sensing techniques. Identifying a connection between marine bacteria and production of natural surfactants may provide a better understanding of the global picture of biophysical processes at the boundary between the ocean and atmosphere, air-sea exchange of greenhouse gases, and production of climate-active marine aerosols. PMID:26753514

  17. Surface structure and surface kinetics of InN grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy: A HREELS study

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, Ananta R. E-mail: anantaach@gmail.com; Thoms, Brian D.; Nepal, Neeraj; Eddy, Charles R.

    2015-03-15

    The surface bonding configuration and kinetics of hydrogen desorption from InN grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy have been investigated. High resolution electron energy loss spectra exhibited loss peaks assigned to a Fuchs–Kliewer surface phonon, N-N and N-H surface species. The surface N-N vibrations are attributed to surface defects. The observation of N-H but no In-H surface species suggested N-terminated InN. Isothermal desorption data were best fit by the first-order desorption kinetics with an activation energy of (0.88 ± 0.06) eV and pre-exponential factor of (1.5 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 5 }s{sup −1}.

  18. Turbulence effects on concentration statistics in the atmospheric surface layer

    SciTech Connect

    Biltoft, C.; Bowers, J.; Yee, E.; Klewicki, J.; Metzger, M.

    1996-12-31

    The dispersion of windborne material released near the earth`s surface is strongly influenced by this impenetrable boundary, which inhibits downward mixing and creates sharp vertical gradients in wind, temperature, turbulence. These strong gradients and the continuous creation of turbulence at the surface cause a rapid evolution of the vertical concentration structure for material released into the atmospheric surface layer (ASL). Recent developments in fast-response instrumentation and an increased realization of potential hazards from the release of common industrial chemicals into the ASL have led to a series of tripartite (US, UK, Canada) field experiments at the US Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This paper contains a preliminary analysis of the data from the most recent follow-on experiments, which included measurements of the vertical profiles of mean and peak concentrations.

  19. Linear stability of a layered fluid with mobile surface plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffett, B. A.; Gable, C. W.; O'Connell, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    We develop a general method of calculating the linear stability of a fluid with homogeneous layers that is heated from below. The method employs a propagator technique to obtain expressions for the fluid velocity, stress, and temperature. The principal advantage of the method is the ease with which solutions are adapted to a wide variety of boundary conditions and fluid properties. We demonstrate the utility of the method using three examples which quantify the effects of (1) rheological layering, (2) mobile plates at the surface, and (3) multiple phase transitions. Each example is presented in the context of Earth's mantle. In the first example, we predict that convection becomes confined to the upper mantle once the viscosity increase between the upper and lower mantle exceeds a factor of 2000, consistent with the nonlinear calculations of Davies (1977). In the second example we find that the heat flux variations in a convecting fluid with variably sized, surface plates can be attributed, in part, to changes in the critical Rayleigh number. The linear stability of a fluid with multiple phase transitions is significantly affects by the locations of the transitions. We find that phase transitions have their largest effect when they are located at the center of the fluid layer and become much less important when they are located near the exterior boundaries.

  20. Summer surface layer thermal response to surface gravity waves in the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Han, Guijun; Wang, Dongxiao; Deng, Zengan; Li, Wei

    2012-07-01

    The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) with generalized coordinate system (POMgcs) is used to study the summer surface-layer thermal response to surface gravity waves in the Yellow Sea (YS). The parameterization schemes of wave breaking developed by Mellor and Blumberg (J Phys Oceanogr 34:693-698, 2004) and Kantha and Clayson (Ocean Model 6:101-124, 2004), respectively, and Stokes production developed by Kantha and Clayson (Ocean Model 6:101-124, 2004) are both included in the Mellor-Yamada turbulence closure model Mellor and Yamada (Rev Geophys 20:851-875, 1982) of POMgcs. Numerical results show that surface gravity waves impact the depth of surface mixed layer of temperature in the YS in summer. The surface mixed layer in the YS cannot be reproduced well and has a visible difference from the observation if the parameterization schemes are not included. A diagnostic analysis of turbulent kinetic energy suggests that both Stokes production and wave breaking play key roles in enhancing the turbulent mixing near the sea surface in the YS. Stokes production seems to have a greater impact throughout the upper mixed layer in the YS in summer than that of wave breaking. In addition, a diagnostic analysis of the momentum balance shows that Coriolis-Stokes forcing has a significant effect on the momentum budget in the upper layer in the YS, and surface gravity waves are able to reduce the velocity of mean flow near the surface and make the mean flow near the surface more homogeneous vertically in the YS.

  1. Soil moisture sensor calibration for organic soil surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bircher, S.; Andreasen, M.; Vuollet, J.; Vehviläinen, J.; Rautiainen, K.; Jonard, F.; Weihermüller, L.; Zakharova, E.; Wigneron, J.-P.; Kerr, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper's objective is to present generic calibration functions for organic surface layers derived for the soil moisture sensors Decagon ECH2O 5TE and Delta-T ThetaProbe ML2x, using material from northern regions, mainly from the Finish Meteorological Institute's Arctic Research Center in Sodankylä and the study area of the Danish Center for Hydrology HOBE. For the Decagon 5TE sensor such a function is currently not reported in literature. Data were compared with measurements from underlying mineral soils including laboratory and field measurements. Shrinkage and charring during drying were considered. For both sensors all field and lab data showed consistent trends. For mineral layers with low soil organic matter (SOM) content the validity of the manufacturer's calibrations was demonstrated. Deviating sensor outputs in organic and mineral horizons were identified: for the Decagon 5TE apparent relative permittivities at a given moisture content decreased for increased SOM content, which was attributed to an increase of bound water in organic materials with large surface areas compared to the studied mineral soils. ThetaProbe measurements from organic horizons showed stronger non-linearity in the sensor response and signal saturation in the high level data. The derived calibration fit functions between sensor response and volumetric water content hold for samples spanning a wide range of humus types with differing SOM characteristics. This strengthens confidence in their validity under various conditions, rendering them highly suitable for large-scale applications in remote sensing and land surface modeling studies. Agreement between independent Decagon 5TE and ThetaProbe time series from an organic surface layer at the Sodankylä site was significantly improved when the here proposed fit functions were used. Decagon 5TE data also well-reflected precipitation events. Thus, Decagon 5TE network data from organic surface layers at the Sodankylä and HOBE sites are

  2. Soil moisture sensor calibration for organic soil surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bircher, Simone; Andreasen, Mie; Vuollet, Johanna; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Jonard, François; Weihermüller, Lutz; Zakharova, Elena; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Kerr, Yann H.

    2016-04-01

    This paper's objective is to present generic calibration functions for organic surface layers derived for the soil moisture sensors Decagon ECH2O 5TE and Delta-T ThetaProbe ML2x, using material from northern regions, mainly from the Finnish Meteorological Institute's Arctic Research Center in Sodankylä and the study area of the Danish Center for Hydrology (HOBE). For the Decagon 5TE sensor such a function is currently not reported in the literature. Data were compared with measurements from underlying mineral soils including laboratory and field measurements. Shrinkage and charring during drying were considered. For both sensors all field and lab data showed consistent trends. For mineral layers with low soil organic matter (SOM) content the validity of the manufacturer's calibrations was demonstrated. Deviating sensor outputs in organic and mineral horizons were identified. For the Decagon 5TE, apparent relative permittivities at a given moisture content decreased for increased SOM content, which was attributed to an increase of bound water in organic materials with large specific surface areas compared to the studied mineral soils. ThetaProbe measurements from organic horizons showed stronger nonlinearity in the sensor response and signal saturation in the high-level data. The derived calibration fit functions between sensor response and volumetric water content hold for samples spanning a wide range of humus types with differing SOM characteristics. This strengthens confidence in their validity under various conditions, rendering them highly suitable for large-scale applications in remote sensing and land surface modeling studies. Agreement between independent Decagon 5TE and ThetaProbe time series from an organic surface layer at the Sodankylä site was significantly improved when the here-proposed fit functions were used. Decagon 5TE data also well-reflected precipitation events. Thus, Decagon 5TE network data from organic surface layers at the Sodankylä and

  3. Atmospheric surface and boundary layers of the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garstang, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Three phases of work were performed: design of and preparation for the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2-A); execution of the ABLE 2-A field program; and analysis of the ABLE 2-A data. Three areas of experiment design were dealt with: surface based meteorological measurements; aircraft missions; and project meteorological support. The primary goal was to obtain a good description of the structure of the atmosphere immediately above the rain forest canopy (top of canopy to a few thousand meters), to describe this region during the growing daytime phase of the boundary layer; and to examine the nighttime stratified state. A secondary objective was to examine the role that deep convective storms play in the vertical transport of heat, water vapor, and other trace gases. While significant progress was made, much of the analysis remains to be done.

  4. Seaglider observations of surface mixed layer physics and biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damerell, Gillian; Heywood, Karen; Thompson, Andrew; Henson, Stephanie; Rumyantseva, Anya

    2013-04-01

    The Ocean Surface Mixing, Ocean Sub-mesoscale Interaction Study (OSMOSIS) aims to develop new, physically-based parameterisations of processes that deepen and shoal the ocean surface boundary layer. As part of this project, 2 Seagliders were deployed in September 2012 at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) site in the North Atlantic, to measure the structure and evolution of the ocean surface boundary layer over the seasonal cycle. The gliders measured temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, dive-averaged currents, chlorophyll fluorescence, CDOM fluorescence and PAR. We present results from the first 6 months of the Seaglider deployments, examining particular case studies of deepening/shoaling events and their impact on the biogeochemistry. Shoaling events appear to be more abrupt than deepening events. We also discuss the water masses found in the area, in particular, the occurrences of Mediterranean Water observed at a depth of approximately 800 m. As a contribution to the GROOM project, we assess the advantages and challenges of maintaining a continuous glider-based multidisciplinary observing system at the PAP site, with 2 gliders being turned around approximately every 4 months.

  5. Oblique surface Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averkov, Yu. O.; Yakovenko, V. M.; Yampol'skii, V. A.; Nori, Franco

    2013-02-01

    We have theoretically studied oblique surface waves (OSWs) which propagate along the interface between a dielectric and a layered superconductor. We assume that this interface is perpendicular to the superconducting layers, and OSWs at the interface can propagate at an arbitrary angle with respect to them. The electromagnetic field of the OSWs in a layered superconductor is a superposition of an ordinary wave (with its electric field parallel to the layers) and an extraordinary wave (with its magnetic field parallel to the layers). We have derived the dispersion equation for the OSWs and shown that the dispersion curves have end points where the extraordinary mode transforms from evanescent wave to bulk wave, propagating deep into the superconductor. In addition, we have analytically solved the problem of the resonance excitation of the OSWs by the attenuated-total-reflection method using an additional dielectric prism. Due to the strong current anisotropy in the boundary of the superconductor, the excitation of the OSWs is accompanied by an additional important phenomenon: The electromagnetic field component with the orthogonal polarization appears in the wave reflected from the bottom of the prism. We show that, for definite optimal combinations of the problem parameters (the wave frequency, the direction of the incident wave vector, the thickness of the gap between dielectric prism and superconductor, etc.), there is a complete suppression of the reflected wave with its polarization coinciding with the polarization of the incident wave. Contrary to the isotropic case, this phenomenon can be observed even in the dissipationless limit. In such a regime, the complete transformation of the incident wave into a reflected wave with orthogonal polarization can be observed.

  6. Characteristics of turbulent structures in the unstable atmospheric surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schols, J. L. J.; Jansen, A. E.; Krom, J. G.

    1985-10-01

    An atmospheric surface-layer (ASL) experiment conducted at a meteorological site in the Oostelijk-Flevoland polder of the Netherlands is described. Turbulent fluctuations of wind velocity, air temperature and static pressure were measured, using three 10 m towers. Simultaneous turbulent signals at several heights on the towers were used to investigate the properties of the turbulent structures which contribute most significantly to the turbulent vertical transports in the unstable ASL. These turbulent structures produce between 30 and 50% of the mean turbulent vertical transport of horizontal alongwind momentum and they contribute to between 40 and 50% of the mean turbulent vertical heat transport; in both cases this occurs during 15 to 20% of the total observation time. The translation speed of the turbulent structures equals the wind speed averaged over the depth of the ASL, which scales on the surface friction velocity. The inclination angle of the temperature interface at the upstream edge of the turbulent structures to the surface is significantly smaller than that of the internal shear layer, which is associated with the temperature interface. The turbulent structures in the unstable ASL are determined by a large-scale temperature field: Convective motions, which encompass the whole depth of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), penetrate into the ASL. The curvature of the vertical profile of mean horizontal alongwind velocity forces the alignment of the convective cells in the flow direction (Kuettner, 1971), which have an average length of several hundreds of metres and an average width of a few tens of metres. This mechanism leads to the formation of turbulent structures, which extend throughout the depth of the ASL.

  7. Surface morphology and Raman spectroscopy of thin layers of antimony and bismuth chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luk'yanova, L. N.; Bibik, A. Yu.; Aseev, V. A.; Usov, O. A.; Makarenko, I. V.; Petrov, V. N.; Nikonorov, N. V.; Kutasov, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    The phonon spectra in thin layers of bismuth telluride and solid solutions of Bi2- x Sb x Te3- y Se y of different composition, belonging to three-dimensional topological insulators, have been investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy, and the morphology of an interlayer van der Waals (0001) surface in them has been studied by semicontact atomic force microscopy at room temperature. The analysis of the Raman spectra and the intensity ratio of active and inactive longitudinal optical modes depending on the composition, morphology of the interlayer surface, and thickness of the layers enabled the estimation of the effect of topological surface states of Dirac fermions, associated with the strengthening of the electron-phonon interaction as a result of resonance Raman scattering, and the identification of the compositions, in which the contribution of topological surface states becomes dominant.

  8. Boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponentially stretching surface

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The steady boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponential stretching surface is investigated analytically. The transport equations include the effects of Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter. The highly nonlinear coupled partial differential equations are simplified with the help of suitable similarity transformations. The reduced equations are then solved analytically with the help of homotopy analysis method (HAM). The convergence of HAM solutions are obtained by plotting h-curve. The expressions for velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are computed for some values of the parameters namely, suction injection parameter α, Lewis number Le, the Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt. PMID:22289390

  9. Epitaxially guided assembly of collagen layers on mica surfaces.

    PubMed

    Leow, Wee Wen; Hwang, Wonmuk

    2011-09-01

    Ordered assembly of collagen molecules on flat substrates has potential for various applications and serves as a model system for studying the assembly process. While previous studies demonstrated self-assembly of collagen on muscovite mica into highly ordered layers, the mechanism by which different conditions affect the resulting morphology remains to be elucidated. Using atomic force microscopy, we follow the assembly of collagen on muscovite mica at a concentration lower than the critical fibrillogenesis concentration in bulk. Initially, individual collagen molecules adsorb to mica and subsequently nucleate into fibrils possessing the 67 nm D-periodic bands. Emergence of fibrils aligned in parallel despite large interfibril distances agrees with an alignment mechanism guided by the underlying mica. The epitaxial growth was further confirmed by the formation of novel triangular networks of collagen fibrils on phlogopite mica, whose surface lattice is known to have a hexagonal symmetry, whereas the more widely used muscovite does not. Comparing collagen assembly on the two types of mica at different potassium concentrations revealed that potassium binds to the negatively charged mica surface and neutralizes it, thereby reducing the binding affinity of collagen and enhancing surface diffusion. These results suggest that collagen assembly on mica follows the surface adsorption, diffusion, nucleation, and growth pathway, where the growth direction is determined at the nucleation step. Comparison with other molecules that assemble similarly on mica supports generality of the proposed assembly mechanism, the knowledge of which will be useful for controlling the resulting surface morphologies. PMID:21740026

  10. Molecular orientation of rhodamine dyes on surfaces of layered silicates.

    PubMed

    Bujdák, Juraj; Iyi, Nobuo

    2005-03-17

    Films of the layered silicates fluorohectorite (FH) and saponite (Sap) with various rhodamine dyes were prepared. The dyes with acidic as well as large hydrophobic groups in their molecule were not adsorbed on the surface of FH, which was interpreted in terms of high charge density on the surface of this silicate. All adsorbed dyes formed similar forms, such as isolated cations and H-type molecular aggregates, which were characterized by different spectral properties. Polarized ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy was used for the characterization of the molecular orientation of dye chromophores on the silicate surface. The isolated dye cations and species, which absorbed light at the low energy part of the spectra, were only slightly tilted with respect to the plane of the silicate surface. The cations forming H-aggregates and absorbing light at low wavelengths were oriented in a nearly perpendicular fashion. The nearly perpendicular orientation was observed as a strong increase of dichroic ratio with film tilting. The orientation of the cations in H-aggregates depends partially on the structure of the dye molecule, namely, on the type of amino group (primary, secondary, or tertiary) in the dye molecule. The type of amino groups probably plays a role in the suitable orientation of dye cations for effective electrostatic interaction between the cations and the negatively charged siloxane surface. X-ray powder diffraction could not distinguish dye phases of dye monomers and molecular aggregates. PMID:16851539

  11. Influence of surface forcing on near-surface and mixing layer turbulence in the tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, Adrian H.; Ward, Brian; Vialard, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    An autonomous upwardly-moving microstructure profiler was used to collect measurements of the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy (ε) in the tropical Indian Ocean during a single diurnal cycle, from about 50 m depth to the sea surface. This dataset is one of only a few to resolve upper ocean ε over a diurnal cycle from below the active mixing layer up to the air-sea interface. Wind speed was weak with an average value of ~5 m s-1 and the wave field was swell-dominated. Within the wind and wave affected surface layer (WWSL), ε values were on the order of 10-7-10-6 W kg-1 at a depth of 0.75 m and when averaged, were almost a factor of two above classical law of the wall theory, possibly indicative of an additional source of energy from the wave field. Below this depth, ε values were closer to wall layer scaling, suggesting that the work of the Reynolds stress on the wind-induced vertical shear was the major source of turbulence within this layer. No evidence of persistent elevated near-surface ε characteristic of wave-breaking conditions was found. Profiles collected during night-time displayed relatively constant ε values at depths between the WWSL and the base of the mixing layer, characteristic of mixing by convective overturning. Within the remnant layer, depth-averaged values of ε started decaying exponentially with an e-folding time of 47 min, about 30 min after the reversal of the total surface net heat flux from oceanic loss to gain.

  12. Nanofilms of hyaluronan/chitosan assembled layer-by-layer: An antibacterial surface for Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Montelongo, Jacobo; Nascimento, Vicente F; Murillo, Duber; Taketa, Thiago B; Sahoo, Prasana; de Souza, Alessandra A; Beppu, Marisa M; Cotta, Monica A

    2016-01-20

    In this work, nanofilms of hyaluronan/chitosan (HA/CHI) assembled layer by layer were synthesized; their application as a potential antimicrobial material was demonstrated for the phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative bacterium, here used as a model. For the synthesis, the influence of pH and ionic strength of these natural polymer stem-solutions on final characteristics of the HA/CHI nanofilms was studied in detail. The antibacterial effect was evaluated using widefield fluorescence microscopy. These results were correlated with the chemical properties of the nanofilms, studied by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, as well as with their morphology and surface properties characterized using SEM and AFM. The present findings can be extended to design and optimize HA/CHI nanofilms with enhanced antimicrobial behavior for other type of phytopathogenic gram-negative bacteria species, such as Xanthomonas citri, Xanthomas campestri and Ralstonia solanacearum. PMID:26572322

  13. Effects of spatial variation of skull and cerebrospinal fluid layers on optical mapping of brain activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuping; Shibahara, Nanae; Kuramashi, Daishi; Okawa, Shinpei; Kakuta, Naoto; Okada, Eiji; Maki, Atsushi; Yamada, Yukio

    2010-07-01

    In order to investigate the effects of anatomical variation in human heads on the optical mapping of brain activity, we perform simulations of optical mapping by solving the photon diffusion equation for layered-models simulating human heads using the finite element method (FEM). Particularly, the effects of the spatial variations in the thicknesses of the skull and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layers on mapping images are investigated. Mapping images of single active regions in the gray matter layer are affected by the spatial variations in the skull and CSF layer thicknesses, although the effects are smaller than those of the positions of the active region relative to the data points. The increase in the skull thickness decreases the sensitivity of the images to active regions, while the increase in the CSF layer thickness increases the sensitivity in general. The images of multiple active regions are also influenced by their positions relative to the data points and by their depths from the skin surface.

  14. Trapping surface electrons on graphene layers and islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niesner, D.; Fauster, Th.; Dadap, J. I.; Zaki, N.; Knox, K. R.; Yeh, P.-C.; Bhandari, R.; Osgood, R. M.; Petrović, M.; Kralj, M.

    2012-02-01

    We report the use of time- and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission to map the bound, unoccupied electronic structure of the weakly coupled graphene/Ir(111) system. The energy, dispersion, and lifetime of the lowest three image-potential states are measured. In addition, the weak interaction between Ir and graphene permits observation of resonant transitions from an unquenched Shockley-type surface state of the Ir substrate to graphene/Ir image-potential states. The image-potential-state lifetimes are comparable to those of midgap clean metal surfaces. Evidence of localization of the excited electrons on single-atom-layer graphene islands is provided by coverage-dependent measurements.

  15. Layer by Layer, Nano-particle "Only" Surface Modification of Filtration Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar-Ferrand, Luis

    Layer by Layer (LbL) deposition using primarily inorganic silica nanoparticles is employed for the modification of polymeric micro and ultrafiltration (MF/UF) membranes to produce thin film composites (TFC) with potential nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) capabilities.. A variety of porous substrate membranes with different membrane surface characteristics are employed, but exhibiting in common that wicking of water does not readily occur into the pore structure, including polycarbonate track etched (PCTE), polyethersulfone (PES) and sulfonated PES (SPEES) MF/UF membranes. Both spherical (cationic/anionic) and eccentric elongated (anionic) silica nanoparticles are deposited using conditions similar to those reported by Lee et al. Appropriate selection of the pH's for anionic and cationic particle deposition enables the construction of nanoparticle only layers 100--1200 nm in thickness atop the original membrane substrates. The surface layer thickness varies monotonically with the number of bilayers (anionic/cationic deposition cycles) as expected. The deposition process is optimized to eliminate drying induced cracking and to improve mechanical durability via thickness control and post-deposition hydro-thermal treatment. The hydrodynamic permeability of these TFC membranes is measured to evaluate their performance under typical NF operating conditions using dead-end permeation experiments and their performance compared quantitatively with realistic hydrodynamic models, with favorable results. For track etched polycarbonate MF substrates, surface modification causes a permeability reduction of approximately two orders of magnitude with respect to the bare substrates, to values comparable to those for typical commercial NF membranes. Good quantitative agreement with hydrodynamic models with no adjustable parameters was also established for this case, providing indirect confirmation that the LbL deposited surface layers are largely defect (crack) free

  16. In vivo Measurement of the Mouse Pulmonary Endothelial Surface Layer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yimu; Yang, Gaoqing; Schmidt, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    The endothelial glycocalyx is a layer of proteoglycans and associated glycosaminoglycans lining the vascular lumen. In vivo, the glycocalyx is highly hydrated, forming a substantial endothelial surface layer (ESL) that contributes to the maintenance of endothelial function. As the endothelial glycocalyx is often aberrant in vitro and is lost during standard tissue fixation techniques, study of the ESL requires use of intravital microscopy. To best approximate the complex physiology of the alveolar microvasculature, pulmonary intravital imaging is ideally performed on a freely-moving lung. These preparations, however, typically suffer from extensive motion artifact. We demonstrate how closed-chest intravital microscopy of a freely-moving mouse lung can be used to measure glycocalyx integrity via ESL exclusion of fluorescently-labeled high molecular weight dextrans from the endothelial surface. This non-recovery surgical technique, which requires simultaneous brightfield and fluorescent imaging of the mouse lung, allows for longitudinal observation of the subpleural microvasculature without evidence of inducing confounding lung injury. PMID:23462690

  17. Thin-Layer Chromatography: Four Simple Activities for Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, Jamil; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that can be used to introduce thin-layer chromatography at the undergraduate level in relatively less developed countries and that can be performed with very simple and commonly available apparati in high schools and colleges. Activities include thin-layer chromatography with a test-tube, capillary feeder, burette, and rotating…

  18. Active Flow Control on a Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorton, Susan Althoff; Owens, Lewis R.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Allan, Brian G.; Schuster, Ernest P.

    2004-01-01

    Boundary layer ingestion (BLI) is explored as means to improve overall system performance for Blended Wing Body configuration. The benefits of BLI for vehicle system performance benefit are assessed with a process derived from first principles suitable for highly-integrated propulsion systems. This performance evaluation process provides framework within which to assess the benefits of an integrated BLI inlet and lays the groundwork for higher-fidelity systems studies. The results of the system study show that BLI provides a significant improvement in vehicle performance if the inlet distortion can be controlled, thus encouraging the pursuit of active flow control (AFC) as a BLI enabling technology. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet distortion was assessed using a 6% scale model of a 30% BLI offset, diffusing inlet. The experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel with a model inlet designed specifically for this type of testing. High mass flow pulsing actuators provided the active flow control. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion was determined by 120 total pressure measurements located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum freestream Mach number of 0.15 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the pulsed actuation can reduce distortion from 29% to 4.6% as measured by the circumferential distortion descriptor DC60 using less than 1% of inlet mass flow. Closed loop control of the actuation was also demonstrated using a sidewall surface static pressure as the response sensor.

  19. Sporadic E-Layers and Meteor Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimov, Obid

    2016-07-01

    In average width it is difficult to explain variety of particularities of the behavior sporadic layer Es ionospheres without attraction long-lived metallic ion of the meteoric origin. Mass spectrometric measurements of ion composition using rockets indicate the presence of metal ions Fe+, Mg+, Si+, Na+, Ca+, K+, Al+ and others in the E-region of the ionosphere. The most common are the ions Fe+, Mg+, Si+, which are primarily concentrated in the narrow sporadic layers of the ionosphere at altitudes of 90-130 km. The entry of meteoric matter into the Earth's atmosphere is a source of meteor atoms (M) and ions (M +) that later, together with wind shear, produce midlatitude sporadic Es layer of the ionosphere. To establish the link between sporadic Es layer and meteoroid streams, we proceeded from the dependence of the ionization coefficient of meteors b on the velocity of meteor particles in different meteoroid streams. We investigated the dependence of the critical frequency f0Es of sporadic E on the particle velocity V of meteor streams and associations. It was established that the average values of f0Es are directly proportional to the velocity V of meteor streams and associations, with the correlation coefficient of 0.53 < R < 0.74. Thus, the critical frequency of the sporadic layer Es increases with the increase of particle velocity V in meteor streams, which indicates the direct influence of meteor particles on ionization of the lower ionosphere and formation of long-lived metal atoms M and ions M+ of meteoric origin.

  20. Real-time assessment of surface interactions with titanium passivation layer by surface plasmon resonance

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Isao; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; Hiasa, Kyou; Abe, Yasuhiko; Maekawa, Kenji; Kuboki, Takuo; Akagawa, Yasumasa; Suzuki, Kazuomi; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Messersmith, Phillip B.; Okazaki, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    The high corrosion resistance and strength-to-density ratio makes titanium widely used in major industry, but also in a gamut of medical applications. Here we report for the first time on our development of a titanium passivation layer sensor that makes use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The deposited titanium metal layer on the sensor was passivated in air, like titanium medical devices. Our ‘Ti-SPR sensor’ enables analysis of biomolecules interactions with the passivated surface of titanium in real time. As a proof of concept, corrosion of titanium passivation layer exposed to acid was monitored in real time. Also, the Ti-SPR sensor can accurately measure the time-dependence of protein adsorption onto titanium passivation layer with a sub-nanogram per square millimeter accuracy. Besides such SPR analyses, an SPR-imaging (SPRI) enables real-time assessment of chemical surface processes that occur simultaneously at ‘multiple independent spots’ on the Ti-SPR sensor, such as acid-corrosion or adhesion of cells. Our Ti-SPR sensor will therefore be very useful to study titanium-corrosion phenomena and biomolecular titanium-surface interactions with application in a broad range of industrial and biomedical fields. PMID:22154862

  1. Crystalline Bacterial Surface Layer (S-Layer) Opens Golden Opportunities for Nanobiotechnology in Textiles.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Narges; Chand, Nima; Rassa, Mehdi

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on the successful recrystallization of bacterial S-layer arrays of the Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 at textile surfaces to create a novel method and material. Optimum bacterial growth was obtained at approximately 45 °C, pH 5.0, and 14 h pi. The cells were resuspended in guanidine hydrochloride and the 43 kDa S-protein was dialyzed and purified. The optimum reassembly on the polypropylene fabric surface in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), reflectance, and uniformity (spectrophotometry) was obtained at 30 °C, pH 5.0 for 30 minutes in the presence of 2 gr/l (liquor ratio; 1:40) of the S-protein. Overall, our data showed that the functional aspects and specialty applications of the fabric would be very attractive for the textile and related sciences, and result in advanced technical textiles. PMID:26552090

  2. Production and cell surface display of recombinant anthrax protective antigen on the surface layer of attenuated Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-chun; Yuan, Sheng-ling; Tao, Hao-xia; Wang, Ling-chun; Zhang, Zhao-shan; Liu, Chun-jie

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the surface display of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) on attenuated Bacillus anthracis, a recombinant B. anthracis strain, named AP429 was constructed by integrating into the chromosome a translational fusion harboring the DNA fragments encoding the cell wall-targeting domain of the S-layer protein EA1 and the anthrax PA. Crerecombinase action at the loxP sites excised the antibiotic marker. Western blot analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that PA was successfully expressed on the S-layer of the recombinant antibiotic marker-free strain. Notwithstanding extensive proteolytic degradation of the hybrid protein SLHs-PA, quantitative ELISA revealed that approximately 8.1 × 10(6) molecules of SLHs-PA were gained from each Bacillus cell. Moreover, electron microscopy assay indicated that the typical S-layer structures could be clearly observed from the recombinant strain micrographs. PMID:25504373

  3. Application of Satellite SAR Imagery in Mapping the Active Layer of Arctic Permafrost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ting-Jun; Li, Shu-Sun

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to map the spatial variation of the active layer over the arctic permafrost in terms of two parameters: (i) timing and duration of thaw period and (ii) differential frost heave and thaw settlement of the active layer. To achieve this goal, remote sensing, numerical modeling, and related field measurements are required. Tasks for the University of Colorado team are to: (i) determine the timing of snow disappearance in spring through changes in surface albedo (ii) simulate the freezing and thawing processes of the active layer and (iii) simulate the impact of snow cover on permafrost presence.

  4. Using of standard marine radar for determination of a water surface and an atmosphere near-surface layer parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatov, Nikolay A.; Bakhanov, Victor V.; Ermoshkin, Aleksei V.; Kazakov, Vasily I.; Kemarskaya, Olga N.; Titov, Victor I.; Troitskaya, Yulia I.

    2014-10-01

    At present time radar methods of the seas and oceans diagnostics are actively developing. Using of the radar stations based on satellites and planes allows to receive information on a sea surface and a atmosphere near-surface layer with coverage of big water surface areas independently of day time. The developed methods of satellite radio images processing can be applied to marine radar stations. In Institute of Applied Physics RAS works on sea surface diagnostics systems development on the basis of standard marine radar are actively conducted. Despite smaller coverage of the territory in comparison with satellite data, marine radar have possibility to record spatially temporary radar images and to receive information on a surrounding situation quickly. This work deals with results of the researches which were conducted within the international expedition in the Atlantic Ocean in the autumn of 2012 on a route Rotterdam (Netherlands) - Ushuaya (Argentina) - Antarctica — Ushuaya. During this expedition a complex measurements of a sea surface, a atmosphere near-surface layer parameters and subsurface currents in the wide range of hydroweather conditions, including the storm were carried out. The system developed in IAP RAS on the basis of a marine radar ICOM MR-1200RII and the ADC (Analog Digital Converter) block for data recording on the personal computer was used. Display of a non-uniform near-surface current on sea surface radar images in storm conditions is shown. By means of the high-speed anemometer and meteorological station the measurements of the atmosphere parameters were carried out. Comparison of the anemometer data with calculated from radar images is carried out. Dependence of radar cross section from wind speed in the wide range of wind speeds, including storm conditions is investigated. Possibility of marine radar using for surface waves intensity and ice situation estimates also as icebergs detection is shown.

  5. Association of Kidney Function with Changes in the Endothelial Surface Layer

    PubMed Central

    Dane, Martijn J.C.; Khairoun, Meriem; Lee, Dae Hyun; van den Berg, Bernard M.; Eskens, Bart J.M.; Boels, Margien G.S.; van Teeffelen, Jurgen W.G.E.; Rops, Angelique L.W.M.M.; van der Vlag, Johan; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Reinders, Marlies E.J.; Vink, Hans; Rabelink, Ton J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives ESRD is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. Because the endothelial glycocalyx (endothelial surface layer) governs interactions between flowing blood and the vessel wall, perturbation could influence disease progression. This study used a novel noninvasive sidestream–darkfield imaging method, which measures the accessibility of red blood cells to the endothelial surface layer in the microcirculation (perfused boundary region), to investigate whether renal function is associated with endothelial surface layer dimensions. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Perfused boundary region was measured in control participants (n=10), patients with ESRD (n=23), participants with normal kidney function after successful living donor kidney transplantation (n=12), and patients who developed interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy after kidney transplantation (n=10). In addition, the endothelial activation marker angiopoietin-2 and shed endothelial surface layer components syndecan-1 and soluble thrombomodulin were measured using ELISA. Results Compared with healthy controls (1.82±0.16 µm), ESRD patients had a larger perfused boundary region (+0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.46 to <0.01; P<0.05), which signifies loss of endothelial surface layer dimensions. This large perfused boundary region was accompanied by higher circulating levels of syndecan-1 (+57.71; 95% confidence interval, 17.38 to 98.04; P<0.01) and soluble thrombomodulin (+12.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.29 to 25.46; P<0.001). After successful transplantation, the perfused boundary region was indistinguishable from healthy controls (without elevated levels of soluble thrombomodulin or syndecan-1). In contrast, however, patients who developed interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy showed a large perfused boundary region (+0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.63; P<0.01) and higher levels of endothelial activation markers. In addition, a significant correlation

  6. Formation of layers of methane in the atmosphere of Mars after surface release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viscardy, S.; Daerden, F.; Neary, L.

    2016-03-01

    Simulations with a general circulation model for the atmosphere of Mars show that surface emissions of methane can result in a highly nonuniform vertical distribution throughout the atmosphere, including the formation of layers, during the first weeks after the release. The fate of the released methane is determined by the global circulation pattern at the time of the release, and the methane can be transported to locations over the planet that are remote from the emission site. It typically takes several weeks for the methane to become more uniformly mixed, implying that the detection of vertical layers of methane can be indicative of recent surface emission. This puts the existing observations in a new perspective and will allow instruments on the upcoming ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission to detect signatures of surface emission activity as they are designed to measure the first vertical profiles of methane on Mars.

  7. Exploring the bronzing effect at the surface of ink layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébert, Mathieu; Mallet, Maxime; Deboos, Alexis; Chavel, Pierre; Kuang, Deng-Feng; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Besbes, Mondher; Cazier, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the optical phenomenon responsible for the colored shine that sometimes appears at the surface of ink layers in the specular direction, often called bronzing or gloss differential. It seems to come from the wavelength-dependent refractive index of the ink, which induces a wavelength-dependent reflectance of the ink-air interface. Our experiments on cyan and magenta inkjet inks confirm this theory. Complex refractive indices can be obtained from measurements of the spectral reflectance and transmittance of a transparency film coated with the ink. We propose a correction of the classical Clapper-Yule model in order to include the colored gloss in the prediction of the spectral reflectance of an inked paper. We also explored effects of scattering by the micrometric or nanometric roughness of the ink surface. The micrometric roughness, easy to model with a geometrical optics model, can predict the spreading of the colored gloss over a large cone. Electromagnetic models accounting for the effect of the nanometric roughness of the surface also predict the attenuation of short wavelengths observed under collimated illumination.

  8. Modelling boundary layer flow over barnacle-fouled surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadique, Jasim; Yang, Xiang; Meneveau, Charles; Mittal, Rajat

    2014-11-01

    Macro-biofouling is a critical concern for the marine industry. However, there is little data on flow and drag over such surfaces. Accurate modelling of such multi-scale flows remains a big challenge. Such simulations are vital in providing insights into the fundamental flow physics, and they can be used to estimate the timing, need and effectiveness of measures used to counteract bio-fouling. This talk focuses on the use of a sharp-interface immersed boundary method coupled with a wall model and large-eddy simulations to carry out accurate simulations of a turbulent boundary layer flow over macro-fouled surfaces. For the current study, high resolution scans of barnacles were used to create simple geometrical representations. Simulations were then carried out to test how well these simpler geometric models mimic the flow over actual barnacles. Simulations of array of modeled barnacles, with different barnacle densities have also been carried out and we present results on the effect distribution density on the flow physics and drag on the surfaces. This work is funded by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0582.

  9. Surface plasma source with anode layer plasma accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim

    2012-02-15

    Proposed plasma generation system can be used for high current negative ion beam production and for directed deposition by flux of sputtered neutrals and negative ions. The main mechanism of negative ion formation in surface plasma sources is the secondary emission from low work function surface bombarded by a flux of positive ion or neutrals. The emission of negative ions is enhanced significantly by introducing a small amount of cesium or other substance with low ionization potential. In the proposed source are used positive ions generated by Hall drift plasma accelerator (anode layer plasma accelerator or plasma accelerator with insulated channel, with cylindrical or race track configuration of emission slit). The target-emitter is bombarded by the ion beam accelerated in crossed ExB fields. Negative ions are extracted from the target surface with geometrical focusing and are accelerated by negative voltage applied between emitter and plasma, contacting with the plasma accelerator. Hall drift ion source has a special design with a space for passing of the emitted negative ions and sputtered particles through the positive ion source.

  10. Can mobilization of the coarse surface layer release fine sediment trapped beneath the surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wydzga, M. A.; Venditti, J. G.; Dunne, T.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. EPA estimates that 40 percent of U.S. rivers are ecologically impaired by sedimentation. On dam- controlled rivers that are impaired by sedimentation, flushing flows with the potential to flush the fine sediments are commonly prescribed to improve ecological conditions. One goal of these flushing flows is to mobilize the riverbed's coarse surface layer and thus to create the potential to release fine sediment trapped beneath the surface. Given the economical value of water, releasing flows large enough to generate shear stresses adequate to mobilize the coarse surface can be difficult. Gravel augmentation using fine gravel has been recently demonstrated as a viable alternative to mobilizing coarse surface layers. This occurs because sheets of fine gravel smooth the bed, increasing the local shear stress available to move the grains. Does the mobilization of the coarse surface layer by fine gravel increase the depth to which fines are selectively removed or decrease the amount of fine sediment in the bed subsurface? To answer this question we conducted two series of laboratory experiments designed to flush or selectively remove fine sediment from the bed subsurface in a 28 m long and 0.86 m wide gravel-bedded flume channel. Before each experiment, we fed fine sediment (2,000 g/min; D50 = 0.4 mm) into the flume to saturate the gravel bed (D50 = 10 mm). The flow during the infiltration period was competent to transport the sand as bedload but not to suspend it (Q = 0.05 m3/s). In the first series of experiments, we attempted to flush the fine sediment from a non-mobile bed with a steady flow that was not competent to mobilize the coarse surface layer (Q = 0.205 m3/s). In the second set of experiments, the magnitude (Q = 0.205 m3/s) and duration of the flow conditions were the same; however, we fed fine gravel into the flume that moved thru the flume as bedload sheets and mobilized the coarse surface layer. After each experiment, we photographed the bed

  11. The theoretical model of atmospheric turbulence spectrum in surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shida; Liu, Shikuo; Xin, Guojun; Liang, Fuming

    1994-12-01

    It is shown that the slope of energy spectrum obtained from the velocity solution of Kdv—Burgers equation lies between —5/3 and—2 in the dilogarithmic coordinates paper. The spectrum is very close to one of Kolmogorov's isotropic turbulence and Frisch's intermittent turbulence in inertial region. In this paper, the Kdv-Burgers equation to describe atmospheric boundary layer turbulence is obtained. In the equation, the 1 / R e corresponds to dissipative coefficient v, R /2 t to dispersive coefficient β, then ( v/2 β)2 corresponds to 1 / R 2 e • Ri. We prove that the wave number corresponding to maximum energy spectrum S(k) decreases with the decrease of stability (i.e., the increase of ( v / 2 β)2 in eddy—containing region. And the spectrim amplitude decreases with the increase of ( v / 2 β)2 (i.e., the decrease of stability). These results are consistent with actual turbulence spectrum of atmospheric surface layer from turbulence data.

  12. GYROSCOPIC PUMPING IN THE SOLAR NEAR-SURFACE SHEAR LAYER

    SciTech Connect

    Miesch, Mark S.; Hindman, Bradley W.

    2011-12-10

    We use global and local helioseismic inversions to explore the prevailing dynamical balances in the solar near-surface shear layer (NSSL). The differential rotation and meridional circulation are intimately linked, with a common origin in the turbulent stresses of the upper solar convection zone. The existence and structure of the NSSL cannot be attributed solely to the conservation of angular momentum by solar surface convection, as is often supposed. Rather, the turbulent angular momentum transport accounts for the poleward meridional flow while the often overlooked meridional force balance is required to maintain the mid-latitude rotational shear. We suggest that the base of the NSSL is marked by a transition from baroclinic to turbulent stresses in the meridional plane which suppress Coriolis-induced circulations that would otherwise establish a cylindrical rotation profile. The turbulent angular momentum transport must be nondiffusive and directed radially inward. Inferred mean flows are consistent with the idea that turbulent convection tends to mix angular momentum but only if the mixing efficiency is inhomogeneous and/or anisotropic. The latitudinal and longitudinal components of the estimated turbulent transport are comparable in amplitude and about an order of magnitude larger than the vertical component. We estimate that it requires 2%-4% of the solar luminosity to maintain the solar NSSL against the inertia of the mean flow. Most of this energy is associated with the turbulent transport of angular momentum out of the layer, with a spin-down timescale of {approx}600 days. We also address implications of these results for numerical modeling of the NSSL.

  13. Gyroscopic Pumping in the Solar Near-surface Shear Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miesch, Mark S.; Hindman, Bradley W.

    2011-12-01

    We use global and local helioseismic inversions to explore the prevailing dynamical balances in the solar near-surface shear layer (NSSL). The differential rotation and meridional circulation are intimately linked, with a common origin in the turbulent stresses of the upper solar convection zone. The existence and structure of the NSSL cannot be attributed solely to the conservation of angular momentum by solar surface convection, as is often supposed. Rather, the turbulent angular momentum transport accounts for the poleward meridional flow while the often overlooked meridional force balance is required to maintain the mid-latitude rotational shear. We suggest that the base of the NSSL is marked by a transition from baroclinic to turbulent stresses in the meridional plane which suppress Coriolis-induced circulations that would otherwise establish a cylindrical rotation profile. The turbulent angular momentum transport must be nondiffusive and directed radially inward. Inferred mean flows are consistent with the idea that turbulent convection tends to mix angular momentum but only if the mixing efficiency is inhomogeneous and/or anisotropic. The latitudinal and longitudinal components of the estimated turbulent transport are comparable in amplitude and about an order of magnitude larger than the vertical component. We estimate that it requires 2%-4% of the solar luminosity to maintain the solar NSSL against the inertia of the mean flow. Most of this energy is associated with the turbulent transport of angular momentum out of the layer, with a spin-down timescale of ~600 days. We also address implications of these results for numerical modeling of the NSSL.

  14. Artist's rendering of Lunar Surface Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Lunar Surface Activities: Instruments erected on the surface are a seismometer to record any subsurface activity of the Moon, a laser reflector, a solar wind collector, and possibly an antenna for improving communications and television picture transmission.

  15. Active unjamming of confluent cell layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, M. Cristina

    Cell motion inside dense tissues governs many biological processes, including embryonic development and cancer metastasis, and recent experiments suggest that these tissues exhibit collective glassy behavior. Motivated by these observations, we have studied a model of dense tissues that combines self-propelled particle models and vertex models of confluent cell layers. In this model, referred to as self-propelled Voronoi (SPV), cells are described as polygons in a Voronoi tessellation with directed noisy cell motility and interactions governed by a shape energy that incorporates the effects of cell volume incompressibility, contractility and cell-cell adhesion. Using this model, we have demonstrated a new density-independent solid-liquid transition in confluent tissues controlled by cell motility and a cell-shape parameter measuring the interplay of cortical tension and cell-cell adhesion. An important insight of this work is that the rigidity and dynamics of cell layers depends sensitively on cell shape. We have also used the SPV model to test a new method developed by our group to determine cellular forces and tissue stresses from experimentally accessible cell shapes and traction forces, hence providing the spatio-temporal distribution of stresses in motile dense tissues. This work was done with Dapeng Bi, Lisa Manning and Xingbo Yang. MCM was supported by NSF-DMR-1305184 and by the Simons Foundation.

  16. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeong Y.; Aliaga, Cesar; Renzas, J. Russell; Lee, Hyunjoo; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-12-17

    We report the catalytic activity of colloid platinum nanoparticles synthesized with different organic capping layers. On the molecular scale, the porous organic layers have open spaces that permit the reactant and product molecules to reach the metal surface. We carried out CO oxidation on several platinum nanoparticle systems capped with various organic molecules to investigate the role of the capping agent on catalytic activity. Platinum colloid nanoparticles with four types of capping layer have been used: TTAB (Tetradecyltrimethylammonium Bromide), HDA (hexadecylamine), HDT (hexadecylthiol), and PVP (poly(vinylpyrrolidone)). The reactivity of the Pt nanoparticles varied by 30%, with higher activity on TTAB coated nanoparticles and lower activity on HDT, while the activation energy remained between 27-28 kcal/mol. In separate experiments, the organic capping layers were partially removed using ultraviolet light-ozone generation techniques, which resulted in increased catalytic activity due to the removal of some of the organic layers. These results indicate that the nature of chemical bonding between organic capping layers and nanoparticle surfaces plays a role in determining the catalytic activity of platinum colloid nanoparticles for carbon monoxide oxidation.

  17. Water Surface Ripples Generated by the Turbulent Boundary Layer of a Surface-Piercing Moving Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washuta, N.; Masnadi, N.; Duncan, J. H.

    2014-11-01

    Free surface ripples created by subsurface turbulence along a surface-piercing moving wall are studied experimentally. In this experiment, a meter-wide stainless steel belt travels horizontally in a loop around two rollers with vertically oriented axes, which are separated by 7.5 meters. One of the two 7.5-m-long belt sections between the rollers is in contact with the water in a large open-surface water tank and the water level is adjusted so that the top of the belt pierces the water free surface. The belt is launched from rest with a 3 g acceleration in order to quickly reach a steady state velocity. This belt motion creates a temporally evolving boundary layer analogous to the spatially evolving boundary layer created along the side of a ship hull moving at the belt velocity, with a length equivalent to the length of belt that has passed the measurement region. The water surface ripples generated by the subsurface turbulence are measured in a plane normal to the belt using a cinematic LIF technique. It is found that the overall RMS surface fluctuations increase linearly with belt speed and that the spatial distributions of the fluctuations show a sharp increase near the wall. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. The North Atlantic surface layer and the shallow overturning circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busecke, Julius; Gordon, Arnold L.

    2014-05-01

    gradient might be a mechanism for seasonally enhanced mesoscale turbulence, which could be important for the seasonal mixed layer budget as well as interannual variability in surface properties within the SSS-max.

  19. Novel routes for direct preparation of surface-modifying polyelectrolyte layers and patterned polymer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankhe, Amit Y.

    The focus of this research was on the use of surface-confined atom transfer radical polymerization (SC-ATRP) for growing surface-tethered brushes of electrolytic or charged monomers on solid substrates. The use of SC-ATRP to produce well-defined polymer brushes from monomers with non-ionic functionalities in aprotic solvents has been well documented. Although it is possible to produce PE brushes by postpolymerization chemical conversion of some neutral brushes, this approach limits the types of PE brushes that can be produced and uses organic solvents. Thus, to more widely open the design envelope in terms of types of PE brushes that can be made and to reduce the use of organic solvents, it would be beneficial to directly synthesize PE brushes using more environmentally friendly, "green" solvents, such as water, for the reaction media. But the direct ATRP of hydrophilic monomers with ionic groups presents new challenges due to the complex interactions of the charged monomers and water with the ATRP catalyst. In this dissertation, I report findings on SC-ATRP of charged monomers such as itaconic acid (IA), methacrylic acid (MAA) and sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (SS) in aqueous solutions. Surface-tethered polyelectrolyte brushes comprised of poly(itaconic acid) (PIA), poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) and poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) were grown using surface-confined atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The surface-tethered initiator monolayer was formed by self-assembling 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide terminated thiol molecules on gold coated silicon substrates. This polymerization initiator molecule and a copper-based organometallic catalyst allowed tethered polyelectrolyte chains to be grown via radical polymerization at room temperature in aqueous solutions. To suppress consumption of the ATRP deactivator, a halide salt was added to the reaction mixture, which enabled controlled growth of the polyelectrolyte layers. Phase-modulated ellipsometry was used to follow

  20. Thin hydroxyapatite surface layers on titanium produced by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, H.; Bethge, K.; Bilger, G.; Jones, D.; Symietz, I.

    2002-11-01

    In medicine metallic implants are widely used as hip replacement protheses or artificial teeth. The biocompatibility is in all cases the most important requirement. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is frequently used as coating on metallic implants because of its high acceptance by the human body. In this paper a process is described by which a HAp surface layer is produced by ion implantation with a continuous transition to the bulk material. Calcium and phosphorus ions are successively implanted into titanium under different vacuum conditions by backfilling oxygen into the implantation chamber. Afterwards the implanted samples are thermally treated. The elemental composition inside the implanted region was determined by nuclear analysis methods as (α,α) backscattering and the resonant nuclear reaction 1H( 15N,αγ) 12C. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate the formation of HAp. In addition a first biocompatibility test was performed to compare the growing of marrow bone cells on the implanted sample surface with that of titanium.

  1. Turbulent boundary layer over a convergent and divergent superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2015-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of spatially developing turbulent boundary layer (TBL) over a convergent and divergent superhydrophobic surface (SHS) was performed. The convergent and divergent SHS was aligned in the streamwise direction. The SHS was modeled as a pattern of slip and no-slip surfaces. For comparison, DNS of TBL over a straight SHS was also carried out. The momentum thickness Reynolds number was varied from 800 to 1400. The gas fraction of the convergent and divergent SHS was the same as that of the straight SHS, keeping the slip area constant. The slip velocity in the convergent SHS was higher than that of the straight SHS. An optimal streamwise length of the convergent and divergent SHS was obtained. The convergent and divergent SHS gave more drag reduction than the straight SHS. The convergent and divergent SHS led to the modification of near wall-turbulent structures, resembling the narrowing and widening streaky structures near the wall. The convergent and divergent SHS had a relatively larger damping effect on near-wall turbulence than the straight SHS. These observations will be further analyzed statistically to demonstrate the effect of the convergent and divergent SHS on the interaction of inner and outer regions of TBL.

  2. Regional-scale evaluation of a land surface scheme from atmospheric boundary layer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noilhan, J.; Donier, S.; LacarrèRe, P.; Sarrat, C.; Le Moigne, P.

    2011-01-01

    The study describes an evaluation of three configurations of the Interactions Soil-Biosphere-Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface scheme fully coupled with the Meso-NH mesoscale atmospheric model. The ability of the modeling system to correctly reproduce the screen-level variables as well as the boundary layer characteristics is examined for more than 30 clear convective days monitored during the CERES 2005 and 2007 field campaigns. For the horizontal resolution considered (8 km), this study shows that the boundary layer characteristics and the low-level variables are better simulated when the subgrid-scale surface process variability is simulated explicitly using the so-called "tiling method." An additional improvement is brought when the CO2 diurnal cycle is used interactively because of the physical link between the stomatal conductance used both for CO2 assimilation and plant transpiration. The parameterization of this link between CO2 and evaporation fluxes improves the simulation of the Bowen ratio and therefore of the atmospheric boundary layer. The last part of the paper discusses the realism of the simulated regional field of CO2 when the carbon configuration is activated in the mesoscale model. Large regional variability of CO2 within the atmospheric boundary layer is found in response to the spatial and seasonal variability of CO2 surface fluxes with respect to the three main land covers in the area: pine forest, extensive winter (wheat), and summer (maize) crops.

  3. Kinetics of Ion Transport in Perovskite Active Layers and Its Implications for Active Layer Stability.

    PubMed

    Bag, Monojit; Renna, Lawrence A; Adhikari, Ramesh Y; Karak, Supravat; Liu, Feng; Lahti, Paul M; Russell, Thomas P; Tuominen, Mark T; Venkataraman, D

    2015-10-14

    Solar cells fabricated using alkyl ammonium metal halides as light absorbers have the right combination of high power conversion efficiency and ease of fabrication to realize inexpensive but efficient thin film solar cells. However, they degrade under prolonged exposure to sunlight. Herein, we show that this degradation is quasi-reversible, and that it can be greatly lessened by simple modifications of the solar cell operating conditions. We studied perovskite devices using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with methylammonium (MA)-, formamidinium (FA)-, and MA(x)FA(1-x) lead triiodide as active layers. From variable temperature EIS studies, we found that the diffusion coefficient using MA ions was greater than when using FA ions. Structural studies using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) show that for MAPbI3 a structural change and lattice expansion occurs at device operating temperatures. On the basis of EIS and PXRD studies, we postulate that in MAPbI3 the predominant mechanism of accelerated device degradation under sunlight involves thermally activated fast ion transport coupled with a lattice-expanding phase transition, both of which are facilitated by absorption of the infrared component of the solar spectrum. Using these findings, we show that the devices show greatly improved operation lifetimes and stability under white-light emitting diodes, or under a solar simulator with an infrared cutoff filter or with cooling. PMID:26414066

  4. Surface layer ozone and nitric oxides in the Arctic: The inuence of boundary layer dynamics, snowpack chemistry, surface exchanges, and seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Brie A.

    The snowpack is a region of active chemistry. Aqueous chemistry in a quasi-liquid layer on snow grains and gas-phase chemical reactions in snow interstitial air can lead to the production or destruction of important trace gases. Physical transport parameters such as wind pumping and diffusion affect the vertical distribution of gases within the snowpack. The resulting emission or uptake of trace gases at the atmosphere-snowpack interface can have significant in uence on the chemistry of the lower atmosphere. In this work the dynamic interactions between the snowpack and atmosphere are examined from multiple perspectives. The primary focus is on ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the Arctic, a region undergoing widespread environmental change. To investigate an ice-sheet location with year round snow cover, data from a two-year campaign at Summit, Greenland are implemented. At Summit this study examines (1) the processes contributing to vigorous chemistry in snow interstitial air, and (2) the role of the boundary layer over snow in determining surface layer NOx. Physical and chemical processes are shown to contribute to distinct seasonal and diurnal cycles of O3, NO, and NO2 in the snowpack. Boundary layer depths estimated from sonic anemometer turbulence quantities are used alongside sodar-derived values to show that the depth of the stable to weakly stable boundary layer at Summit was not a primary factor in determining NO x in early summer. Motivated by observations of an increase in the length of the snow-free season in the Arctic in recent decades, data from a one-year experiment at the seasonally-snow covered location of Toolik Lake, AK are also incorporated. This study shows the first observations of springtime ozone depletion events at a location over 200 km from the coast in the Arctic. FLEXPART analysis is used to illustrate that these inland events are linked to transport conditions. Lastly at this location, eddy-covariance O3 uxes were calculated to

  5. Improving ice nucleation activity of zein film through layer-by-layer deposition of extracellular ice nucleators.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ke; Yu, Hailong; Lee, Tung-Ching; Huang, Qingrong

    2013-11-13

    Zein protein has been of scientific interest in the development of biodegradable functional food packaging. This study aimed at developing a novel zein-based biopolymer film with ice nucleation activity through layer-by-layer deposition of biogenic ice nucleators, that is, extracellular ice nucleators (ECINs) isolated from Erwinia herbicola , onto zein film surface. The adsorption behaviors and mechanisms were investigated using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). On unmodified zein surface, the highest ECINs adsorption occurred at pH 5.0; on UV/ozone treated zein surface followed by deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) layer, the optimum condition for ECINs adsorption occurred at pH 7.0 and I 0.05 M, where the amount of ECINs adsorbed was also higher than that on unmodified zein surface. QCM-D analyses further revealed a two-step adsorption process on unmodified zein surfaces, compared to a one-step adsorption process on PDADMAC-modified zein surface. Also, significantly, in order to quantify the ice nucleation activity of ECINs-coated zein films, an empirical method was developed to correlate the number of ice nucleators with the ice nucleation temperature measured by differential scanning calorimetry. Calculated using this empirical method, the highest ice nucleation activity of ECINs on ECINs-modified zein film reached 64.1 units/mm(2), which was able to elevate the ice nucleation temperature of distilled water from -15.5 °C to -7.3 °C. PMID:24106783

  6. Reduction of microbial contamination on the surfaces of layer houses using slightly acidic electrolyzed water.

    PubMed

    Ni, L; Cao, W; Zheng, W C; Zhang, Q; Li, B M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) in reducing pathogens on pure cultures and on cotton fabric surfaces in the presence of organic matter and estimate its efficacy in comparison with povidone iodine solution for reducing pathogenic microorganisms on internal surfaces of layer houses. Pure cultures of E.coli, S.enteritidis, and S.aureus and cotton fabric surfaces inoculated with these strains were treated with SAEW in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). In the absence of BSA, complete inactivation of all strains in pure cultures and on cotton fabric surfaces was observed after 2.5 and 5 min treatment with SAEW at 40 mg/L of available chlorine concentration (ACC), respectively. The bactericidal efficiency of SAEW increased with increasing ACC, but decreased with increasing BSA concentration. Then, the surfaces of the layer houses were sprayed with SAEW at 60, 80, and 100 mg/L of ACC and povidone iodine using the automated disinfection system at a rate of 110 mL/m(2), respectively. Samples from the floor, wall, feed trough, and egg conveyor belt surfaces were collected with sterile cotton swabs before and after spraying disinfection. Compared to tap water, SAEW and povidone iodine significantly reduced microbial populations on each surface of the layer houses. SAEW with 80 or 100 mg/L of ACC showed significantly higher efficacy than povidone iodine for total aerobic bacteria, staphylococci, coliforms, or yeasts and moulds on the floor and feed trough surfaces (P < 0.05). SAEW was more effective than povidone iodine at reducing total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and yeasts and moulds on the wall surface. Additionally, SAEW had similar bactericidal activity with povidone iodine on the surface of the egg conveyor belt. Results suggest that SAEW exerts a higher or equivalent bactericidal efficiency for the surfaces compared to povidone iodine, and it may be used as an effective alternative

  7. Extending the Diffuse Layer Model of Surface Acidity Constant Behavior: IV. Diffuse Layer Charge/Potential Relationships

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most current electrostatic surface complexation models describing ionic binding at the particle/water interface rely on the use of Poisson - Boltzmann (PB) theory for relating diffuse layer charge densities to diffuse layer electrostatic potentials. PB theory is known to contain ...

  8. Microhydrodynamics of flotation processes in the sea surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammatika, Marianne; Zimmerman, William B.

    2001-10-01

    The uppermost surface of the ocean forms a peculiarly important ecosystem, the sea surface microlayer (SML). Comprising the top 1-1000 μm of the ocean surface, the SML concentrates many chemical substances, particularly those that are surface active. Important economically as a nursery for fish eggs and larvae, the SML unfortunately is also especially vulnerable to pollution. Contaminants that settle out from the air, have low solubility, or attach to floatable matter tend to accumulate in the SML. Bubbles contribute prominently to the dynamics of air-sea exchanges, playing an important role in geochemical cycling of material in the upper ocean and SML. In addition to the movement of bubbles, the development of a bubble cloud interrelates with the single particle dynamics of all other bubbles and particles. In the early sixties, several in situ oceanographic techniques revealed an "unbelievably immense" number of coastal bubbles of radius 15-300 μm. The spatial and temporal variation of bubble numbers were studied; acoustical oceanographers now use bubbles as tracers to determine ocean processes near the ocean surface. Sea state and rain noises have both been definitively ascribed to the radiation from huge numbers of infant micro bubbles [The Acoustic Bubble. Academic Press, San Diego]. Our research programme aims at constructing a hydrodynamic model for particle transport processes occurring at the microscale, in multi-phase flotation suspensions. Current research addresses bubble and floc microhydrodynamics as building blocks for a microscale transport model. This paper reviews sea surface transport processes in the microlayer and the lower atmosphere, and identifies those amenable to microhydrodynamic modelling and simulation. It presents preliminary simulation results including the multi-body hydrodynamic mobility functions for the modelling of "dynamic bubble filters" and floc suspensions. Hydrodynamic interactions versus spatial anisotropy and size of

  9. The Effect of Freestream Turbulence on a Rough Surface Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzek, Brian; Torres-Nieves, Sheilla; Lebron-Bosques, Jose; Cal, Raul; Meneveau, Charles; Castillo, Luciano

    2007-11-01

    Measurements are performed in the Stanley Corrsin Wind Tunnel Facility at The Johns Hopkins University to study the effects of freestream turbulence on a rough surface turbulent boundary layer. The upstream turbulence was generated with the use of an active grid, resulting in freestream turbulence levels of 6.2 % and 5.2 %. The effects of the freestream turbulence on this rough surface, alter the mean velocity deficit profiles. The effects of freestream turbulence are identifiable in the streamwise Reynolds stress profiles throughout the entire boundary layer, but not necessarily for the wall-normal and shear stress profiles. The reduced velocity gradient reduced the production term in the streamwise Reynolds stress despite the increase in the profiles. Thus, an important mechanism becomes the turbulent diffusion from the freestream turbulence as it relates to the Reynolds stress equations.

  10. Observation of ice-like water layers at an aqueous protein surface

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Konrad; Strazdaite, Simona; DeVries, Arthur L.; Lotze, Stephan; Olijve, Luuk L. C.; Voets, Ilja K.; Bakker, Huib J.

    2014-01-01

    We study the properties of water at the surface of an antifreeze protein with femtosecond surface sum frequency generation spectroscopy. We find clear evidence for the presence of ice-like water layers at the ice-binding site of the protein in aqueous solution at temperatures above the freezing point. Decreasing the temperature to the biological working temperature of the protein (0 °C to −2 °C) increases the amount of ice-like water, while a single point mutation in the ice-binding site is observed to completely disrupt the ice-like character and to eliminate antifreeze activity. Our observations indicate that not the protein itself but ordered ice-like water layers are responsible for the recognition and binding to ice. PMID:25468976

  11. Observation of ice-like water layers at an aqueous protein surface.

    PubMed

    Meister, Konrad; Strazdaite, Simona; DeVries, Arthur L; Lotze, Stephan; Olijve, Luuk L C; Voets, Ilja K; Bakker, Huib J

    2014-12-16

    We study the properties of water at the surface of an antifreeze protein with femtosecond surface sum frequency generation spectroscopy. We find clear evidence for the presence of ice-like water layers at the ice-binding site of the protein in aqueous solution at temperatures above the freezing point. Decreasing the temperature to the biological working temperature of the protein (0 °C to -2 °C) increases the amount of ice-like water, while a single point mutation in the ice-binding site is observed to completely disrupt the ice-like character and to eliminate antifreeze activity. Our observations indicate that not the protein itself but ordered ice-like water layers are responsible for the recognition and binding to ice. PMID:25468976

  12. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio-degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser-print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running-in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  13. Sporadic Layer es and Siesmic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimov, Obid; Blokhin, Alexandr; Kalashnikova, Tatyana

    2016-07-01

    To determine the influence of seismogenic disturbances on the calm state of the iono-sphere and assess the impact of turbulence development in sporadic-E during earthquake prepa-ration period we calculated the variation in the range of semitransparency ∆fES = f0ES - fbES. The study was based primarily on the ionograms obtained by vertical sounding of the ionosphere at Dushanbe at nighttime station from 15 to 29 August 1986. In this time period four successive earthquakes took place, which serves the purpose of this study of the impact of seis-mogenic processes on the intensity of the continuous generation of ionospheric turbulence. Analysis of the results obtained for seismic-ionospheric effects of 1986 earthquakes at station Dushanbe has shown that disturbance of ionospheric parameters during earthquake prepa-ration period displays a pronounced maximum with a duration of t = 1-6 hours. Ionospheric effects associated with the processes of earthquake preparation emerge quite predictably, which verifies seismogenic disturbances in the ionosphere. During the preparation of strong earthquakes, ionograms of vertical sounding produced at station Dushanbe - near the epicenter area - often shown the phenomenon of spreading traces of sporadic Es. It is assumed that the duration of manifestation of seismic ionospheric precursors in Du-shanbe τ = 1 - 6 hours may be associated with deformation processes in the Earth's crust and var-ious faults, as well as dissimilar properties of the environment of the epicentral area. It has been shown that for earthquakes with 4.5 ≤ M ≤ 5.5 1-2 days prior to the event iono-spheric perturbations in the parameters of the sporadic layer Es and an increase in the value of the range of semitransparency Es - ΔfEs were observed, which could lead to turbulence at altitudes of 100-130 km.

  14. Surface defect states in MBE-grown CdTe layers

    SciTech Connect

    Olender, Karolina; Wosinski, Tadeusz; Fronc, Krzysztof; Tkaczyk, Zbigniew; Chusnutdinow, Sergij; Karczewski, Grzegorz

    2014-02-21

    Semiconductor surface plays an important role in the technology of semiconductor devices. In the present work we report results of our deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) investigations of surface defect states in nitrogen doped p-type CdTe layers grown by the molecular-beam epitaxy technique. We observed a deep-level trap associated with surface states, with the activation energy for hole emission of 0.33 eV. DLTS peak position in the spectra for this trap, and its ionization energy, strongly depend on the electric field. Our measurements allow to determine a mechanism responsible for the enhancement of hole emission rate from the traps as the phonon-assisted tunnel effect. Density of surface defect states significantly decreased as a result of passivation in ammonium sulfide. Capacitance-voltage measurements confirmed the results obtained by the DLTS technique.

  15. Surface-layer protein from Caulobacter crescentus: expression, purification and X-ray crystallographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael D; Chan, Anson C K; Nomellini, John F; Murphy, Michael E P; Smit, John

    2016-09-01

    Protein surface layers are self-assembling, paracrystalline lattices on the surface of many prokaryotes. Surface-layer proteins have not benefited from widespread structural analysis owing to their resistance to crystallization. Here, the successful expression of a truncated version of RsaA, the surface-layer protein from Caulobacter crescentus, from a Caulobacter protein-expression system is reported. The purification, crystallization and initial X-ray diffraction analysis of the truncated RsaA, the largest surface-layer protein studied to date and the first from a Gram-negative bacterium, are also reported. PMID:27599857

  16. Enrichment and association of lead and bacteria at particulate surfaces in a salt-marsh surface layer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.; Lion, Leonard W.; Young, L.Y.; Leckie, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    The particle-laden surface layer (approx 150-370 mu m) and subsurface waters of a South San Francisco Bay salt marsh were sampled over 2 tidal cycles and analyzed for particle numbers and particulate-associated and total concentrations of Pb and bacteria. Laboratory studies examined the ability of a bacterial isolate from the surface layer and a bacterial 'film-former' to sorb Pb at environmentally significant concentrations in seawater. Degrees by which Pb concentrated in the surface layer relative to the subsurface strongly correlated with enrichments of surface layer bacteria (bacterioneuston). A significant fraction of the bacterioneuston and surface layer Pb were associated with particles. Particle-bound bacterioneuston may interact with Pb at particulate surfaces in this microenvironment.

  17. The surface and through crack problems in layered orthotropic plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, Fazil; Wu, Binghua

    1991-01-01

    An analytical method is developed for a relatively accurate calculation of Stress Intensity Factors in a laminated orthotropic plate containing a through or part-through crack. The laminated plate is assumed to be under bending or membrane loading and the mode 1 problem is considered. First three transverse shear deformation plate theories (Mindlin's displacement based first-order theory, Reissner's stress-based first-order theory, and a simple-higher order theory due to Reddy) are reviewed and examined for homogeneous, laminated and heterogeneous orthotropic plates. Based on a general linear laminated plate theory, a method by which the stress intensity factors can be obtained in orthotropic laminated and heterogeneous plates with a through crack is developed. Examples are given for both symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated plates and the effects of various material properties on the stress intensity factors are studied. In order to implement the line-spring model which is used later to study the surface crack problem, the corresponding plane elasticity problem of a two-bonded orthotropic plated containing a crack perpendicular to the interface is also considered. Three different crack profiles: an internal crack, an edge crack, and a crack terminating at the interface are considered. The effect of the different material combinations, geometries, and material orthotropy on the stress intensity factors and on the power of stress singularity for a crack terminating at the interface is fully examined. The Line Spring model of Rice and Levy is used for the part-through crack problem. The surface crack is assumed to lie in one of the two-layered laminated orthotropic plates due to the limitation of the available plane strain results. All problems considered are of the mixed boundary value type and are reduced to Cauchy type of singular integral equations which are then solved numerically.

  18. Dual Nature of Heat Flux in Stable Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, P.; Sharan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The behavior of heat flux (H) with respect to the stability parameter (ζ) in stable surface layer (SSL) is analyzed with in the framework of Monin-Obukhov similarity (MOS) theory. The analytical expressions of H are obtained as functions of wind speed (U) and wind shear (dU/dz) using the linear similarity functions and accordingly two cases, (i) U = δ (constant) and (ii) dU/dz = δ are considered. The mathematical analysis shows that the magnitude of H increases with ζ till it attains a maximum value at ζ =ζc and then starts decreasing with increasing stability suggesting the dual characteristic of heat flux with stability parameter. The point of maximum heat flux is found to be dependent on the roughness length (z0) as well as the height above the surface. An attempt has been made to analyze the sensitivity of this dual characteristic of H with ζ using the non-linear similarity functions. The analysis shows that the dual nature of H persists in the case of linear as well as non-linear similarity functions. However, the point of extremum appears to be dependent on the nature of the similarity functions. Turbulent data over a tropical site Ranchi (India) is analyzed to validate the observed nature of H with the theoretical nature as predicted by MOS. The analysis of observational data reveals the non-existence of any preferred stability state in SSL as speculated by Wang and Bras (2010, 2011) and supports the conclusions of Malhi 1995, Derbyshire 1999, van de Wiel et al. 2007, Basu et al. 2008, and van de Wiel et al. 2011. Thus, the non-uniqueness of MOS equations does not appear to be a mathematical artifact and it is consistent with the observations as far as the nature of heat flux with respect to stability parameter in SSL is concerned.

  19. Layer by layer removal of Au atoms from passivated Au(111) surfaces using the scanning tunneling microscope: Nanoscale ``paint stripping''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keel, J. M.; Yin, J.; Guo, Q.; Palmer, R. E.

    2002-04-01

    Layer by layer removal of gold atoms from the (111) surface of gold has been performed using the scanning tunneling microscope. The process is made possible by a chemisorbed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of dodecanethiol molecules on the surface, which gives rise to a reduced bonding strength between the top two layers of gold atoms. The gold atoms and associated adsorbed molecules are peeled off and displaced laterally by the STM tip, and the size of the modified area (down to ˜10×10 nm) is more or less determined by the scan size.

  20. Surface Passivation by Quantum Exclusion Using Multiple Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A semiconductor device has a multilayer doping to provide improved passivation by quantum exclusion. The multilayer doping includes a plurality M of doped layers, where M is an integer greater than 1. The dopant sheet densities in the M doped layers need not be the same, but in principle can be selected to be the same sheet densities or to be different sheet densities. M-1 interleaved layers provided between the M doped layers are not deliberately doped (also referred to as "undoped layers"). Structures with M=2, M=3 and M=4 have been demonstrated and exhibit improved passivation.

  1. Analysis of Charge Carrier Transport in Organic Photovoltaic Active Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2015-03-01

    We present a systematic analysis of charge carrier transport in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices based on phenomenological, deterministic charge carrier transport models. The models describe free electron and hole transport, trapping, and detrapping, as well as geminate charge-pair dissociation and geminate and bimolecular recombination, self-consistently with Poisson's equation for the electric field in the active layer. We predict photocurrent evolution in devices with active layers of P3HT, P3HT/PMMA, and P3HT/PS, as well as P3HT/PCBM blends, and photocurrent-voltage (I-V) relations in these devices at steady state. Charge generation propensity, zero-field charge mobilities, and trapping, detrapping, and recombination rate coefficients are determined by fitting the modeling predictions to experimental measurements. We have analyzed effects of the active layer morphology for layers consisting of both pristine drop-cast films and of nanoparticle (NP) assemblies, as well as effects on device performance of insulating NP doping in conducting polymers and of specially designed interlayers placed between an electrode and the active layer. The model predictions provide valuable input toward synthesis of active layers with prescribed morphology that optimize OPV device performance.

  2. Patterning of gold nanoparticles on fluoropolymer films by using patterned surface grafting and layer-by-layer deposition techniques.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chang-Hee; Hwang, In-Tae; Jung, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jae-Hak; Kwon, Oh-Sun; Shin, Kwanwoo

    2013-09-11

    The patterning of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on the surface of a fluoropolymer substrate by using patterned surface grafting and layer-by-layer deposition techniques is described. The surface of a poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluorovinyl ether) (PFA) substrate was selectively implanted with 150 keV proton ions. Peroxide groups were successfully formed on the implanted PFA surface, and their concentration depended on the fluence. Acrylic acid was graft polymerized onto the implanted regions of the PFA substrate, resulting in well-defined patterns of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) on the PFA substrate. The surface properties of the PAA-patterned PFA surface, such as chemical compositions, wettability, and morphology, were investigated. The surface analysis results revealed that PAA was definitely present on the implanted regions of the PFA surface, and the degree of grafting was dependent on three factors: fluence, grafting time, and monomer concentration. Furthermore, GNP patterns were generated on the prepared PAA-patterned PFA surface by layer-by-layer deposition of GNPs and poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride). The multilayers of GNPs were deposited only onto the PAA-grafted regions separated by bare PFA regions, and the resulting GNP patterns exhibited good electrical conductivity. PMID:23927646

  3. Surface pressure fluctuations in hypersonic turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    The surface pressure fluctuations on a flat plate model at hypersonic Mach numbers of 5.2, 7.4 and 10.4 with an attached turbulent boundary layer were measured using flush mounted small piezoelectric sensors. A high frequency resolution of the pressure field was achieved using specially designed small piezoelectric sensors that had a good frequency response well above 300 KHz. The RMS pressures and non-dimensional energy spectra for all above Mach numbers are presented. The convective velocities, obtained from space time correlation considerations are equal to 0.7 U sub infinity. The results indicate the RMS pressures vary from 5 to 25 percent of the mean static pressures. The ratios of RMS pressure to dynamic pressure are less than the universally accepted subsonic value of 6 x 10/3. The ratio decreases in value as the Mach number or the dynamic pressure is increased. The ratio of RMS pressure to wall shear for Mach number 7.4 satisfies one smaller than or equal to p/tau sub w smaller than or equal to three.

  4. Planetary boundary layer response to surface temperature anomalies forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, Xavier; Lapeyre, Guillaume; Plougonven, Riwal

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies showed that strong sea surface temperature (SST) fronts, on the scale of the western boundary currents, strongly affect the planetary boundary layer (PBL) but also all the troposphere. This renewed the interest of air-sea interactions at oceanic meso-scales. Mainly two mechanisms are proposed in the literature, the first one (due to Wallace et al 1989) is based on the destabilization of the PBL above SST anomalies, the second one (Lindzen and Nigam 1987) is based on the pressure anomalies linked to the atmosphere temperature adjustment to the SST. These two mechanisms predict different responses of the PBL to the SST. We did numerical simulations with a meso-scale atmospheric model (WRF) with the same configuration as the one described in Lambert et al 2013. The model is forced by a SST anomaly which is first a zonally or meridionally constant field and secondly a field of meso-scale structures. Firstly we studied the influence of the initial wind strength on the PBL response for the two different types of SST anomalies. We showed that the dominant mechanism can change according to weak or strong wind and to the orientation of the SST anomaly. Secondly after considering a dry atmosphere we switched on the humidity in our configuration. We studied how it influences the PBL response and whether the mechanism driving the PBL response is still the same as in the dry case.

  5. Annual dynamics within the active layer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    We have continued our meteorological and hydrologic data collection in support of our process-oriented research. The six years of data collected to date is unique in its scope and continuity in a North Hemisphere Arctic setting. This valuable data base has allowed us to further our understanding of the interconnections and interactions between the atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere. The increased understanding of the heat and mass transfer processes has allowed us to increase our model-oriented research efforts. Examples of applications are the following. (1) Spring snowmelt on the North Slope of Alaska is the dominant hydrologic event of the year. This event provides most of the moisture for use by vegetation in the spring and early summer period. The mechanisms and timing of snowmelt are important factors in predicting runoff, the migrations of birds and large mammals and the diversity of plant communities. It is important globally due to the radical and abrupt change in the surface energy balance over vast areas. (2) We were able to explore the trends and differences in the snowmelt process along a transect from the Brooks Range to the Arctic Coastal plain. Snowpack ablation was monitored at three sites. These data were analyzed along with meteorologic data at each site. The initiation of ablation was site specific being largely controlled by the complementary addition of energy from radiation and sensible heat flux.

  6. Galvanostatic interruption of lithium insertion into magnetite: Evidence of surface layer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Nicholas W.; Knehr, K. W.; Cama, Christina A.; Lininger, Christianna N.; Lin, Zhou; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.; West, Alan C.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetite is a known lithium intercalation material, and the loss of active, nanocrystalline magnetite can be inferred from the open-circuit potential relaxation. Specifically, for current interruption after relatively small amounts of lithium insertion, the potential first increases and then decreases, and the decrease is hypothesized to be due to a formation of a surface layer, which increases the solid-state lithium concentration in the remaining active material. Comparisons of simulation to experiment suggest that the reactions with the electrolyte result in the formation of a thin layer of electrochemically inactive material, which is best described by a nucleation and growth mechanism. Simulations are consistent with experimental results observed for 6, 8 and 32-nm crystals. Furthermore, simulations capture the experimental differences in lithiation behavior between the first and second cycles.

  7. Galvanostatic interruption of lithium insertion into magnetite: Evidence of surface layer formation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nicholas W. Brady; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Knehr, K. W.; Cama, Christina A.; Lininger, Christianna N.; Lin, Zhou; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; West, Alan C.

    2016-05-05

    Magnetite is a known lithium intercalation material, and the loss of active, nanocrystalline magnetite can be inferred from the open-circuit potential relaxation. Specifically, for current interruption after relatively small amounts of lithium insertion, the potential first increases and then decreases, and the decrease is hypothesized to be due to a formation of a surface layer, which increases the solid-state lithium concentration in the remaining active material. Comparisons of simulation to experiment suggest that the reactions with the electrolyte result in the formation of a thin layer of electrochemically inactive material, which is best described by a nucleation and growth mechanism.more » Simulations are consistent with experimental results observed for 6, 8 and 32-nm crystals. As a result, simulations capture the experimental differences in lithiation behavior between the first and second cycles.« less

  8. Silica nanoparticles for the layer-by-layer assembly of fully electro-active cytochrome c multilayers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background For bioanalytical systems sensitivity and biomolecule activity are critical issues. The immobilization of proteins into multilayer systems by the layer-by-layer deposition has become one of the favorite methods with this respect. Moreover, the combination of nanoparticles with biomolecules on electrodes is a matter of particular interest since several examples with high activities and direct electron transfer have been found. Our study describes the investigation on silica nanoparticles and the redox protein cytochrome c for the construction of electro-active multilayer architectures, and the electron transfer within such systems. The novelty of this work is the construction of such artificial architectures with a non-conducting building block. Furthermore a detailed study of the size influence of silica nanoparticles is performed with regard to formation and electrochemical behavior of these systems. Results We report on interprotein electron transfer (IET) reaction cascades of cytochrome c (cyt c) immobilized by the use of modified silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) to act as an artificial matrix. The layer-by-layer deposition technique has been used for the formation of silica particles/cytochrome c multilayer assemblies on electrodes. The silica particles are characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Zeta-potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The modified particles have been studied with respect to act as an artificial network for cytochrome c and to allow efficient interprotein electron transfer reactions. We demonstrate that it is possible to form electro-active assemblies with these non-conducting particles. The electrochemical response is increasing linearly with the number of layers deposited, reaching a cyt c surface concentration of about 80 pmol/cm2 with a 5 layer architecture. The interprotein electron transfer through the layer system and the influence of particle size are

  9. Fine-scale wavelike structures in the surface-based turbulent layer at Dome C, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petenko, Igor; Argentini, Stefania; Kallistratova, Margarita; Mastrantonio, Giangiuseppe; Casasanta, Giampietro; Sozzi, Roberto; Conidi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    A long-term experiment to study the spatial and temporal structure of thermal turbulence in the extremely stable boundary layer was carried out at the Concordia station, Dome C in Antarctica during 2012. The atmospheric boundary layer at this site during the winter is strongly stably stratified with temperature inversions reaching a strength 35°C in 100-200 m. Despite high static stability, intense thermal turbulence occurs sometimes in the surface layer extending from the surface to heights of a few - a few tens of metres. The spatial and temporal structure of the turbulence was observed by an advanced high-resolution sodar in the height range from 2 m to 150 m with vertical resolution ≈ 2 m and time resolution of 2 s. The variation and statistics of the depth of the surface-based turbulent layer (STL) is determined for the entire winter period. The median value of the STL depth is found to be l6 m, while the depth of the inversion layer is of 125 m. The wind speed is a parameter that affects the formation and development of the STL. Typical patterns of turbulence structure as shown by the sodar echograms are analysed and classified. Wave activity within the STL is observed for a significant part of the time; the time scales that characterize these undulation processes are determined. Often regular trains of waves with periods of 30-60 s and a periodicity of 5-10 minutes are observed. Some characteristics of the wavelike structures (form, spatial and temporal scales) are determined and the correlation with meteorological parameters is analysed. The Richardson number estimated using the vertical profiles of temperature and wind velocity from the 45-m meteorological tower, indicates that in some cases significant turbulence may occurr even when Ri is larger than the critical value equal to 0.25.

  10. Preparation of Copper and Chromium Alloyed Layers on Pure Titanium by Plasma Surface Alloying Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaojing; Li, Meng; Wang, Huizhen; Zhang, Xiangyu; Tang, Bin

    2015-05-01

    Cu-Cr alloyed layers with different Cu and Cr contents on pure titanium were obtained by means of plasma surface alloying technology. The microstructure, chemical composition and phase composition of Cu-Cr alloyed layers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the alloyed layers are bonded strongly to pure titanium substrate and consist of unbound Ti, CuTi, Cu3Ti, CuTi3 and Cr2Ti. The thickness of Cu5Cr5 and Cu7Cr3 alloyed layer are about 18 μm and 28 μm, respectively. The antibacterial properties against gram-negative Escherichia coli (E.coli, ATCC10536) and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, ATCC6538) of untreated pure titanium and Cu-Cr alloyed specimen were investigated by live/dead fluorescence staining method. The study shows that Cu-Cr alloyed layers exhibit excellent antibacterial activities against both E.coli and S.aureus within 24 h, which may be attributed to the formation of Cu-containing phases.

  11. Modification of surface oxide layers of titanium targets for increasing lifetime of neutron tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, A. M. Dvoichenkova, O. A.; Evsin, A. E.

    2015-12-15

    The peculiarities of interaction of hydrogen ions with a titanium target and its surface oxide layer were studied. Two ways of modification of the surface oxide layers of titanium targets for increasing the lifetime of neutron tubes were proposed: (1) deposition of an yttrium oxide barrier layer on the target surface; (2) implementation of neutron tube work regime in which the target is irradiated with ions with energies lower than 1000 eV between high-energy ion irradiation pulses.

  12. Modification of surface oxide layers of titanium targets for increasing lifetime of neutron tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A. M.; Dvoichenkova, O. A.; Evsin, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    The peculiarities of interaction of hydrogen ions with a titanium target and its surface oxide layer were studied. Two ways of modification of the surface oxide layers of titanium targets for increasing the lifetime of neutron tubes were proposed: (1) deposition of an yttrium oxide barrier layer on the target surface; (2) implementation of neutron tube work regime in which the target is irradiated with ions with energies lower than 1000 eV between high-energy ion irradiation pulses.

  13. Surface-cooling effects on compressible boundary-layer instability, and on upstream influence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seddougui, S. O.; Bowles, R. I.; Smith, F. T.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of surface cooling on compressible boundary-layer instability is discussed theoretically for both viscous and inviscid modes, at high Reynolds numbers, with related questions on upstream influence being considered in an Appendix. The cooling enhances the surface heat transfer and velocity gradient, crating a high-heat-transfer sublayer. This has the effect of distorting and accentuating the viscous Tollmien-Schlichting modes to such an extent that their spatial growth rates becomes comparable with, and can even exceed, the growth rates of inviscid modes, including those found previously. This is for moderate cooling, and it applies at any Mach number. In addition, the moderate cooling destabilizes otherwise stable viscous or inviscid modes, in particular triggering outward-traveling waves at the edge of the boundary layer in the supersonic regime. Severe cooling is also discussed as it brings compressible dynamics directly into play within the viscous sublayer. All the new cooled modes found involve the heat-transfer sublayer quite actively, and they are often multistructured in form and may be distinct from those observed in previous computational and experimental investigations. The corresponding nonlinear processes are also pointed out with regard to transition in the cooled compressible boundary layer. Finally, comparisons with Lysenko and Maslov's (1984) experiments on surface cooling are presented.

  14. Surface science of Cs, CsO and CsI ionic layers on Pt(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drnec, Jakub

    Cesium adsorption on Pt(111) and its coadsorption with iodine and oxygen is studied in this dissertation. The work function during Cs dosing first decreases and at Deltaφ ≈ 3 eV (thetaCs = 0.15) the surface undergoes surface transition between a disordered anomalous state (Pt(111)(anom)-Cs) and islands of a Pt(111)(2x2)-Cs causing a change in the slope of the work function curve. The work function curve reaches minimum at --5.5 eV where the surface is fully covered with the Pt(111)(2 x 2)-Cs structure( thetaCs = 0.25). Further Cs dosing results in a work function increase and the surface undergoes a phase transition to Pt(111)(√3 x√3)-Cs. The Cs saturated structure (Pt(111)(ihcp)-Cs) has an hexagonal symmetry with the unit cell vector aligned with the (1, 0) direction of the substrate. Cs in the anomalous state desorbs from the surface in a high-temperature TDS peak (> 1000 K). When the lock-in TDS detection technique is used, this peak appears to be phase shifted by 180° when compared to the desorption peak of normally adsorbed Cs (thetaCs> 0.15) . This phase shift is a consequence of a positive charge of desorbing Cs. The TDS and work function behavior were explained by a Monte Carlo desorption model incorporating di¤erent desorption behavior for all four observed adsorption phases. When O2 is dosed on a Pt(111)-Cs surface, the maximum coverage of oxygen bonded to the surface is signi.cantly increased in comparison to Pt(111). Anomalously adsorbed Cs activates the O2 bond but does not interact strongly with coadsorbed O. However, when O2 is dosed on Pt(111)(ihcp)-Cs, the oxygen first adsorbs to a sub-layer adsorption site and strongly interacts with Cs. The oxygen in this state is responsible for thermal stabilization of coadsorbed Cs. When iodine is coadsorbed on a Pt(111)-Cs surface, it also strongly interacts with and thermally stabilizes Cs. During the desorption of Cs,I layers, some Cs and I desorb together in the form of a CsxIy cluster. The

  15. Surface coating effect on thermal properties of delithiated lithium nickel manganese layer oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Chang-Heum; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Jae-won; Hitoshi, Yashiro; Myung, Seung-Taek

    2015-05-01

    The thermal stability of electrochemically delithiated bare, silica-coated and silicon phosphate-coated Li0.3[Ni0.7Mn0.3]O2 is studied with in-situ high temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and time of flight-secondary ion spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS). For the three delithiated materials, gradual phase transformation appears in the crystal structure in the temperature range of 25-600 °C: rhombohedral to salt structure via cubic spinel phase, which results from oxygen evolution from the active materials as noticed in TGA. Coating evidently retards the above phase transition toward a high temperature approximately over 40 °C owing to less amount of oxygen release from the crystal structure. This effect appears more prominent in the presence of the silicon phosphate coating layer relative to the silica, presumably due to presence of the Si-P-O covalent character. Also, the surface layer remains up to 600 °C, showing original smooth edges. Therefore, thermal degradation of the active materials is delayed when their surfaces are modified by nanoscale coating layers.

  16. Accurate Sound Velocity Measurement in Ocean Near-Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarralde, D.; Xu, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate sound velocity measurement is essential in oceanography because sound is the only wave that can propagate in sea water. Due to its measuring difficulties, sound velocity is often not measured directly but instead calculated from water temperature, salinity, and depth, which are much easier to obtain. This research develops a new method to directly measure the sound velocity in the ocean's near-surface layer using multi-channel seismic (MCS) hydrophones. This system consists of a device to make a sound pulse and a long cable with hundreds of hydrophones to record the sound. The distance between the source and each receiver is the offset. The time it takes the pulse to arrive to each receiver is the travel time.The errors of measuring offset and travel time will affect the accuracy of sound velocity if we calculated with just one offset and one travel time. However, by analyzing the direct arrival signal from hundreds of receivers, the velocity can be determined as the slope of a straight line in the travel time-offset graph. The errors in distance and time measurement result in only an up or down shift of the line and do not affect the slope. This research uses MCS data of survey MGL1408 obtained from the Marine Geoscience Data System and processed with Seismic Unix. The sound velocity can be directly measured to an accuracy of less than 1m/s. The included graph shows the directly measured velocity verses the calculated velocity along 100km across the Mid-Atlantic continental margin. The directly measured velocity shows a good coherence to the velocity computed from temperature and salinity. In addition, the fine variations in the sound velocity can be observed, which is hardly seen from the calculated velocity. Using this methodology, both large area acquisition and fine resolution can be achieved. This directly measured sound velocity will be a new and powerful tool in oceanography.

  17. Control of the morphology of lipid layers by substrate surface chemistry.

    PubMed

    Granqvist, Niko; Yliperttula, Marjo; Välimäki, Salla; Pulkkinen, Petri; Tenhu, Heikki; Viitala, Tapani

    2014-03-18

    In this study, surface coatings were used to control the morphology of the deposited lipid layers during vesicle spreading, i.e., to control if liposomes self-assemble on a surface into a supported lipid bilayer or a supported vesicular layer. The influence of the properties of the surface coating on formation of the deposited lipid layer was studied with quartz crystal microbalance and two-wavelength multiparametric surface plasmon resonance techniques. Control of lipid self-assembly on the surface was achieved by two different types of soft substrate materials, i.e., dextran and thiolated polyethylene glycol, functionalized with hydrophobic linkers for capturing the lipid layer. The low-molecular-weight dextran-based surface promoted formation of supported lipid bilayers, while the thiolated polyethylene glycol-based surface promoted supported vesicular layer formation. A silicon dioxide surface was used as a reference surface in both measurement techniques. In addition to promoting supported lipid bilayer formation of known lipid mixtures, the dextran surface also promoted supported lipid bilayer formation of vesicles containing the cell membrane extract of human hepatoblastoma cells. The new dextran-based surface was also capable of protecting the supported lipid bilayer against dehydration when exposed to a constant flow of air. The well-established quartz crystal microbalance technique was effective in determining the morphology of the formed lipid layer, while the two-wavelength surface plasmon resonance analysis enabled further complementary characterization of the adsorbed supported lipid bilayers and supported vesicular layers. PMID:24564782

  18. Activation Layer Stabilization of High Polarization Photocathodes in Sub-Optimal RF Gun Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory A. Mulhollan

    2010-11-16

    Specific activation recipes for bulk, 100 nm thick MBE grown and high polarization III-V photocathode material have been developed which mitigate the effects of exposure to background gasses. Lifetime data using four representative gasses were acquired for bulk GaAs, 100 nm unstrained GaAs and strained superlattice GaAs/GaAsP, all activated both with Cs and then Cs and Li (bi-alkali). Each photoemitter showed marked resilience improvement when activated using the bi-alkali recipe compared to the standard single alkali recipe. A dual alkali activation system at SLAC was constructed, baked and commissioned with the purpose of performing spin-polarization measurements on electrons emitted from the bi-alkali activated surfaces. An end station at SSRL was configured with the required sources for energy resolved photoemission measurements on the bi-alkali activated and CO2 dosed surfaces. The bi-alkali recipes were successfully implemented at SLAC/SSRL. Measurements at SLAC of the photoelectron spin-polarization from the modified activation surface showed no sign of a change in value compared to the standard activated material, i.e., no ill effects. Analysis of photoemission data indicates that the addition of Li to the activation layer results in a multi-layer structure. The presence of Li in the activation layer also acts as an inhibitor to CO2 absorption, hence better lifetimes in worse vacuum were achieved. The bi-alkali activation has been tested on O2 activated GaAs for comparison with NF3 activated surfaces. Comparable resilience to CO2 exposure was achieved for the O2 activated surface. An RF PECVD amorphous silicon growth system was modified to allow high temperature heat cleaning of GaAs substrates prior to film deposition. Growth versus thickness data were collected. Very thin amorphous silicon germanium layers were optimized to exhibit good behavior as an electron emitter. Growth of the amorphous silicon germanium films on the above substrates was fine tuned

  19. Experimental investigation of moving surfaces for boundary layer and circulation control of airfoils and wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vets, Robert

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the application of a moving surface to affect boundary layers and circulation around airfoils for the purpose of altering and enhancing aerodynamic performance of finite wings at moderate Reynolds numbers. The moving surface was established by a wide, lightweight, nylon belt that enveloped a wing's symmetric airfoil profile articulated via a friction drive cylinder such that the direction of the upper surface was in the direction of the free stream. A water tunnel visualization study accompanied wind tunnel testing at the University of Washington, Kirsten Wind Tunnel of finite wings. An experimental study was conducted to assess the application of a moving surface to affect boundary layers and circulation around airfoils for the purpose of altering and enhancing aerodynamic performance of finite wings at moderate Reynolds numbers. The moving surface was established by a wide, lightweight, nylon belt that enveloped a wing's symmetric airfoil profile articulated via a friction drive cylinder such that the direction of the upper surface was in the direction of the free stream. A water tunnel visualization study accompanied wind tunnel testing at the University of Washington, Kirsten Wind Tunnel of finite wings. The defining non-dimensional parameter for the system is the ratio of the surface velocity to the free stream velocity, us/Uo. Results show a general increase in lift with increasing us/Uo. The endurance parameter served as an additional metric for the system's performance. Examining the results of the endurance parameter shows general increase in endurance and lift with the moving surface activated. Peak performance in terms of increased endurance along with increased lift occurs at or slightly above us/Uo = 1. Water tunnel visualization showed a marked difference in the downwash for velocity ratios greater than 1, supporting the measured data. Reynolds numbers for this investigation were 1.9E5 and 4.3E5, relevant

  20. Surface-confined single-layer covalent organic framework on single-layer graphene grown on copper foil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lirong; Zhou, Xin; Tian, Wei Quan; Gao, Teng; Zhang, Yan Feng; Lei, Shengbin; Liu, Zhong Fan

    2014-09-01

    The integration of 2D covalent organic frameworks (COFs) with atomic thickness with graphene will lead to intriguing two-dimensional materials. A surface-confined covalently bonded Schiff base network was prepared on single-layer graphene grown on copper foil and the dynamic reaction process was investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy. DFT simulations provide an understanding of the electronic structures and the interactions between the surface COF and graphene. Strong coupling between the surface COF and graphene was confirmed by the dispersive bands of the surface COF after interaction with graphene, and also by the experimental observation of tunneling condition dependent contrast of the surface COF. PMID:25145927

  1. Active layer hydrology for Imnavait Creek, Toolik, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, L.D.; Kane, D.L.

    1987-04-01

    The hydrology of the active layer of a watershed is described. In the annual hydrologic cycle, snowmelt is the most significant event at Imnavait Creek located near Toolik Lake, Alaska. Precipitation that has accumulated for more than 6 months on the surface melts in a relatively short period of 7 to 10 days once sustained melting occurs. Significant runoff events are few. Convective storms covering relatively small areas on the North Slope of Alaska can produce significant small-scale events in a small watershed scale,but these events are rapidly attenuated outside the basin. Data collection began in August 1984. We have continuously monitored the hydrologic, the meteorologic, and the soil's physical conditions. Information was collected through implementation of four snowmelt runoff plots and measurements of essential microclimate parameters. Soil moisture and temperature profiles were measured adjacent to each snowmelt runoff plot, and heat flux is collected adjacent to one of these plots. Meteorological parameters were measured locally. The water content of the snowpack prior to snowmelt was measured throughout the watershed and measured daily adjacent to each plot during snowmelt. The stream draining the basin was measured regularly during the spring melt event to provide information on watershed runoff rates and the volume of snowmelt.

  2. Active layer hydrology for Imnavait Creek, Toolik, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, L.D.; Kane, D.L.

    1987-04-01

    The hydrology of the active layer of a watershed is described. In the annual hydrologic cycle, snowmelt is the most significant event at Imnavait Creek located near Toolik Lake, Alaska. Precipitation that has accumulated for more than 6 months on the surface melts in a relatively short period of 7 to 10 days once sustained melting occurs. Significant runoff events are few. Convective storms covering relatively small areas on the North Slope of Alaska can produce significant small-scale events in a small watershed scale,but these events are rapidly attenuated outside the basin. Data collection began in August 1984. We have continuously monitored the hydrologic, the meteorologic, and the soil`s physical conditions. Information was collected through implementation of four snowmelt runoff plots and measurements of essential microclimate parameters. Soil moisture and temperature profiles were measured adjacent to each snowmelt runoff plot, and heat flux is collected adjacent to one of these plots. Meteorological parameters were measured locally. The water content of the snowpack prior to snowmelt was measured throughout the watershed and measured daily adjacent to each plot during snowmelt. The stream draining the basin was measured regularly during the spring melt event to provide information on watershed runoff rates and the volume of snowmelt.

  3. Active millimeter wave detection of concealed layers of dielectric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, N. J.; Baker, J. G.; Rezgui, N. D.; Southgate, M.; Alder, J. F.

    2007-04-01

    Extensive work has been published on millimetre wave active and passive detection and imaging of metallic objects concealed under clothing. We propose and demonstrate a technique for revealing the depth as well as the outline of partially transparent objects, which is especially suited to imaging layer materials such as explosives and drugs. The technique uses a focussed and scanned FMCW source, swept through many GHz to reveal this structure. The principle involved is that a parallel sided dielectric slab produces reflections at both its upper and lower surfaces, acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer. This produces a pattern of alternating reflected peaks and troughs in frequency space. Fourier or Burg transforming this pattern into z-space generates a peak at the thickness of the irradiated sample. It could be argued that though such a technique may work for single uniform slabs of dielectric material, it will give results of little or no significance when the sample both scatters the incident radiation and gives erratic reflectivities due to its non-uniform thickness and permittivity . We show results for a variety of materials such as explosive simulants, powder and drugs, both alone and concealed under clothing or in a rucksack, which display strongly directional reflectivities at millimeter wavelengths, and whose location is well displayed by a varying thickness parameter as the millimetre beam is scanned across the target. With this system we find that samples can easily be detected at standoff distances of at least 4.6m.

  4. Characterization of silane layers on modified stainless steel surfaces and related stainless steel-plastic hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honkanen, Mari; Hoikkanen, Maija; Vippola, Minnamari; Vuorinen, Jyrki; Lepistö, Toivo; Jussila, Petri; Ali-Löytty, Harri; Lampimäki, Markus; Valden, Mika

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize silane layers on the modified stainless steel surfaces and relate it to the adhesion in the injection-molded thermoplastic urethane-stainless steel hybrids. The silane layers were characterized with scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, allowing the direct quantization of silane layer thickness and its variation. The surface topographies were characterized with atomic force microscope and chemical analyses were performed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The mechanical strength of the respective stainless steel-thermoplastic urethane hybrids was determined by peel test. Polishing and oxidation treatment of the steel surface improved the silane layer uniformity compared to the industrially pickled surface and increased the adhesion strength of the hybrids, resulting mainly cohesive failure in TPU. XPS analysis indicated that the improved silane bonding to the modified steel surface was due to clean Fe 2O 3-type surface oxide and stronger interaction with TPU was due to more amino species on the silane layer surface compared to the cleaned, industrially pickled surface. Silane layer thickness affected failure type of the hybrids, with a thick silane layer the hybrids failed mainly in the silane layer and with a thinner layer cohesively in plastic.

  5. Influences and interactions of inundation, peat, and snow on active layer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchley, Adam L.; Coon, Ethan T.; Painter, Scott L.; Harp, Dylan R.; Wilson, Cathy J.

    2016-05-01

    Active layer thickness (ALT), the uppermost layer of soil that thaws on an annual basis, is a direct control on the amount of organic carbon potentially available for decomposition and release to the atmosphere as carbon-rich Arctic permafrost soils thaw in a warming climate. We investigate how key site characteristics affect ALT using an integrated surface/subsurface permafrost thermal hydrology model. ALT is most sensitive to organic layer thickness followed by snow depth but is relatively insensitive to the amount of water on the landscape with other conditions held fixed. The weak ALT sensitivity to subsurface saturation suggests that changes in Arctic landscape hydrology may only have a minor effect on future ALT. However, surface inundation amplifies the sensitivities to the other parameters and under large snowpacks can trigger the formation of near-surface taliks.

  6. Photocatalytic activity of layered perovskite-like oxides in practically valuable chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionov, I. A.; Zvereva, I. A.

    2016-03-01

    The photocatalytic properties of layered perovskite-like oxides corresponding to the Ruddlesen–Popper, Dion–Jacobson and Aurivillius phases are considered. Of the photocatalytic reactions, the focus is on the reactions of water splitting, hydrogen evolution from aqueous solutions of organic substances and degradation of model organic pollutants. Possibilities to conduct these reactions under UV and visible light in the presence of layered perovskite-like oxides and composite photocatalysts based on them are shown. The specific surface area, band gap energy, particle morphology, cation and anion doping and surface modification are considered as factors that affect the photocatalytic activity. Special attention is paid to the possibilities to enhance the photocatalytic activity by intercalation, ion exchange and exfoliation, which are inherent in this class of compounds. Conclusions are made about the prospects for the use of layered perovskite-like oxides in photocatalysis. The bibliography includes 253 references.

  7. Contribution of S-Layer Proteins to the Mosquitocidal Activity of Lysinibacillus sphaericus

    PubMed Central

    Allievi, Mariana Claudia; Palomino, María Mercedes; Prado Acosta, Mariano; Lanati, Leonardo; Ruzal, Sandra Mónica; Sánchez-Rivas, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains belonging the antigenic group H5a5b produce spores with larvicidal activity against larvae of Culex mosquitoes. C7, a new isolated strain, which presents similar biochemical characteristics and Bin toxins in their spores as the reference strain 2362, was, however, more active against larvae of Culex mosquitoes. The contribution of the surface layer protein (S-layer) to this behaviour was envisaged since this envelope protein has been implicated in the pathogenicity of several bacilli, and we had previously reported its association to spores. Microscopic observation by immunofluorescence detection with anti S-layer antibody in the spores confirms their attachment. S-layers and BinA and BinB toxins formed high molecular weight multimers in spores as shown by SDS-PAGE and western blot detection. Purified S-layer from both L. sphaericus C7 and 2362 strain cultures was by itself toxic against Culex sp larvae, however, that from C7 strain was also toxic against Aedes aegypti. Synergistic effect between purified S-layer and spore-crystal preparations was observed against Culex sp. and Aedes aegypti larvae. This effect was more evident with the C7 strain. In silico analyses of the S-layer sequence suggest the presence of chitin-binding and hemolytic domains. Both biochemical characteristics were detected for both S-layers strains that must justify their contribution to pathogenicity. PMID:25354162

  8. The importance of a surface organic layer in simulating permafrost thermal and carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarov, Elchin; Schaefer, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Permafrost-affected soils contain twice as much carbon as currently exists in the atmosphere. Studies show that warming of the perennially frozen ground could initiate significant release of the frozen soil carbon into the atmosphere. Initializing the frozen permafrost carbon with the observed soil carbon distribution from the Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database reduces the uncertainty associated with the modeling of the permafrost carbon feedback. To improve permafrost thermal and carbon dynamics we implemented a dynamic surface organic layer with vertical carbon redistribution, and introduced dynamic root growth controlled by active layer thickness, which improved soil carbon exchange between frozen and thawed pools. These changes increased the initial amount of simulated frozen carbon from 313 to 560 Gt C, consistent with observed frozen carbon stocks, and increased the spatial correlation of the simulated and observed distribution of frozen carbon from 0.12 to 0.63.

  9. Flux measurements in the near surface layer over a non-uniform crop surface in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Z.; Bian, L.; Liu, S.

    2005-06-01

    Eddy covariance measurements were conducted on fluxes of moisture, heat and CO2 in a near-surface layer over a non-uniform crop surface in an agricultural ecosystem in the central plain of China from 10 June to 20 July 2002. During this period, the mean canopy height was about 0.50 m. The study site consisted of grass (10% of area), bean (15%), corn (15%) and rice (60%). Based on footprint analysis, we expected >90% of the measured flux (at a height of 4 m above ground surface) to occur within the nearest 600 m of upwind area. We examined interdiurnal variations in the components of the surface energy balance and in CO2 flux. Results show that the pattern of energy partition had no obvious variation during the season. Daytime absorption of CO2 flux by the crop canopy suddenly increased after thunderstorm events. We examined the energy budget closure and found it to be around 0.85. We compared energy partitioning for all rain-free days, and found energy imbalance was more significant for the 1~3 days after rainy events and energy components almost achieve balance for the other rain-free days. It indicated that the cold or warm rainwater infiltrating into soil made problems.

  10. Surface coating for flame retardant behavior of cotton fabric by layer-by-layer processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flame retardant behavior has been prepared by the layer-by layer assemblies of branched polyethylenimine (BPEI), kaolin, urea, diammonium phosphate (dibasic) on cotton fabrics. Three different kinds of cotton fabrics (print cloth, mercerized print cloth, and mercerized twill fabric) were prepared wi...

  11. Surface Layer Formation When Finish-Hardening Processing of the Parts by Smoothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, V. N.; Tatarkin, E. Ju

    2016-04-01

    Problems of surface layer formation of the parts, when hydraulic smoothing, are considered in this work. The results of theoretical and pilot studies of smoothing in case of nanocarbons and copper salts introduction into the process liquid are given. The influence dependences of the processing modes on roughness and microhardness of surface layer are defined.

  12. Distributions of surface-layer buoyance versus lifting condensation level over a heterogeneous land surface

    SciTech Connect

    Schrieber, K.; Zhang, Qing; Stull, R.

    1996-04-15

    Onset and coverage of small cumulus clouds depend on the relative abundance of surface-layer air parcels possessing favorable buoyancy and moisture - two variables that are coupled through the surface energy budget. This abundance is described using a joint frequency distribution (JFD) as a function of virtual potential temperature {theta}{sub v} and height of the lifting condensation level z{sub LCL}. It is shown analytically that the shape and spread of this JFD depends on the ranges of Bowen ratios and solar forcings (albedoes, cloud shading, etc.) that exist within a domain of heterogeneous land use. To sample the character of such JFDs in the real atmosphere, a case study is presented using turbulence data gathered by aircraft flying in the surface layer of southwest France. This case study includes 4 days of clear skies during the Hydrologic Atmospheric Pilot Experiment (HAPEX) of 1986. The full flight track during HAPEX overflew a wide range of land use including evergreen forest, corn, vineyards, pastures, and irrigated fields over varied topography. The JFDs from these full tracks are found to be quite complex, being frequently multimodal with a convoluted perimeter. However, when a full track is broken into segments, each over a subdomain of quasi-homogeneous land use, the resulting segment JFDs are mono-modal with simpler topology. Such a characterization of JFDs provides guidance toward eventual subgrid cumulus parameterization in large-scale forecast models, with associated impacts in aviation forecasting, pollutant venting and chemical reactions, verticle dispersion and turbulence modulation, and radiation balance in climate-change models. 48 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Structure, surface interactions, and compressibility of bacterial S-layers through scanning force microscopy and the surface force apparatus.

    PubMed

    Martín-Molina, Alberto; Moreno-Flores, Susana; Perez, Eric; Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B; Toca-Herrera, José L

    2006-03-01

    Two-dimensional crystalline bacterial surface layers (S-layers) are found in a broad range of bacteria and archaea as the outermost cell envelope component. The self-assembling properties of the S-layers permit them to recrystallize on solid substrates. Beyond their biological interest as S-layers, they are currently used in nanotechnology to build supramolecular structures. Here, the structure of S-layers and the interactions between them are studied through surface force techniques. Scanning force microscopy has been used to study the structure of recrystallized S-layers from Bacillus sphaericus on mica at different 1:1 electrolyte concentrations. They give evidence of the two-dimensional organization of the proteins and reveal small corrugations of the S-layers formed on mica. The lattice parameters of the S-layers were a=b=14 nm, gamma=90 degrees and did not depend on the electrolyte concentration. The interaction forces between recrystallized S-layers on mica were studied with the surface force apparatus as a function of electrolyte concentration. Force measurements show that electrostatic and steric interactions are dominant at long distances. When the S-layers are compressed they exhibit elastic behavior. No adhesion between recrystallized layers takes place. We report for the first time, to our knowledge, the value of the compressibility modulus of the S-layer (0.6 MPa). The compressibility modulus is independent on the electrolyte concentration, although loads of 20 mN m-1 damage the layer locally. Control experiments with denatured S-proteins show similar elastic properties under compression but they exhibit adhesion forces between proteins, which were not observed in recrystallized S-layers. PMID:16361337

  14. Insight into the Oriented Growth of Surface-Attached Metal-Organic Frameworks: Surface Functionality, Deposition Temperature, and First Layer Order.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jin-Liang; Kind, Martin; Grytz, Claudia M; Farr, Frederic; Diefenbach, Martin; Tussupbayev, Samat; Holthausen, Max C; Terfort, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    The layer-by-layer growth of a surface-attached metal-organic framework (SURMOF), [Cu2(F4bdc)2(dabco)] (F4bdc = tetrafluorobenzene-1,4-dicarboxylate and dabco = 1,4-diazabicyclo-[2.2.2]octane), on carboxylate- and pyridine-terminated surfaces has been investigated by various surface characterization techniques. Particular attention was paid to the dependency of the crystal orientation and morphology on surface functionality, deposition temperature, and first layer order. For the fully oriented deposition of SURMOFs, not only a suitable surface chemistry but also the appropriate temperature has to be chosen. In the case of carboxylate-terminated surfaces, the expected [100] oriented [Cu2(F4bdc)2(dabco)] SURMOF can be achieved at low temperatures (5 °C). In contrast, the predicted [001] oriented SURMOF on pyridine-terminated surface was obtained only at high deposition temperatures (60 °C). Interestingly, we found that rearrangement processes in the very first layer determine the final orientation (distribution) of the growing crystals. These effects could be explained by a surprisingly hampered substitution at the apical position of the Cu2-paddle wheel units, which requires significant thermal activation, as supported by quantum-chemical calculations. PMID:26051709

  15. Layered devices having surface curvature and method of constructing same

    DOEpatents

    Woodbury, Richard C.; Perkins, Raymond T.; Thorne, James M.

    1989-01-01

    A method of treating a substrate having first and second sides with corresponding oppositely facing first and second surfaces, to produce curvature in the first surface. The method includes the steps of removing material, according to a predetermined pattern, from the second side of the substrate, and applying a stress-producing film of material to at least one surface of the substrate to thereby cause the substrate to bend to produce the desired curvature in the first surface.

  16. Growth and behavior of chondrocytes on nano engineered surfaces and construction of micropatterned co-culture platforms using layer-by-layer platforms using layer-by-layer assembly lift-off method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaik, Jameel

    Several approaches such as self-assembled monolayers and layer-by-layer assembled multilayer films are being used as tools to study the interactions of cells with biomaterials in vitro. In this study, the layer-by-layer assembly approach was used to create monolayer, bilayer, trilayer, five, ten and twenty-bilayer beds of eleven different biomaterials. The various biomaterials used were poly(styrene-sulfonate), fibronectin, poly-L-lysine, poly-D-lysine, laminin, bovine serum albumin, chondroitin sulfate, poly(ethyleneimine), polyethylene glycol amine, collagen and poly(dimethyldiallyl-ammonium chloride) with unmodified tissue-culture polystyrene as standard control. Three different cell lines---primary bovine articular chondrocytes, and two secondary cell lines, human chondrosarcoma cells and canine chondrocytes were used in these studies. Chondrocyte morphology and attachment, viability, proliferation, and functionality were determined using bright field microscopy, the Live/Dead viability assay, MTT assay, and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Atomic force microscopy of the nanofilms indicated an increase in surface roughness with increasing number of layers. The most important observations from the studies on primary bovine articular chondrocytes were that these cells exhibited increasing viability and cell metabolic activity with increasing number of bilayers. The increase in viability was more pronounced than the increase in cell metabolic activity. Also, bovine chondrocytes on bilayers of poly(dimethyldiallyl-ammonium chloride, poly-L-lysine, poly(styrene-sulfonate), and bovine serum albumin were substantially bigger in size and well-attached when compared to the cells grown on monolayer and trilayers. Lactate dehydrogenase assay performed on chondrosarcoma cells grown on 5- and 10-bilayer multilayer beds indicated that the 10-bilayer beds had reduced cytotoxicity compared to the 5-bilayer beds. MTT assay performed on canine chondrocytes grown on 5-, 10

  17. Turbulent boundary layer over solid and porous surfaces with small roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, F. Y.; Schetz, J. A.; Collier, F.

    1982-01-01

    Skin friction and profiles of mean velocity, axial and normal turbulence intensity, and Reynolds stress in the untripped boundary layer were measured directly on a large diameter, axisymmetric body with: (1) a smooth, solid surface; (2) a sandpaper-roughened, solid surface; (3) a sintered metal, porous surface; (4) a smooth, perforated titanium surface; (5) a rough solid surface made of fine, diffusion bonded screening, and (6) a rough, porous surface of the same screening. Results obtained for each of these surfaces are discussed. It is shown that a rough, porous wall simply does not influence the boundary layer in the same way as a rough solid wall. Therefore, turbulent transport models for boundary layers over porous surfaces either with or without injection or suction, must include both surface roughness and porosity effects.

  18. Influence of ultrathin water layer on the van der Waals/Casimir force between gold surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Palasantzas, G.; Zwol, P. J. van; Svetovoy, V. B.

    2009-06-15

    In this paper we investigate the influence of ultrathin water layer ({approx}1-1.5 nm) on the van der Waals/Casimir force between gold surfaces. Adsorbed water is inevitably present on gold surfaces at ambient conditions as jump-up-to contact during adhesion experiments demonstrate. Calculations based on the Lifshitz theory give very good agreement with the experiment in the absence of any water layer for surface separations d > or approx. 10 nm. However, a layer of thickness h < or approx. 1.5 nm is allowed by the error margin in force measurements. At shorter separations, d < or approx. 10 nm, the water layer can have a strong influence as calculations show for flat surfaces. Nonetheless, in reality the influence of surface roughness must also be considered, and it can overshadow any water layer influence at separations comparable to the total sphere-plate rms roughness w{sub shp}+w.

  19. Experimental investigations and DICTRA simulations on formation of diffusion-controlled fcc-rich surface layers on cemented carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, José; Prat, Orlando

    2011-08-01

    Wear resistant fcc-rich surface layers were produced on cemented carbides by nitridation of W-Ti-Ta-Nb-Co-C compositions at 1400 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. A 15 ± 3 μm thick (Ti,Ta,Nb,W)(C,N) top-layer formed on the surface of the cemented carbides. The driving force for formation of the fcc-rich layers was the difference in nitrogen activity between the sintering atmosphere and the cemented carbide bulk, which promoted in-diffusion of nitrogen and out-diffusion of Ti, Ta and Nb. The diffusion-controlled process was modeled by DICTRA considering that all diffusion occurred in the liquid binder phase of a dispersed system model with a labyrinth factor of λ( f) = f. Good agreement between experimental and simulations regarding layer thickness, phase fraction distribution and element profiles was obtained for the presented model.

  20. Effect of impurities in the description of surface nanobubbles: Role of nonidealities in the surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Siddhartha

    2011-06-01

    In a recent study [S. Das, J. H. Snoeijer, and D. Lohse, Phys. Rev. E1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.056310 82, 056310 (2010)], we provided quantitative demonstration of the conjecture [W. A. Ducker, LangmuirLANGD50743-746310.1021/la902011v 25, 8907 (2009)] that the presence of impurities at the surface layer (or the air-water interface) of surface nanobubbles can substantially lower the gas-side contact angle and the Laplace pressure of the nanobubbles. Through an analytical model for any general air-water interface without nonideality effects, we showed that a large concentration of soluble impurities at the air-water interface of the nanobubbles ensures significantly small contact angles (matching well with the experimental results) and Laplace pressure (though large enough to forbid stability). In this paper this general model is extended to incorporate the effect of nonidealities at the air-water interface in impurity-induced alteration of surface nanobubble properties. Such nonideality effects arise from finite enthalpy or entropy of mixing or finite ionic interactions of the impurity molecules at the nanobubble air-water interface and ensure significant lowering of the nanobubble contact angle and Laplace pressure even at relatively small impurity coverage. In fact for impurity molecules that show enhanced tendency to get adsorbed at the nanobubble air-water interface from the bulk phase, impurity-induced lowering of the nanobubble contact angle is witnessed for extremely small bulk concentration. Surface nanobubble experiments being typically performed in an ultraclean environment, the bulk concentration of impurities is inevitably very small, and in this light the present calculations can be viewed as a satisfactory explanation of the conjecture that impurities, even in trace concentration, have significant impact on surface nanobubbles.

  1. The surface modified composite layer formation with boron carbide particles on magnesium alloy surfaces through pulse gas tungsten arc treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W. B.; Jiang, H. Y.; Zeng, X. Q.; Li, D. H.; Yao, S. S.

    2007-02-01

    A novel fabrication process of surface modified composite layer by pulse current gas tungsten arc (GTA) surface modification process was used to deposit B 4C particles on the surface of magnesium alloy AZ31. This method is an effective technique in producing a high performance surface modified composite layer. During the pulse current GTA surface modification process, considerable convection can exist in the molten pool due to various driving forces and the pulse current could cause violent stirring in the molten pool, and the large temperature gradient across the boundary between the GTA modified surface and matrix metal resulted in rapid resolidification with high cooling rates in the molten pool, so that the process result notable grain refinement in the GTA surface modified composite layer. The hardness and wear resistance of the GTA surface modified composite layer are superior to that of as-received magnesium alloy AZ31. The hardness values and wear resistance of GTA surface modified composite layer depend on the GTA process parameters and the B 4C particles powder concentration and distribution. The optimum processing parameters for the formation of a homogeneous crack/defect-free and grain refinement microstructure were established.

  2. Interstratified nanohybrid assembled by alternating cationic layered double hydroxide nanosheets and anionic layered titanate nanosheets with superior photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bizhou; Sun, Ping; Zhou, Yi; Jiang, Shaofeng; Gao, Bifen; Chen, Yilin

    2014-09-15

    Oppositely charged 2D inorganic nanosheets of ZnAl-layered double hydroxide and layered titanate were successfully assembled into an interstratified nanohybrid through simply mixing the corresponding nanosheet suspensions. Powder X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscope clearly revealed that the component nanosheets in the as-obtained nanohybrid ZnAl-Ti3O7 retain the 2D sheet skeletons of the pristine materials and that the two kinds of nanosheets are well arranged in a layer-by-layer alternating fashion with a basal spacing of about 1.3 nm, coincident with the thickness summation of the two component nanosheets. The effective interfacial heterojunction between them and the high specific surface area resulted in that the nanohybrid exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methylene blue with a reaction constant k of 2.81 × 10(-2)min(-1), which is about 9 and 4 times higher than its precursors H2Ti3O7 and ZnAl-LDH, respectively. Based on UV-vis, XPS and photoelectrochemical measurements, a proposed photoexcitation model was provided to understand its photocatalytic behavior. PMID:25151238

  3. Surface layer dynamics during the development of the North American Monsoon: Riparian forest fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleverly, J. R.; Teet, S. B.; Thibault, J. R.; Dahm, C. N.

    2006-12-01

    Re-occurring drought in the southwestern United States can be characterized as a multiannual period during which both winter and summer precipitation is extremely limited. Following years of failed monsoons, the Southwest is experiencing a very active monsoon season. The objective of this study is to characterize surface layer statistics during the convective period leading up to the first daytime event of the season. Two eddy covariance towers, set to measure surface fluxes over non-native vegetation along the Middle Rio Grande, collected data at 10 Hz and 0.0167 Hz (i.e., 1-min). These data were then individually detrended, and coherent relationships were identified through power spectral and wavelet transformations. For several hours prior to the onset of precipitation, cloud intermittence dominates surface conditions, turbulence, and incident radiant energy. Formation and dissipation of cloudcover was reflected by variability in barometric pressure, air temperature, and and leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit. Low-frequency cyclic variability was identified in all of the time series, matching variability in net radiation. As the time at which precipitation began neared, high- frequency variations in net radiation were also identified. In both cases, attenuation from lower- to higher- frequency was observed in all time series as time passed following the initial transient forcing event. Net radiation was typically associated with negative evapotranspiration anomalies, while positive ET anomalies were closely related to surface flux scales and temperature interactions. These observations of surface layer statistics have greatly improved our ability to measure and evaluate surface fluxes and anomalies.

  4. Bonding of copper surface in ambient air using propylene carbonate as passivation layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; Yu, Min; Phillips, Oluwadamilola; Liu, Lisha; Jin, Yufeng

    2015-07-01

    Bonding of a copper surface in a nonvacuum environment has been studied for the purpose of reducing manufacturing costs. Cu-Cu bonding in ambient air is demonstrated by using propylene carbonate (PPC) as a passivation layer. The decomposition of the PPC passivation layer during bonding would protect the copper surface from oxidation by providing a shielding gas atmosphere between the copper surface and the air. Further, the PPC passivation layer would also overcome the degradation of copper surface during storage in the atmosphere.

  5. A literature review of surface alteration layer effects on waste glass behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    When in contact with an aqueous solution, nuclear waste glass is subject to a chemical attack that results in progressive alteration. During tills alteration, constituent elements of the glass pass into the solution; elements initially in solution diffuse into, or are adsorbed onto, the solid; and new phases appear. This results in the formation of surface layers on the reacted glass. The glass corrosion and radionuclide release can be better understood by investigating these surface layer effects. In the past decade, there have been numerous studies regarding the effects of surface layers on glass reactions. This paper presents a systematic analysis and summary of the past knowledge regarding the effects of surface layers on glass-water interaction. This paper describes the major formation mechanisms of surface layers; reviews the role of surface layers in controlling mass transport and glass reaction affinity (through crystalline phases, an amorphous silica, a gel layer, or all the components in the glass); and discusses how the surface layers contribute to the retention of radionuclides during glass dissolution.

  6. A literature review of surface alteration layer effects on waste glass behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1993-05-01

    When in contact with an aqueous solution, nuclear waste glass is subject to a chemical attack that results in progressive alteration. During tills alteration, constituent elements of the glass pass into the solution; elements initially in solution diffuse into, or are adsorbed onto, the solid; and new phases appear. This results in the formation of surface layers on the reacted glass. The glass corrosion and radionuclide release can be better understood by investigating these surface layer effects. In the past decade, there have been numerous studies regarding the effects of surface layers on glass reactions. This paper presents a systematic analysis and summary of the past knowledge regarding the effects of surface layers on glass-water interaction. This paper describes the major formation mechanisms of surface layers; reviews the role of surface layers in controlling mass transport and glass reaction affinity (through crystalline phases, an amorphous silica, a gel layer, or all the components in the glass); and discusses how the surface layers contribute to the retention of radionuclides during glass dissolution.

  7. Layer-by-layer fabrication of supramolecular dyes on TiO2 surfaces for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiaoqing; Maguire, Shawn; Lye, Diane; Weck, Marcus; Lee, Stephanie

    We present a modular layer-by-layer approach based on metal coordination chemistry to assemble supramolecular dyes exhibiting increased absorption in the visible range on electrode surfaces. Specifically, palladiated bis-pincer complexes (Pd-BPCs) were employed as linkers between pyridyl-terminated organic molecules via dative bonding. By alternately immersing mesoporous TiO2-coated glass substrates in solutions containing dissolved zinc porphyin (ZnP) and Pd-BPCs, supramolecular dyes were assembled layer-by-layer on the TiO2 surfaces. UV-visible absorption spectra of these assembled structures revealed a linear increase in the Soret and Q bands of ZnP after each immersion of the substrate in the ZnP solution. Coordination of the ZnP layers with Pd-BPC resulted in a slight red shift (<10 nm) of the absorption bands. The modular nature of the assembly process afforded the incorporation of other pyridyl-terminated organic molecules in specific layers of the supramolecular assemblies. By assembling unique organic dyes that absorb different wavelengths of light, we expect to expand light absorption across the visible region of the solar spectrum for solar cell applications.

  8. Surface Layering at the Mercury-Electrolyte Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ocko, B.M.; Elsen, A.; Murphy, B.M.; Tamam, L.; Deutsch, M.; Kuzmenko, I.; Magnussen, O.M.

    2010-03-12

    X-ray reflectometry reveals atomic layering at a liquid-liquid interface--mercury in a 0.01 M NaF solution. The interface width exceeds capillary wave theory predictions and displays an anomalous dependence on the voltage applied across it, displaying a minimum positive of the potential of zero charge. The latter is explained by electrocapillary effects and an additional intrinsic broadening of the interface profile, tentatively assigned to polarization of the conduction electrons due to the electric field of the electrochemical double layer at the interface.

  9. Titanium surface hydrophilicity enhances platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Alfarsi, Mohammed A; Hamlet, Stephen M; Ivanovski, Saso

    2014-01-01

    Titanium implant surface modification is a key strategy used to enhance osseointegration. Platelets are the first cells that interact with the implant surface whereupon they release a wide array of proteins that influence the subsequent healing process. This study therefore investigated the effect of titanium surface modification on the attachment and activation of human platelets. The surface characteristics of three titanium surfaces: smooth (SMO), micro-rough (SLA) and hydrophilic micro-rough (SLActive) and the subsequent attachment and activation of platelets following exposure to these surfaces were determined. The SLActive surface showed the presence of significant nanoscale topographical features. While attached platelets appeared to be morphologically similar, significantly fewer platelets attached to the SLActive surface compared to both the SMO and SLA surfaces. The SLActive surface however induced the release of the higher levels of chemokines β-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 from platelets. This study shows that titanium surface topography and chemistry have a significant effect on platelet activation and chemokine release. PMID:25311339

  10. Expansible apparatus for removing the surface layer from a concrete object

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles H.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing the surface layer from a concrete object. The method consists of providing a hole having a circular wall in the surface layer of the object, the hole being at least as deep as the thickness of the surface layer to be removed, and applying an outward wedging pressure on the wall of the hole sufficient to spall the surface layer around the hole. By the proper spacing of an appropriate number of holes, it is possible to remove the entire surface layer from an object. The apparatus consists of an elongated tubular-shaped body having a relatively short handle with a solid wall at one end, the wall of the remainder of the body containing a plurality of evenly spaced longitudinal cuts to form a relatively long expandable section, the outer end of the expandable section having an expandable, wedge-shaped spalling edge extending from the outer surface of the wall, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body, and expanding means in the body for outwardly expanding the expandable section and forcing the spalling edge into the wall of a hole with sufficient outward pressure to spall away the surface layer of concrete. The method and apparatus are particularly suitable for removing surface layers of concrete which are radioactively contaminated.

  11. Layer-by-layer modification of high surface curvature nanoparticles with weak polyelectrolytes using a multiphase solvent precipitation process.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Ashvin T; You, Yil-Hwan; Choi, Jeong-Wan; Hwang, Jin-Ha; Meissner, Kenith E; McShane, Michael J

    2016-03-15

    The layer-by-layer modification of ≈5 nm mercaptocarboxylic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles was studied in an effort to illustrate effective means to overcome practical issues in handling and performing surface modification of such extremely small materials. To accomplish this, each layer deposition cycle was separated into a multi-step process wherein solution pH was controlled in two distinct phases of polyelectrolyte adsorption and centrifugation. Additionally, a solvent precipitation step was introduced to make processing more amenable by concentrating the sample and exchanging solution pH before ultracentrifugation. The pH-dependent assembly on gold nanoparticles was assessed after each layer deposition cycle by monitoring the plasmon peak absorbance location, surface charge, and the percentage of nanoparticles recovered. The selection of solution pH during the adsorption phase was found to be a critical parameter to enhance particle recovery and maximize surface charge when coating with weak polyelectrolytes. One bilayer was deposited with a high yield and the modified particles exhibited enhanced colloidal stability across a broad pH range and increased ionic strength. These findings support the adoption of this multi-step processing approach as an effective and generalizable approach to improve stability of high surface curvature particles. PMID:26771506

  12. Method for removing surface-damaged layers from nickel alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fawley, R. W.

    1968-01-01

    Electrical discharge machining /EDM/ damaged layer can be effectively removed from Rene 41, Inconel 625, Inconel 718, and Monel K-500 by abrasive-grit blasting or electropolishing /at room temperature/ at a current density of 5A/inches squared in a water solution of phosphoric and sulfuric acids.

  13. Broadband absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with an antenna layer through surface-plasmon mediated energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yu; Feng, Jing; Zhang, Xu-Lin; Xu, Ming; Chen, Qi-Dai; Wu, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrated a strategy to realize broadband enhanced absorption in the top-incident inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) by employing an external antenna layer on top of the periodic corrugated metallic anode. Surface-plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are excited on the opposite interfaces of the periodic corrugated metallic anode, which mediate the energy transfer from the antenna layer to the active layer through the anode. The absorption of the OSCs is significantly broadened and enhanced by tuning the SPP resonance to coincide with both the emission of the antenna and the absorption of the active material. The power conversion efficiency exhibits an enhancement of 16% compared to that of the OSCs without the antenna layer.

  14. Study of microstructure of surface layers of low-carbon steel after turning and ultrasonic finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalevskaya, Zh. G.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Perevalova, O. B.; Klimenov, V. A.; Uvarkin, P. V.

    2013-01-01

    Profilometry and optical and transmission electron microscopy are used to examine the microstructure of surface layers of a low-carbon ferrite-pearlite steel subjected to turning and ultrasonic finishing. It is shown that turning peaks and valleys have different microstructures, which stipulates manifestation of technological hereditary when processing surfaces of machined parts. Ultrasonic finishing causes the severe plastic deformation of the surface layer, which favors the elimination of a technological heredity that is acquired during turning.

  15. Surface activation-based nanobonding and interconnection at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howlader, M. M. R.; Yamauchi, A.; Suga, T.

    2011-02-01

    Flip chip nanobonding and interconnect system (NBIS) equipment with high precision alignment has been developed based on the surface activated bonding method for high-density interconnection and MEMS packaging. The 3σ alignment accuracy in the IR transmission system was approximately ±0.2 µm. The performance of the NBIS has been preliminarily investigated through bonding between relatively rough surfaces of copper through silicon vias (Cu-TSVs) and gold-stud bumps (Au-SBs), and smooth surfaces of silicon wafers. The Cu-TSVs of 55 µm diameter and the Au-SBs of 35 µm diameter with ~6-10 nm surface roughness (RMS) were bonded at room temperature after surface activation using an argon fast atom beam (Ar-FAB) under 0.16 N per bump. Silicon wafers of 50 mm diameter with ~0.2 nm RMS surface roughness were bonded without heating after surface activation. Void-free interfaces both in Cu-TSV/Au-SB and silicon/silicon with bonding strength equivalent to bulk fracture of Au and silicon, respectively, were achieved. A few nm thick amorphous layers were observed across the silicon/silicon interface that was fabricated by the Ar-FAB. This study in the interconnection and bonding facilitates the required three-dimensional integration on the same surface for high-density electronic and biomedical systems.

  16. Laser generation and detection of surface acoustic waves - Elastic properties of surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubrand, A.; Hess, P.

    1992-01-01

    A noncontact all-optical method for surface photoacoustics is described. The surface acoustic waves (SAWs) were excited employing a KrF laser and detected with a Michelson interferometer using a 633-nm HeNe laser. Due to an active stabilization scheme developed for the interferometer a surface displacement of 0.2 A could be detected. The materials investigated included pure materials such as polycrystalline aluminum, and crystalline silicon; films of gold, silver, aluminum, iron, and nickel on fused silica; and a Si:H on Si(100). In the case of pure materials the shape of the acoustic pulse and the phase velocity were determined. The dispersion of the SAW phase velocity observed for the film systems was used to extract information on the film thickness, density, and transverse and longitudinal sound velocity. Models for the theoretical treatment of film systems and the calculation of dispersion curves are presented.

  17. Effect of the interplay between protein and surface on the properties of adsorbed protein layers.

    PubMed

    Ouberai, Myriam M; Xu, Kairuo; Welland, Mark E

    2014-08-01

    Although protein adsorption to surface is a common phenomenon, investigation of the process is challenging due to the complexity of the interplay between external factors, protein and surface properties. Therefore experimental approaches have to measure the properties of adsorbed protein layers with high accuracy in order to achieve a comprehensive description of the process. To this end, we used a combination of two biosensing techniques, dual polarization interferometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. From this, we are able to extract surface coverage values, layer structural parameters, water content and viscoelastic properties to examine the properties of protein layers formed at the liquid/solid interface. Layer parameters were examined upon adsorption of proteins of varying size and structural properties, on surfaces with opposite polarity. We show that "soft" proteins such as unfolded α-synuclein and high molecular weight albumin are highly influenced by the surface polarity, as they form a highly diffuse and hydrated layer on the hydrophilic silica surface as opposed to the denser, less hydrated layer formed on a hydrophobic methylated surface. These layer properties are a result of different orientations and packing of the proteins. By contrast, lysozyme is barely influenced by the surface polarity due to its intrinsic structural stability. Interestingly, we show that for a similar molecular weight, the unfolded α-synuclein forms a layer with the highest percentage of solvation not related to surface coverage but resulting from the highest water content trapped within the protein. Together, these data reveal a trend in layer properties highlighting the importance of the interplay between protein and surface for the design of biomaterials. PMID:24780165

  18. Evolution of the surface area of a snow layer

    SciTech Connect

    Hanot, L.; Domine, F.

    1999-12-01

    Atmospheric trace gases can partition between the atmosphere and the snow surface. Because snow has a large surface-to-volume ratio, an important interaction potential between ice and atmospheric trace gases exists. Quantifying this partitioning requires the knowledge of the surface area (SA) of snow. Eleven samples were taken from a 50 cm thick snow fall at Col de Porte, near Grenoble (French Alps) between January 20 and February 4, 1998. Fresh snow and 3, 8, and 15-day-old snow were sampled at three different depths. Surface hoar, formed after the fall, was also sampled. Air and surface snow temperature, snow density, and snow fall rate were measured. Snow temperature always remained below freezing. Snow SA was measured using methane adsorption at 77.15 K. Values ranged from 2.25 m{sup 2}/g for fresh snow to 0.25 m{sup 2}/g for surface hoar and surface snow after 15 days. These values are much too high to be explained by the macroscopic aspect of snow crystals, and microstructures such as small rime droplets must have been present. Large decrease in SA with time were observed. The first meter of snowpack had a total surface area of about 50,000 m{sup 2} per m{sup 2} of ground. Reduction in SA will lead to the emission of adsorbed species by the snowpack, with possible considerable increase in atmospheric concentrations.

  19. Improved oxygen reduction activity on Pt3Ni(111) via increased surface site availability.

    PubMed

    Stamenkovic, Vojislav R; Fowler, Ben; Mun, Bongjin Simon; Wang, Guofeng; Ross, Philip N; Lucas, Christopher A; Marković, Nenad M

    2007-01-26

    The slow rate of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is the main limitation for automotive applications. We demonstrated that the Pt3Ni(111) surface is 10-fold more active for the ORR than the corresponding Pt(111) surface and 90-fold more active than the current state-of-the-art Pt/C catalysts for PEMFC. The Pt3Ni(111) surface has an unusual electronic structure (d-band center position) and arrangement of surface atoms in the near-surface region. Under operating conditions relevant to fuel cells, its near-surface layer exhibits a highly structured compositional oscillation in the outermost and third layers, which are Pt-rich, and in the second atomic layer, which is Ni-rich. The weak interaction between the Pt surface atoms and nonreactive oxygenated species increases the number of active sites for O2 adsorption. PMID:17218494

  20. Relations among stability parameters in the stable surface layer: Golder curves revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharan, Maithili; Rama Krishna, T. V. B. P. S.; Panda, Jagabandhu

    A nomogram was prepared by [Golder, 1972. Boundary Layer Meteorology 3, 47-58] to compute the surface layer parameters in stable conditions. This note revisits the Golder's curves and examines the methodology underlying their derivation in stable conditions. The inherent limitation in the methodology used for construction of Golder's curves was also noticed by Trombetti et al. (1986). Surface layer fluxes computed using the parameters derived from modified curves are found to be closer to the turbulence measurements from CASES-99 experiment for stable conditions than those calculated from the [Golder, 1972. Boundary Layer Meteorology 3, 47-58] curves.

  1. Layered Gold and Titanium Dioxide Substrates for Improved Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic Sensing.

    PubMed

    Strobbia, Pietro; Henegar, Alex J; Gougousi, Theodosia; Cullum, Brian M

    2016-08-01

    This manuscript describes a simple process for fabricating gold-based, multi-layered, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates that can be applied to a variety of different nanostructures, while still providing multi-layer enhancement factors comparable to those previously achieved only with optimized silver/silver oxide/silver substrates. In particular, gold multi-layered substrates generated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been fabricated and characterized in terms of their optimal performance, revealing multi-layer enhancements of 2.3-fold per spacer layer applied. These substrates were fabricated using TiO2 as the dielectric spacer material between adjacent gold layers, with ALD providing a conformal thin film with high surface coverage and low thickness. By varying the spacer layer thicknesses from sub-monolayer (non-contiguous) films through multiple TiO2 layer thick films, the non-monotonic spacer layer thickness response has been elucidated, revealing the importance of thin, contiguous dielectric spacer layers for optimal enhancement. Furthermore, the extended shelf life of these gold multi-layered substrates was characterized, demonstrating usable lifetimes (i.e. following storage in ambient conditions) of greater than five months, with the further potential for simple limited electrochemical regeneration even after this time. PMID:27329834

  2. Origin and consequences of silicate glass passivation by surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gin, Stéphane; Jollivet, Patrick; Fournier, Maxime; Angeli, Frédéric; Frugier, Pierre; Charpentier, Thibault

    2015-02-01

    Silicate glasses are durable materials, but are they sufficiently durable to confine highly radioactive wastes for hundreds of thousands years? Addressing this question requires a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underpinning aqueous corrosion of these materials. Here we show that in silica-saturated solution, a model glass of nuclear interest corrodes but at a rate that dramatically drops as a passivating layer forms. Water ingress into the glass, leading to the congruent release of mobile elements (B, Na and Ca), is followed by in situ repolymerization of the silicate network. This material is at equilibrium with pore and bulk solutions, and acts as a molecular sieve with a cutoff below 1 nm. The low corrosion rate resulting from the formation of this stable passivating layer enables the objective of durability to be met, while progress in the fundamental understanding of corrosion unlocks the potential for optimizing the design of nuclear glass-geological disposal.

  3. Origin and consequences of silicate glass passivation by surface layers

    PubMed Central

    Gin, Stéphane; Jollivet, Patrick; Fournier, Maxime; Angeli, Frédéric; Frugier, Pierre; Charpentier, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    Silicate glasses are durable materials, but are they sufficiently durable to confine highly radioactive wastes for hundreds of thousands years? Addressing this question requires a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underpinning aqueous corrosion of these materials. Here we show that in silica-saturated solution, a model glass of nuclear interest corrodes but at a rate that dramatically drops as a passivating layer forms. Water ingress into the glass, leading to the congruent release of mobile elements (B, Na and Ca), is followed by in situ repolymerization of the silicate network. This material is at equilibrium with pore and bulk solutions, and acts as a molecular sieve with a cutoff below 1 nm. The low corrosion rate resulting from the formation of this stable passivating layer enables the objective of durability to be met, while progress in the fundamental understanding of corrosion unlocks the potential for optimizing the design of nuclear glass-geological disposal. PMID:25695377

  4. Origin and consequences of silicate glass passivation by surface layers.

    PubMed

    Gin, Stéphane; Jollivet, Patrick; Fournier, Maxime; Angeli, Frédéric; Frugier, Pierre; Charpentier, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    Silicate glasses are durable materials, but are they sufficiently durable to confine highly radioactive wastes for hundreds of thousands years? Addressing this question requires a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underpinning aqueous corrosion of these materials. Here we show that in silica-saturated solution, a model glass of nuclear interest corrodes but at a rate that dramatically drops as a passivating layer forms. Water ingress into the glass, leading to the congruent release of mobile elements (B, Na and Ca), is followed by in situ repolymerization of the silicate network. This material is at equilibrium with pore and bulk solutions, and acts as a molecular sieve with a cutoff below 1 nm. The low corrosion rate resulting from the formation of this stable passivating layer enables the objective of durability to be met, while progress in the fundamental understanding of corrosion unlocks the potential for optimizing the design of nuclear glass-geological disposal. PMID:25695377

  5. Shape-selective sieving layers on an oxide catalyst surface.

    PubMed

    Canlas, Christian P; Lu, Junling; Ray, Natalie A; Grosso-Giordano, Nicolas A; Lee, Sungsik; Elam, Jeffrey W; Winans, Randall E; Van Duyne, Richard P; Stair, Peter C; Notestein, Justin M

    2012-12-01

    New porous materials such as zeolites, metal-organic frameworks and mesostructured oxides are of immense practical utility for gas storage, separations and heterogeneous catalysis. Their extended pore structures enable selective uptake of molecules or can modify the product selectivity (regioselectivity or enantioselectivity) of catalyst sites contained within. However, diffusion within pores can be problematic for biomass and fine chemicals, and not all catalyst classes can be readily synthesized with pores of the correct dimensions. Here, we present a novel approach that adds reactant selectivity to existing, non-porous oxide catalysts by first grafting the catalyst particles with single-molecule sacrificial templates, then partially overcoating the catalyst with a second oxide through atomic layer deposition. This technique is used to create sieving layers of Al(2)O(3) (thickness, 0.4-0.7 nm) with 'nanocavities' (<2 nm in diameter) on a TiO(2) photocatalyst. The additional layers result in selectivity (up to 9:1) towards less hindered reactants in otherwise unselective, competitive photocatalytic oxidations and transfer hydrogenations. PMID:23174984

  6. Shape-selective sieving layers on an oxide catalyst surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canlas, Christian P.; Lu, Junling; Ray, Natalie A.; Grosso-Giordano, Nicolas A.; Lee, Sungsik; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Winans, Randall E.; van Duyne, Richard P.; Stair, Peter C.; Notestein, Justin M.

    2012-12-01

    New porous materials such as zeolites, metal-organic frameworks and mesostructured oxides are of immense practical utility for gas storage, separations and heterogeneous catalysis. Their extended pore structures enable selective uptake of molecules or can modify the product selectivity (regioselectivity or enantioselectivity) of catalyst sites contained within. However, diffusion within pores can be problematic for biomass and fine chemicals, and not all catalyst classes can be readily synthesized with pores of the correct dimensions. Here, we present a novel approach that adds reactant selectivity to existing, non-porous oxide catalysts by first grafting the catalyst particles with single-molecule sacrificial templates, then partially overcoating the catalyst with a second oxide through atomic layer deposition. This technique is used to create sieving layers of Al2O3 (thickness, 0.4-0.7 nm) with ‘nanocavities’ (<2 nm in diameter) on a TiO2 photocatalyst. The additional layers result in selectivity (up to 9:1) towards less hindered reactants in otherwise unselective, competitive photocatalytic oxidations and transfer hydrogenations.

  7. Transient Heat Transfer in a Semitransparent Radiating Layer with Boundary Convection and Surface Reflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Surface convection and refractive index are examined during transient radiative heating or cooling of a grey semitransparent layer with internal absorption, emission and conduction. Each side of the layer is exposed to hot or cold radiative surroundings, while each boundary is heated or cooled by convection. Emission within the layer and internal reflections depend on the layer refractive index. The reflected energy and heat conduction distribute energy across the layer and partially equalize the transient temperature distributions. Solutions are given to demonstrate the effect of radiative heating for layers with various optical thicknesses, the behavior of the layer heated by radiation on one side and convectively cooled on the other, and a layer heated by convection while being cooled by radiation. The numerical method is an implicit finite difference procedure with non-uniform space and time increments. The basic method developed in earlier work is expanded to include external convection and incident radiation.

  8. Microporous structure with layered interstitial surface treatment, and method and apparatus for preparation thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A microporous structure with layered interstitial surface treatments, and the method and apparatus for its preparation are disclosed. The structure is prepared by sequentially subjecting a uniformly surface treated structure to atomic oxygen treatment to remove an outer layer of surface treatment to a generally uniform depth, and then surface treating the so exposed layer with another surface treating agent. The atomic oxygen/surface treatment steps may optionally be repeated, each successive time to a lesser depth, to produce a microporous structure having multilayered surface treatments. The apparatus employs at least one side arm from a main oxygen-containing chamber. The side arm has characteristic relaxation times such that a uniform atomic oxygen dose rate is delivered to a specimen positioned transversely in the side arm spaced from the main gas chamber.

  9. Microporous structure with layered interstitial surface treatment, and method and apparatus for preparation thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A microporous structure with layered interstitial surface treatments, and method and apparatus for preparation thereof is presented. The structure is prepared by sequentially subjecting a uniformly surface-treated structure to atomic oxygen treatment to remove an outer layer of surface treatment to a generally uniform depth, and then surface treating the so exposed layer with another surface treating agent. The atomic oxygen/surface treatment steps may optionally be repeated, each successive time to a lesser depth, to produce a microporous structure having multilayered surface treatments. The apparatus employs at least one side arm from a main atomic oxygen-containing chamber. The side arm has characteristic relaxation times such that a uniform atomic oxygen dose rate is delivered to a specimen positioned transversely in the side arm spaced from the main gas chamber.

  10. Surface double-layer structure in (110) oriented BiFeO{sub 3} thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tieying; Zhang, Xingmin; Gao, Xingyu; Li, Zhong; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Can; Feng, Yu; Guo, Haizhong; Jin, Kuijuan

    2014-11-17

    Surface double-layer structure different from the interior was found in BiFeO{sub 3} thin film grown on SrRuO{sub 3} covered SrTiO{sub 3} (110) substrate by pulsed laser deposition. It was shown that BiFeO{sub 3} film exhibits epitaxial phase with single domain. X-ray reflectivity and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results revealed a skin layer of less than 1 nm with a reduced electron density and different surface state. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction convinced a surface multi-domain structure of several nm beneath the surface skin layer. The double-layer near surface structure would be originated from the large depolarization field produced by the single-domain structure with strain.

  11. Surface plasmon sensing with different metals in single and double layer configurations.

    PubMed

    Nesterenko, Dmitry V; Saif-ur-Rehman; Sekkat, Zouheir

    2012-09-20

    The resolution of surface plasmon resonance sensors in the geometry of Kretschmann is estimated by numerical simulation for different thicknesses of combinations of silver (Ag), copper, and aluminum (Al) metallic layers with a gold coating layer at set of wavelengths in cases of detecting the change of the refractive index of the bulk medium and the change in optical thickness of an adsorption layer. The lowest resolution among the examined combinations of the sensors is achieved with a single Al layer for ultraviolet region and with a single Ag layer for longer wavelengths. PMID:23205393

  12. Immobilization of Active Bacteriophages on Polyhydroxyalkanoate Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chanchan; Sauvageau, Dominic; Elias, Anastasia

    2016-01-20

    A rapid, efficient technique for the attachment of bacteriophages (phages) onto polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) surfaces has been developed and compared to three reported methods for phage immobilization. Polymer surfaces were modified to facilitate phage attachment using (1) plasma treatment alone, (2) plasma treatment followed by activation by 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS), (3) plasma-initiated acrylic acid grafting, or (4) plasma-initiated acrylic acid grafting with activation by EDC and sulfo-NHS. The impact of each method on the surface chemistry of PHA was investigated using contact angle analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Each of the four treatments was shown to result in both increased hydrophilicity and in the modification of the surface functional groups. Modified surfaces were immersed in suspensions of phage T4 for immobilization. The highest level of phage binding was observed for the surfaces modified by plasma treatment alone. The change in chemical bond states observed for surfaces that underwent plasma treatment is suspected to be the cause of the increased binding of active phages. Plasma-treated surfaces were further analyzed through phage-staining and fluorescence microscopy to assess the surface density of immobilized phages and their capacity to capture hosts. The infective capability of attached phages was confirmed by exposing the phage-immobilized surfaces to the host bacteria Escherichia coli in both plaque and infection dynamic assays. Plasma-treated surfaces with immobilized phages displayed higher infectivity than surfaces treated with other methods; in fact, the equivalent initial multiplicity of infection was 2 orders of magnitude greater than with other methods. Control samples - prepared by immersing polymer surfaces in phage suspensions (without prior plasma treatment) - did not show any bacterial growth inhibition, suggesting they did not bind

  13. Cryoscanning electron microscopic study of the surface amorphous layer of articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, S; Yonekubo, S; Kurogouchi, Y

    1995-01-01

    In order to elucidate the structure near the articular surface, frozen unfixed hydrated articular cartilage with subchondral bone from the pig knee was examined using a cryoscanning electron microscope (cryo-SEM). This method is considered to reduce the introduction of artefacts due to fixation and drying. An amorphous layer, without a collagen-fibril network or chondrocytes, covered most of the surface of the cartilage. This layer was termed the surface amorphous layer. It showed various appearances, which were classified into 4 groups. The average thickness of the layer did not differ among the 8 anatomical regions from which the specimens were taken. The thickness of the layer was found to correlate with the type of appearance of the layer. The 4 appearances associated with thicknesses in descending order are: 'streaked', 'foliate', 'spotted', and 'vestigial'. The surface layer observed in the cryo-SEM was thicker than that observed by a conventional SEM. This difference may be attributable to dehydration of the specimen used in specimen preparation for the latter technique. The layer was also observed in articular cartilage taken from human and rabbit knees. The layer was found to be unstable and to have very variable features. Its thickness and appearance may be influenced by various factors such as dehydration, fluid absorption or mechanical stress. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:7592006

  14. Silicon carbide wafer bonding by modified surface activated bonding method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suga, Tadatomo; Mu, Fengwen; Fujino, Masahisa; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Nakazawa, Haruo; Iguchi, Kenichi

    2015-03-01

    4H-SiC wafer bonding has been achieved by the modified surface activated bonding (SAB) method without any chemical-clean treatment and high temperature annealing. Strong bonding between the SiC wafers with tensile strength greater than 32 MPa was demonstrated at room temperature under 5 kN force for 300 s. Almost the entire wafer has been bonded very well except a small peripheral region and few voids. The interface structure was analyzed to verify the bonding mechanism. It was found an amorphous layer existed as an intermediate layer at the interface. After annealing at 1273 K in vacuum for 1 h, the bonding tensile strength was still higher than 32 MPa. The interface changes after annealing were also studied. The results show that the thickness of the amorphous layer was reduced to half after annealing.

  15. The morphology of an epitaxial Mg Al spinel layer on a sapphire surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Che-Ming; Chen, Jyh-Chen; Chen, Chun-Jen

    2006-07-01

    In this work an epitaxial Mg-Al spinel layer was successfully grown on a C- and A-plane sapphire single crystal surface by solid-state reactions. When observed by a scanning electron microscope, it can be seen that the morphology of an epitaxial spinel layer surface has a three-fold symmetrical structure. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis indicate that the surface morphology of the epitaxial spinel layer has particular crystallographic directions and the crystallographic directions will be influenced by the orientation of the sapphire substrates.

  16. Shear-induced surface alignment of polymer dispersed liquid crystal microdroplets on the boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.; Singh, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin films have been deposited on a glass substrate, utilizing the processes of polymerization and solvent evaporation induced phase separation. Liquid crystal microdroplets trapped on the upper surface of the thin film respond to the shear stress due to air or gas flow on the surface layer. Response to an applied step shear stress input on the surface layer has been measured by measuring the time response of the transmitted light intensity. Initial results on the measurements of the light transmission as a function of the air flow differential pressure indicate that these systems offer features suitable for boundary layer and gas flow sensors.

  17. Summer Surface Layer Thermal Response to Surface Gravity Waves in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Han, G.; Deng, Z.; Wang, X.

    2010-12-01

    A three-dimensional ocean model is applied to study the summer surface layer thermal response to surface gravity waves in the Yellow sea and the East China Sea(YES).The parameterization schemes of wave breaking developed by Mellor and Blumberg(2004) and Langmuir circulation developed by Kantha and Clayson(2004) are both included in the Mellor-Yamada turbulence closure model(Mellor and Yamada, 1982). Numerical results show that both surface wave breaking and Langmuir circulation determine the depth of surface boundary layer of temperature in the YES in summer. Langmuir circulation is able to obtain the turbulent kinetic energy injected by breaking waves near the surface and transport it downward to greater depths. A diagnostic analysis of the momentum balance shows that surface gravity waves can decrease the velocity near the surface and make the flow near the surface more homogeneous vertically in the YES. In addition, a diagnostic analysis of the temperature equation has been done for studying the heat budget. Diagnostic results show that more heat that is brought from surface in the YES can been transferred into the deeper layer owing to the surface gravity waves, which can induce local temperature there increase more rapidly. Besides, diagnostic results also suggest that surface gravity waves are likely to decrease upwelling near the bank in the region.

  18. The surface chemistry of GaAs atomic layer epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Creighton, J.R.; Banse, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we review three proposed mechanisms for GaAs ALE and review or present data support or contradiction of these mechanisms. Surface chemistry results clearly demonstrated that TMGa irreversibly chemisorbs on the Ga-rich GaAs(100) surface. The reactive sticking coefficient (RSC) of TMGa on the adsorbate-free Ga-rich GaAs(100) surface was measured to be {approximately}0.5, conclusively demonstrating that the selective adsorption'' mechanism of ALE is not valid. We describe kinetic evidence for methyl radical desorption in support of the adsorbate inhibition'' mechanism. The methyl radical desorption rates determined by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) demonstrate that desorption is at least a factor of {approximately}10 faster from the As-rich c(2 {times} 8)/(2 {times} 4) surface than from the Ga-rich surface. It is disparity in CH{sub 3} desorption rates between the As-rich and Ga-rich surfaces that is largely responsible for GaAs ALE behavior. A gallium alkyl radical (e.g. MMGa) is also observed during TPD and molecular beam experiments, in partial support of the flux balance'' mechanism. Stoichiometry issues of ALE are also discussed. We have discovered that arsine exposures typical of atmospheric pressure and reduced pressure ALE lead to As coverages {ge} 1 ML, which provides the likely solution to the stoichiometry question regarding the arsine cycle. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Epitaxial pentacene films grown on the surface of ion-beam-processed gate dielectric layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, W. Y.; Kuo, C. W.; Cheng, H. L.; Mai, Y. S.; Tang, F. C.; Lin, S. T.; Yeh, C. Y.; Horng, J. B.; Chia, C. T.; Liao, C. C.; Shu, D. Y.

    2006-06-01

    The following research describes the process of fabrication of pentacene films with submicron thickness, deposited by thermal evaporation in high vacuum. The films were fabricated with the aforementioned conditions and their characteristics were analyzed using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, polarized Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) were fabricated on an indium tin oxide coated glass substrate, using an active layer of ordered pentacene molecules, which were grown at room temperature. Pentacene film was aligned using the ion-beam aligned method, which is typically employed to align liquid crystals. Electrical measurements taken on a thin-film transistor indicated an increase in the saturation current by a factor of 15. Pentacene-based OTFTs with argon ion-beam-processed gate dielectric layers of silicon dioxide, in which the direction of the ion beam was perpendicular to the current flow, exhibited a mobility that was up to an order of magnitude greater than that of the controlled device without ion-beam process; current on/off ratios of approximately 106 were obtained. Polarized Raman spectroscopy investigation indicated that the surface of the gate dielectric layer, treated with argon ion beam, enhanced the intermolecular coupling of pentacene molecules. The study also proposes the explanation for the mechanism of carrier transportation in pentacene films.

  20. Parameterization of Land Surface Processes to Study Boundary Layer Characteristics over a Semiarid Region in Northwest India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyanarayana, A. N. V.; Lykossov, V. N.; Mohanty, U. C.; Machul'Skaya, E. E.

    2003-04-01

    The atmospheric boundary layer and land surface processes play a crucial role and affect large-scale phenomena such as monsoons. A comprehensive soil-vegetation parameterization scheme has been developed to understand the complex interaction of the transfer processes, such as heat and moisture within the atmospheric surface layer and the active land layer. In this scheme, attention is given to the accurate representation of soil heat and moisture by considering all three states of water and their phase transitions. This scheme is incorporated in a one-dimensional multilevel boundary layer model for accurate representation of energy exchange processes to study the boundary layer characteristics. Numerical experiments are carried out with this model using special datasets obtained from the Land Surface Processes Experiment (LASPEX-97) at Anand (22.4°N, 72.6°E), a semiarid region of the state of Gujarat in northwest India. For this study, a dry simulation in February 1997 and a wet situation in July 1997 are considered. The model-simulated temporal variation of the fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, and net radiation and soil temperatures are compared with the available observations. The results suggest that this model is suitable for better representation of land surface processes and the PBL in large-scale atmospheric models.

  1. MEASUREMENTS OF CONFORMATION CHANGES DURING ADHESION OF LIPID PROTEIN (POLYLYSINE AND S-LAYER) SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adhesion forces between various surfaces were measured using the "surface forces apparatus" technique which allows for the thickness of surface layers and the adhesion force between them to be directly measured in controlled vapor or liquid environments. hree types of biologi...

  2. Local and Sustained Activity of Doxycycline Delivered with Layer-by-Layer Microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dong; Gould, David J; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2016-04-11

    Achieving localized delivery of small molecule drugs has the potential to increase efficacy and reduce off target and side effects associated with systemic distribution. Herein, we explore the potential use of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled microcapsules for the delivery of doxycycline. Absorbance of doxycycline onto core dextran sulfate of preassembled microcapsules provides an efficient method to load both synthetic and biodegradable microcapsules with the drug. Application of an outer layer lipid coat enhances the sustained in vitro release of doxycycline from both microcapsule types. To monitor doxycycline delivery in a biological system, C2C12 mouse myoblasts are engineered to express EGFP under the control of the optimized components of the tetracycline regulated gene expression system. Microcapsules are not toxic to these cells, and upon delivery to the cells, EGFP is more efficiently induced in those cells that contain engulfed microcapsules and monitored EGFP expression clearly demonstrates that synthetic microcapsules with a DPPC coat are the most efficient for sustain intracellular delivery. Doxycycline released from microcapsules also displayed sustained activity in an antimicrobial growth inhibition assay compared with doxycycline solution. This study reveals the potential for LbL microcapsules in small molecule drug delivery and their feasible use for achieving prolonged doxycycline activity. PMID:26967921

  3. Surface modification of silk fibroin fabric using layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition and heparin immobilization for small-diameter vascular prostheses.

    PubMed

    Elahi, M Fazley; Guan, Guoping; Wang, Lu; Zhao, Xinzhe; Wang, Fujun; King, Martin W

    2015-03-01

    There is an urgent need to develop a biologically active implantable small-diameter vascular prosthesis with long-term patency. Silk-fibroin-based small-diameter vascular prosthesis is a promising candidate having higher patency rate; however, the surface modification is indeed required to improve its further hemocompatibility. In this study, silk fibroin fabric was modified by a two-stage process. First, the surface of silk fibroin fabric was coated using a layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition technique by stepwise dipping the silk fibroin fabric into a solution of cationic poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and anionic poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) solution. The dipping procedure was repeated to obtain the PAH/PAA multilayers deposited on the silk fibroin fabrics. Second, the polyelectrolyte-deposited silk fibroin fabrics were treated in EDC/NHS-activated low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) solution at 4 °C for 24 h, resulting in immobilization of LMWH on the silk fibroin fabrics surface. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray data revealed the accomplishment of LMWH immobilization on the polyelectrolyte-deposited silk fibroin fabric surface. The higher the number of PAH/PAA coating layers on the silk fibroin fabric, the more surface hydrophilicity could be obtained, resulting in a higher fetal bovine serum protein and platelets adhesion resistance properties when tested in vitro. In addition, compared with untreated sample, the surface-modified silk fibroin fabrics showed negligible loss of bursting strength and thus reveal the acceptability of polyelectrolytes deposition and heparin immobilization approach for silk-fibroin-based small-diameter vascular prostheses modification. PMID:25671295

  4. Surface Plasma Source Electrode Activation by Surface Impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Johnson, Rolland P.; Han, B.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Santana, M.; Stockli, Martin P.; Welton, R. F.

    2011-09-26

    In experiments with RF saddle antenna surface plasma sources (SPS), the efficiency of H{sup -} ion generation was increased by up to a factor of 5 by plasma electrode 'activation', without supplying additional Cs, by heating the collar to high temperature for several hours using hot air flow and plasma discharge. Without cracking or heating the cesium ampoule, but likely with Cs recovery from impurities, the achieved energy efficiency was comparable to that of conventionally cesiated SNS RF sources with an external or internal Cs supply. In the experiments, optimum cesiation was produced (without additional Cs) by the collection and trapping of traces of remnant cesium compounds from SPS surfaces. Such activation by accumulation of impurities on electrode surfaces can be a reason for H{sup -} emission enhancement in other so-called 'volume' negative ion sources.

  5. Layered shielding design for an active neutron interrogation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetstone, Zachary D.; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2016-08-01

    The use of source and detector shields in active neutron interrogation can improve detector signal. In simulations, a shielded detector with a source rotated π/3 rad relative to the opening decreased neutron flux roughly three orders of magnitude. Several realistic source and detector shield configurations were simulated. A layered design reduced neutron and secondary photon flux in the detector by approximately one order of magnitude for a deuterium-tritium source. The shield arrangement can be adapted for a portable, modular design.

  6. a Spatio-Temporal Framework for Modeling Active Layer Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touyz, J.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Nelson, F. E.; Apanasovich, T. V.

    2015-07-01

    The Arctic is experiencing an unprecedented rate of environmental and climate change. The active layer (the uppermost layer of soil between the atmosphere and permafrost that freezes in winter and thaws in summer) is sensitive to both climatic and environmental changes, and plays an important role in the functioning, planning, and economic activities of Arctic human and natural ecosystems. This study develops a methodology for modeling and estimating spatial-temporal variations in active layer thickness (ALT) using data from several sites of the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring network, and demonstrates its use in spatial-temporal interpolation. The simplest model's stochastic component exhibits no spatial or spatio-temporal dependency and is referred to as the naïve model, against which we evaluate the performance of the other models, which assume that the stochastic component exhibits either spatial or spatio-temporal dependency. The methods used to fit the models are then discussed, along with point forecasting. We compare the predicted fit of the various models at key study sites located in the North Slope of Alaska and demonstrate the advantages of space-time models through a series of error statistics such as mean squared error, mean absolute and percent deviance from observed data. We find the difference in performance between the spatio-temporal and remaining models is significant for all three error statistics. The best stochastic spatio-temporal model increases predictive accuracy, compared to the naïve model, of 33.3%, 36.2% and 32.5% on average across the three error metrics at the key sites for a one-year hold out period.

  7. Activated oil sands fluid coke for electrical double-layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuliani, Jocelyn E.; Kirk, Donald W.; Jia, Charles Q.; Tong, Shitang

    2014-12-01

    Electrochemical capacitors are important energy storage devices that have high power density, rapid charging cycles and are highly cyclable. In this study, activated fluid coke has demonstrated high surface area, improved capacitive properties, and high energy density. Fluid coke is a by-product generated from continuous high temperature bitumen upgrading, resulting in the formation of nearly spherical particles with concentric carbon layers. The residual sulphur impurities in fluid coke may enhance its energy storage performance. The activated coke samples have high specific surface areas, up to 1960 m2 g-1, and show promising capacitive performance, in 4 M KOH electrolyte, with high gravimetric and specific capacitances of 228-257 F g-1 and 13-14 μF cm-2, respectively. These results are comparable to other top performing activated carbon materials [1-3]. The activated fluid coke maintains high performance at fast charging rates, greater than 160 F g-1 at a current density of 7500 mA g-1. Activated fluid coke's high capacitance and promising rate performance are potentially associated with its unique layered, and the moderate sulphur content in the chemical structure. Activated fluid coke is a unique opportunity to use a limited use by-product to generate activated carbon that has a high surface area and promising energy storage properties.

  8. Characterization of Platinum and Iridium Oxyhydrate Surface Layers from Platinum and Iridium Foils.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Benjamin; Ranjan, Chinmoy; Greiner, Mark; Arrigo, Rosa; Schuster, Manfred Erwin; Höpfner, Britta; Gorgoi, Mihaela; Lauermann, Iver; Willinger, Marc; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Schlögl, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Platinum and iridium polycrystalline foils were oxidized electrochemically through anodization to create thin platinum and iridium hydrous oxide layers, which were analyzed through laboratory photoelectron spectroscopy during heating and time series (temperature-programmed spectroscopy). The films contain oxygen in the form of bound oxides, water, and hydroxides and were investigated by depth profiling with high-energy photoelectron spectroscopy. The Pt films are unstable and begin to degrade immediately after removal from the electrolyte to form core-shell structures with a metallic inner core and a hydrous oxide outer shell almost devoid of Pt. However, evidence was found for metastable intermediate states of degradation; therefore, it may be possible to manufacture PtOx phases with increased stability. Heating the film to even 100 °C causes accelerated degradation, which shows that stoichiometric oxides such as PtO2 or PtO are not the active species in the electrolyte. The Ir films exhibit increased stability and higher surface Ir content, and gentle heating at low temperatures leads to a decrease in defect density. Although both layers are based on noble metals, their surface structures are markedly different. The complexity of such hydrous oxide systems is discussed in detail with the goal of identifying the film composition more precisely. PMID:27226255

  9. [Texture variation of CC 5052 aluminum alloy slab from surface to center layer by XRD].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Biao; Liu, Wen-Chang; Ma, Xiao-Yi; Li, Jian; Yang, Qing-Xiang; Wang, Shan; Ma, Min; Liu, Chang; Zhao, Y M

    2013-05-01

    For improvement of the processing and gaining uniformity texture structure and performance of direct chill cast CCAA 5052 aluminum alloy band after first hot rolling with different reduction, the material was annealed at 454 degrees C and then cold rolling with different reduction was conducted, the texture at surface, quarter and center layer of the sample was tested and examined by X-ray diffraction method, the data calculated using special software and the difference of texture at surface, quarter and center layer was analyzed. There existed an elevated gradient of intensity from surface layer to center layer after cold rolled with less than or equal to 40% reduction, The main texture of beta is stronger mainly due to transformation from remainder exposure, while the goss and remainder is infirm, the state of texture at each layer is close to each other after cold rolling with reduction high than 56.1%. PMID:23905353

  10. Discrete-Layer Piezoelectric Plate and Shell Models for Active Tip-Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyliger, P. R.; Ramirez, G.; Pei, K. C.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to develop computational tools for the analysis of active-sensory composite structures with added or embedded piezoelectric layers. The targeted application for this class of smart composite laminates and the analytical development is the accomplishment of active tip-clearance control in turbomachinery components. Two distinct theories and analytical models were developed and explored under this contract: (1) a discrete-layer plate theory and corresponding computational models, and (2) a three dimensional general discrete-layer element generated in curvilinear coordinates for modeling laminated composite piezoelectric shells. Both models were developed from the complete electromechanical constitutive relations of piezoelectric materials, and incorporate both displacements and potentials as state variables. This report describes the development and results of these models. The discrete-layer theories imply that the displacement field and electrostatic potential through-the-thickness of the laminate are described over an individual layer rather than as a smeared function over the thickness of the entire plate or shell thickness. This is especially crucial for composites with embedded piezoelectric layers, as the actuating and sensing elements within these layers are poorly represented by effective or smeared properties. Linear Lagrange interpolation polynomials were used to describe the through-thickness laminate behavior. Both analytic and finite element approximations were used in the plane or surface of the structure. In this context, theoretical developments are presented for the discrete-layer plate theory, the discrete-layer shell theory, and the formulation of an exact solution for simply-supported piezoelectric plates. Finally, evaluations and results from a number of separate examples are presented for the static and dynamic analysis of the plate geometry. Comparisons between the different approaches are provided when

  11. Evaluation of parameterization for turbulent fluxes of momentum and heat in stably stratified surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodemann, H.; Foken, Th.

    2003-04-01

    General Circulation Models calculate the energy exchange between surface and atmosphere by means of parameterisations for turbulent fluxes of momentum and heat in the surface layer. However, currently implemented parameterisations after Louis (1979) create large discrepancies between predictions and observational data, especially in stably stratified surface layers. This work evaluates a new surface layer parameterisation proposed by Zilitinkevich et al. (2002), which was specifically developed to improve energy flux predictions in stable stratification. The evaluation comprises a detailed study of important surface layer characteristics, a sensitivity study of the parameterisation, and a direct comparison to observational data from Antarctica and predictions by the Louis (1979) parameterisation. The stability structure of the stable surface layer was found to be very complex, and strongly influenced fluxes in the surface layer. The sensitivity study revealed that the new parameterisation depends strongly on the ratio between roughness length and roughness temperature, which were both observed to be very variable parameters. The comparison between predictions and measurements showed good agreement for momentum fluxes, but large discrepancies for heat fluxes. A stability dependent evaluation of selected data showed better agreement for the new parameterisation of Zilitinkevich et al. (2002) than for the Louis (1979) scheme. Nevertheless, this comparison underlines the need for more detailed and physically sound concepts for parameterisations of heat fluxes in stably stratified surface layers. Zilitinkevich, S. S., V. Perov and J. C. King (2002). "Near-surface turbulent fluxes in stable stratification: Calculation techniques for use in General Circulation Models." Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128(583): 1571--1587. Louis, J. F. (1979). "A Parametric Model of Vertical Eddy Fluxes in the Atmosphere." Bound.-Layer Meteor. 17(2): 187--202.

  12. Adjoint active surfaces for localization and imaging.

    PubMed

    Cook, Daniel A; Mueller, Martin Fritz; Fedele, Francesco; Yezzi, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of localizing and segmenting regions embedded within a surrounding medium by characterizing their boundaries, as opposed to imaging the entirety of the volume. Active surfaces are used to directly reconstruct the shape of the region of interest. We describe the procedure for finding the optimal surface, which is computed iteratively via gradient descent that exploits the sensitivity of an error minimization functional to changes of the active surface. In doing so, we introduce the adjoint model to compute the sensitivity, and in this respect, the method shares common ground with several other disciplines, such as optimal control. Finally, we illustrate the proposed active surface technique in the framework of wave propagation governed by the scalar Helmholtz equation. Potential applications include electromagnetics, acoustics, geophysics, nondestructive testing, and medical imaging. PMID:25438311

  13. Thermodynamic stability of a bi-layer of copper nitride on Cu(100) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpa, Raghani; Williamson, Izaak; Jones, Barbara

    2011-08-01

    Ultrathin insulating films composed of a few atomic layers are being extensively used for controlling the electronic coupling of nanostructures deposited on a substrate. Ultrathin film, for example, a single layer of Cu2N deposited on a Cu(100) surface (known as Cu2N/Cu(100) surface) has been used to determine the spectral properties of nanomagnets using scanning tunneling spectroscopy. However, recent experiments that measure spin relaxation times in a single atom suggest that the single layer of Cu2N does not provide efficient electronic decoupling. In this work, we study the thermodynamic stability of a bi-layer of copper nitride on the Cu(100) surface. We calculate adsorption and co-adsorption energies of Cu and N as a function of their concentration on the Cu2N/Cu(100) surface using density functional theory. We find that the adsorption and co-adsorption energies of Cu and N on the Cu2N/Cu(100) surface are of the order of a few eV. This suggests that the bi-layer of copper nitride is thermodynamically stable on the Cu(100) surface. We also find that the work function of N-adsorbed Cu2N/Cu(100) increases with the N concentration, suggesting a better insulating character of the bi-layer of copper nitride on the Cu(100) surface.

  14. Stormwater infiltration and surface runoff pollution reduction performance of permeable pavement layers.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhi-Guang; Lv, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Zhen-Zhen

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the laboratory-scale permeable pavement layers, including a surface permeable brick layer, coarse sand bedding layers (thicknesses = 2, 3.5, and 5 cm), and single-graded gravel sub-base layers (thicknesses = 15, 20, 25, and 30 cm), were built to evaluate stormwater infiltration and surface runoff pollution reduction performance. And, the infiltration rate (I) and concentrations of suspended solids (SS), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen (TN) were measured under the simulated rainfall intensity of 72.4 mm/h over duration of 60 min. The results indicate that the thickness factor primarily influences the infiltration rate and pollutant removal rate. The highest steady infiltration rate was for surface brick layer 51.0 mm/h, for 5-cm sand bedding layer 32.3 mm/h, and for 30-cm gravel sub-base layer 42.3 mm/h, respectively. The SS average removal rate was relative higher (79.8 ∼ 98.6 %) for all layers due to the interception and filtration. The average removal rates of TP and COD were for surface layer 71.2 and 24.1 %, for 5-cm bedding layer 54.8 and 9.0 %, and for 20-cm sub-base layer 72.2 and 26.1 %. Ammonia nitrogen and TN cannot steadily be removed by layers according to the experiment results. The optimal thickness of bedding sands was 5 cm, and that of sub-base gravels was 20 ∼ 30 cm. PMID:26429141

  15. Two-Layer Variable Infiltration Capacity Land Surface Representation for General Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, L.

    1994-01-01

    A simple two-layer variable infiltration capacity (VIC-2L) land surface model suitable for incorporation in general circulation models (GCMs) is described. The model consists of a two-layer characterization of the soil within a GCM grid cell, and uses an aerodynamic representation of latent and sensible heat fluxes at the land surface. The effects of GCM spatial subgrid variability of soil moisture and a hydrologically realistic runoff mechanism are represented in the soil layers. The model was tested using long-term hydrologic and climatalogical data for Kings Creek, Kansas to estimate and validate the hydrological parameters. Surface flux data from three First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiments (FIFE) intensive field compaigns in the summer and fall of 1987 in central Kansas, and from the Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) in Brazil were used to validate the mode-simulated surface energy fluxes and surface temperature.

  16. Excellent c-Si surface passivation by low-temperature atomic layer deposited titanium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Baochen; Hoex, Bram; Aberle, Armin G.; Bhatia, Charanjit S.; Chi, Dongzhi

    2014-06-23

    In this work, we demonstrate that thermal atomic layer deposited (ALD) titanium oxide (TiO{sub x}) films are able to provide a—up to now unprecedented—level of surface passivation on undiffused low-resistivity crystalline silicon (c-Si). The surface passivation provided by the ALD TiO{sub x} films is activated by a post-deposition anneal and subsequent light soaking treatment. Ultralow effective surface recombination velocities down to 2.8 cm/s and 8.3 cm/s, respectively, are achieved on n-type and p-type float-zone c-Si wafers. Detailed analysis confirms that the TiO{sub x} films are nearly stoichiometric, have no significant level of contaminants, and are of amorphous nature. The passivation is found to be stable after storage in the dark for eight months. These results demonstrate that TiO{sub x} films are also capable of providing excellent passivation of undiffused c-Si surfaces on a comparable level to thermal silicon oxide, silicon nitride, and aluminum oxide. In addition, it is well known that TiO{sub x} has an optimal refractive index of 2.4 in the visible range for glass encapsulated solar cells, as well as a low extinction coefficient. Thus, the results presented in this work could facilitate the re-emergence of TiO{sub x} in the field of high-efficiency silicon wafer solar cells.

  17. Surface Phonon Dispersion of the Layered Transition-metal Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Ismail; Matzdorf, R.; Plummer, E. W.; Kimura, T.; Tokura, Y.

    2000-03-01

    Transition-metal oxides exhibit strong coupling between the charge and spin of the electrons and the lattice. Creating a surface by cleaving a single crystal breaks the symmetry of the lattice and disturbs the correlated system without changing the stoichiometry, providing the opportunity to study the response of electronic, structural, and magnetic properties. We have utilized electron-energy loss sprectroscopy (EELS) to study the electronic and lattice excitations of the Sr_2RuO4 and La_0.5Sr_1.5MnO4 surfaces. For both of these materials there are many more than three modes; three dominate surface optical phonons with small dispersion and with higher energies compared to those in the bulk materials. However, these phonons show completely different temperature dependence for different samples. The surface phonons become soft for Sr_2RuO4 while they become stiff for La_0.5Sr_1.5MnO4 with increasing temparature. The change of phonon energy of La_0.5Sr_1.5MnO4 with temperature is also in opposite direction to that of (La, Ca)MnO_4( Zhang et al., Surf. Sci. 393, 64(1997) * LMER Corp. for U.S. DOE under contract No. DE-AC05-96OR22464). These behaviors will be discussed in terms of the electronic, magnetic, and structural properties.

  18. Microstructure and biocompatibility of titanium oxides produced on nitrided surface layer under glow discharge conditions.

    PubMed

    Czarnowska, E; Morgiel, J; Ossowski, M; Major, R; Sowinska, A; Wierzchon, T

    2011-10-01

    The disadvantages of titanium implants are their low wear resistance and the release of titanium elements into surrounding tissue. These can be eliminated by modifying the surface by surface engineering methods, among them nitriding under glow discharge conditions which allow to produce diffusive surface layers. Their combining with an oxide layer might be valuable for biological events occurring at the bone implant interface. The aim of this study was to enhance the titanium biomaterial performance via combining nitriding and oxidizing treatments in one process under glow discharge conditions. The oxynitrided surface layers were produced at 680 degrees C. The obtained layer was TiO + TiN + Ti2N + alphaTi(N) type and about 4-microm thick and was of diffusive character. This layer significantly increased wear resistance and slightly corrosion resistance compared to that of the reference titanium alloy. The produced titanium oxide was about 400-nm thick and built from fine crystallites. This oxide exhibits bioactivity in SBF (simulated body fluid). Osteoblasts of Saos-2 line incubated on this surface exhibited good adhesion and proliferation and ALP release comparable with cells cultured on the reference titanium alloy and TiN + Ti2N + alphaTi(N) surface layers. A quantitative analysis of blood platelets adhering to this layer revealed their highest amount in comparison to that on both the nitrided surface layer and titanium alloy. The presented study provided a simple and reproducible method of combining oxidizing and nitriding under glow discharge in one process. Experimental data in vitro suggests that titanium alloy oxynitriding under low temperatures at glow discharge conditions improves titanium alloy properties and biocompatibility and tissue healing. Therefore, the layer of TiO + TiN +Ti2N + alphaTi(N) type could be valuable for long-term bone implants. PMID:22400281

  19. Surface-segregated Si and Ge ultrathin films formed by Ag-induced layer exchange process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Masashi; Ohta, Akio; Araidai, Masaaki; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2016-08-01

    We have developed a new method of growing Si or Ge ultrathin films on a Ag(111) surface by using a Ag-induced layer exchange (ALEX) process toward the creation of 2D honeycomb sheets of Si and Ge, known as silicene and germanene, respectively. In the present paper, we clarify ALEX features, specifically the surface segregation of Si (or Ge) atoms from the underlying substrate, focusing on the annealing temperature and time. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses demonstrate that surface-segregated Si (or Ge) exists on the Ag surfaces after the epitaxial growth of the Ag layer on Si(111) [or Ge(111)] substrates; the amount of segregated Si (or Ge) can be controlled by a subsequent annealing. Also, we find that the segregation of an ultrathin Si or Ge layer proceeds at an interface between Ag and the AlO x capping layer.

  20. Rapid Melt and Resolidification of Surface Layers Using Intense, Pulsed Ion Beams Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, Timothy J. Turman, Bob Senft, Donna Sorensen, Neil R. Stinnett, Regan Greenly, John B. Thompson, Michael O. Buchheit, Rudolph G.

    1998-10-02

    The emerging technology of pulsed intense ion beams has been shown to lead to improvements in surface characteristics such as hardness and wear resistance, as well as mechanical smoothing. We report hereon the use of this technology to systematically study improvements to three types of metal alloys - aluminum, iron, and titanium. Ion beam tieatment produces a rapid melt and resolidification (RMR) of the surface layer. In the case of a predeposited thin-fihn layer, the beam mixes this layer into the substrate, Ieading to improvements that can exceed those produced by treatment of the alloy alone, In either case, RMR results in both crystal refinement and metastable state formation in the treated surface layer not accessible by conventional alloy production. Although more characterization is needed, we have begun the process of relating these microstructural changes to the surface improvements we discuss in this report.

  1. A manufacturing method for multi-layer polysilicon surface-micromachining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    An advanced manufacturing technology which provides multi-layered polysilicon surface micromachining technology for advanced weapon systems is presented. Specifically, the addition of another design layer to a 4 levels process to create a 5 levels process allows consideration of fundamentally new architecture in designs for weapon advanced surety components.

  2. Surface Morphology Transformation Under High-Temperature Annealing of Ge Layers Deposited on Si(100).

    PubMed

    Shklyaev, A A; Latyshev, A V

    2016-12-01

    We study the surface morphology and chemical composition of SiGe layers after their formation under high-temperature annealing at 800-1100 °C of 30-150 nm Ge layers deposited on Si(100) at 400-500 °C. It is found that the annealing leads to the appearance of the SiGe layers of two types, i.e., porous and continuous. The continuous layers have a smoothened surface morphology and a high concentration of threading dislocations. The porous and continuous layers can coexist. Their formation conditions and the ratio between their areas on the surface depend on the thickness of deposited Ge layers, as well as on the temperature and the annealing time. The data obtained suggest that the porous SiGe layers are formed due to melting of the strained Ge layers and their solidification in the conditions of SiGe dewetting on Si. The porous and dislocation-rich SiGe layers may have properties interesting for applications. PMID:27541814

  3. Vibration control of cylindrical shells using active constrained layer damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Manas C.; Chen, Tung-Huei; Baz, Amr M.

    1997-05-01

    The fundamentals of controlling the structural vibration of cylindrical shells treated with active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatments are presented. The effectiveness of the ACLD treatments in enhancing the damping characteristics of thin cylindrical shells is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. A finite element model (FEM) is developed to describe the dynamic interaction between the shells and the ACLD treatments. The FEM is used to predict the natural frequencies and the modal loss factors of shells which are partially treated with patches of the ACLD treatments. The predictions of the FEM are validated experimentally using stainless steel cylinders which are 20.32 cm in diameter, 30.4 cm in length and 0.05 cm in thickness. The cylinders are treated with ACLD patches of different configurations in order to target single or multi-modes of lobar vibrations. The ACLD patches used are made of DYAD 606 visco-elastic layer which is sandwiched between two layers of PVDF piezo-electric films. Vibration attenuations of 85% are obtained with maximum control voltage of 40 volts. Such attenuations are attributed to the effectiveness of the ACLD treatment in increasing the modal damping ratios by about a factor of four over those of conventional passive constrained layer damping (PCLD) treatments. The obtained results suggest the potential of the ACLD treatments in controlling the vibration of cylindrical shells which constitute the major building block of many critical structures such as cabins of aircrafts, hulls of submarines and bodies of rockets and missiles.

  4. Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming

    DOEpatents

    Branch; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold G.

    2011-05-17

    An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.

  5. Formation of Hard Surfacing Layers of WC-Co with Electron Beam Cladding Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Nobuyuki; Morimoto, Junji

    Hard surfacing layers of WC-Co/Ni-base self-fluxing alloy were successfully formed on a steel substrate using an electron beam cladding method. The WC particles were densely and homogenously dispersed within the Ni-base self-fluxing alloy without porosity. The effect of the electron beam conditions on layer formation was investigated, and the cladding layer properties were examined by hardness tests, abrasive wear tests and immersion corrosion tests. It was found that the cladding layers showed higher hardness and abrasion resistance with increasing WC-Co mixing ratio, however, corrosion resistance decreased with WC-Co mixing ratio. A coating layer having high abrasive and corrosion resistance simultaneously was achieved by multiple cladding of high WC-Co mixing ratio layers after low WC-Co mixing ratio layers.

  6. Active-layer thermal monitoring on the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, R. F. M.; Schaefer, C. E. G. R.; Simas, F. M. B.; Francelino, M. R.; Fernandes-Filho, E. I.; Lyra, G. B.; Bockheim, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    International attention to climate change phenomena has grown in the last decade; the active layer and permafrost are of great importance in understanding processes and future trends due to their role in energy flux regulation. The objective of this paper is to present active-layer temperature data for one Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring South hemisphere (CALM-S) site located on the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, maritime Antarctica over an 57-month period (2008-2012). The monitoring site was installed during the summer of 2008 and consists of thermistors (accuracy of ±0.2 °C), arranged vertically with probes at different depths, recording data at hourly intervals in a high-capacity data logger. A series of statistical analyses was performed to describe the soil temperature time series, including a linear fit in order to identify global trends, and a series of autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models was tested in order to define the best fit for the data. The affects of weather on the thermal regime of the active layer have been identified, providing insights into the influence of climate change on permafrost. The active-layer thermal regime in the studied period was typical of periglacial environments, with extreme variation in surface during the summer resulting in frequent freeze and thaw cycles. The active-layer thickness (ALT) over the studied period shows a degree of variability related to different annual weather conditions, reaching a maximum of 117.5 cm in 2009. The ARIMA model could describe the data adequately and is an important tool for more conclusive analysis and predictions when longer data sets are available. Despite the variability when comparing temperature readings and ACT over the studied period, no trend can be identified.

  7. Active layer thermal monitoring at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, R. F. M.; Schaefer, C. E. G. R.; Simas, F. N. B.; Francelino M., R.; Fernandes-Filho, E. I.; Lyra, G. B.; Bockheim, J. G.

    2014-07-01

    International attention to the climate change phenomena has grown in the last decade; the active layer and permafrost are of great importance in understanding processes and future trends due to their role in energy flux regulation. The objective of the this paper is to present active layer temperature data for one CALM-S site located at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica over an fifth seven month period (2008-2012). The monitoring site was installed during the summer of 2008 and consists of thermistors (accuracy of ± 0.2 °C), arranged vertically with probes at different depths, recording data at hourly intervals in a~high capacity data logger. A series of statistical analysis were performed to describe the soil temperature time series, including a linear fit in order to identify global trend and a series of autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were tested in order to define the best fit for the data. The controls of weather on the thermal regime of the active layer have been identified, providing insights about the influence of climate chance over the permafrost. The active layer thermal regime in the studied period was typical of periglacial environment, with extreme variation at the surface during summer resulting in frequent freeze and thaw cycles. The active layer thickness (ALT) over the studied period showed variability related to different annual weather conditions, reaching a maximum of 117.5 cm in 2009. The ARIMA model was considered appropriate to treat the dataset, enabling more conclusive analysis and predictions when longer data sets are available. Despite the variability when comparing temperature readings and active layer thickness over the studied period, no warming trend was detected.

  8. Microstructures of Si surface layers implanted with Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Follstaedt, D.M.; Myers, S.M.

    1993-12-31

    Microstructures of Si ion-implanted with Cu have been characterized by TEM after annealing. For 1.2 at.%, the Cu is trapped at planar defects, but for 10 at.%, {eta}-Cu{sub 3}Si forms and Cu diffuses at its equilibrium solubility. These observations allow proper evaluation of the binding energies of Cu to previously formed internal cavities (2.2 eV) and {eta}-Cu{sub 3}Si (1.7 eV). The 10 at.% Cu layer promotes oxidation of Si catalyzed by {eta}-Cu{sub 3}Si. The microstructures also indicate that Si implanted with {approximately}2 at.% Cu reforms epitaxially with embedded defects after 8 hr at 700C, but for {approximately}10 at.% Cu, epitaxy is not recovered after 6 hours at 600C.

  9. Surface morphology study of recrystallization dynamics of amorphous ZnO layers prepared on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haško, Daniel; Bruncko, Jaroslav; Uherek, František

    2014-06-01

    Amorphous oxides-based devices are exposed, during fabrication, to different processing conditions affecting their properties. Zinc oxide is a prospective candidate for transparent amorphous oxides, but its structure is changing under the influence of temperature. We investigated surface recrystallization of amorphous zinc oxide layers deposited onto fused silica, sapphire and Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The prepared three series of layers had highly nonequilibrium phase structures. Using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, the effect was studied of subsequent annealing at 200, 400, 600, 800 °C for 60 min upon the surface structural properties of the layers. The following parameters were analyzed: average roughness, RMS roughness and size of formed grains on selected places with 1 × 1 μm2 area. Surface structural analysis revealed that annealing led to recrystallization of the prepared layers and roughening of the structural features on the surface. With increasing annealing temperature, the calculated parameters were increasing. The average surface roughness of zinc oxide layers annealed at 800 °C is three times higher than that of the layers annealed at lower temperatures for all substrates used. The process dynamics of thermally caused recrystallization of the layers was different for each of the substrates used.

  10. Suppression of vortex-induced vibration using moving surface boundary-layer control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkischko, I.; Meneghini, J. R.

    2012-10-01

    Experimental results of flow around a circular cylinder with moving surface boundary-layer control (MSBC) are presented. Two small rotating cylinders strategically located inject momentum in the boundary layer of the cylinder, which delays the separation of the boundary layer. As a consequence, the wake becomes narrower and the fluctuating transverse velocity is reduced, resulting in a recirculation free region that prevents the vortex formation. The control parameter is the ratio between the tangential velocity of the moving surface and the flow velocity (Uc/U). The main advantage of the MSBC is the possibility of combining the suppression of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) and drag reduction. The experimental tests are preformed at a circulating water channel facility and the circular cylinders are mounted on a low-damping air bearing base with one degree-of-freedom in the transverse direction of the channel flow. The mass ratio is 1.8. The Reynolds number ranges from 1600 to 7500, the reduced velocity varies up to 17, and the control parameter interval is Uc/U=5-10. A significant decreasing in the maximum amplitude of oscillation for the cylinder with MSBC is observed. Drag measurements are obtained for statically mounted cylinders with and without MSBC. The use of the flow control results in a mean drag reduction at Uc/U=5 of almost 60% compared to the plain cylinder. PIV velocity fields of the wake of static cylinders are measured at Re=3000. The results show that the wake is highly organized and narrower compared to the one observed in cylinders without control. The calculation of the total variance of the fluctuating transverse velocity in the wake region allows the introduction of an active closed-loop control. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical simulation studies conducted by other researchers for cylinders with MSBC.

  11. Surface Plasma Source Electrode Activation by Surface Impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Han, Baoxi; Johnson, Rolland P.; Murray Jr, S N; Pennisi, Terry R; Santana, Manuel; Stockli, Martin P; Welton, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    In experiments with RF saddle antenna surface plasma sources (SPS), the efficiency of H- ion generation was increased by up to a factor of 5 by long time plasma electrode activation, without adding Cs from Cs supply, by heating the collar to high temperature using hot air flow and plasma discharge. Without cracking or heating the cesium ampoule, but likely with Cs recovery from impurities, the achieved energy efficiency was comparable to that of conventionally cesiated SNS RF sources with an external or internal Cs supply. In the experiments, perfect cesiation was produced (without additional Cs supply) by the collection and trapping of traces of remnant cesium compounds from SPS surfaces.

  12. A simple method to determine evaporation duct height in the sea surface boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musson-Genon, Luc; Gauthier, Sylvie; Bruth, Eric

    1992-09-01

    A formulation to determine the evaporation duct height in the sea surface boundary layer is presented. This formulation is based upon the theory of similarity of Monin Obukhov by using analytical solutions currently used in the field of numerical weather prediction. The proposed solution is simple, coherent with the surface boundary layer parameterization used in the Meteo France and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts weather prediction models and gives good results when compared to more traditional methods.

  13. Comparison of a carboxylated terthiophene surface with carboxymethylated dextran layer for surface plasmon resonance detection of progesterone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijing; Partridge, Ashton; Wu, Yinqiu

    2016-09-01

    Functionalization of a gold surface is usually accomplished by covalent binding via self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on the gold surface, followed by attachment of flexible polymeric linker layers such as dextran hydrogels. However, these techniques require multiple steps and also have nonspecific interactions and steric problems. In this study, a self-assembled carboxylated terthiophene monolayer was formed onto a gold surface to create a sensitive and stable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing system. Compared with a commercial carboxymethyl dextran chip (CM5), the terthiophene SAM surface provided more than six times more antibody-binding signals and nearly three times the SPR assay sensitivity for progesterone (P4). PMID:27288558

  14. Near Surface Vapor Bubble Layers in Buoyant Low Stretch Burning of Polymethylmethacrylate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Tien, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Large-scale buoyant low stretch stagnation point diffusion flames over solid fuel (polymethylmethacrylate) were studied for a range of aerodynamic stretch rates of 2-12/ sec which are of the same order as spacecraft ventilation-induced stretch in a microgravity environment. An extensive layer of polymer material above the glass transition temperature is observed. Unique phenomena associated with this extensive glass layer included substantial swelling of the burning surface, in-depth bubble formation, and migration and/or elongation of the bubbles normal to the hot surface. The bubble layer acted to insulate the polymer surface by reducing the effective conductivity of the solid. The reduced in-depth conduction stabilized the flame for longer than expected from theory neglecting the bubble layer. While buoyancy acts to move the bubbles deeper into the molten polymer, thermocapillary forces and surface regression both act to bring the bubbles to the burning surface. Bubble layers may thus be very important in low gravity (low stretch) burning of materials. As bubbles reached the burning surface, monomer fuel vapors jetted from the surface, enhancing burning by entraining ambient air flow. Popping of these bubbles at the surface can expel burning droplets of the molten material, which may increase the fire propagation hazards at low stretch rates.

  15. Controlled surface functionality of magnetic nanoparticles by layer-by-layer assembled nano-films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Daheui; Son, Boram; Park, Tai Hyun; Hong, Jinkee

    2015-04-01

    Over the past several years, the preparation of functionalized nanoparticles has been aggressively pursued in order to develop desired structures, compositions, and structural order. Among the various nanoparticles, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have shown great promise because the material generated using these MNPs can be used in a variety of biomedical applications and possible bioactive functionalities. In this study, we report the development of various functionalized MNPs (F-MNPs) generated using the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method. To provide broad functional opportunities, we fabricated F-MNP bio-toolbox by using three different materials: synthetic polymers, natural polymers, and carbon materials. Each of these F-MNPs displays distinct properties, such as enhanced thickness or unique morphologies. In an effort to explore their biomedical applications, we generated basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-loaded F-MNPs. The bFGF-loaded F-MNPs exhibited different release mechanisms and loading amounts, depending on the film material and composition order. Moreover, bFGF-loaded F-MNPs displayed higher biocompatibility and possessed superior proliferation properties than the bare MNPs and pure bFGF, respectively. We conclude that by simply optimizing the building materials and the nanoparticle's film composition, MNPs exhibiting various bioactive properties can be generated.Over the past several years, the preparation of functionalized nanoparticles has been aggressively pursued in order to develop desired structures, compositions, and structural order. Among the various nanoparticles, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have shown great promise because the material generated using these MNPs can be used in a variety of biomedical applications and possible bioactive functionalities. In this study, we report the development of various functionalized MNPs (F-MNPs) generated using the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method. To provide

  16. On the coupling between a supersonic boundary layer and a flexible surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frendi, Abdelkader; Maestrello, Lucio; Bayliss, Alvin

    1992-01-01

    The coupling between a two-dimensional, supersonic, laminar boundary layer and a flexible surface is studied using direct numerical computations of the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the plate equation. The flexible surface is forced to vibrate by plane acoustic waves at normal incidence emanated by a sound source located on the side of the flexible surface opposite to the boundary layer. The effect of the source excitation frequency on the surface vibration and boundary layer stability is analyzed. We find that, for frequencies near the fifth natural frequency of the surface or lower, large disturbances are introduced in the boundary layer which may alter its stability characteristics. The interaction between a stable two-dimensional disturbance of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) type with the vibrating surface is also studied. We find that the disturbance level is higher over the vibrating flexible surface than that obtained when the surface is rigid, which indicates a strong coupling between flow and structure. However, in the absence of the sound source the disturbance level over the rigid and flexible surfaces are identical. This result is due to the high frequency of the TS disturbance which does not couple with the flexible surface.

  17. Solution-processed amorphous silicon surface passivation layers

    SciTech Connect

    Mews, Mathias Sontheimer, Tobias; Korte, Lars; Rech, Bernd; Mader, Christoph; Traut, Stephan; Wunnicke, Odo

    2014-09-22

    Amorphous silicon thin films, fabricated by thermal conversion of neopentasilane, were used to passivate crystalline silicon surfaces. The conversion is investigated using X-ray and constant-final-state-yield photoelectron spectroscopy, and minority charge carrier lifetime spectroscopy. Liquid processed amorphous silicon exhibits high Urbach energies from 90 to 120 meV and 200 meV lower optical band gaps than material prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Applying a hydrogen plasma treatment, a minority charge carrier lifetime of 1.37 ms at an injection level of 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 3} enabling an implied open circuit voltage of 724 mV was achieved, demonstrating excellent silicon surface passivation.

  18. A surface layer variance heat budget for ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucharel, Julien; Timmermann, Axel; Santoso, Agus; England, Matthew H.; Jin, Fei-Fei; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.

    2015-05-01

    Characteristics of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), such as frequency, propagation, spatial extent, and amplitude, strongly depend on the climatological background state of the tropical Pacific. Multidecadal changes in the ocean mean state are hence likely to modulate ENSO properties. To better link background state variations with low-frequency amplitude changes of ENSO, we develop a diagnostic framework that determines locally the contributions of different physical feedback terms on the ocean surface temperature variance. Our analysis shows that multidecadal changes of ENSO variance originate from the delicate balance between the background-state-dependent positive thermocline feedback and the atmospheric damping of sea surface temperatures anomalies. The role of higher-order processes and atmospheric and oceanic nonlinearities is also discussed. The diagnostic tool developed here can be easily applied to other tropical ocean areas and climate phenomena.

  19. Methane oxidation and methane fluxes in the ocean surface layer and deep anoxic waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, B. B.; Kilpatrick, K. A.; Novelli, P. C.; Scranton, M. I.

    1987-01-01

    Measured biological oxidation rates of methane in near-surface waters of the Cariaco Basin are compared with the diffusional fluxes computed from concentration gradients of methane in the surface layer. Methane fluxes and oxidation rates were investigated in surface waters, at the oxic/anoxic interface, and in deep anoxic waters. It is shown that the surface-waters oxidation of methane is a mechanism which modulates the flux of methane from marine waters to the atmosphere.

  20. Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer and Its Application to Electromagnetic Wave Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    An important application of the atmospheric surface layer research is to characterize the near surface vertical gradients in temperature and humidity in order to predict radar and radio communication conditions in the environment. In this presentation, we will give an overview of a new research initiative funded under the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Multi-University Research Initiative (MURI): the Coupled Air-Sea Processes and EM Ducting Research (CASPER). The objective is to fully characterize the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) as an electromagnetic (EM) propagation environment with the emphasis of spatial and temporal heterogeneities and surface wave/swell effects, both of which contravene the underlying assumptions of Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) used in coupled environmental forecast models. Furthermore, coastal variability in the inversion atop the MABL presents a challenge to forecast models and also causes practical issues in EM prediction models. These issues are the target of investigation of CASPER. CASPER measurement component includes two major field campaigns: CASPER-East (2015 Duck, NC) and CASPER-West (2018 southern California). This presentation will show the extensive measurements to be made during the CASPER -East field campaign with the focus on the marine atmospheric surface layer measurements with two research vessels, two research aircraft, surface flux buoy, wave gliders, ocean gliders, tethered balloons, and rawinsondes. Unlike previous research on the marine surface layer with the focus on surface fluxes and surface flux parameterization, CASPER field campaigns also emphasize of the surface layer profiles and the validation of the surface layer flux-profile relationship originally derived over land surfaces. Results from CASPER pilot experiment and preliminary results from CASPER-East field campaign will be discussed.

  1. Synthesis of superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers via combination of surface roughness and fluorination

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun-Kyeong; Yeong Kim, Ji; Sub Kim, Sang

    2013-01-15

    We describe the preparation of superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers through a combination of surface roughness and fluorination. Electrospraying SiO{sub 2} precursor solutions that were prepared by a sol-gel route and included trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane as a fluorination source produced highly rough, fluorinated SiO{sub 2} layers. In sharp contrast to the fluorinated flat SiO{sub 2} layer, the fluorinated rough SiO{sub 2} layer showed much enhanced repellency toward liquid droplets of different surface tensions. The surface fraction and the work of adhesion of the superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers were determined, respectively, based on Cassie-Baxter and Young-Dupre equations. The satisfactory long-term stability for 30 days, the ultraviolet resistance and the thermal stability up to 400 {sup o}C of the superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers prepared in this work confirm a promising practical application. - Graphical abstract: A schematic illustration of the electrospray deposition used for preparing SiO{sub 2} layers. Shapes of liquid droplets of water, glycerol, coffee, juice and milk created on the fluorinated rough SiO{sub 2} layer deposited on a silicon wafer. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers are realized by a combination of surface roughness and fluorination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorinated rough SiO{sub 2} layer shows enhanced repellency toward various liquid droplets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wetting behavior is explained based on Cassie-Baxter and Young-Dupre equations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} layers confirm a promising practical application.

  2. Self-assembled anchor layers/polysaccharide coatings on titanium surfaces: a study of functionalization and stability

    PubMed Central

    Zemek, Josef; Neykova, Neda; Demianchuk, Roman; Chánová, Eliška Mázl; Šlouf, Miroslav; Houska, Milan; Rypáček, František

    2015-01-01

    Summary Composite materials based on a titanium support and a thin, alginate hydrogel could be used in bone tissue engineering as a scaffold material that provides biologically active molecules. The main objective of this contribution is to characterize the activation and the functionalization of titanium surfaces by the covalent immobilization of anchoring layers of self-assembled bisphosphonate neridronate monolayers and polymer films of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and biomimetic poly(dopamine). These were further used to bind a bio-functional alginate coating. The success of the titanium surface activation, anchoring layer formation and alginate immobilization, as well as the stability upon immersion under physiological-like conditions, are demonstrated by different surface sensitive techniques such as spectroscopic ellipsometry, infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The changes in morphology and the established continuity of the layers are examined by scanning electron microscopy, surface profilometry and atomic force microscopy. The changes in hydrophilicity after each modification step are further examined by contact angle goniometry. PMID:25821702

  3. Cloud layer thicknesses from a combination of surface and upper-air observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poore, Kirk D.; Wang, Junhong; Rossow, William B.

    1995-01-01

    Cloud layer thicknesses are derived from base and top altitudes by combining 14 years (1975-1988) of surface and upper-air observations at 63 sites in the Northern Hemisphere. Rawinsonde observations are employed to determine the locations of cloud-layer top and base by testing for dewpoint temperature depressions below some threshold value. Surface observations serve as quality checks on the rawinsonde-determined cloud properties and provide cloud amount and cloud-type information. The dataset provides layer-cloud amount, cloud type, high, middle, or low height classes, cloud-top heights, base heights and layer thicknesses, covering a range of latitudes from 0 deg to 80 deg N. All data comes from land sites: 34 are located in continental interiors, 14 are near coasts, and 15 are on islands. The uncertainties in the derived cloud properties are discussed. For clouds classified by low-, mid-, and high-top altitudes, there are strong latitudinal and seasonal variations in the layer thickness only for high clouds. High-cloud layer thickness increases with latitude and exhibits different seasonal variations in different latitude zones: in summer, high-cloud layer thickness is a maximum in the Tropics but a minimum at high latitudes. For clouds classified into three types by base altitude or into six standard morphological types, latitudinal and seasonal variations in layer thickness are very small. The thickness of the clear surface layer decreases with latitude and reaches a summer minimum in the Tropics and summer maximum at higher latitudes over land, but does not vary much over the ocean. Tropical clouds occur in three base-altitude groups and the layer thickness of each group increases linearly with top altitude. Extratropical clouds exhibit two groups, one with layer thickness proportional to their cloud-top altitude and one with small (less than or equal to 1000 m) layer thickness independent of cloud-top altitude.

  4. Catalytically active single-atom niobium in graphitic layers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Guo, Junjie; Guan, Pengfei; Liu, Chunjing; Huang, Hao; Xue, Fanghong; Dong, Xinglong; Pennycook, Stephen J; Chisholm, Matthew F

    2013-01-01

    Carbides of groups IV through VI (Ti, V and Cr groups) have long been proposed as substitutes for noble metal-based electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. However, their catalytic activity has been extremely limited because of the low density and stability of catalytically active sites. Here we report the excellent performance of a niobium-carbon structure for catalysing the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction. A large number of single niobium atoms and ultra small clusters trapped in graphitic layers are directly identified using state-of-the-art aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. This structure not only enhances the overall conductivity for accelerating the exchange of ions and electrons, but it suppresses the chemical/thermal coarsening of the active particles. Experimental results coupled with theory calculations reveal that the single niobium atoms incorporated within the graphitic layers produce a redistribution of d-band electrons and become surprisingly active for O2 adsorption and dissociation, and also exhibit high stability. PMID:23715283

  5. Boltzmann active walkers and rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochy, R. D.; Kayser, D. R.; Aberle, L. K.; Lam, L.

    1993-06-01

    An active walker model (AWM) was recently proposed by Freimuth and Lam for the generation of various filamentary patterns. In an AWM, the walker changes the landscape as it walks, and its steps are in turn influenced by the changing landscape. The landscape so obtained is a rough surface. In this paper, the properties of such a rough surface (with average height conserved) generated by a Boltzmann active walker in 1 + 1 dimensions is investigated in detail. The scaling properties of the surface thickness σ T is found to belong to a new class quite different from other types of fractal surfaces. For example, σ T is independent of the system size L, but is a function of the “temperature” T. Soliton propagation is found when T = 0.

  6. XPS study on double glow plasma corrosion-resisting surface alloying layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Jiahe; Xu, Jiang; He, Fei; Xie, Xishan; Xu, Zhong

    2003-02-01

    Double glow plasma corrosion-resisting surface alloying layer (SAL) formed on low carbon steel 1020 was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and other means. Results show that the passive film of the surface alloying layer after electrochemical test in 3.5% NaCl solution consists of Cr and Fe oxide such as CrO 3, Cr 2O 3, Fe 2O 3 and FeO and metallic Ni and Mo, and it attributes to the fact that a continuous and compact corrosion-resisting surface alloying layer with rich Cr, Ni and Mo was formed on the surface of steel 1020 so as to increase its corrosion resistance greatly. Therefore, double glow plasma technique will be widely used in corrosion-resisting surface science.

  7. Multidomain, Surface Layer-associated Glycoside Hydrolases Contribute to Plant Polysaccharide Degradation by Caldicellulosiruptor Species.

    PubMed

    Conway, Jonathan M; Pierce, William S; Le, Jaycee H; Harper, George W; Wright, John H; Tucker, Allyson L; Zurawski, Jeffrey V; Lee, Laura L; Blumer-Schuette, Sara E; Kelly, Robert M

    2016-03-25

    The genome of the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensisencodes 19 surface layer (S-layer) homology (SLH) domain-containing proteins, the most in any Caldicellulosiruptorspecies genome sequenced to date. These SLH proteins include five glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and one polysaccharide lyase, the genes for which were transcribed at high levels during growth on plant biomass. The largest GH identified so far in this genus, Calkro_0111 (2,435 amino acids), is completely unique toC. kronotskyensisand contains SLH domains. Calkro_0111 was produced recombinantly inEscherichia colias two pieces, containing the GH16 and GH55 domains, respectively, as well as putative binding and spacer domains. These displayed endo- and exoglucanase activity on the β-1,3-1,6-glucan laminarin. A series of additional truncation mutants of Calkro_0111 revealed the essential architectural features required for catalytic function. Calkro_0402, another of the SLH domain GHs inC. kronotskyensis, when produced inE. coli, was active on a variety of xylans and β-glucans. Unlike Calkro_0111, Calkro_0402 is highly conserved in the genus Caldicellulosiruptorand among other biomass-degrading Firmicutes but missing from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii As such, the gene encoding Calkro_0402 was inserted into the C. besciigenome, creating a mutant strain with its S-layer extensively decorated with Calkro_0402. This strain consequently degraded xylans more extensively than wild-typeC. bescii The results here provide new insights into the architecture and role of SLH domain GHs and demonstrate that hemicellulose degradation can be enhanced through non-native SLH domain GHs engineered into the genomes of Caldicellulosiruptorspecies. PMID:26814128

  8. Interfacial layer effects on surface capacitances and electro-osmosis in electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Bonthuis, Douwe Jan; Uematsu, Yuki; Netz, Roland R

    2016-02-13

    Many properties of the interfacial layer of water at surfaces differ significantly from those of bulk water. The consequences are most significant for the double-layer capacitance and the electrokinetic properties. We model the interfacial hydration layer by a modified dielectric constant and a modified local viscosity over a single interfacial width. Analytic expressions in the low-charge Debye-Hückel approximation are derived and shown to describe experimental surface capacitance and electro-osmotic data in a unified framework. PMID:26712645

  9. Polyethylenimine surface layer for enhanced virus immobilization on cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiliket, Ghania; Ladam, Guy; Nguyen, Quang Trong; Lebrun, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    Thin regenerated cellulose films are prepared by hydrolysis of cellulose acetate (CA). A polycation, namely polyethylenimine (PEI), is then adsorbed onto the films. From QCM-D analysis, PEI readily adsorbs from a 0.1% w/v solution in NaCl 0.2 M (ca. 100 ng cm-2). Further PEI adsorption steps at higher PEI concentrations induce a linear growth of the PEI films, suggesting that free adsorption sites still exist after the initial adsorption. The adsorbed PEI chains are resistant to variations of the ionic strength up to NaCl 1 M. Promisingly, the adsorption of T4D bacteriophages are 15-fold more efficient onto the PEI-treated, compared to the native regenerated cellulose films, as measured by QCM-D. This confirms the strong affinity between the negatively charged viruses and PEI, even at low PEI concentration, probably governed by strong electrostatic attractive interactions. This result explains the remarkable improvement of the affinity of medical masks for virus droplets when one of their cellulose layers was changed by two-PEI-functionalized cellulose-based filters.

  10. Influence of transverse surface waves on turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Ash, R. L.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Bushnell, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    Wavy wall experiments using solid waves and progressive waves have been reported. For this paper, the major effects of waviness of the wall on the flow are identified as due to oscillatory curvature (convex-concavity) and oscillatory acceleration/deceleration of the flow, which imposes a highly nonequilibrium influence upon the turbulence structure. The theoretical analysis in this presentation takes into account proper turbulence modeling (including the nonequilibrium effects) for the wavy wall problem. The analysis proceeds in three stages: (1) inviscid solution for induced pressure due to the physical wall, (2) solution of a turbulent boundary layer with pressure gradients and curvature effects in the modeling from which the profile correction is computed, and (3) induced pressure computations for the corrected profile. The phase shift of pressure perturbations with respect to the physical wall can be predicted, and pressure drag and skin friction drag can be estimated, with nonlinear viscous effects included. Comparison of the theoretical estimates with experimental data are also presented.

  11. Leaf Area Influence on Surface Layer in a Deciduous Forest. Part I; Site Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakai, Ricardo K.; Fitzjarrald, David R.; Moore, Kathleen E.; Sicker, John W.; Munger, William; Goulden, Michael L.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    1996-01-01

    A study over a deciduous forest located in middle Massachusetts (USA) has been performed to examine the role of leaves in the forest-atmosphere interaction. Due to the seasonal presence of leaves, a deciduous forest is a 'good laboratory' to study this interaction. In this first part, a description of a 30 m micrometeorological tower as well a qualitative description of some meteorological parameters are presented. The presence of leaves affects the forest in several ways. There is a decrease of upward PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) due to absorption of visible light in the canopy. Water vapor concentration increases, and the CO2 concentration decreases in the surface layer as the canopy starts to be foliated. The physical presence of the leaves is felt in other quantities such as the global albedo and the subcanopy environment.

  12. Thermal stresses in small meteoroids. II. Effects of an insulating surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čapek, D.; Vokrouhlický, D.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: We extend our previous analysis of thermal stresses in small, spherical and homogeneous meteoroids by taking into account the effects of a surface insulating layer. Methods: Using analytical computations, we determine the temperature distribution in a spherical inhomogeneous body smaller than ~10 cm with a high-conductivity core and a low-conductivity surface layer. Our main approximation consists in (i) linearization of the surface energy-conservation constraint and (ii) omission of the seasonal effects in the Fourier spectrum of the incident solar radiation flux. Using the temperature solution, we analytically compute the mechanical (thermal) stress field in the core, neglecting its effects in the particulate surface layer. Conditions for material failure in the whole volume of the body are analyzed. In particular, we pay attention to whether the surface layer depth evolves toward an equilibrium situation. Results: As the meteoroid approaches the Sun, the thermal stress first exceeds the material strength at the surface of meteoroid. If the fractured material is able to stay on meteoroid, a particulate shell begins to form. After one revolution about the Sun, this process is roughly completed. We determine the dependence of its thickness on perihelion distance, spin axis orientation with respect to the Sun, and the size of meteoroid. We estimate the distribution of the final depths of the surface layer for eight major meteoroid showers with perihelion distances smaller than 1 AU.

  13. Sum-Frequency Generation Spectroscopy for Studying Organic Layers at Water-Air Interfaces: Microlayer Monitoring and Surface Reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laß, Kristian; Kleber, Joscha; Bange, Hermann; Friedrichs, Gernot

    2015-04-01

    The sea surface microlayer, according to commonly accepted terminology, comprises the topmost millimetre of the oceanic water column. It is often enriched with organic matter and is directly influenced by sunlight exposure and gas exchange with the atmosphere, hence making it a place for active biochemistry and photochemistry as well as for heterogeneous reactions. In addition, surface active material either is formed or accumulates directly at the air-water interface and gives rise to very thin layers, sometimes down to monomolecular thickness. This "sea surface nanolayer" determines the viscoelastic properties of the seawater surface and thus may impact the turbulent air-sea gas exchange rates. To this effect, this small scale layer presumably plays an important role for large scale changes of atmospheric trace gas concentrations (e.g., by modulating the ocean carbon sink characteristics) with possible implications for coupled climate models. To date, detailed knowledge about the composition, structure, and reactivity of the sea surface nanolayer is still scarce. Due to its small vertical dimension and the small amount of material, this surfactant layer is very difficult to separate and analyse. A way out is the application of second-order nonlinear optical methods, which make a direct surface-specific and background-free detection of this interfacial layer possible. In recent years, we have introduced the use of vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy to gain insight into natural and artificial organic monolayers at the air-water interface. In this contribution, the application of VSFG spectroscopy for the analysis of the sea surface nanolayer will be illustrated. Resulting spectra are interpreted in terms of layer composition and surfactant classes, in particular with respect to carbohydrate-containing molecules such as glycolipids. The partitioning of the detected surfactants into soluble and non-soluble ("wet" and "dry") surfactants will be

  14. Trapping and depth profile of tritium in surface layers of metallic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, M.; Chen, Z.; Nisimura, K.; Akamaru, S.; Torikai, Y.; Hatano, Y.; Ashikawa, N.; Oya, Y.; Okuno, K.; Hino, T.

    2011-10-01

    Tritium amount retained in surface layers and release behavior from surface layers were examined using SS316L samples exposed to plasmas in the Large Helical Device and a commercial Cu-Be alloy plate. BIXS analyses and observation by SEM indicate that carbon and titanium deposited on the plasma-facing surface of the SS316L samples. Larger amount of tritium was trapped in the plasma-facing surface in comparison with the polished surface. Higher enrichment of tritium in surface layers was similarly found in the polished surface of both samples. The amount of surface tritium in both samples was almost same, while the bulk concentration of tritium in Cu-Be was much lower than that in SS316L. Tritium release from the SS316L and Cu-Be samples into water was examined by immersion experiments. Tritium elution was observed for both samples, but changes in the residual tritium amount in surface layers were different from each other.

  15. Surfactant-Associated Bacteria in the Near Surface Layer of the Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurata, Naoko; Vella, Katie; Soloviev, Alexander; Matt, Silvia; Tartar, Aurelien; Shivji, Mahmood; Perrie, William

    2013-04-01

    It has recently been realized that biogeochemical processes in the ocean are, to a large extent, the result of nanoscale processes in the microbial part of the pelagic food web. Bacteria found in thin near-surface layers of the ocean - bacterioneuston - are of special interest due to a number of practical applications, including air-sea gas exchange, production of climate-active marine aerosols and remote sensing of the ocean. In particular, bacteria involved in the production of the surface active materials resulting in slicks on the sea surface can potentially be observed from space using high-resolution remote sensing techniques. In this work done by a multidisciplinary team, we demonstrate a direct connection between surfactant-associated bacteria, identified with an advanced DNA analysis, and fine-scale features on the sea surface in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. Experiments were conducted in the Straits of Florida during RASRASAT 2 satellite overpasses. The sea surface microlayer sampling method was designed to enable aseptic bacterial sampling. A 47 mm polycarbonate membrane was utilized at each sampling site to obtain a snapshot of the bacteria community structure at a specific space and time. Microbial composition was determined using DNA analysis of 16S rRNA genes. A new generation high-throughput sequencing method (454) was employed to compensate for the small sample size. A total of 27,006 nucleotide sequences with an average 437.8 bp in length were analyzed. From in situ samples taken during satellite overpasses, we found a higher abundance of surfactant-associated bacteria in slick (visible in SAR from space) as compared to non-slick areas; furthermore, higher abundance of this type of bacteria was observed in subsurface samples than in those taken from the sea surface. These observations suggest that surfactants are produced by marine bacteria mostly in the water column and migrate up to the sea surface by diffusion, air bubbles, or

  16. Layer-by-layer engineered nanocapsules of curcumin with improved cell activity.

    PubMed

    Kittitheeranun, Paveenuch; Sajomsang, Warayuth; Phanpee, Sarunya; Treetong, Alongkot; Wutikhun, Tuksadon; Suktham, Kunat; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rungsardthong

    2015-08-15

    Nanocarriers based on electrostatic Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of CaCO3 nanoparticles (CaCO3 NPs) was investigated. These inorganic nanoparticles was used as templates to construct nanocapsules made from films based on two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), and poly (sodium 4-styrene-sulfonate sodium salt), followed by core dissolution. The naked CaCO3 NPs, CaCO3 NPs coated with the polyelectrolytes and hollow nanocapsules were found with hexagonal shape with average sizes of 350-400 nm. A reversal of the surface charge between positive to negative zeta potential values was found, confirming the adsorption of polyelectrolytes. The loading efficiency and release of curcumin were controlled by the hydrophobic interactions between the drug and the polyelectrolyte matrix of the hollow nanocapsules. The quantity of curcumin released from hollow nanocapsules was found to increase under acidic environments, which is a desirable for anti-cancer drug delivery. The hollow nanocapsules were found to localize in the cytoplasm and nucleus compartment of Hela cancer cells after 24 h of incubation. Hollow nanocapsules were non-toxic to human fibroblast cells. Furthermore, curcumin loaded hollow nanocapsules exhibited higher in vitro cell inhibition against Hela cells than that of free curcumin, suggesting that polyelectrolyte based-hollow nanocapsules can be utilized as new carriers for drug delivery. PMID:26143232

  17. Effect of tethering on the surface dynamics of a thin polymer melt layer.

    PubMed

    Uğur, Gökçe; Akgun, Bulent; Jiang, Zhang; Narayanan, Suresh; Satija, Sushil; Foster, Mark D

    2016-06-28

    The surface height fluctuations of a layer of low molecular weight (2.2k) untethered perdeuterated polystyrene (dPS) chains adjacent to a densely grafted polystyrene brush are slowed dramatically. Due to the interpenetration of the brush with the layer of "untethered chains" a hydrodynamic continuum theory can only describe the fluctuations when the effective thickness of the film is taken to be that which remains above the swollen brush. The portion of the film of initially untethered chains that interpenetrates with the brush becomes so viscous as to effectively play the role of a rigid substrate. Since these hybrid samples containing a covalently tethered layer at the bottom do not readily dewet, and are more robust than thin layers of untethered short chains on rigid substrates, they provide a route for tailoring polymer layer surface properties such as wetting, adhesion and friction. PMID:27222250

  18. Surface passivation of InP solar cells with InAlAs layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    The efficiency of indium phosphide solar cells is limited by high values of surface recombination. The effect of a lattice-matched In(0.52)Al(0.48)As window layer material for InP solar cells, using the numerical code PC-1D is investigated. It was found that the use of InAlAs layer significantly enhances the p(+)n cell efficiency, while no appreciable improvement is seen for n(+)p cells. The conduction band energy discontinuity at the heterojunction helps in improving the surface recombination. An optimally designed InP cell efficiency improves from 15.4 percent to 23 percent AMO for a 10 nm thick InAlAs layer. The efficiency improvement reduces with increase in InAlAs layer thickness, due to light absorption in the window layer.

  19. Air-sea boundary layer dynamics in the presence of mesoscale surface currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooth, Claes; Xie, Lian

    1992-09-01

    In the presence of surface currents, a shear stress at the air-sea interface is induced by the surface currents. In the case of a unidirectional current, a quadratic stress law leads to a stress curl proportional to and opposing the surface current vorticity even with a uniform wind. This causes a spindown effect on the surface vorticity field at a rate proportional to the wind speed. In the steady state, or in slowly varying processes which can be treated as parametrically developing quasi-steady states, the surface-layer potential vorticity modulation causes upwelling and downwelling patterns associated with the surface-current vorticity. These effects are analyzed for an idealized jet current, and for a physical situation characteristic of a Gulf Stream boundary ring along the Florida Keys, where the induced transport patterns may be important for onshore transport of fish and spiny lobster larvae, as well as for onshore transport to the Florida Keys of general flotsam transported past them by the Gulf Stream. The spindown time scale (t*) for a 1.5-layer system is H/( ρ'cdVa) for a surface jet on the deformation radius scale (where H is the thickness of the surface layer, Va the surface wind speed, ρ' the air to water density ratio and cd the surface drag coefficient) and increases for large horizontal scales in proportion to the current width squared. For a typical wind speed of 5 m/s and a density normalized drag coefficient ρ'cd= 2 × 10-6, t* is on the order of 1 month for a 30-m surface layer. In the more general case of a stratified interior water column, the vorticity spindown directly affects only the potential vorticity of the surface layer and generally leads to subsurface velocity and vorticity maxima for mesoscale eddies and jets.

  20. Optical Activity of Anisotropic Achiral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Verbiest, T.; Kauranen, M.; Van Rompaey, Y.; Persoons, A. |

    1996-08-01

    Anisotropic achiral surfaces respond differently to left- and right-hand circularly polarized light. This occurs when the orientation of the surface with respect to an otherwise achiral experimental setup makes the total geometry chiral. Such optical activity is demonstrated in second-harmonic generation from an anisotropic thin molecular film. The circular-difference response reverses sign as the handedness of the geometry is reversed and vanishes when the setup possesses a mirror plane. The results are explained within the electric-dipole-allowed second-order surface nonlinearity. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  1. Surface state of GaN after rapid-thermal-annealing using AlN cap-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Zammar, G.; Khalfaoui, W.; Oheix, T.; Yvon, A.; Collard, E.; Cayrel, F.; Alquier, D.

    2015-11-01

    Critical issues need to be overcome to produce high performance Schottky diodes on gallium nitride (GaN). To activate dopant, high temperature thermal treatments are required but damage GaN surface where hexagonal pits appear and prevent any device processing. In this paper, we investigated the efficiency of cap-layers on GaN during thermal treatments to avoid degradation. Aluminum nitride (AlN) and silicon oxide (SiOx) were grown on GaN by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, respectively. AlN growth parameters were studied to understand their effect on the grown layers and their protection efficiency. Focused ion beam was used to measure AlN layer thickness. Crystalline quality and exact composition were verified using X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Two types of rapid thermal annealing at high temperatures were investigated. Surface roughness and pits density were evaluated using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Cap-layers wet etching was processed in H3PO4 at 120 °C for AlN and in HF (10%) for SiOx. This work reveals effective protection of GaN during thermal treatments at temperatures as high as 1150 °C. Low surface roughness was obtained. Furthermore, no hexagonal pit was observed on the surface.

  2. Effect of Thickness on Surface Morphology of Silver Nanoparticle Layer During Furnace Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Yoon Jae; Kang, Heuiseok; Kang, Kyungtae; Moon, Seung-Jae; Young hwang, Jun

    2015-04-01

    In printed electronics applications, specific resistances of conductive lines are critical to the performance of the devices. The specific resistance of a silver (Ag) nanoparticle electrode is affected by surface morphology of the layered nanoparticles which were sintered by the heat treatment after printing. In this work, the relationship between surface morphology and specific resistance was investigated with various sintering temperatures and various layer thicknesses of Ag nanoparticle ink. Ag nanoparticles with an average size of approximately 50 nm were spin-coated on Eagle XG glass substrates with various spin speed to change the layer thickness of Ag nanoparticles from 200 nm to 900 nm. Coated Ag nanoparticle layers were heated from 150°C to 450°C for 30 min in a furnace. The result showed that higher sintering temperature produces larger grains in an Ag layer and decreases specific resistance of the layer, but that the maximum allowable heating temperature is limited by the thickness of the layer. When grain size exceeded the thickness of the layer, the morphology of the Ag nanoparticles changed to submicron-sized islands and the Ag layers did not have electrical conductivity any more.

  3. Contribution of material's surface layer on charge state distribution in laser ablation plasma.

    PubMed

    Kumaki, Masafumi; Steski, Dannie; Ikeda, Shunsuke; Kanesue, Takeshi; Okamura, Masahiro; Washio, Masakazu

    2016-02-01

    To generate laser ablation plasma, a pulse laser is focused onto a solid target making a crater on the surface. However, not all the evaporated material is efficiently converted to hot plasma. Some portion of the evaporated material could be turned to low temperature plasma or just vapor. To investigate the mechanism, we prepared an aluminum target coated by thin carbon layers. Then, we measured the ablation plasma properties with different carbon thicknesses on the aluminum plate. The results showed that C(6+) ions were generated only from the surface layer. The deep layers (over 250 nm from the surface) did not provide high charge state ions. On the other hand, low charge state ions were mainly produced by the deeper layers of the target. Atoms deeper than 1000 nm did not contribute to the ablation plasma formation. PMID:26931982

  4. Effect of a 3D surface depression on boundary layer transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui; Mughal, Shahid; Sherwin, Spencer J.

    2015-11-01

    The influence of a three-dimensional surface depression on the transitional boundary layer is investigated numerically. In the boundary layer transition, the primary mode is a Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave which is a viscous instability. These modes are receptive to surface roughness interacting with free stream disturbances and/or surface vibrations. In this paper, numerical calculations are carried out to investigate the effect of the depression on instability of the boundary layer. In order to implement linear analysis, two/three (2D/3D)-dimensional nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations are solved by spectral element method to generate base flows in a sufficient large domain. The linear analyses are done by the parabolic stability equations (PSE). Finally, a DNS calculation is done to simulate the boundary layer transition.

  5. Critical CuI buffer layer surface density for organic molecular crystal orientation change

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Kwangseok; Kim, Jong Beom; Lee, Dong Ryeol; Kim, Hyo Jung; Lee, Hyun Hwi

    2015-01-21

    We have determined the critical surface density of the CuI buffer layer inserted to change the preferred orientation of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) crystals grown on the buffer layer. X-ray reflectivity measurements were performed to obtain the density profiles of the buffer layers and out-of-plane and 2D grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction measurements were performed to determine the preferred orientations of the molecular crystals. Remarkably, it was found that the preferred orientation of the CuPc film is completely changed from edge-on (1 0 0) to face-on (1 1 −2) by a CuI buffer layer with a very low surface density, so low that a large proportion of the substrate surface is bare.

  6. Measurement and correlation of aerodynamic heating to surface corrugation stiffened structures in thick turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, H. J.; Masek, R. V.

    1974-01-01

    The flow conditions for which heating distributions were measured on corrugated surfaces and wavy walls in turbulent boundary layers are shown, along with the ratio of the displacement thickness to the roughness height versus the local edge Mach number for an equivalent smooth surface. The present data are seen to greatly extend the range of data available on corrugated surfaces in turbulent boundary layers. These data were obtained by testing fullscale corrugation roughened panels in the wall boundary layer of a supersonic and hypersonic wind tunnel. The experimental program used to obtain the data is described. The data are analyzed and correlated in terms of the pertinent flow and geometric parameters. The developed correlations are compared with the available thin boundary layer data, as well as with previously published correlation techniques.

  7. Surface treatment for the atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Damlencourt, J-F.; Renault, O.; Martin, F.; Semeria, M-N.; Billon, T; Bedu, F.

    2005-04-04

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO{sub 2} on silicon with a Cl{sub 2} surface treatment is investigated by physicochemical and electrical techniques. The specificity of this treatment is to create, on a HF-dipped silicon surface, the nucleation sites necessary for the ALD growth. The growth rates obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry and total x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy indicate that the nucleation sites (i.e., the -OH groups), which are necessary to perform some bidimensional ALD growth, are generated during this surface treatment. After deposition of thin HfO{sub 2} layers (from a few monolayers up to 8.7 nm), a very thin parasitic SiO{sub x} layer, underneath 1 monolayer of Hf silicate, is observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Nevertheless, an equivalent oxide thickness of 1.1 nm is obtained with an as-deposited 3.7 nm thick HfO{sub 2} layer.

  8. An analytical study of the effects of surface roughness on a compressible turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Z. H.

    1983-12-01

    A previous study on the effect of surface roughness on the turbulent boundary layer, using a FORTRAN code, ITRACT, solved for the characteristics of a laminar, transitional and turbulent boundary layer on smooth surfaces. The present study investigates the influence of surface roughness on a compressible turbulent boundary layer and then extends the usefulness of ITRACT by including in it the optional capability of rough-surface boundary-layer calculations. Surface roughness was represented by distributed sources and sinks in the appropriate governing equations. The most important term is a sink term in the mean momentum equation, representing the form drag due to the roughness element. Governing boundary-layer equations for continuity, momentum, and energy were derived in a form to account for blockage effects due to roughness elements. The modified governing equations were then transformed using Probstein-Elliott and Levy-Lees transformations. The resulting equations, with appropriate boundary conditions, were solved by finite-difference techniques to determine the nondimensional velocity components and temperature at a finite number of nodes in the boundary-layer flow field.

  9. Enhanced magneto-optical imaging of internal stresses in the removed surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agalidi, Yuriy; Kozhukhar, Pavlo; Levyi, Sergii; Turbin, Dmitriy

    2015-10-01

    The paper describes a software method of reconstructing the state of the removed surface layer by visualising internal stresses in the underlying layers of the sample. Such a problem typically needs to be solved as part of forensic investigation that aims to reveal original marking of a sample with removed surface layer. For example, one may be interested in serial numbers of weapons or vehicles that had the surface layer of metal removed from the number plate. Experimental results of studying gradient internal stress fields in ferromagnetic sample using the NDI method of magneto-optical imaging (MOI) are presented. Numerical modelling results of internal stresses enclosed in the surface marking region are analysed and compared to the experimental results of magneto-optical imaging (MOI). MOI correction algorithm intended for reconstructing internal stress fields in the removed surface layer by extracting stresses retained by the underlying layers is described. Limiting ratios between parameters of a marking font are defined for the considered correction algorithm. Enhanced recognition properties for hidden stresses left by marking symbols are experimentally verified and confirmed.

  10. CHARACTERIZING SURFACE LAYERS IN NITINOL USING X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Christopfel, R.; Mehta, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nitinol is a shape memory alloy whose properties allow for large reversible deformations and a return to its original geometry. This nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy has become a material used widely in the biomedical fi eld as a stent to open up collapsed arteries. Both ambient and biological conditions cause surface oxidation in these devices which in turn change its biocompatibility. The thickness of oxidized layers can cause fractures in the material if too large and can allow for penetration if too thin. Depending on the type and abundance of the chemical species on or near the surface, highly toxic metal ions can leak into the body causing cell damage or even cell death. Thus, biocompatibility of such devices is crucial. By using highly surface sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to probe the surface of these structures, it is possible to decipher both layer composition and layer thickness. Two samples, both of which were mechanically polished, were investigated. Of the two samples, one was then exposed to a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution to mimic the chemical properties of blood, while the other remained unexposed. Although both samples were found to have oxide layers of appropriate thickness (on the order of a few nm), it was found that the sample exposed to the saline solution had a slightly thicker oxide layer and more signifi cantly, a phosphate layer very near the surface suggesting toxic metal components are well contained within the sample. These are considerable indications of a biocompatible device.

  11. Histochemistry of the surface mucous gel layer of the human colon.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, K; Ota, H; Akamatsu, T; Sugiyama, A; Katsuyama, T

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Histochemical analysis of the surface mucous gel layer of the human colon is difficult, as it dissolves in fixatives. This study was undertaken to explore the surface mucous gel layer on the normal mucosa and neoplastic tissues of the large intestine. In addition, the distribution of different mucins secreted from goblet cells was studied with a series of histochemical stains for mucins. METHODS: Twenty four surgically resected specimens were fixed in Carnoy's solution and embedded in paraffin. In four cases, the surface mucous gel layer was also studied in frozen sections. Serial sections were stained by a battery of histochemical techniques characterising mucins. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The surface mucous gel layer consisted of the inner and outer layers. The first covered the luminal surface of the mucosa, consisted of mucins, and showed a vertical striped pattern. The second overlaid the first, showed a lateral striped pattern, and was contaminated with bacteria and other substances. Their thickness in paraffin sections varied considerably among the sites in the large intestine, but was the thickest in the rectum and measured 12.7 (SEM 6.0) microns and 88.8 (SEM 80.1) microns respectively. Mucins forming the inner layer were obviously derived from goblet cells underlying it. Images PMID:9245933

  12. Influences and interactions of inundation, peat, and snow on active layer thickness

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Atchley, Adam L.; Coon, Ethan T.; Painter, Scott L.; Harp, Dylan R.; Wilson, Cathy J.

    2016-05-18

    The effect of three environmental conditions: 1) thickness of organic soil, 2) snow depth, and 3) soil moisture content or water table height above and below the soil surface, on active layer thickness (ALT) are investigated using an ensemble of 1D thermal hydrology models. Sensitivity analyses of the ensemble exposed the isolated influence of each environmental condition on ALT and their multivariate interactions. The primary and interactive influences are illustrated in the form of color maps of ALT change. Results show that organic layer acts as a strong insulator, and its thickness is the dominant control of ALT, but themore » strength of the effect of organic layer thickness is dependent on the saturation state. Snow depth, subsurface saturation, and ponded water depth are strongly codependent and positively correlated to ALT.« less

  13. Turbulent Structures and Coherence in the Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Träumner, K.; Damian, Th.; Stawiarski, Ch.; Wieser, A.

    2015-01-01

    Organized structures in turbulent flow fields are a well-known and still fascinating phenomenon. Although these so-called coherent structures are obvious from visual inspection, quantitative assessment is a challenge and many aspects e.g., formation mechanisms and contribution to turbulent fluxes, are discussed controversially. During the "High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for Advancing Climate Prediction" Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) from April to May 2013, an advanced dual Doppler lidar technique was used to image the horizontal wind field near the surface for approximately 300 h. A visual inspection method, as well as a two-dimensional integral length scale analysis, were performed to characterize the observations qualitatively and quantitatively. During situations with forcing due to shear, the wind fields showed characteristic patterns in the form of clearly bordered, elongated areas of enhanced or reduced wind speed, which can be associated with near-surface streaks. During calm situations with strong buoyancy forcing, open cell patterns in the horizontal divergence field were observed. The measurement technique used enables the calculation of integral length scales of both horizontal wind components in the streamwise and cross-stream directions. The individual length scales varied considerably during the observation period but were on average shorter during situations with compared to strongly stable situations. During unstable situations, which were dominated by wind fields with structures, the streamwise length scales increased with increasing wind speed, whereas the cross-stream length scales decreased. Consequently, the anisotropy increased from 1 for calm situations to values of 2-3 for wind speeds of 8-10. During neutral to stable situations, the eddies were on average quite isotropic in the horizontal plane.

  14. Active Layer Thermal Response to Stream Water Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozzetto, K.; McKnight, D.

    2004-12-01

    The hyporheic zone is comprised of sediments below and adjacent to a stream through which stream water flows in and out. In polar regions, the shape, dimensions, physical and chemical characteristics of this zone are affected by the seasonal freezing and thawing of the active layer. One factor that may influence the active layer temperature regime is stream water temperature, both its absolute value and cyclic variations in its value. Many of the glacial meltwater streams in Taylor Valley in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, exhibit daily temperature patterns with lows of 0 or 1° C and highs of 10 or, on occasion, 15° C. Because the viscosity of water decreases significantly with increasing temperature, these daily maxima may increase infiltration and the exchange of water and heat between the stream and the hyporheic zone. To investigate the influence of stream water temperature and flow paths on the active layer temperature regime and vice versa, two conservative tracer injection experiments were conducted. Both took place in the same 200-meter reach, which was instrumented with temperature and conductivity probes. Both also took place at the same time of day during which the stream reaches its temperature maximum. However, in one experiment snow from a nearby patch was added to the stream to suppress the temperature maximum by 3° C from 10 to 7° C. The temperature data show that the snow addition slowed the rate of hyporheic zone warming and suppressed temperature increases in the hyporheic zone by 1-3° C when compared with the non-perturbation experiment. The electrical conductivity data indicate that during the snow addition experiment, the stream neither gained nor lost water while during the non-perturbation experiment, the stream lost water. These results suggest that the stream water cooling decreased infiltration and heat transfer into the hyporheic zone.

  15. Electronic passivation of silicon surfaces by thin films of atomic layer deposited gallium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T. G. Cuevas, A.

    2014-07-21

    This paper proposes the application of gallium oxide (Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films to crystalline silicon solar cells. Effective passivation of n- and p-type crystalline silicon surfaces has been achieved by the application of very thin Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films prepared by atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMGa) and ozone (O{sub 3}) as the reactants. Surface recombination velocities as low as 6.1 cm/s have been recorded with films less than 4.5 nm thick. A range of deposition parameters has been explored, with growth rates of approximately 0.2 Å/cycle providing optimum passivation. The thermal activation energy for passivation of the Si-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface has been found to be approximately 0.5 eV. Depassivation of the interface was observed for prolonged annealing at increased temperatures. The activation energy for depassivation was measured to be 1.9 eV.

  16. Layered Model for Radiation-Induced Chemical Evolution of Icy Surface Composition on Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Hill, Matthew E.; Richardson, John D.; Sturner, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of albedos and surface colors on observed Kuiper Belt and Inner Oort Cloud objects remains to be explained in terms of competition between primordial intrinsic versus exogenic drivers of surface and near-surface evolution. Earlier models have attempted without success to attribute this diversity to the relations between surface radiolysis from cosmic ray irradiation and gardening by meteoritic impacts. A more flexible approach considers the different depth-dependent radiation profiles produced by low-energy plasma, suprathermal, and maximally penetrating charged particles of the heliospheric and local interstellar radiation environments. Generally red objects of the dynamically cold (low inclination, circular orbit) Classical Kuiper Belt might be accounted for from erosive effects of plasma ions and reddening effects of high energy cosmic ray ions, while suprathermal keV-MeV ions could alternatively produce more color neutral surfaces. The deepest layer of more pristine ice can be brought to the surface from meter to kilometer depths by larger impact events and potentially by cryovolcanic activity. The bright surfaces of some larger objects, e.g. Eris, suggest ongoing resurfacing activity. Interactions of surface irradiation, resultant chemical oxidation, and near-surface cryogenic fluid reservoirs have been proposed to account for Enceladus cryovolcanism and may have further applications to other icy irradiated bodies. The diversity of causative processes must be understood to account for observationally apparent diversities of the object surfaces.

  17. Layered Model for Radiation-Induced Chemical Evolution of Icy Surface Composition on Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Hill, M. E.; Richardson, J. D.; Sturner, S. J.

    2010-10-01

    The diversity of albedos and surface colors on observed Kuiper Belt and Inner Oort Cloud objects remains to be explained in terms of competition between primordial intrinsic versus exogenic drivers of surface and near-surface evolution. Earlier models have attempted without success to attribute this diversity to the relations between surface radiolysis from cosmic ray irradiation and gardening by meteoritic impacts. A more flexible approach considers the different depth-dependent radiation profiles produced by low-energy plasma, suprathermal, and maximally penetrating charged particles of the heliospheric and local interstellar radiation environments. Generally red objects of the dynamically cold (low inclination, circular orbit) Classical Kuiper Belt might be accounted for from erosive effects of plasma ions and reddening effects of high energy cosmic ray ions, while suprathermal keV-MeV ions could alternatively produce more color neutral surfaces. The deepest layer of more pristine ice can be brought to the surface from meter to kilometer depths by larger impact events and potentially by cryovolcanic activity. The bright surfaces of some larger objects, e.g. Eris, suggest ongoing resurfacing activity. Interactions of surface irradiation, resultant chemical oxidation, and near-surface cryogenic fluid reservoirs have been proposed to account for Enceladus cryovolcanism (Cooper et al., Plan. Sp. Sci., 2009) and may have further applications to other icy irradiated bodies. The diversity of causative processes must be understood to account for observationally apparent diversities of the object surfaces.

  18. Block copolymer modified surfaces for conjugation of biomacromolecules with control of quantity and activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Lei; Shi, Xiujuan; Xu, Yajun; Song, Bo; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-29

    Polymer brush layers based on block copolymers of poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (POEGMA) and poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) were formed on silicon wafers by activators generated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (AGET ATRP). Different types of biomolecule can be conjugated to these brush layers by reaction of PGMA epoxide groups with amino groups in the biomolecule, while POEGMA, which resists nonspecific protein adsorption, provides an antifouling environment. Surfaces were characterized by water contact angle, ellipsometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to confirm the modification reactions. Phase segregation of the copolymer blocks in the layers was observed by AFM. The effect of surface properties on protein conjugation was investigated using radiolabeling methods. It was shown that surfaces with POEGMA layers were protein resistant, while the quantity of protein conjugated to the diblock copolymer modified surfaces increased with increasing PGMA layer thickness. The activity of lysozyme conjugated on the surface could also be controlled by varying the thickness of the copolymer layer. When biotin was conjugated to the block copolymer grafts, the surface remained resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption but showed specific binding of avidin. These properties, that is, well-controlled quantity and activity of conjugated biomolecules and specificity of interaction with target biomolecules may be exploited for the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio in sensor applications. More generally, such surfaces may be useful as biological recognition elements of high specificity for functional biomaterials. PMID:23265296

  19. Green Bank Telescope active surface system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasse, Richard J.

    1998-05-01

    During the design phase of the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), various means of providing an accurate surface on a large aperture paraboloid, were considered. Automated jacks supporting the primary reflector were selected as the appropriate technology since they promised greater performance and potentially lower costs than a homologous or carbon fiber design, and had certain advantages over an active secondary. The design of the active surface has presented many challenges. Since the actuators are mounted on a tipping structure, it was required that they support a significant side-load. Such devices were not readily available commercially so they had to be developed. Additional actuator requirements include low backlash, repeatable positioning, and an operational life of at least 230 years. Similarly, no control system capable of controlling the 2209 actuators was commercially available. Again a prime requirement was reliability. Maintaining was also a very important consideration. The system architecture is tree-like. An active surface 'master-computer' controls interaction with the telescope control system, and controls ancillary equipment such as power supplies and temperature monitors. Two slave computers interface with the master- computer, and each closes approximately 1100 position loops. For simplicity, the servo is an 'on/off' type, yet achieves a positioning resolution of 25 microns. Each slave computer interfaces with 4 VME I/O cards, which in turn communicate with 140 control modules. The control modules read out the positions of the actuators every 0.1 sec and control the actuators' DC motors. Initial control of the active surface will be based on an elevation dependant structural model. Later, the model will be improved by holographic observations.Surface accuracy will be improved further by using laser ranging system which will actively measure the surface figure. Several tests have been conducted to assure that the system will perform as desired when

  20. Measuring air layer volumes retained by submerged floating-ferns Salvinia and biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mayser, Matthias J; Bohn, Holger F; Reker, Meike; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Some plants and animals feature superhydrophobic surfaces capable of retaining a layer of air when submerged under water. Long-term air retaining surfaces (Salvinia-effect) are of high interest for biomimetic applications like drag reduction in ship coatings of up to 30%. Here we present a novel method for measuring air volumes and air loss under water. We recorded the buoyancy force of the air layer on leaf surfaces of four different Salvinia species and on one biomimetic surface using a highly sensitive custom made strain gauge force transducer setup. The volume of air held by a surface was quantified by comparing the buoyancy force of the specimen with and then without an air layer. Air volumes retained by the Salvinia-surfaces ranged between 0.15 and 1 L/m(2) depending on differences in surface architecture. We verified the precision of the method by comparing the measured air volumes with theoretical volume calculations and could find a good agreement between both values. In this context we present techniques to calculate air volumes on surfaces with complex microstructures. The introduced method also allows to measure decrease or increase of air layers with high accuracy in real-time to understand dynamic processes. PMID:24991518

  1. Research into preparation and properties of graded cemented carbides with face center cubic-rich surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Deng, Xin; Gong, Manfeng; Liu, Wei; Wu, Shanghua

    2016-09-01

    This paper systematically investigated a set of functionally graded WC-TiC-Mo-Co cemented carbides with modified surface layer (called fcc-rich surface layer in this study), which is mainly composed of fcc phases (Ti(CN) and TiN) and WC. Nitridation at liquid phase sintering temperature is the key process making this fcc-rich surface layer. The functionally graded WC-TiC-Mo-Co cemented carbides synthesized in this study show 3 layer structure: the outer layer, i.e. the fcc-rich surface layer; the intermediate layer, which is characterized by abnormally large WC and high Co content; and the inner layer. It was found that TiC is the most critical component for the formation of fcc-rich surface layer. The higher content of TiC results in the thicker fcc-rich outer layer, higher (Ti(CN) and TiN) content in the outer layer, and higher hardness of the fcc-rich outer layer. The formation of this fcc-rich surface layer is mainly due to the nitridation process between Ti and N, which leads to the diffusion of Ti outwards (from the inside of the sample to the surface) and the subsequent migration of liquid cobalt inwards (from surface to the inside of the sample). The three-layer structure developed in this study provides the excellent combination of high wear resistance and high toughness, which is favorable for some applications.

  2. Experimental Study on Surface Characteristics of Laser Cladding Layer Regulated by High-Frequency Microforging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiang Fang; Zhou, Ju; Qiu, Chang Jun; He, Bin; Ye, Jiang; Yuan, Bo; Pi, Zhengqing

    2011-03-01

    High-frequency microforging technology is used to produce micrometer-scale plastic deformation on the surface of material out of the vibration impact of a forging punch, and the cumulative effect of its various frequencies on micrometer-scale plastic deformation can cause changes of surface microstructure and mechanical properties. This study used (1) a self-made machine to treat NiCrBSi alloy, (2) a mechanical comparator and optical microscopy (OM) to study the geometric characteristics of plastic deformation, (3) OM and scanning electric microscopy (SEM) to observe influence on surface microstructure and cracking behavior of the laser cladding layer under microforging, (4) x-ray diffractometer (XRD) to measure the surface residual stress of laser cladding layer before and after forging, and (5) microhardness tester and wearing experimental machine to study changes of microhardness, friction coefficient, and wear characteristics of laser cladding layer after microforging. The results have shown that high-frequency microforging could produce plastic deformation about 150 μm deep on the surface of NiCrBSi alloy clad by laser. Regular dendrite and eutectic crystallization microstructure, which is a peculiar characteristic of the laser cladding layer, was broken into pieces and formed residual compression residual stress on the surface. Resistance to cracking of laser cladding layer improved greatly, microhardness and wearability increased, and the friction coefficient did not under go a noticeable change.

  3. Surface layer composition of titania produced by various methods. The change of layer state under illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenko, V.; Daibova, E.; Kosova, N.; Zmeeva, O.

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of experimental data over titanium dioxide powders prepared by various ways under ambient air is carried out. The results over TiO2 prepared by high-temperature heating of anatase, produced by burning of titanium micro particles and grinding of rutile crystal are used for that comparison. Water and carbon dioxide were the main products released from the surface of the titania powders. It was found that under UV irradiation absorbed by titania, in absent oxygen, water effectively reacts with lattice oxygen of titanium dioxide.

  4. Improvement of the surface wettability of silicone hydrogel contact lenses via layer-by-layer self-assembly technique.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Hong; Cho, Hsien-Lung; Yeh, Yi-Hsing; Yang, Ming-Chien

    2015-12-01

    The surface wettability and anti-protein adsorption of a silicone-based hydrogel that was synthesized by a block copolymer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and poly (ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) was improved via polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) immobilization. Polysaccharide PEMs of chitosan (CS, as a positive-charged agent) and hyaluronic acid (HA, as a negative-charged and anti-adhesive agent) were successfully assembled on the PDMS-PU-PEGMA silicone hydrogel in a layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly manner. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dyeing data verified the progressive buildup of the PEM silicone hydrogel. The results showed that the contact angle of the silicone hydrogel decreased with an increase in the number of PEM grafting layers. Furthermore, after immobilizing five layers of CS/HA, the protein adsorption decreased from 78 ± 11 to 26 ± 4 μg/cm(2) for HSA and from 55 ± 10 to 20 ± 4 μg/cm(2) for lysozymes. This indicates that CS/HA PEM-immobilized silicone hydrogels can resist protein adsorption. Furthermore, these hydrogels were non-cytotoxic according to an in vitro L929 fibroblast assay. Overall, the results demonstrated that the modified silicone hydrogels exhibited hydrophilicity and anti-protein adsorption, as well as relatively high oxygen permeability and optical transparency. Therefore, they would be applicable as a contact lens material. PMID:26519935

  5. Radar scattering from a diffuse vegetation layer over a smooth surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engheta, N.; Elachi, C.

    1982-01-01

    A simple model is presented for the oblique backscatter and bistatic scatter from a smooth surface overlain by a diffuse layer. Only single scattering in the diffuse layer is taken into account. The model analysis shows that the combination of volume scattering and oblique reflection at the surface may increase appreciably the waves scattering. The scattering strongly depends on the properties of the smooth surface. These results support some of the observations made with the Seasat spaceborne imaging radar over flooded regions with heavy vegetation cover.

  6. Capillary waves in an inhomogeneous three-layer liquid with a free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiryaeva, S. O.; Grigor'ev, A. I.; Zav'yalov, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    In the domain of capillary waves, a bicubic dispersion relation is derived and analyzed for surface and internal capillary-gravitational waves in a three-layer liquid with a free surface. It is shown that the ratio of the internal wave amplitudes to the surface wave amplitudes is fairly large if the trivial condition of a "homogeneous liquid" is discarded. The amplitude ratio between the internal waves themselves (generated at different interfaces) may be both greater and smaller than unity depending on the physical parameters of the system. Specifically, it strongly depends on the densities of the layers and their thicknesses.

  7. Layer-by-layer generation of PEG-based regenerable immunosensing surfaces for small-sized analytes.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Maria; Ben Haddada, Maroua; Méthivier, Christophe; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar; Boujday, Souhir

    2015-05-15

    Small molecules (haptens) like pharmaceuticals or peptides can serve as targets for antibody binding in competitive immunoassay-based flow-through assays. In this work, a strategy for preparing polyethylene glycol (PEG) coatings for subsequent hapten immobilization on glass-type silica surfaces is presented and characterized in detail. Two substrates bearing terminal silanol groups were utilized, a glass slide and a silicon wafer. First, surfaces were thoroughly cleaned and pretreated to generate additional silanol groups. Then, a silane layer with terminal epoxy groups was created using 3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOPTS). Epoxy groups were used to bind a layer of diamino-poly(ethylene glycol) (DAPEG) with terminal amino groups. Finally, the low molecular weight compound diclofenac was bound to the surface to be used as model ligand for competitive biosensing of haptens. The elementary steps were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), water contact angle measurement, grazing-angle attenuated total reflection (GA-ATR) FT-IR spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The data collected using these techniques have confirmed the successive grafting of the molecular species, evidencing, that homogeneous monolayers were created on the silica surfaces and validated the proposed mechanism of functionalization. The resulting surfaces were used to investigate polyclonal anti-diclofenac antibodies recognition and reversibility using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) measurements or an automated flow-through immunoassay with chemiluminescence (CL) read-out. For both techniques, recognition and reversibility of the antibody binding were observed. The stability of sensors over time was also assessed and no decrease in CL response was observed upon 14 days in aqueous solution. The herein presented strategy for surface functionalization can be used in the future as reproducible and reusable universal platform for hapten

  8. Indium phosphide negative electron affinity photocathodes: Surface cleaning and activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yun

    InP(100) is a very important semi-conductor for many applications. When activated by Cs and oxygen, the InP surface achieves the state of Negative Electron Affinity (NEA) making the Cs+O/InP system a very efficient electron source. Despite many years of study, the chemical cleaning and activation of InP are still not well understood. In our work, we have established an understanding of the basic physics and chemistry for the chemical cleaning and activation of the InP(100) surface. Synchrotron Radiation Photoelectron Spectroscopy is the main technique used in this study because of its high surface sensitivity and ability to identify chemical species present on the surface at each stage of our process. A clean, stoichiometric InP(100) surface is crucial for obtaining high performance of NEA photocathodes. Therefore, the first part of our study focused on the chemical cleaning of InP(100). We found that hydrogen peroxide based solutions alone, originally developed to clean GaAs(100) surfaces and widely used for InP(100), do not result in clean InP(I00) surfaces because oxide is left on the surface. A second cleaning step, which uses acid solutions like HCl or H2SO4, can remove all the oxide and leave a 0.4 ML protective layer of elemental phosphorous on the surface. The elemental phosphorous can be removed by annealing at 330°C and a clean InP(100) surface can be obtained. Cs deposition on InP(100) surface shows clear charge transfer from the Cs ad-atoms to the substrate. When the Cs/InP(100) surface is dosed with oxygen, the charge transfer from the Cs to substrate is reduced and substrate is oxidized. The activation of InP as a NEA photocathode is carried out by an alternating series of steps consisting of Cs deposition and Cs+O co-deposition. Two types of oxygen are found after activation. The first is dissociated oxygen and the other is a di-oxygen species (peroxide or superoxide). The decay of quantum-yield with time and with annealing is studied and changes in

  9. Seasonality of submesoscale flows in the ocean surface boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham, Christian E.; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.; Thompson, Andrew F.; Brannigan, Liam; Lazar, Ayah; Marshall, David P.; George Nurser, A. J.; Damerell, Gillian; Heywood, Karen J.; Belcher, Stephen E.

    2016-03-01

    A signature of submesoscale flows in the upper ocean is skewness in the distribution of relative vorticity. Expected to result for high Rossby number flows, such skewness has implications for mixing, dissipation, and stratification within the upper ocean. An array of moorings deployed in the Northeast Atlantic for 1 year as part of the experiment of the Ocean Surface Mixing, Ocean Submesoscale Interaction Study (OSMOSIS) reveals that relative vorticity is positively skewed during winter even though the scale of the Rossby number is less than 0.5. Furthermore, this skewness is reduced to zero during spring and autumn. There is also evidence of modest seasonal variations in the gradient Rossby number. The proposed mechanism by which relative vorticity is skewed is that the ratio of lateral to vertical buoyancy gradients, as summarized by the inverse gradient Richardson number, restricts its range during winter but less so at other times of the year. These results support recent observations and model simulations suggesting that the upper ocean is host to a seasonal cycle in submesoscale turbulence.

  10. Helicity and potential vorticity in the surface boundary layer turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chkhetiani, Otto; Kurgansky, Michael; Koprov, Boris; Koprov, Victor

    2016-04-01

    An experimental measurement of all three components of the velocity and vorticity vectors, as well as the temperature and its gradient, and potential vorticity, has been developed using four acoustic anemometers. Anemometers were placed at vertices of a tetrahedron, the horizontal base of which was a rectangular triangle with equal legs, and the upper point was exactly above the top of the right angle. The distance from the surface to the tetrahedron its base was 5.5 m, and the lengths of legs and a vertical edge were 5 m. The measurements were carried out of total duration near 100 hours both in stable and unstable stratification conditions (at the Tsimlyansk Scientific Station in a uniform area of virgin steppe 700 x 650 m, August 2012). A covariance-correlation matrix for turbulent variations in all measured values has been calculated. In the daytime horizontal and vertical components of the helicity are of the order of -0.03 and +0.01 m s-2, respectively. The nighttime signs remain unchanged, but the absolute values are several times smaller. It is confirmed also by statistics of a relative helicity. The cospectra and spectral correlation coefficients have been calculated for all helicity components. The time variations in the components of "instantaneous" relative helicity and potential vorticity are considered. Connections of helicity with Monin-Obukhov length and the wind vertical profile structure are discussed. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (Project No 14-27-00134).

  11. Structure of the surface layer of the methanogenic archaean Methanosarcina acetivorans

    SciTech Connect

    Arbing, Mark A.; Chan, Sum; Shin, Annie; Phan, Tung; Ahn, Christine J.; Rohlin, Lars; Gunsalus, Robert P.

    2012-09-05

    Archaea have a self-assembling proteinaceous surface (S-) layer as the primary and outermost boundary of their cell envelopes. The S-layer maintains structural rigidity, protects the organism from adverse environmental elements, and yet provides access to all essential nutrients. We have determined the crystal structure of one of the two 'homologous' tandem polypeptide repeats that comprise the Methanosarcina acetivorans S-layer protein and propose a high-resolution model for a microbial S-layer. The molecular features of our hexameric S-layer model recapitulate those visualized by medium resolution electron microscopy studies of microbial S-layers and greatly expand our molecular view of S-layer dimensions, porosity, and symmetry. The S-layer model reveals a negatively charged molecular sieve that presents both a charge and size barrier to restrict access to the cell periplasmic-like space. The {beta}-sandwich folds of the S-layer protein are structurally homologous to eukaryotic virus envelope proteins, suggesting that Archaea and viruses have arrived at a common solution for protective envelope structures. These results provide insight into the evolutionary origins of primitive cell envelope structures, of which the S-layer is considered to be among the most primitive: it also provides a platform for the development of self-assembling nanomaterials with diverse functional and structural properties.

  12. Dynamics of cathode spots in low-pressure arc plasma removing oxide layer on steel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Z. L.; Yang, K.; Liu, H. X.; Zhang, Y. C.; Li, H.; Zhu, X. D.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of cathode spots has been investigated in low-pressure arc plasma for removing oxide layer on low carbon steel surfaces. The motion of cathode spots was observed with a high speed camera, and the arc voltage was analyzed by fast Fourier transform. The spots move on clean steel surface as a random walk, and the low-frequency components dominated the voltage waveform. However, the spots on steel surfaces with oxide layer tend to burn on the rim of the eroded area formed in the previous arcing, and the low-frequency components decrease correspondingly. The "color" of the colored random noise for arc voltage varies from the approximate brown noise for clean steel surface to pink noise for thick oxide layer, where the edge effect of boundary is considered to play a significant role.

  13. Chemical-thermal quantitative methodology for carbon speciation in damage layers on building surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ghedini, Nadia; Sabbioni, Cristina; Bonazza, Alessandra; Gobbi, Giancarlo

    2006-02-01

    The issue of environment protection, including the conservation of the monumental heritage worldwide, is related to atmospheric pollution, and its future therefore depends on air pollutant reduction. Carbonaceous particles emitted by combustion processes are the main factors responsible for the blackening of buildings. The identification and evaluation of the carbon species constituting the noncarbonate fraction of total carbon in damage layers, particularly in urban areas, are required in orderto investigate atmospheric deposition on building surfaces. Since noncarbonate carbon contains organic and elemental carbon originating from various human activities, its measurement and speciation are crucial to the protection and conservation of monuments and ancient masonry, playing an important role both in the proposal of mitigation strategies and in the definition of conservation treatments. The availability of a correct, accurate, and reproducible analytical method for a complete carbon balance is essential in studying the effects of atmospheric pollutants on the environment, including those affecting cultural heritage. A chemical-thermal methodology was set up, and its sensitivity, accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility were tested on appropriate standard samples of composition similar to the black crusts on stones and mortars. The results indicate thatthe technique satisfactorily distinguishes among carbon species, particularly those of anthropogenic origin, allowing a reliable evaluation of their quantities in damage layers. In view of the difficulties encountered in applying the thermo-optical methods adopted for the measurement of carbon filters, the proposed methodology contributes to filling the current gap in suitable and reliable analytical procedures in the field of cultural heritage protection. PMID:16509340

  14. Chemical-thermal quantitative methodology for carbon speciation in damage layers on building surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Nadia Ghedini; Cristina Sabbioni; Alessandra Bonazza; Giancarlo Gobbi

    2006-02-01

    Carbonaceous particles emitted by combustion processes are the main factors responsible for the blackening of buildings. The identification and evaluation of the carbon species constituting the noncarbonate fraction of total carbon in damage layers, particularly in urban areas, are required in order to investigate atmospheric deposition on building surfaces. Since noncarbonate carbon contains organic and elemental carbon originating from various human activities, its measurement and speciation are crucial to the protection and conservation of monuments and ancient masonry, playing an important role both in the proposal of mitigation strategies and in the definition of conservation treatments. The availability of a correct, accurate, and reproducible analytical method for a complete carbon balance is essential in studying the effects of atmospheric pollutants on the environment, including those affecting cultural heritage. A chemical-thermal methodology was set up, and its sensitivity, accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility were tested on appropriate standard samples of composition similar to the black crusts on stones and mortars. The results indicate that the technique satisfactorily distinguishes among carbon species, particularly those of anthropogenic origin, allowing a reliable evaluation of their quantities in damage layers. In view of the difficulties encountered in applying the thermo-optical methods adopted for the measurement of carbon filters, the proposed methodology contributes to filling the current gap in suitable and reliable analytical procedures in the field of cultural heritage protection. 24 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Nanovalve Activation by Surface-Attached Photoacids

    PubMed Central

    Guardado-Alvarez, T. M.; Russell, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Proton transfer caused by excitation of a photoacid attached to the surface of a mesoporous silica nanoparticle activates a nanovalve and causes release of trapped molecules. The protonation of an aniline- based stalk releases a noncovalently bound cyclodextrin molecule that blocked a pore. The results show that pH-responsive molecular delivery systems can be externally controlled using light. PMID:24942753

  16. Electronic absorption band broadening and surface roughening of phthalocyanine double layers by saturated solvent vapor treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jinhyun; Yim, Sanggyu

    2012-10-15

    Variations in the electronic absorption (EA) and surface morphology of three types of phthalocyanine (Pc) thin film systems, i.e. copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) single layer, zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) single layer, and ZnPc on CuPc (CuPc/ZnPc) double layer film, treated with saturated acetone vapor were investigated. For the treated CuPc single layer film, the surface roughness slightly increased and bundles of nanorods were formed, while the EA varied little. In contrast, for the ZnPc single layer film, the relatively high solubility of ZnPc led to a considerable shift in the absorption bands as well as a large increase in the surface roughness and formation of long and wide nano-beams, indicating a part of the ZnPc molecules dissolved in acetone, which altered their molecular stacking. For the CuPc/ZnPc film, the saturated acetone vapor treatment resulted in morphological changes in mainly the upper ZnPc layer due to the significantly low solubility of the underlying CuPc layer. The treatment also broadened the EA band, which involved a combination of unchanged CuPc and changed ZnPc absorption.

  17. Surface deformation and geoid anomalies over single and double-layered convective systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, M.; Yuen, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Using a primitive variable formulation of the finite-element method, the differences in the surface observables, such as topography and geoid, produced by single- and double-layered thermal convection, were compared. Both constant and depth-dependent viscosities have been considered. For the same Rayleigh number, larger surface perturbations are produced by single-cell convection. For the same Nusselt number, the magnitudes of the surface observables are greater for double-layered convection. For the same surface heat-flux, surface topographies have similar magnitudes, but the relative amplitudes of geoid anomalies depend greatly on the style of viscosity stratification. This difference in the geoid between the two systems increases with greater surface heat-flow, regardless of viscosity structure.

  18. Thermocouple Rakes for Measuring Boundary Layer Flows Extremely Close to Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Blaha, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    Of vital interest to aerodynamic researchers is precise knowledge of the flow velocity profile next to the surface. This information is needed for turbulence model development and the calculation of viscous shear force. Though many instruments can determine the flow velocity profile near the surface, none of them can make measurements closer than approximately 0.01 in. from the surface. The thermocouple boundary-layer rake can measure much closer to the surface than conventional instruments can, such as a total pressure boundary layer rake, hot wire, or hot film. By embedding the sensors (thermocouples) in the region where the velocity is equivalent to the velocity ahead of a constant thickness strut, the boundary-layer flow profile can be obtained. The present device fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center microsystem clean room has a heater made of platinum and thermocouples made of platinum and gold. Equal numbers of thermocouples are placed both upstream and downstream of the heater, so that the voltage generated by each pair at the same distance from the surface is indicative of the difference in temperature between the upstream and downstream thermocouple locations. This voltage differential is a function of the flow velocity, and like the conventional total pressure rake, it can provide the velocity profile. In order to measure flow extremely close to the surface, the strut is made of fused quartz with extremely low heat conductivity. A large size thermocouple boundary layer rake is shown in the following photo. The latest medium size sensors already provide smooth velocity profiles well into the boundary layer, as close as 0.0025 in. from the surface. This is about 4 times closer to the surface than the previously used total pressure rakes. This device also has the advantage of providing the flow profile of separated flow and also it is possible to measure simultaneous turbulence levels within the boundary layer.

  19. Laser-induced oxidation of titanium substrate: Analysis of the physicochemical structure of the surface and sub-surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antończak, Arkadiusz J.; Skowroński, Łukasz; Trzcinski, Marek; Kinzhybalo, Vasyl V.; Łazarek, Łukasz K.; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the analysis of the complex chemical structure of the layers made on titanium in the process of the heating of its surfaces in an atmospheric environment, by irradiating samples with a nanosecond-pulsed laser. The study was carried out for electroplated, high purity, polycrystalline titanium substrates using a Yb:glass fiber laser. All measurements were made for samples irradiated in a broad range of accumulated fluence, below the ablation threshold. It has been determined how the complex index of refraction of both the oxynitride layers and the substrate vary as a function of accumulated laser fluence. It was also shown that the top layer of the film produced on titanium, which is transparent, is not a pure TiO2 as had been supposed before. The XPS and XRD analyses confirmed the presence of nitrogen compounds and the existence of nonstoichiometric compounds. By sputtering of the sample's surface using an Ar+ ion gun, the changes in the concentration of individual elements as a function of the layer's cross-section were determined. Lastly, an analysis of the surface morphology has also been carried out, explaining why the layers crack and exfoliate from their substrate.

  20. TEM studies of the nitrided/oxided Ni-Ti surface layer.

    PubMed

    Lelatko, J; Goryczka, T; Paczkowski, P; Wierzchoń, T; Morawiec, H

    2010-03-01

    TiN and TiO(2) coatings, which are known from their low chemical reactivity, high hardness and wear and corrosion resistance, are used for protecting the NiTi surface. In the present work, nearly equiatomic NiTi (50.6 at.%) shape memory alloy was covered with the layers obtained by nitriding under glow discharge at 1073 K. Additionally, at the end of the process some amount of oxygen was added. Characterization of the nitrided/oxided layers structure was carried out using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The investigations were focused on the structure of the multilayer nitrided/oxided NiTi surface. The surface is formed from nanocrystalline and columnar grains of the TiN phase. Between the top layer and beta-NiTi substrate the interface Ti(2)Ni layer was formed. Addition of oxygen at the end of the process created a thin layer of TiO(2) phase nanograins at the surface of the TiN phase. In the same areas, small amount of amorphous phase was identified. The combination of nitriding and oxidation formed layers that reveal relatively high corrosion resistance. PMID:20500413

  1. Thin gold layer in NiCo and Ni electroforming process: optical surface characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, G.; Spiga, D.; Raimondi, L.; Pareschi, G.; Orlandi, A.; Borghi, G.; Missaglia, N.; Negri, B.

    2010-07-01

    Mandrel replication by NiCo electroforming is an upgrade of the well-suited X-ray mirrors manufacturing process with pure Nickel. In this process, a Gold layer deposited on the mandrel acts as release agent and, at the same time, as reflective coating. To increase the optical performances of X-ray mirrors, the replicated optical surface is meant to reproduce the smooth topography of the mandrel: a surface degradation is commonly observed, indeed. A factor leading to surface smoothness worsening can be the spontaneous roughness growth of the Gold layer itself; therefore, the optical quality of the reflecting surface might be improved by optimizing the Gold layer thickness. A preliminary study, aimed at investigating the effects of Gold thickness reduction (< 100 nm Vs. the usual 200 nm), had already been dealt in the spectral range 0.02-1000 μm: measurements performed on flat electroformed samples showed that the Gold thickness reduction chiefly affects the roughness around 1 μm. Here we presents a study of the effectiveness of a Gold layer with reduced (< 100 nm) thickness in the NiCo X-ray mirrors electroforming, aimed at surface micro-roughness mitigation. The characterization, in the spectral range 0.02-1000 μm, of 3 X-ray mirrors manufactured utilizing Gold layers with different thickness values from a flight mandrel is reported. The performed investigation is organized as follows: (a) characterization of the flight mandrel; (b) dependence of the micro-roughness from different Gold layers thicknesses supported by XRD study; (c) comparison of the micro-roughness of mirrors manufactured in NiCo in Ni, with the same Gold layer thickness. As a conclusive remark the effects of the Gold layer thinning on the angular degradation at high energy are reported.

  2. Bactericidal activity of biomimetic diamond nanocone surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Leanne E; Yang, Yang; Yuen, Muk-Fung; Zhang, Wenjun; Nobbs, Angela H; Su, Bo

    2016-03-01

    The formation of biofilms on implant surfaces and the subsequent development of medical device-associated infections are difficult to resolve and can cause considerable morbidity to the patient. Over the past decade, there has been growing recognition that physical cues, such as surface topography, can regulate biological responses and possess bactericidal activity. In this study, diamond nanocone-patterned surfaces, representing biomimetic analogs of the naturally bactericidal cicada fly wing, were fabricated using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition, followed by bias-assisted reactive ion etching. Two structurally distinct nanocone surfaces were produced, characterized, and the bactericidal ability examined. The sharp diamond nanocone features were found to have bactericidal capabilities with the surface possessing the more varying cone dimension, nonuniform array, and decreased density, showing enhanced bactericidal ability over the more uniform, highly dense nanocone surface. Future research will focus on using the fabrication process to tailor surface nanotopographies on clinically relevant materials that promote both effective killing of a broader range of microorganisms and the desired mammalian cell response. This study serves to introduce a technology that may launch a new and innovative direction in the design of biomaterials with capacity to reduce the risk of medical device-associated infections. PMID:26992656

  3. Monitoring of the active layer at Kapp Linne', SVALBARD 1972-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerman, J.

    2003-04-01

    The active layer has been monitored at ten sites in the vicinity of Kapp Linné, (78o03'42" 13o37'07") Svalbard during the period 1972 - 2002. The ten sites differ in elevation, distance from the sea, vegetation cover, substrate and active periglacial processes. From 1994 the International permafrost Association "CALM" standard grids, with measurement within 100x100m squares, has been applied. Microclimate and soil temperatures have been monitored by data logger covering levels form 2 m above to 7m below the ground. The macroclimate is covered by complete data series from the nearby weather station at Kapp Linne’, covering the period 1912 to 2002. A number of periglacial processes, especially slope processes, are monitored parallel with the active layer. The mean active layer for the sites varies between 1,13m and 0,43m. The deepest active layer is found in the exposed, well drained raised beach ridges and the shallowest in the bogs. The interannual variability during the observation period do not correlate well with the MAAT but better with the summer climate, June - August mean or DDT. The data clearly illustrate colder summers during the period 1972 to 1983 and after that steadily increasing summer temperatures. The active layer follows the same general pattern with good correlations. There are several surface indications as a response to the deepening active layer especially in the bogs. Thermokarst scars appear frequently and a majority of the palsa like mounds and pounus have disappeared. A drastic change in the vegetation on the bogs has also occurred, from dry heath to wet Carex vegetation. In summary the observations from Kapp Linne’ are; 1. A clear trend towards milder summers, 2. A clear trend towards deeper active layers, 3. All sites show a similar pattern, 4. The bogs are getting strikingly wetter, 5. Mounds in the bog sites are disappearing, 6. The slow slope processes are getting accelerated, 7. Thermokarst depressions and scars are appearing in

  4. A critical study of the role of the surface oxide layer in titanium bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, S.; Wightman, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    The molecular understanding of the role which the surface oxide layer of the adherend plays in titanium bonding is studied. The effects of Ti6-4 adherends pretreatment, bonding conditions, and thermal aging of the lap shear specimens were studied. The use of the SEM/EDAX and ESCA techniques to study surface morphology and surface composition was emphasized. In addition, contact angles and both infrared and visible reflection spectroscopy were used in ancillary studies.

  5. Mechanisms of drag reduction of superhydrophobic surfaces in a turbulent boundary layer flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingxian; Tian, Haiping; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei; Jiang, Nan

    2015-09-01

    The drag-reducing property of a superhydrophobic surface is investigated along with its mechanism. A superhydrophobic surface with micro-nanotextures is fabricated and tested using SEM and contact angle measurement. Velocity distributions in the turbulent boundary layer with a superhydrophobic surface and a smooth surface are measured by particle image velocimetry at Re θ = 810, 990, and 1220. An upward lift effect on the velocity profile caused by the rugged air layer on the superhydrophobic surface is observed, which indicates drag reduction. Estimated by the wall shear stress, a drag reduction of 10.1, 20.7, and 24.1 % is observed for Re θ equal to 810, 990, and 1220, respectively. The drag reduction is caused mainly by slip on the interface and modifications in the turbulent structures, and the latter plays a more important role as Re θ increases. Suppressions are observed in turbulence intensities, and reductions in the total Reynolds shear stress T {turb/+} are 2.5, 18.5, and 23.1 % for Re θ = 810, 990, and 1220, respectively. Vortex fields above the superhydrophobic and smooth surfaces at Re θ = 990 are investigated. Vortexes are weakened and lifted upward by the superhydrophobic surface, and the position of the maximum swirling strength is lifted 0.17 δ ( δ is the boundary layer thickness) upward in the wall-normal direction. This modification in turbulence structures contributes significantly to the drag reduction in the turbulent boundary layer flow.

  6. Covalently-layers of PVA and PAA and in situ formed Ag nanoparticles as versatile antimicrobial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fragal, Vanessa H; Cellet, Thelma S P; Pereira, Guilherme M; Fragal, Elizângela H; Costa, Marco Antonio; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Asefa, Tewodros; Rubira, Adley F; Silva, Rafael

    2016-10-01

    The in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) within covalently-modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films possessing ultra-thin layer of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) is successfully demonstrated. The resulting polymeric films are shown to exhibit antimicrobial activities toward Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungus (Candida albicans). To make the films, first PET surfaces were subject to photo-oxidation and subsequent solid-state grafting to attach a PVA layer, followed by a PAA layer. To synthesize the AgNPs inside the films, the PVA and PAA-modified PET was soaked in AgNO3 solution and the polymeric film was modified with the Ag(+) ions via Ag(+)-carboxylate interaction, and then the Ag(+) ions-containing polymer film was subject to either photo-reduction or thermal reduction processes. The PVA and PAA thin layers attached by covalent bonds to the PET surface uniquely promoted not only the in situ synthesis but also the stabilization of AgNPs. The formation of the AgNPs was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy or by monitoring the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak associated with AgNPs. The resulting PVA and PAA ultrathin layers modified and AgNPs containing PET served as bactericide and fungicide, inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi on the surfaces. Given PET's versatility and common use in many commercial processes, the method can be used for producing plastic surfaces with versatile antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. PMID:27196366

  7. Insight in layer-by-layer assembly of cysteamine and L-cysteine on the copper surface by electrochemistry and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ping; Shen, Shu; Li, Chuan-Chuan; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Wen, Ying; Yang, Hai-Feng

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we examined the relationship between the anticorrosion behavior and the structure of the cysteamine/L-cysteine layer-by-layer coating on the copper surface via the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) technique with electrochemistry and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. SERS results elucidated the layer-by-layer adsorption mechanism of cysteamine/L-cysteine at the copper surface. Electrochemical investigations explored the inhibition behavior of cysteamine/L-cysteine for copper from corrosion with a high protection efficiency of 91.4%.

  8. Effects of mixed discrete surface charges on the electrical double layer.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ángeles, Felipe

    2012-08-01

    Adsorption of surface coions and charge reversal are induced at the electrical double layer of a wall charged with positive and negative surface sites next to an electrolyte solution. While for the considered surface charge density these effects are found over a wide range of conditions, they are not observed for the typically employed surface models in equivalent conditions. Important consequences in electrophoresis experiments for different colloids with equal effective surface charge density are foreseen. This study is carried out by means of molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:23005771

  9. Relevance of glycosylation of S-layer proteins for cell surface properties

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Bernhard; Sleytr, Uwe B.

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the building principles and intrinsic features modulating certain water-associated processes (e.g., surface roughness in the nanometer scale, surface hydration and accompanied antifouling property, etc.) of surface structures from (micro)organisms is nowadays a highly challenging task in fields like microbiology, biomimetic engineering and (bio)material sciences. Here, we show for the first time the recrystallization of the wild-type S-layer glycoprotein wtSgsE from Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a and its recombinantly produced non-glycosylated form, rSgsE, on gold sensor surfaces. Whereas the proteinaceous lattice of the S-layer proteins is forming a rigid layer on the sensor surface, the glycan chains are developing an overall soft, highly dissipative film. Interestingly, to the wtSgsE lattice almost twice the amount of water is bound and/or coupled in comparison with the non-glycosylated rSgsE with the preferred region being the extending glycan residues. The present results are discussed in terms of the effect of the glycan residues on the recrystallization, the adjoining hydration layer, and the nanoscale roughness and fluidic behavior. The latter features may turn out to be one of the most general ones among bacterial and archaeal S-layer lattices. PMID:25818946

  10. Relevance of glycosylation of S-layer proteins for cell surface properties.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Bernhard; Sleytr, Uwe B

    2015-06-01

    Elucidating the building principles and intrinsic features modulating certain water-associated processes (e.g., surface roughness in the nanometer scale, surface hydration and accompanied antifouling property, etc.) of surface structures from (micro)organisms is nowadays a highly challenging task in fields like microbiology, biomimetic engineering and (bio)material sciences. Here, we show for the first time the recrystallization of the wild-type S-layer glycoprotein wtSgsE from Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a and its recombinantly produced non-glycosylated form, rSgsE, on gold sensor surfaces. Whereas the proteinaceous lattice of the S-layer proteins is forming a rigid layer on the sensor surface, the glycan chains are developing an overall soft, highly dissipative film. Interestingly, to the wtSgsE lattice almost twice the amount of water is bound and/or coupled in comparison with the non-glycosylated rSgsE with the preferred region being the extending glycan residues. The present results are discussed in terms of the effect of the glycan residues on the recrystallization, the adjoining hydration layer, and the nanoscale roughness and fluidic behavior. The latter features may turn out to be one of the most general ones among bacterial and archaeal S-layer lattices. PMID:25818946

  11. Transmission electron microscope observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin active layers of light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jitsui, Yusuke; Ohtani, Naoki

    2012-10-01

    We performed transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin films fabricated by the sol-gel reaction and used as the active layers of organic light-emitting diodes. The cross-sectional TEM images show that the films consist of a triple-layer structure. To evaluate the composition of these layers, the distribution of atoms in them was measured by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. As a result, most of the organic emissive material, poly(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene-co- N-4-butylphenyl-diphenylamine (TFB), was found to be distributed in the middle layer sandwiched by SiO and SiO2 layers. The surface SiO layer was fabricated due to the lack of oxygen. This means that the best sol-gel condition was changed due to the TFB doping; thus, the novel best condition should be found.

  12. Transmission electron microscope observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin active layers of light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Jitsui, Yusuke; Ohtani, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    We performed transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin films fabricated by the sol-gel reaction and used as the active layers of organic light-emitting diodes. The cross-sectional TEM images show that the films consist of a triple-layer structure. To evaluate the composition of these layers, the distribution of atoms in them was measured by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. As a result, most of the organic emissive material, poly(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene-co-N-4-butylphenyl-diphenylamine (TFB), was found to be distributed in the middle layer sandwiched by SiO and SiO2 layers. The surface SiO layer was fabricated due to the lack of oxygen. This means that the best sol-gel condition was changed due to the TFB doping; thus, the novel best condition should be found. PMID:23095451

  13. OASIS-CANADA: observations of boundary layer ozone and mercury depletion from the Arctic Ocean surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottenheim, J. W.; Netcheva, S.; Staebler, R.; Steffen, A.

    2009-04-01

    Dramatic depletion of ozone (O3) and gaseous elementary mercury (GEM) from the marine boundary layer during the spring in Polar Regions is known to be driven by bromine atoms originating from activation of seasalt bromide. Almost all surface based measurements have been made at coastal observatories, but much of the active processing of the air is believed to occur near or at the surface of the Arctic Ocean itself. A major objective of the OASIS (Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice and Snow) program during the International Polar Year (IPY) was therefore to make observations directly over the frozen Arctic Ocean. In the context of the OASIS-CANADA program, sponsored by the Canadian Federal Program Office of the IPY, several ocean bound campaigns were joined including the French TARA expedition (2006-2008), the CFL campaign on the Canadian ice breaker CCGS Amundsen (February-April 2008), the COBRA campaign over the Hudson Bay near Kuujjuaraapik/Whapmagoostui, Quebec (February-March 2008), the ASCOS campaign on the Swedish polar class ice breaker Oden to the North Pole (August-September 2008), and the OASIS-09 campaign at Barrow Alaska (February-March 2009). In this presentation I will summarize the observations and explore what has been learned regarding the drivers for the depletion process, such as the influence of the ambient temperature, the nature of the underlying surface, and the atmospheric stability. An important question is whether depletion in progress was observed, rather than the arrival of previously depleted air, as is generally the case at Arctic coastal observatories.

  14. Microtopographic and depth controls on active layer chemistry in Arctic polygonal ground

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Brent D.; Throckmorton, Heather M.; Graham, David E.; Gu, Baohua; Hubbard, Susan S.; Liang, Liyuan; Wu, Yuxin; Heikoop, J. M.; Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Wilson, Cathy; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-03-24

    Polygonal ground is a signature characteristic of Arctic lowlands, and carbon release from permafrost thaw can alter feedbacks to Arctic ecosystems and climate. This study describes the first comprehensive spatial examination of active layer biogeochemistry that extends across high- and low-centered, ice wedge polygons, their features, and with depth. Water chemistry measurements of 54 analytes were made on surface and active layer pore waters collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA. Significant differences were observed between high- and low-centered polygons suggesting that polygon types may be useful for landscape-scale geochemical classification. However, differences were found for polygon features (centers and troughs) for analytes that were not significant for polygon type, suggesting that finer-scale features affect biogeochemistry differently from polygon types. Depth variations were also significant, demonstrating important multidimensional aspects of polygonal ground biogeochemistry. These results have major implications for understanding how polygonal ground ecosystems function, and how they may respond to future change.

  15. Microtopographic and depth controls on active layer chemistry in Arctic polygonal ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, B. D.; Throckmorton, H. M.; Graham, D. E.; Gu, B.; Hubbard, S. S.; Liang, L.; Wu, Y.; Heikoop, J. M.; Herndon, E. M.; Phelps, T. J.; Wilson, C. J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2015-03-01

    Polygonal ground is a signature characteristic of Arctic lowlands, and carbon release from permafrost thaw can alter feedbacks to Arctic ecosystems and climate. This study describes the first comprehensive spatial examination of active layer biogeochemistry that extends across high- and low-centered, ice wedge polygons, their features, and with depth. Water chemistry measurements of 54 analytes were made on surface and active layer pore waters collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA. Significant differences were observed between high- and low-centered polygons suggesting that polygon types may be useful for landscape-scale geochemical classification. However, differences were found for polygon features (centers and troughs) for analytes that were not significant for polygon type, suggesting that finer-scale features affect biogeochemistry differently from polygon types. Depth variations were also significant, demonstrating important multidimensional aspects of polygonal ground biogeochemistry. These results have major implications for understanding how polygonal ground ecosystems function, and how they may respond to future change.

  16. Active layer hydrology for Imnavait Creek, Toolik, Alaska. Annual progress report, July 1984--January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1986-12-31

    In the annual hydrologic cycle, snowmelt is the most significant event at Imnavait Creek located near Toolik Lake, Alaska. Precipitation that has accumulated for more than 6 months on the surface melts in a relatively short period of 7 to 10 days once sustained melting occurs. During the ablation period, runoff dominates the hydrologic cycle. Some meltwater goes to rewetting the organic soils in the active layer. The remainder is lost primarily because of evaporation, since transpiration is not a very active process at this time. Following the snowmelt period, evapotranspiration becomes the dominate process, with base flow contributing the other watershed losses. It is important to note that the water initally lost by evapotranspiration entered the organic layer during melt. This water from the snowpack ensures that each year the various plant communities will have sufficient water to start a new summer of growth.

  17. Study of the amorphization of surface silicon layers implanted by low-energy helium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomov, A. A.; Myakon'kikh, A. V.; Oreshko, A. P.; Shemukhin, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The structural changes in surface layers of Si(001) substrates subjected to plasma-immersion implantation by (2-5)-keV helium ions to a dose of D = 6 × 1015-5 × 1017 cm-2 have been studied by highresolution X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering, and spectral ellipsometry. It is found that the joint application of these methods makes it possible to determine the density depth distribution ρ( z) in an implanted layer, its phase state, and elemental composition. Treatment of silicon substrates in helium plasma to doses of 6 × 1016 cm-2 leads to the formation of a 20- to 30-nm-thick amorphized surface layer with a density close to the silicon density. An increase in the helium dose causes the formation of an internal porous layer.

  18. Aerodynamically-driven condensate layer thickness distributions on isothermal cylindrical surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, D. E.; Gunes, D.; Nazih-Anous, N.

    1983-01-01

    A simple yet rather general mathematical model is presented for predicting the distribution of condensate layer thickness when aerodynamic shear is the dominant mechanism of liquid flow along the surface. The Newtonian condensate film is treated using well-known thin-layer (lubrication theory) approximations, and condensate supply is taken to be the result of either convective diffusion or inertial impaction. Illustrative calculations for a circular cylinder in a crossflow at Re = 100,000 reveal the consequences of alternate condensate arrival mechanisms and the existence of thicker reverse-flow films behind the position of gas boundary-layer separation. The present formulation is readily generalized to include transient liquid layer flows on noncircular objects of variable surface temperature, as encountered in turbine-blade materials testing or operation.

  19. Hard Coat Layers by PE-CVD Process for the Top Surface of Touch Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okunishi, T.; Sato, N.; Yazawa, K.

    2013-06-01

    In order to protect surface from damages, the high pencil hardness and the high abrasion resistance are required for the hard coat layers on polyethylene telephthalate (PET) films for the application of touch panel surface. We have already found that the UV-curing-hard-coat-polymer (UHP) coated PET films show the poor abrasion resistance, while they have the high pencil hardness. It reveals that the abrasion resistance of hard coat layers of the UHP is not simply dependent on the pencil hardness. In this work, we have studied to improve the abrasion resistance of SiOC films as hard coat layers, which were formed by PE-CVD process on UHP coated PET. The abrasion resistance was evaluated by Taber abrasion test. PE-CVD hard coat layers which formed on UHP coater PET films have showed the better abrasion resistance and have the possibility of substitution to the thin glass sheets for touch panel application.

  20. Electrical conductivity of reconstructed Si(111) surface with sodium-doped C{sub 60} layers

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukanov, D. A. Saranin, A. A.; Ryzhkova, M. V.; Borisenko, E. A.; Zotov, A. V.

    2015-01-05

    Electrical conductance of sodium-doped C{sub 60} ultra-thin layers (1–6 monolayers) grown on the Na-adsorbed Si(111)√3 × √3-Au surface has been studied in situ by four-point probe technique, combined with low-energy electron diffraction observations. Evidence of conductance channel formation through the C{sub 60} ultrathin layer is demonstrated as a result of Na dosing of 3 and 6 monolayers thick C{sub 60} layers. The observed changes in surface conductivity can be attributed to the formation of fulleride-like NaC{sub 60} and Na{sub 2}C{sub 60} compound layers.

  1. Computer graphic visualization of orbiter lower surface boundary-layer transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throckmorton, D. A.; Hartung, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    Computer graphic techniques are applied to the processing of Shuttle Orbiter flight data in order to create a visual presentation of the extent and movement of the boundary-layer transition front over the orbiter lower surface during entry. Flight-measured surface temperature-time histories define the onset and completion of the boundary-layer transition process at any measurement location. The locus of points which define the spatial position of the boundary-layer transition front on the orbiter planform is plotted at each discrete time for which flight data are available. Displaying these images sequentially in real-time results in an animated simulation of the in-flight boundary-layer transition process.

  2. Dual active surface heat flux gage probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-02-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  3. Cell surface display of chimeric glycoproteins via the S-layer of Paenibacillus alvei

    PubMed Central

    Zarschler, Kristof; Janesch, Bettina; Kainz, Birgit; Ristl, Robin; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-positive, mesophilic bacterium Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051T possesses a two-dimensional crystalline protein surface layer (S-layer) with oblique lattice symmetry composed of a single type of O-glycoprotein species. Herein, we describe a strategy for nanopatterned in vivo cell surface co-display of peptide and glycan epitopes based on this S-layer glycoprotein self-assembly system. The open reading frame of the corresponding structural gene spaA codes for a protein of 983 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 24 amino acids. The mature S-layer protein has a theoretical molecular mass of 105.95 kDa and a calculated pI of 5.83. It contains three S-layer homology domains at the N-terminus that are involved in anchoring of the glycoprotein via a non-classical, pyruvylated secondary cell wall polymer to the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall. For this polymer, several putative biosynthesis enzymes were identified upstream of the spaA gene. For in vivo cell surface display, the hexahistidine tag and the enhanced green fluorescent protein, respectively, were translationally fused to the C-terminus of SpaA. Immunoblot analysis, immunofluorescence staining, and fluorescence microscopy revealed that the fused epitopes were efficiently expressed and successfully displayed via the S-layer glycoprotein matrix on the surface of P. alvei CCM 2051T cells. In contrast, exclusively non-glycosylated chimeric SpaA proteins were displayed, when the S-layer of the glycosylation-deficient wsfP mutant was used as a display matrix. PMID:20513375

  4. Cell surface display of chimeric glycoproteins via the S-layer of Paenibacillus alvei.

    PubMed

    Zarschler, Kristof; Janesch, Bettina; Kainz, Birgit; Ristl, Robin; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2010-07-01

    The Gram-positive, mesophilic bacterium Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T) possesses a two-dimensional crystalline protein surface layer (S-layer) with oblique lattice symmetry composed of a single type of O-glycoprotein species. Herein, we describe a strategy for nanopatterned in vivo cell surface co-display of peptide and glycan epitopes based on this S-layer glycoprotein self-assembly system. The open reading frame of the corresponding structural gene spaA codes for a protein of 983 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 24 amino acids. The mature S-layer protein has a theoretical molecular mass of 105.95kDa and a calculated pI of 5.83. It contains three S-layer homology domains at the N-terminus that are involved in anchoring of the glycoprotein via a non-classical, pyruvylated secondary cell wall polymer to the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall. For this polymer, several putative biosynthesis enzymes were identified upstream of the spaA gene. For in vivo cell surface display, the hexahistidine tag and the enhanced green fluorescent protein, respectively, were translationally fused to the C-terminus of SpaA. Immunoblot analysis, immunofluorescence staining, and fluorescence microscopy revealed that the fused epitopes were efficiently expressed and successfully displayed via the S-layer glycoprotein matrix on the surface of P. alvei CCM 2051(T) cells. In contrast, exclusively non-glycosylated chimeric SpaA proteins were displayed, when the S-layer of the glycosylation-deficient wsfP mutant was used as a display matrix. PMID:20513375

  5. Magnetic field-related heating instabilities in the surface layers of the sun and stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, A.; Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    The stability of a magnetized low-density plasma to current-driven filamentation instabilities is investigated and the results are applied to the surface layers of stars. Unlike previous studies, the initial (i.e., precoronal) state of the stellar surface atmosphere is taken to be a low-density, optically thin magnetized plasma in radiative equilibrium. The linear analysis shows that the surface layers of main-sequence stars (including the sun) which are threaded by magnetic fields are unstable; the instabilities considered lead to structuring perpendicular to the ambient magnetic fields. These results suggest that relatively modest surface motions, in conjunction with the presence of magnetic fields, suffice to account for the presence of inhomogeneous chromospheric and coronal plasma overlying a star's surface.

  6. Turbulent flow over a surface-mounted 2-D block in thermally-stratified boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Markfort, C. D.; Porte-Agel, F.

    2013-12-01

    Turbulent boundary-layer flows over complex topography have been of great interest in the atmospheric sciences and wind engineering communities. The geometry of the topography, surface characteristics and atmospheric thermal stability play important roles in determining momentum and scalar flux distribution. Studies of turbulent flow over simplified topography, such as 2-D or 3-D blocks and 2-D or 3-D sinusoidal hills, conducted under neutrally stratified boundary-layer conditions have provided insightful information of fluid dynamics. However, atmospheric thermal stability has rarely been incorporated into laboratory simulations, in particular, wind-tunnel experiments. Extension of such studies in thermally-stratified wind tunnels will fill this gap and advance our understanding of the underlying physics of flow over complex topography. Additionally, experimental data are useful for the development of new parameterizations for surface fluxes and validation of numerical models such as Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). A series of experiments involving neutral and thermally-stratified boundary-layer flows over a surface-mounted 2-D block, conducted at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory boundary-layer wind tunnel, will be presented. The 2-D block, with a width to height ratio of 2:1, occupied the lowest 25% of the turbulent boundary layer. Thermal stratification of the boundary layer was achieved by independently controlling the temperature of both the airflow, the test section floor and block surfaces. Measurements using high-resolution PIV, x-wire/cold-wire anemometry, thermal-couples and surface heat flux sensors were made to identify and quantify the turbulent flow properties, including the size of the recirculation zone, coherent vortex structures and the subsequent boundary layer recovery. Emphasis will be put on addressing thermal stability effects on momentum and scalar flux distribution.

  7. Dissimilarity between temperature-humidity in the atmospheric surface layer and implications for estimates of evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancelli, D. M.; Dias, N. L.; Chamecki, M.

    2012-12-01

    In several methods used in water resources to estimate evaporation from land and water surfaces, a fundamental assumption is that temperature (T) and specific humidity (q) fluctuations behave similarly in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL). In the Energy-Budget Bowen Ratio method it is assumed that both eddy diffusivities are equal, while in the variance method it is often assumed that all the Monin-Obukhov Similarity (MOS) functions for the two scalars are equal. However, it is well-known that the T-q similarity does not always hold and that the dissimilarity found in practice can significantly impact the estimates of evaporation. Given the frequent dissimilarity between temperature and humidity, two important problems arise. The first one is related to the choice of the function used to characterize scalar similarity, given that not all commonly used functions are equally capable of identifying scalar dissimilarity. The second problem is associated with the identification of the physical mechanisms behind scalar dissimilarity in each particular case: local advection, nonstationarity, surface heterogeneity, active/passive roles of the scalars, entrainment fluxes at the top of the atmospheric boundary layer are typically cited as possible causes, but seldom a convincing argument is presented. In this work we combine experimental data and numerical simulations to study similarity between T and q in the ASL. Data measured over a lake in Brazil suggests a strong relationship between scalar similarity and the balance between local production and dissipation of scalar variance, which is in practice related to the strength of the surface forcing. Scalar variance and covariance budgets are used to derive a set of dimensionless Scalar Flux numbers that are capable of diagnosing the balance between gradient production and molecular dissipation of scalar variance and covariance. Experimental data shows that these Scalar Flux numbers are good predictors of scalar (dis

  8. Actomyosin dynamics drive local membrane component organization in an in vitro active composite layer.

    PubMed

    Köster, Darius Vasco; Husain, Kabir; Iljazi, Elda; Bhat, Abrar; Bieling, Peter; Mullins, R Dyche; Rao, Madan; Mayor, Satyajit

    2016-03-22

    The surface of a living cell provides a platform for receptor signaling, protein sorting, transport, and endocytosis, whose regulation requires the local control of membrane organization. Previous work has revealed a role for dynamic actomyosin in membrane protein and lipid organization, suggesting that the cell surface behaves as an active composite composed of a fluid bilayer and a thin film of active actomyosin. We reconstitute an analogous system in vitro that consists of a fluid lipid bilayer coupled via membrane-associated actin-binding proteins to dynamic actin filaments and myosin motors. Upon complete consumption of ATP, this system settles into distinct phases of actin organization, namely bundled filaments, linked apolar asters, and a lattice of polar asters. These depend on actin concentration, filament length, and actin/myosin ratio. During formation of the polar aster phase, advection of the self-organizing actomyosin network drives transient clustering of actin-associated membrane components. Regeneration of ATP supports a constitutively remodeling actomyosin state, which in turn drives active fluctuations of coupled membrane components, resembling those observed at the cell surface. In a multicomponent membrane bilayer, this remodeling actomyosin layer contributes to changes in the extent and dynamics of phase-segregating domains. These results show how local membrane composition can be driven by active processes arising from actomyosin, highlighting the fundamental basis of the active composite model of the cell surface, and indicate its relevance to the study of membrane organization. PMID:26929326

  9. Hardening of the surface layers of commercial pure titanium VT1-0 under combined treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashchenko, Lyudmila P.; Gromov, Viktor E.; Budovskikh, Evgenii A.; Ivanov, Yurii F.; Soskova, Nina A.

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of VT1-0 titanium samples was carried out by concentrated energy fluxes. The combined treatment included surface carburizing with the joint use of powder samples of compounds with high physical and mechanical properties (namely, titanium diboride TiB2, silicon carbide SiC and zirconium oxide ZrO2) and subsequent electron beam treatment of surface layers formed in electroexplosive treatment. The combined treatment of surface layers resulted in the multifold increase in microhardness, which reduces depending on the depth of hardening zone. After electron-beam treatment, the depth of hardening zone is increased. During electron-beam treatment, the two-layer hardening zone forms.

  10. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy studies of angle-dependent van Hove singularities on twisted graphite surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Luo, Hong

    2013-12-01

    Slightly misoriented surface graphene layer on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) can result in Moiré patterns (MP). Two van Hove singularity (VHS) peaks in the density of states are observed with scanning tunneling spectroscopy on a series of the MPs with different periods on HOPG surface, flanking the Fermi energy. The energy difference between the two VHS peaks (ΔEVHS) is linearly proportional to the sine of interlayer rotation angle. A similar relation between ΔEVHS and MP periods has recently been reported on twisted graphene layers. Compared to the case of twisted graphene layers, the Fermi velocity of MPs on a HOPG surface is found to be larger, and the interlayer hopping is enhanced.

  11. Fabrication of TI/SIC Surface Nano-Composite Layer by Friction Stir Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsipur, Ali; Kashani-Bozorg, Seyed Farshid; Zareie-Hanzaki, Abbas

    In the present investigation, novel Ti/SiC surface nano-composite layer was successfully fabricated by dispersing nano-sized SiC particles into commercially pure titanium plates employing friction stir processing technique. The process parameters such as tool rotation and advancing speeds were adjusted to produce defect-free surface composite layer, however, uniform distribution of the nano-size SiC particles in a matrix of titanium was achieved after the second pass. The micro hardness value of the Ti/SiC nano-composite surface layer was found to be 534 HV; this is 3.3 times higher than that of the commercially pure titanium substrate. No reaction was detected between SiC powders and the titanium matrix after friction stir processing.

  12. Enhancement of effective electromechanical coupling factor by mass loading in layered surface acoustic wave device structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gongbin; Han, Tao; Teshigahara, Akihiko; Iwaki, Takao; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a drastic enhancement of the effective coupling factor K\\text{e}2 by mass loading in layered surface acoustic wave (SAW) device structures such as the ScAlN film/Si substrate structure. This phenomenon occurs when the piezoelectric layer exhibits a high acoustic wave velocity. The mass loading decreases the SAW velocity and causes SAW energy confinement close to the top surface where an interdigital transducer is placed. It is shown that this phenomenon is obvious even when an amorphous SiO2 film is deposited on the top surface for temperature compensation. This K\\text{e}2 enhancement was also found in various combinations of electrode, piezoelectric layer, and/or substrate materials. The existence of this phenomenon was verified experimentally using the ScAlN film/Si substrate structure.

  13. Synoptic classification and horizontal homogeneity of the refractive index structure function parameter in the surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, P. J.; Davidson, K. L.

    1984-02-01

    This is a two part report. The first part describes an investigation of the feasibility of using the synoptic scale classification scheme described in the Refractive Effects Guidebook (REG) to predict the level of optical turbulence in the surface layer as measured by C sub n squared, the refractive index structure function parameter. Data were examined from nine experiments which took place in the north Pacific and north Atlantic. The measurement experiments spanned five years and included all four seasons. The REG appears to be useful in a limited way in predicting ranges of C sub n squared in the surface layer. Inclusion of local factors would increase predictability. The second part deals with horizontal homogeneity of the surface layer C sub n squared as measured during the JASIN experiment in the North Atlantic in 1978. Periods of homogeneity lasting between one and two days were encountered along 200 km sectors and for up to nine hours over the entire JASIN experimental area.

  14. On the influence of nanometer-thin antiferromagnetic surface layer on ferromagnetic CrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, P.; Bajpai, A.; Ohno, Y.; Ohno, H.; Müller, J.

    2012-09-01

    We investigate the influence of naturally grown 2-5 nm thin surface layer of antiferromagnetic (AFM) Cr2O3 on the half metallic ferromagnet CrO2 by measuring the magnetic behavior of a single micro-crystal. The temperature variation of the magnetic stray fields of the micro-crystal measured by micro-Hall magnetometry shows an anomalous increase below ˜60 K. We find clear evidence that this behavior is due to the influence of the AFM surface layer. The average amplitude of the Barkahausen jumps exhibits a similar temperature dependence indicating that the AFM surface layer plays a role in defining the potential landscape seen by the domain configuration in the ferromagnetic grain.

  15. Hardening of the surface layers of commercial pure titanium VT1-0 under combined treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bashchenko, Lyudmila P. Gromov, Viktor E. Budovskikh, Evgenii A. Soskova, Nina A.; Ivanov, Yurii F.

    2015-10-27

    The treatment of VT1-0 titanium samples was carried out by concentrated energy fluxes. The combined treatment included surface carburizing with the joint use of powder samples of compounds with high physical and mechanical properties (namely, titanium diboride TiB{sub 2}, silicon carbide SiC and zirconium oxide ZrO{sub 2}) and subsequent electron beam treatment of surface layers formed in electroexplosive treatment. The combined treatment of surface layers resulted in the multifold increase in microhardness, which reduces depending on the depth of hardening zone. After electron-beam treatment, the depth of hardening zone is increased. During electron-beam treatment, the two-layer hardening zone forms.

  16. Manufacture of silicon-based devices having disordered sulfur-doped surface layers

    DOEpatents

    Carey, III; James Edward; Mazur, Eric

    2008-04-08

    The present invention provides methods of fabricating a radiation-absorbing semiconductor wafer by irradiating at least one surface location of a silicon substrate, e.g., an n-doped crystalline silicon, by a plurality of temporally short laser pulses, e.g., femtosecond pulses, while exposing that location to a substance, e.g., SF.sub.6, having an electron-donating constituent so as to generate a substantially disordered surface layer (i.e., a microstructured layer) that incorporates a concentration of that electron-donating constituent, e.g., sulfur. The substrate is also annealed at an elevated temperature and for a duration selected to enhance the charge carrier density in the surface layer. For example, the substrate can be annealed at a temperature in a range of about 700 K to about 900 K.

  17. Initial growth process of Co (Pd) layers on a Pd (Co) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Nishizawa, N. Porquez, J. G.; Munekata, H.; Kitamoto, Y.

    2015-05-07

    The deposition process of ultra-thin Co and Pd layers is studied using DC magnetron sputtering and ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is found that observation with AFM in the air atmosphere is reliable to discuss nucleation of Co and Pd crystallites. It is discussed that a Co ultra-thin layer is formed primarily through the process of two-dimensional island formation, whereas a Pd ultra-thin layer is formed through the process of mixed two- and three-dimensional island formation. On the basis of those results, Co/Pd multilayers having a flat top surface are prepared successfully.

  18. The effects of oxalate treatment on the smear layer of ground surfaces of human dentine.

    PubMed

    Pashley, D H; Galloway, S E

    1985-01-01

    The layer was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and by measurement of hydraulic conductance before and after 2-min topical treatment with potassium chloride, neutral potassium oxalate, half-neutralized oxalic acid or both neutral and acidic oxalates. The treated smear layers were then re-evaluated microscopically and functionally both before and after acid challenge. The layers treated with KCl were not altered either microscopically or functionally and were susceptible to acid etching. Dentine surfaces treated with either oxalate solutions became less permeable and were acid-resistant. PMID:3866520

  19. Resonance oscillation damping of a scanning microscope probe by a near-surface viscous liquid layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslenikov, I. I.; Reshetov, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    Viscous liquid layer motion between a probe with a tip shaped as a paraboloid of revolution and a surface is considered for semicontact-mode operation of a scanning probe microscope. The presence of a viscous liquid layer leads to energy dissipation and is one of the factors responsible for the decrease in the probe oscillation amplitude. The Reynolds equation for viscous liquid motion is used to obtain an analytic solution to the problem. The formula derived for the loss is compared with experimental data obtained for probes and layers with various curvature radii and viscosities.

  20. Tribological Properties of the Fe-Al-Cr Alloyed Layer by Double Glow Plasma Surface Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xixi; Yao, Zhengjun; Zhang, Pingze; Zhou, Keyin; Wang, Zhangzhong

    2016-07-01

    A Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer was deposited onto the surface of Q235 low-carbon steel via double glow plasma surface metallurgy (DGPSM) to improve the steel's wear resistance. After the DGPSM treatment, the Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer grown on the Q235 low-carbon steel was homogeneous and compact and had a thickness of 25 µm. The layer was found to be metallurgically adhered to the substrate. The frictional coefficient and specific wear rate of the sample with a Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer (treated sample) were both lower than those of the bare substrate (untreated sample) at the measured temperatures (25, 250 and 450 °C). The results indicated that the substrate and the alloyed layer suffered oxidative wear and abrasive wear, respectively, and that the treated samples exhibited much better tribological properties than did the substrate. The formation of Fe2AlCr, Fe3Al(Cr), FeAl(Cr), Fe(Cr) sosoloid and Cr23C6 phases in the alloyed layer dramatically enhanced the wear resistance of the treated sample. In addition, the alloyed layer's oxidation film exhibited a self-healing capacity with lubrication action that also contributed to the improvement of the wear resistance at high temperature. In particular, at 450 °C, the specific wear rate of treated sample was 2.524 × 10-4 mm3/N m, which was only 45.2% of the untreated sample.

  1. Microstructure and surface properties of lignocellulosic-based activated carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, P.; Centeno, T. A.; Urones-Garrote, E.; Ávila-Brande, D.; Otero-Díaz, L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Low cost activated carbons have been produced via chemical activation, by using KOH at 700 °C, from the bamboo species Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata and the residues from shells of the fruits of Castanea Sativa and Juglans Regia as carbon precursors. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs show the conservation of the precursor shape in the case of the Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata activated carbons. Transmission electron microscopy analyses reveal that these materials consist of carbon platelet-like particles with variable length and thickness, formed by highly disordered graphene-like layers with sp2 content ≈ 95% and average mass density of 1.65 g/cm3 (25% below standard graphite). Textural parameters indicate a high porosity development with surface areas ranging from 850 to 1100 m2/g and average pore width centered in the supermicropores range (1.3-1.8 nm). The electrochemical performance of the activated carbons shows specific capacitance values at low current density (1 mA/cm2) as high as 161 F/g in the Juglans Regia activated carbon, as a result of its textural parameters and the presence of pseudocapacitance derived from surface oxygenated acidic groups (mainly quinones and ethers) identified in this activated carbon.

  2. The Diurnal Cycle of the Boundary Layer, Convection, Clouds, and Surface Radiation in a Coastal Monsoon Environment (Darwin Australia)

    SciTech Connect

    May, Peter T.; Long, Charles N.; Protat, Alain

    2012-08-01

    The diurnal variation of convection and associated cloud and radiative properties remains a significant issue in global NWP and climate models. This study analyzes observed diurnal variability of convection in a coastal monsoonal environment examining the interaction of convective rain clouds, their associated cloud properties, and the impact on the surface radiation and corresponding boundary layer structure during periods where convection is suppressed or active on the large scale. The analysis uses data from the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) as well as routine measurements from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Both active monsoonal and large-scale suppressed (buildup and break) conditions are examined and demonstrate that the diurnal variation of rainfall is much larger during the break periods and the spatial distribution of rainfall is very different between the monsoon and break regimes. During the active monsoon the total net radiative input to the surface is decreased by more than 3 times the amount than during the break regime - this total radiative cloud forcing is found to be dominated by the shortwave (SW) cloud effects because of the much larger optical thicknesses and persistence of long-lasting anvils and cirrus cloud decks associated with the monsoon regime. These differences in monsoon versus break surface radiative energy contribute to low-level air temperature differences in the boundary layer over the land surfaces.

  3. Surface modification induced phase transformation and structure variation on the rapidly solidified recast layer of titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Ming-Hung; Haung, Chiung-Fang; Shyu, Shih-Shiun; Chou, Yen-Ru; Lin, Ming-Hong; Peng, Pei-Wen; and others

    2015-08-15

    In this study, neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO{sub 4}) as a laser source with different scanning speeds was used on biomedical Ti surface. The microstructural and biological properties of laser-modified samples were investigated by means of optical microscope, electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness instrument, contact angle and cell cytotoxicity assay. After laser modification, the rough volcano-like recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure and wave-like recast layer with nanoporous structure were generated on the surfaces of laser-modified samples, respectively. It was also found out that, an α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition occurred on the recast layers of laser-modified samples. The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. Moreover, the cell cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that laser-modified samples did not influence the cell adhesion and proliferation behaviors of osteoblast (MG-63) cell. The laser with 50 mm/s scanning speed induced formation of rough volcano-like recast layer accompanied with micro-/nanoporous structure, which can promote cell adhesion and proliferation of MG-63 cell on Ti surface. The results indicated that the laser treatment was a potential technology to enhance the biocompatibility for titanium. - Highlights: • Laser induced the formation of recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure on Ti. • An α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition was observed within the recast layer. • The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. • Laser-modified samples exhibit good biocompatibility to osteoblast (MG-63) cell.

  4. The surface location of individual residues in a bacterial S-layer protein.

    PubMed

    Kinns, Helen; Howorka, Stefan

    2008-03-21

    Bacterial surface layer (S-layer) proteins self-assemble into large two-dimensional crystalline lattices that form the outermost cell-wall component of all archaea and many eubacteria. Despite being a large class of self-assembling proteins, little is known about their molecular architecture. We investigated the S-layer protein SbsB from Geobacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2 to identify residues located at the subunit-subunit interface and to determine the S-layer's topology. Twenty-three single cysteine mutants, which were previously mapped to the surface of the SbsB monomer, were subjected to a cross-linking screen using the photoactivatable, sulfhydryl-reactive reagent N-[4-(p-azidosalicylamido)butyl]-3'-(2'-pyridyldithio)propionamide. Gel electrophoretic analysis on the formation of cross-linked dimers indicated that 8 out of the 23 residues were located at the interface. In combination with surface accessibility data for the assembled protein, 10 residues were assigned to positions at the inner, cell-wall-facing lattice surface, while 5 residues were mapped to the outer, ambient-exposed lattice surface. In addition, the cross-linking screen identified six positions of intramolecular cross-linking within the assembled protein but not in the monomeric S-layer protein. Most likely, these intramolecular cross-links result from conformational changes upon self-assembly. The results are an important step toward the further structural elucidation of the S-layer protein via, for example, X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. Our approach of identifying the surface location of residues is relevant to other planar supramolecular protein assemblies. PMID:18262545

  5. Optimizing pentacene thin-film transistor performance: Temperature and surface condition induced layer growth modification

    PubMed Central

    Lassnig, R.; Hollerer, M.; Striedinger, B.; Fian, A.; Stadlober, B.; Winkler, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present in situ electrical and surface analytical, as well as ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on temperature and surface condition induced pentacene layer growth modifications, leading to the selection of optimized deposition conditions and entailing performance improvements. We prepared p++-silicon/silicon dioxide bottom-gate, gold bottom-contact transistor samples and evaluated the pentacene layer growth for three different surface conditions (sputtered, sputtered + carbon and unsputtered + carbon) at sample temperatures during deposition of 200 K, 300 K and 350 K. The AFM investigations focused on the gold contacts, the silicon dioxide channel region and the highly critical transition area. Evaluations of coverage dependent saturation mobilities, threshold voltages and corresponding AFM analysis were able to confirm that the first 3–4 full monolayers contribute to the majority of charge transport within the channel region. At high temperatures and on sputtered surfaces uniform layer formation in the contact–channel transition area is limited by dewetting, leading to the formation of trenches and the partial development of double layer islands within the channel region instead of full wetting layers. By combining the advantages of an initial high temperature deposition (well-ordered islands in the channel) and a subsequent low temperature deposition (continuous film formation for low contact resistance) we were able to prepare very thin (8 ML) pentacene transistors of comparably high mobility. PMID:26543442

  6. SEM Analysis of MTAD Efficacy for Smear Layer Removal from Periodontally Affected Root Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Houshmand, B.; Ghandi, M.; Nekoofar, MH.; Gholamii, Gh. A.; Tabor, R. K.; Dummer, P. M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Biopure® MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, USA) has been developed as a final irrigant following root canal shaping to remove intracanal smear layer. Many of the unique properties of MTAD potentially transfer to the conditioning process of tooth roots during periodontal therapy. The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the effect of MTAD on the removal of smear layer from root surfaces. Materials and Methods Thirty two longitudinally sectioned specimens from 16 freshly extracted teeth diagnosed with advanced periodontal disease were divided into four groups. In group 1 and 2, the root surfaces were scaled using Gracey curettes. In group 3 and 4, 0.5 mm of the root surface was removed using a fissure bur. The specimens in group 1 and 3 were then irrigated by normal saline. The specimens in groups 2 and 4 were irrigated with Biopure MTAD. All specimens were prepared for SEM and scored according to the presence of smear layer. Results MTAD significantly increased (P=0.001) the smear layer removal in both groups 2 and 4 compared to the associated control groups, in which only saline was used. Conclusion MTAD increased the removal of the smear layer from periodontally affected root surfaces. Use of MTAD as a periodontal conditioner may be suggested. PMID:22509454

  7. Impact of Bay-Breeze Circulations on Surface Air Quality and Boundary Layer Export

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Follette-Cook, Melanie; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Goldberg, Daniel; Satam, Chinmay; Weinheimer, Andrew; Crawford, James H.; Knapp, David J.; Montzka, Denise D.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological and air-quality model simulations are analyzed alongside observations to investigate the role of the Chesapeake Bay breeze on surface air quality, pollutant transport, and boundary layer venting. A case study was conducted to understand why a particular day was the only one during an 11-day ship-based field campaign on which surface ozone was not elevated in concentration over the Chesapeake Bay relative to the closest upwind site and why high ozone concentrations were observed aloft by in situ aircraft observations. Results show that southerly winds during the overnight and early-morning hours prevented the advection of air pollutants from the Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan areas over the surface waters of the bay. A strong and prolonged bay breeze developed during the late morning and early afternoon along the western coastline of the bay. The strength and duration of the bay breeze allowed pollutants to converge, resulting in high concentrations locally near the bay-breeze front within the Baltimore metropolitan area, where they were then lofted to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Near the top of the PBL, these pollutants were horizontally advected to a region with lower PBL heights, resulting in pollution transport out of the boundary layer and into the free troposphere. This elevated layer of air pollution aloft was transported downwind into New England by early the following morning where it likely mixed down to the surface, affecting air quality as the boundary layer grew.

  8. Covalent assembly of poly(ethyleneimine) via layer-by-layer deposition for enhancing surface density of protein and bacteria attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Bing; Shi, Jisen; Dong, Chen; Zhang, Wenyi; Lu, Ye; Guo, Ping

    2014-02-01

    Covalently assembly of low molecular weight poly(ethyleneimine) was introduced to glass surfaces via glutaraldehyde crosslinking, with focus on its application on protein immobilization or bacteria attachment. Characterizations of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ellipsometry measurement revealed a stepwise growth of poly(ethyleneimine) films by layer-by-layer deposition. After fluorescein isothiocyanate labelling, photoluminescence spectroscopy measurement indicated that the amount of surface accessible amine groups had been gradually enhanced with increasing poly(ethyleneimine) layers deposition. As compared with traditional aminosilanized surfaces, the surface density of amine groups was enhanced by ∼11 times after five layers grafting, which resulted in ∼9-time increasing of surface density of immobilized bovine serum albumin. Finally, these as-prepared PEI multi-films with excellent biocompatibility were adopted as culture substrates to improve Escherichia coli adherence, which showed that their surface density had been increased by ∼251 times.

  9. First insight into catalytic activity of anionic iron porphyrins immobilized on exfoliated layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Nakagaki, Shirley; Halma, Matilte; Bail, Alesandro; Arízaga, Gregório Guadalupe Carbajal; Wypych, Fernando

    2005-01-15

    Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) intercalated with glycinate anions was synthesized through co-precipitation and exfoliated in formamide and the single-layer suspension was reacted with aqueous iron porphyrin solutions (Fe(TDFSPP) and Fe(TCFSPP)). The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, UV-vis, and electron paramagnetic resonance and investigated in the oxidation reaction of cyclooctene and cyclohexane using iodosylbenzene as oxidant. The iron porphyrin seems to be immobilized at the surface of the glycinate intercalated LDH. The catalytic activities obtained in heterogeneous media for iron porphyrin, Fe(TDFSPP), was superior to the results obtained under homogeneous conditions, but the opposite effect was observed on the Fe(TCFSPP), indicating that, instead of the structural similarity of both iron porphyrins (second-generation porphyrins), the immobilization of each one produced different catalysts. The best catalytic activity of the Fe(TDFSPP)/Gly-LDH, compared to Fe(TCFSPP)/Gly-LDH, can be explained by the easy access of the oxidant and the substrate to the catalytic sites in the former, probably located at the surface of the layered double hydroxide pillared with glycinate anions. A model for the immobilization and a mechanism for the oxidation reaction will be discussed. PMID:15571697

  10. Asphaltenes as a surface active agent

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, E.Y.; Shields, M.B.; Storm, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Asphaltene represents the heavy-end materials of the crude oil, conventionally defined via solvent solubility (either heptane or pentane). Chemically, it consists of polynuclear aromatics with the H/C ratio close to unity. Additionally, it contains a great deal of heteroatoms, such as sulfur, nitrogen, nickel, vanadium, etc. Several experiments have revealed the surface activity of asphaltenes in some selected solvents through measurements of their rheology or critical micelle concentrations in these solvents. The asphaltene micelles were found thermodynamically reversible. In a two phase asphaltene/water system, asphaltenes appear to vary their surface activities depending upon the polarity of the aqueous phase. Our recent experiment further showed that asphaltene/water/toluene may form, water-in-oil emulsion under certain conditions.

  11. Surface modulation of complex stiffness via layer-by-layer assembly as a facile strategy for selective cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hao; Zhang, He; Hu, Mi; Chen, Xia-chao; Ren, Ke-feng; Wang, Jin-lei; Ji, Jian

    2015-02-01

    In-stent restenosis and thrombosis are the main severe problems that occur after the percutaneous vascular intervention. The competition between endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) plays a key role during these pathological changes. The regulation of this competition offers new opportunities to design biomaterials in the cardiovascular fields. Bioactive molecules have been typically employed to increase EC adhesion and thereafter to enhance EC competitiveness; however, this method is associated with limitations from the point of view of practical and industrial applications. Herein, we present an approach to enhance EC competitiveness over that of SMC through the selective EC adhesion, which is achieved by modulating a complex surface stiffness based on the technique of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. This complex stiffness can be achieved by regulating the thickness of multilayer films coordinating with a rigid underlying substrate. The selective cell adhesion is attributed to changes in the complex surface stiffness and a different intrinsic property between ECs and SMCs. This study provides a facile and broadly applicable approach for the purpose of the enhancement of EC competitiveness over that of SMC, which has great potential for the development of cell-based functional biomaterials in the cardiovascular field. PMID:26218126

  12. Macro-carriers of plastic deformation of steel surface layers detected by digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopanitsa, D. G.; Ustinov, A. M.; Potekaev, A. I.; Klopotov, A. A.; Kopanitsa, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study of characteristics of an evolution of deformation fields in surface layers of medium-carbon low-alloy specimens under compression. The experiments were performed on the "Universal Testing Machine 4500" using a digital stereoscopic image processing system Vic-3D. A transition between stages is reflected as deformation redistribution on the near-surface layers. Electronic microscopy shows that the structure of the steel is a mixture of pearlite and ferrite grains. A proportion of pearlite is 40% and ferrite is 60%.

  13. Phase composition and structure of femtosecond laser-produced oxide layer on VT6 alloy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolobov, Yu R.; Zhidkov, M. V.; Golosov, E. V.; Vershinina, T. N.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Makarov, S. V.; Ionin, A. A.; Ligachev, A. E.

    2016-07-01

    The influence of femtosecond laser irradiation on the formation of an oxide layer on the surface of VT6 titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) is studied. The structure, chemical and phase composition have been studied by x-ray diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The formation features of an oxide layer, which contains TiO2-rutile, TiO2-anatase Al2TiO5-aluminum titanate, Ti3O5-titanium oxide and TiO-titanium monoxide on the femtosecond laser-irradiation modified surface have been analyzed.

  14. Puzzling evidence for surface superconductivity in the layered dichalcogenide Cu10%TiSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy-Bertrand, F.; Michon, B.; Marcus, J.; Marcenat, C.; Kačmarčík, J.; Klein, T.; Cercellier, H.

    2016-04-01

    We report on specific heat and magnetotransport measurements performed on superconducting Cu10%TiSe2 single crystals. We show that superconductivity persists in transport measurements up to magnetic fields HR well above the upper critical field Hc2 deduced from the calorimetric measurements. Surprisingly this "surface" superconductivity is present for all magnetic field orientations, either parallel or perpendicular to the layers. For H‖ab, the temperature dependence of the HR/Hc2 ratio can be well reproduced by solving the Ginzburg-Landau equations in presence of a surface layer with reduced superconducting properties. Unexpectedly this temperature dependence does not depend on the field orientation.

  15. Modification of the surface layers of copper by a diffuse discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulepov, Mikhail A.; Erofeev, Mikhail V.; Oskomov, Konstantin V.; Tarasenko, Victor F.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of examination of copper samples exposed to a diffuse discharge initiated by a runaway electron beam in air under normal pressure. The changes in the chemical composition of the surface layers of copper caused by the action of the discharge were investigated. It has been found that the oxygen and carbon concentrations in the surface layers depend on the number of discharge pulses. The study was aimed at finding possible ways of using this type of discharge in research and industry.

  16. On the interaction of a vertical shear layer with a free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabiri, Dana

    2003-04-01

    New experiments have been conducted using a combined free-surface gradient detector (FSGD) and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) technique to study the interaction between a vertical shear layer, created by a surface-piercing splitter plate, and a free surface. The emphasis of this study is on understanding aspects of the interaction between the free-surface deformation (FSD) and the near-surface turbulence through the correlations between the elevation and the vorticity fields, and the spectral behaviour of the near-surface pressure. The Reynolds number of the present study, based on visual thickness and the velocity average of the two streams, is 12 100. Mean results for the velocity and vorticity fields show that self-similarity is achieved. Instantaneous data sets show that at the free surface, vortex tubes within the main rollers connect normally with the free surface as is evidenced by strong vorticity as well as the strong deformations at the free surface. The instantaneous data sets also show that the streamwise vortices near the braid regions, while weaker than those seen in the main rollers, also reconnect with the free surface. Statistical analyses show that the FSD is strongly correlated with the near-surface vorticity field, as the correlation coefficients are quite high (˜ 0.7-0.8). The pressure spectrum slope within the shear layer near the surface is found to be -10/3, compared with the analytically derived value of -11/3 (George et al. 1984) found for a shear layer in unbounded flow.

  17. Active surfaces: Ferrofluid-impregnated surfaces for active manipulation of droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Karim; Mahmoudi, Seyed Reza; Abu-Dheir, Numan; Varanasi, Kripa

    2014-11-01

    Droplet manipulation and mobility on non-wetting surfaces is of practical importance for diverse applications ranging from micro-fluidic devices, anti-icing, dropwise condensation, and biomedical devices. The use of active external fields has been explored via electric, acoustic, and vibrational, yet moving highly conductive and viscous fluids remains a challenge. Magnetic fields have been used for droplet manipulation; however, usually, the fluid is functionalized to be magnetic, and requires enormous fields of superconducting magnets when transitioning to diamagnetic materials such as water. Here we present a class of active surfaces by stably impregnating active fluids such as ferrofluids into a textured surface. Droplets on such ferrofluid-impregnated surfaces have extremely low hysteresis and high mobility such that they can be propelled by applying relatively low magnetic fields. Our surface is able to manipulate a variety of materials including diamagnetic, conductive and highly viscous fluids, and additionally solid particles.

  18. Active surfaces: Ferrofluid-impregnated surfaces for active manipulation of droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Karim S.; Mahmoudi, Seyed Reza; Abu-dheir, Numan; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2014-07-01

    Droplet manipulation and mobility on non-wetting surfaces is of practical importance for diverse applications ranging from micro-fluidic devices, anti-icing, dropwise condensation, and biomedical devices. The use of active external fields has been explored via electric, acoustic, and vibrational, yet moving highly conductive and viscous fluids remains a challenge. Magnetic fields have been used for droplet manipulation; however, usually, the fluid is functionalized to be magnetic, and requires enormous fields of superconducting magnets when transitioning to diamagnetic materials such as water. Here we present a class of active surfaces by stably impregnating active fluids such as ferrofluids into a textured surface. Droplets on such ferrofluid-impregnated surfaces have extremely low hysteresis and high mobility such that they can be propelled by applying relatively low magnetic fields. Our surface is able to manipulate a variety of materials including diamagnetic, conductive and highly viscous fluids, and additionally solid particles.

  19. Layer-by-layer TiO(2)/WO(3) thin films as efficient photocatalytic self-cleaning surfaces.

    PubMed

    Patrocinio, Antonio Otavio T; Paula, Leonardo F; Paniago, Roberto M; Freitag, Janna; Bahnemann, Detlef W

    2014-10-01

    New TiO2/WO3 films were produced by the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique and successfully applied as self-cleaning photocatalytic surfaces. The films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates from the respective metal oxide nanoparticles obtained by the sol-gel method. Thirty alternative immersions in pH = 2 TiO2 and pH = 10 WO3 sols resulted in ca. 400 nm thick films that exhibited a W(VI)/Ti(IV) molar ratio of 0.5, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy, along with atomic force images, showed that the resulting layers are constituted by aggregates of very small nanoparticles (<20 nm) and exhibited nanoporous and homogeneous morphology. The electronic and optical properties of the films were investigated by UV-vis spectrophotometry and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The films behave as nanoscale heterojunctions, and the presence of WO3 nanoparticles caused a decrease in the optical band gap of the bilayers compared to that of pure LbL TiO2 films. The TiO2/WO3 thin films exhibited high hydrophilicity, which is enhanced after exposition to UV light, and they can efficiently oxidize gaseous acetaldehyde under UV(A) irradiation. Photonic efficiencies of ξ = 1.5% were determined for films constituted by 30 TiO2/WO3 bilayers in the presence of 1 ppm of acetaldehyde, which are ∼2 times higher than those observed for pure LbL TiO2 films. Therefore, these films can act as efficient and cost-effective layers for self-cleaning, antifogging applications. PMID:25216058

  20. Observations and proxies of the surface layer throughflow in Lombok Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanto, R. Dwi; Gordon, Arnold L.; Sprintall, Janet

    2007-03-01

    Seasonal to interannual variability of the Lombok Strait surface layer transport is investigated. The geostrophic transport within the surface layer is estimated from the cross-channel pressure gradient measured by a pair of shallow pressure gauges positioned on opposing sides of Lombok Strait during 1996-1999. The Ekman transport through Lombok Strait, derived from scatterometer winds, is less than 10% or ˜0.15 Sv of the estimated surface layer geostrophic transport. Monsoonal forcing is clearly evident in the regional sea surface height anomalies (SSHA) as derived from the satellite altimeter measurements. During the southeast monsoon, relatively low sea level is observed to the south of Lombok Strait, with relatively high sea level to the north; conditions reverse during the northwest monsoon. Estimated transports from the cross-channel pressure gradient, winds, SSHA and thermocline depth anomalies all reveal interannual variability associated with ENSO. Both the thermocline depth anomaly and the SSHA to the south of the East Java coast correlate significantly (r = 0.7) with the Lombok Strait total surface layer throughflow. The difference of SSHA from the south of the East Java coast minus the SSHA north of Lombok shows a higher correlation (r = 0.84). These high correlation values suggest that SSHA and thermocline depth anomalies can be used as proxies for the Lombok Strait surface layer throughflow. Qualitatively, such proxy transports agree with the surface transport inferred from the pressure gauges and Ekman transport in Lombok Strait from 1996 to 1999, and also with direct velocity measurements from current meter data obtained in 1985 and 2004-2005.

  1. Improvement and protection of niobium surface superconductivity by atomic layer deposition and heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Proslier, T.; Zasadzinski, J.; Moore, J.; Pellin, M.; Elam, J.; Cooley, L.; Antoine, C.; /Saclay

    2008-11-01

    A method to treat the surface of Nb is described, which potentially can improve the performance of superconducting rf cavities. We present tunneling and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements at the surface of cavity-grade niobium samples coated with a 3 nm alumina overlayer deposited by atomic layer deposition. The coated samples baked in ultrahigh vacuum at low temperature degraded superconducting surface. However, at temperatures above 450 C, the tunneling conductance curves show significant improvements in the superconducting density of states compared with untreated surfaces.

  2. Surface-layer response over shrub-steppe canopy during springtime

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbe, J.M.; Kirkham, R.R.; Downs, J.L.; Shaw, W.J.

    1994-03-01

    The exchange of energy and trace gases between the atmosphere and heterogeneous surfaces is gaining increasing attention in the scientific community. An observational study of surface energetics and atmospheric response was undertaken in 1992 to provide data for model application to semi-arid climates and for the evaluation of various models. The objectives of this field study were to quantify surface-layer fluxes over a mixed canopy in a semi-arid climate, to quantify canopy and soil energetics during the transition from moist winter conditions to dry summer conditions, and to investigate parameterization of surface exchange processes in a mixed canopy setting.

  3. Ozone depletion events observed in the high latitude surface layer during the TOPSE aircraft program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, B. A.; Atlas, E. L.; Montzka, D. D.; Browell, E. V.; Cantrell, C. A.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Cinquini, L.; Coffey, M. T.; Emmons, L. K.; Cohen, R. C.; Deyoung, R. J.; Dibb, J. E.; Eisele, F. L.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Grahek, F. E.; Grant, W. B.; Hair, J. W.; Hannigan, J. W.; Heikes, B. J.; Lefer, B. L.; Mauldin, R. L.; Moody, J. L.; Shetter, R. E.; Snow, J. A.; Talbot, R. W.; Thornton, J. A.; Walega, J. G.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wert, B. P.; Wimmers, A. J.

    2003-02-01

    During the Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox (TOPSE) aircraft program, ozone depletion events (ODEs) in the high latitude surface layer were investigated using lidar and in situ instruments. Flight legs of 100 km or longer distance were flown 32 times at 30 m altitude over a variety of regions north of 58° between early February and late May 2000. ODEs were found on each flight over the Arctic Ocean but their occurrence was rare at more southern latitudes. However, large area events with depletion to over 2 km altitude in one case were found as far south as Baffin Bay and Hudson Bay and as late as 22 May. There is good evidence that these more southern events did not form in situ but were the result of export of ozone-depleted air from the surface layer of the Arctic Ocean. Surprisingly, relatively intact transport of ODEs occurred over distances of 900-2000 km and in some cases over rough terrain. Accumulation of constituents in the frozen surface over the dark winter period cannot be a strong prerequisite of ozone depletion since latitudes south of the Arctic Ocean would also experience a long dark period. Some process unique to the Arctic Ocean surface or its coastal regions remains unidentified for the release of ozone-depleting halogens. There was no correspondence between coarse surface features such as solid ice/snow, open leads, or polynyas with the occurrence of or intensity of ozone depletion over the Arctic or subarctic regions. Depletion events also occurred in the absence of long-range transport of relatively fresh "pollution" within the high latitude surface layer, at least in spring 2000. Direct measurements of halogen radicals were not made. However, the flights do provide detailed information on the vertical structure of the surface layer and, during the constant 30 m altitude legs, measurements of a variety of constituents including hydroxyl and peroxy radicals. A summary of the behavior of these constituents is made. The

  4. Effects of the Thickness of Niobium Surface Oxide Layers on Field Emission

    SciTech Connect

    A.T. Wu, S. Jin, J.D. Mammosser, R.A. Rimmer, X.Y. Lu, K. Zhao

    2011-09-01

    Field emission on the inner surfaces of niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities is still one of the major obstacles for reaching high accelerating gradients for SRF community. Our previous experimental results* seemed to imply that the threshold of field emission was related to the thickness of Nb surface oxide layers. In this contribution, a more detailed study on the influences of the surface oxide layers on the field emission on Nb surfaces will be reported. By anodization technique, the thickness of the surface pentoxide layer was artificially fabricated from 3 nm up to 460 nm. A home-made scanning field emission microscope was employed to perform the scans on the surfaces. Emitters were characterized using a scanning electron microscope together with an energy dispersive x-ray analyzer. The SFEM experimental results were analyzed in terms of surface morphology and oxide thickness of Nb samples and chemical composition and geographic shape of the emitters. A model based on the classic electromagnetic theory was developed trying to understand the experimental results. Possibly implications for Nb SRF cavity applications from this study will be discussed.

  5. Crossover between silicene and ultra-thin Si atomic layers on Ag(111) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhi-Xin; Oshiyama, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    We report on total-energy electronic structure calculations in the density-functional theory performed for the ultra-thin atomic layers of Si on Ag(111) surfaces. We find several distinct stable silicene structures: \\sqrt{3}× \\sqrt{3}, 3 × 3, \\sqrt{7}× \\sqrt{7} with the thickness of Si increasing from monolayer to quad-layer. The structural bistability and tristability of the multilayer silicene structures on Ag surfaces are obtained, where the calculated transition barriers infer the occurrence of the flip-flop motion at low temperature. The calculated scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images agree well with the experimental observations. We also find the stable existence of 2 × 1 π-bonded chain and 7 × 7 dimer-adatom-stacking fault Si(111)-surface structures on Ag(111), which clearly shows the crossover of silicene-silicon structures for the multilayer Si on Ag surfaces. We further find the absence of the Dirac states for multilayer silicene on Ag(111) due to the covalent interactions of the silicene-Ag interface and Si-Si interlayer. Instead, we find a new state near the Fermi level composed of π orbitals located on the surface layer of \\sqrt{3}× \\sqrt{3} multilayer silicene, which satisfies the hexagonal symmetry and exhibits the linear energy dispersion. By examining the electronic properties of 2 × 1 π-bonded chain structures, we find that the surface-related π states of multilayer Si structures are robust on Ag surfaces.

  6. Experimental data and model for the turbulent boundary layer on a convex, curved surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. C.; Johnson, J. P.; Moffat, R. J.; Kays, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine how boundary layer turbulence is affected by strong convex curvature. The data gathered on the behavior of the Reynolds stress suggested the formulation of a simple turbulence model. Data were taken on two separate facilities. Both rigs had flow from a flat surface, over a convex surface with 90 deg of turning and then onto a flat recovery surface. The geometry was adjusted so that, for both rigs, the pressure gradient along the test surface was zero. Two experiments were performed at delta/R approximately 0.10, and one at weaker curvature with delta/R approximately 0.05. Results show that after a sudden introduction of curvature the shear stress in the outer part of the boundary layer is sharply diminished and is even slightly negative near the edge. The wall shear also drops off quickly downstream. When the surface suddenly becomes flat again, the wall shear and shear stress profiles recover very slowly towards flat wall conditions. A simple turbulence model, which was based on the theory that the Prandtl mixing length in the outer layer should scale on the velocity gradient layer, was shown to account for the slow recovery.

  7. Critical heat flux maxima resulting from the controlled morphology of nanoporous hydrophilic surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetreault-Friend, Melanie; Azizian, Reza; Bucci, Matteo; McKrell, Thomas; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Rubner, Michael; Cohen, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Porous hydrophilic surfaces have been shown to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF) in boiling heat transfer. In this work, the separate effects of pore size and porous layer thickness on the CHF of saturated water at atmospheric pressure were experimentally investigated using carefully engineered surfaces. It was shown that, for a fixed pore diameter (˜20 nm), there is an optimum layer thickness (˜2 μm), for which the CHF value is maximum, corresponding to ˜115% enhancement over the value for uncoated surfaces. Similarly, a maximum CHF value (˜100% above the uncoated surface CHF) was observed while changing the pore size at a constant layer thickness (˜1 μm). To explain these CHF maxima, we propose a mechanistic model that can capture the effect of pore size and pore thickness on CHF. The good agreement found between the model and experimental data supports the hypothesis that CHF is governed by the competition between capillary wicking, viscous pressure drop and evaporation, as well as conduction heat transfer within the porous layer. The model can be used to guide the development of engineered surfaces with superior boiling performance.

  8. Polarization-Conversion Guided Mode (PCGM) technique for exploring thin anisotropic surface layers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fuzi; Ruan, Lizhen; Sambles, John R

    2007-09-01

    A Polarization-Conversion Guided Mode (PCGM) technique has been developed to quantify optical anisotropy as low as 10-5 for a surface layer only 10 nm thick. The optical geometry consists of an index-fluid matched prism-coupler and an air-gap waveguide comprising the thin sample on a glass plate as the incident surface with a gold reflector forming the other surface of the guide. This allows non-destructive characterization of the optical anisotropy of surface layers. The polarization conversion signal is extraordinarily sensitive. Thus the influence of the polarization purity of the incoming beam, very small twists and/or tilts between the normal to the prism bottom surface and the sample plane, have all been analyzed in detail to allow extraction of the sought for information about the thin layer. Rubbed polyimide thin films and incline-evaporated SiOx layers, both used for liquid crystal alignment, have been examined by this PCGM technique to demonstrate its power. PMID:19547479

  9. Gallium nitride surface protection during RTA annealing with a GaOxNy cap-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalfaoui, Wahid; Oheix, T.; Cayrel, F.; Benoit, R.; Yvon, A.; Collard, E.; Alquier, D.

    2016-04-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is generally considered a good candidate for power electronic devices such as Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs). Nevertheless, GaN has a strong sensitivity to high temperature treatments and a cap-layer is mandatory to protect the material surface during annealing at high temperature such as post-implantation treatments. In this work, an oxidized gallium nitride layer (GaOxNy) was generated with Oxford PECVD equipment using a N2O plasma treatment to protect the GaN surface during a rapid thermal annealing (RTA), in the range of 1000 °C-1150 °C for a few minutes. Before annealing, c-TLM patterns were processed on the GaOxNy/GaN sample to characterize its sheet resistance. After the N2O plasma treatment, the sample exhibited lower sheet resistance, indicating a better n-type conduction of the GaOxNy layer due to an excess of free carriers, compared to the as-grown GaN layer. The GaOxNy/GaN surface was then annealed at 1150 °C for 3 min and observed through AFM imaging. The surface exhibited a good quality with a low roughness, nevertheless, a low density of small hexagonal pits appeared after annealing. Finally, studies to determine an efficient etching process of the GaOxNy cap-layer were conducted using both chemical and physical approaches. We observed that efficient etching of the layer was achieved using a heated hydrofluoridric acid (HF 25%) solution. To conclude, GaOxNy has proved to be an efficient cap-layer for GaN protection at high temperature.

  10. Shear rheology of mixed protein adsorption layers vs their structure studied by surface force measurements.

    PubMed

    Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Radulova, Gergana M; Basheva, Elka S; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Pelan, Eddie G

    2015-08-01

    The hydrophobins are proteins that form the most rigid adsorption layers at liquid interfaces in comparison with all other investigated proteins. The mixing of hydrophobin HFBII with other conventional proteins is expected to reduce the surface shear elasticity and viscosity, E(sh) and η(sh), proportional to the fraction of the conventional protein. However, the experiments show that the effect of mixing can be rather different depending on the nature of the additive. If the additive is a globular protein, like β-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin, the surface rigidity is preserved, and even enhanced. The experiments with separate foam films indicate that this is due to the formation of a bilayer structure at the air/water interface. The more hydrophobic HFBII forms the upper layer adjacent to the air phase, whereas the conventional globular protein forms the lower layer that faces the water phase. Thus, the elastic network formed by the adsorbed hydrophobin remains intact, and even reinforced by the adjacent layer of globular protein. In contrast, the addition of the disordered protein β-casein leads to softening of the HFBII adsorption layer. Similar (an even stronger) effect is produced by the nonionic surfactant Tween 20. This can be explained with the penetration of the hydrophobic tails of β-casein and Tween 20 between the HFBII molecules at the interface, which breaks the integrity of the hydrophobin interfacial elastic network. The analyzed experimental data for the surface shear rheology of various protein adsorption layers comply with a viscoelastic thixotropic model, which allows one to determine E(sh) and η(sh) from the measured storage and loss moduli, G' and G″. The results could contribute for quantitative characterization and deeper understanding of the factors that control the surface rigidity of protein adsorption layers with potential application for the creation of stable foams and emulsions with fine bubbles or droplets. PMID:24828304

  11. In vivo measurement of skin surface strain and sub-surface layer deformation induced by natural tissue stretching.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Raman; Gerhardt, Lutz-Christian; Lee, Zing S; Byers, Robert A; Woods, Daniel; Sanz-Herrera, José A; Franklin, Steve E; Lewis, Roger; Matcher, Stephen J; Carré, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    Stratum corneum and epidermal layers change in terms of thickness and roughness with gender, age and anatomical site. Knowledge of the mechanical and tribological properties of skin associated with these structural changes are needed to aid in the design of exoskeletons, prostheses, orthotics, body mounted sensors used for kinematics measurements and in optimum use of wearable on-body devices. In this case study, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and digital image correlation (DIC) were combined to determine skin surface strain and sub-surface deformation behaviour of the volar forearm due to natural tissue stretching. The thickness of the epidermis together with geometry changes of the dermal-epidermal junction boundary were calculated during change in the arm angle, from flexion (90°) to full extension (180°). This posture change caused an increase in skin surface Lagrange strain, typically by 25% which induced considerable morphological changes in the upper skin layers evidenced by reduction of epidermal layer thickness (20%), flattening of the dermal-epidermal junction undulation (45-50% reduction of flatness being expressed as Ra and Rz roughness profile height change) and reduction of skin surface roughness Ra and Rz (40-50%). The newly developed method, DIC combined with OCT imaging, is a powerful, fast and non-invasive methodology to study structural skin changes in real time and the tissue response provoked by mechanical loading or stretching. PMID:27310571

  12. Spectroscopic study on uranyl carboxylate complexes formed at the surface layer of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Thomas; Rossberg, Andre; Barkleit, Astrid; Steudtner, Robin; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja; Merroun, Mohamed L

    2015-02-14

    The complexation of U(vi) at the proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer) of the archaeal strain Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was investigated over a pH range from pH 1.5 to 6 at the molecular scale using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and U L(III)-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The S-layer, which represents the interface between the cell and its environment, is very stable against high temperatures, proteases, and detergents. This allowed the isolation and purification of S-layer ghosts (= empty cells) that maintain the size and shape of the cells. In contrast to many other microbial cell envelope compounds the studied S-layer is not phosphorylated, enabling the investigation of uranyl carboxylate complexes formed at microbial surfaces. The latter are usually masked by preferentially formed uranyl phosphate complexes. We demonstrated that at highly acidic conditions (pH 1.5 to 3) no uranium was bound by the S-layer. In contrast to that, at moderate acidic pH conditions (pH 4.5 and 6) a complexation of U(vi) at the S-layer via deprotonated carboxylic groups was stimulated. Titration studies revealed dissociation constants for the carboxylic groups of glutamic and aspartic acid residues of pK(a) = 4.78 and 6.31. The uranyl carboxylate complexes formed at the S-layer did not show luminescence properties at room temperature, but only under cryogenic conditions. The obtained luminescence maxima are similar to those of uranyl acetate. EXAFS spectroscopy demonstrated that U(vi) in these complexes is mainly coordinated to carboxylate groups in a bidentate binding mode. The elucidation of the molecular structure of these complexes was facilitated by the absence of phosphate groups in the studied S-layer protein. PMID:25387060

  13. Energetic basis of catalytic activity of layered nanophase calcium manganese oxides for water oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Birkner, Nancy; Nayeri, Sara; Pashaei, Babak; Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Casey, William H.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Previous measurements show that calcium manganese oxide nanoparticles are better water oxidation catalysts than binary manganese oxides (Mn3O4, Mn2O3, and MnO2). The probable reasons for such enhancement involve a combination of factors: The calcium manganese oxide materials have a layered structure with considerable thermodynamic stability and a high surface area, their low surface energy suggests relatively loose binding of H2O on the internal and external surfaces, and they possess mixed-valent manganese with internal oxidation enthalpy independent of the Mn3+/Mn4+ ratio and much smaller in magnitude than the Mn2O3-MnO2 couple. These factors enhance catalytic ability by providing easy access for solutes and water to active sites and facile electron transfer between manganese in different oxidation states. PMID:23667149

  14. Do surface active parenteral formulations cause inflammation?

    PubMed

    Söderberg, Lars; Engblom, Johan; Lanbeck, Peter; Wahlgren, Marie

    2015-04-30

    Local irritation and inflammation at the site of administration are a common side effect following administration of parenteral formulations. Biological effects of surface (interfacial) activity in solutions are less well investigated than effects caused by other physico-chemical parameters such as pH and osmolality. The interfacial activity in different systems, including human plasma, typical amphiphilic substances with fundamental biological relevance such as free fatty acids, anesthetic depot formulations and six different antibiotics was measured. The relative interfacial pressure, and/or concentration of active substance, required to obtain 50% of the maximal attainable effect in terms of interfacial pressure were calculated. The aim was to test the hypothesis that these parameters would allow comparison to biological effects reported in in vivo studies on the investigated substances. The highest interfacial activity was found in a triglyceride/plasma system. Among the antibiotic tested, the highest interfacial activities were found in erythromycin and dicloxacillin, which is in accordance with previous clinical findings of a high tendency of infusion phlebitis and cell toxicity. Independently of investigated system, biological effects were minimal below a 15% relative increase of interfacial activity. Above 35-45% the effects were severe. Interfacial activity in parenteral formulations may well cause damages to tissues followed by inflammation. PMID:25708007

  15. Analysis of corrosion layers in ancient Roman silver coins with high resolution surface spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keturakis, Christopher J.; Notis, Ben; Blenheim, Alex; Miller, Alfred C.; Pafchek, Rob; Notis, Michael R.; Wachs, Israel E.

    2016-07-01

    Determination of the microchemistry of surface corrosion layers on ancient silver alloy coins is important both in terms of understanding the nature of archaeological environmental conditions to which these ancient coins were exposed and also to help in their conservation. In this present study, five ancient silver alloy coins (225 BCE-244 CE) were used as test vehicles to measure their immediate surface microchemistry and evaluate the appropriateness and limitations of High Sensitivity-Low Energy Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (HS-LEIS, 0.3 nm depth analysis), High Resolution-X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HR-XPS, 1-3 nm depth analysis) and High Resolution-Raman Spectroscopy (HR-Raman, ∼1000 nm depth analysis). Additional information about the deeper corrosion layers, up to ∼300-1000 nm, was provided by dynamic HS-LEIS and HR-Raman spectroscopy. While not archeologically significant, the use of these coins of small commercial value provides data that is more representative of the weaker signals typically obtained from ancient corroded objects, which can be in stark contrast to pristine data often obtained from carefully prepared alloys of known composition. The oldest coins, from 225 to 214 BCE, possessed an outermost surface layer containing Cu2O, Na, Al, Pb, and adsorbed hydrocarbons, while the more recent coins, from 98 to 244 CE, contained Cu2O, Ag, N, F, Na, Al, S, Cl, and adsorbed hydrocarbons in similar corresponding surface layers. It thus appears that alloying with copper, even in small amounts, leads to the formation of an outer Cu2O layer. Depth profiling revealed the presence of K, Na, Cl, and S as key corrosion components for both sets of coins with S, most likely as Ag2S, concentrated towards the surface while the Cl, most likely as AgCl, penetrated deeper. Schema to understand the overall chemistry of the corrosion layers present on these silver alloy coins were developed from the equipment limitations encountered and are presented.

  16. An Optimal Estimation Method to Obtain Surface Layer Turbulent Fluxes from Profile Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, D.

    2015-12-01

    In the absence of direct turbulence measurements, the turbulence characteristics of the atmospheric surface layer are often derived from measurements of the surface layer mean properties based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST). This approach requires two levels of the ensemble mean wind, temperature, and water vapor, from which the fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and water vapor can be obtained. When only one measurement level is available, the roughness heights and the assumed properties of the corresponding variables at the respective roughness heights are used. In practice, the temporal mean with large number of samples are used in place of the ensemble mean. However, in many situations the samples of data are taken from multiple levels. It is thus desirable to derive the boundary layer flux properties using all measurements. In this study, we used an optimal estimation approach to derive surface layer properties based on all available measurements. This approach assumes that the samples are taken from a population whose ensemble mean profile follows the MOST. An optimized estimate is obtained when the results yield a minimum cost function defined as a weighted summation of all error variance at each sample altitude. The weights are based one sample data variance and the altitude of the measurements. This method was applied to measurements in the marine atmospheric surface layer from a small boat using radiosonde on a tethered balloon where temperature and relative humidity profiles in the lowest 50 m were made repeatedly in about 30 minutes. We will present the resultant fluxes and the derived MOST mean profiles using different sets of measurements. The advantage of this method over the 'traditional' methods will be illustrated. Some limitations of this optimization method will also be discussed. Its application to quantify the effects of marine surface layer environment on radar and communication signal propagation will be shown as well.

  17. Deformation characteristics of the near-surface layers of zirconia ceramics implanted with aluminum ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghyngazov, S. A.; Vasiliev, I. P.; Frangulyan, T. S.; Chernyavski, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of ion treatment on the phase composition and mechanical properties of the near-surface layers of zirconium ceramic composition 97 ZrO2-3Y2O3 (mol%) was studied. Irradiation of the samples was carried out by accelerated ions of aluminum with using vacuum-arc source Mevva 5-Ru. Ion beam had the following parameters: the energy of the accelerated ions E = 78 keV, the pulse current density Ji = 4mA / cm2, current pulse duration equal τ = 250 mcs, pulse repetition frequency f = 5 Hz. Exposure doses (fluence) were 1016 и 1017 ion/cm2. The depth distribution implanted ions was studied by SIMS method. It is shown that the maximum projected range of the implanted ions is equal to 250 nm. Near-surface layers were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at fixed glancing incidence angle. It is shown that implantation of aluminum ions into the ceramics does not lead to a change in the phase composition of the near-surface layer. The influence of implanted ions on mechanical properties of ceramic near-surface layers was studied by the method of dynamic nanoindentation using small loads on the indenter P=300 mN. It is shown that in ion- implanted ceramic layer the processes of material recovery in the deformed region in the unloading mode proceeds with higher efficiency as compared with the initial material state. The deformation characteristics of samples before and after ion treatment have been determined from interpretation of the resulting P-h curves within the loading and unloading sections by the technique proposed by Oliver and Pharr. It was found that implantation of aluminum ions in the near-surface layer of zirconia ceramics increases nanohardness and reduces the Young's modulus.

  18. Synthesis of few-layer MoS2 nanosheet-loaded Ag3PO4 for enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanhua; Lei, Yucheng; Xu, Hui; Wang, Cheng; Yan, Jia; Zhao, Haozhu; Xu, Yuanguo; Xia, Jiexiang; Yin, Sheng; Li, Huaming

    2015-02-21

    Novel few-layer MoS2/Ag3PO4 composites were fabricated. The results indicated that Ag3PO4 nanoparticles were directly formed on the surface of few-layer MoS2. The physical and chemical properties of the few-layer MoS2/Ag3PO4 composite photocatalysts were tested in order to investigate the effects of few-layer MoS2 on the photocatalytic activity of Ag3PO4. The photocatalytic activity of the few-layer MoS2/Ag3PO4 composites was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and bisphenol A (BPA) under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of the few-layer MoS2/Ag3PO4 composites was higher than that of pure Ag3PO4. The optimal few-layer MoS2 content for the organic pollutant degradation of the heterojunction structures was determined. The synergic effect between few-layer MoS2 and Ag3PO4 was found to lead to an improved photogenerated carrier separation. The stability and the possible photocatalytic mechanism of the composites were also discussed. PMID:25567674

  19. An active control system for the turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, James

    This thesis presents the development process and the experimental results of a system constructed to apply real-time control to the structures of the turbulent boundary layer region in order to reduce surface shear stress. The system is composed of three main components: an array of MEMS surface shear stress, tauw sensors; a MEMS flap actuator; and a control logic which integrates the hardware components together into a closed system. The objective of this system is to reduce the stress contained in streak-like regions of high tauw. The sensor array, used to image the tauw distribution, is an extension of the thermal based tauw sensor developed by Jiang. Numerous studies have been performed using this device, the results of which have validated its performance. For this study, a new temperature compensation methodology, based on the surface temperature of the sensor chip, was employed in order to account for possible temperature variations at the wall surface. The actuator, a pneumatically driven flap, is developed as part of the present research. The device is, in essence, a 3 mm x 1 mm cantilever beam that sits on top of an inflatable diaphragm and is capable of actuation frequencies of over 200 Hz and amplitudes of over .11 mm. When it is oscillated in the open loop mode, the effect over one cycle of motion is an average reduction by as much as 2.5% in tauw in the region immediately downstream. A neural network is employed to identify the streak-like regions of interest. Results have shown that this network is successful in identifying the streak-like regions of interest. The control logic employs this network in a predictive, feed-forward scheme to determine the appropriate actuator response. Offline studies have shown that under optimal conditions, the signature of the streak-like regions can be eliminated. Online results conform well to the offline predictions. While unable to achieve the optimal conditions, online experiments show that the system is capable

  20. Vibrating surface actuators for active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkins, Frederick T.; Clingman, Dan J.

    2002-07-01

    Current research has shown that aircraft can gain significant aerodynamic performance benefits from active flow control (AFC). AFC seeks to control large scale flows by exploiting natural response triggered by small energy inputs. The principal target application is download alleviation of the V-22 Osprey under the DARPA sponsored Boeing Active Flow Control System program. One method of injecting energy into the flow over the V22 wings is to use an active vibrating surface on the passive seal between the wing and flapperon. The active surface is an oscillating cantilevered beam which injects fluid into the flow, similar to a synthetic jet, and interacts with the flow field. Two types of actuators, or flipperons, are explored. The first is a multilayer piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride cantilevered bender. The second is a single crystal piezoelectric (SCP)d31 poled wafer mounted on a cantilevered spring steel substrate. This paper details the development effort including fabrication, mechanical and electrical testing, and modeling for both types of actuators. Both flipperons were mounted on the passive seal between a 1/10th scale V22 wing and flapperon and the aerodynamic performance evaluated in low speed wind tunnel. The SCP flipperon demonstrated significant cruise benefits, with increase of 10 percent lift and 20 percent angle of attack capability. The PVDF flipperon provided a 16 percent drag reduction in the hover mode.

  1. Endothelial Surface Layer Degradation by Chronic Hyaluronidase Infusion Induces Proteinuria in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuikhoven, Mayella; Heeneman, Sylvia; Lutgens, Esther; Gijbels, Marion J. J.; Nieuwdorp, Max; Peutz, Carine J.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Vink, Hans; van den Berg, Bernard M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Functional studies show that disruption of endothelial surface layer (ESL) is accompanied by enhanced sensitivity of the vasculature towards atherogenic stimuli. However, relevance of ESL disruption as causal mechanism for vascular dysfunction remains to be demonstrated. We examined if loss of ESL through enzymatic degradation would affect vascular barrier properties in an atherogenic model. Methods Eight week old male apolipoprotein E deficient mice on Western-type diet for 10 weeks received continuous active or heat-inactivated hyaluronidase (10 U/hr, i.v.) through an osmotic minipump during 4 weeks. Blood chemistry and anatomic changes in both macrovasculature and kidneys were examined. Results Infusion with active hyaluronidase resulted in decreased ESL (0.32±0.22 mL) and plasma volume (1.03±0.18 mL) compared to inactivated hyaluronidase (0.52±0.29 mL and 1.28±0.08 mL, p<0.05 respectively).Active hyaluronidase increased proteinuria compared to inactive hyaluronidase (0.27±0.02 vs. 0.15±0.01 µg/µg protein/creatinin, p<0.05) without changes in glomerular morphology or development of tubulo-interstitial inflammation. Atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic branches showed increased matrix production (collagen, 32±5 vs. 18±3%; glycosaminoglycans, 11±5 vs. 0.1±0.01%, active vs. inactive hyaluronidase, p<0.05). Conclusion ESL degradation in apoE deficient mice contributes to reduced increased urinary protein excretion without significant changes in renal morphology. Second, the induction of compositional changes in atherogenic plaques by hyaluronidase point towards increased plaque vulnerability. These findings support further efforts to evaluate whether ESL restoration is a valuable target to prevent (micro) vascular disease progression. PMID:21170388

  2. Influence of the Halogen Activation on the Ozone Layer in XXIst Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Igor; Aloyan, Artash; Yermakov, Alexandr

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the work is to evaluate a possible effect of heterophase chemical reactions (HCR) with participation of reservoir gases (ClONO2, HCl) and sulfate particles of the Junge layer on the ozone layer at mid-latitudes in the XXI century, which could be relevant for more accurate predicting a recovery of the ozone layer, taking into account that just these processes were the main cause of the ozone depletion at the end of XXth century. Required for calculating the dynamics of GHR data on the specific volume/surface of the sulfate aerosols in the lower stratosphere were taken from the data of field experiments. Their physico-chemical properties (chemical composition, density, water activity and free protons activity et al.) have been obtained with help of thermodynamic calculations (Atmospheric Inorganic Model, AIM). Altitude concentration profiles of individual gas components, as well as temperature and relative humidity (RH) at a given geographic location and season have been calculated using a two-dimensional model SOCRATES. The calculations have been made for the conditions of June 1995, 2040 and 2080 at 15 km altitude and 50° N latitude. It has been shown that the rate of ozone depletion as a result of processes involving halogen activation for the given conditions in 2040, 2080 is about 35% lower than a corresponding value in 1995 (a year of maximum effect of halogen activation). From this we can conclude that in the XXI century, despite the natural decline of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons. processes of halogen activation of the ozone depletion with participation of sulfate aerosols should be taken into account in the calculations of the recovery of the ozone layer at mid-latitudes.

  3. An Experimental Study of the Statistical Scaling of Turbulent Surface Pressure in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, G. W.; Murray, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) produces fluctuations in the static pressure. The instantaneous pressure at a point depends on an integral over the entire flow; therefore, the effects from turbulence far aloft may be felt at the earth's surface. The statistics of fluctuating pressure at the surface have been studied extensively in the context of wall-bounded engineering-type flows. At best, these neutral flows are a special case of the thermally-stratified ABL, but relatively few experimental studies have considered pressure at the ground under various stability conditions. Here the scaling of pressure statistics at the surface, particularly the spectral density, is reported over a range of convective and stable conditions for both inner and outer turbulence parameters. Measurements of turbulent surface pressure were made using low-frequency microphones buried flush to the ground in a field near Laramie, Wyoming. Simultaneous measurements from three near-surface sonic anemometers and a 50-meter wind tower give estimates of the mean surface-layer parameters. The normalization of the pressure spectrum with the inner scales collapses the spectra along the high-frequency viscous power-law band. The wall shear stress, Obukhov length, L, and horizontal integral scale, λ, are identified as outer scaling parameters for the surface pressure spectrum from an integral solution employing a Monin-Obukhov-similar profile and a simple model of inhomogeneous surface-layer turbulence. Normalization with the outer scales collapses the spectra at low frequencies. Spectral scaling also reveals trends with λ/L in the low-frequency region for both convective and stable boundary layers.

  4. Magnetic properties and surface morphology of layered In2Se3 crystals intercalated with cobalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtinov, A. P.; Boledzyuk, V. B.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Lytvyn, O. S.; Shevchenko, A. D.

    2013-06-01

    The magnetic properties of layered Co x In2Se3 crystals electrochemically intercalated with cobalt in an external magnetic field and without a magnetic field and the morphology of the van der Waals surfaces of layers of these crystals have been investigated. It has been found that the ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature is observed only for Co x In2Se3 crystals intercalated in an external magnetic field. These crystals are nanocomposite materials that consist of a layered matrix and arrays of nanorings and nanowires formed from Co nanocrystals on the van der Waals surfaces of the In2Se3 layers. Cobalt nanocrystals in Co x In2Se3 crystals have a pyramidal equilibrium shape, which is characteristic of the face-centered cubic crystal structure, and their geometrical sizes are of the order of a few nanometers. The specific features of self-organization of cobalt magnetic nanostructures on the van der Waals surfaces of layered semiconductor crystals during their electrolytic intercalation in a magnetic field and the magnetic properties of these structures have been considered.

  5. A Simple Method to Assess Surface Roughness by Photothermal Investigation (PTR) Using an Effective Semitransparent Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniow, J. S.; Chirtoc, M.; Drevet, R.; Jensen, C.; Benhayoune, H.

    2012-11-01

    Samples of a titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy (Ti6Al4V) having different values of roughness are studied by photothermal radiometry. Among the numerous studies carried out on the influence of surface roughness on the photothermal signal, those that relate the air/substrate interfacial volume to an apparent homogeneous layer with effective thermal properties are considered. For such a system, a one-dimensional heat transfer model can successfully be used to describe the response to harmonic excitation up to high frequencies where the thermal diffusion length is of the order of magnitude as the roughness. The breakdown of the effective layer model at high frequencies has prompted some authors to develop more sophisticated methods to describe the complex phenomena encountered. In this study, it is proposed to keep the simple, effective layer model, but also to modify it by including an effective optical absorption coefficient and a reflection coefficient closely related to the surface characteristics. The effective layer becomes semitransparent to the excitation as it turns thermally thick (thickness/thermal diffusion length >1). The apparent thickness of the layer is shown to be directly related to the average difference between the maximum peak and the minimum trough of the surface profile and linearly correlated with the average roughness. This model can be used over a wide range of roughnesses.

  6. Substrate surface treatment and YSZ buffer layers by IBAD method for coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, F.; Liu, R.; Chen, H.; Shi, K.; Wang, Z.; Wu, W.; Han, Z.

    2009-10-01

    In this work, an Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) system was utilized to fabricate Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) template films for coated conductors. The surface of the Hastelloy C276 substrate was modified by rolling and electropolishing. The effect of the electropolishing parameters of the substrate on the texture of the YSZ buffer layers was studied. The electropolishing current and time were optimized for short samples of 1 cm×1 cm square shape as 1 A and 60 s, respectively. And the relationship between the roughness of the substrate surface and the texture of the YSZ layer is discussed. Reel-to-reel metal tape moving apparatus was installed and used to produce meter-long buffer layer for coated conductors. The YSZ template film was deposited by IBAD method on meter-long Hastelloy tape with tape shifting speed of 15-20 m/h, and the thickness of the buffer layer was up to about 1.7 μm. The Hastelloy substrate surface was measured by Atomic Force Microscope. The thickness of the YSZ films over length was measured by Thermal Field Emission Scan Electronic Microscopy. X Ray Diffraction Ω-scan and ϕ-scan measurements were performed in order to examine the out-of-plane and in-plane texture of the YSZ buffer layers, respectively.

  7. Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Wang, Bing; Leong, Eunice S P; Yang, Ping; Zong, Yun; Si, Guangyuan; Teng, Jinghua; Maier, Stefan A

    2010-06-22

    This paper reports an effective method to enhance the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on Ag films by using a thin Ni seed layer assisted deposition. Ag films with a thickness of about 50 nm were deposited by electron beam evaporation above an ultrathin Ni seed layer of approximately 2 nm on both silicon and quartz substrates. The root-mean-square (rms) surface roughness and the correlation length have been reduced from >4 nm and 28 nm for a pure Ag film to approximately 1.3 and 19 nm for Ag/Ni films, respectively. Both experimental and simulation results show that the Ag/Ni films exhibit an enhanced SPR over the pure Ag film with a narrower full width at half-maximum. Ag films with a Ge seed layer have also been prepared under the same conditions. The surface roughness can be reduced to less than 0.7 nm, but narrowing of the SPR curve is not observed due to increased absorptive damping in the Ge seed layer. Our results show that Ni acts as a roughness-diminishing growth layer for the Ag film while at the same time maintaining and enhancing the plasmonic properties of the combined structures. This points toward its use for low-loss plasmonic devices and optical metamaterials applications. PMID:20515054

  8. Quantitative study for surface properties of AlGaN epi-layers by ARXPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongquan; Zhang, Xiong; Wang, Shuchang; Zhu, Min; Cui, Yiping

    2015-11-01

    The surface chemical properties of AlxGa1-xN (x=0.35, 0.47, 0.60) epi-layers grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) were quantitatively characterized by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). The results suggested that the Ga Auger peak for the AlxGa1-xN epi-layers was greatly suppressed with increasing Al composition since the amount of N-Ga bonds were dramatically decreased. Moreover, more Al-O bonds were found near the surfaces of the AlxGa1-xN epi-layers with relatively high Al composition due to the large chemical affinity of aluminum to oxygen. In addition, the Al composition in the AlxGa1-xN epi-layers was showed to be non-uniform because Al atom has higher oxidizability and lower mobility than Ga atom, especially for the AlxGa1-xN epi-layers with relatively high Al composition. Our work should be very helpful to further investigation of the surface properties for making Al-containing III-nitrides optoelectronic devices.

  9. Effects of surface source/sink distributions on the flux-gradient similarity in the unstable surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Qing; Cai, Xuhui; Kang, Ling; Zhang, Hongsheng; Song, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the micrometeorological measurements at a heterogeneous farmland in