Science.gov

Sample records for active surveillance project

  1. Comparison of active and passive surveillance for cerebrovascular disease: The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project.

    PubMed

    Piriyawat, Paisith; Smajsová, Miriam; Smith, Melinda A; Pallegar, Sanjay; Al-Wabil, Areej; Garcia, Nelda M; Risser, Jan M; Moyé, Lemuel A; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2002-12-01

    To provide a scientific rationale for choosing an optimal stroke surveillance method, the authors compared active surveillance with passive surveillance. The methods involved ascertaining cerebrovascular events that occurred in Nueces County, Texas, during calendar year 2000. Active methods utilized screening of hospital and emergency department logs and routine visiting of hospital wards and out-of-hospital sources. Passive means relied on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), discharge codes for case ascertainment. Cases were validated by fellowship-trained stroke neurologists on the basis of published criteria. The results showed that, of the 6,236 events identified through both active and passive surveillance, 802 were validated to be cerebrovascular events. When passive surveillance alone was used, 209 (26.1%) cases were missed, including 73 (9.1%) cases involving hospital admission and 136 (17.0%) out-of-hospital strokes. Through active surveillance alone, 57 (7.1%) cases were missed. The positive predictive value of active surveillance was 12.2%. Among the 2,099 patients admitted to a hospital, passive surveillance using ICD-9 codes missed 73 cases of cerebrovascular disease and mistakenly included 222 noncases. There were 57 admitted hospital cases missed by active surveillance, including 13 not recognized because of human error. This study provided a quantitative means of assessing the utility of active and passive surveillance for cerebrovascular disease. More uniform surveillance methods would allow comparisons across studies and communities.

  2. Risk Reduction Activities for the Near-Earth Object Surveillance Satellite Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédard, D.; Scott, L.; Wallace, B.; Harvey, W.

    The Near-Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat) is a joint project between Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The NEOSSat project will develop a multi-mission micro-satellite bus that is expected to satisfy two concurrent missions: detection and tracking near-Earth asteroids (Near Earth Space Surveillance: NESS) and obtaining metric information on deep-space satellites (High Earth Orbit Surveillance System: HEOSS). The former will use NEOSSat's 15 cm diameter space telescope to discover and determine the orbits of inner Earth orbit (IEO) near-earth objects (NEOs) that cannot be easily observed from the ground. For its part, the HEOSS mission will demonstrate that a micro-satellite can be employed to produce surveillance of space (SofS) metric data of artificial earth-orbiting objects having orbital altitudes between 15,000 and 40,000 km having sufficient quality to be accepted by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network. As a risk reduction effort for the NEOSSat project, a joint satellite tracking experiment was conducted by DRDC, CSA, the University of British Columbia and Dynacon using the MOST (Microvariability Oscillations of STars) microsatellite. MOST conducts precision photometric observations of bright stars and does not usually image starfields, but in October 2005, MOST returned Canada's first space based satellite tracking observations of two GPS spacecraft. Good quality metric tracking data were obtained despite the fact MOST was not designed to image, let alone attempt satellite tracking. The observations also provided an estimate of the targeted satellite brightness and the results were consistent with ground based V-band observations. These results demonstrate the soundness of the NEOSSat concept and the feasibility of the HEOSS mission. The nature of both science missions will require the NEOSSat sensor to be pointed to a different position in the sky on average every five minutes, with a goal of

  3. Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the (guidance) to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized.

  5. Guidance for UMTRA project surveillance and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    1986-01-01

    The Guidance for UMTRA Project Surveillance and Maintenance describes the procedures that will be used to verify that Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal sites continue to function as designed. The approach of this guidance document is to identify surveillance requirements and maintenance procedures that will be used to comply with NRC license requirements. This document addresses five primary activities: Definition and characterization of final site conditions. Site inspections; Ground-water monitoring; Aerial photography; and Custodial maintenance and contingency repair. Final site conditions will be defined and characterized prior to the completion of remedial actions at a site. As-built drawings will be compiled, a final topographic survey will be performed, a vicinity map will be prepared, and ground and aerial photographs will be taken. Survey monuments, site markers, and signs will be established as will a network of monitoring wells.

  6. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  7. CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project: background, objectives, and progress report.

    PubMed

    Eke, Paul I; Genco, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    This supplement contains papers presented at the 2006 International Association of Dental Research (IADR) symposium entitled "Development of Self-Reported Measures for Population-Based Surveillance of Periodontitis." These papers highlight activities of an independent periodontal disease surveillance workgroup convened by the Division of Oral Health (DOH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology, to examine the feasibility of using self-reported measures for population-based surveillance of periodontal disease in the United States. This workgroup was convened in 2003 as part of a CDC periodontal disease surveillance project.

  8. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  9. Integrated Diseases Surveillance Project (IDSP) through a consultant's lens.

    PubMed

    Suresh, K

    2008-01-01

    India has long experienced one of the highest burdens of infectious diseases in the world, fueled by factors including a large population, high poverty levels, poor sanitation, and problems with access to health care and preventive services. It has traditionally been difficult to monitor disease burden and trends in India, even more difficult to detect, diagnose, and control outbreaks until they had become quite large. In an effort to improve the surveillance and response infrastructure in the country, in November 2004 the Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) was initiated with funding from the World Bank. Given the surveillance challenges in India, the project seeks to accomplish its goals through, having a small list of priority conditions, many of which are syndrome-based at community and sub center level and easily recognizable at the out patients and inpatients care of facilities at lowest levels of the health care system, a simplified battery of laboratory tests and rapid test kits, and reporting of largely aggregate data rather than individual case reporting. The project also includes activities that are relatively high technology, such as computerization, electronic data transmission, and video conferencing links for communication and training. The project is planned to be implemented all over the country in a phased manner with a stress on 14 focus states for intensive follow-up to demonstrate successful implementation of IDSP. The National Institute of Communicable Diseases chosen to provide national leadership may have to immediately address five issues. First, promote surveillance through major hospitals (both in public and private sector) and active surveillance through health system staff and community, second, build capacity for data collation, analysis, interpretation to recognize warning signal of outbreak, and institute public health action, third, develop a system which allows availability of quality test kits at district and state

  10. Stereographic Projection in the Joint Surveillance System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    Dlvision Joint Surveillance Sjya h-og oI’c Jaint Surveillance SY4 Prog Ofc FOR TH~ OOAD~ JILYSELL If. WOESME, GS -14 Deputy Syritem Progran Director...937 1.875 650 1200 .9852 1,485 2.969 430 120 .9998 .021 .042 410 240 .9993 .072 .145 390 360 .9985 .154 .308 370 480 . 9973 .266 .533 330 720 .9942 .581

  11. Advances in surveillance of periodontitis: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention periodontal disease surveillance project.

    PubMed

    Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Dye, Bruce; Genco, Robert

    2012-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has as one of its strategic goals to support and improve surveillance of periodontal disease. In 2003, the CDC initiated the CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology to address population-based surveillance of periodontal disease at the local, state, and national levels. This initiative has made significant advancements toward the goal of improved surveillance, including developing valid self-reported measures that can be obtained from interview-based surveys to predict prevalence of periodontitis in populations. This will allow surveillance of periodontitis at the state and local levels and in countries where clinical resources for surveillance are scarce. This work has produced standard case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis that are now widely recognized and applied in population studies and research. At the national level, this initiative has evaluated the validity of previous clinical examination protocols and tested new protocols on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), recommending and supporting funding for the gold-standard full-mouth periodontal examination in NHANES 2009 to 2012. These examinations will generate accurate estimates of the prevalence of periodontitis in the US adult population and provide a superior dataset for surveillance and research. Also, this data will be used to generate the necessary coefficients for our self-report questions for use in subsets of the total US population. The impact of these findings on population-based surveillance of periodontitis and future directions of the project are discussed along with plans for dissemination and translation efforts for broader public health use.

  12. 10 Steps to Building an Architecture for Space Surveillance Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyorko, E.; Barnhart, E.; Gans, H.

    collect, and also the appropriate views to generate. The steps include 1) determining the context of the enterprise, including active elements and high level capabilities or goals; 2) determining the desired effects of the capabilities and mapping capabilities against the project plan; 3) determining operational performers and their inter-relationships; 4) building information and data dictionaries; 5) defining resources associated with capabilities; 6) determining the operational behavior necessary to achieve each capability; 7) analyzing existing or planned implementations to determine systems, services and software; 8) cross-referencing system behavior to operational behavioral; 9) documenting system threads and functional implementations; and 10) creating any required textual documentation from the model.

  13. 2003 Fernald Environmental Management Project Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    PubMed

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles.

  15. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project

    PubMed Central

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents’ obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data. The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have. This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries’ needs and priorities. The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries’ Health Services for monitoring adolescents’ obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195

  16. Data sharing report characterization of population 7: Personal protective equipment, dry active waste, and miscellaneous debris, surveillance and maintenance project Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Harpenau, Evan M.

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing to determine a final pathway for disposal. Population 7 (POP 7) consists of 56 containers of aged, low-level and potentially mixed S&M waste that has been staged in various locations around ORNL. Several of these POP 7 containers primarily contain personal protective equipment (PPE) and dry active waste (DAW), but may contain other miscellaneous debris. This data sharing report addresses the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) specified waste in a 13-container subpopulation (including eight steel boxes, three 55-gal drums, one sealand, and one intermodal) that lacked sufficient characterization data for possible disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile.

  17. The Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Eugenia; Wear, Mary L.; Lee, Lesley R.; VanBaalen, Mary

    2013-01-01

    From 1989-2010 NASA conducted a research study, the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health, to investigate the incidence of acute and chronic morbidity and mortality in astronauts and to determine whether their occupational exposures were associated with increased risk of death or disability. In 2004, the Institute of Medicine recommended that NASA convert the longitudinal study into an occupational health surveillance program and in 2010, NASA initiated the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health project. The new program collects data on astronaut workplace exposures, especially those occurring in the training and space flight environments, and conducts operational and health care analyses to look for trends in exposure and health outcomes. Astronaut selection and retention medical standards are rigorous, requiring an extensive clinical testing regimen. As a result, this employee population has contributed to a large set of health data available for analyses. Astronauts represent a special population with occupational exposures not typically experienced by other employee populations. Additionally, astronauts are different from the general population in terms of demographic and physiologic characteristics. The challenges and benefits of conducting health surveillance for an employee population with unique occupational exposures will be discussed. Several occupational surveillance projects currently underway to examine associations between astronaut workplace exposures and medical outcomes will be described.

  18. Review of the United States universal varicella vaccination program: Herpes zoster incidence rates, cost-effectiveness, and vaccine efficacy based primarily on the Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project data

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, G.S.; King, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    In a cooperative agreement starting January 1995, prior to the FDA's licensure of the varicella vaccine on March 17, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded the Los Angeles Department of Health Services’ Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project (AV-VASP). Since only varicella case reports were gathered, baseline incidence data for herpes zoster (HZ) or shingles was lacking. Varicella case reports decreased 72%, from 2834 in 1995 to 836 in 2000 at which time approximately 50% of children under 10 years of age had been vaccinated. Starting in 2000, HZ surveillance was added to the project. By 2002, notable increases in HZ incidence rates were reported among both children and adults with a prior history of natural varicella. However, CDC authorities still claimed that no increase in HZ had occurred in any US surveillance site. The basic assumptions inherent to the varicella cost–benefit analysis ignored the significance of exogenous boosting caused by those shedding wild-type VZV. Also ignored was the morbidity associated with even rare serious events following varicella vaccination as well as the morbidity from increasing cases of HZ among adults. Vaccine efficacy declined below 80% in 2001. By 2006, because 20% of vaccinees were experiencing breakthrough varicella and vaccine-induced protection was waning, the CDC recommended a booster dose for children and, in 2007, a shingles vaccination was approved for adults aged 60 years and older. In the prelicensure era, 95% of adults experienced natural chickenpox (usually as children)—these cases were usually benign and resulted in long-term immunity. Varicella vaccination is less effective than the natural immunity that existed in prevaccine communities. Universal varicella vaccination has not proven to be cost-effective as increased HZ morbidity has disproportionately offset cost savings associated with reductions in varicella disease. Universal varicella vaccination has failed to

  19. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project: Phase I accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, B.G.; Crawford, D.C.

    1997-01-15

    The authors present the results of the Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS) demonstration project Phase I efforts. The rationale behind IMSS development is reviewed and progress in each of the 5 basic tasks is detailed. Significant results include decisions to use Echelon LonWorks networking protocol and Microsoft Access for the data system needs, a preliminary design for the plutonium canning system glovebox, identification of facilities and materials available for the demonstration, determination of possibly affected facility documentation, and a preliminary list of available sensor technologies. Recently imposed changes in the overall project schedule and scope are also discussed and budgetary requirements for competition of Phase II presented. The results show that the IMSS demonstration project team has met and in many cases exceeded the commitments made for Phase I deliverables.

  20. Evaluation of an Active Surveillance System for Stillbirths in Metropolitan Atlanta

    PubMed Central

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Duke, C. Wes; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Correa, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2005, a pilot project was started at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to expand an existing birth defects surveillance program, the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP), to conduct active surveillance of stillbirth. This pilot project was evaluated using CDC’s current guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Methods We conducted stakeholder interviews with the staff of MACDP’s stillbirth surveillance system. We reviewed the published literature on stillbirth ascertainment including 4 previous publications about the MACDP stillbirth surveillance system. Using fetal death certificates (FDC) as a second, independent data source, we estimated the total number and prevalence of stillbirths in metropolitan Atlanta using capture-recapture methods, and calculated the sensitivity of the MACDP stillbirth surveillance system. Results The MACDP stillbirth surveillance system is useful, flexible, acceptable, and stable. The system’s data quality is improved because it uses multiple sources for case ascertainment. Based on 2006 data, estimated sensitivities of FDCs, MACDP, and both sources combined for identifying a stillbirth were 78.5%, 76.8%, and 95.0%, respectively. The prevalence of stillbirths per 1,000 live births and stillbirths was 8.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.5-9.0) based on FDC data alone and 9.9 (95% CI: 9.1-10.8) when combined with MACDP data. Conclusion Use of MACDP as an additional data source for stillbirth surveillance resulted in higher levels of case ascertainment, better data quality, and a higher estimate of stillbirth prevalence than using FDC data alone. MACDP could be considered as a model to enhance stillbirth surveillance by other active birth defects surveillance programs. PMID:23270086

  1. Long Term Activity Analysis in Surveillance Video Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ming-yu

    2010-01-01

    Surveillance video recording is becoming ubiquitous in daily life for public areas such as supermarkets, banks, and airports. The rate at which surveillance video is being generated has accelerated demand for machine understanding to enable better content-based search capabilities. Analyzing human activity is one of the key tasks to understand and…

  2. Comparison between active and passive surveillance within the network of epidemiological surveillance of animal diseases in Chad.

    PubMed

    Ouagal, Mahamat; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, Dirk

    2010-11-01

    A comparative study between passive and active surveillance based on herd visits (villages) was conducted over a period of 24 months. It included 106 surveillance stations of the animal disease epidemiological surveillance network in Chad distributed randomly into 52 stations of active surveillance and 54 stations of passive surveillance. Nine diseases of various vaccination and expected prevalence status were monitored. The active surveillance stations carried out four herd visits monthly to look for the diseases under surveillance and organised four farmers awareness-raising meetings to stimulate them to make disease notifications. The passive surveillance stations held each month four farmer awareness-raising meetings. The suspicions recorded by the stations were consigned to a suspicion form specific to each disease, indicating whether a call from the farmer, a visit to the herd or a awareness-raising meeting was the source. The results showed that, irrespective of surveillance type, all diseases under surveillance, except the rare diseases (Rinderpest and Rift Valley Fever) were reported by the surveillance agents. However, suspicions recorded following farmer calls are significantly more important than suspicions carried out during herd visits or meetings. Nevertheless, a considerable number of suspicions is recorded during awareness-raising meetings. Finally approximately 83% of the herd visits realised by the active surveillance stations showed negative results (no suspicion identified). Passive surveillance stimulated by awareness-raising meetings appears to be better adapted to Chads conditions and less expensive for the surveillance of existing diseases. However, for the rare diseases, other methods of specific active surveillance (such as for example sentinel herds) remain important to complete passive surveillance.

  3. Expectant Management (Watchful Waiting) and Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prostate Cancer Watchful Waiting or Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer Because prostate cancer often grows very slowly, some ... Away or Comes Back After Treatment More In Prostate Cancer About Prostate Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  4. Prostate Active Surveillance Study — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Primary Objective: To discover and confirm biomarkers that predict aggressive disease as defined by pre-specified histological, PSA, clinical criteria, or outcomes based on these variables. Secondary Objectives: To determine the proportion of patients on active surveillance who progress based on the above criteria. To determine the clinical predictors of disease progression. To measure the recurrence-free, disease-specific, and overall survival of men on active surveillance for clinically localized prostate cancer.

  5. A comparison of active adverse event surveillance systems worldwide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Lin; Moon, Jinhee; Segal, Jodi B

    2014-08-01

    Post-marketing drug surveillance for adverse drug events (ADEs) has typically relied on spontaneous reporting. Recently, regulatory agencies have turned their attention to more preemptive approaches that use existing data for surveillance. We conducted an environmental scan to identify active surveillance systems worldwide that use existing data for the detection of ADEs. We extracted data about the systems' structures, data, and functions. We synthesized the information across systems to identify common features of these systems. We identified nine active surveillance systems. Two systems are US based-the FDA Sentinel Initiative (including both the Mini-Sentinel Initiative and the Federal Partner Collaboration) and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD); two are Canadian-the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies (CNODES) and the Vaccine and Immunization Surveillance in Ontario (VISION); and two are European-the Exploring and Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions by Integrative Mining of Clinical Records and Biomedical Knowledge (EU-ADR) Alliance and the Vaccine Adverse Event Surveillance and Communication (VAESCO). Additionally, there is the Asian Pharmacoepidemiology Network (AsPEN) and the Shanghai Drug Monitoring and Evaluative System (SDMES). We identified two systems in the UK-the Vigilance and Risk Management of Medicines (VRMM) Division and the Drug Safety Research Unit (DSRU), an independent academic unit. These surveillance systems mostly use administrative claims or electronic medical records; most conduct pharmacovigilance on behalf of a regulatory agency. Either a common data model or a centralized model is used to access existing data. The systems have been built using national data alone or via partnership with other countries. However, active surveillance systems using existing data remain rare. North America and Europe have the most population coverage; with Asian countries making good advances.

  6. PRELIMINARY NUCLEAR CRITICALITY NUCLEAR SAFETY EVLAUATION FOR THE CONTAINER SURVEILLANCE AND STORAGE CAPABILITY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Low, M; Matthew02 Miller, M; Thomas Reilly, T

    2007-04-30

    Washington Safety Management Solutions (WSMS) provides criticality safety services to Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) at the Savannah River Site. One activity at SRS is the Container Surveillance and Storage Capability (CSSC) Project, which will perform surveillances on 3013 containers (hereafter referred to as 3013s) to verify that they meet the Department of Energy (DOE) Standard (STD) 3013 for plutonium storage. The project will handle quantities of material that are greater than ANS/ANSI-8.1 single parameter mass limits, and thus required a Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE). The WSMS methodology for conducting an NCSE is outlined in the WSMS methods manual. The WSMS methods manual currently follows the requirements of DOE-O-420.1B, DOE-STD-3007-2007, and the Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) SCD-3 manual. DOE-STD-3007-2007 describes how a NCSE should be performed, while DOE-O-420.1B outlines the requirements for a Criticality Safety Program (CSP). The WSRC SCD-3 manual implements DOE requirements and ANS standards. NCSEs do not address the Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) of non-reactor nuclear facilities that may be affected by overt or covert activities of sabotage, espionage, terrorism or other security malevolence. Events which are beyond the Design Basis Accidents (DBAs) are outside the scope of a double contingency analysis.

  7. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  8. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the surveillance and maintenance project phase

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    DOE Order 5820.2 mandates that a surveillance and maintenance program be established in all shut-down facilities to ensure adequate containment of contamination, provide physical safety and security, and reduce potential public and environmental hazards. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document their PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments.

  9. Active surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae using stool specimens submitted for testing for Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Banach, David B; Francois, Jeannette; Blash, Stephanie; Patel, Gopi; Jenkins, Stephen G; LaBombardi, Vincent; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Srinivasan, Arjun; Calfee, David P

    2014-01-01

    Active surveillance to identify asymptomatic carriers of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a recommended strategy for CRE control in healthcare facilities. Active surveillance using stool specimens tested for Clostridium difficile is a relatively low-cost strategy to detect CRE carriers. Further evaluation of this and other risk factor-based active surveillance strategies is warranted.

  10. Initial results of Pakistan's first road traffic injury surveillance project.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Shahzad; Razzak, Junaid A; Jooma, Rashid; Khan, Uzma

    2011-09-01

    Our aim is to report the findings of the initial three years of road traffic injuries (RTI) surveillance at Karachi and to compare it with previously published RTI-related data from Pakistan and other low-and middle-income countries. Data were collected through the RTI surveillance programme at Karachi (RTIRP) from the five biggest emergency departments of the city, which receive almost all the major emergencies of the city for the period September 2006 till September 2009. A total of 99,272 victims were enlisted by the RTIRP during the study period. Annual incidence of RTI is calculated to be 184.3 per 100,000 populations and mortality is 5.7 per 100,000 populations. Eighty nine per cent of victims are male and 73% are between 15 and 44 years of age. Commonest road user to be affected is riders of two wheelers (45%). Only 7% of affected motorcyclists were found to be wearing helmets at the time of the accident. Trends of injuries remained uniform over the years. Most frequent injuries were external wounds, followed by orthopaedic injuries. On the basis of our surveillance system, we have presented the largest RTI-related data from a metropolitan city of Pakistan to date.

  11. Online Nonparametric Bayesian Activity Mining and Analysis From Surveillance Video.

    PubMed

    Bastani, Vahid; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo S

    2016-05-01

    A method for online incremental mining of activity patterns from the surveillance video stream is presented in this paper. The framework consists of a learning block in which Dirichlet process mixture model is employed for the incremental clustering of trajectories. Stochastic trajectory pattern models are formed using the Gaussian process regression of the corresponding flow functions. Moreover, a sequential Monte Carlo method based on Rao-Blackwellized particle filter is proposed for tracking and online classification as well as the detection of abnormality during the observation of an object. Experimental results on real surveillance video data are provided to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in different tasks of trajectory clustering, classification, and abnormality detection.

  12. Surveillance report for active trachoma, 2006: National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit.

    PubMed

    Tellis, Betty; Keeffe, Jill E; Taylor, Hugh R

    2007-12-01

    The National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit (NTSRU) was established in November 2006 to improve the quality and consistency of data collection and reporting of active trachoma in Australia. Active trachoma data collected in 2006, prior to the commencement of the NTSRU, were reported by the Northern Territory, South Australia and Western Australia. In most regions, Aboriginal children aged 5-9 years were screened for signs of active trachoma, following the World Health Organization simplified trachoma grading system. In the Northern Territory the Healthy School Aged Kids program conducted school-based screening for active trachoma in 74 schools in five regions (n = 2,253). In South Australia Aboriginal school children presented for active trachoma screening when an eye team visited five Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (n = 275). In Western Australia population health units in collaboration with staff from population health care services, conducted school based screening for active trachoma in 53 schools in four regions (n = 1,719). Regional active trachoma prevalence for 2006 varied between the states and the Northern Territory with reported prevalences ranging from: Northern Territory = 2.5%-30%, South Australia = 0%-25%, and Western Australia = 18%-53%. Few data were reported on facial cleanliness or other aspects of the SAFE strategy, and no data were reported for trichiasis.

  13. Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer: Contemporary State of Practice

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Lepor, Abbey; Loeb, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains among the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide. Early diagnosis and curative treatment appear to improve survival in men with unfavorable-risk cancers, but significant concerns exist regarding the overdiagnosis and overtreatment of men with lower-risk cancers. To this end, active surveillance (AS) has emerged as a primary management strategy in men with favorable-risk disease, and contemporary data suggest that use of AS has increased worldwide. Although published surveillance cohorts differ by protocol, reported rates of metastatic disease and prostate cancer-specific mortality are exceedingly low in the intermediate term (5–10 years). Such outcomes appear to be closely associated with program-specific criteria for selection, monitoring, and intervention, suggesting that AS – like other management strategies – could be individualized based on the level of risk acceptable to patients in light of personal preferences. Additional data are needed to better establish the risks associated with AS and to identify patient-specific characteristics that could modify prognosis. PMID:26954332

  14. Active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bangma, Chris H; Bul, Meelan; van der Kwast, Theo H; Pickles, Tom; Korfage, Ida J; Hoeks, Caroline M; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Jenster, Guido; Kattan, Michael W; Bellardita, Lara; Carroll, Peter R; Denis, Louis J; Parker, Chris; Roobol, Monique J; Emberton, Mark; Klotz, Laurence H; Rannikko, Antti; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Lane, Janet A; Schröder, Fritz H; Semjonow, Axel; Trock, Bruce J; Valdagni, Riccardo

    2013-03-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is an important management strategy for men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The need for AS is increasing due to the awareness that many PCa are identified that show a low growth potential and therefore are likely to remain clinically asymptomatic during the lifetime of an individual. Currently there is no good method to prevent the overdiagnosis of indolent cancers upfront. During the last decade, several studies on AS around the world have made observations that feed the discussion on how to select and monitor these patients, how to proceed with the research to develop a better and more precise clinical definition of indolent cancers and how to manage men under AS clinically. Furthermore, patients' perspectives have become clearer, and quality of life studies give direction to the practical approach and care for patients and partners. This paper reflects the consensus on the state of the art and the future direction of AS, based on the Inside Track Conference "Active Surveillance for low risk prostate cancer" (Chairmen: C.H. Bangma, NL, and L. Klotz, CA; Co-Chairmen: L.J. Denis, BE, and C. Parker, UK; Scientific Coordinators: M. J. Roobol, NL, and E.W. Steyerberg, NL), organized by the European School of Oncology in collaboration with Europa Uomo in Rotterdam, the Netherlands in January 2012. Topics for discussion were the optimisation of patient selection based on indolent disease definition, the incorporation of therapeutic agents into AS programs, the optimisation of patient care, and the application of emerging technologies and biomarkers.

  15. Active surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome in Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed Central

    Thant, Kyaw-Zin; Oo, Win-Mar; Myint, Thein-Thein; Shwe, Than-Nu; Han, Aye-Maung; Aye, Khin-Mar; Aye, Kay-Thi; Moe, Kyaw; Thein, Soe; Robertson, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Rubella vaccine is not included in the immunization schedule in Myanmar. Although surveillance for outbreaks of measles and rubella is conducted nationwide, there is no routine surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Therefore, we organized a study to assess the burden of CRS. METHODS: From 1 December 2000 to 31 December 2002 active surveillance for CRS was conducted among children aged 0-17 months at 13 hospitals and 2 private clinics in Yangon, the capital city. Children with suspected CRS had a standard examination and a blood sample was obtained. All serum samples were tested for rubella-specific IgM; selected samples were tested for rubella-specific IgG and for rubella RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). FINDINGS: A total of 81 children aged 0-17 months were suspected of having CRS. Of these, 18 children had laboratory-confirmed CRS (7 were IgM positive; 7 were RT-PCR positive; and 10 were IgG positive at > 6 months of age). One additional child who tested positive by RT-PCR and whose mother had had rubella during pregnancy but who had a normal clinical examination was classified as having congenital rubella infection. During 2001-02 no rubella outbreaks were detected in Yangon Division. In the 31 urban townships of Yangon Division, the annual incidence was 0.1 laboratory-confirmed cases of CRS per 1000 live births. CONCLUSION: This is the first population-based study of CRS incidence from a developing country during a rubella-endemic period; the incidence of CRS is similar to endemic rates found in industrialized countries during the pre-vaccine era. Rubella-specific IgG tests proved practical for diagnosing CRS in children aged > 6 months. This is one of the first studies to report on the use of rubella-specific RT-PCR directly on serum samples; further studies are warranted to confirm the utility of this method as an additional means of diagnosing CRS. PMID:16501710

  16. Role of information technology (IT) in public health, India (problems & prospects): Role of information communication technology (ICT) in disease surveillance under Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajeev; Luthra, Pallavi; Karad, Amit; Dhariwal, A C; Ichhpujani, R L; Lal, Shiv

    2010-06-01

    Information Communication Technology (ICT) has proven to be a strong public health tool. Keeping the future need of country and building National Disease Surveillance System, Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) was launched by Hon'ble Union Minister of Health & Family Welfare in November 2004. It is a decentralized, State based surveillance program in the country. It is intended to detect early warning signals of impending outbreaks and help initiate an effective response in a timely manner. One of the major components of the project is the - use of Information Technology for collection, collation, compilation, analysis and dissemination of data besides distance education and video conferencing. A network of 800 sites across India has been established through Satellite, Broadband and High end Video conferencing equipments. The network is managed by a team of data managers and data entry operators at all state surveillance units and district surveillance units respectively. The network was proven to be extremely useful to respond to the current influenza A H1N1 pandemic. It is proposed to extend the network to cover private sector and provide convergence with other National Health Programs.

  17. Surveillance of Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Coleen A.; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the autism surveillance activities of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It considers why surveillance to track prevalence of autistic disorders is needed, how such surveillance is conducted, and the special challenges of autism surveillance. (DB)

  18. EEG operational radiation surveillance of the WIPP Project during 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Donald H.; Ballard, Sally C.; Channell, James K.

    2002-12-31

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has measured the levels of 241Am, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 137Cs, and 90Sr in samples of air and water collected at and in the vicinity of the U. S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 2001. The WIPP received the first shipment of waste in March 1999 and became operational at that time. The EEG has compared these levels to those measured in the preoperational phase, prior to receipt of waste, as well as to the results of other monitoring organizations and to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) dose standards established for the WIPP at 40 CFR 191, Subpart A, and, by an agreement between the DOE and the EPA, at 40 CFR 61, Subpart H. Based on these analyses and applying a t test for significant differences for normally-distributed data (Taylor 1987), or analysis of variance (ANOVA) for non-normal data, the EEG concludes that: 1. Three measurements of radionuclides in the environment around WIPP during 2001 were different from the preoperational baseline levels. Only two of these – 241Am in both the Loving and WIPP3 low volume air sampler (LVAS) samples, first quarter and second quarter, respectively – exceeded the minimum detectable activity (MDA). These measurements were carefully investigated, but no clearly assignable cause was discovered. No measurements of 241Am in effluent air from the WIPP underground exceeded the action level, and converting the highest LVAS measured concentration to radiation dose yielded a committed dose of much less than 1% of the limit allowable under the EPA standard. 2. Comparison of the EEG’s 2001 results with those of other monitoring organizations revealed two sets of measurements which did not agree. One set – 241Am in surface water – was found to be in agreement with the corresponding EEG baseline. The other – 90Sr in groundwater – was

  19. [The Southern Cone Sub-Regional Project on Cystic Echinococcosis Control and Surveillance].

    PubMed

    Irabedra, Pilar; Salvatella, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Southern Cone Sub-Regional Project on Cystic Echinococcosis Control and Surveillance: Argentina, Brasil, Chile and Uruguay, is a joint and collaborative tool with the aim of promoting the implementation or the strengthening of programs for disease control. The paper describes the background, the institutional aspects that regulates the structure and functions, as well as the guidelines defined in the technical and operational project. The article emphasize the achievements through Projects of Technical Cooperation among Countries, and the development of integrated and innovative approaches for prevention and control of the disease and training of human resources of the control programs. Some of the challenges are: to achieve the sustainability of the project, implementation of technical groups for analysis and assessment at request of the countries, improvement of the regional information systems, to continue training human resources of the control programs and to expand and strengthen the technical cooperation among countries.

  20. Comparison of surveillance sample demographics over two cycles of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance Project, Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Risser, Jan M H; Montealegre, Jane R

    2014-04-01

    We examined differences in sample demographics across cycles of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance project, that examines HIV risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM), injection drug users (IDU), and heterosexuals living in areas of high HIV prevalence (HET). MSM were recruited through venue-based sampling, and IDU and HET through respondent driven sampling (RDS). RDS data were weighted to account for sampling bias. We compared crude prevalence estimates from MSM1 (2004) to those from MSM2 (2008) for demographic factors known to influence risky sexual and drug-use behaviors. We compared crude and adjusted prevalence estimates for IDU1 (2005) and IDU2 (2009) and HET1 (2006) and HET2 (2010). In the MSM cycle, we found differences in age, and the proportions seeking medical care and reporting a recent arrest. There were no differences in the comparison of crude and weighted estimates for the RDS collected samples, nor were there differences comparing HET1 and HET2 weighted estimates. IDU2 recruited a larger proportion of males, and had a higher percent who graduated from high school and who reported recent medical care and a previous HIV test. Differences across MSM cycles may be related to differences in venues identified for each cycle. Differences in the IDU cycles may be due to an effort on our part to increase the racial/ethnic and drug-use diversity of the sample in IDU2. Our findings show the importance of formative work for both venue-based and RDS samples to increase understanding of the dimensions that affect social networks and the dynamics of populations in space and time. With familiarity of the target population, we believe that both venue-based and RDS recruitment approaches for NHBS work well and can be used to evaluate changes in risky sexual and drug use behaviors and in HIV testing behaviors.

  1. [Active surveillance in prostate cancer and quality of life].

    PubMed

    Dominguez Escrig, Jose L; Romero, Rocio

    2014-06-01

    Active surveillance was born as a therapeutic strategy for a well selected group of patients with low risk prostate cancer with the aim to defer or completely avoid the negative impact of secondary effects of curative therapies. Nevertheless, the patient who chooses this treatment does it at the expense of greater anxiety and doubts about the possible progression of the disease. The main psychological features influencing the quality of life of these patients are, on one hand anxiety, due to the uncertainty and fear to disease progression, and on the other hand, the difficult decision making process. Among the factors that seem to influence the election are: urologist's recommendation, effects on urinary function, age and impact of the therapy on sexual function. In the timorous journey walked, it is recommended to apply psycho-educational programs, with the objective of increasing the perceived control and adaptive confrontation. We propose an intervention with 4 group sessions, the objectives of which would be first to improve the decision making process and diminish the fear to progression and, second to reinforce the information already given at the time of diagnosis and increase the sensation of control, e.g promoting healthy habits.

  2. Active surveillance for avian influenza virus, Egypt, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Ghazi; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; Gomaa, Mokhtar M; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Moatasim, Yassmin; Bagato, Ola; Cai, Zhipeng; Rubrum, Adam; Kutkat, Mohamed A; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A

    2014-04-01

    Continuous circulation of influenza A(H5N1) virus among poultry in Egypt has created an epicenter in which the viruses evolve into newer subclades and continue to cause disease in humans. To detect influenza viruses in Egypt, since 2009 we have actively surveyed various regions and poultry production sectors. From August 2010 through January 2013, >11,000 swab samples were collected; 10% were positive by matrix gene reverse transcription PCR. During this period, subtype H9N2 viruses emerged, cocirculated with subtype H5N1 viruses, and frequently co-infected the same avian host. Genetic and antigenic analyses of viruses revealed that influenza A(H5N1) clade 2.2.1 viruses are dominant and that all subtype H9N2 viruses are G1-like. Cocirculation of different subtypes poses concern for potential reassortment. Avian influenza continues to threaten public and animal health in Egypt, and continuous surveillance for avian influenza virus is needed.

  3. Modeling Grade Progression In An Active Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Lurdes Y.T.; Trock, Bruce J.; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Etzioni, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer grade, assessed with the Gleason score, describes how abnormal the tumor tissue and cells appear and it is an important prognostic indicator of disease progression. Whether prostate tumors change grade is a question that has implications for screening and treatment. Empirical data on tumor grade over time have become available from men biopsied regularly as part of active surveillance (AS). However, biopsy grade is subject to misclassification. In this article we develop a model that allows for estimation of the time of grade change while accounting for the misclassification error from biopsy grade. We use misclassification rates from studies of prostate cancer biopsies followed by radical prostatectomy. Estimation of the transition times from true low-grade to high-grade disease is conducted within a Bayesian framework. We apply our model to serial observations on biopsy grade among 627 cases enrolled in a cohort of AS patients at Johns Hopkins University who were biopsied annually and referred to treatment if there was any evidence of disease progression on biopsy. We consider different prior distributions for the time to true grade progression. The estimated likelihood of grade progression within 10 years of study entry ranges from 12% to 24% depending on the prior. We conclude that knowledge of rates of grade misclassification allows for determination of true grade progression rates among men with serial biopsies on AS. While our results are sensitive to prior specifications they indicate that in a non-trivial fraction of the patient population, tumor grade can progress. PMID:24123208

  4. Modeling grade progression in an active surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Lurdes Y T; Trock, Bruce J; Partin, Alan W; Carter, Herbert B; Etzioni, Ruth

    2014-03-15

    Prostate cancer grade, assessed with the Gleason score, describes how abnormal the tumor tissue and cells appear, and it is an important prognostic indicator of disease progression. Whether prostate tumors change grade is a question that has implications for screening and treatment. Empirical data on tumor grade over time have become available from men biopsied regularly as part of active surveillance (AS). However, biopsy (BX) grade is subject to misclassification. In this article, we develop a model that allows for estimation of the time of grade change while accounting for the misclassification error from BX grade. We use misclassification rates from studies of prostate cancer BXs followed by radical prostatectomy. Estimation of the transition times from true low-grade to high-grade disease is conducted within a Bayesian framework. We apply our model to serial observations on BX grade among 627 cases enrolled in a cohort of AS patients at Johns Hopkins University who were biopsied annually and referred to treatment if there was any evidence of disease progression on BX. We consider different prior distributions for the time to true grade progression. The estimated likelihood of grade progression within 10 years of study entry ranges from 12% to 24% depending on the prior. We conclude that knowledge of rates of grade misclassification allows for determination of true grade progression rates among men with serial BXs on AS. Although our results are sensitive to prior specifications, they indicate that in a nontrivial fraction of the patient population, tumor grade can progress.

  5. Inference of Japanese encephalitis virus ecological and evolutionary dynamics from passive and active virus surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Truc T.; Meng, Shengli; Sun, Yan; Lv, Wenli; Bahl, Justin

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive monitoring strategy is vital for tracking the spread of mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Virus detection consists of passive surveillance of primarily humans and swine, and/or active surveillance in mosquitoes, which may be a valuable proxy in providing insights into ecological processes underlying the spread and persistence of JEV. However, it has not been well characterized whether passive surveillance alone can capture the circulating genetic diversity to make reasonable inferences. Here, we develop phylogenetic models to infer JEV host changes, spatial diffusion patterns, and evolutionary dynamics from data collected through active and passive surveillance. We evaluate the feasibility of using JEV sequence data collected from mosquitoes to estimate the migration histories of genotypes GI and GIII. We show that divergence times estimated from this dataset were comparable to estimates from all available data. Increasing the amount of data collected from active surveillance improved time of most recent common ancestor estimates and reduced uncertainty. Phylogenetic estimates using all available data and only mosquito data from active surveillance produced similar results, showing that GI epidemics were widespread and diffused significantly faster between regions than GIII. In contrast, GIII outbreaks were highly structured and unlinked suggesting localized, unsampled infectious sources. Our results show that active surveillance of mosquitoes can sufficiently capture circulating genetic diversity of JEV to confidently estimate spatial and evolutionary patterns. While surveillance of other hosts could contribute to more detailed disease tracking and evaluation, comprehensive JEV surveillance programs should include systematic surveillance in mosquitoes to infer the most complete patterns for epidemiology, and risk assessment. PMID:27774302

  6. Inference of Japanese encephalitis virus ecological and evolutionary dynamics from passive and active virus surveillance.

    PubMed

    Pham, Truc T; Meng, Shengli; Sun, Yan; Lv, Wenli; Bahl, Justin

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive monitoring strategy is vital for tracking the spread of mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Virus detection consists of passive surveillance of primarily humans and swine, and/or active surveillance in mosquitoes, which may be a valuable proxy in providing insights into ecological processes underlying the spread and persistence of JEV. However, it has not been well characterized whether passive surveillance alone can capture the circulating genetic diversity to make reasonable inferences. Here, we develop phylogenetic models to infer JEV host changes, spatial diffusion patterns, and evolutionary dynamics from data collected through active and passive surveillance. We evaluate the feasibility of using JEV sequence data collected from mosquitoes to estimate the migration histories of genotypes GI and GIII. We show that divergence times estimated from this dataset were comparable to estimates from all available data. Increasing the amount of data collected from active surveillance improved time of most recent common ancestor estimates and reduced uncertainty. Phylogenetic estimates using all available data and only mosquito data from active surveillance produced similar results, showing that GI epidemics were widespread and diffused significantly faster between regions than GIII. In contrast, GIII outbreaks were highly structured and unlinked suggesting localized, unsampled infectious sources. Our results show that active surveillance of mosquitoes can sufficiently capture circulating genetic diversity of JEV to confidently estimate spatial and evolutionary patterns. While surveillance of other hosts could contribute to more detailed disease tracking and evaluation, comprehensive JEV surveillance programs should include systematic surveillance in mosquitoes to infer the most complete patterns for epidemiology, and risk assessment.

  7. Active surveillance of avian influenza viruses in Egyptian poultry, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kayed, A S; Kandeil, A; El Shesheny, R; Ali, M A; Kayali, G

    2016-10-02

    Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in Egyptian poultry has been conducted since 2009. Up to 2011, all the detected viruses were H5N1, and the overall prevalence was 5%. In 2011, H9N2 viruses were observed to be co-circulating and co-infecting the same hosts as H5N1 viruses. Since then, the detection rate has increased to around 10%. In the 2014-2015 winter season, H5N1 was circulating heavily in poultry flocks and caused an unprecedented number of human infections. In contrast, surveillance in the last quarter of 2015 indicated a near absence of H5N1 in Egyptian poultry. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses must continue in Egypt to monitor further developments in H5N1 circulation in poultry.

  8. Development of the National Healthy Sleep Awareness Project Sleep Health Surveillance Questions

    PubMed Central

    Morgenthaler, Timothy I.; Croft, Janet B.; Dort, Leslie C.; Loeding, Lauren D.; Mullington, Janet M.; Thomas, Sherene M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: For the first time ever, as emphasized by inclusion in the Healthy People 2020 goals, sleep health is an emphasis of national health aims. The National Healthy Sleep Awareness Project (NHSAP) was tasked to propose questions for inclusion in the next Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a survey that includes a number of questions that target behaviors thought to impact health, as a means to measure community sleep health. The total number of questions could not exceed five, and had to include an assessment of the risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: An appointed workgroup met via teleconference and face-to-face venues to develop an inventory of published survey questions being used to identify sleep health, to develop a framework on which to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of current survey questions concerning sleep, and to develop recommendations for sleep health and disease surveillance questions going forward. Results: The recommendation was to focus on certain existing BRFSS questions pertaining to sleep duration, quality, satisfaction, daytime alertness, and to add to these other BRFSS existing questions to make a modified STOP-BANG questionnaire (minus the N for neck circumference) to assess for risk of OSA. Conclusions: Sleep health is an important dimension of health that has previously received less attention in national health surveys. We believe that 5 questions recommended for the upcoming BRFSS question banks will assist as important measures of sleep health, and may help to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to improve sleep health in our nation. Citation: Morgenthaler TI, Croft JB, Dort LC, Loeding LD, Mullington JM, Thomas SM. Development of the National Healthy Sleep Awareness Project sleep health surveillance questions. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(9):1057–1062. PMID:26235156

  9. Proposal for Japanese encephalitis surveillance using captured invasive mongooses under an eradication project on Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mika; Nakata, Katsushi; Nishijima, Taku; Yamashita, Katsuhiro; Saito, Anna; Ogura, Go

    2009-06-01

    A project to eradicate invasive small Asian mongooses (Herpestes javanicus) is underway to conserve the unique ecosystem of Okinawa Island, Japan. In the present study, we tried to elucidate whether the mongoose is a host of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and to evaluate the reliability of surveillance of Japanese encephalitis (JE) using this species. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, the main vector mosquito of JEV, feeds on the mongoose. Eighty-five (35.4%) of 240 wild small Asian mongooses captured between 2001 and 2005 had neutralizing antibodies against more than one of four JEV strains. Prevalence rates of JEV antibodies tended to increase with body weight and length of the animals. One of three sentinel mongooses showed a temporal change in antibody titer. These results indicate that the small Asian mongooses on Okinawa Island are sensitive to JEV. From the antibody titers and the locations of capture, the JEV active area was clarified. We propose that surveillance of JE using mongooses captured under the eradication program is reliable.

  10. [Epidemiological surveillance activities during the 2009 influenza pandemic in Spain: lessons learnt one year after].

    PubMed

    Sierra Moros, Maria José; Vázquez Torres, María; Santa-Olalla Peralta, Patricia; Limia Sánchez, Aurora; Cortes García, Marta; Pachón Del Amo, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    In this article the actions taken in the area of epidemiological surveillance in Spain during the influenza pandemic and the recommendations drawn from them during the progression of the pandemic are reviewed. The performance of the Surveillance Subcommittee established in the National Influenza Preparedness and Response Plan was central to the coordination of these activities. The Surveillance Subcommittee was immediately activated when the alert was issued. Its role is also described in this review. The existence of a National Plan allowed a rapid and coordinated response after the alert declaration. The epidemiological and virological surveillance of the influenza pandemic was adapted to an evolving situation. In addition to routine influenza monitoring systems, new surveillance systems were put in place such as a case-based surveillance for community influenza cases and a case-based surveillance for severe cases and deaths due to the pandemic. Among the lessons learned from this pandemic, we would highlight the need to strengthen the timely analysis of data collected during an alert, the need to promote the exchange of information among public health and health care professionals, and to strengthen the response capacity in order to have resilient and consolidated public health structures for future health alerts.

  11. Final Report for LDRD Project 02-FS-009 Gigapixel Surveillance Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, R E; Bennett, C L

    2010-04-20

    The threats of terrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction add urgency to the development of new techniques for surveillance and intelligence collection. For example, the United States faces a serious and growing threat from adversaries who locate key facilities underground, hide them within other facilities, or otherwise conceal their location and function. Reconnaissance photographs are one of the most important tools for uncovering the capabilities of adversaries. However, current imaging technology provides only infrequent static images of a large area, or occasional video of a small area. We are attempting to add a new dimension to reconnaissance by introducing a capability for large area video surveillance. This capability would enable tracking of all vehicle movements within a very large area. The goal of our project is the development of a gigapixel video surveillance camera for high altitude aircraft or balloon platforms. From very high altitude platforms (20-40 km altitude) it would be possible to track every moving vehicle within an area of roughly 100 km x 100 km, about the size of the San Francisco Bay region, with a gigapixel camera. Reliable tracking of vehicles requires a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 0.5 to 1 m and a framing rate of approximately two frames per second (fps). For a 100 km x 100 km area the corresponding pixel count is 10 gigapixels for a 1-m GSD and 40 gigapixels for a 0.5-m GSD. This is an order of magnitude beyond the 1 gigapixel camera envisioned in our LDRD proposal. We have determined that an instrument of this capacity is feasible.

  12. Transport Infrastructure Surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing: The ISTIMES Project

    PubMed Central

    Proto, Monica; Bavusi, Massimo; Bernini, Romeo; Bigagli, Lorenzo; Bost, Marie; Bourquin, Frédrèric.; Cottineau, Louis-Marie; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Vecchia, Pietro Della; Dolce, Mauro; Dumoulin, Jean; Eppelbaum, Lev; Fornaro, Gianfranco; Gustafsson, Mats; Hugenschmidt, Johannes; Kaspersen, Peter; Kim, Hyunwook; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Leggio, Mario; Loperte, Antonio; Mazzetti, Paolo; Moroni, Claudio; Nativi, Stefano; Nordebo, Sven; Pacini, Fabrizio; Palombo, Angelo; Pascucci, Simone; Perrone, Angela; Pignatti, Stefano; Ponzo, Felice Carlo; Rizzo, Enzo; Soldovieri, Francesco; Taillade, Fédrèric

    2010-01-01

    The ISTIMES project, funded by the European Commission in the frame of a joint Call “ICT and Security” of the Seventh Framework Programme, is presented and preliminary research results are discussed. The main objective of the ISTIMES project is to design, assess and promote an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)-based system, exploiting distributed and local sensors, for non-destructive electromagnetic monitoring of critical transport infrastructures. The integration of electromagnetic technologies with new ICT information and telecommunications systems enables remotely controlled monitoring and surveillance and real time data imaging of the critical transport infrastructures. The project exploits different non-invasive imaging technologies based on electromagnetic sensing (optic fiber sensors, Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite platform based, hyperspectral spectroscopy, Infrared thermography, Ground Penetrating Radar-, low-frequency geophysical techniques, Ground based systems for displacement monitoring). In this paper, we show the preliminary results arising from the GPR and infrared thermographic measurements carried out on the Musmeci bridge in Potenza, located in a highly seismic area of the Apennine chain (Southern Italy) and representing one of the test beds of the project. PMID:22163489

  13. Transport infrastructure surveillance and monitoring by electromagnetic sensing: the ISTIMES project.

    PubMed

    Proto, Monica; Bavusi, Massimo; Bernini, Romeo; Bigagli, Lorenzo; Bost, Marie; Bourquin, Frédrèric; Cottineau, Louis-Marie; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Della Vecchia, Pietro; Dolce, Mauro; Dumoulin, Jean; Eppelbaum, Lev; Fornaro, Gianfranco; Gustafsson, Mats; Hugenschmidt, Johannes; Kaspersen, Peter; Kim, Hyunwook; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Leggio, Mario; Loperte, Antonio; Mazzetti, Paolo; Moroni, Claudio; Nativi, Stefano; Nordebo, Sven; Pacini, Fabrizio; Palombo, Angelo; Pascucci, Simone; Perrone, Angela; Pignatti, Stefano; Ponzo, Felice Carlo; Rizzo, Enzo; Soldovieri, Francesco; Taillade, Fédrèric

    2010-01-01

    The ISTIMES project, funded by the European Commission in the frame of a joint Call "ICT and Security" of the Seventh Framework Programme, is presented and preliminary research results are discussed. The main objective of the ISTIMES project is to design, assess and promote an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)-based system, exploiting distributed and local sensors, for non-destructive electromagnetic monitoring of critical transport infrastructures. The integration of electromagnetic technologies with new ICT information and telecommunications systems enables remotely controlled monitoring and surveillance and real time data imaging of the critical transport infrastructures. The project exploits different non-invasive imaging technologies based on electromagnetic sensing (optic fiber sensors, Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite platform based, hyperspectral spectroscopy, Infrared thermography, Ground Penetrating Radar-, low-frequency geophysical techniques, Ground based systems for displacement monitoring). In this paper, we show the preliminary results arising from the GPR and infrared thermographic measurements carried out on the Musmeci bridge in Potenza, located in a highly seismic area of the Apennine chain (Southern Italy) and representing one of the test beds of the project.

  14. Improving marine disease surveillance through sea temperature monitoring, outlooks and projections

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Jeffrey; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Harvell, C. Drew; Eakin, C. Mark; Liu, Gang; Willis, Bette L.; Williams, Gareth J.; Dobson, Andrew; Heron, Scott F.; Glenn, Robert; Reardon, Kathleen; Shields, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    To forecast marine disease outbreaks as oceans warm requires new environmental surveillance tools. We describe an iterative process for developing these tools that combines research, development and deployment for suitable systems. The first step is to identify candidate host–pathogen systems. The 24 candidate systems we identified include sponges, corals, oysters, crustaceans, sea stars, fishes and sea grasses (among others). To illustrate the other steps, we present a case study of epizootic shell disease (ESD) in the American lobster. Increasing prevalence of ESD is a contributing factor to lobster fishery collapse in southern New England (SNE), raising concerns that disease prevalence will increase in the northern Gulf of Maine under climate change. The lowest maximum bottom temperature associated with ESD prevalence in SNE is 12°C. Our seasonal outlook for 2015 and long-term projections show bottom temperatures greater than or equal to 12°C may occur in this and coming years in the coastal bays of Maine. The tools presented will allow managers to target efforts to monitor the effects of ESD on fishery sustainability and will be iteratively refined. The approach and case example highlight that temperature-based surveillance tools can inform research, monitoring and management of emerging and continuing marine disease threats. PMID:26880840

  15. Maximum projection and velocity estimation algorithm for small moving target detection in space surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Dalei; Wen, Desheng; Xue, Jianru; Chen, Zhi; Wen, Yan; Jiang, Baotan; Ma, Junyong

    2015-10-01

    The article presents a new method to detect small moving targets in space surveillance. Image sequences are processed to detect and track targets under the assumption that the data samples are spatially registered. Maximum value projection and normalization are performed to reduce the data samples and eliminate the background clutter. Targets are then detected through connected component analysis. The velocities of the targets are estimated by centroid localization and least squares regression. The estimated velocities are utilized to track the targets. A sliding neighborhood operation is performed prior to target detection to significantly reduce the computation while preserving as much target information as possible. Actual data samples are acquired to test the proposed method. Experimental results show that the method can efficiently detect small moving targets and track their traces accurately. The centroid locating precision and tracking accuracy of the method are within a pixel.

  16. Association of [-2]proPSA with Biopsy Reclassification During Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; Loeb, Stacy; Feng, Zhaoyong; Isharwal, Sumit; Landis, Patricia; Elliot, Debra J.; Veltri, Robert; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Trock, Bruce; Sokoll, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have suggested an association between [-2]proPSA expression and prostate cancer detection. Less is known about the utility of this marker in following prostate cancer patients on active surveillance. Thus, our objective was to examine the relationship between [-2]proPSA and biopsy results in men enrolled in an active surveillance program. Materials and Methods In 167 men from our institutional active surveillance program, we used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the relationship between [-2]proPSA and annual surveillance biopsy results. The outcome of interest was biopsy reclassification (Gleason score ≥7, or >2 positive biopsy cores, or >50% involvement of any core with cancer). We also examined the association of biopsy results with total PSA, %fPSA, [-2]proPSA/%fPSA, and the Beckman Coulter Prostate Health Index [phi=([-2]proPSA/fPSA) x (tPSA)½]. Results While on active surveillance (median time from diagnosis 4.3 years), 63 (37.7%) men demonstrated biopsy reclassification based on the above criteria, including 28 (16.7%) of whom had reclassification based on Gleason score upgrading (Gleason score≥7). Baseline and longitudinal %fPSA, %[-2]proPSA, [-2]proPSA/%fPSA, and phi measurements were significantly associated with biopsy reclassification, and %[-2]proPSA and phi provided the greatest predictive accuracy for high-grade cancer. Conclusions In men on active surveillance, measures based on [-2]proPSA such as phi, appear to provide improved prediction of biopsy reclassification during follow-up. Additional validation is warranted to determine whether clinically useful thresholds can be defined, and to better characterize the role of %[-2]proPSA and phi in conjunction with other markers in monitoring patients enrolled in active surveillance. PMID:22901577

  17. An overview of environmental surveillance of waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.H.; Chew, E.W.; Hedahl, T.G.; Mann, L.J.; Pointer, T.F.; Wiersma, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), in southeastern Idaho, is a principal center for nuclear energy development for the Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Nuclear Navy. Fifty-two reactors have been built at the INEL, with 15 still operable. Extensive environmental surveillance is conducted at the INEL by DOE's Radiological Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), EG&G Idaho, Inc., and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). Surveillance of waste management facilities radiation is integrated with the overall INEL Site surveillance program. Air, warer, soil, biota, and environmental radiation are monitored or sampled routinely at INEL. Results to date indicate very small or no impacts from INEL on the surrounding environment. Environmental surveillance activities are currently underway to address key environmental issues at the INEL.

  18. Intentional and unintentional poisoning in Pakistan: a pilot study using the Emergency Departments surveillance project

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute poisoning is one of the most common reasons for emergency department visits around the world. In Pakistan, the epidemiological data on poisoning is limited due to an under developed poison information surveillance system. We aim to describe the characteristics associated with intentional and unintentional poisoning in Pakistan presenting to emergency departments. Methods The data was extracted from the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) which was an active surveillance conducted between November 2010 and March 2011. All patients, regardless of age, who presented with poisoning to any of Pakistan's seven major tertiary care centers' emergency departments, were included. Information about patient demographics, type of poisoning agent, reason for poisoning and outcomes were collected using a standard questionnaire. Results Acute poisoning contributed to 1.2% (n = 233) of patients with intentional and unintentional injuries presenting to EDs of participating centers. Of these, 68% were male, 54% were aged 19 to 44 and 19% were children and adolescents (<18 years). Types of poisoning included chemical/gas (43.8%), drug/medicine (27%), alcohol (16.7%) and food/plant (6%). In half of all patients the poisoning was intentional. A total of 11.6% of the patients were admitted and 6.6% died. Conclusion Poisoning causes more morbidity and mortality in young adults in Pakistan compared to other age groups, half of which is intentional. Improving mental health, regulatory control for hazardous chemicals and better access to care through poison information centers and emergency departments will potentially help control the problem. PMID:26691609

  19. Active surveillance of postmarket medical product safety in the Federal Partners' Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Robb, Melissa A; Racoosin, Judith A; Worrall, Chris; Chapman, Summer; Coster, Trinka; Cunningham, Francesca E

    2012-11-01

    After half a century of monitoring voluntary reports of medical product adverse events, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has launched a long-term project to build an adverse events monitoring system, the Sentinel System, which can access and evaluate electronic health care data to help monitor the safety of regulated medical products once they are marketed. On the basis of experience gathered through a number of collaborative efforts, the Federal Partners' Collaboration pilot project, involving FDA, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the Department of Veteran Affairs, and the Department of Defense, is already enabling FDA to leverage the power of large public health care databases to assess, in near real time, the utility of analytical tools and methodologies that are being developed for use in the Sentinel System. Active medical product safety surveillance is enhanced by use of these large public health databases because specific populations of exposed patients can be identified and analyzed, and can be further stratified by key variables such as age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and basis for eligibility to examine important subgroups.

  20. Outcome of long term active surveillance for estrogen receptor-positive ductal carcinoma in situ

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Anna F.; Lessing, Juan N.; Itakura, Kaoru; Hylton, Nola M.; Wolverton, Dulcy E.; Joe, Bonnie N.; Esserman, Laura J.; Hwang, E. Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Introduction An option for active surveillance is not currently offered to patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); however a small number of women decline standard surgical treatment for noninvasive cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess outcomes in a cohort of 14 well-informed women who elected non-surgical active surveillance with endocrine treatment alone for estrogen receptor-positive DCIS. Methods Retrospective review of 14 women, 12 of whom were enrolled in an IRB-approved single-arm study of 3 months of neoadjuvant endocrine therapy prior to definitive surgical management. The patients in this report withdrew from the parent study opting instead for active surveillance with endocrine treatment and imaging. Results 8 women had surgery at a median follow up of 28.3 months (range 10.1–70 months), 5 had stage I IDC at surgical excision, and 3 had DCIS alone. 6 women remain on surveillance without evidence of invasive disease for a median of 31.8 months (range 11.8–80.8 months). Conclusion Long-term active surveillance for DCIS is feasible in a well-informed patient population, but is associated with risk of invasive cancer at surgical excision. PMID:21843942

  1. Detection of septic transfusion reactions to platelet transfusions by active and passive surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hong; Xiao, Wenbin; Lazarus, Hillard M; Good, Caryn E; Maitta, Robert W; Jacobs, Michael R

    2016-01-28

    Septic transfusion reactions (STRs) resulting from transfusion of bacterially contaminated platelets are a major hazard of platelet transfusion despite recent interventions. Active and passive surveillance for bacterially contaminated platelets was performed over 7 years (2007-2013) by culture of platelet aliquots at time of transfusion and review of reported transfusion reactions. All platelet units had been cultured 24 hours after collection and released as negative. Five sets of STR criteria were evaluated, including recent AABB criteria; sensitivity and specificity of these criteria, as well as detection by active and passive surveillance, were determined. Twenty of 51,440 platelet units transfused (0.004%; 389 per million) were bacterially contaminated by active surveillance and resulted in 5 STRs occurring 9 to 24 hours posttransfusion; none of these STRs had been reported by passive surveillance. STR occurred only in neutropenic patients transfused with high bacterial loads. A total of 284 transfusion reactions (0.55%) were reported by passive surveillance. None of these patients had received contaminated platelets. However, 6 to 93 (2.1%-32.7%) of these 284 reactions met 1 or more STR criteria, and sensitivity of STR criteria varied from 5.1% to 45.5%. These results document the continued occurrence of bacterial contamination of platelets resulting in STR in neutropenic patients, failure of passive surveillance to detect STR, and lack of specificity of STR criteria. These findings highlight the limitations of reported national STR data based on passive surveillance and the need to implement further measures to address this problem such as secondary testing or use of pathogen reduction technologies.

  2. 77 FR 52317 - Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar systems with certain...

  3. Urinary TMPRSS2:ERG and PCA3 in an active surveillance cohort: results from a baseline analysis in the Canary Prostate Active Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Daniel W.; Newcomb, Lisa F.; Brown, Elissa C.; Brooks, James D.; Carroll, Peter R.; Feng, Ziding; Gleave, Martin E.; Lance, Raymond S.; Sanda, Martin G.; Thompson, Ian M.; Wei, John T.; Nelson, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance is used to manage low risk prostate cancer. Both PCA3 and TMRPSS2-ERG are promising biomarkers that may be associated with aggressive disease. This study examines the correlation of these biomarkers with higher cancer volume and grade determined at the time of biopsy in an active surveillance cohort. Experimental Design Post-DRE urine was collected prospectively as part of the multi-institutional Canary Prostate Active Surveillance Study (PASS). PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG levels were analyzed in urine collected at study entry. Biomarker scores were correlated to clinical and pathologic variables. Results In 387 men, both PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores were significantly associated with higher volume disease. For a negative repeat biopsy, and 1–10%, 11–33%, ≥34% positive cores, median PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores increased incrementally (P < 0.005). Both PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores were also significantly associated with presence of high grade disease. For a negative repeat biopsy, Gleason 6 and Gleason ≥7 cancers, the median PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores also increased incrementally (P = 0.02 and P = 0.001, respectively). Using the marker scores as a continuous variables, the odds ratio for a biopsy in which cancer was detected versus a negative repeat biopsy (ref) on modeling was 1.41 (95% CI 1.07–1.85), P = 0.01 for PCA3 and 1.28 (95% CI 1.10–1.49), P = 0.001 for TMPRSS2-ERG. Conclusions For men on active surveillance both PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG appear to stratify risk of having aggressive cancer as defined by tumor volume or Gleason score. PMID:23515404

  4. The European surveillance activities EARSS and ESAC in the context of ABS International.

    PubMed

    Metz-Gercek, Sigrid; Mittermayer, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Development of resistance obstructs the successful use of antimicrobial drugs, since shortly after each and every introduction of a new antibiotic resistant pathogens have emerged. The hope of being able to reverse or at least slow down the occurrence of antibiotic resistance has led to a number of actions and initiatives. The project "ABS International - Implementing antibiotic strategies for appropriate use of antibiotics in hospitals in member states of the European Union", together with the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS) and the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC), covers a large proportion of possible actions against antibiotic resistance. The data generated by EARSS and ESAC are an essential prerequisite for targeted interventions to cope with the problem of antibiotic resistance. The project ABS International constitutes an impressive initiative to optimize the situation in hospitals in nine European member states.

  5. Fast range estimation based on active range-gated imaging for coastal surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Qingshan; Cao, Yinan; Wang, Xinwei; Tong, Youwan; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Yuliang

    2012-11-01

    Coastal surveillance is very important because it is useful for search and rescue, illegal immigration, or harbor security and so on. Furthermore, range estimation is critical for precisely detecting the target. Range-gated laser imaging sensor is suitable for high accuracy range especially in night and no moonlight. Generally, before detecting the target, it is necessary to change delay time till the target is captured. There are two operating mode for range-gated imaging sensor, one is passive imaging mode, and the other is gate viewing mode. Firstly, the sensor is passive mode, only capturing scenes by ICCD, once the object appears in the range of monitoring area, we can obtain the course range of the target according to the imaging geometry/projecting transform. Then, the sensor is gate viewing mode, applying micro second laser pulses and sensor gate width, we can get the range of targets by at least two continuous images with trapezoid-shaped range intensity profile. This technique enables super-resolution depth mapping with a reduction of imaging data processing. Based on the first step, we can calculate the rough value and quickly fix delay time which the target is detected. This technique has overcome the depth resolution limitation for 3D active imaging and enables super-resolution depth mapping with a reduction of imaging data processing. By the two steps, we can quickly obtain the distance between the object and sensor.

  6. Civilian Demonstrations Near the Military Installation: Restraints on Military Surveillance and Other Intelligence Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    may be used as a tool to deter lawful political activity, and courts may view overt military surveillance as evidence of a bad faith purpose instead of...a good faith physical security purpose.19 Evidence of bad faith makes it more likely that a court will find standing.󈨧 Surveillance can become...event of a delu~ohoal aflhto srenewved or the iiaUtKi’i is o)therisie nainr and assorted Srauik" fils may be McAWi~i * retnainabh!e munder this

  7. Suspicious activity recognition in infrared imagery using Hidden Conditional Random Fields for outdoor perimeter surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogotis, Savvas; Ioannidis, Dimosthenis; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Likothanassis, Spiros

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to present a novel approach for automatic recognition of suspicious activities in outdoor perimeter surveillance systems based on infrared video processing. Through the combination of size, speed and appearance based features, like the Center-Symmetric Local Binary Patterns, short-term actions are identified and serve as input, along with user location, for modeling target activities using the theory of Hidden Conditional Random Fields. HCRFs are used to directly link a set of observations to the most appropriate activity label and as such to discriminate high risk activities (e.g. trespassing) from zero risk activities (e.g loitering outside the perimeter). Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in identifying suspicious activities for video surveillance systems.

  8. Elevated Prostate Health Index (phi) and Biopsy Reclassification During Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Darian; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Landis, Patricia; Wolf, Sacha; Glavaris, Stephanie; Lotan, Tamara L; Schaeffer, Edward M; Sokoll, Lori J; Ross, Ashley E

    2016-07-01

    The Prostate Health Index (phi) has been FDA approved for decision-making regarding prostate biopsy. Phi has additionally been shown to positively correlate with tumor volume, extraprostatic disease and higher Gleason grade tumors. Here we describe a case in which an elevated phi encouraged biopsy of a gentleman undergoing active surveillance leading to reclassification of his disease as high risk prostate cancer.

  9. Visceral Leishmaniasis Eradication is a Reality: Data from a Community-based Active Surveillance in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ferdousi, Farhana; Alam, Mohammad S.; Hossain, Mohammad S.; Ma, Enbo; Itoh, Makoto; Mondal, Dinesh; Haque, Rashidul; Wagatsuma, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    More than 20 million people in Bangladesh are considered at risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis (VL). A community-based active surveillance was conducted in eight randomly selected villages in a highly endemic area of Bangladesh from 2006 to 2008. A total of 6,761 individuals living in 1,550 mud-walled houses were included in the active surveillance. Rapid rK39 dipstick tests were conducted throughout the study period to facilitate the case diagnosis. Individuals with previous or current clinical leishmaniasis were identified on the basis of the case definition of the VL elimination program. Untreated cases of suspected VL were referred to the hospital for treatment. Socioeconomic and environmental information including bed net use was also collected. In 2006, the annual incidence of clinical leishmaniasis in the study area was 141.9 cases per 10,000 population, which was significantly increased by the following year owing to community-based active surveillance for case detection and reporting. However, early case detection and early referral for treatment led to a significant decrease in incidence in 2008. This study suggests that community-based active surveillance using a simple diagnostic tool might play a role in achieving the goal of the VL elimination program. PMID:23532674

  10. Inspection of surveillance equipment and activities at DOE Field Office, Richland

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The purpose of this inspection was to review surveillance activities by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Field Office, Richland (RL) and contractor employees at the RL Hanford site for efficiency and economy and compliance with laws and regulations. The scope included surveillance activities, procedures, training, types of surveillance equipment, and management controls over the equipment and activities. We also looked at Departmental policies and procedures regarding the equipment and activities. Allegations of illegal surveillance that came to our attention during the course of this inspection were referred to the Department of Justice. As part of our review, inspectors were on-site at RL from February 11, 1991, through March 1, 1991. Follow-up trips to RL were also made in April, May, and June 1991. We also conducted interviews at Albuquerque, Savannah River, and Germantown of former RL employees and RL contractors who were on travel. Officials from DOE's Office of General Counsel (OGC), Office of Security Affairs, and Office of Safeguards and Security (S S) were also interviewed regarding the Department's purchase and possession of wiretapping and eavesdropping devices. We obtained 75 signed sworn statements from 55 individuals during the course of the inspection. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Penicillin Use in Meningococcal Disease Management: Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Sites, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Blain, Amy E.; Mandal, Sema; Wu, Henry; MacNeil, Jessica R.; Harrison, Lee H.; Farley, Monica M.; Lynfield, Ruth; Miller, Lisa; Nichols, Megin; Petit, Sue; Reingold, Arthur; Schaffner, William; Thomas, Ann; Zansky, Shelley M.; Anderson, Raydel; Harcourt, Brian H.; Mayer, Leonard W.; Clark, Thomas A.; Cohn, Amanda C.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, in the Active Bacterial Core surveillance sites, penicillin was not commonly used to treat meningococcal disease. This is likely because of inconsistent availability of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and ease of use of third-generation cephalosporins. Consideration of current practices may inform future meningococcal disease management guidelines. PMID:27704009

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ETD SURVEILLANCE CHECKLIST FOR MONITORING EPA RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEVELOPMENT OF AN ETD SURVEILLANCE CHECKLIST FOR MONITORING EPA RESEARCH ACTIVITIES, Thomas J. Hughes, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), ORD, U.S. EPA, Experimental Toxicology Division (ETD), MD 66, RTP, NC 27711

    Research studies condu...

  13. Penicillin Use in Meningococcal Disease Management: Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Sites, 2009.

    PubMed

    Blain, Amy E; Mandal, Sema; Wu, Henry; MacNeil, Jessica R; Harrison, Lee H; Farley, Monica M; Lynfield, Ruth; Miller, Lisa; Nichols, Megin; Petit, Sue; Reingold, Arthur; Schaffner, William; Thomas, Ann; Zansky, Shelley M; Anderson, Raydel; Harcourt, Brian H; Mayer, Leonard W; Clark, Thomas A; Cohn, Amanda C

    2016-09-01

    In 2009, in the Active Bacterial Core surveillance sites, penicillin was not commonly used to treat meningococcal disease. This is likely because of inconsistent availability of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and ease of use of third-generation cephalosporins. Consideration of current practices may inform future meningococcal disease management guidelines.

  14. Emergency department syndromic surveillance providing early warning of seasonal respiratory activity in England.

    PubMed

    Hughes, H E; Morbey, R; Hughes, T C; Locker, T E; Pebody, R; Green, H K; Ellis, J; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal respiratory infections place an increased burden on health services annually. We used a sentinel emergency department syndromic surveillance system to understand the factors driving respiratory attendances at emergency departments (EDs) in England. Trends in different respiratory indicators were observed to peak at different points during winter, with further variation observed in the distribution of attendances by age. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed acute respiratory infection and bronchitis/bronchiolitis ED attendances in patients aged 1-4 years were particularly sensitive indicators for increasing respiratory syncytial virus activity. Using near real-time surveillance of respiratory ED attendances may provide early warning of increased winter pressures in EDs, particularly driven by seasonal pathogens. This surveillance may provide additional intelligence about different categories of attendance, highlighting pressures in particular age groups, thereby aiding planning and preparation to respond to acute changes in EDs, and thus the health service in general.

  15. Comparison of two active surveillance programs for the detection of clinical dengue cases in Iquitos, Peru.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Claudio; Morrison, Amy C; Forshey, Brett M; Blair, Patrick J; Olson, James G; Stancil, Jeffrey D; Sihuincha, Moises; Scott, Thomas W; Kochel, Tadeusz J

    2009-04-01

    Endemic dengue transmission has been documented in the Amazonian city of Iquitos, Peru, since the early 1990s. To better understand the epidemiology of dengue transmission in Iquitos, we established multiple active surveillance systems to detect symptomatic infections. Here we compare the efficacy of distinct community-based (door to door) and school absenteeism-based febrile surveillance strategies in detecting active cases of dengue. Febrile episodes were detected by both systems with equal rapidity after disease onset. However, during the period that both programs were running simultaneously in 2004, a higher number of febrile cases in general (4.52/100 versus 1.64/100 person-years) and dengue cases specifically (2.35/100 versus 1.29/100 person-years) were detected in school-aged children through the community-based surveillance program. Similar results were obtained by direct comparison of 435 participants concurrently enrolled in both programs (P < 0.005). We conclude that, in Iquitos, community-based door-to-door surveillance is a more efficient and sensitive design for detecting active dengue cases than programs based on school absenteeism.

  16. Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network-2 Decades of Achievements, 1996-2015.

    PubMed

    Henao, Olga L; Jones, Timothy F; Vugia, Duc J; Griffin, Patricia M

    2015-09-01

    The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) provides a foundation for food safety policy and illness prevention in the United States. FoodNet conducts active, population-based surveillance at 10 US sites for laboratory-confirmed infections of 9 bacterial and parasitic pathogens transmitted commonly through food and for hemolytic uremic syndrome. Through FoodNet, state and federal scientists collaborate to monitor trends in enteric illnesses, identify their sources, and implement special studies. FoodNet's major contributions include establishment of reliable, active population-based surveillance of enteric diseases; development and implementation of epidemiologic studies to determine risk and protective factors for sporadic enteric infections; population and laboratory surveys that describe the features of gastrointestinal illnesses, medical care-seeking behavior, frequency of eating various foods, and laboratory practices; and development of a surveillance and research platform that can be adapted to address emerging issues. The importance of FoodNet's ongoing contributions probably will grow as clinical, laboratory, and informatics technologies continue changing rapidly.

  17. Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network—2 Decades of Achievements, 1996–2015

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Timothy F.; Vugia, Duc J.; Griffin, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) provides a foundation for food safety policy and illness prevention in the United States. FoodNet conducts active, population-based surveillance at 10 US sites for laboratory-confirmed infections of 9 bacterial and parasitic pathogens transmitted commonly through food and for hemolytic uremic syndrome. Through FoodNet, state and federal scientists collaborate to monitor trends in enteric illnesses, identify their sources, and implement special studies. FoodNet’s major contributions include establishment of reliable, active population-based surveillance of enteric diseases; development and implementation of epidemiologic studies to determine risk and protective factors for sporadic enteric infections; population and laboratory surveys that describe the features of gastrointestinal illnesses, medical care–seeking behavior, frequency of eating various foods, and laboratory practices; and development of a surveillance and research platform that can be adapted to address emerging issues. The importance of FoodNet’s ongoing contributions probably will grow as clinical, laboratory, and informatics technologies continue changing rapidly. PMID:26292181

  18. Microprocessors for auditing the surveillance activity of the Infection Control Nurse.

    PubMed

    Desai, N; Honeywell, K; Casewell, M W

    1991-06-01

    An important part of the Infection Control Nurse's activity in the UK is the laboratory-based surveillance of patients with infections that are known to be transmissible, i.e. of 'alert' organisms. We have replaced a manual 'T-card' system in which relevant patient information, microbiology and nursing notes are held on all patients yielding 'alert' organisms. The programme is menu driven, requires minimal coding and runs on a microprocessor with a hard disc. The programme enables surveillance patient information to be entered, edited, archived and recorded. Instant retrieval on screen or hard copy includes summarized or full displays of all patients on all wards, sorted by wards, organism, date or risk category. Archived data may be retrieved within minutes and this avoids having to interrogate the whole laboratory database overnight. To illustrate an additional use of the data stored, we analysed the surveillance activities of the Control of Infection Nurse for one year. Of 203 laboratory diagnoses requiring patient surveillance, 30% were viral infections, of which more than two-thirds were caused by hepatitis B virus; of the 142 bacterial isolates, 27% were multiply antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, 25% Pseudomonas spp, 12% Salmonella spp., 9% methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 7% Group A streptococci and 8% meningococci. These isolates resulted in only four outbreaks involving nine patients or staff. This information has proved useful for auditing the nurse's activity and provides evidence for the cost-effectiveness of infection control.

  19. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    PubMed

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  20. Visual Sensor Technology for Advanced Surveillance Systems: Historical View, Technological Aspects and Research Activities in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Gian Luca; Micheloni, Christian; Piciarelli, Claudio; Snidaro, Lauro

    2009-01-01

    The paper is a survey of the main technological aspects of advanced visual-based surveillance systems. A brief historical view of such systems from the origins to nowadays is given together with a short description of the main research projects in Italy on surveillance applications in the last twenty years. The paper then describes the main characteristics of an advanced visual sensor network that (a) directly processes locally acquired digital data, (b) automatically modifies intrinsic (focus, iris) and extrinsic (pan, tilt, zoom) parameters to increase the quality of acquired data and (c) automatically selects the best subset of sensors in order to monitor a given moving object in the observed environment. PMID:22574011

  1. EVMS Self-Surveillance of Remote Handled Low Level Waste (RHLLW) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Nelson; Kimberly Case; Linda Hergesheimer; Maxine Johnson; Doug Parker; Rick Staten; Scott taylor

    2013-07-01

    DOE G 413.3-10A, Section 3.a states: “The Contractor has primary responsibility for implementing and maintaining a surveillance program to ensure continued compliance of the system with ANSI/EIA-748B. DOE O 413.3B requires the FPD to ensure the contractor conducts a Self-Surveillance annually. This annual Self-Surveillance,…should cover all 32 guidelines of the ANSI/EIA748B. Documentation of the Self-Surveillance is sent to the CO and the PMSO (copy to OECM) confirming the continued compliance of their EVMS ANSI/EIA748B...” This review, and the associated report, is deemed to satisfy this requirement.

  2. Tobacco use by youth: a surveillance report from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey project.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, C. W.; Riley, L.; Asma, S.; Eriksen, M. P.; Green, L.; Blanton, C.; Loo, C.; Batchelor, S.; Yach, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) project was developed by the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to track tobacco use among youth in countries across the world, using a common methodology and core questionnaire. The GYTS is school based and employs a two-stage sample design to produce representative data on smoking among students aged 13-15 years. The first stage consists of a probabilistic selection of schools, and the second consists of a random selection of classes from the participating schools. All students in the selected classes are eligible for the survey. In 1999, the GYTS was conducted in 13 countries and is currently in progress in over 30 countries. This report describes data from 12 countries: Barbados, China, Costa Rica, Fiji, Jordan, Poland, the Russian Federation (Moscow), South Africa, Sri Lanka, Ukraine (Kiev), Venezuela, and Zimbabwe. The findings show that tobacco use in the surveyed age group ranged from a high of 33% to a low of 10%. While the majority of current smokers wanted to stop smoking, very few were able to attend a cessation programme. In most countries the majority of young people reported seeing advertisements for cigarettes in media outlets, but anti-tobacco advertising was rare. The majority of young people reported being taught in school about the dangers of smoking. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure was very high in all countries. These results show that the GYTS surveillance system is enhancing the capacity of countries to design, implement, and evaluate tobacco prevention and control programmes. PMID:10994259

  3. The use of early summer mosquito surveillance to predict late summer West Nile virus activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rochlin, Ilia; Campbell, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Utility of early-season mosquito surveillance to predict West Nile virus activity in late summer was assessed in Suffolk County, NY. Dry ice-baited CDC miniature light traps paired with gravid traps were set weekly. Maximum-likelihood estimates of WNV positivity, minimum infection rates, and % positive pools were generally well correlated. However, positivity in gravid traps was not correlated with positivity in CDC light traps. The best early-season predictors of WNV activity in late summer (estimated using maximum-likelihood estimates of Culex positivity in August and September) were early date of first positive pool, low numbers of mosquitoes in July, and low numbers of mosquito species in July. These results suggest that early-season entomological samples can be used to predict WNV activity later in the summer, when most human cases are acquired. Additional research is needed to establish which surveillance variables are most predictive and to characterize the reliability of the predictions.

  4. Active surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis in poliomyelitis high-risk areas in southern China.

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Y.; Hikita, K.; Matuba, T.; Chosa, T.; Kyogoku, S.; Yu, J.; Wang, Z.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: On 29 October 2000 poliomyelitis was officially declared to have been eradicated from the Western Pacific Region. This article describes the results of surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in China during the final phase of the eradication effort. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based active surveillance in high-risk areas for poliomyelitis in 5 provinces of southern-China (Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Jiangxi) between 1995 and 1997 to determine the adequacy of reporting and laboratory diagnosis of cases of AFP. FINDINGS: A total of 1069 AFP cases occurring since 1993 were identified in 311 hospital visits. Less than 50% of AFP cases occurring in 1993 and 1994 had been reported by AFP surveillance, and laboratory diagnosis had been carried out on only a small proportion of these. However, improved cooperation between hospital sectors increased the rate of case reporting and laboratory diagnosis to 85% and 78%, respectively, in 1997. Despite this overall improvement, these two indicators were approximately 10-20% lower in Yunnan Province. Epidemiological analysis revealed that cases of clinical poliomyelitis accounted for as much as one-third of all AFP in 1993 and that some of these cases were clustered. Clusters were rarely observed after 1994. Active surveillance in the China-Myanmar border areas of Yunnan over 1995-96 detected 9 cross-border cases of clinical poliomyelitis, including 2 of wild poliomyelitis. Import of poliomyelitis was thus considered to have occurred frequently until 1996 in this border area of Yunnan. These data were important for the outbreak response immunization carried out in 1996 in the border prefectures of Yunnan. CONCLUSION: Our investigation confirmed a high level of AFP surveillance in poliomyelitis high-risk areas of the five provinces and provided valuable information on the interruption of wild poliovirus circulation in southern China that will be of use to countries in other regions that have

  5. Global data collection and the surveillance of active volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    Data relay systems on existing earth-orbiting satellites provide an inexpensive way to collect environmental data from numerous remote sites around the world. This technology could be used effectively for fundamental monitoring of most of the world's active volcanoes. Such global monitoring would focus attention on the most dangerous volcanoes that are likely to significantly impact the geosphere and the biosphere. ?? 1990.

  6. [Active clinical surveillance for detection of Legionnaires' disease: implications for health care structures].

    PubMed

    Marchesi, I; Bargellini, A; Cencetti, S; Concetti, S; Marchegiano, P; Cauteruccio, L; Casolari, C; Borella, P

    2007-01-01

    In an university hospital of about 900 beds, a clinical surveillance was activated to detect cases of Legionnaires' disease in patients affected by community and/or nosocomial-acquired pneumonia. In the hospital Legionella spp was detected in the hot water distribution system and various disinfecting and control procedures were adopted to reduce contamination. Contemporary, the clinical surveillance began with the systematic detection of Legionella urinary antigen among recovered pneumonia, seroconversion as confirmation test and the collection of respiratory secretions or other biological materials to isolate the microorganism in patients positive to the urinary antigen. From September 2003 to May 2005, 486 pneumonia were followed, 98 of which considered of nosocomial origin. In total, 15 cases of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease were detected by the urinary test, whereas no cases of nosocomial origin were found. The characteristics of the detected cases are described in comparison with the other pneumonia and the surveillance cost was evaluated. The systematic clinical surveillance for Legionella infections is feasible with limit costs, allows to detect community-acquired cases otherwise unknown and to ascertain the absence/presence of nosocomial-acquired pneumonia, irrespective of the environment contamination.

  7. Multitarget visual tracking based effective surveillance with cooperation of multiple active cameras.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Ming; Fu, Li-Chen

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a tracking-based surveillance system that is capable of tracking multiple moving objects, with almost real-time response, through the effective cooperation of multiple pan-tilt cameras. To construct this surveillance system, the distributed camera agent, which tracks multiple moving objects independently, is first developed. The particle filter is extended with target depth estimate to track multiple targets that may overlap with one another. A strategy to select the suboptimal camera action is then proposed for a camera mounted on a pan-tilt platform that has been assigned to track multiple targets within its limited field of view simultaneously. This strategy is based on the mutual information and the Monte Carlo method to maintain coverage of the tracked targets. Finally, for a surveillance system with a small number of active cameras to effectively monitor a wide space, this system is aimed to maximize the number of targets to be tracked. We further propose a hierarchical camera selection and task assignment strategy, known as the online position strategy, to integrate all of the distributed camera agents. The overall performance of the multicamera surveillance system has been verified with computer simulations and extensive experiments.

  8. An effective active surveillance method for controlling nosocomial MRSA transmission in a Japanese hospital.

    PubMed

    Ohkushi, Daisuke; Uehara, Yuki; Iwamoto, Akira; Misawa, Shigeki; Kondo, Shigemi; Shimizu, Kenichiro; Hori, Satoshi; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2013-10-01

    Hospital-wide active surveillance for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) targeted to adult patients with a history of MRSA carriage within the past 5 years was performed in Juntendo University Hospital (JUH) over a 2-year period. In the first year, MRSA screening culture was ordered by physicians in charge. In the second year, infection-control practitioners (ICPs) took samples for active surveillance culture. The average monthly transmission rate of MRSA in JUH was 0.35 per 1,000 bed-days in the first year and decreased significantly to 0.26 per 1,000 bed-days in the second year (P < 0.05). In the second year, more active commitment of ICPs to MRSA screening was effective in improving the performance rate of screening, shortening turn-around time of screening results, and decreasing transmission rate. Increasing compliance with active MRSA surveillance by involvement of ICPs, targeting patients with a previous history of MRSA carriage in the previous 5 years, was effective to control nosocomial MRSA transmission.

  9. Advancing the science for active surveillance: rationale and design for the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership.

    PubMed

    Stang, Paul E; Ryan, Patrick B; Racoosin, Judith A; Overhage, J Marc; Hartzema, Abraham G; Reich, Christian; Welebob, Emily; Scarnecchia, Thomas; Woodcock, Janet

    2010-11-02

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 mandated that the FDA develop a system for using automated health care data to identify risks of marketed drugs and other medical products. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership is a public-private partnership among the FDA, academia, data owners, and the pharmaceutical industry that is responding to the need to advance the science of active medical product safety surveillance by using existing observational databases. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership's transparent, open innovation approach is designed to systematically and empirically study critical governance, data resource, and methodological issues and their interrelationships in establishing a viable national program of active drug safety surveillance by using observational data. This article describes the governance structure, data-access model, methods-testing approach, and technology development of this effort, as well as the work that has been initiated.

  10. Preoperational radiation surveillance of the WIPP project by EEG during 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, J.W.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of the EEG preoperational monitoring program is to document the existing concentrations of selected radionuclides in various environmental media collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site to provide a basis of comparison of any effects of future WT-PP operations. The basic methodology for conducting environmental surveillance both on-site and off-site was outlined by Spiegler (1984). This report represents a continuation of the EEG baseline data beginning in 1985, previously reported in EEG-43, EEG-47, EEG-49 and EEG-51. Such radionuclide baseline data are important in order to determine whether future WIPP operations with radioactive waste have affected concentrations of these radionuclides in the environment. EEG data are consistent with similar environmental measurements obtained by DOE beginning in 1985. Since late 1985, the EEG has collected or received as split samples 2 443 air filters with particulates, 202 water samples, 16 biota samples and 13 soil/sediment samples. A total of 5,946 specific radionuclide analyses have been performed on these samples. As reported previously by EEG (EEG-43, EEG-47, EEG-49 and EEG-51), observed concentrations of U-238 daughter radionuclides were not in equilibrium with the parent radionuclide in water samples. This observation is consistent with different radionuclide mobility in the environment. In a notice of proposed rule making for 40 CFR 141 (US EPA 1991), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations reflect this in the calculated activity-to-mass ratio of 1.3 pCi/{mu}g of uranium using a geometric mean of the U-234:U-238 ratio in water supplies of 2.7. Ra-226 and Ra- 228 were reported in a number of water samples in concentrations similar to those previously published by EEG and DOE.

  11. Cancer Prehabilitation for Patients Starting from Active Treatment to Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Shun, Shiow-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this brief summary is to introduce the concept of cancer prehabilitation and the role of oncology nurses in prehabilitation care. Cancer prehabilitation has been defined by Sliver and Baima (2013) as “a process on the cancer continuum of care that occurs between the time of cancer diagnosis and the beginning of acute treatment.” The evidence supports the notion that prehabilitation programs can improve physical and psychological health outcomes and decrease overall health care costs. The care model for cancer prehabilitation should include timely and efficient assessment throughout the care continuum with a focus on improving outcomes in cancer at every stage. During the cancer journey, three types of assessment with different aims are included: (1) prehabilitation assessment pretreatment, (2) rehabilitation assessment at early post treatment, and (3) health promotion assessment at the end of treatment. Specific prehabilitation assessment and interventions for treatment-related complications or major side-effects should be considered. Teaching, counseling, discharge planning, and coordination should also be part of an oncology nurse's role in cancer prehabilitation. It is suggested that cancer care managers or navigators be trained in the assessment of their patients’ physical and psychological status once the cancer diagnosis has been identified and the patient has decided to receive active treatment, especially for those waiting for surgery at home. Oncology nurses could increase their competence with prehabilitation care by gaining knowledge about cancer-related treatments and their outcomes for specific cancers and by strengthening the ability to assess the functional status and psychological distress of their patients. PMID:27981135

  12. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  13. Brucella abortus surveillance of cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands and a case for active disease surveillance as a training tool.

    PubMed

    Tukana, Andrew; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    There have been no surveys of the cattle population for brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) for more than 15 years. This study used disease surveillance as a capacity building training tool and to examine some of the constraints that impede surveillance in PICTs. The study also developed and implemented a series of surveys for detecting antibodies to B. abortus in cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands contributing to OIE requirements. The findings indicated lack of funds, lack of technical capacity, shortage of veterinarians, high turnover of in-country officials and lack of awareness on the impacts of animal diseases on public health that were constraining active disease surveillance. During the development and implementation of the surveys, constraints highlighted were outdated census data on farm numbers and cattle population, lack of funds for mobilisation of officials to carry out the surveys, lack of equipment for collecting and processing samples, lack of staff knowledge on blood sampling, geographical difficulties and security in accessing farms. Some of the reasons why these were constraints are discussed with likely solutions presented. The detection surveys had the objectives of building capacity for the country officials and demonstrating freedom from brucellosis in cattle for PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands all demonstrated freedom from bovine brucellosis in the areas surveyed using the indirect ELISA test. Fiji had an outbreak of brucellosis, and the objective was to determine its distribution and prevalence on untested farms. The Muaniweni district surveyed during the training had a 95 % confidence interval for true prevalence between 1.66 and 5.45 %. The study showed that active disease surveillance could be used as a tool for training officials thus, improves surveillance capacity in resource poor countries.

  14. Functional outcomes following ankle arthrodesis in males with haemophilia: analyses using the CDC’s Universal Data Collection surveillance project

    PubMed Central

    LANE, H.; SIDDIQI, A.-E.-A.; INGRAM-RICH, R.; TOBASE, P.; WARD, R. SCOTT

    2015-01-01

    Summary In persons with haemophilia (PWH), repeated ankle haemarthroses lead to pain, loss of joint range of motion (ROM), and limitations in activity and participation in society. PWH are offered ankle arthrodesis (AA) to eliminate pain. In our experience, PWH are hesitant to proceed to AA due to concerns regarding gait anomalies, functional decline and complete loss of ROM. The aim of this study was to report outcomes in ROM, assistive device (AD)/wheelchair use, activity scale and work/school absenteeism for participants in the CDC’s Universal Data Collection surveillance project (UDC) pre- and post- AA. Males with haemophilia enrolled in the UDC with first report of AA (1998–2010) were selected. Descriptive statistics were calculated using data from the annual study visit pre-AA and the follow-up visit (~12–24 months) post-AA. The 68 subjects who fulfilled the criteria were: mean age 36.9 years (SD = 12.9); 85.3% white; 85.3% haemophilia A; 72% severe, 20.6% moderate; and 10.3% with inhibitor once during the study period. Mean loss in total arc of ankle motion was 17.02° (SD = 21.8, P ≤ 0.01) pre- compared to post-AA. For 61.8%, there was no change in use of AD for ambulation/mobility. For 85.3%, there was no change in use of a wheelchair. On a self-reported activity scale, 11.8% improved, 8.8% worsened and 79.4% did not change. Work/school absenteeism averaged 2.7 (SD = 6.4) pre- and 1.5 (SD = 6.4, P = 0.26) days per year post-AA. While ankle ROM was significantly reduced post-AA, for most subjects, there was no change in use of AD/wheelchair for ambulation/mobility. Physical activity was maintained and work/school absenteeism remained stable. PMID:24629136

  15. Early detection of pipeline integrity threats using a smart fiber optic surveillance system: the PIT-STOP project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, H. F.; Piote, D.; Tejedor, J.; Macias-Guarasa, J.; Pastor-Graells, J.; Martin-Lopez, S.; Corredera, P.; De Smet, F.; Postvoll, W.; Ahlen, C. H.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M.

    2015-09-01

    The preliminary results of a surveillance system set up for real time monitoring activities along a pipeline and analyzing for possible threats are presented. The system consists of a phi-OTDR based sensor used to monitor vibrations along an optical fiber combined with a pattern recognition system that classifies the recorded signals. The acoustic traces generated by the activities of different machines at various locations along a pipeline were recorded in the field. The signals, corresponding to machinery activities, were clearly distinguished from background noise. A threat classification rate of 68.11% with 55.55% false alarms was obtained.

  16. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  17. Guidance for implementing the long-term surveillance program for UMTRA Project Title I Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This guidance document has two purposes: it provides guidance for writing site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSP) and it describes site surveillance, monitoring, and long-term care techniques for Title I disposal sites of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.). Long-term care includes monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures needed to protect public health and safety and the environment after remedial action is completed. This document applies to the UMTRCA-designated Title I disposal sites. The requirements for long-term care of the Title I sites and the contents of the LTSPs are provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations (10 CFR Section 40.27) provided in Attachment 1.

  18. Applying a New Model for Sharing Population Health Data to National Syndromic Influenza Surveillance: DiSTRIBuTE Project Proof of Concept, 2006 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Olson, Donald R; Paladini, Marc; Lober, William B; Buckeridge, David L

    2011-08-02

    The Distributed Surveillance Taskforce for Real-time Influenza Burden Tracking and Evaluation (DiSTRIBuTE) project began as a pilot effort initiated by the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS) in autumn 2006 to create a collaborative electronic emergency department (ED) syndromic influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance network based on existing state and local systems and expertise. DiSTRIBuTE brought together health departments that were interested in: 1) sharing aggregate level data; 2) maintaining jurisdictional control; 3) minimizing barriers to participation; and 4) leveraging the flexibility of local systems to create a dynamic and collaborative surveillance network. This approach was in contrast to the prevailing paradigm for surveillance where record level information was collected, stored and analyzed centrally. The DiSTRIBuTE project was created with a distributed design, where individual level data remained local and only summarized, stratified counts were reported centrally, thus minimizing privacy risks. The project was responsive to federal mandates to improve integration of federal, state, and local biosurveillance capabilities. During the proof of concept phase, 2006 to 2009, ten jurisdictions from across North America sent ISDS on a daily to weekly basis year-round, aggregated data by day, stratified by local ILI syndrome, age-group and region. During this period, data from participating U.S. state or local health departments captured over 13% of all ED visits nationwide. The initiative focused on state and local health department trust, expertise, and control. Morbidity trends observed in DiSTRIBuTE were highly correlated with other influenza surveillance measures. With the emergence of novel A/H1N1 influenza in the spring of 2009, the project was used to support information sharing and ad hoc querying at the state and local level. In the fall of 2009, through a broadly collaborative effort, the project was expanded to enhance

  19. Recent findings from the Human Proteome Project: opening the mass spectrometry toolbox to advance cancer diagnosis, surveillance and treatment.

    PubMed

    Cantor, David I; Nice, Edouard C; Baker, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    The Human Proteome Project stands to eclipse the Human Genome Project in terms of scope, content and interpretation. Its outputs, in conjunction with recent developments across the proteomics community, provide new tools for cancer research with the potential of providing clinically relevant insights into the disease. These collectively may guide the development of future diagnosis, surveillance and treatment strategies. Having established a robust organizational framework within the international community, the Human Proteome Organization and the proteomics community at large have made significant advances in biomarker discovery, detection, molecular imaging and in exploring tumor heterogeneity. Here, the authors discuss some developments in cancer proteomics and how they can be implemented to reduce the global burden of the disease.

  20. FY 1994 annual summary report of the surveillance and maintenance activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) Program was initiated to manage former waste management and environmental research sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals. The S and M Program is responsible for managing designated sites/facilities from the end of their operating lives until final disposition or site stabilization. To effectively manage and perform the various S and M Program responsibilities, five summary-level work breakdown structure (WBS) elements have been established: S and M Preliminary Investigations, Special Projects, Routine S and M, Inactive Groundwater Wells, and Project Management. Routine S and M activities were conducted as scheduled throughout fiscal years (FY) 1994 at applicable inactive waste management (WM) and other contaminated areas. Overall, the ER S and M Program maintains 47 facilities, performs vegetation maintenance on approximately 230 acres, maintains 54 inactive tanks, and provides overall site management on over 700 acres. In addition to the routine S and M activities, detailed site inspections were conducted at established frequencies on appropriate sites in the ER S and M Program. This document provides a summary of the FY 1994 ORNL ER S and M Program accomplishments.

  1. Role of serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in prostate cancer active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Larissa J; Janoski, Michele; Wachowicz, Keith; Yahya, Atiyah; Boychak, Oleksandr; Amanie, John; Pervez, Nadeem; Parliament, Matthew B; Pituskin, Edith; Fallone, B Gino; Usmani, Nawaid

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether addition of 3T multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to an active surveillance protocol could detect aggressive or progressive prostate cancer. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with low risk disease were enrolled on this active surveillance study, all of which had Gleason score 6 or less disease. All patients had clinical assessments, including digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, every 6 mo with annual 3T mpMRI scans with gadolinium contrast and minimum sextant prostate biopsies. The MRI images were anonymized of patient identifiers and clinical information and each scan underwent radiological review without the other results known. Descriptive statistics for demographics and follow-up as well as the sensitivity and specificity of mpMRI to identify prostate cancer and progressive disease were calculated. RESULTS: During follow-up (median 24.8 mo) 11 of 23 patients with low-risk prostate cancer had disease progression and were taken off study to receive definitive treatment. Disease progression was identified through upstaging of Gleason score on subsequent biopsies for all 11 patients with only 2 patients also having a PSA doubling time of less than 2 years. All 23 patients had biopsy confirmed prostate cancer but only 10 had a positive index of suspicion on mpMRI scans at baseline (43.5% sensitivity). Aggressive disease prediction from baseline mpMRI scans had satisfactory specificity (81.8%) but low sensitivity (58.3%). Twenty-two patients had serial mpMRI scans and evidence of disease progression was seen for 3 patients all of whom had upstaging of Gleason score on biopsy (30% specificity and 100% sensitivity). CONCLUSION: Addition of mpMRI imaging in active surveillance decision making may help in identifying aggressive disease amongst men with indolent prostate cancer earlier than traditional methods. PMID:27158428

  2. Building a benchmark through active surveillance of intensive care unit-acquired infections: the Italian network SPIN-UTI.

    PubMed

    Agodi, A; Auxilia, F; Barchitta, M; Brusaferro, S; D'Alessandro, D; Montagna, M T; Orsi, G B; Pasquarella, C; Torregrossa, V; Suetens, C; Mura, I

    2010-03-01

    The Italian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) (SPIN-UTI) project of the Italian Study Group of Hospital Hygiene (GISIO - SItI) was undertaken to ensure standardisation of definitions, data collection and reporting procedures using the Hospital in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance (HELICS)-ICU benchmark. Before starting surveillance, participant ICUs met in order to involve the key stakeholders in the project through participation in planning. Four electronic data forms for web-based data collection were designed. The six-month patient-based prospective survey was undertaken from November 2006 to May 2007, preceded by a one-month surveillance pilot study to assess the overall feasibility of the programme and to determine the time needed and resources for participant hospitals. The SPIN-UTI project included 49 ICUs, 3053 patients with length of stay >2 days and 35 498 patient-days. The cumulative incidence of infections was 19.8 per 100 patients and the incidence density was 17.1 per 1000 patient-days. The most frequently encountered infection type was pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most frequent infection-associated micro-organism, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. Site-specific infection rates for pneumonia, bloodstream infections, central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections and urinary tract infections, stratified according to patient risk factors, were below the 75th centile reported by the HELICS network benchmark. The SPIN-UTI project showed that introduction of ongoing surveillance should be possible in many Italian hospitals. The study provided the opportunity to participate in the HELICS project using benchmark data for comparison and for better understanding of factors influencing risks.

  3. [TV, overweight and nutritional surveillance. Ads content, food intake and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, T D; Bioletti, L; Bo, C; Formigatti, M

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between television viewing and obesity in children and adults was examined in a large number of cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Some randomised, controlled trials confirmed the evidence that television viewing is a cause of increased body fatness. It seems of utility in nutritional surveillance to esteem time spent by children and adults in television watching and to evaluate ads contents and food preferences suggested by them. This editorial shows a two-years long analysis of food commercials broadcasted by the main Italian TV networks; food ads targeted on children, housewives and sport fans were evaluated; the relationship between television viewing, commercials and food intake or global lifestyle was investigated in a Piedmont's population (from Northern Italy). School projects aimed to reduce television viewing represent a promising strategy for preventing childhood obesity.

  4. Confirmatory biopsy for the assessment of prostate cancer in men considering active surveillance: reference centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Cecilia; Cozzi, Gabriele; Kinsella, Janette; Bianchi, Roberto; Acher, Peter; Challacombe, Benjamin; Popert, Rick; Brown, Christian; George, Gincy; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Cahill, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate how accurate a 12-core transrectal biopsy derived low-risk prostate cancer diagnosis is for an active surveillance programme by comparing the histological outcome with that from confirmatory transperineal sector biopsy. Subjects and methods The cohort included 166 men diagnosed with low volume Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer on initial transrectal biopsy who also underwent a confirmatory biopsy. Both biopsy techniques were performed according to standard protocols and samples were taken for histopathology analysis. Subgroup analysis was performed according to disease severity at baseline to determine possible disease parameters of upgrading at confirmatory biopsy. Results After confirmatory biopsy, 34% demonstrated Gleason score upgrade, out of which 25% were Gleason score 3+4 and 8.5% primary Gleason pattern 4. Results remained consistent for the subgroup analysis and a weak positive association, but not statistically significant, between prostate specific antigen (PSA), age, and percentage of positive cores, and PCa upgrading at confirmatory biopsy was found. Conclusion In our single centre study, we found that one-third of patients had higher Gleason score at confirmatory biopsy. Furthermore 8.5% of these upgraders had a primary Gleason pattern 4. Our results together with previously published evidence highlight the need for the revision of current guidelines in prostate cancer diagnosis for the selection of men for active surveillance. PMID:27170833

  5. Potential Utility of Novel Biomarkers in Active Surveillance of Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Hyun; Hong, Sung Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is now an accepted management strategy for men with low-risk localized prostate cancer (PCa). However, detecting disease progression in a patient selected for AS remains a challenge. It is crucial to know what will serve as the best parameter to correctly identify tumors that progress to a more aggressive phenotype so as not to miss the window of curability. Several biomarkers are now being actively investigated as novel tools to improve PCa risk assessments. To date, several serum, urinary, and tissue biomarkers have shown promising prognostic value. %[−2]proPSA and PHI showed improved predictive value for an unfavorable biopsy conversion at annual surveillance biopsy in the AS program. PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG had additional independent predictive value for the prediction of PCa detection and progression, although PCA3 was limited in predicting aggressive cancer. Other tissue biomarkers also showed promising ability to predict disease progression. Although several of these novel biomarkers have an improved predictive accuracy that is better than classical parameters, there is still a need for further well-designed, large, multicenter, prospective trials to avoid common bias and clinical validation. PMID:26339615

  6. The relationships between body surveillance, body shame, and contextual body concern during sexual activities in ethnically diverse female college students.

    PubMed

    Claudat, Kim; Warren, Cortney S; Durette, Robert T

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the relationships between body surveillance, body shame, and contextual body image during sexual activity in American female college students of European, African, Asian, and Hispanic/Latina descent (N=1174). Responses to self-report questionnaires indicated that body surveillance and body shame were significantly positively correlated with contextual body concern during sexual activities for women of all ethnic groups. Examination of direct and indirect effects using structural equation modeling indicated that body shame partially mediated the relationship between body surveillance and contextual body image during sexual activity for the sample as a whole. However, multiple-group analyses (i.e., path invariance tests) showed that some of these relationships differed by ethnic group, with European American women reporting the strongest relationships. Study results generally support the mediational role of body shame, but highlight that the strength of these relationships and means may differ across ethnic groups.

  7. The use of surveillance data and market research to promote physical activity.

    PubMed

    Fridinger, Fred; Macera, Carol; Cordell, H Ken

    2002-08-01

    Using various types of data sources for assessing and monitoring physical activity behaviors on a population level adds to our ability to explain the relationships between individuals and their surrounding social and physical environments. This article presents the findings from part of a panel presentation on available data sets at the 2001 Cooper Conference on Innovative Approaches to Understanding and Influencing Physical Activity. First, an overview of large national epidemiologic and surveillance data sets is offered, followed by a discussion on the use of market segmentation data to complement more traditional sources of data by adding new dimensions to our understanding of target groups and potential intervention strategies. The relative advantages and disadvantages of using each type of data are also given, as well as recommendations for further use.

  8. Active surveillance and focal therapy for low-intermediate risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Low risk and many cases of low-intermediate risk prostate cancer, are indolent, have little or no metastatic potential, and are not life threatening. Major advances have been made in understanding who these patients are, and in encouraging the use of conservative management in such individuals. Conservative management incorporates the early identification of those ‘low risk’ patients who harbor higher risk disease, and benefit from definitive therapy. Based on the current algorithm of PSA followed by systematic biopsy, this represents about 30% of newly diagnosed low risk patients. A further small proportion of patients with low risk disease demonstrate biological progression to higher grade disease. Men with lower risk disease can defer treatment, usually for life. Men with higher risk disease that can be localized to a relatively small volume of the prostate may be candidates for focal, prostate sparing therapy. The results of active surveillance, embodying conservative management with selective delayed intervention for the subset who are re-classified as higher risk over time based on repeat biopsy, imaging, or biomarker results, have shown that this approach is safe in the intermediate to long term, with a 1-5% cancer specific mortality at 15 years. Further refinement of the surveillance approach is ongoing, incorporating MRI, targeted biopsies, and molecular biomarkers. PMID:26816834

  9. Active surveillance for prostate cancer: a narrative review of clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bruinsma, Sophie M; Bangma, Chris H; Carroll, Peter R; Leapman, Michael S; Rannikko, Antti; Petrides, Neophytos; Weerakoon, Mahesha; Bokhorst, Leonard P; Roobol, Monique J

    2016-03-01

    In the past decade active surveillance (AS) of men with localized prostate cancer has become an increasingly popular management option, and a range of clinical guidelines have been published on this topic. Existing guidelines regarding AS for prostate cancer vary widely, but predominantly state that the most suitable patients for AS are those with pretreatment clinical stage T1c or T2 tumours, serum PSA levels <10 ng/ml, biopsy Gleason scores of 6 or less, a maximum of one or two tumour-positive biopsy core samples and/or a maximum of 50% of cancer per core sample. Following initiation of an AS programme, most guidelines recommend serial serum PSA measurements, digital rectal examinations and surveillance biopsies to check for and identify pathological indications of tumour progression. Definitions of disease reclassification and progression differ among guidelines and multiple criteria for initiation of definitive treatment are proposed. The variety of descriptions of criteria for clinically insignificant prostate cancer indicates a lack of consensus on optimal AS and intervention thresholds. A single set of guidelines are needed in order to reduce variations in clinical practice and to optimize clinical decision-making. To enable truly evidence-based guidelines, further research that combines existing evidence, while also gathering information from more long-term studies is needed.

  10. Surveillance-activated defenses block the ROS-induced mitochondrial unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Runkel, Eva D; Liu, Shu; Baumeister, Ralf; Schulze, Ekkehard

    2013-01-01

    Disturbance of cellular functions results in the activation of stress-signaling pathways that aim at restoring homeostasis. We performed a genome-wide screen to identify components of the signal transduction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) to a nuclear chaperone promoter. We used the ROS generating complex I inhibitor paraquat to induce the UPR(mt), and we employed RNAi exposure post-embryonically to allow testing genes whose knockdown results in embryonic lethality. We identified 54 novel regulators of the ROS-induced UPR(mt). Activation of the UPR(mt), but not of other stress-signaling pathways, failed when homeostasis of basic cellular mechanisms such as translation and protein transport were impaired. These mechanisms are monitored by a recently discovered surveillance system that interprets interruption of these processes as pathogen attack and depends on signaling through the JNK-like MAP-kinase KGB-1. Mutation of kgb-1 abrogated the inhibition of ROS-induced UPR(mt), suggesting that surveillance-activated defenses specifically inhibit the UPR(mt) but do not compromise activation of the heat shock response, the UPR of the endoplasmic reticulum, or the SKN-1/Nrf2 mediated response to cytosolic stress. In addition, we identified PIFK-1, the orthologue of the Drosophila PI 4-kinase four wheel drive (FWD), and found that it is the only known factor so far that is essential for the unfolded protein responses of both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. This suggests that both UPRs may share a common membrane associated mechanism.

  11. Innovative Project Activities in Science [From the NSTA Study of Innovative Project Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes four projects chosen as innovative project activities in science which exhibited identification of unique or novel problems and creative approaches to their solutions. Projects included a study of fish in Lake Erie, a goat raising project, an analysis of terrestrial plant ecology and soil composition, and a study of marine and wetlands…

  12. Data sharing report characterization of the surveillance and maintenance project miscellaneous process inventory waste items Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Phyllis C.

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested ORAU to plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign to target certain items associated with URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing for final disposal. This waste was generated during processing, surveillance, and maintenance activities associated with the facilities identified in the process knowledge (PK) provided in Appendix A. A list of items for sampling and analysis were generated from a subset of materials identified in the WHP populations (POPs) 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, plus a small number of items not explicitly addressed by the WHP. Specifically, UCOR S&M project personnel identified 62 miscellaneous waste items that would require some level of evaluation to identify the appropriate pathway for disposal. These items are highly diverse, relative to origin; composition; physical description; contamination level; data requirements; and the presumed treatment, storage, and disposal facility (TSDF). Because of this diversity, ORAU developed a structured approach to address item-specific data requirements necessary for acceptance in a presumed TSDF that includes the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF)—using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile—the Y-12 Sanitary Landfill (SLF) if appropriate; Energy

  13. Calculus: An Active Approach with Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Stephen; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses a pedagogical approach to calculus based on the question: What kinds of problems should students be able to solve? Includes a discussion of types of problems and curriculum threads for such a course. Describes a projects-based calculus with examples of projects and classroom activities. (Author/MDH)

  14. Use of INSAR in surveillance and control of a large field project

    SciTech Connect

    Patzek, T.W.; Silin, D.B.

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new element of our [1] multilevel, integrated surveillance and control system: satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry (InSAR) images of oil field surface. In particular, we analyze five differential InSAR images of the Belridge Diatomite field, CA, between 11/98 and 12/99. The images have been reprocessed and normalized to obtain the ground surface displacement rate. In return, we have been able to calculate pixel-by-pixel the net subsidence of ground surface over the entire field area. The calculated annual subsidence volume of 19 million barrels is thought to be close to the subsidence at the top of the diatomite. We have also compared the 1999 rate of surface displacement from the satellite images with the surface monument triangulations between 1942 and 1997. We have found that the maximum rate of surface subsidence has been steadily increasing from -0.8 ft/year in 1988-97 to -1 ft/year in 1998-99. The respective rates of uplift of the field fringes also increased from 0.1 ft/year to 0.24 ft/year. In 1999, the observed subsidence rate exceeded by 4.5 million barrels the volumetric deficit of fluid injection.

  15. Registry-Based Prospective, Active Surveillance of Medical-Device Safety.

    PubMed

    Resnic, Frederic S; Majithia, Arjun; Marinac-Dabic, Danica; Robbins, Susan; Ssemaganda, Henry; Hewitt, Kathleen; Ponirakis, Angelo; Loyo-Berrios, Nilsa; Moussa, Issam; Drozda, Joseph; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Matheny, Michael E

    2017-02-09

    Background The process of assuring the safety of medical devices is constrained by reliance on voluntary reporting of adverse events. We evaluated a strategy of prospective, active surveillance of a national clinical registry to monitor the safety of an implantable vascular-closure device that had a suspected association with increased adverse events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods We used an integrated clinical-data surveillance system to conduct a prospective, propensity-matched analysis of the safety of the Mynx vascular-closure device, as compared with alternative approved vascular-closure devices, with data from the CathPCI Registry of the National Cardiovascular Data Registry. The primary outcome was any vascular complication, which was a composite of access-site bleeding, access-site hematoma, retroperitoneal bleeding, or any vascular complication requiring intervention. Secondary safety end points were access-site bleeding requiring treatment and postprocedural blood transfusion. Results We analyzed data from 73,124 patients who had received Mynx devices after PCI procedures with femoral access from January 1, 2011, to September 30, 2013. The Mynx device was associated with a significantly greater risk of any vascular complication than were alternative vascular-closure devices (absolute risk, 1.2% vs. 0.8%; relative risk, 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42 to 1.78; P<0.001); there was also a significantly greater risk of access-site bleeding (absolute risk, 0.4% vs. 0.3%; relative risk, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.62; P=0.001) and transfusion (absolute risk, 1.8% vs. 1.5%; relative risk, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.34; P<0.001). The initial alerts occurred within the first 12 months of monitoring. Relative risks were greater in three prespecified high-risk subgroups: patients with diabetes, those 70 years of age or older, and women. All safety alerts were confirmed in an independent sample of 48,992 patients from April 1, 2014, to

  16. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia-like ductal prostatic adenocarcinoma: A case suitable for active surveillance?

    PubMed Central

    Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Dillard, Melissa R.; Zhu, Grace G.; Gordetsky, Jennifer B.

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to typical prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN)-like ductal adenocarcinoma is a rare variant of prostate cancer with low-grade clinical behavior. We report a case of a 66-year-old African-American male with an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen who underwent multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI/ultrasound fusion-guided biopsies. Pathology demonstrated low-volume Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 (Grade Group 1), acinar adenocarcinoma involving one core and PIN-like ductal adenocarcinoma on a separate core. Herein, we discuss the potential role of active surveillance for patients with this rare variant of prostate cancer found in the era of advanced imaging with multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer. PMID:28216939

  17. Falls in residential carpentry and drywall installation: findings from active injury surveillance with union carpenters.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Dement, John M; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Li, Leiming; Cameron, Wilfred

    2003-08-01

    Active injury surveillance was conducted with a large, unionized workforce of residential and drywall carpenters over a 3-year period. Injured carpenters were interviewed by trained carpenter investigators and sites were visited where falls occurred. Qualitative information was collected on exposures, risk perception, training, and mentoring. Falls accounted for 20% of injuries. Same-level falls were often related to weather, carrying objects-sometimes with an obstructed view-housekeeping, terrain of the lot, and speed of work. Falls from height occurred from a variety of work surfaces and involved ladders, scaffolding, roofs, work on other unsecured surfaces, unprotected openings, speed, and weather conditions. Recognized fall protection strategies, such as guardrails, toe boards, tying off to appropriate anchors, and guarding openings, would have prevented many of these falls; these practices were not the norm on many sites.

  18. Project WET: Curriculum & Activity Guide. K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dennis; And Others

    Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) is a nonprofit water education program for educators and young people. This curriculum and activity guide for kindergarten through twelfth grades is a collection of innovative, water-related activities that are hands-on, easy to use, and fun. The activities incorporate a variety of formats such as large…

  19. Expert consensus document: Semantics in active surveillance for men with localized prostate cancer - results of a modified Delphi consensus procedure.

    PubMed

    Bruinsma, Sophie M; Roobol, Monique J; Carroll, Peter R; Klotz, Laurence; Pickles, Tom; Moore, Caroline M; Gnanapragasam, Vincent J; Villers, Arnauld; Rannikko, Antti; Valdagni, Riccardo; Frydenberg, Mark; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Filson, Christopher P; Bangma, Chris H

    2017-03-14

    Active surveillance (AS) is broadly described as a management option for men with low-risk prostate cancer, but semantic heterogeneity exists in both the literature and in guidelines. To address this issue, a panel of leading prostate cancer specialists in the field of AS participated in a consensus-forming project using a modified Delphi method to reach international consensus on definitions of terms related to this management option. An iterative three-round sequence of online questionnaires designed to address 61 individual items was completed by each panel member. Consensus was considered to be reached if ≥70% of the experts agreed on a definition. To facilitate a common understanding among all experts involved and resolve potential ambiguities, a face-to-face consensus meeting was held between Delphi survey rounds two and three. Convenience sampling was used to construct the panel of experts. In total, 12 experts from Australia, France, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, Japan, the UK, Canada and the USA participated. By the end of the Delphi process, formal consensus was achieved for 100% (n = 61) of the terms and a glossary was then developed. Agreement between international experts has been reached on relevant terms and subsequent definitions regarding AS for patients with localized prostate cancer. This standard terminology could support multidisciplinary communication, reduce the extent of variations in clinical practice and optimize clinical decision making.

  20. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  1. [Active surveillance of adverse drug reaction in the era of big data: challenge and opportunity for control selection].

    PubMed

    Wang, S F; Zhan, S Y

    2016-07-01

    Electronic healthcare databases have become an important source for active surveillance of drug safety in the era of big data. The traditional epidemiology research designs are needed to confirm the association between drug use and adverse events based on these datasets, and the selection of the comparative control is essential to each design. This article aims to explain the principle and application of each type of control selection, introduce the methods and parameters for method comparison, and describe the latest achievements in the batch processing of control selection, which would provide important methodological reference for the use of electronic healthcare databases to conduct post-marketing drug safety surveillance in China.

  2. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

  3. Association Between User-Generated Commuting Data and Population-Representative Active Commuting Surveillance Data - Four Cities, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Ussery, Emily N; Riordan, Brian; Wendel, Arthur M

    2016-09-16

    Creating environments that support all types of physical activity, including active transportation, is a public health priority (1). Public health surveillance that identifies the locations where community members walk and bicycle (i.e., engage in active transportation) can inform such efforts. Traditional population-representative active transportation surveillance incurs a considerable time lag between data collection and dissemination, and often lacks geographic specificity (2). Conversely, user-generated active transportation data from Global Positioning System (GPS)-based activity tracking devices and mobile applications can provide near real-time information, but might be subject to self-selection bias among users. CDC analyzed the association between GPS-based commuting data from a company that allows tracking of activity with a mobile application (Strava, Inc., San Francisco, California) and population-representative commuting data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) (3) for four U.S. cities. The level of analysis was the Census block group. The number of GPS-tracked commuters in Strava was associated with the number of ACS active commuters (Spearman's rho = 0.60), suggesting block groups were ranked similarly based on these distinct but related measurements. The correlation was higher in high population density areas. User-generated active transportation data might complement traditional surveillance systems by providing near real-time, location-specific information on where active transportation occurs.

  4. Salmonella infections associated with international travel: a Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Laura R; Gould, L Hannah; Dunn, John R; Berkelman, Ruth; Mahon, Barbara E

    2011-09-01

    Salmonella species cause an estimated 1.2 million infections per year in the United States, making it one of the most commonly reported enteric pathogens. In addition, Salmonella is an important cause of travel-associated diarrhea and enteric fever, a systemic illness commonly associated with Salmonella serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A. We reviewed cases of Salmonella infection reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), a sentinel surveillance network, from 2004 to 2008. We compared travelers with Salmonella infection to nontravelers with Salmonella infection with respect to demographics, clinical characteristics, and serotypes. Among 23,712 case-patients with known travel status, 11% had traveled internationally in the 7 days before illness. Travelers with Salmonella infection tended to be older (median age, 30 years) than nontravelers (median age, 24 years; p<0.0001), but were similar with respect to gender. The most common destinations reported were Mexico (38% of travel-associated infections), India (9%), Jamaica (7%), the Dominican Republic (4%), China (3%), and the Bahamas (2%). The proportions of travelers with Salmonella infection hospitalized and with invasive disease were inversely related to the income level of the destination (p<0.0001). The most commonly reported serotypes, regardless of travel status, were Enteritidis (19% of cases), Typhimurium (14%), Newport (9%), and Javiana (5%). Among infections caused by these four serotypes, 22%, 6%, 5%, and 4%, respectively, were associated with travel. A high index of clinical suspicion for Salmonella infection is appropriate when evaluating recent travelers, especially those who visited Africa, Asia, or Latin America.

  5. [Active epidemiological surveillance and prevention of diseases caused by biomechanical overload of the upper limbs: experience at a territorial service of occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, P G; Pezzotti, C; Rocco, A

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays in the western countries, the Work Musculoscheletal Disorders (WMSDs) are the most relevant work-related diseases either for the large number of at-risk workers and for the high prevalence of cases among them. Among WMSDs, the Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is considered a sentinel event in occupational medicine and epidemiological surveillance systems were set up to study its temporal occurrence and spatial spread. Surprisingly enough, in our country the epidemiology of the WMSDs is still unknown; although observations of important clusters of cases are increasing, these pathologies are still largely underreported by medical doctors. In the high industrialised province of Brescia, Northwestern Italy, only 1% of the 25.000 occupational disease, collected by the occupational medicine and prevention service of the National Health Service (SPSAL) since 1989 to 1997, were coded as WMSDs. Even if the notification of these work-related disorders is compulsory by low since 1973, up-to-now very few cases were reported to SPSALs, and consequently active prevention programs were very few too. For that reason, a project of active surveillance of WMSDs diagnosed on the general population was carried out to improve their identification and to evaluate the work-related etiological fraction as well as to address primary prevention projects. During 1997-1999 618 upper limb musculoskeletal disorders were collected from 2 orthopaedic hospital divisions where cases underwent surgical treatment. 369 of them were interviewed by telephone (253 female, 116 man) and 128 cases (34%) were classified as probable professionally exposed to some known hazard. Female were prevalent (71%), involved particularly in textile, garments, plastic, food production and domestic services. Among men, construction, metallurgic and mechanic were the more frequent jobs. 116 WMSDs were reported to the National Insurance Institute (INAIL). The collection of these WMSDs was the basis for specific

  6. A qualitative approach to measure the effectiveness of active avian influenza virus surveillance with respect to its cost: a case study from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Häsler, B; Howe, K S; Hauser, R; Stärk, K D C

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the project was to apply cost-effectiveness analysis to the economic appraisal of avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance, using the implemented surveillance programme in Switzerland as a case study. First a qualitative risk assessment approach was used to assess the expected impact of surveillance on the transmission and spread of AIV. The effectiveness of surveillance was expressed as the difference in defined probabilities between a scenario with surveillance and a scenario without surveillance. The following probabilities were modelled (i) transmission of highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) from wild birds to poultry, (ii) mutation from low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) into HPAIV in poultry, and (iii) transmission of HPAIV to other poultry holdings given a primary outbreak. The cost-effectiveness ratio was defined conventionally as the difference in surveillance costs (ΔC) divided by the change in probability (ΔP), the technical objective, on the presumption that surveillance diminishes the respective probabilities. However, results indicated that surveillance in both wild birds and poultry was not expected to change the probabilities of primary and secondary AIV outbreaks in Switzerland. The overall surveillance costs incurred were estimated at 31,000 €/year, which, to be a rational investment of resources, must still reflect the value policy makers attribute to other benefits from having surveillance (e.g. peace of mind). The advantage of the approach adopted is that it is practical, transparent, and thus able to clarify for policy makers the key variables to be taken into account when evaluating the economic efficiency of resources invested in surveillance, prevention and intervention to exclude AIV.

  7. Health Activities Project (HAP), Trial Edition II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) trial edition (set II) are a teacher information folio and numerous student activity folios which center around the idea that students in grades 5-8 can control their own health and safety. Each student folio is organized into a Synopsis, Health Background, Materials, Setting Up, and Activities…

  8. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  9. Materials identification and surveillance project item evaluation. Item: Impure mixture of plutonium oxide and uranium oxide (PUUOXBC05)

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.; Appert, Q.; Davis, C.

    1997-06-01

    In this report Los Alamos researchers characterize properties relevant to storage of an impure mixture of plutonium oxide and uranium oxide (impure mixed oxide (MOX) that is composed of 43.8 mass % plutonium and 17.8 mass % uranium) in accordance with the department of Energy (DOE) standard DOE-STD-3013-96. This is the first sample of an impure mixture of plutonium oxide and uranium oxide to be evaluated by the materials identification and surveillance project. Methods used to characterize the mixture include mass loss-on-calcination measurements, mass loss-on-ignition (LOI) measurements, elemental analysis, plutonium and uranium isotopic analysis, particle analyses measurements, X-ray powder diffraction, thermal desorption mass spectrometry (TDMS), and surface-area analyses. LOI measurements show a steady decrease in magnitude as the calcining temperature is increased. In contrast, calcining at progressively increasing temperatures does not appear to significantly change the specific surface area of the impure MOX. The LOI value for the powder after final 950 C calcination is 0.4 mass %. Water and carbon dioxide are the major gaseous products formed at all temperatures.

  10. Respiratory virus surveillance. FluWatch project, 2000-2001. End of season update.

    PubMed

    Macey, J F; Winchester, B; Squires, S G; Tam, T; Zabchuk, P; Li, Y

    2001-06-01

    The 2000-2001 season was a relatively mild season worldwide. In Canada, lower than usual activity was reported for all national indicators of influenza activity, including the rate of influenza-like illness (ILI), the percentage of laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza and provincial/territorial influenza activity levels. However, there were a number of interesting characteristics of this year's influenza season. In contrast to the predominance of influenza A, and in particular the A/Sydney/5/97 (H3N2)-like virus over the past 3 years, influenza B predominated overall this season. Influenza A (H3N2) accounted for < 1% of all characterized isolates (H1N1 accounted for 49% of isolates). Increased laboratory-confirmed influenza activity began in the West (Yukon, prairie provinces and British Columbia) in mid-December, followed by the Atlantic provinces in mid- to late January and Ontario and Quebec in mid- February and March.

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis activates the DNA-dependent cytosolic surveillance pathway within macrophages.

    PubMed

    Manzanillo, Paolo S; Shiloh, Michael U; Portnoy, Daniel A; Cox, Jeffery S

    2012-05-17

    Cytosolic bacterial pathogens activate the cytosolic surveillance pathway (CSP) and induce innate immune responses, but how the host detects vacuolar pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis is poorly understood. We show that M. tuberculosis also initiates the CSP upon macrophage infection via limited perforation of the phagosome membrane mediated by the ESX-1 secretion system. Although the bacterium remains within the phagosome, this permeabilization results in phagosomal and cytoplasmic mixing and allows extracellular mycobacterial DNA to access host cytosolic receptors, thus blurring the distinction between "vacuolar" and "cytosolic" pathogens. Activation of cytosolic receptors induces signaling through the Sting/Tbk1/Irf3 axis, resulting in IFN-β production. Surprisingly, Irf3(-/-) mice, which cannot respond to cytosolic DNA, are resistant to long-term M. tuberculosis infection, suggesting that the CSP promotes M. tuberculosis infection. Thus, cytosolic sensing of mycobacterial DNA plays a key role in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and likely contributes to the high type I IFN signature in tuberculosis.

  12. First record of Stegomyia albopicta in Turkey determined by active ovitrap surveillance and DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Oter, Kerem; Gunay, Filiz; Tuzer, Erkut; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Bellini, Romeo; Alten, Bulent

    2013-10-01

    Despite its confirmed establishment in neighboring Greece and Bulgaria, the presence of the Oriental invasive species Stegomyia albopicta (Skuse) (=Aedes albopictus) has never been confirmed in Turkey. Active surveillance for this container-breeding species was carried out using oviposition traps at 15 discrete sites in the towns of Ipsala (n=8 sites), Kesan (n=5) (Edirne District), and Malkara (n=2) (Tekirdag District) in the Thrace region of northwestern Turkey, from May 23 through November 10, 2011. Eggs collected were reared to the fourth larval instar and adult stages where possible to facilitate integrated morphological and molecular species identification. DNA barcodes (658 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I [COI] gene) were compared with all four potentially invasive Stegomyia species: St. aegypti, St. albopicta, St. cretina, and St. japonica. Sequences generated for samples collected in Thrace Region were herein confirmed as St. albopicta, the first record of this vector species in Turkey. Eggs of St. albopicta were detected in two discrete localities: (1) In the grounds of a restaurant in Kesan (in week 36), and (2) in the customs area of the Turkish-Greek border at Ipsala (in weeks 32 and 38). Multiple detection of St. albopicta eggs indicates the possible establishment of the species in northwestern Turkey. Finding this important disease vector has implications for public health and requires the implementation of active vector monitoring programs and targeted vector suppression strategies to limit the spread of this invasive vector species in Turkey.

  13. The cost-utility of open prostatectomy compared with active surveillance in early localised prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an on-going debate about whether to perform surgery on early stage localised prostate cancer and risk the common long term side effects such as urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Alternatively these patients could be closely monitored and treated only in case of disease progression (active surveillance). The aim of this paper is to develop a decision-analytic model comparing the cost-utility of active surveillance (AS) and radical prostatectomy (PE) for a cohort of 65 year old men with newly diagnosed low risk prostate cancer. Methods A Markov model comparing PE and AS over a lifetime horizon was programmed in TreeAge from a German societal perspective. Comparative disease specific mortality was obtained from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group trial. Direct costs were identified via national treatment guidelines and expert interviews covering in-patient, out-patient, medication, aids and remedies as well as out of pocket payments. Utility values were used as factor weights for age specific quality of life values of the German population. Uncertainty was assessed deterministically and probabilistically. Results With quality adjustment, AS was the dominant strategy compared with initial treatment. In the base case, it was associated with an additional 0.04 quality adjusted life years (7.60 QALYs vs. 7.56 QALYs) and a cost reduction of €6,883 per patient (2011 prices). Considering only life-years gained, PE was more effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €96,420/life year gained. Sensitivity analysis showed that the probability of developing metastases under AS and utility weights under AS are a major sources of uncertainty. A Monte Carlo simulation revealed that AS was more likely to be cost-effective even under very high willingness to pay thresholds. Conclusion AS is likely to be a cost-saving treatment strategy for some patients with early stage localised prostate cancer. However, cost-effectiveness is

  14. Using HIV Surveillance Registry Data to Re-Link Persons to Care: The RSVP Project in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Buchacz, Kate; Chen, Miao-Jung; Parisi, Maree Kay; Yoshida-Cervantes, Maya; Antunez, Erin; Delgado, Viva; Moss, Nicholas J.; Scheer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Persons with unsuppressed HIV viral load (VL) who disengage from care may experience poor clinical outcomes and potentially transmit HIV. We assessed the feasibility and yield of using the San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH) enhanced HIV surveillance system (eHARS) to identify and re-engage such persons in care. Methods Using SFDPH eHARS data as of 4/20/2012 (index date), we selected HIV-infected adults who were alive, had no reported VL or CD4 cell count results in the past nine months (proxy for “out-of-care”) and a VL >200 copies/mL drawn nine to 15 months earlier. We prioritized cases residing locally for investigation, and used information from eHARS and medical and public health databases to contact them for interview and referral to the SFDPH linkage services (LINCS). Twelve months later, we matched-back to eHARS data to assess how HIV laboratory reporting delays affected original eligibility, and if persons had any HIV laboratory results performed and reported within 12 months after index date (‘new labs’). Results Among 434 eligible persons, 282 were prioritized for investigation, of whom 75 (27%) were interviewed, 79 (28%) could not be located, and 48 (17%) were located out of the area. Among the interviewed, 54 (72%) persons accepted referral to LINCS. Upon match-back to eHARS data, 324 (75%) in total were confirmed as eligible, including 221 (78%) of the investigated; most had new labs. Conclusions Among the investigated persons presumed out-of-care, we interviewed and offered LINCS referral to about one-quarter, demonstrating the feasibility but limited yield of our project. Matching to updated surveillance data revealed that a substantial minority did not disengage from care and that most re-engaged in HIV care. Verifying persons’ HIV care status with medical providers and improving timeliness of transfer and cross-jurisdictional sharing of HIV laboratory data may aid future efforts. PMID:25748668

  15. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Birbhum population project (Birbhum HDSS).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Saswata; Barik, Anamitra; Majumder, Saikat; Gorain, Ashoke; Mukherjee, Subrata; Mazumdar, Saibal; Chatterjee, Kajal; Bhaumik, Sunil Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Susanta Kumar; Satpathi, BiswaRanjan; Majumder, Partha P; Chowdhury, Abhijit

    2015-02-01

    The Birbhum HDSS was established in 2008 and covers 351 villages in four administrative blocks in rural areas of Birbhum district of West Bengal, India. The project currently follows 54 585 individuals living in 12557 households. The population being followed up is economically underprivileged and socially marginalized. The HDSS, a prospective longitudinal cohort study, has been designed to study changes in population demographic, health and healthcare utilization. In addition to collecting data on vital statistics and antenatal and postnatal tracking, verbal autopsies are being performed. Moreover, periodic surveys capturing socio-demographic and economic conditions have been conducted twice. Data on nutritional status (children as well as adults), non-communicable diseases, smoking etc. have also been collected in special surveys. Currently, intervention studies on anaemia, undernutrition and common preschool childhood morbidities through behavioural changes are under way. For access to the data, a researcher needs to send a request to the Data Manager [suri.shds@gmail.com]. Data are shared in common formats like comma-separated files (csv) or Microsoft Excel (xlsx) or Microsoft Access Database (mdb).The HDSS will soon upgrade its data management system to a more integrated platform, coordinated and guided by INDEPTH data sharing policy.

  16. Designing normative messages about active surveillance for men with localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Robert J.; Kinsman, Gianna T.; Le, Yen-Chi L.; Swank, Paul; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McFall, Stephanie L.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Cantor, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is increasingly recognized as a reasonable option for men with low-risk, localized prostate cancer, yet few men who might benefit from conservative management receive it. We examined the acceptability of normative messages about AS as a management option for patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Men with a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer who were recruited through prostate cancer support organizations completed a web-based survey (N=331). They rated messages about AS for believability, accuracy, and importance for men to hear when making treatment decisions. The message “you don’t have to panic…you have time to think about your options” was perceived as believable, accurate, and important by over 80% of the survivors. In contrast, messages about trust in the AS protocol and “knowing in plenty of time” if treatment is needed were rated as accurate by only about 36% of respondents. For AS to be viewed as a reasonable alternative, men will need reassurance that following an AS protocol is likely to allow time for curative treatment if the cancer progresses. PMID:26066011

  17. Multiparametric-MRI and Targeted Biopsies in the Management of Prostate Cancer Patients on Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Kiri; Patel, Mausam; Lynne, Charles; Parekh, Dipen J.; Punnen, Sanoj; Jorda, Merce; Casillas, Javier; Pollack, Alan; Stoyanova, Radka

    2015-01-01

    An important key to clinical management of prostate cancer patients is to determine early those who will benefit from primary treatment and are not good candidates for active surveillance (AS). We describe a 67-year-old gentleman with a long history of stable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and a negative biopsy. After slight PSA rise and low volume Gleason score 6 biopsy, the patient was considered for primary treatment or AS. A multiparametric (MP)-MRI exam revealed a suspicious lesion in the anterior apex of the prostate. Biopsies were carried out on a 3D-ultrasound prostate biopsy system with MRI-fusion. The location of the target area was challenging and could have been missed using standard 12-core biopsy template. The pathology determined Gleason 3 + 4 disease in 30% of the core from this region. Consequently, the patient underwent radiotherapy (RT). MP-MRI was also used to follow the changes from pre- to post-RT. PMID:25674540

  18. A novel thermometric biosensor for fast surveillance of β-lactamase activity in milk.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Mecklenburg, Michael; Yang, Dajin; Xie, Bin

    2013-11-15

    Regulatory restrictions on antibiotic residues in dairy products have resulted in the illegal addition of β-lactamase to lower antibiotic levels in milk in China. Here we demonstrate a fast, sensitive and convenient method based on enzyme thermistor (ET) for the surveillance of β-lactamase in milk. A fixed amount of penicillin G, which is a specific substrate of β-lactamase, was incubated with the milk sample, and an aliquot of the mixture was directly injected into the ET system to give a temperature change corresponding to the remained penicillin G. The amount of β-lactamase present in sample was deduced by the penicillin G consumed during incubation. This method was successfully applied to quantify β-lactamase in milk with the linear range of 1.1-20 UmL(-1) and the detection limit of 1.1 UmL(-1). The recoveries ranged from 93% to 105%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 8%. The stability of the column equipped in ET was also studied, and only 5% decrease of activity was observed after 60 days of use. Compared with the conventional culture-based assay, the advantages of high throughput, timesaving and accurate quantification have made this method an ideal alternative for routine use.

  19. Active surveillance for the management of localized prostate cancer: Guideline recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Morash, Chris; Tey, Rovena; Agbassi, Chika; Klotz, Laurence; McGowan, Tom; Srigley, John; Evans, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The objective is to provide guidance on the role of active surveillance (AS) as a management strategy for low-risk prostate cancer patients and to ensure that AS is offered to appropriate patients assessed by a standardized protocol. Prostate cancer is often a slowly progressive or sometimes non-progressive indolent disease diagnosed at an early stage with localized tumours that are unlikely to cause morbidity or death. Standard active treatments for prostate cancer include radiotherapy (RT) or radical prostatectomy (RP), but the harms from over diagnosis and overtreatment are of a significant concern. AS is increasingly being considered as a management strategy to avoid or delay the potential harms caused by unnecessary radical treatment. Methods: A literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, guideline databases and relevant meeting proceedings was performed and a systematic review of identified evidence was synthesized to make recommendations relating to the role of AS in the management of localized prostate cancer. Results: No exiting guidelines or reviews were suitable for use in the synthesis of evidence for the recommendations, but 59 reports of primary studies were identified. Due to studies being either non-comparative or heterogeneous, pooled meta-analyses were not conducted. Conclusion: The working group concluded that for patients with low-risk (Gleason score ≤6) localized prostate cancer, AS is the preferred disease management strategy. Active treatment (RP or RT) is appropriate for patients with intermediate-risk (Gleason score 7) localized prostate cancer. For select patients with low-volume Gleason 3+4=7 localized prostate cancer, AS can be considered. PMID:26225165

  20. Ethnic Differences in Post-Stroke Quality of Life in the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Sarah L; Brown, Devin L; Baek, Jonggyu; Wing, Jeffrey J; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mexican Americans (MAs) have an increased risk of stroke and experience worse post-stroke disability than non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), which may translate into worse post-stroke quality of life (QOL). We assessed ethnic differences in post-stroke QOL, as well as potential modification of associations by age, sex, and initial stroke severity. Methods Ischemic stroke survivors were identified through the biethnic, population-based Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project. Data were collected from medical records, baseline interviews, and 90-day post-stroke interviews. Post-stroke QOL was measured at approximately 90 days by the validated short-form stroke-specific QOL in 3 domains: overall, physical, and psychosocial (range 0–5; higher scores represent better QOL). Tobit regression was used to model associations between ethnicity and post-stroke QOL scores, adjusted for demographics, clinical characteristics, and pre-stroke cognition and function. Results Among 290 eligible stroke survivors (66% MA, 34% NHW, median age=69 years), median scores for overall, physical, and psychosocial post-stroke QOL were 3.3, 3.8 and 2.7, respectively. Overall post-stroke QOL was lower for MAs than NHWs (mean difference = −0.30, 95%CI:−0.59,−0.01) and in the physical domain (mean difference = −0.47, 95%CI:−0.81,−0.14) after multivariable adjustment. No ethnic difference was found in the psychosocial domain. Age modified the associations between ethnicity and post-stroke QOL such that differences were present in older but not younger ages. Conclusions Disparities exist in post-stroke QOL for MAs and appear to be driven by differences in older stroke patients. Targeted interventions to improve outcomes among MA stroke survivors are urgently needed. PMID:26286542

  1. Preoperational radiation surveillance of the WIPP Project by EEG for the years 1993 - 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, J.W.; Gray, D.H.; Ballard, S.C.

    1998-03-01

    Average {sup 241}Am, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 238}Pu concentrations measured in ambient air near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site during 1993, 1994 and 1995 are consistent with similar data reported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for Espanola, Pojoaque and Santa Fe, New Mexico. Through the use of replicate analyses of matrix blanks minimum detectable activity (MDA), minimum detectable concentration (MDC) and action levels (ACTL) were established for the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) measurement system. Using MDA data from fixed air sampler (FAS) filters and conservative assumptions applied in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Report 123 (NCRP 1996), it is shown that the EEG sampling and measurement methodology is capable of detecting effluent air emissions which would produce a dose that is approximately 1000 times below the 40 CFR 191 Subpart A limit of 2.5E{sup -4} Sv/y (25 mrem/y). A similar calculation using the NCRP worksheet with storm water effluent MDCs found the EEG measurement program capable of detecting actinide emissions which would result in a dose that is approximately 10 times below the dose limits in 40 CFR 191 Subpart A and 40 CFR 61 Subpart H.

  2. Bat rabies surveillance in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1985, a bat researcher in Finland died of rabies encephalitis caused by European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2), but an epidemiological study in 1986 did not reveal EBLV-infected bats. In 2009, an EBLV-2-positive Daubenton’s bat was detected. The EBLV-2 isolate from the human case in 1985 and the isolate from the bat in 2009 were genetically closely related. In order to assess the prevalence of EBLVs in Finnish bat populations and to gain a better understanding of the public health risk that EBLV-infected bats pose, a targeted active surveillance project was initiated. Results Altogether, 1156 bats of seven species were examined for lyssaviruses in Finland during a 28–year period (1985–2012), 898 in active surveillance and 258 in passive surveillance, with only one positive finding of EBLV-2 in a Daubenton’s bat in 2009. In 2010–2011, saliva samples from 774 bats of seven species were analyzed for EBLV viral RNA, and sera from 423 bats were analyzed for the presence of bat lyssavirus antibodies. Antibodies were detected in Daubenton’s bats in samples collected from two locations in 2010 and from one location in 2011. All seropositive locations are in close proximity to the place where the EBLV-2 positive Daubenton’s bat was found in 2009. In active surveillance, no EBLV viral RNA was detected. Conclusions These data suggest that EBLV-2 may circulate in Finland, even though the seroprevalence is low. Our results indicate that passive surveillance of dead or sick bats is a relevant means examine the occurrence of lyssavirus infection, but the number of bats submitted for laboratory analysis should be higher in order to obtain reliable information on the lyssavirus situation in the country. PMID:24011337

  3. Plutonium Surveillance Destructive Examination Requirements at Savannah River National Laboratory for K-Area Interim Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Stefek, T. M.

    2005-09-29

    The DOE 3013 storage standard requires nested, welded 300 series stainless steel containers to store plutonium-bearing materials for up to 50 years. Packaged contents include stabilized plutonium-bearing residues that contain chloride salts and a low (< 0.5 weight %) water content. The DOE 3013 STD requires surveillance of the packages over the 50 year lifetime. These surveillance requirements have been further defined by the Integrated Surveillance Program to include both non-destructive examination (NDE) and destructive examination (DE) of the 3013 container. The DE portion of surveillance involves examining the 3013 nested containers, analyzing the head space gas, and evaluating the plutonium oxide chemistry. At SRS, the stored 3013 containers will undergo preparation for the DE surveillance activities in facilities located in K-Area. The actual DE surveillance will be performed in SRNL. This report provides preliminary functional requirements for the destructive examination (DE) of plutonium-bearing oxide materials and containers in support of K-Area Interim Surveillance (KIS). The KIS project will install interim facilities to prepare the samples for analysis in SRNL. This document covers the requirements for the interim period beginning in 2007, and lasting until the Container Storage and Surveillance Capability (CSSC) project provides the permanent facilities in K-Area to perform sampling and repackaging operations associated with the 3013 container storage and surveillance program. Initial requirements for the CSSC project have been previously defined in WSRC-TR-2004-00584 ''Plutonium Surveillance Destructive Examination Requirements at Savannah River National Laboratory''. As part of the Plutonium Surveillance Program of 3013 Containers at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) will receive the emptied 3013 container components, plutonium oxide samples and headspace gas samples from K-Area. The DE program scope

  4. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Kamel; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Rybacka, Aleksandra; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Tropsha, Alexander; Varnek, Alexandre; Zakharov, Alexey; Worth, Andrew; Richard, Ann M.; Grulke, Christopher M.; Trisciuzzi, Daniela; Fourches, Denis; Horvath, Dragos; Benfenati, Emilio; Muratov, Eugene; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Grisoni, Francesca; Mangiatordi, Giuseppe F.; Incisivo, Giuseppina M.; Hong, Huixiao; Ng, Hui W.; Tetko, Igor V.; Balabin, Ilya; Kancherla, Jayaram; Shen, Jie; Burton, Julien; Nicklaus, Marc; Cassotti, Matteo; Nikolov, Nikolai G.; Nicolotti, Orazio; Andersson, Patrik L.; Zang, Qingda; Politi, Regina; Beger, Richard D.; Todeschini, Roberto; Huang, Ruili; Farag, Sherif; Rosenberg, Sine A.; Slavov, Svetoslav; Hu, Xin; Judson, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humans are exposed to thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. Some chemicals mimic natural endocrine hormones and, thus, have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Most of these chemicals have never been tested for their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER). Risk assessors need tools to prioritize chemicals for evaluation in costly in vivo tests, for instance, within the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Objectives: We describe a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) and demonstrate the efficacy of using predictive computational models trained on high-throughput screening data to evaluate thousands of chemicals for ER-related activity and prioritize them for further testing. Methods: CERAPP combined multiple models developed in collaboration with 17 groups in the United States and Europe to predict ER activity of a common set of 32,464 chemical structures. Quantitative structure–activity relationship models and docking approaches were employed, mostly using a common training set of 1,677 chemical structures provided by the U.S. EPA, to build a total of 40 categorical and 8 continuous models for binding, agonist, and antagonist ER activity. All predictions were evaluated on a set of 7,522 chemicals curated from the literature. To overcome the limitations of single models, a consensus was built by weighting models on scores based on their evaluated accuracies. Results: Individual model scores ranged from 0.69 to 0.85, showing high prediction reliabilities. Out of the 32,464 chemicals, the consensus model predicted 4,001 chemicals (12.3%) as high priority actives and 6,742 potential actives (20.8%) to be considered for further testing. Conclusion: This project demonstrated the possibility to screen large libraries of chemicals using a consensus of different in silico approaches. This concept will be applied in future projects related to other

  5. The Frontlines of Medicine Project: a proposal for the standardized communication of emergency department data for public health uses including syndromic surveillance for biological and chemical terrorism.

    PubMed

    Barthell, Edward N; Cordell, William H; Moorhead, John C; Handler, Jonathan; Feied, Craig; Smith, Mark S; Cochrane, Dennis G; Felton, Christopher W; Collins, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    The Frontlines of Medicine Project is a collaborative effort of emergency medicine (including emergency medical services and clinical toxicology), public health, emergency government, law enforcement, and informatics. This collaboration proposes to develop a nonproprietary, "open systems" approach for reporting emergency department patient data. The common element is a standard approach to sending messages from individual EDs to regional oversight entities that could then analyze the data received. ED encounter data could be used for various public health initiatives, including syndromic surveillance for chemical and biological terrorism. The interlinking of these regional systems could also permit public health surveillance at a national level based on ED patient encounter data. Advancements in the Internet and Web-based technologies could allow the deployment of these standardized tools in a rapid time frame.

  6. The Establishment of the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (COIPARS): A Pilot Project on Poultry Farms, Slaughterhouses and Retail Market.

    PubMed

    Donado-Godoy, P; Castellanos, R; León, M; Arevalo, A; Clavijo, V; Bernal, J; León, D; Tafur, M A; Byrne, B A; Smith, W A; Perez-Gutierrez, E

    2015-04-01

    The development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria (AMR) is currently one of the world's most pressing public health problems. The use of antimicrobial agents in humans and animals has resulted in AMR which has narrowed the potential use of antibiotics for the treatment of infections in humans. To monitor AMR and to develop control measures, some countries, such as the USA, Canada and Denmark, have established national integrated surveillance systems (FDA, , CIPARS, 2007, DANMAP,2002). The components of these programs monitor changes in susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobial agents of selected zoonotic pathogens and commensal organisms recovered from animals, retail meats and humans. The rapid development of Colombia's animal production industry has raised food safety issues including the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The Colombian Integrated Surveillance Program for Antimicrobial Resistance (COIPARS) was established as a pilot project to monitor AMR on poultry farms, slaughter houses and retail markets.

  7. How Can We Identify the Elimination of Infectious Diseases? Experience From an Active Measles Laboratory Surveillance System in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tae Un; Kang, Hae Ji; Eom, Hye Eun; Park, Young-Joon; Park, Ok; Kim, Su Jin; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kim, Sung Soon; Jeong, Eun Kyeong

    2015-11-01

    Global efforts have markedly decreased the disease burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. Many countries have made considerable progress toward the elimination of measles. As elimination is approached, the very low incidence achieved by high vaccination coverage has underscored the need for a sensitive and timely surveillance system. In the Republic of Korea, an active laboratory surveillance system (ALSS) was implemented to supplement the existing passive surveillance system in 2006. The ALSS connects 5 major commercial laboratories and the national measles reference laboratory, where referred samples with positive or equivocal results are retested. Annually, from 2009 to 2013, 3714 suspected cases were detected through the ALSS, an expansion of 8- to 57-fold, compared with only the passive surveillance system. The ALSS, with its sensitivity and timeliness, is a reasonable strategy to supplement the existing measles surveillance system and to help identify the elimination of measles.

  8. Can testosterone therapy be offered to men on active surveillance for prostate cancer? Preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Kacker, Ravi; Hult, Mariam; San Francisco, Ignacio F; Conners, William P; Rojas, Pablo A; Dewolf, William C; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    This report presents our experience with T therapy in a cohort of T-deficient men on active surveillance (AS) for Gleason 3 + 3 and Gleason 3 + 4 prostate cancer (PCa). A retrospective chart review identified 28 men with T deficiency who underwent T therapy (T group) for at least 6 months while on AS for PCa. A comparison group of 96 men on AS for PCa with untreated T deficiency (no-T group) was identified at the same institution. The AS protocol followed a modified Epstein criteria and allowed inclusion of men with a single core of low-volume Gleason 3 + 4 PCa. Mean age was 59.5 and 61.3 years, and mean follow-up was 38.9 and 42.4 months for the T and no-T groups, respectively. Of all 28 men in the T group, 3 (10.7%) men developed an increase in Gleason score while on AS. Of 22 men in the T group with Gleason 3 + 3 disease, 7 (31.8%) men developed biopsy progression including 3 men (13.6%) who developed Gleason 3 + 4 PCa. Of 6 men with Gleason 3 + 4 disease at baseline, 2 (33.3%) men developed an increase in tumor volume, and none developed upgrading beyond Gleason 3 + 4. All 96 men in the no-T group had Gleason 3 + 3 disease at baseline and, 43 (44.7%) developed biopsy progression, including 9 men (9.38%) with upgrading to Gleason 7 (3 + 4). Biopsy progression rates were similar for both groups and historical controls. Biopsy progression in men on AS appears unaffected by T therapy over 3 years. Prospective placebo-controlled trials of T therapy in T-deficient men on AS should be considered given the symptomatic benefits experienced by treated men. PMID:26306850

  9. Passive Surveillance of Ixodes scapularis (Say), Their Biting Activity, and Associated Pathogens in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guang; Mather, Thomas N.; Hollingsworth, Craig S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A passive surveillance of tick-borne pathogens was conducted over a 7-year period (2006–2012), in which a total of 3551 ticks were submitted to the University of Massachusetts for PCR testing. The vast majority of these ticks were Ixodes scapularis from Massachusetts (N = 2088) and hence were the focus of further analysis. Two TaqMan duplex qPCR assays were developed to test I. scapularis ticks for the presence of three human pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti. I. scapularis submissions were concentrated from Cape Cod, the eastern half of the state outside of the Boston metropolitan area, parts of Franklin and Hampshire counties along the Quabbin Reservoir watershed, and southwestern Berkshire county. Differences in seasonal activity pattern were observed for different developmental stages of I. scapularis. The largest proportion of tick bite victims were age 9 years and under. Nymphal ticks were found more often on lower extremities of their hosts, while more adult ticks were found on the head. Overall infection rate of B. burgdorferi, A. phagocytophilum, and B. microti in human-biting ticks was 29.6%, 4.6%, and 1.8%, respectively. B. burgdorferi-infected ticks were widely distributed, but A. phagocytophilum- and B. microti-infected I. scapularis were found mainly in the eastern half of the state. We found that 1.8%, 1.0%, and 0.4% of ticks were coinfected by B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi and B. microti, and A. phagocytophilum and B. microti, respectively, and 0.3% of ticks had triple coinfection. PMID:27248292

  10. Annual summary report on the surveillance and maintenance activities for the Oak Rige National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program for fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This Annual Summary Report on the Surveillance and Maintenance Activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program for Fiscal Year 1995 was prepared to communicate the accomplishments of the Program during fiscal year 1995. This work was performed under work breakdown structure element 1.4.12.6.1.14.20 (activity data sheet 3314, ``Remedial Action Surveillance and Maintenance``). Publication of this document meets the Life Cycle Baseline milestone date of November 30, 1995. This document provides the accomplishments for both the Remedial Action and Decontamination and Decommissioning Surveillance and Maintenance programs.

  11. Annual report on surveillance and maintenance activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1995, the sites and facilities from both the Remedial Action (RA) and Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) programs were combined to form the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) Program. Surveillance and Maintenance activities were conducted throughout FY 1996 at the RA facilities. Overall, the RA S and M Program consists of approximately 650 acres that include 14 waste area groupings with approximately 200 sites. These sites include 46 major facilities, several leak and contaminated soil sites, 38 inactive tanks, approximately 50 environmental study areas and approximately 2,973 wells and boreholes. Site inspections were conducted at established frequencies on appropriate sites in the RA S and M Program in accordance with the established S and M FY 1996 Incentive Task Order (ITO).

  12. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  13. Excess stroke in Mexican Americans compared with non-Hispanic Whites: the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Lewis B; Smith, Melinda A; Lisabeth, Lynda D; Risser, Jan M H; Uchino, Ken; Garcia, Nelda; Longwell, Paxton J; McFarling, David A; Akuwumi, Olubumi; Al-Wabil, Areej; Al-Senani, Fahmi; Brown, Devin L; Moyé, Lemuel A

    2004-08-15

    Mexican Americans are the largest subgroup of Hispanics, the largest minority population in the United States. Stroke is the leading cause of disability and third leading cause of death. The authors compared stroke incidence among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites in a population-based study. Stroke cases were ascertained in Nueces County, Texas, utilizing concomitant active and passive surveillance. Cases were validated on the basis of source documentation by board-certified neurologists masked to subjects' ethnicity. From January 2000 to December 2002, 2,350 cerebrovascular events occurred. Of the completed strokes, 53% were in Mexican Americans. The crude cumulative incidence was 168/10,000 in Mexican Americans and 136/10,000 in non-Hispanic Whites. Mexican Americans had a higher cumulative incidence for ischemic stroke (ages 45-59 years: risk ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 2.69; ages 60-74 years: risk ratio = 1.58, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 1.91; ages >or=75 years: risk ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 0.94, 1.32). Intracerebral hemorrhage was more common in Mexican Americans (age-adjusted risk ratio = 1.63, 95% confidence interval: 1.24, 2.16). The subarachnoid hemorrhage age-adjusted risk ratio was 1.57 (95% confidence interval: 0.86, 2.89). Mexican Americans experience a substantially greater ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage incidence compared with non-Hispanic Whites. As the Mexican-American population grows and ages, measures to target this population for stroke prevention are critical.

  14. Can Contemporary Patients with Biopsy Gleason Score 3+4 Be Eligible for Active Surveillance?

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ohseong; Kim, Tae Jin; Lee, In Jae; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun; Hong, Sung Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We analyzed whether expansion of existing active surveillance (AS) protocols to include men with biopsy Gleason score (GS) 3+4 prostate cancer (PCa) would significantly alter pathologic and biochemical outcomes of potential candidates of AS. Methods Among patients who underwent radical prostatectomy at our center between 2006 and 2013, we identified 577 patients (group A) who preoperatively fulfilled at least one of 6 different AS criteria. Also, we identified 217 patients (group B) with biopsy GS 3+4 but fulfilled non-GS criteria from at least one of 6 AS criteria. Designating group C as expanded group incorporating all patients in group A and B, we compared risk of unfavorable disease (pathologic GS ≥4+3 and/or pathologic T stage ≥pT3a) and biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival between groups. Results Rates of unfavorable disease were not significantly different between patients of group A and C who met AS criteria from 5 institutions (all p>0.05), not including University of Toronto (p<0.001). Also BCR-free survivals were not significantly different between patients in group A and C meeting each of 6 AS criteria (all p>0.05). Among group B, PSAD>0.15 ng/mL/cm3 (p = 0.011) and tumor length of biopsy GS 3+4 core>4 mm (p = 0.007) were significant predictors of unfavorable disease. When these two criteria were newly applied in defining group B, rates of unfavorable disease in group A and B was 15.6% and 14.7%, respectively (p = 0.886). Conclusion Overall rate of pathologically aggressive PCa harbored by potential candidates for AS may not be increased significantly with expansion of criteria to biopsy GS 3+4 under most contemporary AS protocols. PSAD and tumor length of biopsy GS 3+4 core may be useful predictors of more aggressive disease among potential candidates for AS with biopsy GS 3+4. PMID:25268898

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Sexual Dysfunction in Men on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Shane M; Wang, Chi-Hsiung E; Victorson, David E; Helfand, Brian T; Novakovic, Kristian R; Brendler, Charles B; Albaugh, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sexual dysfunction, repeat biopsies and other demographic and clinical factors in men on active surveillance (AS). Methods Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measures were administered at enrollment and every 6 months to assess quality of life (QOL), psychosocial and urological health outcomes. Using mixed-effects models, we examined the impact of repeat biopsies, total number of cores taken, anxiety, age, and comorbidity on sexual function over the first 24 months of enrolling in AS. Main Outcome Measures PROs included the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 (EPIC-26) Sexual Function (SF) subscale, the American Urological Association-Symptom Index (AUA-SI), and the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC). Results At enrollment (n = 195), mean age was 66.5 ± 6.8 with a mean EPIC-26 SF score of 61.4 ± 30.4. EPIC-26 SF scores steadily decreased to 53.9 ± 30.7 at 24 months (P < 0.01). MAX-PC scores also progressively decreased over time (P = 0.03). Factors associated with lower EPIC-26 scores over time included age, unemployed status, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and hypertension (all P < 0.05). Higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was associated with a more rapid decline in EPIC-26 SF over time (P = 0.03). In multivariable analysis, age, diabetes, and PSA × time interaction remained significant predictors of diminished sexual function. Anxiety, number of biopsies, and total cores taken did not predict sexual dysfunction or change over time in our cohort. Conclusions Men on AS experienced a gradual decline in sexual function during the first 24 months of enrollment. Older age, PSA × time, and diabetes were all independent predictors of diminished sexual function over time. Anxiety, AUA-SI, the number of cores and the number of biopsies were not predictors of reduced sexual function in men in AS. PMID:26468379

  16. An Intelligent Active Video Surveillance System Based on the Integration of Virtual Neural Sensors and BDI Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorio, Massimo De

    In this paper we present an intelligent active video surveillance system currently adopted in two different application domains: railway tunnels and outdoor storage areas. The system takes advantages of the integration of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and symbolic Artificial Intelligence (AI). This hybrid system is formed by virtual neural sensors (implemented as WiSARD-like systems) and BDI agents. The coupling of virtual neural sensors with symbolic reasoning for interpreting their outputs, makes this approach both very light from a computational and hardware point of view, and rather robust in performances. The system works on different scenarios and in difficult light conditions.

  17. Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Environmental Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" focuses on wildlife and habitat. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD activities or the entire set of activities…

  18. Potential clinical and economic outcomes of active beta-D-glucan surveillance with preemptive therapy for invasive candidiasis at intensive care units: a decision model analysis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Y-K; Ip, M; You, J H S

    2017-01-01

    Early initiation of antifungal treatment for invasive candidiasis is associated with change in mortality. Beta-D-glucan (BDG) is a fungal cell wall component and a serum diagnostic biomarker of fungal infection. Clinical findings suggested an association between reduced invasive candidiasis incidence in intensive care units (ICUs) and BDG-guided preemptive antifungal therapy. We evaluated the potential cost-effectiveness of active BDG surveillance with preemptive antifungal therapy in patients admitted to adult ICUs from the perspective of Hong Kong healthcare providers. A Markov model was designed to simulate the outcomes of active BDG surveillance with preemptive therapy (surveillance group) and no surveillance (standard care group). Candidiasis-associated outcome measures included mortality rate, quality-adjusted life year (QALY) loss, and direct medical cost. Model inputs were derived from the literature. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of model results. In base-case analysis, the surveillance group was more costly (1387 USD versus 664 USD) (1 USD = 7.8 HKD), with lower candidiasis-associated mortality rate (0.653 versus 1.426 per 100 ICU admissions) and QALY loss (0.116 versus 0.254) than the standard care group. The incremental cost per QALY saved by the surveillance group was 5239 USD/QALY. One-way sensitivity analyses found base-case results to be robust to variations of all model inputs. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the surveillance group was cost-effective in 50 % and 100 % of 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations at willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds of 7200 USD/QALY and ≥27,800 USD/QALY, respectively. Active BDG surveillance with preemptive therapy appears to be highly cost-effective to reduce the candidiasis-associated mortality rate and save QALYs in the ICU setting.

  19. [The environment as a health surveillance issue: analysis of nursing activities].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maria Celeste Soares; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita

    2004-01-01

    The fact that the need for environmental conservation has been on the national and international agenda determined the development of this study, which aims to examine how the environment is an issue for nurses working in health surveillance services, according to their testimonies. From July to August 1999, eight female nurses described their routine. Their reports were studied by means of the discourse analysis technique. It was concluded that, in general, their actions were not aimed at environmental conservation and were limited to factual and emergency issues.

  20. Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Environmental Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" emphasizes aquatic wildlife and aquatic ecosystems. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD Aquatic activities…

  1. Data Sharing Report for the Quantification of Removable Activity in Various Surveillance and Maintenance Facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN

    SciTech Connect

    King, David A.

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OR-EM) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. Specifically, DOE OR-EM requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting potential removable radiological contamination that may be transferrable to future personal protective equipment (PPE) and contamination control materials—collectively referred to as PPE throughout the remainder of this report—used in certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Project facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Routine surveys in Bldgs. 3001, 3005, 3010, 3028, 3029, 3038, 3042, 3517, 4507, and 7500 continuously generate PPE. The waste is comprised of Tyvek coveralls, gloves, booties, Herculite, and other materials used to prevent worker exposure or the spread of contamination during routine maintenance and monitoring activities. This report describes the effort to collect and quantify removable activity that may be used by the ORNL S&M Project team to develop radiation instrumentation “screening criteria.” Material potentially containing removable activity was collected on smears, including both masselin large-area wipes (LAWs) and standard paper smears, and analyzed for site-related constituents (SRCs) in an analytical laboratory. The screening criteria, if approved, may be used to expedite waste disposition of relatively clean PPE. The ultimate objectives of this effort were to: 1) determine whether screening criteria can be developed for these facilities, and 2) provide process knowledge information for future site planners. The screening criteria, if calculated, must be formally approved by Federal Facility Agreement parties prior to use for

  2. Project WET Curriculum and Activity Guide 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WET Curriculum and Activity Guide 2.0" continues Project WET's dedication to 21st-century, cutting-edge water education. Now in full color, Guide 2.0 offers new activities on topics such as National Parks and storm water, fully revised and updated activities from the original Guide and the very best activities gathered from all of…

  3. Establishment of a cancer surveillance programme: the South African experience

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Elvira; Ruff, Paul; Babb, Chantal; Sengayi, Mazvita; Beery, Moira; Khoali, Lerato; Kellett, Patricia; Underwood, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is projected to become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries in the future. However, cancer incidence in South Africa is largely under-reported because of a lack of nationwide cancer surveillance networks. We describe present cancer surveillance activities in South Africa, and use the International Agency for Research on Cancer framework to propose the development of four population-based cancer registries in South Africa. These registries will represent the ethnic and geographical diversity of the country. We also provide an update on a cancer surveillance pilot programme in the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan District, and the successes and challenges in the implementation of the IARC framework in a local context. We examine the development of a comprehensive cancer surveillance system in a middle-income country, which might serve to assist other countries in establishing population-based cancer registries in a resource-constrained environment. PMID:26248849

  4. Position surveillance using one active ranging satellite and time-of-arrival of a signal from an independent satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Frey, R. L.; Lewis, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Position surveillance using one active ranging/communication satellite and the time-of-arrival of signals from an independent satellite was shown to be feasible and practical. A towboat on the Mississippi River was equipped with a tone-code ranging transponder and a receiver tuned to the timing signals of the GOES satellite. A similar transponder was located at the office of the towing company. Tone-code ranging interrogations were transmitted from the General Electric Earth Station Laboratory through ATS-6 to the towboat and to the ground truth transponder office. Their automatic responses included digital transmissions of time-of-arrival measurements derived from the GOES signals. The Earth Station Laboratory determined ranges from the satellites to the towboat and computed position fixes. The ATS-6 lines-of-position were more precise than 0.1 NMi, 1 sigma, and the GOES lines-of-position were more precise than 1.6 NMi, 1 sigma. High quality voice communications were accomplished with the transponders using a nondirectional antenna on the towboat. The simple and effective surveillance technique merits further evaluation using operational maritime satellites.

  5. SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

  6. Efficacy of wildlife rehabilitation centers in surveillance and monitoring of pathogen activity: a case study with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Randall, Natalie J; Blitvich, Bradley J; Blanchong, Julie A

    2012-07-01

    Surveillance is critical for identifying and monitoring pathogen activity in wildlife populations, but often is cost- and time-prohibitive and logistically challenging. We tested the hypothesis that wildlife rehabilitation centers are useful for monitoring pathogen activity using West Nile virus (WNV) as a case study. We hypothesized that birds submitted to wildlife rehabilitation centers would have a similar prevalence of antibody to WNV as free-ranging birds. From 2008 to 2010, we collected sera from peridomestic birds submitted to the Wildlife Care Clinic (WCC), a wildlife rehabilitation center in central Iowa, and tested them for antibodies to WNV. We also collected and tested sera from free-ranging peridomestic birds in the area from which approximately 50% of WCC submissions historically originated. Prevalences of WNV antibodies in free-ranging birds and in peridomestic WCC birds were 2.3% (44/1,936) and 2.8% (2/72), respectively. However, none of the birds submitted to the WCC from the area where we captured free-ranging birds had antibodies (0/29). Our results indicate that rehabilitation facilities are not likely to be useful for monitoring WNV activity at small spatial scales or over short-time periods due to the low endemic prevalence of WNV, and low and variable submission rates. However, at larger spatial scales (ca. nine Iowa counties) WNV antibody prevalence in peridomestic birds submitted to the WCC was similar to that of free-ranging birds. Although limitations to using rehabilitation birds to monitor WNV must be considered, testing these birds could be useful for monitoring WNV activity regionally, especially with many states limiting surveillance due to budgetary constraints.

  7. The presence of primary circulating prostate cells is associated with upgrading and upstaging in patients eligible for active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Nigel P; Reyes, Eduardo; Fuentealba, Cynthia; Aedo, Socrates; Jacob, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a considered treatment option for men with low or very low-risk prostate cancer. However, on repeat biopsy some 25% were upgraded and recommended for active treatment. We compare the presence or absence of primary circulating prostate cells (CPCs) with the clinical pathological findings after radical prostatectomy in men fulfilling the criteria for active surveillance and the risk of reclassification for active observation (AO). Methods and patients A single centre observational study was done involving 102 men who fulfilled the Epstein criteria for AS and underwent radical prostatectomy as mono-therapy for prostate cancer. The patients were classified according to the presence or absence of CPCs detected immediately before the prostate biopsy. Mononuclear cells were obtained by differential gel centrifugation of 8 mL of venous blood and CPCs identified using immunocytochemistry with anti-PSA and anti-P504S. A positive CPC test was defined as at least 1 PSA (+), P504S (+) cell detected/blood sample. The surgical specimen was analysed for Gleason score and pathological stage. Results A total of 25 out of 102 (24.5%) men were upgraded based on the pathological findings of the surgical specimen. Among which 45 (44%) men were positive for CPCs. They were younger, 63.9 versus 68.1 years (p = 0.0148), had a lower frequency of pT2 or lower disease (64.4% versus 91.2% p <0.001), higher median Gleason scores (6 versus 5 p < 0.001) in both the biopsy and surgical specimens, and a higher frequency of upgrading 44% versus 9% (p < 0.001) Conclusions In men fulfilling the criteria for AS, the presence of primary CPCs suggests a high risk for disease upgrade and therefore these men may not be ideal for observational therapy. Further studies with a larger population are warranted. PMID:28144285

  8. Outcomes of active surveillance for the management of clinically localized prostate cancer in the prospective, multi-institutional Canary PASS cohort

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Lisa F.; Thompson, Ian M.; Boyer, Hilary D.; Brooks, James D.; Carroll, Peter R.; Cooperberg, Matthew R.; Dash, Atreya; Ellis, William J.; Fazli, Ladan; Feng, Ziding; Gleave, Martin E.; Kunju, Priya; Lance, Raymond S.; McKenney, Jesse K.; Meng, Maxwell V.; Nicolas, Marlo M.; Sanda, Martin G.; Simko, Jeffry; So, Alan; Tretiakova, Maria S.; Troyer, Dean A.; True, Lawrence D.; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Virgin, Jeff; Wagner, Andrew A.; Wei, John T.; Zheng, Yingye; Nelson, Peter S.; Lin, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance represents a strategy to address the overtreatment of prostate cancer, yet uncertainty regarding individual patient outcomes remains a concern. We evaluated outcomes in a prospective multi-center study of active surveillance. Methods We studied 905 men in the prospective Canary Prostate cancer Active Surveillance Study (PASS) enrolled between 2008 to 2013. We collected clinical data at study entry and at pre-specified intervals and determined associations with adverse reclassification defined as increased Gleason grade or greater cancer volume on follow-up biopsy. We also evaluated the relationships of clinical parameters with pathology findings in participants who underwent surgery after a period of active surveillance. Results During a median follow-up of 28 months, 24% of participants experienced adverse reclassification, of whom 53% underwent treatment while 31% continued active surveillance. Overall, 19% of participants received treatment, 68% with adverse reclassification while 32% opted for treatment without disease reclassification. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, percent of biopsy cores with cancer, BMI, and PSA density were associated with adverse reclassification (P = 0.01, 0.04, 0.04). Of 103 participants subsequently treated by radical prostatectomy, 34% had adverse pathology, defined as primary pattern 4–5 or non-organ confined disease, including two with positive lymph nodes, with no significant relationship between risk category at diagnosis and findings at surgery (P = 0.76). Conclusion Most men remain on active surveillance at five years without adverse reclassification or adverse pathology at surgery. However, clinical factors had only modest association with disease reclassification, supporting the need for approaches that improve prediction of this outcome. PMID:26327354

  9. Pathological Outcomes in Men with Low Risk and Very Low Risk Prostate Cancer: Implications on the Practice of Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; JohnBull, Eric; Trock, Bruce J.; Landis, Patricia; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Partin, Alan W.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Carter, H. Ballentine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We assessed oncologic outcomes at surgery in men with low risk and very low risk prostate cancer who were candidates for active surveillance. Materials and Methods In a prospectively collected institutional database, we identified 7,486 subjects eligible for active surveillance who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy. Candidates were designated as being at low risk (stage T1c/T2a, prostate specific antigen 10 ng/ml or less, and Gleason score 6 or less) or very low risk (stage T1c, prostate specific antigen density 0.15 or less, Gleason score 6 or less, 2 or fewer positive biopsy cores, 50% or less cancer involvement per core) based on preoperative data. Adverse findings were Gleason score upgrade (score 7 or greater) and nonorgan confined cancer on surgical pathology. The relative risk of adverse findings in men at low risk with very low risk disease was evaluated in a multivariate model using Poisson regression. Results A total of 7,333 subjects met the criteria for low risk disease and 153 had very low risk disease. The proportion of subjects at low risk found to have Gleason score upgrade or nonorgan confined cancer on final pathology was 21.8% and 23.1%, respectively. Corresponding values in those at very low risk were 13.1% and 8.5%, respectively. After adjusting for age, race, year of surgery, body mass index, and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis, the relative risk of Gleason score upgrade in men with low risk vs very low risk disease was 1.89 (95% CI 1.21–2.95). The relative risk of nonorgan confined cancer was 2.06 (95% CI 1.19–3.57). Conclusions Men with very low risk prostate cancer were at significantly lower risk for adverse findings at surgery compared to those with low risk disease. These data support the stratification of low risk cancer when selecting and counseling men who may be appropriate for active surveillance. PMID:23643603

  10. Acute viral hepatitis in the United States-Mexico border region: data from the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) Project, 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Spradling, Philip R; Xing, Jian; Phippard, Alba; Fonseca-Ford, Maureen; Montiel, Sonia; Guzmán, Norma Luna; Campuzano, Roberto Vázquez; Vaughan, Gilberto; Xia, Guo-liang; Drobeniuc, Jan; Kamili, Saleem; Cortés-Alcalá, Ricardo; Waterman, Stephen H

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about the characteristics of acute viral hepatitis cases in the United States (US)-Mexico border region. We analyzed characteristics of acute viral hepatitis cases collected from the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project from January 2000-December 2009. Over the study period, 1,437 acute hepatitis A, 311 acute hepatitis B, and 362 acute hepatitis C cases were reported from 5 Mexico and 2 US sites. Mexican hepatitis A cases most frequently reported close personal contact with a known case, whereas, US cases most often reported cross-border travel. Injection drug use was common among Mexican and US acute hepatitis B and C cases. Cross-border travel during the incubation period was common among acute viral hepatitis cases in both countries. Assiduous adherence to vaccination and prevention guidelines in the US is needed and strategic implementation of hepatitis vaccination and prevention programs south of the border should be considered.

  11. Project WET: Facilitator Handbook for Implementation of Activities in Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevebeck, Kathryn P.

    This handbook features ideas for implementing Project WET activities in Virginia. Project WET activities are designed for a variety of educational programs and can be used to complement existing curricula while addressing curricular objectives and educational standards nationwide. Activities include: (1) "Life Systems"; (2)…

  12. Help with Solving Technological Problems in Project Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, Jean-Francois; Ginestie, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    In France, project activities figure predominantly in technology education. The general idea behind learning based on project activity is to allow the pupil to get involved in the activity in question, with the pupil tackling real situations rather than ones of an abstract nature. But too often, we notice that the pedagogical strategies used by…

  13. Using semantic technologies and the OSU ontology for modelling context and activities in multi-sensory surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez A, Héctor F.; Martínez-Tomás, Rafael; Arias Tapia, Susana A.; Rincón Zamorano, Mariano

    2014-04-01

    Automatic systems that monitor human behaviour for detecting security problems are a challenge today. Previously, our group defined the Horus framework, which is a modular architecture for the integration of multi-sensor monitoring stages. In this work, structure and technologies required for high-level semantic stages of Horus are proposed, and the associated methodological principles established with the aim of recognising specific behaviours and situations. Our methodology distinguishes three semantic levels of events: low level (compromised with sensors), medium level (compromised with context), and high level (target behaviours). The ontology for surveillance and ubiquitous computing has been used to integrate ontologies from specific domains and together with semantic technologies have facilitated the modelling and implementation of scenes and situations by reusing components. A home context and a supermarket context were modelled following this approach, where three suspicious activities were monitored via different virtual sensors. The experiments demonstrate that our proposals facilitate the rapid prototyping of this kind of systems.

  14. Copenhagen Campaigners: An Active Citizens Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Rohan

    2010-01-01

    In the lead-up to the Copenhagen Climate talks in December 2009, Islington Council's Sustainable Schools Officer involved seven local schools in an engaging citizenship project entitled "Copenhagen Campaigners". The aim of the project was to raise pupil's awareness of this historic global event and empower them to take action on a local…

  15. Project WILD: Aquatic Education Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memphis State Univ., TN. Tennessee Administrative Software Clearinghouse.

    Project WILD is an interdisciplinary, supplementary environmental and conservation education program which emphasizes wildlife. This document is one guide developed by Project WILD with the specific purpose of focusing on aquatic wildlife, or any wild animals that depend upon aquatic environments for survival. The book contains instructional…

  16. Systematic, active surveillance for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in camels in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed A; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Gomaa, Mokhtar R; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; El-Taweel, Ahmed N; Atea, Mohamed; Hassan, Nagla; Bagato, Ola; Moatasim, Yassmin; Mahmoud, Sara H; Kutkat, Omnia; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Osman, Ahmed; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; Kayali, Ghazi

    2017-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe human infections and dromedary camels are considered an intermediary host. The dynamics of natural infection in camels are not well understood. Through systematic surveillance in Egypt, nasal, rectal, milk, urine and serum samples were collected from camels between June 2014 and February 2016. Locations included quarantines, markets, abattoirs, free-roaming herds and farmed breeding herds. The overall seroprevalence was 71% and RNA detection rate was 15%. Imported camels had higher seroprevalence (90% vs 61%) and higher RT-PCR detection rates (21% vs 12%) than locally raised camels. Juveniles had lower seroprevalence than adults (37% vs 82%) but similar RT-PCR detection rates (16% vs 15%). An outbreak in a breeding herd, showed that antibodies rapidly wane, that camels become re-infected, and that outbreaks in a herd are sustained for an extended time. Maternal antibodies titers were very low in calves regardless of the antibody titers of the mothers. Our results support the hypothesis that camels are a reservoir for MERS-CoV and that camel trade is an important route of introducing the virus into importing countries. Findings related to waning antibodies and re-infection have implications for camel vaccine development, disease management and zoonotic threat. PMID:28050021

  17. Surveillance of tobacco industry retail marketing activities of reduced harm products.

    PubMed

    Slater, Sandy; Giovino, Gary; Chaloupka, Frank

    2008-01-01

    With the introduction of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) and the interest in studying tobacco harm reduction, sound research and surveillance are needed to examine and understand the distribution and availability of PREPs in communities, as well as the tobacco industry's marketing practices surrounding these products. We examined the availability and marketing of PREPs in a national sample of tobacco retail stores. We also compared the price of PREPs to those of premium brand cigarettes and examined the distribution of PREPs in comparison with premium brand cigarettes by store type, urbanization, region, and race/ethnicity. We found that PREPs are not widely available, are priced similarly to leading cigarette brands, and have few promotional offers. We also found some significant differences in the distribution of PREPs and cigarettes, as well as in the distribution of Ariva and Omni, by store type and community demographics. The fact that this study used data collected nationally emphasizes the importance of these findings and helps shed some light on the tobacco industry's PREP marketing strategies. This study's national sample provides a unique perspective that needs to be replicated if and when other PREPs are widely marketed.

  18. Recognizing suspicious activities in infrared imagery using appearance-based features and the theory of hidden conditional random fields for outdoor perimeter surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogotis, Savvas; Palaskas, Christos; Ioannidis, Dimosthenis; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Likothanassis, Spiros

    2015-11-01

    This work aims to present an extended framework for automatically recognizing suspicious activities in outdoor perimeter surveilling systems based on infrared video processing. By combining size-, speed-, and appearance-based features, like the local phase quantization and the histograms of oriented gradients, actions of small duration are recognized and used as input, along with spatial information, for modeling target activities using the theory of hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs). HCRFs are used to classify an observation sequence into the most appropriate activity label class, thus discriminating high-risk activities like trespassing from zero risk activities, such as loitering outside the perimeter. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated with experimental results in various scenarios that represent suspicious activities in perimeter surveillance systems.

  19. Incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food - foodborne diseases active surveillance network, 10 U.S. sites, 1996-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-04-19

    Foodborne diseases are an important public health problem in the United States. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network* (FoodNet) conducts surveillance in 10 U.S. sites for all laboratory-confirmed infections caused by selected pathogens transmitted commonly through food to quantify them and monitor their incidence. This report summarizes 2012 preliminary surveillance data and describes trends since 1996. A total of 19,531 infections, 4,563 hospitalizations, and 68 deaths associated with foodborne diseases were reported in 2012. For most infections, incidence was highest among children aged <5 years; the percentage of persons hospitalized and the percentage who died were highest among persons aged ≥65 years. In 2012, compared with the 2006-2008 period, the overall incidence of infection† was unchanged, and the estimated incidence of infections caused by Campylobacter and Vibrio increased. These findings highlight the need for targeted action to address food safety gaps.

  20. Bacterial Enteric Infections Among Older Adults in the United States: Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 1996–2012

    PubMed Central

    Scallan, Elaine; Crim, Stacy M.; Runkle, Arthur; Henao, Olga L.; Mahon, Barbara E.; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Griffin, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing segment of the population—adults aged ≥65 years—is more susceptible than younger adults to certain enteric (including foodborne) infections and experience more severe disease. Materials and Methods Using data on laboratory-confirmed infections from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), we describe trends in the incidence of Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, and nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in adults aged ≥65 years over time and by age group and sex. We used data from FoodNet and other sources to estimate the total number of illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths in the United States caused by these infections each year using a statistical model to adjust for underdiagnosis (taking into account medical care-seeking, stool sample submission, laboratory practices, and test sensitivity). Results From 1996 to 2012, 4 pathogens caused 21,405 laboratory-confirmed infections among older adults residing in the FoodNet surveillance area; 49.3% were hospitalized, and 2.6% died. The average annual rate of infection was highest for Salmonella (12.8/100,000) and Campylobacter (12.1/100,000). Salmonella and Listeria led as causes of death. Among older adults, rates of laboratory-confirmed infection and the percentage of patients who were hospitalized and who died generally increased with age. A notable exception was the rate of Campylobacter infections, which decreased with increasing age. Adjusting for underdiagnosis, we estimated that these pathogens caused about 226,000 illnesses (~600/100,000) annually among U.S. adults aged ≥65 years, resulting in ~9700 hospitalizations and ~500 deaths. Conclusion Campylobacter, E. coli O157, Listeria, and Salmonella are major contributors to illness in older adults, highlighting the value of effective and targeted intervention. PMID:26067228

  1. Project-Based Language Learning: An Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbes, Marina; Carson, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of project-based language learning (PBLL) in a university language programme. Learner reflections of project work were analysed through Activity Theory, where tool-mediated activity is understood as the central unit of analysis for human interaction. Data were categorised according to the components of human…

  2. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2000-01-27

    This document contains the CY2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed.

  3. Immunoglobulin D enhances immune surveillance by activating antimicrobial, proinflammatory and B cell-stimulating programs in basophils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kang; Xu, Weifeng; Wilson, Melanie; He, Bing; Miller, Norman W; Bengtén, Eva; Edholm, Eva-Stina; Santini, Paul A; Rath, Poonam; Chiu, April; Cattalini, Marco; Litzman, Jiri; B Bussel, James; Huang, Bihui; Meini, Antonella; Riesbeck, Kristian; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Plebani, Alessandro; Cerutti, Andrea

    2009-08-01

    Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is an enigmatic antibody isotype that mature B cells express together with IgM through alternative RNA splicing. Here we report active T cell-dependent and T cell-independent IgM-to-IgD class switching in B cells of the human upper respiratory mucosa. This process required activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and generated local and circulating IgD-producing plasmablasts reactive to respiratory bacteria. Circulating IgD bound to basophils through a calcium-mobilizing receptor that induced antimicrobial, opsonizing, inflammatory and B cell-stimulating factors, including cathelicidin, interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-4 and B cell-activating factor (BAFF), after IgD crosslinking. By showing dysregulation of IgD class-switched B cells and 'IgD-armed' basophils in autoinflammatory syndromes with periodic fever, our data indicate that IgD orchestrates an ancestral surveillance system at the interface between immunity and inflammation.

  4. Treatment trends for retinopathy of prematurity in the UK: active surveillance study of infants at risk

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Gillian G W; Xing, Wen; Butler, Lucilla; Long, Vernon; Reddy, Aravind

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the incidence of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring treatment and describe current treatment patterns in the UK. Design Nationwide population-based case ascertainment study via the British Ophthalmic Surveillance Unit and a national collaborative ROP special interest group. Practitioners completed a standardised case report form (CRF). Setting All paediatric ophthalmologists providing screening and/or treatment for retinopathy in the UK were invited to take part. Participants Any baby with ROP treated or referred for treatment between 1 December 2013 and 30 November 2014, treated with laser, cryotherapy, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor or vitrectomy/scleral buckling, or a combination. Main outcome measure Incidence of ROP requiring treatment. Results We received 370 CRFs; 327 were included. Denominator from epidemiological data: 8112 infants with birth weight of <1500 g. The incidence of ROP requiring treatment was 4% (327/8112, 95% CI 3.6% to 4.5%). Median gestational age was 25 weeks (IQR 24.3–26.1), and median birth weight 706 g (IQR 620–821). Median age at first treatment was 80 days (IQR 71–96). 204 right eyes (62.39%) had type 1 ROP, and 27 (8.26%) had aggressive posterior ROP. Infants were also treated for milder disease: 9 (2.75%) right eyes were treated for type 2 ROP, and 74 (22.63%) for disease milder than type 1 with plus or preplus, which we defined here as ‘type 2 plus’ disease. First-line treatment was diode laser photoablation of the avascular retina in 90.5% and injection of VEGF inhibitor in 8%. Conclusions ROP treatment incidence in the UK is 2.5 times higher than previously estimated. 8% of treated infants receive intravitreal VEGF inhibitor, currently unlicensed. Research is needed urgently to establish safety and efficacy of this approach. Earlier treatment and increasing numbers of surviving premature infants require an increase in appropriate eye care facilities and

  5. Extended risk-analysis model for activities of the project.

    PubMed

    Kušar, Janez; Rihar, Lidija; Zargi, Urban; Starbek, Marko

    2013-12-01

    Project management of product/service orders has become a mode of operation in many companies. Although these are mostly cyclically recurring projects, risk management is very important for them. An extended risk-analysis model for new product/service projects is presented in this paper. Emphasis is on a solution developed in the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The usual project activities risk analysis is based on evaluation of the probability that risk events occur and on evaluation of their consequences. A third parameter has been added in our model: an estimate of the incidence of risk events. On the basis of the calculated activity risk level, a project team prepares preventive and corrective measures that should be taken according to the status indicators. An important advantage of the proposed solution is that the project manager and his team members are timely warned of risk events and they can thus activate the envisaged preventive and corrective measures as necessary.

  6. International Project Management Committee: Overview and Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation discusses the purpose and composition of the International Project Management Committee (IMPC). The IMPC was established by members of 15 space agencies, companies and professional organizations. The goal of the committee is to establish a means to share experiences and best practices with space project/program management practitioners at the global level. The space agencies that are involved are: AEB, DLR, ESA, ISRO, JAXA, KARI, and NASA. The industrial and professional organizational members are Comau, COSPAR, PMI, and Thales Alenia Space.

  7. Surveillance for thrombocytopenia in persons infected with HIV: results from the multistate Adult and Adolescent Spectrum of Disease Project.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P S; Hanson, D L; Chu, S Y; Jones, J L; Ciesielski, C A

    1997-04-01

    Thrombocytopenia in persons infected with HIV is prevalent and has numerous causes. To study the occurrence, associations, and effect on survival of thrombocytopenia in HIV-infected persons, we used surveillance data from a longitudinal survey of the medical records of 30,214 HIV-infected patients who received medical care from January 1990 through August 1996 in more than 100 medical clinics in 10 U.S. cities. Thrombocytopenia was defined as a physician diagnosis of thrombocytopenia or a platelet count of < 50,000 platelets/ microliter. Analysis of associations of thrombocytopenia was conducted using logistic regression. In HIV+ patients, the 1-year incidence [corrected] of thrombocytopenia was 8.7% in persons with one or more AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses (clinical AIDS), 3.1% in patients with a CD4 count < 200 cells/mm3 but not clinical AIDS (immunologic AIDS), and 1.7% in persons without clinical or immunologic AIDS. The incidence of thrombocytopenia was associated with clinical AIDS (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.2; 99% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-3.0), immunologic AIDS (AOR 1.5, CI 1.0-2.1), history of injecting drug use (AOR 1.4, CI 1.0-1.9), anemia (AOR 5.0, CI 3.8-6.7), lymphoma (AOR 3.7, CI 1.3-10.6), and black race (AOR 0.7, CI 0.5-0.9). After controlling for anemia, clinical AIDS, CD4 count, neutropenia, antiretroviral therapy, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis, thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with decreased survival (risk ratio 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6-1.8). Thrombocytopenia in HIV-infected persons is an important clinical condition associated with shorter survival.

  8. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  9. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Michael S.; Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A.

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  10. [Worker's Health Surveillance

    PubMed

    Machado

    1997-01-01

    This paper is part of a broader discussion on the need for more in-depth study of workers' health surveillance practices, which are most often developed empirically, without well-defined theoretical or technical foundations. The paper presents a concept of surveillance in workers' health as a fulcrum for actions in the relationship between the work process and health. It emphasizes the exposure-based perspective involved in the epidemiological approach. Risk situations and effects are placed in spatial and technological context. The model provides an interdisciplinary approach with a technological, social, and epidemiological basis in a three-dimensional structure. A matrix for planning actions in workers' health surveillance is also presented, focusing on the connections between effects, risks, territory, and activities.

  11. Calculus: An Active Approach with Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Steve; And Others

    Ithaca College, in New York, has developed and tested a projects-based first-year calculus course over the last 3 years which uses the graphs of functions and physical phenomena to illustrate and motivate the major concepts of calculus and to introduce students to mathematical modeling. The course curriculum is designed to: (1) emphasize on the…

  12. Cognitive and Affective Representations of Active Surveillance as a Treatment Option for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kathleen D; Li, Hsin H; Mader, Emily M; Stewart, Telisa M; Morley, Christopher P; Formica, Margaret K; Perrapato, Scott D; Seigne, John D; Hyams, Elias S; Irwin, Brian H; Mosher, Terry; Hegel, Mark T

    2016-06-29

    Benefits of early diagnosis and treatment remain debatable for men with low-risk prostate cancer. Active surveillance (AS) is an alternative to treatment. The goal of AS is to identify patients whose cancer is progressing rapidly while avoiding treatment in the majority of patients. The purpose of this study was to explore cognitive and affective representations of AS within a clinical environment that promotes AS a viable option for men with low-risk prostate cancer. Participants included patients for whom AS and active treatment were equally viable options, as well as practitioners who were involved in consultations for prostate cancer. Data were generated from semistructured interviews and audits of consultation notes and were analyzed using thematic analysis. Nineteen patients and 16 practitioners completed a semistructured interview. Patients generally viewed AS as a temporary strategy that was largely equated with inaction. There was variation in the degree to which inaction was viewed as warranted or favorable. Patient perceptions of AS were generally malleable and able to be influenced by information from trusted sources. Encouraging slow deliberation and multiple consultations may facilitate greater understanding and acceptance of AS as a viable treatment option for low-risk prostate cancer.

  13. Western equine encephalitis surveillance in Utah.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, K H; Dickson, S L; Bailey, A

    1986-06-01

    The history of WEE surveillance in Utah is reviewed, beginning with the 1933 outbreak involving 3,958 horses. The step by step formation of the Utah Mosquito Abatement Associations surveillance program from 1957 to the present is discussed. Results of an enlarged sentinel chicken flock surveillance program in Utah during 1983 (3 sero-conversions in September), 1984 and 1985 (no sero-conversion) show the lack of WEE activity in the surveillance area.

  14. The Study of Active Monitoring in Sweden (SAMS): A randomized study comparing two different follow-up schedules for active surveillance of low-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Stefan; Holmberg, Erik; Holmberg, Lars; Johansson, Eva; Josefsson, Andreas; Nilsson, Annika; Nyberg, Maria; Robinsson, David; Sandberg, Jonas; Sandblom, Dag; Stattin, Pär

    2013-01-01

    Objective Only a minority of patients with low-risk prostate cancer needs treatment, but the methods for optimal selection of patients for treatment are not established. This article describes the Study of Active Monitoring in Sweden (SAMS), which aims to improve those methods. Material and methods SAMS is a prospective, multicentre study of active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer. It consists of a randomized part comparing standard rebiopsy and follow-up with an extensive initial rebiopsy coupled with less intensive follow-up and no further scheduled biopsies (SAMS-FU), as well as an observational part (SAMS-ObsQoL). Quality of life is assessed with questionnaires and compared with patients receiving primary curative treatment. SAMS-FU is planned to randomize 500 patients and SAMS-ObsQoL to include at least 500 patients during 5 years. The primary endpoint is conversion to active treatment. The secondary endpoints include symptoms, distant metastases and mortality. All patients will be followed for 10–15 years. Results Inclusion started in October 2011. In March 2013, 148 patients were included at 13 Swedish urological centres. Conclusions It is hoped that the results of SAMS will contribute to fewer patients with indolent, low-risk prostate cancer receiving unnecessary treatment and more patients on active surveillance who need treatment receiving it when the disease is still curable. The less intensive investigational follow-up in the SAMS-FU trial would reduce the healthcare resources allocated to this large group of patients if it replaced the present standard schedule. PMID:23883427

  15. N-nitroso-N-ethylurea activates DNA damage surveillance pathways and induces transformation in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The DNA damage checkpoint signalling cascade sense damaged DNA and coordinates cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and/or apoptosis. However, it is still not well understood how the signalling system differentiates between different kinds of DNA damage. N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEU), a DNA ethylating agent induces both transversions and transition mutations. Methods Immunoblot and comet assays were performed to detect DNA breaks and activation of the canonical checkpoint signalling kinases following NEU damage upto 2 hours. To investigate whether mismatch repair played a role in checkpoint activation, knock-down studies were performed while flow cytometry analysis was done to understand whether the activation of the checkpoint kinases was cell cycle phase specific. Finally, breast epithelial cells were grown as 3-dimensional spheroid cultures to study whether NEU can induce upregulation of vimentin as well as disrupt cell polarity of the breast acini, thus causing transformation of epithelial cells in culture. Results We report a novel finding that NEU causes activation of major checkpoint signalling kinases, Chk1 and Chk2. This activation is temporally controlled with Chk2 activation preceding Chk1 phosphorylation, and absence of cross talk between the two parallel signalling pathways, ATM and ATR. Damage caused by NEU leads to the temporal formation of both double strand and single strand breaks. Activation of checkpoints following NEU damage is cell cycle phase dependent wherein Chk2 is primarily activated during G2-M phase whilst in S phase, there is immediate Chk1 phosphorylation and delayed Chk2 response. Surprisingly, the mismatch repair system does not play a role in checkpoint activation, at doses and duration of NEU used in the experiments. Interestingly, NEU caused disruption of the well-formed polarised spheroid archithecture and upregulation of vimentin in three-dimensional breast acini cultures of non-malignant breast epithelial cells upon NEU

  16. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  17. Healthy Activity for Secondary Students. A Collaborative Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Brooks A.; Turman, Jo

    1996-01-01

    Describes a collaborative project designed to help high school students understand healthy exercise. The project involved preservice physical education majors who acted as fitness facilitators and motivators to the high school students who selected on and off campus, moderate intensity activities. Both groups of students tracked progress and…

  18. Project Destiny: Initiating Physical Activity for Nonathletic Girls through Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyles, Carli; Lounsbery, Monica

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to emphasize the need to develop unique physical activity and sport programs that specifically target the participation of nonathletic and nonactive girls. In addition, the authors provide an overview of an example of one such program, Project Destiny. A description of Project Destiny is provided in terms of its…

  19. Intermediate and Longer-Term Outcomes From a Prospective Active-Surveillance Program for Favorable-Risk Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; Mamawala, Mufaddal; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Landis, Patricia; Wolf, Sacha; Trock, Bruce J.; Carter, H. Ballentine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess long-term outcomes of men with favorable-risk prostate cancer in a prospective, active-surveillance program. Methods Curative intervention was recommended for disease reclassification to higher cancer grade or volume on prostate biopsy. Primary outcomes were overall, cancer-specific, and metastasis-free survival. Secondary outcomes were the cumulative incidence of reclassification and curative intervention. Factors associated with grade reclassification and curative intervention were evaluated in a Cox proportional hazards model. Results A total of 1,298 men (median age, 66 years) with a median follow-up of 5 years (range, 0.01 to 18.00 years) contributed 6,766 person-years of follow-up since 1995. Overall, cancer-specific, and metastasis-free survival rates were 93%, 99.9%, and 99.4%, respectively, at 10 years and 69%, 99.9%, and 99.4%, respectively, at 15 years. The cumulative incidence of grade reclassification was 26% at 10 years and was 31% at 15 years; cumulative incidence of curative intervention was 50% at 10 years and was 57% at 15 years. The median treatment-free survival was 8.5 years (range, 0.01 to 18 years). Factors associated with grade reclassification were older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.03 for each additional year; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.06), prostate-specific antigen density (HR, 1.21 per 0.1 unit increase; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.46), and greater number of positive biopsy cores (HR, 1.47 for each additional positive core; 95% CI, 1.26 to 1.69). Factors associated with intervention were prostate-specific antigen density (HR, 1.38 per 0.1 unit increase; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.56) and a greater number of positive biopsy cores (HR, 1.35 for one additional positive core; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.53). Conclusion Men with favorable-risk prostate cancer should be informed of the low likelihood of harm from their diagnosis and should be encouraged to consider surveillance rather than curative intervention. PMID:26324359

  20. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging findings in men with low-risk prostate cancer followed using active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Jeffrey K.; Bonekamp, David; Landis, Patricia; Begum, Hosne; Partin, Alan W.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Macura, Katarzyna J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the performance of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying pathological-index (path-index) lesions, defined as cancer present in the same prostate sextant in two separate surveillance biopsies, in men followed within an active surveillance (AS) programme for low-risk prostate cancer (CaP) with extended follow-up. Materials and Methods A total of 50 men, representing >215 person-years of follow-up in an AS programme, who were referred for prostate MRI were randomly chosen to have their images reviewed by a radiologist with expertise in prostate MRI, who was blinded to biopsy results. Index lesions on MRI were defined as a single suspicious lesion ≥10 mm or >2 lesions in a given prostate sextant. Lesions on MRI were considered suspicious if ≥2 abnormal parameters co-registered anatomically. Path-index lesions were defined as cancer present in a given prostate sextant on two separate biopsy sessions. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated to test the performance of MRI for identifying path-index lesions. Clinical and pathological features were compared between men with and without a MRI-index lesion. Results A total of 31 path-index and 13 MRI-index lesions were detected in 22 and 10 patients, respectively. Multiparametric MRI demonstrated excellent specificity and negative predictive value (0.974 and 0.897, respectively) for the detection of path-index lesions. Sensitivity (0.19) and positive predictive value (0.46) were considerably lower. Patients with an index lesion on MRI were younger and less likely to have met the ‘Epstein’ criteria for very low-risk CaP. Compared with men without an MRI lesion, a significant increase in biopsy reclassification was noted for men with a MRI lesion (40 vs 12.5%, P = 0.04). Conclusions A non-suspicious MRI was highly correlated with a lack of path-index lesions in an AS population. Multiparametric MRI may be useful in both the selection and monitoring of patients undergoing

  1. Automatic Association of Chats and Video Tracks for Activity Learning and Recognition in Aerial Video Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Riad I.; Sahin, Cem S.; Blasch, Erik P.; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1) a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2) an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs) and targets of interest (TOIs) by movement type and geolocation; and (3) a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV). VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports. PMID:25340453

  2. Automatic association of chats and video tracks for activity learning and recognition in aerial video surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Riad I; Sahin, Cem S; Blasch, Erik P; Rhodes, Bradley J; Wang, Tao

    2014-10-22

    We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1) a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2) an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs) and targets of interest (TOIs) by movement type and geolocation; and (3) a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV). VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports.

  3. [Study of the health surveillance activities of the C.P.T. of Bergamo].

    PubMed

    Simat, D; Ramenghi, D; Riva, M M; Mosconi, G

    2006-01-01

    A "customer satisfaction" research about the approving of the sanitary watching activities provided by the "Comitato paritetico territoriale" of Bergamo and the Department of Occupational Medicine of "Ospedali Riuniti" in Bergamo, comprehensive of the diferent points of view by the different subjects involved in the process, in order to estimate and improve the facilities provided.

  4. Intraprostatic locations of tumor foci of higher grade missed by diagnostic prostate biopsy among potential candidates for active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangmo; Lee, Jung Keun; Choe, Gheeyoung; Hong, Sung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    To establish optimal biopsy scheme for selection of candidates for active surveillance (AS) among prostate cancer (PCa) patients, information on topographical distribution of tumor foci of higher grade missed by contemporary biopsy amongst potential candidates of AS would certainly be useful. Thus we analyzed topographic distribution of tumor foci by examining prostatectomy specimens in 444 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for low risk PCa. Anterior and posterior prostate areas were demarcated by a horizontal line drawn at midpoint of prostatic urethra. Among 444 subjects, patients with upgrading showed relatively higher prevalence of index tumor foci in anterior prostate than those without upgrading, though not reaching statistical significance (p = 0.252). Meanwhile, among 135 (30.4%) patients with very low risk PCa, patients with upgrading showed significantly higher prevalence of index tumor foci in anterior prostate than those without upgrading (52.2% vs 33.8%; p = 0.031). In conclusions, tumor foci of higher grade missed by diagnostic biopsy were mostly located in anterior prostate among very low risk PCa patients. Such finding would be concrete evidence to support the notion that more efforts are needed to increase accuracy in detecting tumor foci in anterior prostate among potential candidates for AS. PMID:27827421

  5. [New biomarkers to optimize the selection and follow up of patients with prostate cancer on active surveillance].

    PubMed

    López-Guerrero, Jose A; Casanova-Salas, Irene; Fernández-Serra, Antonio; Rubio, Luis; Calatrava, Ana; García-Flores, María; García-Casado, Zaida; Rubio-Briones, José

    2014-06-01

    Identification of biomarkers that, at the time of diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), are associated with presence of disease or a more aggressive behavior will transform the clinical management of this disease. If both patients and clinicians would have reproducible and valid tools to estimate the specific risk of morbidity associated with PCa, then many patients would opt to and join active surveillance (AS) protocols, and consequently costs and comorbidities associated with the current overtreatment of prostate cancer would be reduced. Thus, a biomarker, or a panel of biomarkers, with high specificity to identify patients at risk for progression in AS protocols, would identify those men who could benefit from less intensive AS protocols with less repeated biopsies, so reducing the risk and cost of these invasive procedures. In this review we try to offer an overview of the new markers identified by genomic techniques and to discuss their potential role in an AS context. Moreover, the AS protocol offers an adequate setting for validation of biomarkers associated to disease progression.

  6. Appropriating Video Surveillance for Art and Environmental Awareness: Experiences from ARTiVIS.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Mónica; Ângelo, Pedro; Correia, Nuno; Nisi, Valentina

    2016-02-22

    Arts, Real-Time Video and Interactivity for Sustainability (ARTiVIS) is an ongoing collaborative research project investigating how real-time video, DIY surveillance technologies and sensor data can be used as a tool for environmental awareness, activism and artistic explorations. The project consists of a series of digital contexts for aesthetic contemplation of nature and civic engagement, aiming to foster awareness and empowerment of local populations through DIY surveillance. At the core of the ARTIVIS efforts are a series of interactive installations (namely B-Wind!, Hug@tree and Play with Fire), that make use of surveillance technologies and real-time video as raw material to promote environmental awareness through the emotion generated by real-time connections with nature. Throughout the project development, the surveillance concept has been shifting from the use of surveillance technology in a centralized platform, to the idea of veillance with distributed peer-to-peer networks that can be used for science and environmental monitoring. In this paper we present the history of the ARTiVIS project, related and inspiring work, describe ongoing research work and explore the present and future challenges of appropriating surveillance technology for artistic, educational and civic engagement purposes.

  7. National status and trends program for National Benthic Surveillance Project: Northeast coast. Fish histopathology and relationships between lesions and chemical contaminants (1987-89). Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Stehr, C.M.; Olson, O.P.; Myers, M.S.; Pierce, S.M.

    1992-12-01

    The report presents and interprets the results of pathology studies conducted on winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) between 1987 and 1989 in conjunction with NOAA's National Status and Trends (NS T) Program. In these studies, a variety of potentially contaminant-associated disease conditions were monitored in winter flounder collected from 22 Northeast Coast sites, and the relationship between disease occurrence and levels of organic chemical contaminants in sediment, stomach contents, and tissues was examined. Sampling was conducted primarily in spring of 1988 and 1989 (Cycles 5 and 6) as part of the National Benthic Surveillance Project (NBSP) of the NS T Program, but to provide a more comprehensive view of pathological conditions in winter flounder from the Northeast Coast, data on winter flounder collected in Long Island Sound during 1987 and in Boston Harbor and adjacent embayments during the winter of 1988 were also included in the memorandum. In the three studies combined, a total of more than 1,500 fish were examined.

  8. Surveillance of waste disposal activity at sea using satellite ocean color imagers: GOCI and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Gi Hoon; Yang, Dong Beom; Lee, Hyun-Mi; Yang, Sung Ryull; Chung, Hee Woon; Kim, Chang Joon; Kim, Young-Il; Chung, Chang Soo; Ahn, Yu-Hwan; Park, Young-Je; Moon, Jeong-Eon

    2012-09-01

    Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua observations of the variation in ocean color at the sea surface were utilized to monitor the impact of nutrient-rich sewage sludge disposal in the oligotrophic area of the Yellow Sea. MODIS revealed that algal blooms persisted in the spring annually at the dump site in the Yellow Sea since year 2000 to the present. A number of implications of using products of the satellite ocean color imagers were exploited here based on the measurements in the Yellow Sea. GOCI observes almost every hour during the daylight period, every day since June 2011. Therefore, GOCI provides a powerful tool to monitor waste disposal at sea in real time. Tracking of disposal activity from a large tanker was possible hour by hour from the GOCI timeseries images compared to MODIS. Smaller changes in the color of the ocean surface can be easily observed, as GOCI resolves images at smaller scales in space and time in comparison to polar orbiting satellites, e.g., MODIS. GOCI may be widely used to monitor various marine activities in the sea, including waste disposal activity from ships.

  9. Human Activity Recognition in AAL Environments Using Random Projections

    PubMed Central

    Damaševičius, Robertas; Vasiljevas, Mindaugas; Šalkevičius, Justas; Woźniak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Automatic human activity recognition systems aim to capture the state of the user and its environment by exploiting heterogeneous sensors attached to the subject's body and permit continuous monitoring of numerous physiological signals reflecting the state of human actions. Successful identification of human activities can be immensely useful in healthcare applications for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), for automatic and intelligent activity monitoring systems developed for elderly and disabled people. In this paper, we propose the method for activity recognition and subject identification based on random projections from high-dimensional feature space to low-dimensional projection space, where the classes are separated using the Jaccard distance between probability density functions of projected data. Two HAR domain tasks are considered: activity identification and subject identification. The experimental results using the proposed method with Human Activity Dataset (HAD) data are presented. PMID:27413392

  10. Human Activity Recognition in AAL Environments Using Random Projections.

    PubMed

    Damaševičius, Robertas; Vasiljevas, Mindaugas; Šalkevičius, Justas; Woźniak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Automatic human activity recognition systems aim to capture the state of the user and its environment by exploiting heterogeneous sensors attached to the subject's body and permit continuous monitoring of numerous physiological signals reflecting the state of human actions. Successful identification of human activities can be immensely useful in healthcare applications for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), for automatic and intelligent activity monitoring systems developed for elderly and disabled people. In this paper, we propose the method for activity recognition and subject identification based on random projections from high-dimensional feature space to low-dimensional projection space, where the classes are separated using the Jaccard distance between probability density functions of projected data. Two HAR domain tasks are considered: activity identification and subject identification. The experimental results using the proposed method with Human Activity Dataset (HAD) data are presented.

  11. Safety and Acceptability of the PrePex Device When Used in Routine Male Circumcision Service Delivery During Active Surveillance in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mavhu, Webster; Ncube, Getrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Madidi, Ngonidzashe; Keatinge, Jo; Dhodho, Efison; Samkange, Christopher A.; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Mangwiro, Tonderayi; Mugurungi, Owen; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Cowan, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Male circumcision devices have the potential to accelerate voluntary medical male circumcision roll-out, with PrePex being one promising device. Here, we present findings on safety and acceptability from active surveillance of the implementation of PrePex among 1000 males circumcised in Zimbabwe. Methods: The first 1000 men consecutively circumcised using PrePex during routine service delivery were actively followed up. Outcome measures included PrePex uptake, attendance for postcircumcision visits, and adverse events (AEs). A survey was conducted among 500 consecutive active surveillance clients to assess acceptability and satisfaction with PrePex. Results: A total of 2156 men aged 18 years or older were circumcised across the 6 PrePex active surveillance sites. Of these, 1000 (46.4%) were circumcised using PrePex. Among them, 4 (0.4%) self-removals that required surgery (severe AEs) were observed. Six (0.6%) removals by providers (moderate AEs) did not require surgery. A further 280 (28%) AEs were mild or moderate pain during device removal. There were also 12 (1.2%) moderate AEs unrelated to pain. All AEs resolved without sequelae. There was high adherence to follow-up appointments, with 97.7% of clients attending the scheduled day 7 visit. Acceptability of PrePex was high among survey participants, 93% indicated willingness to recommend the device to peers. Of note, 95.8% of respondents reported experiencing pain when the device was being removed. Additionally, 85.2% reported experiencing odor while wearing the device or during removal. Conclusions: Active surveillance of the first 1000 men circumcised using PrePex suggests that the device is both safe and acceptable when used in routine service delivery. PMID:27331593

  12. It's More than an Art Project. Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Phyllis; Wright, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Shows how a first-grade class explored the activities that are completed by people who design products, develop production systems, use materials and machines to make goods, and market the output from manufacturing plants. (JOW)

  13. Microglial P2Y12 Receptors Regulate Microglial Activation and Surveillance during Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Nan; Eyo, Ukpong B.; Murugan, Madhuvika; Peng, Jiyun; Matta, Sanjana; Dong, Hailong; Wu, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microglial cells are critical in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain and several microglial receptors have been proposed to mediate this process. Of these receptors, the P2Y12 receptor is a unique purinergic receptor that is exclusively expressed by microglia in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we set forth to investigate the role of P2Y12 receptors in microglial electrophysiological and morphological (static and dynamic) activation during spinal nerve transection (SNT)-induced neuropathic pain in mice. First, we found that a genetic deficiency of the P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12−/− mice) ameliorated pain hypersensitivities during the initiation phase of neuropathic pain. Next, we characterized both the electrophysiological and morphological properties of microglia in the superficial spinal cord dorsal horn following SNT injury. We show dramatic alterations including a peak at 3 days post injury in microglial electrophysiology while high resolution two-photon imaging revealed significant changes of both static and dynamic microglial morphological properties by 7 days post injury. Finally, in P2Y12−/− mice, these electrophysiological and morphological changes were ameliorated suggesting roles for P2Y12 receptors in SNT-induced microglial activation. Our results therefore indicate that P2Y12 receptors regulate microglial electrophysiological as well as static and dynamic microglial properties after peripheral nerve injury, suggesting that the microglial P2Y12 receptor could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:26576724

  14. Comparative in vitro activity of gemifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and ofloxacin in a North American surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Hoban, D J; Bouchillon, S K; Johnson, J L; Zhanel, G G; Butler, D L; Miller, L A; Poupard, J A

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of gemifloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone, was compared to three marketed fluoroquinolones; ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and ofloxacin against over 4,000 recent clinical isolates covering 29 species isolated in the United States and Canada between 1997-1999. Based on MIC(90)s, gemifloxacin was the most potent fluoroquinolone tested against a majority of Gram-positive isolates: Streptococcus pneumoniae, penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae, macrolide resistant S. pneumoniae, ciprofloxacin non-susceptible (MIC > or = 4 microg/mL) S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, viridans streptococci, Enterococcus faecalis, methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. hemolyticus, and S. saprophyticus. Against Enterobacteriaceae and aerobic non-Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negatives, gemifloxacin was usually comparable to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin and more potent than ofloxacin for the following species: Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, Providencia stuartii, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter lwoffii, A. baumannii, Burkholderia cepacia, Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Gemifloxacin was generally 16-64 fold more potent than the other fluoroquinolones tested against Gram-positive organisms and retains excellent activity comparable with ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin against a majority of Gram-negative pathogens.

  15. [Post-marketing surveillance of antibacterial activities of cefozopran against various clinical isolates--II. Gram-negative bacteria].

    PubMed

    Igari, Jun; Oguri, Toyoko; Hiramatsu, Nobuyoshi; Akiyama, Kazumitsu; Koyama, Tsuneo

    2003-10-01

    As a post-marketing surveillance, the in vitro antibacterial activities of cefozopran (CZOP), an agent of cephems, against various clinical isolates were yearly evaluated and compared with those of other cephems, oxacephems, carbapenems, monobactams, and penicillins. Changes in CZOP susceptibility among bacteria were also evaluated with the bacterial resistance ratio calculated from the breakpoint MIC. Twenty-five species (4,154 strains) of Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from the clinical materials annually collected from 1996 to 2001, and consisted of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia marcescens, Serratia liquefaciens, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter koseri, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Morganella morganii, Providencia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter Iwoffii, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Bacteroides fragilis group, and Prevotella/Porphyromonas. CZOP preserved its antibacterial activity against M. (B.) catarrhalis (MIC90: 4 micrograms/mL) and showed comparable activity to carbapenems against H. influenzae (MIC90: 1 microgram/mL). The antibacterial activity of CZOP against E. coli was preferable (MIC90: 0.125 microgram/mL) and comparable to those of cefpirome (CPR), cefepime (CFPM), and imipenem (IPM). The MIC90 of CZOP against K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca was 1 and 0.25 microgram/mL, respectively. The MIC90 of CZOP against E. cloacae increased during 6 years (32 to 128 micrograms/mL). The antibacterial activity of CZOP against E. aerogenes was preferable (MIC90: 1 microgram/mL). The antibacterial activities of CZOP against S. marcescens and S. liquefaciens were relatively potent (MIC90: 0.5 and 0.25 microgram/mL) and comparable to those of CPR, CFPM, and carumonam. CZOP preserved comparable antibacterial

  16. FY97 report on moisture sensors for enhanced surveillance program project LL-ESP96-13

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B.B.; Baylor, L.C.; Sanders, M.A.

    1997-09-23

    Several compounds were evaluated in a number of optical configurations in order to test the optical response of these compounds to changes in humidity. Reichardt`s betaine (Reichardt`s dye, ET-30 dye, 2,6-diphenyl-4-(2,4,6-triphenyl-N-pyridinio)phenolate), a solvatochromic molecule, and several vapochromic compounds were tested, and each responded to a wide range of humidity by exhibiting shifts in visible absorption. All compounds in the study suffered from some degree of hysteresis upon humidity cycling. It is unclear as to the mechanism for this hysteresis, but future work will attempt to either model or remove the hysteresis effects. In the case of the vapochromic compounds, the hysteresis may be due to structural changes in the crystal lattice of the solid state compound. A prototype sensor configuration was also developed involving an attenuated total reflectance probe. The future of the project will deal with elucidating the hysteresis mechanisms for each compound, evaluating several other vapochromic compounds, and testing different immobilization schemes for the compounds under study. In addition, several other optical technologies will be investigated for application in optical humidity sensing.

  17. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  18. Microcomputer Activities of the Special Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Leonard

    1983-01-01

    FILMSHARE, an interdepository loan system of educational captioned films for hearing impaired students, and BICS, a booking and inventory control system, are described. Use of these two microcomputer activities is explained to have increased the use of educational films and to have helped expand the collection as well. (CL)

  19. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  20. Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae as leading causes of pediatric bacterial meningitis in nine Mexican hospitals following 3 years of active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Chacon-Cruz, Enrique; Martinez-Longoria, Cesar Adrian; Llausas-Magana, Eduardo; Luevanos-Velazquez, Antonio; Vazquez-Narvaez, Jorge Alejandro; Beltran, Sandra; Limon-Rojas, Ana Elena; Urtiz-Jeronimo, Fernando; Castaneda-Narvaez, Jose Luis; Otero-Mendoza, Francisco; Aguilar-Del Real, Fernando; Rodriguez-Chagoyan, Jesus; Rivas-Landeros, Rosa Maria; Volker-Soberanes, Maria Luisa; Hinojosa-Robles, Rosa Maria; Arzate-Barbosa, Patricia; Aviles-Benitez, Laura Karina; Elenes-Zamora, Fernando Ivan; Becka, Chandra M.; Ruttimann, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Meningococcal meningitis is reported as a rare condition in Mexico. There are no internationally published studies on bacterial causes of meningitis in the country based on active surveillance. This study focuses on finding the etiology of bacterial meningitis in children from nine Mexican Hospitals. Methods: From January 2010 to February 2013, we conducted a three years of active surveillance for meningitis in nine hospitals throughout Mexico. Active surveillance started at the emergency department for every suspected case, and microbiological studies confirmed/ruled out all potentially bacterial pathogens. We diagnosed based on routine cultures from blood and cerebrospinal fluid (not polymerase chain reaction or other molecular diagnostic tests), and both pneumococcal serotyping and meningococcal serogrouping by using standard methods. Results: Neisseria meningitidis was the leading cause, although 75% of cases occurred in the northwest of the country in Tijuana on the US border. Serogroup C was predominant. Streptococcus pneumoniae followed Neisseria meningitides, but was uniformly distributed throughout the country. Serotype 19A was the most incident but before universal implementation of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Other bacteria were much less common, including Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus agalactiae (these two affecting mostly young infants). Conclusions: Meningococcal meningitis is endemic in Tijuana, Mexico, and vaccination should be seriously considered in that region. Continuous universal vaccination with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine should be nationally performed, and polymerase chain reaction should be included for bacterial detection in all cultures – negative but presumably bacterial meningitis cases. PMID:27551428

  1. Effects of surveillance towed array sensor system (SURTASS) low frequency active sonar on fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Halvorsen, Michele B.; Miller, Diane; Smith, Michael E.; Song, Jiakun; Wysocki, Lidia E.; Hastings, Mardi C.; Kane, Andrew S.; Stein, Peter

    2005-04-01

    We investigated the effects of exposure to Low Frequency Active (LFA) sonar on rainbow trout (a hearing non-specialist related to several endangered salmonids) and channel catfish (a hearing specialist), using an element of the standard SURTASS LFA source array. We measured hearing sensitivity using auditory brainstem response, effects on inner ear structure using scanning electron microscopy, effects on non-auditory tissues using general pathology and histopathology, and behavioral effects with video monitoring. Exposure to 193 dB re 1 microPa (rms received level) in the LFA frequency band for 324 seconds resulted in a TTS of 20 dB at 400 Hz in rainbow trout, with less TTS at 100 and 200 Hz. TTS in catfish ranged from 6 to 12 dB at frequencies from 200 to 1000 Hz. Both species recovered from hearing loss in several days. Inner ears sensory tissues appeared unaffected by acoustic exposure. Gross pathology indicated no damage to non-auditory tissues, including the swim bladder. Both species showed consistent startle responses at sound onsets and changed their position relative to the sound source during exposures. There was no fish death attributable to sound exposure even up to four days post-exposure. [Work supported by Chief of Naval Operations.

  2. Evaluation of a MMW active through-the-wall surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Nicholas C.; Stiefvater, Kenneth

    2002-08-01

    This paper discusses the TWS data collected with a state-of- the-art 100 GHz radar imager developed for law enforcement use by Millivision, PPC. The system collects a cube of data consisting of 16 azimuth elements by 16 elevation elements by 256 range elements. The cube represents 11 degrees by 11 degrees by 25 m of coverage. The relatively narrow field-of- view (fov) was extended by physically moving the antenna in 11 degree segments and collecting data which is stitched together into larger images, e.g. a 3X3 stitched image represents 33 degrees by 33 degrees by 26 m of coverage. Unfortunately, this stitching process required up to 5 minutes to collect a single (3X3) stitched image. Thus, motion had to be simulated. The paper will discuss the phenomenology of the MMW radar return from various objects including walls, wall-corners, desks and other furniture, and persons simulating walking. Successive frames from a simulated move of a man and woman walking will be presented, and the actual movie shown at the presentation. Comments will be offered as to the practicality of active MMW imaging for TWS application.

  3. Assessing digital literacy in web-based physical activity surveillance: the WIN study.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Merly; Morrow, James R; Frierson, Georita M; Bain, Tyson M

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. Investigate relations between demographic characteristics and submission method, Internet or paper, when physical activity behaviors are reported. DESIGN. Observational. SETTING . Metropolitan. SUBJECTS. Adult women (N  =  918) observed weekly for 2 years (total number of weekly reports, 44,963). MEASURES. Independent variables included age, race, education, income, employment status, and Internet skills. Dependent variables were method of submission (Internet or paper) and adherence. ANALYSIS . Logistic regression to analyze weekly odds of submitting data online and meeting study adherence criteria. Model 1 investigated method of submission, model 2 analyzed meeting study's Internet adherence, and model 3 analyzed meeting total adherence regardless of submission method. RESULTS. Whites, those with good Internet skills, and those reporting higher incomes were more likely to log online. Those who were white, older, and reported good Internet skills were more likely to be at least 75% adherent online. Older women were more likely to be adherent regardless of method. Employed women were less likely to log online or be adherent. CONCLUSION . Providing participants with multiple submission methods may reduce potential bias and provide more generalizable results relevant for future Internet-based research.

  4. Exposure of Threatened Accipitridae to Mycobacterium bovis Calls for Active Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Mónica V; Azorín, Beatriz; Peñuela, Rocío G; Albuquerque, Teresa; Botelho, Ana

    2017-03-03

    Anthropogenic activities have cumulatively led to the dramatic decline of world populations of vultures that currently face serious survival challenges in several regions of the world. In Portugal, the three resident species qualify as endangered and are under conservation efforts, mainly in the central east and south-east regions, where habitat protection and artificial feeding stations were implemented. Concurrently, the areas under protection are highly affected by tuberculosis (TB) in cattle and wild ungulates, whose potentially infected carcasses may naturally or artificially be used as feed by local vultures. In this work, we opportunistically surveyed populations of Eurasian griffon (Gyps fulvus) and Eurasian black vulture (Aegypius monachus) for the presence of Mycobacterium bovis. Nine pathogenic mycobacteria, including one M. bovis isolate, were cultured from the oropharynx of nine of the surveyed vultures (n = 55), sampled in recovery centres or in artificial feeding stations. Genotyping of the M. bovis strain indicated spoligotype SB0121, the most frequent type in Portugal, and a unique MIRU-VNTR profile that differed in two loci from the profiles of SB0121 bovine and deer strains from the same geographical area. The M. bovis-positive griffon exhibited poor clinical condition when admitted to the recovery centre; however, clinical evidence of TB was not present. Although the significance of M. bovis isolation in this vulture specimen could not be ascertained and despite the accepted notion that vultures are naturally resistant to microbial pathogens, the sanitary follow-up of Accipitridae vulture populations in TB-hotspot areas is essential to safeguard ongoing conservation efforts and also to evaluate the suitability of standing legislation on deliberate supplementary feeding schemes for menaced birds of prey.

  5. EPS Biomarkers Improve Stratification of NCCN Active Surveillance Candidates: Performance of Secretion Capacity and TMPRSS2:ERG Models

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Christopher; Kawachi, Mark; Smith, David D.; Linehan, Jennifer; Babilonia, Gail; Mejia, Rosa; Wilson, Timothy; Smith, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance (AS) is a viable patient option for prostate cancer where a clinical determination of low-risk and presumably organ-confined disease can be made. In an effort to standardize risk stratification schemes, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) has provided guidelines for the AS option. Our purpose was to determine the effectiveness of expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) biomarkers in detecting occult risk factors in NCCN AS candidates. Materials and Methods EPS specimens were obtained prior to Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy (RARP). Secretion capacity biomarkers: total RNA and EPS specimen volume were measured by standard techniques. RNA expression biomarkers: TXNRD1-mRNA, PSA-mRNA, TMPRSS2:ERG fusion mRNA and PCA3-mRNAs were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Results Of the 528 patients from whom EPS was collected, 216 were eligible for AS under NCCN guidelines. Variable Selection in logistic regression identified two models, one featuring Type III and Type VI TMPRSS2:ERG variants, and one featuring two secretion capacity biomarkers. Of the two high performing models, the secretion capacity model was the most effective in detecting patients within this group that were upstaged or both upstaged and upgraded. It reduced the risk of upstaging in patients with a negative test by nearly 8 fold, and reduced the risk of being both upstaged and upgraded by about 5 fold, while doubling the prevalence upstaging in the positive test group. Conclusions Non-invasive EPS testing may improve patient acceptance of AS by dramatically reducing the presence of occult risk factors among patients eligible for AS under NCCN guidelines. PMID:23669563

  6. Increased Incidence of Pathologically Nonorgan Confined Prostate Cancer in African-American Men Eligible for Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Yun-Sok; Salmasi, Amirali; Karellas, Michael; Singer, Eric A.; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the clinicopathologic findings of African-American (AA) and White-American (WA) men with prostate cancer (PCa) who were candidates for active surveillance (AS) and underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS Prospectively maintained database of men who underwent RP from 2 academic centers were analyzed retrospectively. Postoperative pathologic characteristics of patients who met the AS inclusion criteria of the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) were evaluated. After RP, the rate of pathological upstaging and Gleason upgrading were compared between AA and WA men. RESULTS In the AA cohort, 196 and 124 men met the UCSF and NCCN criteria for AS, respectively. With respect to WA patients, 191 and 148 fulfilled the AS criteria for UCSF and NCCN, respectively. AA men had a higher percentage of maximum biopsy core than WA men (15.3%–20.4% vs 11.5%–15.0%, P <.05, respectively) in both cohorts. In addition, a greater proportion of AA men had multiple positive biopsy cores compared to WA men (45.2% vs 33.1%, P = .046) under the NCCN criteria. A higher proportion of AA men were upstaged (≥pT3) compared to WA men (19.4% vs 10.1%, P = .037). A multivariate regression test revealed that age, preoperative PSA, and number of positive cores were independent predictors of more advanced disease (upstaging and/or upgrading) in AA men. CONCLUSION AA men who were candidates for AS criteria had worse clinicopathological features on final surgical pathology thanWA men. These results suggest that a more stringent AS criteria should be considered in AA men with prostate cancer. PMID:23465143

  7. LANL surveillance requirements management and surveillance requirements from NA-12 tasking memo

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, Charles R

    2011-01-25

    Surveillance briefing to NNSA to support a tasking memo from NA-12 on Surveillance requirements. This talk presents the process for developing surveillance requirements, discusses the LANL requirements that were issued as part of that tasking memo, and presents recommendations on Component Evaluation and Planning Committee activities for FY11.

  8. Interactive lecture demonstrations, active learning, and the ALOP project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2011-05-01

    There is considerable evidence from the physics education literature that traditional approaches are ineffective in teaching physics concepts. A better teaching method is to use the active learning environment, which can be created using interactive lecture demonstrations. Based on the active learning methodology and within the framework of the UNESCO mandate in physics education and introductory physics, the ALOP project (active learning in optics and photonics) was started in 2003, to provide a focus on an experimental area that is adaptable and relevant to research and educational conditions in many developing countries. This project is discussed in this paper.

  9. NASA's University Program: Active projects, fiscal year 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Active university R and D activities funded by NASA which contribute to mission needs are documented. Technical rather than fiscal information is emphasized. A classification of government sponsored research is included. A cross index providing access to the project description is also included.

  10. Activities of NICT space weather project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Ken T.; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Watari, Shinichi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Mamoru

    NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region of the space weather is the geo-space in the vicinity of the Earth where human activities are dominant. In the geo-space, serious damages of satellites, international space stations and astronauts take place caused by energetic particles or electromagnetic disturbances: the origin of the causes is dynamically changing of solar activities. Positioning systems via GPS satellites are also im-portant recently. Since the most significant effect of positioning error comes from disturbances of the ionosphere, it is crucial to estimate time-dependent modulation of the electron density profiles in the ionosphere. NICT is one of the 13 members of the ISES (International Space Environment Service), which is an international assembly of space weather forecast centers under the UNESCO. With help of geo-space environment data exchanging among the member nations, NICT operates daily space weather forecast service every day to provide informa-tion on forecasts of solar flare, geomagnetic disturbances, solar proton event, and radio-wave propagation conditions in the ionosphere. The space weather forecast at NICT is conducted based on the three methodologies: observations, simulations and informatics (OSI model). For real-time or quasi real-time reporting of space weather, we conduct our original observations: Hiraiso solar observatory to monitor the solar activity (solar flare, coronal mass ejection, and so on), domestic ionosonde network, magnetometer HF radar observations in far-east Siberia, and south-east Asia low-latitude ionosonde network (SEALION). Real-time observation data to monitor solar and solar-wind activities are obtained through antennae at NICT from ACE and STEREO satellites. We have a middle-class super-computer (NEC SX-8R) to maintain real-time computer simulations for solar and solar

  11. Improving surveillance of sexually transmitted infections using mandatory electronic clinical reporting: the genitourinary medicine clinic activity dataset, England, 2009 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Savage, E J; Mohammed, H; Leong, G; Duffell, S; Hughes, G

    2014-12-04

    A new electronic surveillance system for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was introduced in England in 2009. The genitourinary medicine clinic activity dataset (GUMCAD) is a mandatory, disaggregated, pseudo-anonymised data return submitted by all STI clinics across England. The dataset includes information on all STI diagnoses made and services provided alongside demographic characteristics for every patient attendance at a clinic. The new system enables the timely analysis and publication of routine STI data, detailed analyses of risk groups and longitudinal analyses of clinic attendees. The system offers flexibility so new codes can be introduced to help monitor outbreaks or unusual STI activity. From January 2009 to December 2013 inclusive, over twenty-five million records from a total of 6,668,648 patients of STI clinics have been submitted. This article describes the successful implementation of this new surveillance system and the types of epidemiological outputs and analyses that GUMCAD enables. The challenges faced are discussed and forthcoming developments in STI surveillance in England are described.

  12. Ocean surveillance satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  13. Dental utilization of active duty/previous active duty US military: a cross-sectional analysis of the 2010 Behavior and Risk Surveillance Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sambamoorthi, Usha; Jurevic, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study is to understand dental utilization of 1) individuals serving/having served in active duty in the U.S. military as compared with the general public and 2) individuals who are currently serving as compared with individuals who are no longer active duty, but have been in active duty within the previous year. Methods The Behavior and Risk Surveillance Survey, 2010, was used in cross-sectional analyses to determine the comparisons. Chi square and multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied. Results 70.7% of participants who had served/currently serving had a dental visit within the previous 12 months; 69.9% of the general public reported a dental visit (p = 0.0265). 69.8% of participants who had served/currently serving had a dental hygiene visit within the previous 12 months and 68.1% of the general public reported a dental hygiene visit (p <0.0001). The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for participants who had served/currently serving vs. the general public was 1.10 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.05, 1.16; p<0.0001) for dental visits and 1.11 (95%CI 1.05, 1.17; p<0.0001) for dental hygiene visits. Conclusion Participants who are serving or have served were more likely to have any dental visit and dental hygiene visit than the general public; but the results were not substantively important. PMID:26086028

  14. [Post-marketing surveillance of antibacterial activities of cefozopran against various clinical isolates--II. Gram-negative bacteria].

    PubMed

    Igari, Jun; Oguri, Toyoko; Hiramatsu, Nobuyoshi; Akiyama, Kazumitsu; Koyama, Tsuneo

    2002-02-01

    As a post-marketing surveillance, the in vitro antibacterial activities of cefozopran (CZOP), an agent of cephems, against various clinical isolates were yearly evaluated and compared with those of other cephems, oxacephems, penicillins, monobactams, and carbapenems. Changes in CZOP susceptibility for the bacteria were also evaluated with the bacterial resistance ratio calculated with the breakpoint MIC. Twenty-five species (3,362 strains) of Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from the clinical materials annually collected from 1996 to 2000, and consisted of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis (n = 136), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 289), Escherichia coli (n = 276), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 192), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 157), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 189), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 93), Serratia marcescens (n = 172), Serratia liquefaciens (n = 24), Citrobacter freundii (n = 177), Citrobacter koseri (n = 70), Proteus mirabilis (n = 113), Proteus vulgaris (n = 89), Morganella morganii (n = 116), Providencia spp. (n = 41), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 290), Pseudomonas fluorescens (n = 56), Pseudomonas putida (n = 63), Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 146), Acinetobacter lwoffii (n = 34), Burkholderia cepacia (n = 101), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 169), Bacteroides fragilis group (n = 196), and Prevotella/Porphyromonas (n = 173). An antibacterial activity of CZOP against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, and S. marcescens was potent and consistent with or more preferable than the study results obtained until the new drug application approval. MIC90 of CZOP against M.(B.) catarrhalis, C. koseri, and P. aeruginosa was not considerably changed and consistent with the study results obtained until the new drug application approval. MIC90 of CZOP against E. cloacae, E. aerogenes, and P. mirabilis increased year by year. The increase in MIC90 of CZOP against E. aerogenes and P. mirabilis, however, was not considered to be an obvious decline in susceptibility. In

  15. IAU Project and Research Activity in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    The second half of the twentieth century has witnessed a tremendous development in the field of astronomy and space exploration. The large telescope both on the land and in the orbit, using the whole range of the electromagnetic spectra from radio waves to gamma rays are extending their range of exploration, right to the edge of the observable universe, and making astounding discoveries in the process. Many large international telescope facilities and global plans are accessible to all astronomers throughout the world, providing an inexpensive entry to cutting- edge international research for developing countries.Nepal is a mountainous country it has a wide range of climatic and altitude variations which varies from an elevation of 200 meter to ≥ 4000 meter. The average temperature varies from ≥ 25 o C to ≤ 0 to 5oC. Because of these diverse weather and climatic variation there is the potential for the establishment of sophisticated observatory/ data centre and link with each other. So, the future possible opportunity of astronomy in Nepal will be discussed. Besides Education and Research activities conducted in Tribhuvan University, Nepal under the support of International Astronomical Union (IAU) will also be highlighted. The importance brought by those two workshops conducted on data simulation supported by IAU under TF1 will also be discussed which is believed to play a vital role for the promotion and development of astronomy and astrophysics in developing countries.

  16. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-10-20

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans.

  17. Bioterrorism Preparedness Through Public Health and Medical Bio-Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    country. Private Sector and Academic Activities Several bio-surveillance projects are also underway involving the private sector. CDC iss sponsoring...understands the importance of supporting the other in detecting bioterrorism. 41 Distance learning provided through medical, public health, and academic ...34 Emerging Infectious Diseases. (Vol. 8, Issue 8, August 2002). Retrieved from Internet: February 5, 2003. InfoTrac Web: InfoTrac OneFile . McGee, Marianne K

  18. Selection of 3013 Containers for Field Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Peppers, Elizabeth Kelly, James McClard, Gary Friday, Theodore Venetz, and Jerry Stakebade

    2007-01-01

    This report revises and combines three earlier reports dealing with the binning, statistical sampling, and sample selection of 3013 containers for field surveillance. It includes changes to the binning specification resulting from completion of the Savannah River Site packaging campaign and new information from the shelf-life program and field surveillance activities. The revised bin assignments result in changes to the random sample specification. These changes are necessary to meet the statistical requirements of the surveillance program. This report will be reviewed regularly and revised as needed. Section 1 of this report summarizes the results of an extensive effort to assign all of the current and projected 3013 containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) inventory to one of three bins (Innocuous, Pressure and Corrosion, or Pressure) based on potential failure mechanisms. Grouping containers into bins provides a framework to make a statistical selection of individual containers from the entire population for destructive and nondestructive field surveillance. The binning process consisted of three main steps. First, the packaged containers were binned using information in the Integrated Surveillance Program database and a decision tree. The second task was to assign those containers that could not be binned using the decision tree to a specific bin using container-by-container engineering review. The final task was to evaluate containers not yet packaged and assign them to bins using process knowledge. The technical basis for the decisions made during the binning process is included in Section 1. A composite decision tree and a summary table show all of the containers projected to be in the DOE inventory at the conclusion of packaging at all sites. Decision trees that provide an overview of the binning process and logic are included for each site. Section 2 of this report describes the approach to the statistical selection of containers for surveillance and

  19. NASA Desert RATS 2011 Education Pilot Project and Classroom Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, J. E.; McGlone, M.; Allen, J.; Tobola, K.; Graff, P.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of tests of hardware and operations carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona, as an analog to future exploration activities beyond low Earth orbit [1]. For the past several years, these tests have occurred in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, north of Flagstaff. For the 2011 Desert RATS season, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) at NASA headquarters provided support to develop an education pilot project that would include student activities to parallel the Desert RATS mission planning and exploration activities in the classroom, and educator training sessions. The development of the pilot project was a joint effort between the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate and the Aerospace Education Services Project (AESP), managed at Penn State University.

  20. Canadian Influenza Surveillance First Report: Methods of the National Recording System

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Because of the possibility of an influenza pandemic during the 1976-77 season or at least of a major new epidemic, a national surveillance project for influenza in Canada was established in the autumn of 1976 under the auspices of the College of Family Physicians of Canada and the Fédération des médecins omnipraticiens du Québec. The project augmented surveillance activities of the federal and provincial governments, explicitly avoiding duplication of effort and methods. An extensive network of sentinel physicians was recruited from among family doctors in all provinces, forming the National Recording System (NaReS). The emphasis of the plan was to generate the kind of information which family physicians are in a uniquely advantageous position to provide. The influenza surveillance project was the first one for the National Recording System.

  1. Meningococcal Disease in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Review of Cases Reported Through Active Surveillance in the United States, 2000–2008

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christine M.; Li, Jianmin; Hall, H. Irene; Lee, Adria; Zell, Elizabeth; Harrison, Lee H.; Petit, Susan; Farley, Monica M.; Lynfield, Ruth; Miller, Lisa; Nichols, Megin; Reingold, Arthur; Schaffner, William; Thomas, Ann; MacNeil, Jessica R.; Clark, Thomas A.; Cohn, Amanda C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an established risk factor for several bacterial infections, the association between HIV infection and meningococcal disease remains unclear. Methods. Expanded chart reviews were completed on persons with meningococcal disease and HIV infection reported from 2000 through 2008 from 9 US sites participating in an active population-based surveillance system for meningococcal disease. The incidence of meningococcal disease among patients meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) surveillance criteria was estimated using data from the National HIV Surveillance System for the participating sites. Results. Thirty-three cases of meningococcal disease in individuals with HIV infection were reported from participating sites, representing 2.0% of all reported meningococcal disease cases. Most (75.8%) persons with HIV infection were adult males aged 25 to 64 years old. Among all meningococcal disease cases aged 25 to 64 years old, case fatality ratios were similar among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons (13.3% vs 10.6%; P = .6). The cumulative, mean incidence of meningococcal disease among patients aged 25 to 64 years old with HIV infection ever classified as AIDS was 3.5 cases per 100000 person years (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1–5.6), compared with 0.3 cases per 100000 person years (95% CI, 0.3–0.3) for persons of the same age group not reported to have AIDS (relative risk = 12.9; 95% CI, 7.9–20.9). Conclusions. Individuals with HIV infection meeting the AIDS surveillance case definition have a higher incidence of meningococcal disease compared with the general adult population. PMID:28018927

  2. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2002-01-16

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. The document contains the CY 2002 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project.

  3. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  4. Surface-water surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  5. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) is a comprehensive, mid?term energy forecasting and policy analysis tool used by EIA. WEPS projects energy supply, demand, and prices by country or region, given assumptions about the state of various economies, international energy markets, and energy policies. The Global Activity Module (GLAM) provides projections of economic driver variables for use by the supply, demand, and conversion modules of WEPS . GLAM’s baseline economic projection contains the economic assumptions used in WEPS to help determine energy demand and supply. GLAM can also provide WEPS with alternative economic assumptions representing a range of uncertainty about economic growth. The resulting economic impacts of such assumptions are inputs to the remaining supply and demand modules of WEPS .

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock Disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. DOE will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  8. Long-term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat Disposal Site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSP (based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program), documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  11. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Durango, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Durango (Bodo Canyon) disposal site, which will be referred to as the disposal site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). RRMs include tailings and other uranium ore processing wastes still at the site, which the DOE determines to be radioactive. This LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992).

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lakeview (Collins Ranch) disposal cell, which will be referred to as the Collins Ranch disposal cell throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  14. Monitoring Project CANAL Training Activities: Parent Day Workshops for 70 Project CANAL Schools (April 18 through July 3, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Mary E.; Kurtz, Norman R.

    An evaluation was done to assess the participation of parents from the 70 Creating a New Approach to Learning Project (Project CANAL) schools in Project CANAL training activities. Project CANAL offered workshops for parents during the months of April and July 1991. The parent day workshops were to provide parents of participating schools with data…

  15. Global Art: Activities, Projects, and Inventions from Around the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, MaryAnn F.; Potter, Jean

    This activity book contains over 130 art ideas from around the world, combining the fun and creativity of art with the mysteries of history, the lure of geography, and the diversity of the cultures of the world. These projects allow children to explore the world through art with a process, not a product, approach to artistic outcome; the process…

  16. Mapping International Cancer Activities – Global Cancer Project Map Launch

    Cancer.gov

    CGH’s Dr. Sudha Sivaram, Dr. Makeda Williams, and Ms. Kalina Duncan have partnered with Drs. Ami Bhatt and Franklin Huang at Global Oncology, Inc. (GO) to develop the Global Cancer Project Map - a web-based tool designed to facilitate cancer research and control activity planning.

  17. "Our Leaders Are Us": Youth Activism in Social Movements Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marri, Anand R.; Walker, Erica N.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe the development and implementation of a project, "Our Leaders Are Us: Youth Activism in Social Movements," that we undertook with New York City high school students exploring events leading up to and following the Supreme Court's landmark decision in Brown. As part of a 50th anniversary celebration of the…

  18. Critters: K-6 Life Science Activities. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Maureen Murphy; And Others

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this integration produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  19. Defense Health Care: DOD Needs to Clarify Policies Related to Occupational and Environmental Health Surveillance and Monitor Risk Mitigation Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    and environmental health surveillance OEHSA Occupational and Environmental Health Site Assessment POEMS Periodic Occupational and...inhalation from burn pits in Iraq and Afghanistan, the Institute of Medicine was unable to determine whether long -term health effects are likely to result...Washington, D.C.: May 1, 2012). 5See Institute of Medicine for the Department of Veterans’ Affairs. Long -Term Health Consequences of Exposure to Burn

  20. The surveillant assemblage.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  1. Influenza surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, M.; Assaad, F. A.; Delon, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    The main objectives of influenza surveillance are: to measure the impact of the disease by collection and analysis of epidemiological information on morbidity and mortality, and to anticipate future epidemics and pandemics by the collection and analysis of influenza viruses. The World Health Organization's influenza programme is based on the collaboration of 98 national influenza centres in 70 countries and the 2 WHO Collaborating Centres in Atlanta and London. Epidemiological information may be based on morbidity figures derived from a variety of sources such as returns from physicians or hospitals; mortality statistics or new claims for sickness benefit; school or industrial absenteeism, etc. The laboratory aspects of influenza epidemiology are certainly more uniformly covered than the statistical aspects. Since the advent of the A/Hong Kong/1/68 (H3N2) influenza virus A subtype there have been a number of variants with antigenic ”drift” but only three succeeded in causing widespread epidemics: A/England/42/72, A/Port Chalmers/1/73, and A/Victoria/3/75. In 1972, the influenza B virus also showed some antigenic ”drift”, the new variants being characterized by B/Hong Kong/5/72. Whenever a new variant appears, the degree of protection afforded to the population by the available vaccine is assessed. In the light of these data, WHO publishes annually in the Weekly epidemiological record recommendations formulated by the WHO Collaborating Centres on vaccine composition. PMID:78771

  2. Differences in initial stroke severity between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites vary by age: the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Jeffrey J.; Baek, Jonggyu; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Smith, Melinda A.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Zahuranec, Darin B.

    2014-01-01

    Background A wide variety of racial and ethnic disparities in stroke epidemiology and treatment have been reported. Race-ethnic differences in initial stroke severity may be one important determinant of differences in outcome after stroke. The overall goal of this study was to move beyond ethnic comparisons in the mean or median severity, and instead investigate ethnic differences in the entire distribution of initial stroke severity. Additionally, we investigated whether age modifies the relationship between ethnicity and initial stroke severity as this may be an important determinant of racial differences in outcome after stroke. Methods Ischemic stroke cases were identified from the population-based Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was determined from the medical record or abstracted from the chart. Ethnicity was reported as Mexican American (MA) or non-Hispanic white (NHW). Quantile regression was used to model the distribution of NIHSS score by age category (45–59, 60–74, 75+) to test whether ethnic differences exist over different quantiles of NIHSS (5 percentile increments). Crude models examined the interaction between age category and ethnicity; models were then adjusted for history of stroke/transient ischemic attack, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, and diabetes. Results were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Results There were 4,366 ischemic strokes, with median age 72 years (IQR: 61–81), 55% MA and median NIHSS of 4 (IQR: 2–8). MAs were younger, more likely to have a history of hypertension and diabetes, but less likely to have atrial fibrillation compared to NHWs. In the crude model, the ethnicity-age interaction was not statistically significant. After adjustment, the ethnicity-age interaction became significant at the 85th and 95th percentiles of NIHSS distribution. MAs in the younger age category (45–59) were significantly less

  3. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

  4. A Matter of Perspective: Comparison of the Characteristics of Persons with HIV Infection in the United States from the HIV Outpatient Study, Medical Monitoring Project, and National HIV Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Buchacz, Kate; Frazier, Emma L.; Hall, H. Irene; Hart, Rachel; Huang, Ping; Franklin, Dana; Hu, Xiaohong; Palella, Frank J.; Chmiel, Joan S.; Novak, Richard M.; Wood, Kathy; Yangco, Bienvenido; Armon, Carl; Brooks, John T.; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analyses of the characteristics of persons living with HIV infection (PLWH) in the United States (US) captured in surveillance and other observational databases are few. To explore potential joint data use to guide HIV treatment and prevention in the US, we examined three CDC-funded data sources in 2012: the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS), a multisite longitudinal cohort; the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP), a probability sample of PLWH receiving medical care; and the National HIV Surveillance System (NHSS), a surveillance system of all PLWH. Overall, data from 1,697 HOPS, 4,901 MMP, and 865,102 NHSS PLWH were analyzed. Compared with the MMP population, HOPS participants were more likely to be older, non-Hispanic/Latino white, not using injection drugs, insured, diagnosed with HIV before 2009, prescribed antiretroviral therapy, and to have most recent CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count ≥500 cells/mm3 and most recent viral load test<2 00 copies/mL. The MMP population was demographically similar to all PLWH in NHSS, except it tended to be slightly older, HIV diagnosed more recently, and to have AIDS. Our comparative results provide an essential first step for combined epidemiologic data analyses to inform HIV care and prevention for PLWH in the US. PMID:26793282

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Tuba City, Arizona disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Tuba City, Arizona, describes the site surveillance activities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) (10 CFR {section}40.27).

  7. Comparison of Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index Data from State-Mandated School Physical Fitness Testing and a Districtwide Surveillance Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaokham, Christina B.; Hillidge, Sharon; Serpas, Shaila; McDonald, Eric; Nader, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately one third of California school-age children are overweight or obese. Legislative approaches to assessing obesity have focused on school-based data collection. During 2010-2011, the Chula Vista Elementary School District conducted districtwide surveillance and state-mandated physical fitness testing (PFT) among fifth grade…

  8. Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Deverell, Marie; Zurynski, Yvonne A; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2014-12-31

    This report provides an update on the surveillance conducted by the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) during the period January to December 2013. The APSU facilitates national active surveillance of uncommon diseases of childhood including selected communicable diseases. This report includes data on the following conditions: acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV), congenital rubella, perinatal exposure to HIV and paediatric HIV infection, neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV), congenital varicella, neonatal varicella, severe complications of varicella and juvenile onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JoRRP). Surveillance of severe complications of influenza was undertaken during the influenza season (July to September 2013).

  9. Evaluation of local media surveillance for improved disease recognition and monitoring in global hotspot regions.

    PubMed

    Schwind, Jessica S; Wolking, David J; Brownstein, John S; Mazet, Jonna A K; Smith, Woutrina A

    2014-01-01

    Digital disease detection tools are technologically sophisticated, but dependent on digital information, which for many areas suffering from high disease burdens is simply not an option. In areas where news is often reported in local media with no digital counterpart, integration of local news information with digital surveillance systems, such as HealthMap (Boston Children's Hospital), is critical. Little research has been published in regards to the specific contribution of local health-related articles to digital surveillance systems. In response, the USAID PREDICT project implemented a local media surveillance (LMS) pilot study in partner countries to monitor disease events reported in print media. This research assessed the potential of LMS to enhance digital surveillance reach in five low- and middle-income countries. Over 16 weeks, select surveillance system attributes of LMS, such as simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, timeliness, and stability were evaluated to identify strengths and weaknesses in the surveillance method. Findings revealed that LMS filled gaps in digital surveillance network coverage by contributing valuable localized information on disease events to the global HealthMap database. A total of 87 health events were reported through the LMS pilot in the 16-week monitoring period, including 71 unique reports not found by the HealthMap digital detection tool. Furthermore, HealthMap identified an additional 236 health events outside of LMS. It was also observed that belief in the importance of the project and proper source selection from the participants was crucial to the success of this method. The timely identification of disease outbreaks near points of emergence and the recognition of risk factors associated with disease occurrence continue to be important components of any comprehensive surveillance system for monitoring disease activity across populations. The LMS method, with its minimal resource commitment, could be one tool used to

  10. Evaluation of Local Media Surveillance for Improved Disease Recognition and Monitoring in Global Hotspot Regions

    PubMed Central

    Schwind, Jessica S.; Wolking, David J.; Brownstein, John S.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.; Smith, Woutrina A.

    2014-01-01

    Digital disease detection tools are technologically sophisticated, but dependent on digital information, which for many areas suffering from high disease burdens is simply not an option. In areas where news is often reported in local media with no digital counterpart, integration of local news information with digital surveillance systems, such as HealthMap (Boston Children’s Hospital), is critical. Little research has been published in regards to the specific contribution of local health-related articles to digital surveillance systems. In response, the USAID PREDICT project implemented a local media surveillance (LMS) pilot study in partner countries to monitor disease events reported in print media. This research assessed the potential of LMS to enhance digital surveillance reach in five low- and middle-income countries. Over 16 weeks, select surveillance system attributes of LMS, such as simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, timeliness, and stability were evaluated to identify strengths and weaknesses in the surveillance method. Findings revealed that LMS filled gaps in digital surveillance network coverage by contributing valuable localized information on disease events to the global HealthMap database. A total of 87 health events were reported through the LMS pilot in the 16-week monitoring period, including 71 unique reports not found by the HealthMap digital detection tool. Furthermore, HealthMap identified an additional 236 health events outside of LMS. It was also observed that belief in the importance of the project and proper source selection from the participants was crucial to the success of this method. The timely identification of disease outbreaks near points of emergence and the recognition of risk factors associated with disease occurrence continue to be important components of any comprehensive surveillance system for monitoring disease activity across populations. The LMS method, with its minimal resource commitment, could be one tool used

  11. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  12. The Haida Gwaii Diabetes Project: planned response activity outcomes.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Clare; Herbert, Carol; Grams, Garry D.; Grzybowski, Stefan; Wilson, Mary Ann; Calam, Betty; Brown, Diane

    1999-11-01

    A 1992 chart review in the Haida Village of Skidegate, Haida Gwaii/Queen Charlotte Islands, Canada, revealed that 17% of the unscreened population aged 35 or over have been diagnosed with diabetes. The Haida Gwaii Diabetes Project was designed to develop a culturally sensitive community-based participatory action approach to the management of noninsulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM). Phase One included obtaining community support, conducting a chart review, holding clinics to measure biophysical indicators, conducting focus groups, and planning response activities with the communities. A list of activities was developed, based on the focus group results. In addition, the project team developed a set of operating principles that ensured and reinforced collaboration. Phase Two included implementing and monitoring planned response activities, and holding exit clinics. The best attended activities were trials of traditional herbal medicine and traditional diet, and an exercise programme. While participation levels were not high enough for causal conclusions, a significant decrease in total cholesterol (0.45; P = 0.005) and rise in HDL (-0.097; P = 0.05) was found for participants for whom paired values were available. Diabetes intervention research in First Nations settings involves small numbers of participants, making it difficult to quantitatively assess outcomes. To increase participation it is advisable to open activities to the whole community, to tie planned activities into other scheduled community events, and to share findings concerning managing illnesses of acculturation with other communities.

  13. Digital Dashboard Design Using Multiple Data Streams for Disease Surveillance With Influenza Surveillance as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Calvin KY; Ip, Dennis KM; Cowling, Benjamin J; Ho, Lai Ming; Leung, Gabriel M

    2011-01-01

    Background Great strides have been made exploring and exploiting new and different sources of disease surveillance data and developing robust statistical methods for analyzing the collected data. However, there has been less research in the area of dissemination. Proper dissemination of surveillance data can facilitate the end user's taking of appropriate actions, thus maximizing the utility of effort taken from upstream of the surveillance-to-action loop. Objective The aims of the study were to develop a generic framework for a digital dashboard incorporating features of efficient dashboard design and to demonstrate this framework by specific application to influenza surveillance in Hong Kong. Methods Based on the merits of the national websites and principles of efficient dashboard design, we designed an automated influenza surveillance digital dashboard as a demonstration of efficient dissemination of surveillance data. We developed the system to synthesize and display multiple sources of influenza surveillance data streams in the dashboard. Different algorithms can be implemented in the dashboard for incorporating all surveillance data streams to describe the overall influenza activity. Results We designed and implemented an influenza surveillance dashboard that utilized self-explanatory figures to display multiple surveillance data streams in panels. Indicators for individual data streams as well as for overall influenza activity were summarized in the main page, which can be read at a glance. Data retrieval function was also incorporated to allow data sharing in standard format. Conclusions The influenza surveillance dashboard serves as a template to illustrate the efficient synthesization and dissemination of multiple-source surveillance data, which may also be applied to other diseases. Surveillance data from multiple sources can be disseminated efficiently using a dashboard design that facilitates the translation of surveillance information to public

  14. Projecting climate-driven increases in North American fire activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate regulates fire activity through controls on vegetation productivity (fuels), lightning ignitions, and conditions governing fire spread. In many regions of the world, human management also influences the timing, duration, and extent of fire activity. These coupled interactions between human and natural systems make fire a complex component of the Earth system. Satellite data provide valuable information on the spatial and temporal dynamics of recent fire activity, as active fires, burned area, and land cover information can be combined to separate wildfires from intentional burning for agriculture and forestry. Here, we combined satellite-derived burned area data with land cover and climate data to assess fire-climate relationships in North America between 2000-2012. We used the latest versions of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) burned area product and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) climate data to develop regional relationships between burned area and potential evaporation (PE), an integrated dryness metric. Logistic regression models were developed to link burned area with PE and individual climate variables during and preceding the fire season, and optimal models were selected based on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Overall, our model explained 85% of the variance in burned area since 2000 across North America. Fire-climate relationships from the era of satellite observations provide a blueprint for potential changes in fire activity under scenarios of climate change. We used that blueprint to evaluate potential changes in fire activity over the next 50 years based on twenty models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). All models suggest an increase of PE under low and high emissions scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5, respectively), with largest increases in projected burned area across the western US and central Canada. Overall, near

  15. Audits and surveillance: A functional quality surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, R.J.; Duda, J.E.

    1987-03-01

    The implementation of a quality surveillance program can be painless and productive. The system described in this report has been in use at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) for more than a year and effectively fills the void between audits and inspections. Recognized benefits of this system include: minimum administrative overhead; excellent management overview; ease of implementing trending efforts; audit supplement; fully computerization; lower cost than traditional methods; early problem detection, adaptability to other projects and facilities.

  16. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule, January 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2001-01-08

    This document contains the CY 2001 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed.

  17. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L E

    1992-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. Samples for radiological analyses include Air-Particulate Filter, gases and vapor; Water/Columbia River, Onsite Pond, Spring, Irrigation, and Drinking; Foodstuffs/Animal Products including Whole Milk, Poultry and Eggs, and Beef; Foodstuffs/Produce including Leafy Vegetables, Vegetables, and Fruit; Foodstuffs/Farm Products including Wine, Wheat and Alfalfa; Wildlife; Soil; Vegetation; and Sediment. Direct Radiation Measurements include Terrestrial Locations, Columbia River Shoreline Locations, and Onsite Roadway, Railway and Aerial, Radiation Surveys.

  18. ProPSA and Diagnostic Biopsy Tissue DNA Content Combination Improves Accuracy to Predict Need for Prostate Cancer Treatment Among Men Enrolled in an Active Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Isharwal, Sumit; Makarov, Danil V.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Landis, Patricia; Marlow, Cameron; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Veltri, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess a novel application of the Prostate Health Index (phi) and biopsy tissue DNA content in benign-adjacent and cancer areas to predict which patients would eventually require treatment of prostate cancer in the Proactive Surveillance cohort. METHODS We identified 71 men who had had serum and biopsy tissue from their diagnosis banked and available for the present study. Of the 71 patients, 39 had developed unfavorable biopsy findings and 32 had maintained favorable biopsy status during surveillance. The serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and [−2]proPSA were measured using the Beckman Coulter immunoassay. The DNA content measurements of Feulgen-stained biopsy sections were performed using the AutoCyte imaging system. RESULTS The ratio of phi was significantly greater (37.23 ± 15.76 vs 30.60 ± 12.28; P = .03) in men who ultimately had unfavorable biopsy findings. The serum phi ratio (P = .003), [−2]proPSA/%fPSA (P = .004), biopsy tissue DNA content (ie, benign-adjacent excess of optical density, P = .019; and cancer area standard deviation of optical density, P = .002) were significant predictors of unfavorable biopsy conversion on Cox regression analysis. However, phi and [−2]proPSA/%fPSA showed a highly significant correlation (rho = 0.927, P < .0001) and no difference in accuracy (c-index, 0.6247 vs 0.6158; P = .704) for unfavorable biopsy conversion prediction. Furthermore, phi and [−2]proPSA/%fPSA remained significant (P = .047 and P = .036, respectively) in the multivariate models and, combined with the biopsy tissue DNA content, showed improvement in the predictive accuracy (c-index, 0.6908 and 0.6884, respectively) for unfavorable biopsy conversion. CONCLUSIONS The Prostate Health Index to proPSA/%fPSA, combined with biopsy tissue DNA content, improved the accuracy to about 70% to predict unfavorable biopsy conversion at the annual surveillance biopsy examination among men enrolled in an Active

  19. General Medical Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is presented. The purpose of the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the program are discussed.

  20. Strategy for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    goals. In short, intent balances the ends, ways, and means of ISR operations and facilitates leaders’ efforts to integrate intelligence and... Intelligence , Surveillance, and Reconnaissance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Air University Air FOrCe reseArCH institUe strategy for intelligence , surveillance, and reconnaissance

  1. Environmental Surveillance of Polioviruses in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in Support to the Activities of Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Pereira, Joseane Simone; da Silva, Lidiane Rodrigues; de Meireles Nunes, Amanda; de Souza Oliveira, Silas; da Costa, Eliane Veiga; da Silva, Edson Elias

    2016-03-01

    Wild polioviruses still remain endemic in three countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria) and re-emergency of wild polio has been reported in previously polio-free countries. Environmental surveillance has been used as a supplementary tool in monitoring the circulation of wild poliovirus (PVs) and/or vaccine-derived PVs even in the absence of acute flaccid paralysis cases. This study aimed to monitor the presence of polioviruses in wastewater samples collected at one wastewater treatment plant located in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From December 2011 to June 2012 and from September to December 2012, 31 samples were collected and processed. RD and L20B cell cultures were able to isolate PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in 27/31 samples. Polioviruses were isolated in eight samples (type 1 Sabin = 1, type 2 Sabin = 5, and type 3 Sabin = 2). Vaccine-derived polioviruses were not detected nor evidence of recombination with other PVs or non-polio enterovirus serotypes were observed among the isolates. The Sabin-related serotypes 2 and 3 presented nucleotide substitutions in positions associated with the neurovirulent phenotype at the 5'-UTR. Changes in important Amino acid residues at VP1 were also observed in the serotypes 2 and 3. Environmental surveillance has been used successfully in monitoring the circulation of PVs and non-polio enteroviruses and it is of crucial importance in the final stages of the WHO global polio eradication initiative. Our results show the continuous circulation of Sabin-like PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in the analyzed area during the study period.

  2. Regional Initiatives in Support of Surveillance in East Africa: The East Africa Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet) Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ope, Maurice; Sonoiya, Stanley; Kariuki, James; Mboera, Leonard E.G.; Gandham, Ramana N.V.; Schneidman, Miriam; Kimura, Mwihaki

    2013-01-01

    The East African Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet) was formed in response to a growing frequency of cross-border malaria outbreaks in the 1990s and a growing recognition that fragmented disease interventions, coupled with weak laboratory capacity, were making it difficult to respond in a timely manner to the outbreaks of malaria and other infectious diseases. The East Africa Community (EAC) partner states, with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, established EAIDSNet in 2000 to develop and strengthen the communication channels necessary for integrated cross-border disease surveillance and control efforts. The objective of this paper is to review the regional EAIDSNet initiative and highlight achievements and challenges in its implementation. Major accomplishments of EAIDSNet include influencing the establishment of a Department of Health within the EAC Secretariat to support a regional health agenda; successfully completing a regional field simulation exercise in pandemic influenza preparedness; and piloting a web-based portal for linking animal and human health disease surveillance. The strategic direction of EAIDSNet was shaped, in part, by lessons learned following a visit to the more established Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS) regional network. Looking to the future, EAIDSNet is collaborating with the East, Central and Southern Africa Health Community (ECSA-HC), EAC partner states, and the World Health Organization to implement the World Bank-funded East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP). The network has also begun lobbying East African countries for funding to support EAIDSNet activities. PMID:23362409

  3. Student Organizations--FBLA Projects and Activities Relating to Free Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green.

    This guide for Future Business Leaders of America and Phi Beta Lambda chapters describes 25 economic awareness projects/activities to create awareness of the free enterprise economic system. Introductory materials include suggestions for project planning and management and a worksheet for planning activities and projects. The projects/activities…

  4. Enteric disease surveillance under the AFHSC-GEIS: current efforts, landscape analysis and vision forward.

    PubMed

    Money, Nisha N; Maves, Ryan C; Sebeny, Peter; Kasper, Matthew R; Riddle, Mark S; Wu, Max; Lee, James E; Schnabel, David; Bowden, Robert; Oaks, Edwin V; Ocaña, Victor; Acosta, Luis; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Lanata, Claudio; Ochoa, Theresa; Aguayo, Nicolás; Bernal, Maruja; Meza, Rina; Canal, Enrique; Gregory, Michael; Cepeda, David; Listiyaningsih, Erlin; Putnam, Shannon D; Young, Sylvia; Mansour, Adel; Nakhla, Isabelle; Moustafa, Manal; Hassan, Khaled; Klena, John; Bruton, Jody; Shaheen, Hind; Farid, Sami; Fouad, Salwa; El-Mohamady, Hanan; Styles, Timothy; Shiau, L C D R Danny; Espinosa, Benjamin; McMullen, Kellie; Reed, Eva; Neil, Donald; Searles, Doug; Nevin, Remington; Von Thun, Annette; Sessions, Cecili

    2011-03-04

    The mission of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) is to support global public health and to counter infectious disease threats to the United States Armed Forces, including newly identified agents or those increasing in incidence. Enteric diseases are a growing threat to U.S. forces, which must be ready to deploy to austere environments where the risk of exposure to enteropathogens may be significant and where routine prevention efforts may be impractical. In this report, the authors review the recent activities of AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories in regards to enteric disease surveillance, prevention and response. Each partner identified recent accomplishments, including support for regional networks. AFHSC/GEIS partners also completed a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) survey as part of a landscape analysis of global enteric surveillance efforts. The current strengths of this network include excellent laboratory infrastructure, equipment and personnel that provide the opportunity for high-quality epidemiological studies and test platforms for point-of-care diagnostics. Weaknesses include inconsistent guidance and a splintered reporting system that hampers the comparison of data across regions or longitudinally. The newly chartered Enterics Surveillance Steering Committee (ESSC) is intended to provide clear mission guidance, a structured project review process, and central data management and analysis in support of rationally directed enteric disease surveillance efforts.

  5. The AFHSC-Division of GEIS Operations Predictive Surveillance Program: a multidisciplinary approach for the early detection and response to disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System Operations (AFHSC-GEIS) initiated a coordinated, multidisciplinary program to link data sets and information derived from eco-climatic remote sensing activities, ecologic niche modeling, arthropod vector, animal disease-host/reservoir, and human disease surveillance for febrile illnesses, into a predictive surveillance program that generates advisories and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks. The program’s ultimate goal is pro-active public health practice through pre-event preparedness, prevention and control, and response decision-making and prioritization. This multidisciplinary program is rooted in over 10 years experience in predictive surveillance for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Eastern Africa. The AFHSC-GEIS Rift Valley fever project is based on the identification and use of disease-emergence critical detection points as reliable signals for increased outbreak risk. The AFHSC-GEIS predictive surveillance program has formalized the Rift Valley fever project into a structured template for extending predictive surveillance capability to other Department of Defense (DoD)-priority vector- and water-borne, and zoonotic diseases and geographic areas. These include leishmaniasis, malaria, and Crimea-Congo and other viral hemorrhagic fevers in Central Asia and Africa, dengue fever in Asia and the Americas, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya fever in Asia, and rickettsial and other tick-borne infections in the U.S., Africa and Asia. PMID:21388561

  6. The epidemiological features of invasive mycotic infections in the San Francisco Bay area, 1992-1993: results of population-based laboratory active surveillance.

    PubMed

    Rees, J R; Pinner, R W; Hajjeh, R A; Brandt, M E; Reingold, A L

    1998-11-01

    Population-based active laboratory surveillance for invasive mycotic infections was conducted during 1992 and 1993 in three California counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, and San Francisco (population, 2.94 million). The cumulative incidence of invasive mycotic infections was 178.3 per million per year. Invasive mycoses were most commonly caused by Candida (72.8 per million per year), Cryptococcus (65.5), Coccidioides (15.3), Aspergillus (12.4), and Histoplasma (7.1). The clinical significance of other, less common fungi was determined by detailed chart review. The cumulative incidence was determined for zygomycosis (1.7 per million per year), hyalohyphomycosis (1.2), and phaeohyphomycosis (1.0). The most common underlying conditions were human immunodeficiency virus infection (47.4%), nonhematologic malignancy (14.7%), diabetes mellitus (9.9%), and chronic lung disease (9.3%). This represents the first population-based epidemiological assessment of invasive mycoses in the United States.

  7. PTEN loss and chromosome 8 alterations in Gleason grade 3 prostate cancer cores predicts the presence of un-sampled grade 4 tumor: implications for Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Trock, Bruce J.; Fedor, Helen; Gurel, Bora; Jenkins, Robert B.; Knudsen, BS; Fine, Samson W.; Said, Jonathan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Lotan, Tamara L.; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2016-01-01

    Men who enter active surveillance because their biopsy exhibits only Gleason grade 3 (G3) frequently have higher grade tumor missed by biopsy. Thus, biomarkers are needed that, when measured on G3 tissue, can predict the presence of higher grade tumor in the whole prostate. We evaluated whether PTEN loss, chromosome 8q gain (MYC) and/or 8p loss (LPL) measured only on G3 cores is associated with un-sampled G4 tumor. A tissue microarray was constructed of prostatectomy tissue from patients whose prostates exhibited only Gleason score 3+3, only 3+4, or only 4+3 tumor (n=50 per group). Cores sampled only from areas of G3 were evaluated for PTEN loss by immunohistochemistry, and PTEN deletion, LPL/8p loss, and MYC/8q gain by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Biomarker results were compared between Gleason score 6 vs. 7 tumors using conditional logistic regression. PTEN protein loss, odds ratio=4.99, p=.033, MYC/8q gain, odds ratio=5.36, p=.010, and LPL/8p loss, odds ratio=3.96, p=.003 were significantly more common in G3 cores derived from Gleason 7 vs. Gleason 6 tumors. PTEN gene deletion was not statistically significant. Associations were stronger comparing Gleason 4+3 vs. 6 than for Gleason 3+4 vs. 6. MYC/8q gain, LPL/8p loss, and PTEN protein loss measured in G3 tissue microarray cores strongly differentiate whether the core comes from a Gleason 6 or Gleason 7 tumor. If validated to predict upgrading from G3 biopsy to prostatectomy these biomarkers could reduce the likelihood of enrolling high risk men and facilitate safe patient selection for active surveillance. PMID:27080984

  8. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan?

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Eireen; Pacho, Agnes; Galvan, Maria Adona; Corpuz, Aura

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR), Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR) and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED). Methods A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results Two of 11 (18%) surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45%) surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91%) rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7%) considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27%) surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6%) surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR) were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other. PMID:26767139

  9. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-07-08

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).

  11. Global projects and Astronomy awareness activities in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    Modern astronomy is a crowning achievement of human civilization which inspires teenagers to choose career in science and technology and is a stable of adult education. It is a unique and cost effective tool for furthering sustainable global development because of its technological, scientific and cultural dimensions which allow us to reach with the large portion of the community interact with children and inspire with our wonderful cosmos.Using astronomy to stimulate quality and inspiring education for disadvantaged children is an important goal of Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO) since its inception. NASO is carrying out various awareness activities on its own and in collaboration with national and international organizations like Central Department of Physics Tribhuvan University (TU), International astronomical Union (IAU), Department of Physics Prithvi Narayan Campus Pokhara, Nepal academy of science and technology (NAST), Global Hands on Universe (GHOU), EU- UNAWE and Pokhara Astronomical Society (PAS) to disseminate those activities for the school children and teachers in Nepal. Our experiences working with kids, students, teachers and public in the field of universe Awareness Activities for the school children to minimize the abstruse concept of astronomy through some practical approach and the project like Astronomy for the visually impaired students, Galileo Teacher Training program and International School for young astronomers (ISYA) outskirts will be explained which is believed to play vital role in promoting astronomy and space science activities in Nepal.

  12. Surveillance of tedizolid activity and resistance: In vitro susceptibility of Gram-positive pathogens collected over 5 years from the United States and Europe.

    PubMed

    Bensaci, Mekki; Sahm, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    In vitro activity of tedizolid and comparators against 11,231 Gram-positive clinical isolates from the United States (84 centers) and Europe (115 centers) were summarized as part of the Surveillance of Tedizolid Activity and Resistance program between 2009 and 2013. Susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretations were based on CLSI and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing criteria. Tedizolid inhibited 99.7% of all isolates at MIC ≤0.5 mg/L; activity was similar regardless of methicillin or vancomycin resistance phenotypes of Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci, respectively. Tedizolid MIC >1 mg/L was reported for 3 S. aureus, 4 coagulase-negative staphylococci, and 2 enterococcal isolates; all streptococci were inhibited at MIC ≤0.5 mg/L. Tedizolid was ≥4-fold more potent than linezolid against all groups, including resistant phenotypes. Tedizolid had potent/stable activity against a large, contemporary collection of Gram-positive clinical isolates, with low rates of resistance.

  13. Conceptual evaluation of population health surveillance programs: method and example.

    PubMed

    El Allaki, Farouk; Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Ravel, André

    2013-03-01

    Veterinary and public health surveillance programs can be evaluated to assess and improve the planning, implementation and effectiveness of these programs. Guidelines, protocols and methods have been developed for such evaluation. In general, they focus on a limited set of attributes (e.g., sensitivity and simplicity), that are assessed quantitatively whenever possible, otherwise qualitatively. Despite efforts at standardization, replication by different evaluators is difficult, making evaluation outcomes open to interpretation. This ultimately limits the usefulness of surveillance evaluations. At the same time, the growing demand to prove freedom from disease or pathogen, and the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement and the International Health Regulations require stronger surveillance programs. We developed a method for evaluating veterinary and public health surveillance programs that is detailed, structured, transparent and based on surveillance concepts that are part of all types of surveillance programs. The proposed conceptual evaluation method comprises four steps: (1) text analysis, (2) extraction of the surveillance conceptual model, (3) comparison of the extracted surveillance conceptual model to a theoretical standard, and (4) validation interview with a surveillance program designer. This conceptual evaluation method was applied in 2005 to C-EnterNet, a new Canadian zoonotic disease surveillance program that encompasses laboratory based surveillance of enteric diseases in humans and active surveillance of the pathogens in food, water, and livestock. The theoretical standard used for evaluating C-EnterNet was a relevant existing structure called the "Population Health Surveillance Theory". Five out of 152 surveillance concepts were absent in the design of C-EnterNet. However, all of the surveillance concept relationships found in C-EnterNet were valid. The proposed method can be used to improve the design and documentation of surveillance programs. It

  14. Work-related fatalities in west virginia. A summary of surveillance, investigation, and prevention activities, july 1996-DECEMBER 1999.

    PubMed

    Helmkamp; Lundstrom; Williams

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: From 1990-95, West Virginia (WV) had a work-related death (WRD) rate of 8.9 deaths per 100,000-the fifth highest rate among all states and twice the national rate. As a result, a Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (WV FACE) program was established to identify all WRDs, define workers at high risk for fatal injury, investgate selected causes, and formulate and disseminate prevention strategies.METHODS: Surveillance and investigation data were used to describe trends and rates and identify hazardous conditions, unsafe work practices, and management-leadership problems through the use of the traditional epidemiologic model and the Haddon temporal matrix. Prevention strategies were developed and disseminated utilizing various written media.RESULTS: From 7/1996-12/1999, 191 persons died from work-related injuries. The WRD rate was 7.6 per 100,000 compared to 4.7 for the U.S. (1996-98). 94% of the victims were male and all Caucasian. Mean age at death was 43 years. Leading external causes of death: motor vehicle (48), struck by object (38), machinery-related (24), fall from elevation (15), and homicide (10). WRDs occurred most often in the trans/public utilities (37; truckers-22), manufacturing (32; loggers-24), mining (28), construction (26), and services (25) industry sectors. 19 on-site investigations were conducted (10 logging, 5 machine-related, and 4 fall from elevation); no company safety programs, inadequate training, lack of oversight were consistently noted. Summary reports were prepared for employers, Fatal Incident Alerts written for workers, and a scientific article was published.CONCLUSIONS: FACE has contributed to a better understanding of fatal occupational injuries within WV and the importance of coordinated efforts by employees, employers, and safety and public health specialists to reduce the frequency and societal impact of these injuries.

  15. Presence, Distribution, and Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Small Animal Teaching Hospital: A Year-Long Active Surveillance Targeting Dogs and Their Environment

    PubMed Central

    van Balen, Joany; Kelley, Christina; Nava-Hoet, Rocio C.; Bateman, Shane; Hillier, Andrew; Dyce, Jonathan; Wittum, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is known to be present in small animal veterinary clinical environments. However, a better understanding of the ecology and dynamics of MRSA in these environments is necessary for the development of effective infectious disease prevention and control programs. To achieve this goal, a yearlong active MRSA surveillance program was established at The Ohio State University (OSU) Veterinary Medical Center to describe the spatial and molecular epidemiology of this bacterium in the small animal hospital. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, and dendrogram analysis were used to characterize and analyze the 81 environmental and 37 canine-origin MRSA isolates obtained during monthly sampling events. Overall, 13.5% of surfaces were contaminated with MRSA at 1 or more sampling times throughout the year. The majority of the environmental and canine isolates were SCCmec type II (93.8% and 86.5%, respectively) and USA100 (90.1% and 86.5%, respectively). By PFGE analysis, these isolates were found to be closely related, which reflects a low diversity of MRSA strains circulating in the hospital. For 5 consecutive months, 1 unique pulsotype was the most prevalent across the medical services and was recovered from a variety of surfaces and hospital locations. Carts/gurneys, doors, and examination tables/floors were the most frequently contaminated surfaces. Some surfaces maintained the same pulsotypes for 3 consecutive months. Molecular analysis found that incoming MRSA-positive dogs were capable of introducing a new pulsotype into the hospital environment during the surveillance period. Our results suggest that once a MRSA strain is introduced into the hospital environment, it can be maintained and spread for extended periods of time. These findings can aid in the development of biosecurity and biocontainment protocols

  16. Active Surveillance for Adverse Events After a Mass Vaccination Campaign With a Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PsA-TT) in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Vannice, Kirsten S.; Keita, Modibo; Sow, Samba O.; Durbin, Anna P.; Omer, Saad B.; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Yaméogo, Téné M.; Zuber, Patrick L. F.; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Sacko, Massambou; Diomandé, Fabien V. K.; Halsey, Neal A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The monovalent meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac) was developed for use in the “meningitis belt” of sub-Saharan Africa. Mali was 1 of 3 countries selected for early introduction. As this is a new vaccine, postlicensure surveillance is particularly important to identify and characterize possible safety issues. Methods. The national vaccination campaign was phased from September 2010 to November 2011. We conducted postlicensure safety surveillance for PsA-TT in 40 government clinics from southern Mali serving approximately 400 000 people 1–29 years of age. We conducted analyses with individual-level data and population-level data, and we calculated rates of adverse events using the conditional exact test, a modified vaccine cohort risk interval method, and a modified self-controlled case series method for each outcome of interest, including 18 prespecified adverse events and 18 syndromic categories. Results. An increased rate of clinic visits for fever within 3 days after vaccination was found using multiple methods for all age groups. Although other signals were found with some methods, complete assessment of all other prespecified outcomes and syndromic categories did not reveal that PsA-TT was consistently associated with any other health problem. Conclusions. No new safety concerns were identified in this study. These results are consistent with prelicensure data and other studies indicating that PsA-TT is safe. The approach presented could serve as a model for future active postlicensure vaccine safety monitoring associated with large-scale immunization campaigns in low-income countries. PMID:26553680

  17. An Empirical Investigation of Pre-Project Partnering Activities on Project Performance in the Software Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proffitt, Curtis K.

    2012-01-01

    Project failure remains a challenge within the software development field especially during the early stages of the IT project development. Despite the herculean efforts by project managers and organizations to identify and offset problems, projects remain plagued with issues. If these challenges are not mitigated, to a successful degree,…

  18. 76 FR 40736 - NIH State-of-the-Science Conference on the Role of Active Surveillance in the Management of Men...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Surveillance in the Management of Men With Localized Prostate Cancer ACTION: Notice. Notice is hereby given of... Surveillance in the Management of Men With Localized Prostate Cancer,'' to be held December 5-7, 2011, in the... estimated that in 2010, approximately 32,000 American men died of prostate cancer and 218,000 were...

  19. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  20. Present status of some technological activities supporting the MOLCARE project

    SciTech Connect

    Torazza, A.; Rocchini, G.; Scagliotti, M.

    1996-12-31

    The development of MCFC stack technology is carried out at Ansaldo Ricerche in the framework of the MOLCARE project, a cooperation with Spanish companies under a partial UE funding, while a specific research program concerning the physico-chemical characterization of materials is performed jointly by CISE and ENEL. The project includes the development, the construction and the testing of a full scale 100 kW prototype, the assessment of stack technology on subscale stacks, the mathematical modelling of the MCFC based plants and the basic researches. The aim of the basic researches, carried out on single cells, is to improve the effectiveness and durability of both the active and the hardware materials. The Ansaldo stack technology is based on external manifolding. The full scale 100 kW prototype will be integrated with the sensible heat reformer and other ancillary equipments according to the {open_quote}Compact Unit (CU){close_quotes} concept. These technical choices stress requirements for manifold gasket configuration. electrolyte migration control, {Delta}p management and porous component compaction.

  1. Self-service for software development projects and HPC activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husejko, M.; Høimyr, N.; Gonzalez, A.; Koloventzos, G.; Asbury, D.; Trzcinska, A.; Agtzidis, I.; Botrel, G.; Otto, J.

    2014-05-01

    This contribution describes how CERN has implemented several essential tools for agile software development processes, ranging from version control (Git) to issue tracking (Jira) and documentation (Wikis). Running such services in a large organisation like CERN requires many administrative actions both by users and service providers, such as creating software projects, managing access rights, users and groups, and performing tool-specific customisation. Dealing with these requests manually would be a time-consuming task. Another area of our CERN computing services that has required dedicated manual support has been clusters for specific user communities with special needs. Our aim is to move all our services to a layered approach, with server infrastructure running on the internal cloud computing infrastructure at CERN. This contribution illustrates how we plan to optimise the management of our of services by means of an end-user facing platform acting as a portal into all the related services for software projects, inspired by popular portals for open-source developments such as Sourceforge, GitHub and others. Furthermore, the contribution will discuss recent activities with tests and evaluations of High Performance Computing (HPC) applications on different hardware and software stacks, and plans to offer a dynamically scalable HPC service at CERN, based on affordable hardware.

  2. GEIS Surveillance Network Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    identification. Malaria Journal 2013, 12:113 Enterics: Enteric pathogen surveillance in a case- control study of acute diarrhoea in the town of...comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS...areas in which work is performed include respiratory illness surveillance (particularly influenza), acute febrile illness surveillance, malaria

  3. Active Spacecraft Potential Control: Results From the Double Star Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkar, K.; Fazakerley, A.; Steiger, W.

    2006-10-01

    The ion emitter instrument "active spacecraft potential control" (ASPOC) has been used successfully in several magnetospheric missions including the European Space Agency Cluster Project. An improved version has been developed for the equatorial spacecraft of the Chinese-European Double Star mission (TC-1) launched in December 2003. The modifications include a new design of the ion emitter modules. As a result, higher currents than in previous missions can be achieved. The main objective of the investigation is the reduction of positive spacecraft potential in order to minimize perturbations to the plasma measurements onboard, in particular to the plasma electron instrument PEACE. These data show an almost complete suppression of photoelectrons when ASPOC is emitting at 30- to 50-muA beam current. The angular distribution of the electrons in the presence of the ion beam is investigated in detail. The measurement of ambient electron distributions is highly improved.

  4. Efficient active depth sensing by laser speckle projection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xuanwu; Wang, Guijin; Shi, Chenbo; Liao, Qingmin

    2014-01-01

    An active depth sensing approach by laser speckle projection system is proposed. After capturing the speckle pattern with an infrared digital camera, we extract the pure speckle pattern using a direct-global separation method. Then the pure speckles are represented by Census binary features. By evaluating the matching cost and uniqueness between the real-time image and the reference image, robust correspondences are selected as support points. After that, we build a disparity grid and propose a generative graphical model to compute disparities. An iterative approach is designed to propagate the messages between blocks and update the model. Finally, a dense depth map can be obtained by subpixel interpolation and transformation. The experimental evaluations demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach.

  5. Surveillance as cultural practice.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Torin

    2011-01-01

    This special section of The Sociological Quarterly explores research on “surveillance as cultural practice,” which indicates an orientation to surveillance that views it as embedded within, brought about by, and generative of social practices in specific cultural contexts. Such an approach is more likely to include elements of popular culture, media, art, and narrative; it is also more likely to try to comprehend people's engagement with surveillance on their own terms, stressing the production of emic over etic forms of knowledge. This introduction sketches some key developments in this area and discusses their implications for the field of “surveillance studies” as a whole.

  6. Surveillance for West Nile virus in clinic-admitted raptors, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Nicole; Kratz, Gail; Edwards, Eric; Scherpelz, Judy; Bowen, Richard; Komar, Nicholas

    2007-02-01

    In 2005, 13.5% of clinic-admitted raptors in northern Colorado tested positive for West Nile virus (WNV). Clinic-admitted-raptor surveillance detected WNV activity nearly 14 weeks earlier than other surveillance systems. WNV surveillance using live raptor admissions to rehabilitation clinics may offer a novel surveillance method and should be considered along with other techniques already in use.

  7. Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Clinic-admitted Raptors, Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Gail; Edwards, Eric; Scherpelz, Judy; Bowen, Richard; Komar, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, 13.5% of clinic-admitted raptors in northern Colorado tested positive for West Nile virus (WNV). Clinic-admitted–raptor surveillance detected WNV activity nearly 14 weeks earlier than other surveillance systems. WNV surveillance using live raptor admissions to rehabilitation clinics may offer a novel surveillance method and should be considered along with other techniques already in use. PMID:17479898

  8. Development of the Oxford Hills Healthy Moms Project using a social marketing process: a community-based physical activity and nutrition intervention for low-socioeconomic-status mothers in a rural area in Maine.

    PubMed

    Dharod, Jigna M; Drewette-Card, Rebecca; Crawford, David

    2011-03-01

    A physical activity and nutrition community intervention called the Oxford Hills Healthy Moms (OHHM) Project was developed using a multifaceted social marketing process, including review of state surveillance results, key informant interviews, and a survey and focus group discussions with low-socioeconomic-status (low-SES) mothers. This formative work was used to make key decisions on the selection of the intervention region, segmentation of the audience, and design of intervention strategies addressing multiple levels of the socioecological model. The OHHM Project aims to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity levels among low-SES mothers in the Oxford Hills region of Maine. The OHHM Project includes five components: (a) physical activity buddy program, (b) cooking club with education, (c) fruit and vegetable discount buying club with education, (d) increased access to produce vendors, and (e) increased access to places for physical activity.

  9. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  10. Privacy-protecting video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasuriya, Jehan; Alhazzazi, Mohanned; Datt, Mahesh; Mehrotra, Sharad; Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    2005-02-01

    Forms of surveillance are very quickly becoming an integral part of crime control policy, crisis management, social control theory and community consciousness. In turn, it has been used as a simple and effective solution to many of these problems. However, privacy-related concerns have been expressed over the development and deployment of this technology. Used properly, video cameras help expose wrongdoing but typically come at the cost of privacy to those not involved in any maleficent activity. This work describes the design and implementation of a real-time, privacy-protecting video surveillance infrastructure that fuses additional sensor information (e.g. Radio-frequency Identification) with video streams and an access control framework in order to make decisions about how and when to display the individuals under surveillance. This video surveillance system is a particular instance of a more general paradigm of privacy-protecting data collection. In this paper we describe in detail the video processing techniques used in order to achieve real-time tracking of users in pervasive spaces while utilizing the additional sensor data provided by various instrumented sensors. In particular, we discuss background modeling techniques, object tracking and implementation techniques that pertain to the overall development of this system.

  11. The Effect of Project-Based Activities on Intermediate EFL Students' Reading Comprehension Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiraz, Mona Poorverdi; Larsari, Ebrahim Ezati

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between the use of Project-based activities and intermediate EFL students' reading comprehension. The study addresses the questions of whether students' reading comprehension differs after implementing Project-based activities, and whether different projects lead to different degrees of reading…

  12. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  13. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    network and use the specific presentation methods. In addition, the S4 is compliant with Open Geospatial Consortium - Sensor Web Enablement (OGC-SWE) standards to efficiently discover, access, use, and control heterogeneous sensors and their metadata. These S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. The S4 system is directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  14. On-line image analysis of the stromboli volcanic activity recorded by the surveillance camera helps the forecasting of the major eruptive events.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristaldi, A.; Coltelli, M.; Mangiagli, S.; Pecora, E.

    2003-04-01

    The typical activity of Stromboli consists of intermittent mild explosions lasting a few seconds, which take place at different vents and at variable intervals, the most common time interval being 10-20 minutes. However, the routine activity can be interrupted by more violent, paroxysmal explosions, that eject m-sized scoriaceous bombs and lava blocks to a distance of several hundreds of meters from the craters, endangering the numerous tourists that watch the spectacular activity from the volcano's summit located about two hundreds meters from the active vents. On average, 1-2 paroxysmal explosions occurred per year over the past century, but this statistic may be underestimated in absence of continuous monitoring. For this reason from summer 1996 a remote surveillance camera works on Stromboli recording continuously the volcanic activity. It is located on Pizzo Sopra la Fossa, 100 metres above the crater terrace where are the active vents. Using image analysis we seeks to identify any change of the explosive activity trend that could precede a particular eruptive event, like paroxysmal explosions, fire fountains, lava flows. From the day of the camera installation up to present 12 paroxysmal events and lava flows occurred. The analysis include the counting of the explosions occurred at the different craters and the parameterization in classes of intensity for each explosion on the base of tephra dispersion and kinetics energy. The plot of dissipated energy by each crater versus time shows a cyclic behavior with max and min of explosive activity ranging from a few days to a month. Often the craters show opposite trends so when the activity decreases in a crater, increases in the other. Before every paroxysmal explosions recorded, the crater that produced the event decreased and then stopped its activity from a few days to weeks before. The other crater tried to compensate increasing its activity and when it declined the paroxysmal explosion occurred suddenly at

  15. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  16. Participatory Online Surveillance as a Supplementary Tool to Sentinel Doctors for Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bella, Antonino; Rizzo, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring of seasonal influenza yearly epidemics remains one of the main activity of national syndromic surveillance systems. The development of internet-based surveillance tools has brought an innovative approach to seasonal influenza surveillance by directly involving self-selected volunteers among the general population reporting their health status on a weekly basis throughout the flu season. In this paper, we explore how Influweb, an internet-based monitoring system for influenza surveillance, deployed in Italy since 2008 has performed during three years from 2012 to 2015 in comparison with data collected during the same period by the Italian sentinel doctors surveillance system. PMID:28076411

  17. Milliwatt Generator Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latimer, T. W.; Rinehart, G. H.

    1992-05-01

    This report covers progress on the Milliwatt Generator Project from April 1986 through March 1988. Activities included fuel processing and characterization, production of heat sources, fabrication of pressure-burst test units, compatibility studies, impact testing, and examination of surveillance units. The major task of the Los Alamos Milliwatt Generator Project is to fabricate MC2893A heat sources (4.0 W) for MC2730A radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and MC3599 heat sources (4.5 W) for MC3500 RTG's. The MWG Project interfaces with the following contractors: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (designer); E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. (Inc.), Savannah River Plant (fuel); Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility (metal hardware); and General Electric Company, Neutron Devices Department (RTG's). In addition to MWG fabrication activities, Los Alamos is involved in (1) fabrication of pressure-burst test units, (2) compatibility testing and evaluation, (3) examination of surveillance units, and (4) impact testing and subsequent examination of compatibility and surveillance units.

  18. Milliwatt Generator Project

    SciTech Connect

    Latimer, T.W.; Rinehart, G.H.

    1992-05-01

    This report covers progress on the Milliwatt Generator Project from April 1986 through March 1988. Activities included fuel processing and characterization, production of heat sources, fabrication of pressure-burst test units, compatibility studies, impact testing, and examination of surveillance units. The major task of the Los Alamos Milliwatt Generator Project is to fabricate MC2893A heat sources (4.0 W) for MC2730A radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGS) and MC3599 heat sources (4.5 W) for MC3500 RTGs. The MWG Project interfaces with the following contractors: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (designer); E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. (Inc.), Savannah River Plant (fuel); Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility (metal hardware); and General Electric Company, Neutron Devices Department (RTGs). In addition to MWG fabrication activities, Los Alamos is involved in (1) fabrication of pressure-burst test units, (2) compatibility testing and evaluation, (3) examination of surveillance units, and (4) impact testing and subsequent examination of compatibility and surveillance units.

  19. The importance of active surveillance, and immediate re-biopsy in low-risk prostate cancer: The largest series from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Bayar, Göksel; Horasanlı, Kaya; Acinikli, Hüseyin; Tanrıverdi, Orhan; Dalkılıç, Ayhan; Arısan, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate long-term outcomes of active surveillance (AS) applied in low-risk prostate cancer patients, and the impact of re-biopsy results on the prediction of progression. Material and methods In our clinic, patients who had undergone AS for low-risk localized prostate cancer between the years 2005–2013 were included in the study. Our AS criteria are Gleason score ≤6, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level <10 ng/mL, number of positive cores <3, maximum cancer involvement ratio <50% each core. Immediate re-biopsy (within 3 months) was performed to 65 patients who accepted AS. Finally, 43 patients who met re-biopsy criteria were included in the study. Prostate biopsy specimens were harvested from 12 cores under the guidance of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). Re-biopsy was performed within 3 months (1–12 weeks). In re-biopsy, a total of 20 core biopsies were performed including the far lateral (6 cores) and transition zone (2 cores) in addition to standard 12 core biopsy. Our follow-up protocol is PSA measurement and digital rectal examination (DRE) every 3 months within the first 2 years, than every 6 months. Control biopsies was performed one year later and once upon every 3 years to patients whose PSA levels and DREs were normal at follow-up visits. More than 2 tumor invaded cores or 50% tumor in one core, and Gleason score exceeding 6 points were accepted as indications for definitive treatment. Patients were divided into two groups by re-biopsy results and compared according to the time to progression. We have done multivariate regression analysis to predict prognosis by using data on age, PSA level, and detection of tumor in re-biopsy specimens. Results Patients’ median age was 61 years and PSA level was 5 (2.7–9) ng/mL. Tumor was detected in 22 (34%) patients at re-biopsy and they underwent definitive treatment. Additionally tumor was detected in 9 patients, but active surveillance was maintained because their pathologic results met active

  20. Community Based Education Activities in Southeastern Region Teacher Corps Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Martha; Bonney, Nancy

    To gather information on the community councils mandated for each Teacher Corps project, this pilot study surveyed 34 project directors and council chairpersons in 24 southeastern projects initiated in 1978 and 1979. The study's questionnaires asked about community council elections, membership, training, leadership, meetings, procedures, interest…

  1. Oral selenium supplementation has no effect on prostate-specific antigen velocity in men undergoing active surveillance for localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Stratton, M Suzanne; Algotar, Amit M; Ranger-Moore, James; Stratton, Steven P; Slate, Elizabeth H; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Thompson, Patricia A; Clark, Larry C; Ahmann, Frederick R

    2010-08-01

    The Nutritional Prevention of Cancer trial showed a 52% lower incidence of prostate cancer in men supplemented with selenium. As a result, our study was designed to assess whether selenium supplementation attenuates the progression of prostate cancer. A phase 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in men with localized nonmetastatic prostate cancer who had elected to forgo active treatment and be followed by active surveillance. A total of 140 men were randomized to placebo (n = 46), 200 microg/d (n = 47), or 800 microg/d (n = 47) selenium p.o. (as selenized yeast) and followed every 3 months for up to 5 years. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity was used as a marker of prostate cancer progression and was estimated using mixed-effects regression. Adjusting for age, body mass index, baseline selenium, smoking, baseline PSA, race, PSA method, and Gleason score, PSA velocities for the 200 microg/d and 800 microg/d treatment groups were not statistically significantly different from placebo (P = 0.32 and P = 0.61, respectively). In the highest quartile of baseline selenium, men supplemented with 800 microg selenium showed statistically significantly higher PSA velocity as compared with placebo (P = 0.018). Selenium supplementation did not show a protective effect on PSA velocity in subjects with localized prostate cancer. On the contrary, supplementation with high-dose selenium was observed to be a risk factor for increased PSA velocity in men with high baseline plasma selenium concentrations.

  2. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Act on (UMTRA) Project Bodo Canyon disposal site at Durango, Colorado, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal call continues to function as designed This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for DOE acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) from processing uranium ore. This LTSP documents that the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a). Following the introduction, contents of this report include the following: site final condition; site drawings and photographs; permanent site surveillance features; ground water monitoring; annual site inspections; unscheduled inspections; custodial maintenance; corrective action; record keeping and reporting requirements; emergency notification and reporting; quality assurance; personal health and safety; list of contributions; and references.

  3. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    SciTech Connect

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-02-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities. However, ongoing S&M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations.

  4. Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. This Shiprock, New Mexico, LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the US or an Indian tribe and describes in detail the long-term care program through the UMTRA Project Office.

  5. Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly, Howard R.; Shipers, Larry R.

    1999-07-14

    Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment.

  6. Economics of zoonoses surveillance in a 'One Health' context: an assessment of Campylobacter surveillance in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2017-01-23

    Cross-sectorial surveillance and general collaboration between the animal and the public health sectors are increasingly recognized as needed to better manage the impacts of zoonoses. From 2009, the Swiss established a Campylobacter mitigation system that includes human and poultry surveillance data-sharing within a multi-sectorial platform, in a 'One Health' approach. The objective of this study was to explore the economics of this cross-sectorial approach, including surveillance and triggered interventions. Costs and benefits of the One Health and of the uni-sectorial approach to Campylobacter surveillance were identified using an economic assessment framework developed earlier. Cost information of surveillance activities and interventions was gathered and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the disease estimated for 2008 and 2013. In the first 5 years of this One Health approach to Campylobacter mitigation, surveillance contributed with information mainly used to perform risk assessments, monitor trends and shape research efforts on Campylobacter. There was an increase in costs associated with the mitigation activities following integration, due mainly to the allocation of additional resources to research and implementation of poultry surveillance. The overall burden of campylobacteriosis increased by 3·4-8·8% to 1751-2852 DALYs in 2013. In the timing of the analysis, added value associated with this cross-sectorial approach to surveillance of Campylobacter in the country was likely generated through non-measurable benefits such as intellectual capital and social capital.

  7. Asbestos Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on asbestos is presented including the different types and the important medical distinctions between those different types. The four diseases associated with asbestos exposure are discussed: mesothelioma, lung cancer, asbestosis, and benign pleural disorders. The purpose of the LeRC Asbestos Surveillance Program is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Asbestos Monitoring at LeRC are discussed.

  8. Mercury Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on mercury exposure is presented including forms, sources, permissible exposure limits, and physiological effects. The purpose of the Mercury Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Mercury Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  9. Arsenic surveillance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background information about arsenic is presented including forms, common sources, and clinical symptoms of arsenic exposure. The purpose of the Arsenic Surveillance Program and LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Arsenic Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  10. Lead Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on lead exposure is presented including forms of lead, sources, hematologic effects, neurologic effects, endocrine effects, renal effects, and reproductive and developmental effects. The purpose of the Lead Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Lead Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  11. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  12. Patient perspectives on the promptness and quality of care of road traffic incident victims in Peru: a cross-sectional, active surveillance study

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Background: Road injuries are the second-leading cause of disease and injury in the Andean region of South America. Adequate management of road traffic crash victims is important to prevent and reduce deaths and serious long-term injuries. Objective: To evaluate the promptness of health care services provided to those injured in road traffic incidents (RTIs) and the satisfaction with those services during the pre-hospital and hospital periods. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with active surveillance to recruit participants in emergency departments at eight health care facilities in three Peruvian cities: a large metropolitan city (Lima) and two provincial cities (an urban center in the southern Andes and an urban center in the rainforest region), between August and September 2009. The main outcomes of interest were promptness of care, measured by time between injury and each service offered, as well as patient satisfaction measured by the Service Quality (SERVQUAL) survey. We explored the association between outcomes and city, type of health care facility (HCF), and type of provider. Results: We recruited 644 adults seeking care for RTIs. This active surveillance strategy yielded 34% more events than anticipated, suggesting under-reporting in traditional registries. Median response time between a RTI and any care at a HCF was 33 minutes overall and only 62% of participants received professional care during the initial “golden” hour after the RTI. After adjustment for various factors, there was strong evidence of higher global dissatisfaction levels among those receiving care at public HCFs compared to private ones (odds ratio (OR) 5.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.88-13.54). This difference was not observed when provincial sites were compared to Lima (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.42-4.70). Conclusions: Response time to RTIs was adequate overall, though a large proportion of RTI victims could have received more prompt care. Overall, dissatisfaction was

  13. Assessment of health effects in New York City firefighters after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs): the Staten Island Transformer Fire Health Surveillance Project.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry J; Connelly, Edmond; Reinhold, Gustave A; Byrne, Mike; Prezant, David J

    2002-01-01

    Following an electrical transformer fire in Staten Island, New York, a health surveillance program was established for 60 New York City firefighters and emergency medical technicians exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Exposure potential was documented after high levels of PCBs and PCDFs were found on transformer and firefighters' uniforms. Personnel received comprehensive medical examinations, and the results were compared with preexposure values. Serum was analyzed for PCBs, PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Follow-up was conducted 9 mo later. Thirty-two of 58 (55%) firefighters reported initial symptoms, and 3 firefighters required brief medical leave. Pulmonary functions, exercise performance, serum liver functions, and serum lipid profiles were normal or unchanged from preexposure baselines. Serum PCBs averaged 2.92 +/- 1.96 ppb (range = 1.9-11.0 ppb). Five (8%) had serum PCBs that were greater than or equal to 6 ppb. Eight (73%) had a significant decrease (p = .05) in serum PCB level at the time of follow-up. Serum toxic equivalency (TEQ [1998 World Health Organization]) for total PCDDs and PCDFs averaged 39.0 +/- 21.5 (n = 48). Eighteen (38%) had elevated TEQs (i.e., > 40). All firefighters had no short-term heath effects. Modern firefighting uniforms are not meant to replace HAZMAT suits, but these uniforms provide protection from this chemical exposure for most firefighters.

  14. Critical issues in implementing a national integrated all-vaccine preventable disease surveillance system☆

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Terri B.; Andrus, Jon K.; Dietz, Vance J.; Andrus, Jon K.; Hyde, Terri B.; Lee, Carla E.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Verani, Jennifer R.; Friedman, Cindy; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Lopez, Adriana S.; Jumaan, Aisha; Dietz, Vance J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization published the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance (GFIMS) outlining measures to enhance national surveillance for vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). The GFIMS emphasized that VPD surveillance should be integrated and placed in a ‘unified framework’ building upon the strengths of existing surveillance systems to prevent duplication of activities common to all surveillance systems and to minimize human resource and supply expenditures. Unfortunately, there was little experience in actually developing integrated VPD surveillance. We describe the process of developing operational guidance for ministries of health to implement such an integrated surveillance system for multiple VPDs. PMID:23777699

  15. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project.

  16. PUBLIC HEALTH AIR SURVEILLANCE EVALUATION (PHASE) - A SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    NERL's Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division and other participants in the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) project will be discussing their results with European Commission, Directorate General Environment, and

    French Agency for Environment an...

  17. Outbreaks of H5N1 in poultry in Thailand: the relative role of poultry production types in sustaining transmission and the impact of active surveillance in control.

    PubMed

    Walker, Patrick; Cauchemez, Simon; Hartemink, Nienke; Tiensin, Thanawat; Ghani, Azra C

    2012-08-07

    H5N1, highly pathogenic avian influenza, continues to pose a public health risk in the countries of southeast Asia where it has become endemic. However, in Thailand, which experienced two of the largest recorded epidemics in 2004-2005, the disease has been successfully reduced to very low levels. We fitted a spatio-temporal model of the spread of infection to outbreak data collected during the second wave of outbreaks to assess the extent to which different poultry types were responsible for propagating infection. Our estimates suggest that the wave of outbreaks would not have been possible without the contribution of backyard flocks to the susceptibility of a sub-district. However, we also estimated that outbreaks involving commercial poultry, a much larger sector in Thailand than in neighbouring countries, were disproportionately infectious, a factor which was also crucial in sustaining the wave. As a result, implemented measures that aim to reduce the role of commercial farms in the spread of infection, such as the drive to bring aspects of the supply chain 'in house', may help to explain the subsequent success in controlling H5N1 in Thailand. We also found that periods of active surveillance substantially improved the rate of outbreak detection.

  18. Estimating the individual benefit of immediate treatment or active surveillance for prostate cancer after screen-detection in older (65+) men.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Tiago M; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; de Koning, Harry J

    2016-05-15

    A significant proportion of screen-detected men with prostate cancer is likely to be overtreated, especially in older age groups. We aim to find which groups of screen-detected older men (65+) benefit the most from Immediate Radical Treatment or Active Surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer, depending on age, screening history, health status and prostate cancer stage at detection. We used a microsimulation model (MISCAN) of the natural history of prostate cancer based on ERSPC data. Individual life histories are simulated with US comorbidity lifetables based on a random sample of MEDICARE data. Different screening histories are simulated and we count outcomes for men screen-detected from ages 66 to 72. For immediately treated men with low-risk disease (≤ T2a, Gleason 6) the probability of overtreatment ranges from 61% to 86% decreasing to between 37 and 46%, if they are assigned to AS. For intermediate risk men (≤ T2, Gleason 3 + 4) overtreatment ranges from 23 to 60%, which reduces to between 16 and 31% for AS. For high risk men (T3, or ≥ Gleason 4 + 3), overtreatment ranges from 11 to 51%. The disease stage at screen-detection is a critical risk factor for overtreatment. For low risk men, AS seems to significantly reduce overtreatment at a modest cost. For intermediate risk men, the decision between immediate treatment or AS depends on age and comorbidity status. Men screen-detected in a high risk disease stage may benefit from immediate treatment even beyond age 69.

  19. National benthic surveillance project: Pacific coast. Fish histopathology and relationships between toxicopathic lesions and exposure to chemical contaminants for cycles 1 to 5 (1984-88). Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, M.S.; Stehr, C.M.; Olson, O.P.; Johnson, L.L.; McCain, B.B.

    1993-02-01

    The report presents and interprets the results of histopathology studies conducted on 17 species of bottomfish captured at 45 sites between 1984 and 1988 as part of the Pacific Coast portion of the National Benthic Surveillance Program (NBSP) in conjunction with NOAA's National Status and Trends Program (NS T). The location of sampling sites ranged from Prudhoe Bay in Alaska to San Diego Bay in California, and incorporated sites. Twenty-three were located in or near urban embayments, and the 22 remaining sites were in nonurban embayments, five of which served as comparison or reference sites on the basis of minimal levels of sediment contaminants detected (Kamishak Bay, AK; Nisqually Reach, WA; and Bodega Bay, Dana Point, and outer Mission Bay, CA). These comparison sites were selected so that the same fish species could be collected from minimally contaminated environments as opposed to those obtained at urban or more contaminated sites. Six primary target species were identified for statistical analyses that examined the relationships between occurrence of particular toxicopathic diseases or lesions in the liver and kidney and levels of potential or actual exposure to contaminants. These species were selected because they were broadly distributed geographically and were abundant among the sampling sites, they had previously documented significant prevalences of contaminant-associated diseases, or the geographic distribution of similar diseases among the sites suggested an association with contaminant exposure. These primary target species were flathead sole, English sole, starry flounder, hornyhead turbot, white croaker, and black croaker. All specimens were examined for the presence of necrotic, sclerotic and proliferative lesions in the kidney, as well as lesions.

  20. Evaluation of Aryoseven Safety (Recombinant Activated Factor VII) in Patients with Bleeding Disorders (An Observational Post-Marketing Surveillance Study)

    PubMed Central

    Toogeh, Gholamreza; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Eshghi, Peyman; Managhchi, Mohammadreza; Shaverdi-niasari, Mohammadreza; Karimi, Katayoon; Roostaei, Samin; Emran, Neda; Abdollahi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recombinant activated factor VII induces hemostasis in patients with coagulopathy disorders. AryoSeven™ as a safe Iranian Recombinant activated factor VII has been available on our market. This study was performed to establish the safety of AryoSeven on patients with coagulopathy disorder. Methods: This single-center, descriptive, cross sectional study was carried out in Thrombus and Homeostasis Research Center ValiAsr Hospital during 2013-2014. Fifty one patients with bleeding disorders who received at least one dose of Aryoseven were enrolled. Patients’ demographic data and adverse effect of drug and reaction related to Aryoseven or previous usage of Recombinant activated FVII were recorded in questionnaires. Finally data were analyzed to compare side effects of Aryoseven and other Recombinant activated FVII brands. Results: Aryoseven was prescribed for 51 Patients. Of all participants with mean age 57.18+21.38 yr, 31 cases were male and 26 subjects had past history of recombinant activated FVII usage. Glanzman was the most frequent disorder followed by congenital FVII deficiency, hemophilia with inhibitors, factor 5 deficiency, acquired hemophilia, hemophilia A with inhibitor, and hemophilia A or B with inhibitor. The majority of bleeding episodes had occurred in joints. Three patients (5.9%) complained about adverse effects of Aryoseven vs. 11.5 % about adverse effects of other brands. However this difference was not significant, statistically. Conclusion: Based on monitor patients closely for any adverse events, we concluded that Aryoseven administration under careful weighing of benefit versus potential harm may comparable with other counterpart drugs. PMID:27799968

  1. An Enhanced Synthetic Environment for Maritime Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    Surveillance Nacer Abdellaoui Defence R&D Canada – Ottawa Paul Hubbard Defence R&D Canada – Ottawa Paul Duncan Greenley & Associates...or during the whole lifecycle of the project. The contractor, Greenley & Associates Inc., [8] defines itself as a consulting service provider that...and emergency management. In a multi project environment, like that employed by Greenley & Associates, where personnel are shared across a number of

  2. Squamous cell carcinomas escape immune surveillance via inducing chronic activation and exhaustion of CD8+ T Cells co-expressing PD-1 and LAG-3 inhibitory receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Ameet K.; Kadoishi, Tanya; Wang, Xiaoguang; Driver, Emily; Chen, Zhangguo; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Jing H.

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second commonest type of skin cancer. Moreover, about 90% of head and neck cancers are SCCs. SCCs develop at a significantly higher rate under chronic immunosuppressive conditions, implicating a role of immune surveillance in controlling SCCs. It remains largely unknown how SCCs evade immune recognition. Here, we established a mouse model by injecting tumor cells derived from primary SCCs harboring KrasG12D mutation and Smad4 deletion into wild-type (wt) or CD8−/− recipients. We found comparable tumor growth between wt and CD8−/− recipients, indicating a complete escape of CD8+ T cell-mediated anti-tumor responses by these SCCs. Mechanistically, CD8+ T cells apparently were not defective in infiltrating tumors given their relatively increased percentage among tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). CD8+ TILs exhibited phenotypes of chronic activation and exhaustion, including overexpression of activation markers, co-expression of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), as well as TCRβ downregulation. Among CD4+ TILs, T regulatory cells (Tregs) were preferentially expanded. Contradictory to prior findings in melanoma, Treg expansion was independent of CD8+ T cells in our SCC model. Unexpectedly, CD8+ T cells were required for promoting NK cell infiltration within SCCs. Furthermore, we uncovered AKT-dependent lymphocyte-induced PD-L1 upregulation on SCCs, which was contributed greatly by combinatorial effects of CD8+ T and NK cells. Lastly, dual blockade of PD-1 and LAG-3 inhibited the tumor growth of SCCs. Thus, our findings identify novel immune evasion mechanisms of SCCs and suggest that immunosuppressive mechanisms operate in a cancer-type specific and context-dependent manner. PMID:27835902

  3. Squamous cell carcinomas escape immune surveillance via inducing chronic activation and exhaustion of CD8+ T Cells co-expressing PD-1 and LAG-3 inhibitory receptors.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ameet K; Kadoishi, Tanya; Wang, Xiaoguang; Driver, Emily; Chen, Zhangguo; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Jing H

    2016-12-06

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second commonest type of skin cancer. Moreover, about 90% of head and neck cancers are SCCs. SCCs develop at a significantly higher rate under chronic immunosuppressive conditions, implicating a role of immune surveillance in controlling SCCs. It remains largely unknown how SCCs evade immune recognition. Here, we established a mouse model by injecting tumor cells derived from primary SCCs harboring KrasG12D mutation and Smad4 deletion into wild-type (wt) or CD8-/- recipients. We found comparable tumor growth between wt and CD8-/- recipients, indicating a complete escape of CD8+ T cell-mediated anti-tumor responses by these SCCs. Mechanistically, CD8+ T cells apparently were not defective in infiltrating tumors given their relatively increased percentage among tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). CD8+ TILs exhibited phenotypes of chronic activation and exhaustion, including overexpression of activation markers, co-expression of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), as well as TCRβ downregulation. Among CD4+ TILs, T regulatory cells (Tregs) were preferentially expanded. Contradictory to prior findings in melanoma, Treg expansion was independent of CD8+ T cells in our SCC model. Unexpectedly, CD8+ T cells were required for promoting NK cell infiltration within SCCs. Furthermore, we uncovered AKT-dependent lymphocyte-induced PD-L1 upregulation on SCCs, which was contributed greatly by combinatorial effects of CD8+ T and NK cells. Lastly, dual blockade of PD-1 and LAG-3 inhibited the tumor growth of SCCs. Thus, our findings identify novel immune evasion mechanisms of SCCs and suggest that immunosuppressive mechanisms operate in a cancer-type specific and context-dependent manner.

  4. Inferring Earthquake Physics from Deep Drilling Projects of Active Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Toro, G.; Smith, S. A. F.; Kuo, L. W.; Mittempergher, S.; Remitti, F.; Spagnuolo, E.; Mitchell, T. M.; Gualtieri, A.; Hadizadeh, J.; Carpenter, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    Deep drilling projects of active faults offer the opportunity to correlate physical and chemical processes identified in core samples with experiments reproducing the seismic cycle in the laboratory and with high-resolution seismological and geophysical data. Here we discuss the constraints about earthquakes source processes at depth gained by fault cores retrieved from the deep drilling projects SAFOD (2.7 km depth, San Andreas Fault), J-FAST (0.9 km depth, following the Mw 9.0 Tohoku 2011 earthquake), TCDP (1.1 km depth, following the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi 1999 earthquake) and WFSD (1.2 km depth, following the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan 2008 earthquake). Recovered samples were tested at room temperature with the rotary shear apparatus SHIVA installed in Rome (INGV, Italy). All the tested samples were made by clay-rich gouges (usually including smectite/illite), though their bulk mineralogy and modal composition were different (e.g., SAFOD samples included saponite, WFSD carbonaceous materials). The gouges were investigated before and after the experiments with scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy, etc. A common behavior of all the tested gouges was that their friction coefficient was low (often less than 0.1) under room-humidity and wet conditions when sheared at slip rates of ca. 1 m/s (seismic deformation conditions). Moreover, when the natural fault rocks next to the principal slipping zones were sheared from sub-seismic (few micrometers/s) to seismic slip rates, the experimental products had similar microstructures to those found in the principal slipping zones of the drilled faults. This included the formation of mirror-like surfaces, graphite-rich materials, foliated gouges, nanograins, amorphous materials, etc. In most cases the mechanical data were consistent with several seismological (> 50 m of seismic slip for the fault zone drilled by J-FAST) and geophysical observations (absence of a thermal anomaly in the fault

  5. Thermal surveillance of volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A systematic aircraft program to monitor changes in the thermal emission from volcanoes of the Cascade Range has been initiated and is being carried out in conjunction with ERTS-1 thermal surveillance experiments. Night overflights by aircraft equipped with thermal infrared scanners sensitive to terrestrial emission in the 4-5.5 and 8-14 micron bands are currently being carried out at intervals of a few months. Preliminary results confirm that Mount Rainier, Mount Baker, Mount Saint Helens, Mount Shasta, and the Lassen area continue to be thermally active, although with the exception of Lassen which erupted between 1914 and 1917, and Mount Saint Helens which had a series of eruptions between 1831 and 1834, there has been no recent eruptive activity. Excellent quality infrared images recorded over Mount Rainier, as recently as April, 1972, show similar thermal patterns to those reported in 1964-1966. Infrared images of Mount Baker recorded in November 1970 and again in April 1972 revealed a distinct array of anomalies 1000 feet below the crater rim and associated with fumaroles or structures permitting convective heat transfer to the surface.

  6. Global Assessment of the Activity of Tigecycline against Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Pathogens between 2004 and 2014 as Part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial.

    PubMed

    Giammanco, Anna; Calà, Cinzia; Fasciana, Teresa; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative organisms are a burden on the global health care system. The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST) is an ongoing global study designed to monitor the in vitro activities of tigecycline and a panel of marketed antimicrobials against a range of clinically significant pathogens. In this study, in vitro data are presented for MDR Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae isolates collected from 2004 to 2014. In total, 13% (21,967/170,759) of isolates displayed multidrug resistance globally, with the highest rates recorded among A. baumannii (overall rate, 44% [8,294/18,741], increasing from 23% [309/1,323] in 2004 to 63% [447/712] in 2014). Other multidrug resistance rates ranged from 2.5% for K. oxytoca (203/8,000) to 12% for P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae (3,951/32,786 and 3,895/32,888, respectively), and rates among these pathogens remained stable during the study period. Against MDR E. coli, Klebsiella spp., and E. aerogenes, the lowest rates of resistance were to tigecycline (0.2%, 6%, and 12%, respectively), and the lowest MIC90 value against A. baumannii was observed for tigecycline (2 mg/liter; MIC range, ≤0.008 to ≥32 mg/liter). The only significant change in resistance to tigecycline during the study period was for MDR E. coli (P < 0.01), among which eight resistant isolates were identified globally from 2009 to 2013. In summary, these results show that tigecycline retained in vitro activity against the majority of MDR Gram-negative organisms presented here, but the rising rates of MDR A. baumannii highlight the need for the continued monitoring of global multidrug resistance. IMPORTANCE Multidrug resistance among bacterial pathogens is an ongoing global problem and renders antimicrobial agents ineffective at treating bacterial infections. In the health care setting

  7. Global Assessment of the Activity of Tigecycline against Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Pathogens between 2004 and 2014 as Part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial

    PubMed Central

    Calà, Cinzia; Fasciana, Teresa; Dowzicky, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative organisms are a burden on the global health care system. The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST) is an ongoing global study designed to monitor the in vitro activities of tigecycline and a panel of marketed antimicrobials against a range of clinically significant pathogens. In this study, in vitro data are presented for MDR Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae isolates collected from 2004 to 2014. In total, 13% (21,967/170,759) of isolates displayed multidrug resistance globally, with the highest rates recorded among A. baumannii (overall rate, 44% [8,294/18,741], increasing from 23% [309/1,323] in 2004 to 63% [447/712] in 2014). Other multidrug resistance rates ranged from 2.5% for K. oxytoca (203/8,000) to 12% for P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae (3,951/32,786 and 3,895/32,888, respectively), and rates among these pathogens remained stable during the study period. Against MDR E. coli, Klebsiella spp., and E. aerogenes, the lowest rates of resistance were to tigecycline (0.2%, 6%, and 12%, respectively), and the lowest MIC90 value against A. baumannii was observed for tigecycline (2 mg/liter; MIC range, ≤0.008 to ≥32 mg/liter). The only significant change in resistance to tigecycline during the study period was for MDR E. coli (P < 0.01), among which eight resistant isolates were identified globally from 2009 to 2013. In summary, these results show that tigecycline retained in vitro activity against the majority of MDR Gram-negative organisms presented here, but the rising rates of MDR A. baumannii highlight the need for the continued monitoring of global multidrug resistance. IMPORTANCE Multidrug resistance among bacterial pathogens is an ongoing global problem and renders antimicrobial agents ineffective at treating bacterial infections. In the health care setting

  8. Project DAFNE - Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, I. T.; Ask, M. S. V.; Olesen, O.

    2012-04-01

    We are currently developing a new ICDP project 'Drillling Active Faults in Northern Europe' (DAFNE) which aims at investigating, via scientific drilling, the tectonic and structural characteristics of postglacial (PG) faults in northern Fennoscandia, including their hydrogeology and associated deep biosphere [1, 2]. During the last stages of the Weichselian glaciation (ca. 9,000 - 15,000 years B.P.), reduced ice load and glacially affected stress field resulted in active faulting in Fennoscandia with fault scarps up to 160 km long and 30 m high. These postglacial (PG) faults are usually SE dipping, SW-NE oriented thrusts, and represent reactivated, pre-existing crustal discontinuities. Postglacial faulting indicates that the glacio-isostatic compensation is not only a gradual viscoelastic phenomenon, but includes also unexpected violent earthquakes, suggestively larger than other known earthquakes in stable continental regions. The research is anticipated to advance science in neotectonics, hydrogeology and deep biosphere studies, and provide important information for nuclear waste and CO2 disposal, petroleum exploration on the Norwegian continental shelf and studies of mineral resources in PG fault areas. We expect that multidisciplinary research applying shallow and deep drilling of postglacial faults would provide significant scientific results through generating new data and models, namely: (1) Understanding PG fault genesis and controls of their locations; (2) Deep structure and depth extent of PG faults; (3) Textural, mineralogical and physical alteration of rocks in the PG faults; (4) State of stress and estimates of paleostress of PG faults; (5) Hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and hydraulic properties of PG faults; (6) Dating of tectonic reactivation(s) and temporal evolution of tectonic systems hosting PG faults; (7) Existence/non-existence of deep biosphere in PG faults; (8) Data useful for planning radioactive waste disposal in crystalline bedrock; (9) Data

  9. College Professors' and Instructors' Attitudes toward International Project Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryzhkova, I. V.

    2010-01-01

    The Bologna process, the most successful European project in the field of higher education, calls for colleges and universities to take joint actions to create a unified European educational space. One possible way to accomplish this task is to implement international scientific research projects. In connection with this, it becomes necessary to…

  10. Replacement of the Project Manager Reflected Through Activity Theory and Work-System Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartiainen, Tero; Aramo-Immonen, Heli; Jussila, Jari; Pirhonen, Maritta; Liikamaa, Kirsi

    Replacement of the project manager (RPM) is a known phenomenon in information systems (IS) projects, but scant attention is given to it in the project management or IS literature. Given its critical effects on the project business, the organization, the project team, and the project manager, it should be studied in more depth. We identified factors which make RPM occurrences inherently different and we show that work-system theory and activity theory give comprehensive lenses to advance research on RPM. For the future research on RPM we identified three objectives: experiences on RPM, process model for RPM, and organizational culture's influence on RPM occurrences.

  11. Groundwater surveillance plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Forstrom, J.M.; Smith, E.D.; Winters, S.L.; Haase, C.S.; King, H.L.; McMaster, W.M.

    1994-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the preparation of environmental monitoring plans and implementation of environmental monitoring programs for all DOE facilities. The order identifies two distinct components of environmental monitoring, namely effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. In general, effluent monitoring has the objectives of characterizing contaminants and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, whereas environmental surveillance has the broader objective of monitoring the effects of DOE activities on on- and off-site environmental and natural resources. The purpose of this document is to support the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) by describing the groundwater component of the environmental surveillance program for the DOE facilities on the ORR. The distinctions between groundwater effluent monitoring and groundwater surveillance have been defined in the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Surveillance Strategy. As defined in the strategy, a groundwater surveillance program consists of two parts, plant perimeter surveillance and off-site water well surveillance. This document identifies the sampling locations, parameters, and monitoring frequencies for both of these activities on and around the ORR and describes the rationale for the program design. The program was developed to meet the objectives of DOE Order 5400.1 and related requirements in DOE Order 5400.5 and to conform with DOE guidance on environmental surveillance and the Energy Systems Groundwater Surveillance Strategy.

  12. Detecting polio through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP).

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Jagdish; Ram, Madhav; Durrani, Sunita; Wenger, Jay

    2005-12-01

    Accurate surveillance for polio is essential for eradication. Surveillance systems for polio has been developed under the guidance of the global polio eradication initiative. Surveillance of cases of acute flaccid paralysis among children less than 15 years of age is a key component for a well functioning polio surveillance system. The surveillance system works through a network of surveillance medical officers, the responsibility of them lies in assisting the health services departments of all states and maintaining a network of acute flaccid paralysis reporting sites and rapidly investigating the cases. Surveillance activities begin when a child comes in contact with a healthcare provider who in turn informs the officer in charge of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance. The goal of the polio network laboratories is to provide accurate and timely results of wild poliovirus detection in stool samples of cases of acute flaccid paralysis. Strong linkages have been established between the acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system and the laboratory network. Laboratories complete poliovirus isolation and if poliovirus is isolated, these are submitted for intratypic differentiations. Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in India has demonstrated that the eradication activities implemented in India led to dramatic reduction and restriction in the number of cases and geographic spread of poliovirus transmission.

  13. Establishing nurse-led active surveillance for men with localised prostate cancer: development and formative evaluation of a model of care in the ProtecT trial

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Julia; Holding, Peter N; Bonnington, Susan; Rooshenas, Leila; Lane, J Athene; Salter, C Elizabeth; Tilling, Kate; Speakman, Mark J; Brewster, Simon F; Evans, Simon; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop a nurse-led, urologist-supported model of care for men managed by active surveillance or active monitoring (AS/AM) for localised prostate cancer and provide a formative evaluation of its acceptability to patients, clinicians and nurses. Nurse-led care, comprising an explicit nurse-led protocol with support from urologists, was developed as part of the AM arm of the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Design Interviews and questionnaire surveys of clinicians, nurses and patients assessed acceptability. Setting Nurse-led clinics were established in 9 centres in the ProtecT trial and compared with 3 non-ProtecT urology centres elsewhere in UK. Participants Within ProtecT, 22 men receiving AM nurse-led care were interviewed about experiences of care; 11 urologists and 23 research nurses delivering ProtecT trial care completed a questionnaire about its acceptability; 20 men managed in urology clinics elsewhere in the UK were interviewed about models of AS/AM care; 12 urologists and three specialist nurses working in these clinics were also interviewed about management of AS/AM. Results Nurse-led care was commended by ProtecT trial participants, who valued the flexibility, accessibility and continuity of the service and felt confident about the quality of care. ProtecT consultant urologists and nurses also rated it highly, identifying continuity of care and resource savings as key attributes. Clinicians and patients outside the ProtecT trial believed that nurse-led care could relieve pressure on urology clinics without compromising patient care. Conclusions The ProtecT AM nurse-led model of care was acceptable to men with localised prostate cancer and clinical specialists in urology. The protocol is available for implementation; we aim to evaluate its impact on routine clinical practice. Trial registration numbers NCT02044172; ISRCTN20141297. PMID:26384727

  14. One Decade of Active Avian Influenza Wild Bird Surveillance in Belgium Showed a Higher Viroprevalence in Hunter-Harvested Than in Live-Ringed Birds.

    PubMed

    Steensels, M; Vangeluwe, D; Linden, A; Houdart, Ph; van den Berg, Thierry P; Lambrecht, B

    2016-05-01

    Active monitoring of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild birds was initiated in Belgium in 2005 in response to the first highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks occurring in Europe. In Belgium, active wild bird surveillance that targeted live-ringed and hunter-harvested wild birds was developed and maintained from 2005 onward. After one decade, this program assimilated, analyzed, and reported on over 35,000 swabs. The 2009-2014 datasets were used for the current analysis because detailed information was available for this period. The overall prevalence of avian influenza (AI) in samples from live-ringed birds during this period was 0.48% whereas it was 6.12% in hunter-harvested samples. While the ringing sampling targeted a large number of bird species and was realized over the years, the hunting sampling was mainly concentrated on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) during the hunting season, from mid-August to late January. Even when using just AI prevalence for live-ringed A. platyrhynchos during the hunting season, the value remained significantly lower (2.10%) compared to that detected for hunter-harvested mallards. One explanation for this significant difference in viroprevalence in hunter-harvested mallards was the game restocking practice, which released captive-bred birds in the wild before the hunting period. Indeed, the released game restocking birds, having an AI-naïve immune status, could act as local amplifiers of AI viruses already circulating in the wild, and this could affect AI epidemiology. Also, the release into the wild of noncontrolled restocking birds might lead to the introduction of new strains in the natural environment, leading to increased AI presence in the environment. Consequently, the release of naïve or infected restocking birds may affect AI dynamics.

  15. Assessment of the In Vitro Activity of Ceftazidime-Avibactam against Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella spp. Collected in the INFORM Global Surveillance Study, 2012 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Hackel, Meredith; Hoban, Daryl J.; Biedenbach, Douglas J.; Bouchillon, Samuel K.; de Jonge, Boudewijn L. M.; Stone, Gregory G.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing resistance in Gram-negative bacilli, including Klebsiella spp., has reduced the utility of broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Avibactam, a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor, protects β-lactams from hydrolysis by Gram-negative bacteria that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and serine carbapenemases, including Ambler class A and/or class C and some class D enzymes. In this analysis, we report the in vitro activity of ceftazidime-avibactam and comparators against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella spp. from the 2012-2014 INFORM surveillance study. Isolates collected from 176 sites were sent to a central laboratory for confirmatory identification and tested for susceptibility to ceftazidime-avibactam and comparator agents, including ceftazidime alone. A total of 2,821 of 10,998 (25.7%) Klebsiella species isolates were classified as MDR, based on resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobials. Among the MDR isolates, 99.4% had an ESBL screen-positive phenotype, and 27.4% were not susceptible to meropenem as an example of a carbapenem. Ceftazidime-avibactam was highly active against MDR isolates, including ESBL-positive and serine carbapenemase-producing isolates, with MIC50/90 values of 0.5/2 μg/ml and 96.6% of all MDR isolates and ESBL-positive MDR isolates inhibited at the FDA breakpoint (MIC value of ≤8 μg/ml). Ceftazidime-avibactam did not inhibit isolates producing class B enzymes (metallo-β-lactamases) either alone or in combination with other enzymes. These in vitro results support the continued investigation of ceftazidime-avibactam for the treatment of MDR Klebsiella species infections. PMID:27216054

  16. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  17. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  19. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  20. A Simulation-Based Evaluation of Premovement Active Surveillance Protocol Options for the Managed Movement of Turkeys to Slaughter During an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the United States.

    PubMed

    Todd Weaver, J; Malladi, Sasidhar; Bonney, Peter J; Patyk, Kelly A; Bergeron, Justin G; Middleton, Jamie L; Alexander, Catherine Y; Goldsmith, Timothy J; Halvorson, David A

    2016-05-01

    Risk management decisions associated with live poultry movement during a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak should be carefully considered. Live turkey movements may pose a risk for disease spread. On the other hand, interruptions in scheduled movements can disrupt business continuity. The Secure Turkey Supply (STS) Plan was developed through an industry-government-academic collaboration to address business continuity concerns that might arise during a HPAI outbreak. STS stakeholders proposed outbreak response measure options that were evaluated through risk assessment. The developed approach relies on 1) diagnostic testing of two pooled samples of swabs taken from dead turkeys immediately before movement via the influenza A matrix gene real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) test; 2) enhanced biosecurity measures in combination with a premovement isolation period (PMIP), restricting movement onto the premises for a few days before movement to slaughter; and 3) incorporation of a distance factor from known infected flocks such that exposure via local area spread is unlikely. Daily exposure likelihood estimates from spatial kernels from past HPAI outbreaks were coupled with simulation models of disease spread and active surveillance to evaluate active surveillance protocol options that differ with respect to the number of swabs per pooled sample and the timing of the tests in relation to movement. Simulation model results indicate that active surveillance testing, in combination with strict biosecurity, substantially increased HPAI virus detection probability. When distance from a known infected flock was considered, the overall combined likelihood of moving an infected, undetected turkey flock to slaughter was predicted to be lower at 3 and 5 km. The analysis of different active surveillance protocol options is designed to incorporate flexibility into HPAI emergency response plans.

  1. IMPROVING WATERBORNE DISEASE SURVEILLANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health surveillance has played a key role in controlling the spread of communicable disease and identifying the need for specific publich health practices, such as the filteration and chlorination of drinking water supplies. However, the characteristics of waterborne ou...

  2. Radio spectrum surveillance station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a general and functional description of a low-cost surveillance station designed as the first phase of NASA's program to develop a radio spectrum surveillance capability for deep space stations for identifying radio frequency interference sources. The station described has identified several particular interferences and is yielding spectral signature data which, after cataloging, will serve as a library for rapid identification of frequently observed interference. Findings from the use of the station are discussed.

  3. Final audit report of remedial action construction at the UMTRA Project Mexican Hat, Utah -- Monument Valley, Arizona, sites

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The final audit report for remedial action at the Mexican Hat, Utah, Monument Valley, Arizona, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites consists of a summary of the radiological surveillances/audits, quality assurance (QA) in-process surveillances, and QA remedial action close-out inspections performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC); on-site construction reviews (OSCR) performed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); and a surveillance performed by the Navajo Nation. This report refers to remedial action activities performed at the Mexican Hat, Utah--Monument Valley, Arizona, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites.

  4. A reassessment of the role of activity in the formation of eye-specific retinogeniculate projections.

    PubMed

    Chalupa, Leo M

    2007-10-01

    In all mammalian species the projections from the two eyes to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus terminate in separate layers or territories. This mature projection pattern is refined early in development from an initial state where the inputs of the two eyes are overlapping. Here I discuss the results of studies showing that the formation of segregated eye-specific retinogeniculate projections involves activity-mediated binocular competition. I conclude that while retinal activity undoubtedly is involved in this process, the results of recent studies cast doubt on the prevalent notion that retinal waves of activity play an instructional role in the formation of segregated retinal projections.

  5. Consumer involvement in research projects: the activities of research funders.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Máire; Entwistle, Vikki

    2004-08-01

    This paper reports findings from a postal questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews with UK funders of health-related research that explored whether, why and how they promote consumer involvement in research projects. Many UK funders of health-related research are adopting a policy of promoting consumer involvement in research projects. Telephone interviews revealed they have several reasons for doing so, and that they vary in the ways they encourage and support researchers to involve consumers. For some, descriptions of consumer involvement in a research proposal are important for project funding decisions. They recognized a need for flexibility when assessing consumer involvement in different contexts. We suggest that funders should continue to work to clarify what they consider to be the parameters of acceptability in terms of consumer involvement and ensure that 'flexible' criteria are fairly applied. Researchers should be aware of particular funders' views when applying for project funding.

  6. Active post-marketing surveillance of the intralesional administration of human recombinant epidermal growth factor in diabetic foot ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background After several exploratory and confirmatory clinical trials, the intralesional administration of human recombinant epidermal growth factor (hrEGF) has been approved for the treatment of advanced diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this procedure in medical practice. Methods A prospective, post-marketing active pharmacosurveillance was conducted in 41 hospitals and 19 primary care polyclinics. Patients with DFU received hrEGF, 25 or 75 μg, intralesionally 3 times per week until complete granulation of the ulcer or 8 weeks maximum, adjuvant to standard wound care. Outcomes measured were complete granulation, amputations, and adverse events (AE) during treatment; complete lesion re-epithelization and relapses in follow-up (median: 1.2; maximum 4.2 years). Results The study included 1788 patients with 1835 DFU (81% Wagner’s grades 3 or 4; 43% ischemic) treated from May 2007 to April 2010. Complete granulation was observed in 76% of the ulcers in 5 weeks (median). Ulcer non-ischemic etiology (OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 2.8-4.7) and age (1.02; 1.01-1.03, for each younger year) were the main variables with influence on this outcome. During treatment, 220 (12%) amputations (171 major) were required in 214 patients, mostly in ischemic or Wagner’s grade 3 to 5 ulcers. Re-epithelization was documented in 61% of the 1659 followed-up cases; 5% relapsed per year. AE (4171) were reported in 47% of the subjects. Mild or moderate local pain and burning sensation, shivering and chills, were 87% of the events. Serious events, not related to treatment, occurred in 1.7% of the patients. Conclusions The favorable benefit/risk balance, confirms the beneficial clinical profile of intralesional hrEGF in the treatment of DFUs. PMID:24004460

  7. American Issues Forum: Active Projects--Summary Report [And] Nationally Circulated Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    These two reports briefly describe the active projects and nationally circulated mateirals associated with the American Issues Forum Bicentennial Programs. The summary report of active projects is designed to show how various national media, national and international organizations, corporations, and state and community groups are actively…

  8. 4-H Horticulture Project Activity Guides. Leader's Guide and Units 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document, concerning the 4-H horticulture project, includes a leader's guide and three youth activity guides. The leader's guide can be used to plan group project meetings that are both fun and educational. Activities can be adapted to various age groups. The leader's guide includes basic information for growing plants indoors and outdoors,…

  9. 78 FR 18617 - Recreational Boating Safety Projects, Programs and Activities Funded Under Provisions of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Recreational Boating Safety Projects, Programs and Activities Funded Under Provisions of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century; Accounting of ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In 1999... that a detailed accounting of the projects, programs, and activities funded under the...

  10. [Operative guidelines for the shoe industry: health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Massimo; Vignola, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Medical surveillance of workers exposed to occupational risk factors means secondary prevention and entails medical activities which are related to the assessed risk. In particular, the chief risk factors evaluated in the footwear industry frequently imply medical surveillance of exposed workers. These risk factors include organic solvents and chemicals, leather dust, noise, repetitive movements and upper limb overload, vibrations, manual lifting action and video display terminal operation. We consider some operative standardized and validated protocols for medical surveillance of these industry employees.

  11. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. Using Environmental DNA for Invasive Species Surveillance and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    The method employed for environmental DNA (eDNA) surveillance for detection and monitoring of rare species in aquatic systems has evolved dramatically since its first large-scale applications. Both active (targeted) and passive (total diversity) surveillance methods provide helpful information for management groups, but each has a suite of techniques that necessitate proper equipment training and use. The protocols described in this chapter represent some of the latest iterations in eDNA surveillance being applied in aquatic and marine systems.

  13. Varicella routine vaccination and the effects on varicella epidemiology – results from the Bavarian Varicella Surveillance Project (BaVariPro), 2006-2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2004, routine varicella vaccination was recommended in Germany for children 11-14 months of age with one dose, and since 2009, with a second dose at 15-23 months of age. The effects on varicella epidemiology were investigated. Methods Data on varicella vaccinations, cases and complications were collected from annual parent surveys (2006-2011), monthly paediatric practice surveillance (Oct 2006 - Sep 2011; five varicella seasons) and paediatric hospital databases (2005-2009) in the area of Munich (about 238,000 paediatric inhabitants); annual incidences of cases and hospitalisations were estimated. Results Varicella vaccination coverage (1st dose) in children 18-36 months of age increased in two steps (38%, 51%, 53%, 53%, 66% and 68%); second-dose coverage reached 59% in the 2011 survey. A monthly mean of 82 (62%) practices participated; they applied a total of 50,059 first-dose and 40,541 second-dose varicella vaccinations, with preferential use of combined MMR-varicella vaccine after recommendation of two doses, and reported a total of 16,054 varicella cases <17 years of age. The mean number of cases decreased by 67% in two steps, from 6.6 (95%CI 6.1-7.0) per 1,000 patient contacts in season 2006/07 to 4.2 (95%CI 3.9-4.6) in 2007/08 and 4.0 (95%CI 3.6-4.3) in 2008/09, and further to 2.3 (95%CI 2.0-2.6) in 2009/10 and 2.2 (95%CI 1.9-2.5) in 2010/11. The decrease occurred in all paediatric age groups, indicating herd protection effects. Incidence of varicella was estimated as 78/1,000 children <17 years of age in 2006/07, and 19/1,000 in 2010/11. Vaccinated cases increased from 0.3 (95%0.2-0.3) per 1,000 patient contacts in 2006/07 to 0.4 (95%CI 0.3-0.5) until 2008/09 and decreased to 0.2 (95%CI 0.2-0.3) until 2010/11. The practices treated a total of 134 complicated cases, mainly with skin complications. The paediatric hospitals recorded a total of 178 varicella patients, including 40 (22.5%) with neurological complications and one (0.6%) fatality due

  14. Balanced activity in basal ganglia projection pathways is critical for contraversive movements

    PubMed Central

    Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Matias, Sara; Dugue, Guillaume P.; Mainen, Zachary F.; Costa, Rui M.

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia, and the striatum in particular, have been implicated in the generation of contraversive movements. The striatum projects to downstream basal ganglia nuclei through two main circuits, originating in striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons, and different models postulate that the two pathways can work in opposition or synergistically. Here we show striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons are concurrently active during spontaneous contraversive movements. Furthermore, we show that unilateral optogenetic inhibition of either or both projection pathways disrupts contraversive movements. Consistently, simultaneous activation of both neuron types produces contraversive movements. Still, we also show that imbalanced activity between the pathways can result in opposing movements being driven by each projection pathway. These data show that balanced activity in both striatal projection pathways is critical for the generation of contraversive movements and highlights that imbalanced activity between the two projection pathways can result in opposing motor output. PMID:25002180

  15. Part IV: effects of zolmitriptan orally disintegrating tablet on migraine symptoms and ability to perform normal activities: a post-marketing surveillance study in Germany.

    PubMed

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Gendolla, Astrid

    2005-01-01

    Zolmitriptan has been developed in an orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formulation that rapidly dissolves on the tongue and can be taken quickly, conveniently and discreetly without fluid intake. In this 3-month, non-comparative, observational, post-marketing surveillance (PMS) study, 5,570 physicians prescribed the zolmitriptan 2.5 mg ODT for 16,261 patients with migraine. Of the 14,543 patients who were evaluable for efficacy analysis, 94% had reduced headache intensity within 2 hours of taking zolmitriptan 2.5 mg ODT for the first attack. Improvements were reported within 30 minutes in 35% of patients and within 15 minutes in 7% of patients. Non-headache migraine symptoms and normal daily activities improved for the majority of patients within 2 hours of taking zolmitriptan ODT. Ninety-one percent of patients required only a single dose of zolmitriptan 2.5 mg ODT to treat each attack. Ninety-two percent of patients considered zolmitriptan ODT as having very good or good efficacy and 96% said that tolerability was very good or good. This study also demonstrated that 94% of patients would be willing to continue to use zolmitriptan ODT in the future and 81% of patients considered that being able to take the ODT without water was important or very import ant. In summary, zolmitriptan ODT has demonstrated high efficacy and excellent tolerability. In addition, patients found zolmitriptan ODT to be convenient and easy to use, and were willing to continue using the product. Following placebo-controlled studies, these PMS results provide insight into the use of zolmitriptan ODT in a setting more representative of real life than randomised clinical trials, further demonstrating that it provides a reliable and convenient alternative to conventional tablets.

  16. African American Men With Very Low–Risk Prostate Cancer Exhibit Adverse Oncologic Outcomes After Radical Prostatectomy: Should Active Surveillance Still Be an Option for Them?

    PubMed Central

    Sundi, Debasish; Ross, Ashley E.; Humphreys, Elizabeth B.; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment option for men with very low–risk prostate cancer (PCa); however, favorable outcomes achieved for men in AS are based on cohorts that under-represent African American (AA) men. To explore whether race-based health disparities exist among men with very low–risk PCa, we evaluated oncologic outcomes of AA men with very low–risk PCa who were candidates for AS but elected to undergo radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients and Methods We studied 1,801 men (256 AA, 1,473 white men, and 72 others) who met National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria for very low–risk PCa and underwent RP. Presenting characteristics, pathologic data, and cancer recurrence were compared among the groups. Multivariable modeling was performed to assess the association of race with upgrading and adverse pathologic features. Results AA men with very low–risk PCa had more adverse pathologic features at RP and poorer oncologic outcomes. AA men were more likely to experience disease upgrading at prostatectomy (27.3% v 14.4%; P < .001), positive surgical margins (9.8% v 5.9%; P = .02), and higher Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Post-Surgical scoring system (CAPRA-S) scores. On multivariable analysis, AA race was an independent predictor of adverse pathologic features (odds ratio, [OR], 3.23; P = .03) and pathologic upgrading (OR, 2.26; P = .03). Conclusion AA men with very low–risk PCa who meet criteria for AS but undergo immediate surgery experience significantly higher rates of upgrading and adverse pathology than do white men and men of other races. AA men with very low–risk PCa should be counseled about increased oncologic risk when deciding among their disease management options. PMID:23775960

  17. Species distribution and susceptibility profile of yeasts isolated from blood cultures: results of a multicenter active laboratory-based surveillance study in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Susana; Vivot, Walter; Bosco-Borgeat, Maria E; Taverna, Constanza; Szusz, Wanda; Murisengo, Omar; Isla, Guillermina; Davel, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    The Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas "Dr. C. Malbrán", conducted the Second National Multicenter Survey on Fungemia due to Yeasts in Argentina. The aim was to obtain updated data of the frequency of the causative species encountered and their in vitro susceptibility to seven antifungal agents. Yeast species were identified by micromorphological and biochemical studies. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the reference microdilution method E.Def 7.1 of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). A total of 461 viable yeasts were identified. The most frequent species were: Candida albicans (38.4 %), Candida parapsilosis (26 %), Candida tropicalis (15.4 %) and Candida glabrata (4.3 %). Other uncommon species, such as Candida viswanathii (0.6 %), Candida haemulonii (0.4 %), Candida inconspicua (0.2 %) and Candida fermentati (0.2 %) were also isolated. Among the Candida spp., 5.4 % and 1.6 % were resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively. Itraconazole and caspofungin were the most efficient agents against all Candida spp. tested (MIC < 1 mg/l). For anidulafungin, 21.6 % of C. parapsilosis showed a MIC value of 4 mg/l. Fluconazole was less active against 53.1 % of Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC > 8 mg/l), 75 % of Trichosporon spp., and 100 % of Rhodotorula spp., Geotrichum candidum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The global percentage of mortality was 20 %. The presence of uncommon species reinforces the need for performing continuous laboratory surveillance in order to monitor possible changes, not only in the epidemiological distribution of species, but also in the resistance to antifungal drugs.

  18. Project-focused activity and knowledge tracker: a unified data analysis, collaboration, and workflow tool for medicinal chemistry project teams.

    PubMed

    Brodney, Marian D; Brosius, Arthur D; Gregory, Tracy; Heck, Steven D; Klug-McLeod, Jacquelyn L; Poss, Christopher S

    2009-12-01

    Advances in the field of drug discovery have brought an explosion in the quantity of data available to medicinal chemists and other project team members. New strategies and systems are needed to help these scientists to efficiently gather, organize, analyze, annotate, and share data about potential new drug molecules of interest to their project teams. Herein we describe a suite of integrated services and end-user applications that facilitate these activities throughout the medicinal chemistry design cycle. The Automated Data Presentation (ADP) and Virtual Compound Profiler (VCP) processes automate the gathering, organization, and storage of real and virtual molecules, respectively, and associated data. The Project-Focused Activity and Knowledge Tracker (PFAKT) provides a unified data analysis and collaboration environment, enhancing decision-making, improving team communication, and increasing efficiency.

  19. Surveillance of Space in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsam, G.

    Australia's geography and technology base got it off to a flying start in the early days of surveillance of space, starting with CSIRO's first radio telescope in the 1940's and climaxing in NASA's establishment of station 43 in the Deep Space Network at Tidbinbilla in 1965. But Britain's exit from space and the subsequent closure of the Woomera launch range and associated space tracking facilities in the early 1970's saw the start of a long draw-down of capability. Programs such as CSIRO's radio astronomy telescopes, Electro-Optic Systems' adoption of laser technology for satellite laser ranging and tracking system, and the exploration of the use of technology developed in Australia's over-the-horizon-radar program for surveillance of space, kept some interest in the problem alive, but there has been no serious national investment in the area for the last thirty years. Recently, however, increased awareness of the vulnerability of space systems and the need to include potential opponents' space capabilities in operations planning has led to a revival of interest in space situational awareness within the Australian Defence Organisation. While firm commitments to new systems must wait on the next Defence White Paper due out at the end of 2007 and the policy directions it formally endorses, discussions have already started with the US on participating in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and developing a comprehensive space situational awareness capability. In support of these initiatives the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) is drawing up an inventory of relevant Australian capabilities, technologies and activities: the paper will describe the findings of this inventory, and in particular local technologies and systems that might be deployed in Australia to contribute to the SSN. In the optical regime the available options are rather limited; they centre primarily on the satellite laser ranging technology developed by Electro-Optic Systems and

  20. The OCCUPAC Project (A Project to Develop Occupational Information Learning Activity Packages for Grades K-9). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Marla; And Others

    During Phase I of a two-phase project, 15 OCCUPACS (learning activity packages) were developed, pilot tested in a university laboratory school, field tested in four public school systems, revised, and submitted to professionals for final review. Intended to provide occupational information to children in Grades K-9 at different levels of…

  1. Characteristics of Korean patients with suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid: Preliminary study of the Korean Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease active surveillance program

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae-Sung; Kwon, Hyung-Min; Jang, Jae-Won; Ju, Young-Ran; Kim, SuYeon; Park, Young Ho; Park, So Young; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although Korea had a national surveillance system for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), it was mainly dependent on attending physician's reports. Thus, little prospective data about the epidemiology, characteristics, and final diagnoses of suspected patients were available. We have established a nationwide network for the active surveillance of patients with suspected CJD. When the requested cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples tested positive for 14-3-3 protein, we investigated the clinical characteristics of the corresponding patients and followed them until their final diagnoses were confirmed. A total of 218 samples were requested for CSF assays from May 2010 to August 2012, and 106 (48.6%) were positive for 14-3-3 protein. In 89 patients with complete clinical data, 38 (42.7%) were diagnosed with probable CJD and the estimated annual occurrence of CJD was 16.3 persons-per-year. The most common diagnoses of the remainder were central nervous system infection and any-cause encephalopathy. Non-CJD subjects showed worse initial consciousness levels than CJD patients. This preliminary study showed that the number of reported cases of CJD and the true positivity rates of CSF 14-3-3 protein assays were both low in Korea. An active surveillance system is urgently needed to provide the latest nationwide epidemiological data of CJD. PMID:25996401

  2. Characteristics of Korean patients with suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid: Preliminary study of the Korean Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease active surveillance program.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae-Sung; Kwon, Hyung-Min; Jang, Jae-Won; Ju, Young-Ran; Kim, SuYeon; Park, Young Ho; Park, So Young; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Although Korea had a national surveillance system for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), it was mainly dependent on attending physician's reports. Thus, little prospective data about the epidemiology, characteristics, and final diagnoses of suspected patients were available. We have established a nationwide network for the active surveillance of patients with suspected CJD. When the requested cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples tested positive for 14-3-3 protein, we investigated the clinical characteristics of the corresponding patients and followed them until their final diagnoses were confirmed. A total of 218 samples were requested for CSF assays from May 2010 to August 2012, and 106 (48.6%) were positive for 14-3-3 protein. In 89 patients with complete clinical data, 38 (42.7%) were diagnosed with probable CJD and the estimated annual occurrence of CJD was 16.3 persons-per-year. The most common diagnoses of the remainder were central nervous system infection and any-cause encephalopathy. Non-CJD subjects showed worse initial consciousness levels than CJD patients. This preliminary study showed that the number of reported cases of CJD and the true positivity rates of CSF 14-3-3 protein assays were both low in Korea. An active surveillance system is urgently needed to provide the latest nationwide epidemiological data of CJD.

  3. Laser-activated remote phosphor light engine for projection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Martin; Mehl, Oliver; Hartwig, Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    Recent developments in blue emitting laser diodes enable attractive solutions in projection applications using phosphors for efficient light conversion with very high luminance levels. Various commercially available projectors incorporating this technology have entered the market in the past years. While luminous flux levels are still comparable to lamp-based systems, lifetime expectations of classical lamp systems are exceeded by far. OSRAM GmbH has been exploring this technology for several years and has introduced the PHASER® brand name (Phosphor + laser). State-of-the-art is a rotating phosphor wheel excited by blue laser diodes to deliver the necessary primary colors, either sequentially for single-imager projection engines, or simultaneously for 3-panel systems. The PHASER® technology enables flux and luminance scaling, which allows for smaller imagers and therefore cost-efficient projection solutions. The resulting overall efficiency and ANSI lumen specification at the projection screen of these systems is significantly determined by the target color gamut and the light transmission efficiency of the projection system. With increasing power and flux level demand, thermal issues, especially phosphor conversion related, dominate the opto-mechanical system design requirements. These flux levels are a great challenge for all components of an SSL-projection system (SSL:solid-state lighting). OSRAḾs PHASER® light engine platform is constantly expanded towards higher luminous flux levels as well as higher luminance levels for various applications. Recent experiments employ blue laser pump powers of multiple 100 Watts to excite various phosphors resulting in luminous flux levels of more than 40 klm.

  4. Summary of Session Activities: Coordination of Environmental Education Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeler, Michael; Mahootian, Farzad

    1995-01-01

    In this session, we address four fundamental questions related to environmental fields with emphasis on education. These are: What are the goals, objectives, and practical opportunities for coordinating our projects? How can we improve awareness of, interest in, access to, and support the products of our work? How can we build relationships between projects for scientific, educational, technical, and programmatic benefit? How can we evaluate the effectiveness of coordination efforts. In this working session, we produced answers to these questions and proposed a structure for future collaboration.

  5. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 2, Number 2, February 1996

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-01

    available to the Medical Surveillance Activity . Notifiable conditions are reported by date of onset (or date of notification when date of onset is...notifiable conditions ................................. 4 Notifiable sexually transmitted diseases .................. 6 Cold weather injuries, Ft. Drum...Director, Epidemiology and Disease Surveillance, USACHPPM Editor MAJ Mark V. Rubertone, MD, MPH Chief, Army Medical Surveillance Activity , USACHPPM

  6. Surveillance for Occupational Respiratory Diseases in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Antao, Vinicius C.; Pinheiro, Germania A.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa. PMID:26024351

  7. Surveillance for occupational respiratory diseases in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Antao, Vinicius C; Pinheiro, Germania A

    2015-06-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa.

  8. Update on project determining biologically active compounds in milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The added health value of raw and pasteurized milk from organic and grass-fed herds is strongly debated because of limited, and often conflicting, scientific data. The Dairy & Functional Foods Research Unit, USDA-ARS-NAA, Wyndmoor, PA has an ongoing project to identify and compare the levels of bio...

  9. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance: Age of Syndrome Manifestation in Case Ascertainment

    PubMed Central

    Moberg, D. Paul; Bowser, John; Burd, Larry; Elliott, Amy J.; Punyko, Judy; Wilton, Georgiana

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a leading cause of developmental disability. Active public health surveillance through medical record abstraction has been employed to estimate FAS prevalence rates, typically based on birth cohorts. There is an extended time for FAS characteristics to become apparent in infants and young children, and there are often delays in syndrome recognition and documentation. This methodological paper analyzes the age at case ascertainment in a large surveillance program. Methods The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance (FASSLink) Project, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), sought to estimate FAS prevalence rates in eight U.S. states. FASSLink used linked abstractions from multiple health care records of suspected cases of FAS. The present paper analyzed data from this effort to determine the child’s age in months at confirming abstraction. Results The average age at abstraction for confirmed/probable FAS cases (n=422) was 48.3 (±19.5) months with a range of 0 to 94 months. Age of ascertainment varied by state and decreased with each birth year; the number of cases ascertained also decreased in a steep stepwise gradient over the six birth years in the study. Discussion FAS surveillance efforts should screen records of children who are much older than is typical in birth defects surveillance. To best establish rates of FAS using medical records abstraction, surveillance efforts should focus on one-year birth cohorts followed for a fixed number of years or, if using multi-year cohorts, should implement staggered end dates allowing all births to be followed for up to eight years of age. PMID:24737611

  10. Offboard Active Surveillance and Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-03

    2001). [6] S. Kim, G.F. Edelmann , W.A. Kuperman, W.S. Hodgkiss, H.C. Song, and T. Akal, "Spatial resolution of time reversal arrays in shallow water...Soc. Am. 112(1): 189-197 (2002). [8] G.F. Edelmann , H.C. Song, S. Kim, T. Akal, W.S. Hodgkiss, and W.A. Kuperman, "An initial demonstration of...W.S. Hodgkiss, H.C. Song, G.F. Edelmann , and T. Akal, "Robust time reversal focusing in the ocean," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114(1): 145-157 (2003). [11] S

  11. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  12. [Flaccid paralysis surveillance in the Latium Region].

    PubMed

    Patti, A M; Santi, A L; Ciapetti, C; Fiore, L; Novello, F; Vellucci, L; De Stefano, F; Fara, G M

    2000-01-01

    The goal of World Health Organization is to reach the global eradication of poliomyelitis during the first decade of the third millennium. To achieve the certification of the eradication of the disease the main strategy is the Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance. In Italy the active AFP surveillance was performed at national level since 1997. In the Latium region the active surveillance was performed since January 1997 by the laboratory of virology of Institute of Hygiene G Sanarelli which established a regional hospital network. During the years of survey 7 cases were found in 1997 (0.87/100,000), 4 in 1998 (0.5/100,000), 2 in 1999 (0.25/100,000) and 2 in 2000. No wild polioviruses were detected.

  13. National BioResource Project-Rat and related activities.

    PubMed

    Serikawa, Tadao; Mashimo, Tomoji; Takizawa, Akiko; Okajima, Ryoko; Maedomari, Naoki; Kumafuji, Kenta; Tagami, Fumi; Neoda, Yuki; Otsuki, Mito; Nakanishi, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Ken-ichi; Voigt, Birger; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2009-07-01

    In order to establish a system to facilitate the systematic collection, preservation, and provision of laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) and their derivates, the National BioResource Project-Rat (NBRP-Rat) was launched in July 2002. By the end of 2008, more than 500 rat strains had been collected and preserved as live animals, embryos, or sperm. These rat resources are supplied to biomedical scientists in Japan as well as in other countries. This review article introduces NBRP-Rat and highlights the phenome project, recombinant inbred strains, BAC clone libraries, and the ENU-mutant archive, named the Kyoto University Rat Mutant Archive (KURMA). The future direction of rat resources are also discussed.

  14. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual, PNL-MA-580, Rev. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Hanf, Robert W.; Poston, Ted M.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2007-07-01

    This manual contains the procedures that are used for the collection of routine Surface Environmental Surveillance Project environmental samples and field measurements on and around the Hanford Site. Specific responsibilities for project personnel are also defined.

  15. PUBLIC HEALTH AIR SURVEILLANCE EVALUATION (PHASE): BACKGROUND AND AIR QUALITY ASPECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    NERL's Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division and other participants in the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) project will be discussing their results with the New York State Departments of Health and Environmental Conservation. The PHASE project is a ...

  16. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Wilkins, D.W.; Keltch, B.; Saradji, B.; Salamy, S.P.

    1988-04-01

    This report is the second volume of the Recovery Efficiency Test Phase I Report of Activities. Volume 1 covered selection, well planning, drilling, coring, logging and completion operations. This volume reports on well testing activities, reclamation activities on the drilling site and access roads, and the results of physical and mechanical properties tests on the oriented core material obtained from a horizontal section of the well. 3 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Physics and Science Education through Project Activities of University Students and Regional Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto

    A project team "Rika-Kobo" organized by university students has actively performed various science education activities at primary and secondary schools and other educational facilities as well as in science events in local areas. The activities of this student project team are related to various fields of physics and sciences. In order to provide more attractive activities, the student members prepare original experiment tools and easily-understandable presentation and explanation. Through such activities, the members can have opportunities of obtaining new knowledge and refreshing their already-obtained understandings in related fields of physics and sciences. They can also have chances of improving their skills and abilities such as presentation, problem-finding and solving, which are useful for realizing their career development. The activities of the student project team have been also welcomed by children, parents, teachers and other people in local areas because the activities provide them with opportunities of knowing and learning new knowledge in physics and sciences.

  18. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration is positively associated with rate of disease reclassification on subsequent active surveillance prostate biopsy in men with low PSA density

    PubMed Central

    Umbehr, Martin H.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Bhavsar, Nrupen A.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Landis, Patricia; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration at active surveillance (AS) entry and disease reclassification on subsequent AS biopsy (‘biopsy reclassification’) in men with low PSA density (PSAD). To investigate whether a clinically meaningful PSA threshold for AS eligibility/ineligibility for men with low PSAD can be identified based on risk of subsequent biopsy reclassification. Patients and Methods We included men enrolled in the Johns Hopkins AS Study (JHAS) who had a PSAD of <0.15 ng/mL/g (640 men). We estimated the incidence rates (IRs; per 100 person years) and hazard ratios (HR) of biopsy reclassification (Gleason score ≥ 7, any Gleason pattern 4 or 5, ≥3 positive cores, or ≥50% cancer involvement/biopsy core) for categories of serum PSA concentration at the time of entry into AS. We generated predicted IRs using Poisson regression to adjust for age and prostate volume, mean percentage free PSA (ratio of free to total PSA) and maximum percentage biopsy core involvement with cancer. Results The unadjusted IRs (per 100 person years) of biopsy reclassification across serum PSA concentration at entry into JHAS showed, in general, an increase; however, the pattern was not linear with higher IRs in the group ≥ 4 to <6 ng/mL (14.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 11.8–17.2%) when compared with ≥ 6 to <8 ng/mL (8.4, 95% CI 5.7–12.3%) but almost similar IRs when compared with the group ≥ 8 to <10 ng/mL (14.8, 95% CI 8.4–26.1%). The adjusted predicted IRs of reclassification showed a similar non-linear increase in IRs, whereby the rates around 4 ng/mL were similar to the rates around 10 ng/mL. Conclusion Risk for biopsy reclassification increased non-linearly across PSA concentration in men with low PSAD, whereby no obvious clinically meaningful threshold could be identified. This information could be incorporated into decision-making for AS. However, longer follow-up times are needed to

  19. Development and Evaluation of an Undergraduate Multidisciplinary Project Activity in Engineering and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David R.; Cole, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The School of Engineering and Design Multidisciplinary Project (MDP) at Brunel University is a one week long project based activity involving first year undergraduate students from across the School subject areas of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering and Design. This paper describes the main aims of the…

  20. Investigation the Scientific Creativity of Gifted Students through Project-Based Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karademir, Ersin

    2016-01-01

    In this research, it is aimed to identify the scientific creativity of gifted students through project-based activities. In accordance with this purpose, a study has been carried out with 13 gifted students studying in third and fifth grade. In the study, students have been informed about the project development stages and they have been asked…

  1. 78 FR 52087 - Commercial Filming and Similar Projects and Still Photography Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... Service 50 CFR Part 27 RIN 1024-AD30 Commercial Filming and Similar Projects and Still Photography... similar projects and certain still photography activities. DATES: The rule is effective September 23, 2013... of equipment present, and other factors. Authorizes commercial filming and still photography...

  2. Emergency Medical Services for Children: Abstracts of Active Projects FY 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Arlington, VA.

    This publication provides abstracts of 43 active and 34 completed projects designed to improve pediatric emergency care. The projects were funded by the United States Department of Health and Human Services' Maternal and Child Health Bureau, in collaboration with the United States Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety…

  3. Emergency Medical Services for Children: Abstracts of Active Projects FY 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This publication provides abstracts of 32 active and 18 completed projects designed to improve pediatric emergency care. These projects are funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Maternal and Child Health Bureau, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.…

  4. Emergency Medical Services for Children: Abstracts of Active Projects FY 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Arlington, VA.

    This publication provides abstracts of 58 active and 42 completed projects designed to improve emergency medical services for children (EMSC). The projects were funded by the United States Department of Health and Human Services' Maternal and Child Health Bureau, in collaboration with the United States Department of Transportation's National…

  5. 40 CFR 47.125 - Eligible and priority projects and activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eligible and priority projects and activities. 47.125 Section 47.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.125 Eligible and priority projects...

  6. 40 CFR 47.125 - Eligible and priority projects and activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eligible and priority projects and activities. 47.125 Section 47.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.125 Eligible and priority projects...

  7. 77 FR 3784 - Recreational Boating Safety Projects, Programs and Activities Funded Under Provisions of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Recreational Boating Safety Projects, Programs and Activities Funded Under Provisions of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century; Accounting of ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In 1999... notice to satisfy a requirement of the Act that a detailed accounting of the projects, programs,...

  8. Quality assurance project plan for ground water monitoring activities managed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPP) applies specifically to the field activities and laboratory analysis performed for all RCRA groundwater projects conducted by Hanford Technical Services. This QAPP is generic in approach and shall be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual groundwater monitoring plans.

  9. DXBC: a long distance wireless broadband communication system for coastal maritime surveillance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastianos, George E.; Argyreas, Nick D.; Xilouris, Chris K.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-05-01

    The field of Homeland Security focuses on the air, land, and sea borders surveillance in order to prevent illegal activities while facilitating lawful travel and trade. The achievement of this goal requires collaboration of complex decentralized systems and services, and transfer of huge amount of information between the remote surveillance areas and the command & control centers. It becomes obvious that the effectiveness of the provided security depends highly on the available communication capabilities between the interconnected areas. Although nowadays the broadband communication between remote places is presumed easy because of the extensive infrastructure inside residential areas, it becomes a real challenge when the required information should be acquired from locations where no infrastructure is available such as mountain or sea areas. The Integrated Systems Lab of NCSR Demokritos within the PERSEUS FP7- SEC-2011-261748 project has developed a wireless broadband telecommunication system that combines different communication channels from subGHz to microwave frequencies and provides secure IP connectivity between sea surveillance vessels and the Command and Control Centers (C3). The system was deployed in Fast Patrol Boats of the Hellenic Coast Guard that are used for maritime surveillance in sea boarders and tested successfully in two demonstration exercises for irregular migration and smuggling scenarios in the Aegean Archipelagos. This paper describes in detail the system architecture in terms of hardware and software and the evaluation measurements of the system communication capabilities.

  10. Project ACE Activity Sets. Book II: Grades 6 and 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden City Schools, NC.

    The document contains eight activity sets suitable for grades 6 and 7. Topics focus on governmental, social, and educational systems in foreign countries. Each activity set contains background reading materials, resources, concepts, general objectives, and instructional objectives. Grade 6 sets are "Soviet Youth Organizations,""How…

  11. The Past, Present, and Future of Public Health Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bernard C. K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the past, present, and future of public health surveillance—the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epidemic in 3180 B.C. in Egypt. Hippocrates (460 B.C.–370 B.C.) coined the terms endemic and epidemic, John Graunt (1620–1674) introduced systematic data analysis, Samuel Pepys (1633–1703) started epidemic field investigation, William Farr (1807–1883) founded the modern concept of surveillance, John Snow (1813–1858) linked data to intervention, and Alexander Langmuir (1910–1993) gave the first comprehensive definition of surveillance. Current theories, principles, and practice of public health surveillance are summarized. A number of surveillance dichotomies, such as epidemiologic surveillance versus public health surveillance, are described. Some future scenarios are presented, while current activities that can affect the future are summarized: exploring new frontiers; enhancing computer technology; improving epidemic investigations; improving data collection, analysis, dissemination, and use; building on lessons from the past; building capacity; enhancing global surveillance. It is concluded that learning from the past, reflecting on the present, and planning for the future can further enhance public health surveillance. PMID:24278752

  12. The dimensions of nursing surveillance: a concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Lesly; Vincent, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Aim This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of nursing surveillance. Background Nursing surveillance, a primary function of acute care nurses, is critical to patient safety and outcomes. Although it has been associated with patient outcomes and organizational context of care, little knowledge has been generated about the conceptual and operational process of surveillance. Data sources A search using the CINAHL, Medline and PubMed databases was used to compile an international data set of 18 papers and 4 book chapters published from 1985 to 2009. Review methods Rodger’s evolutionary concept analysis techniques were used to analyse surveillance in a systems framework. This method focused the search to nursing surveillance (as opposed to other medical uses of the term) and used a theoretical framework to guide the analysis. Results The examination of the literature clarifies the multifaceted nature of nursing surveillance in the acute care setting. Surveillance involves purposeful and ongoing acquisition, interpretation and synthesis of patient data for clinical decision- making. Behavioural activities and multiple cognitive processes are used in surveillance in order for the nurse to make decisions for patient safety and health maintenance. A systems approach to the analysis also demonstrates how organizational characteristics and contextual factors influence the process in the acute care environment. Conclusion This conceptual analysis describes the nature of the surveillance process and clarifies the concept for effective communication and future use in health services research. PMID:21129007

  13. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project : Annual Report of Mitigation Activities.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray D.

    2001-04-01

    The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group was actively involved in implementing wildlife mitigation activities in 2000. The Work Group met each quarter to discuss management and budget issues affecting Albeni Falls wildlife mitigation. Members of the Work Group protected a total of 1,242 acres of wetland habitat in 2000. The total amount of wildlife habitat protected for Albeni Falls mitigation is approximately 4,190 acres (4,630 Habitat Units). Approximately 16% of the total wildlife habitat lost has been mitigated. Land management activities were limited in 2000 as protection opportunities took up most staff time. Administrative activities increased in 2000 as funding was more evenly distributed among Work Group members. As a result, implementation is expected to continue to increase in the coming year. Land management and monitoring and evaluation activities will increase in 2001 as site-specific management plans are completed and implemented.

  14. Rapid Cadence Collections with the Space Surveillance Telescope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    as a function of mean magnitude. Telescope : Diameter (actual): 3.50 meter Diameter (effective): 2.90 meter Effective focal length ...Rapid Cadence Collections with the Space Surveillance Telescope D. Monet U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station T. Axelrod, C. Claver LSST...ABSTRACT The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has constructed the 3.5-meter Space Surveillance Telescope (SST) on North Oscura Peak

  15. Activity-Dependent Callosal Axon Projections in Neonatal Mouse Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tagawa, Yoshiaki; Hirano, Tomoo

    2012-01-01

    Callosal axon projections are among the major long-range axonal projections in the mammalian brain. They are formed during the prenatal and early postnatal periods in the mouse, and their development relies on both activity-independent and -dependent mechanisms. In this paper, we review recent findings about the roles of neuronal activity in callosal axon projections. In addition to the well-documented role of sensory-driven neuronal activity, recent studies using in utero electroporation demonstrated an essential role of spontaneous neuronal activity generated in neonatal cortical circuits. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal activities are critically involved in the axon development. Studies have begun to reveal intracellular signaling pathway which works downstream of neuronal activity. We also review several distinct patterns of neuronal activity observed in the developing cerebral cortex, which might play roles in activity-dependent circuit construction. Such neuronal activity during the neonatal period can be disrupted by genetic factors, such as mutations in ion channels. It has been speculated that abnormal activity caused by such factors may affect activity-dependent circuit construction, leading to some developmental disorders. We discuss a possibility that genetic mutation in ion channels may impair callosal axon projections through an activity-dependent mechanism. PMID:23213574

  16. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  17. Sensing Surveillance & Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-07

    Fully Adaptive Radar” Sensor Processing including MIMO Sensing for Object Identification: Analysis and Synthesis of Invariants Integrated...Operators are overwhelmed by massive volumes of high dimensional multi-sensor data • Challenges -Efficiently process data to extract inherent...Sensing & Surveillance Systems • Develop toolkit for matrix treatment of MIMO radar wave-forms • Multiple-Input/Multiple-Output • enable performance

  18. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    category of “other.” The “other” cat - egory included cancers of unspecified sites or unknown behavior (n=56), myeloma and malignant plasma cell...the completeness and accuracy of case finding. In turn, the criteria used to detect and cat - egorize cases for surveillance purposes (e.g., as

  19. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project: water-resources activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.; Heiny, Janet S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrastructure, such as roads, buildings, airports, and dams, is built and maintained by use of large quantities of natural resources such as aggregate (sand and gravel), energy, and water. As urban area expand, local sources of these resource are becoming inaccessible (gravel cannot be mined from under a subdivision, for example), or the cost of recovery of the resource becomes prohibitive (oil and gas drilling in urban areas is costly), or the resources may become unfit for some use (pollution of ground water may preclude its use as a water supply). Governmental land-use decision and environmental mandates can further preclude development of natural resources. If infrastructure resources are to remain economically available. current resource information must be available for use in well-reasoned decisions bout future land use. Ground water is an infrastructure resource that is present in shallow aquifers and deeper bedrock aquifers that underlie much of the 2,450-square-mile demonstration area of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In 1996, mapping of the area's ground-water resources was undertaken as a U.S. Geological Survey project in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, and the Colorado Water Conservation Board.

  20. 78 FR 8192 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project... study will assess the implementation of resources, models, and technologies to determine how and...

  1. EMSP project summary (Project ID: 60077): Development of nuclear analysis capabilities for DOE waste management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; Rearden, B.T.; DeHart, M.D.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.; Petrie, L.M.

    2000-02-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate prototypical analysis capabilities that can be used by nuclear safety analysis practitioners to: (1) demonstrate a more thorough understanding of the underlying physics phenomena that can lead to improved reliability and defensibility of safety evaluations; and (2) optimize operations related to the handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of fissile material and DOE spent fuel. To address these problems, this project has been investigating the implementation of sensitivity and uncertainty methods within existing Monte Carlo codes used for criticality safety analyses. It is also investigating the use of a new deterministic code that allows for specification of arbitrary grids to accurately model geometric details required in a criticality safety analysis. This capability can facilitate improved estimations of the required subcritical margin and potentially enable the use of a broader range of experiments in the validation process. The new arbitrary-grid radiation transport code will also enable detailed geometric modeling valuable for improved accuracy in application to a myriad of other problems related to waste characterization. Application to these problems will also be explored.

  2. An emergency response UAV Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro A; Geckle, William J; Barton, Jeffrey D; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z; Martin, Sean R

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs.

  3. Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities with which citizens living near the Hanford Site have been participating. Local teachers have been managing and operating three special radiological air sampling stations located in Richland, Basin City, and Franklin County, Washington. Other expansion efforts of this program are also described.

  4. [Recommendations for the surveillance of Aedes aegypti].

    PubMed

    Barrera, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Diseases caused by arboviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti, such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika, continue to rise in annual incidence and geographic expansion. A key limitation for achieving control of A. aegypti has been the lack of effective tools for monitoring its population, and thus determine what control measures actually work. Surveillance of A. aegypti has been based mainly on immature indexes, but they bear little relation to the number of mosquito females, which are the ones capable of transmitting the viruses. The recent development of sampling techniques for adults of this vector species promises to facilitate surveillance and control activities. In this review, we present the various monitoring techniques for this mosquito, along with a discussion of their usefulness, and recommendations for improved entomological surveillance.

  5. Behavior‐dependent activity patterns of GABAergic long‐range projecting neurons in the rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Micklem, Ben; Borhegyi, Zsolt; Swiejkowski, Daniel A.; Valenti, Ornella; Viney, Tim J.; Kotzadimitriou, Dimitrios; Klausberger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Long‐range glutamatergic and GABAergic projections participate in temporal coordination of neuronal activity in distributed cortical areas. In the hippocampus, GABAergic neurons project to the medial septum and retrohippocampal areas. Many GABAergic projection cells express somatostatin (SOM+) and, together with locally terminating SOM+ bistratified and O‐LM cells, contribute to dendritic inhibition of pyramidal cells. We tested the hypothesis that diversity in SOM+ cells reflects temporal specialization during behavior using extracellular single cell recording and juxtacellular neurobiotin‐labeling in freely moving rats. We have demonstrated that rare GABAergic projection neurons discharge rhythmically and are remarkably diverse. During sharp wave‐ripples, most projection cells, including a novel SOM+ GABAergic back‐projecting cell, increased their activity similar to bistratified cells, but unlike O‐LM cells. During movement, most projection cells discharged along the descending slope of theta cycles, but some fired at the trough jointly with bistratified and O‐LM cells. The specialization of hippocampal SOM+ projection neurons complements the action of local interneurons in differentially phasing inputs from the CA3 area to CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites during sleep and wakefulness. Our observations suggest that GABAergic projection cells mediate the behavior‐ and network state‐dependent binding of neuronal assemblies amongst functionally‐related brain regions by transmitting local rhythmic entrainment of neurons in CA1 to neuronal populations in other areas. © 2016 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27997999

  6. Support of an Active Science Project by a Large Information System: Lessons for the EOS Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelici, Gary L.; Skiles, J. W.; Popovici, Lidia Z.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of large information systems to support the changing data requirements of active science projects is being tested in a NASA collaborative study. This paper briefly profiles both the active science project and the large information system involved in this effort and offers some observations about the effectiveness of the project support. This is followed by lessons that are important for those participating in large information systems that need to support active science projects or that make available the valuable data produced by these projects. We learned in this work that it is difficult for a large information system focused on long term data management to satisfy the requirements of an on-going science project. For example, in order to provide the best service, it is important for all information system staff to keep focused on the needs and constraints of the scientists in the development of appropriate services. If the lessons learned in this and other science support experiences are not applied by those involved with large information systems of the EOS (Earth Observing System) era, then the final data products produced by future science projects may not be robust or of high quality, thereby making the conduct of the project science less efficacious and reducing the value of these unique suites of data for future research.

  7. Enterovirus spectrum from the active surveillance of hand foot and mouth disease patients under the clinical trial of inactivated Enterovirus A71 vaccine in Jiangsu, China, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin; Bian, Lian-Lian; Lu, Wei-Wei; Li, Jing-Xin; Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yi-Ping; Gao, Fan; Wu, Xing; Ye, Qiang; Xu, Miao; Li, Xiu-Ling; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Liang, Zheng-Lun

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological data from active surveillance on human enterovirus, which could cause hand, foot, and mouth disease, were limited. An active surveillance system was used to investigate the enterovirus spectrum and the incidence of different enteroviruses in infants aged 6-35 months in Jiangsu Province from 2012 to 2013. Fifty-nine infants were randomly selected from 522 non-EV-A71/CV-A16 HFMD patients. We collected 173 throat swabs and 174 rectal swabs from these infants. RT-PCR was used to amplify 5'-UTR and VP1 regions of enteroviruses and the serotypes were determined by the sequence comparison using BLAST. Twenty-one non-EV-A71/CA16 enterovirus serotypes were detected in those infants. E16, E18 were firstly reported in HFMD patients. The four top common non-EV-A71/CV-A enteroviruses among infants were CV-B3, CV-A10, CV-A6, and E9 with the HFMD incidence rates at 1.4%, 0.84%, 0.56%, and 0.47%, respectively. Over 20.8% patients were co-infected with multiple enteroviruses. Neither the course of sickness nor clinical symptoms of the co-infected patients was more severe than those infected with single enterovirus. Two patients were infected different enterovirus successively within 2 months. Several new enterovirus serotypes and multiple models of infection associated with HFMD were discovered through the active surveillance system. These data provide a better understanding of the viral etiology of HFMD.

  8. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project; energy resources activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    Oil, natural gas, and coal (energy resources) have been produced from rocks in the Front Range of Colorado and Wyoming for more than a century, and significant quantities of oil and gas continue to be developed in the study area of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project (fig. 1). As an infrastructure resource, energy resources helped to fuel past development of (1) urban areas in the Front Range as well as (2) some of the manufacturing and mining upon which the urban centers were built and thrived. At present, much of the oil and gas extracted from rocks beneath the Front Range urban corridor is used locally; the people living in the urban area provide a need and viable marketplace for these commodities.

  9. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a... Contracts and Agreements Under Isdeaa § 170.623 How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  10. An Overview of Follow-On Testing Activities of the A-3 Subscale Diffuser Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James E.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of NASA Stennis Space Center's (SSC) A-3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Project is presented. The original scope of the SDT Project, conducted from April 2007 to January 2008, collected data to support mitigation of risk associated with design and procurement activities of the A-3 Test Stand Project, an effort to construct a simulated altitude test facility at SSC in support of NASA's Constellation Program. Follow-on tests were conducted from May 2008 through August 2009, utilizing the SDT test setup as a testbed for additional risk mitigation activities. Included are descriptions of the Subscale Diffuser (SD) test article, the test facility configuration, and test approaches.

  11. An evaluation of wild bird avian influenza surveillance in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Breed, Andrew C; Irvine, Richard M; Duncan, Daisy; Rae, David; Snow, Lucy; Cook, Alasdair J C; Brown, Ian H

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a method for evaluation of surveillance for avian influenza (AI) in wild birds and compares surveillance activities before and after changes in surveillance strategy in Great Britain (GB). In October 2008 the AI Wild Bird Surveillance (AIWBS) system in GB was modified to focus on passive surveillance (birds found dead), including those found during warden patrols of wetlands and wildlife reserves, with less emphasis on public reporting of birds found dead. The number of birds sampled by active surveillance (birds live-trapped or shot) was also reduced. In the present study the impact of these changes was investigated by comparing the 12 mo prior to October 2008 with the subsequent 12 mo. Four factors were considered for each surveillance system component: 1) the number of wild birds tested; 2) whether the tested wild birds were considered "higher risk species" (HRS) for being infected with AI; 3) the location of the birds tested with respect to counties designated as a priority for surveillance; and 4) the probability that the birds tested might yield a positive AI virus result based on surveillance results in wild birds across Europe. The number of birds tested by both surveillance types was greatly reduced after the strategy change. The proportion of birds sampled in priority counties also significantly decreased in the second year for both active and passive surveillance. However, the proportion of HRS sampled by active surveillance significantly increased, while a significant decrease in these species was seen for passive surveillance in the second year. The derived probability scores for detecting AI based on European surveillance results indicated a reduction in sensitivity for H5N1 highly pathogenic AI detection by passive surveillance. The methods developed to evaluate AIWBS in GB may be applicable to other European Union countries. The results also reflect the complex issues associated with evaluation of disease surveillance in wildlife

  12. Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) for unannounced safeguards inspections.

    SciTech Connect

    Galdoz, Erwin G. , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Pinkalla, Mark

    2010-09-01

    The Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC). The joint project addresses specific requirements of redundant surveillance systems installed in two South American nuclear facilities as a tool to support unannounced inspections conducted by ABACC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The surveillance covers the critical time (as much as a few hours) between the notification of an inspection and the access of inspectors to the location in facility where surveillance equipment is installed. ABACC and the IAEA currently use the EURATOM Multiple Optical Surveillance System (EMOSS). This outdated system is no longer available or supported by the manufacturer. The current EMOSS system has met the project objective; however, the lack of available replacement parts and system support has made this system unsustainable and has increased the risk of an inoperable system. A new system that utilizes current technology and is maintainable is required to replace the aging EMOSS system. ABACC intends to replace one of the existing ABACC EMOSS systems by the Secure Video Surveillance System. SVSS utilizes commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technologies for all individual components. Sandia National Laboratories supported the system design for SVSS to meet Safeguards requirements, i.e. tamper indication, data authentication, etc. The SVSS consists of two video surveillance cameras linked securely to a data collection unit. The collection unit is capable of retaining historical surveillance data for at least three hours with picture intervals as short as 1sec. Images in .jpg format are available to inspectors using various software review tools. SNL has delivered two SVSS systems for test and evaluation at the ABACC Safeguards Laboratory. An additional 'proto-type' system remains

  13. Design Activity in the Software Cost Reduction Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-18

    PM Physical Model S G System Generation SS Shared Services SU System Utilities . NOV M N 1600SEP A 0 JUL TOTAL 14000 MAAR cc 100 FEB :IESGN 0o 10000...iy---- .... ;’ TESTING Jan 78 Jan 79 Jan 80 Jan 81 Jan 82 Jan 83 Jan 84 Jan 85 M3ITH Fig. 7 - Shared services activities A F 0 U E C 1600 G B T...DISCUSSING 200M Jan 78 Jan 79 Jan 80 Jan 81 Jan 82 Jan 83 Jan 84 Jan 85 Fig 13 - Shared services design activities 5.~ S% 12 ......,ooU7 . . NRL REPORT 8974 A

  14. Project ACE Activity Sets. Book III: Grades 8 through 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden City Schools, NC.

    Eleven activity sets for students in grades 8 through 12 are designed to supplement courses in citizenship and U.S. history and government. "The Civil War That Could Have Been" creates a hypothetical situation which requires the participant to analyze the causes of the Civil War. In "History on TV -- Enemy or Ally of the Social Studies Program,"…

  15. Made in USA: Project Ethnic Heritage: Activity and Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary R.

    The teaching guide suggests a variety of discussion and activity strategies relating to ethnicity for secondary and continuing education students. Objectives include helping people understand the nature and significance of their own heritage as well as that of each ethnic group, and encouraging participants to realize and deal with the impact…

  16. Seeing the Sky: 100 Projects, Activities, and Explorations in Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, Fred

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen astronomy activities are presented including classroom procedures and questions. Topics include different investigations of the moon, planets, stars, sunsets, light pollution, and rainbows and halos. Additional information on measurements used for observations in astronomy, and rainbow characteristics is included. (CW)

  17. Novel Ideas for Young Readers! Projects and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuta, Katherine Wiesolek; Zernial, Susan

    This book offers 60 stimulating, classroom-tested activities to instill a love of literature and help young learners develop as readers, writers, and speakers. By using picture books, novels, or even nonfiction readings as starting points, the reproducible worksheets in the book can be implemented to strengthen students' entire spectrum of…

  18. Apollo 11 Facts Project: Earth Views and Crew Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The crewmembers of Apollo 11, Commander Neil Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Aldrin, Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, are seen performing various on-orbit activities, including systems identification and Lunar Module checkout. The Earth is seen from space.

  19. Individualized Instruction in Science, Earth Space Project, Learning Activities Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) relating to the earth and space are presented for use in sampling a new type of learning for a whole year. Eighteen topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning, (2) observation versus interpretation, (3) chemistry in the space age, (4) the space age interdisciplines, and (5)…

  20. Final long-term surveillance plan for the Spook, Wyoming, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    A general license for the custody and long-term care of DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project permanent disposal sites was issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and became effective on November 29, 1990. The general license will be in effect for a specific disposal site when the NRC accepts the disposal site`s long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) and concurs that remedial action is complete at that site. This document describes in detail the long-term surveillance activities for the Spook, Wyoming, disposal site, including monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures necessary to fulfill the conditions of the general license, and to ensure that the disposal cell continues to comply with the UMTRA design standards.

  1. Southern Hemisphere Influenza and Vaccine Effectiveness Research and Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiu Sue; Turner, Nikki; Baker, Michael G; Williamson, Deborah A; Wong, Conroy; Webby, Richard; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2015-07-01

    The 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic highlighted the need for improved scientific knowledge to support better pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza control. The Southern Hemisphere Influenza and Vaccine Effectiveness Research and Surveillance (SHIVERS) project, a 5-year (2012-2016) multiagency and multidisciplinary collaboration, aimed to measure disease burden, epidemiology, aetiology, risk factors, immunology, effectiveness of vaccination and other prevention strategies for influenza and other respiratory infectious diseases of public health importance. Two active, prospective, population-based surveillance systems were established for monitoring influenza and other respiratory pathogens among those hospitalized patients with acute respiratory illness and those enrolled patients seeking consultations at sentinel general practices. In 2015, a sero-epidemiological study will use a sample of patients from the same practices. These data will provide a full picture of the disease burden and risk factors from asymptomatic infections to severe hospitalized disease and deaths and related economic burden. The results during the first 2 years (2012-2013) provided scientific evidence to (a) support a change to NZ's vaccination policy for young children due to high influenza hospitalizations in these children; (b) contribute to the revision of the World Health Organization's case definition for severe acute respiratory illness for global influenza surveillance; and (c) contribute in part to vaccine strain selection using vaccine effectiveness assessment in the prevention of influenza-related consultations and hospitalizations. In summary, SHIVERS provides valuable international platforms for supporting seasonal influenza control and pandemic preparedness, and responding to other emerging/endemic respiratory-related infections.

  2. Key programmatic steps and activities for implementing the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) was enacted based upon findings by Congress that uranium mill tailings located at active and inactive hazard to the public, and that protection of the public health, safety and welfare, and the regulations of interstate commerce, require that every reasonable effort be made to provide for the stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize radon diffusion into the environment and to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings.'' A general understanding of the steps leading to elimination of the hazards associated with designated uranium mill tailings sites, and the parties involved in that effort, are presented in this document. A representative schedule is also presented in this document to show both program sequence and activity interdependence. Those activities that have the most potential to influence program duration, because of the significant amount of additional time that may be required, include identification and selection of a suitable site, field data collection delays due to weather, actual acquisition of the designated or alternate disposal site, construction delays due to weather, and site licensing. This document provides an understanding of the steps, the sequence, the parties involved, and a representative duration of activities leading to remedial action and cleanup at the designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Activities of the Pilot Land Data System project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sircar, J. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The University of Maryland's Remote Sensing Systems Laboratory submitted to NASA/Goddard an interim progress report on the work being conducted within its Pilot Land Data System IPLDS project. The Remote Sensing Systems Laboratory addressed the following tasks: (1) identify data types and data sources needed to describe the selected test sites in collaboration with Goddard's Hydrological Sciences Branch; (2) define the procedures necessary to access/acquire this data; (3) conduct meetings with the PLDS Systems Engineering Group to identify functional specification priorities for PLDS development; (4) assemble documentation on historical remotely sensed imagery and transfer of such information to the PLDS Data Management Group; (5) collect data identified by Goodard's Hydrological Sciences Branch for data set inventory in PLD; (6) develop a Workstation-PLDS system interface over high speed lines, (7) develop and test through a Phase 1 demonstration of a micro workstation to access PLDS; and (8) establish interdepartmental agreement of development of computer link for electronic access of water resources data from USGS.

  4. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Recovery efficiency test project, Phase 2 activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The Recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency of gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. This volume contains appendices for: (1) supporting material and procedures for data frac'' stimulation of zone 6 using nitrogen and nitrogen foam; (2) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 1 nitrogen gas frac on zone no. 1; (3) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 2 in zone no. 1 using liquid CO{sub 2}; (4) supporting material and procedures for frac no. 3 on zone no.1 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (5) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 4 in zones 2--3 and 4 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (6) supporting materials and procedures for stimulation no. 5 in zones 5 and 8; and (7) fracture diagnostics reports and supporting materials.

  6. Proposed scientific activities for the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSSDP) has been organized for the purpose of investigating a hydrothermal system at depths and temperatures greater than has been done before. Plans are to deepen an existing well or to drill a new well for research purposes for which temperatures of 300/sup 0/C will be reached at a depth of less than 3.7 km and then deepen that well a further 1.8 km. This report recounts the Congressional history of the appropriation to drill the hole and other history through March 1984, gives a review of the literature on the Salton Sea Geothermal Field and its relationship to other geothermal systems of the Salton Trough, and describes a comprehensive series of investigations that have been proposed either in the well or in conjunction with the SSSDP. Investigations in geophysics, geochemistry and petrology, tectonics and rock mechanics, and geohydrology are given. A tabulation is given of current commercial and state-of-the-art downhole tools and their pressure, temperature, and minimum hole size limitations.

  7. Recovery Efficiency Test Project Phase 2 activity report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of Phase II operations of the Recovery Efficiency Test Project is to enhance the natural production of the well and evaluate the relative improvement as a function of the type of stimulation conducted. Another purpose is to compare the stimulated production performance of the horizontal well with vertical wells in the field. The objectives considered for Phase II operations and plans were: (1) Develop a rationale for a systematic approach to designing stimulations for the well. (2) Conduct a series of stimulations designed to optimize the fluids, injection rates, proppant volumes and general approach to stimulating a horizontal well with similar geologic conditions. (3) Develop and test a method or methods for determining the geometry of stimulation-induced fractures. (4) Conduct tests and analyze the results to determine the efficiency of stimulation operations. The technical approach pursued in developing plans to accomplish three objectives was to: (1) Review the data needs for all objectives and obtain that data first. (2) Identify the operating geologic, geomechanical, and reservoir parameters that need additional clarification or definition. (3) Investigate existing models which could be used to plan or evaluate stimulation on the well and the reservoir. (4) Plan for analysis and verification of models and approaches.

  8. The MicroActive project: automatic detection of disease-related molecular cell activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuberg, Liv; Mielnik, Michal; Johansen, Ib-Rune; Voitel, Jörg; Gulliksen, Anja; Solli, Lars; Karlsen, Frank; Bayer, Tobias; Schönfeld, Friedhelm; Drese, Klaus; Keegan, Helen; Martin, Cara; O'Leary, John; Riegger, Lutz; Koltay, Peter

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the MicroActive project is to develop an instrument for molecular diagnostics. The instrument will first be tested for patient screening for a group of viruses causing cervical cancer. Two disposable polymer chips with reagents stored on-chip will be inserted into the instrument for each patient sample. The first chip performs sample preparation of the epithelial cervical cells while mRNA amplification and fluorescent detection takes place in the second chip. More than 10 different virus markers will be analysed in one chip. We report results on sub-functions of the amplification chip. The sample is split into smaller droplets, and the droplets move in parallel channels containing different dried reagents for the different analyses. We report experimental results on parallel droplet movement control using one external pump only, combined with hydrophobic valves. Valve burst pressures are controlled by geometry. We show droplet control using valves with burst pressures between 800 and 4500 Pa. We also monitored the re-hydration times for two necessary dried reagents. After sample insertion, uniform concentration of the reagents in the droplet was reached after respectively 60 s and 10 min. These times are acceptable for successful amplification. Finally we have shown positive amplification of HPV type 16 using dried enzymes stored in micro chambers.

  9. The OPTX Project. V. Identifying Distant Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouille, L.; Barger, A. J.; Tremonti, C.

    2011-11-01

    The Baldwin, Phillips, and Terlevich emission-line ratio diagnostic ([O III]/Hβ versus [N II]/Hα, hereafter BPT diagram) efficiently separates galaxies whose signal is dominated by star formation (BPT-SF) from those dominated by active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity (BPT-AGN). Yet this BPT diagram is limited to z < 0.5, the redshift at which [N II]λ6584 leaves the optical spectral window. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we construct a new diagnostic, or TBT diagram, that is based on rest-frame g - z color, [Ne III]λ3869, and [O II]λλ3726 + 3729 and can be used for galaxies out to z < 1.4. The TBT diagram identifies 98.7% of the SDSS BPT-AGN as TBT-AGN and 97% of the SDSS BPT-SF as TBT-SF. Furthermore, it identifies 97% of the OPTX Chandra X-ray-selected AGNs as TBT-AGN. This is in contrast to the BPT diagram, which misidentifies 20% of X-ray-selected AGNs as BPT-SF. We use the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North and Lockman Hole galaxy samples, with their accompanying deep Chandra imaging, to perform X-ray and infrared stacking analyses to further validate our TBT-AGN and TBT-SF selections; that is, we verify the dominance of AGN activity in the former and star formation activity in the latter. Finally, we address the inclusion of the majority of the BPT-comp (sources lying between the BPT-SF and BPT-AGN regimes) in our TBT-AGN regime. We find that the stacked BPT-comp source is X-ray hard (langΓeffrang = 1.0+0.4 -0.4) and has a high X-ray luminosity to total infrared luminosity ratio. This suggests that, on average, the X-ray signal in BPT-comp is dominated by obscured or low accretion rate AGN activity rather than by star formation, supporting their inclusion in the TBT-AGN regime. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  10. A Methodology for Modeling Nuclear Power Plant Passive Component Aging in Probabilistic Risk Assessment under the Impact of Operating Conditions, Surveillance and Maintenance Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guler Yigitoglu, Askin

    In the context of long operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) (i.e., 60-80 years, and beyond), investigation of the aging of passive systems, structures and components (SSCs) is important to assess safety margins and to decide on reactor life extension as indicated within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. In the traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology, evaluating the potential significance of aging of passive SSCs on plant risk is challenging. Although passive SSC failure rates can be added as initiating event frequencies or basic event failure rates in the traditional event-tree/fault-tree methodology, these failure rates are generally based on generic plant failure data which means that the true state of a specific plant is not reflected in a realistic manner on aging effects. Dynamic PRA methodologies have gained attention recently due to their capability to account for the plant state and thus address the difficulties in the traditional PRA modeling of aging effects of passive components using physics-based models (and also in the modeling of digital instrumentation and control systems). Physics-based models can capture the impact of complex aging processes (e.g., fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, flow-accelerated corrosion, etc.) on SSCs and can be utilized to estimate passive SSC failure rates using realistic NPP data from reactor simulation, as well as considering effects of surveillance and maintenance activities. The objectives of this dissertation are twofold: The development of a methodology for the incorporation of aging modeling of passive SSC into a reactor simulation environment to provide a framework for evaluation of their risk contribution in both the dynamic and traditional PRA; and the demonstration of the methodology through its application to pressurizer surge line pipe weld and steam generator tubes in commercial nuclear power plants. In the proposed methodology, a

  11. Public Health Surveillance Strategies for Mass Gatherings: Super Bowl XLIX and Related Events, Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Aurimar; Berisha, Vjollca; Goodin, Kate; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Levy, Craig; McKinney, Benita; Koski, Lia; Imholte, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Super Bowl XLIX took place on February 1, 2015, in Glendale, Arizona. In preparation for this event and associated activities, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) developed methods for enhanced surveillance, situational awareness, and early detection of public health emergencies. Surveillance strategies implemented from January 22 to February 6, 2015, included enhanced surveillance alerts; animal disease surveillance; review of NFL clinic visits; syndromic surveillance for emergency room visits, urgent care facilities, and hotels; real-time onsite syndromic surveillance; all-hazards mortality surveillance; emergency medical services surveillance, review of poison control center reports; media surveillance; and aberration detection algorithms for notifiable diseases. Surveillance results included increased influenzalike illness activity reported from urgent care centers and a few influenza cases reported in the NFL clinic. A cyanide single event exposure was investigated and determined not to be a public health threat. Real-time field syndromic surveillance documented minor injuries at all events and sporadic cases of gastrointestinal and neurological (mostly headaches) disease. Animal surveillance reports included a cat suspected of carrying plague and tularemia and an investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza in a backyard chicken flock. Laboratory results in both instances were negative. Aberration detection and syndromic surveillance detected an increase in measles reports associated with a Disneyland exposure, and syndromic surveillance was used successfully during this investigation. Coordinated enhanced epidemiologic surveillance during Super Bowl XLIX increased the response capacity and preparedness of MCDPH to make informed decisions and take public health actions in a timely manner during these mass gathering events.

  12. LUSI LAB: a multidisciplinary project in a natural active laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, Adriano; Lusi Lab Team

    2016-04-01

    The 29th of May 2006 several gas and mud eruption sites suddenly appeared along a strike-slip fault (Watukosek fault system) in the NE of Java, Indonesia. The eruption occurred almost two days after a 6.3 M earthquake striking the island of Java. Within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. To date Lusi is still active. This disaster has forced 50.000 people to be evacuated and an area of ~7 km2 is covered by mud. The social impact of the eruption and its spectacular dimensions still attract the attention of international media reporting on the "largest mud eruption site on Earth". LUSI LAB (ERC grant n° 308126) focuses on five main aspects in order to complete a comprehensive regional investigation of this impressive event: 1) sampling and monitoring the active Lusi eruption site; 2) monitoring and sampling the neighbouring volcanic arc; 3) monitoring the local micro-seismicity and its relationship with regional seismicity; 4) monitoring the fault system originating from the volcanic arc, crossing Lusi and extending to the NE of Java island; 5) numerical modelling of Lusi activity and the strike-slip/magmatic complex system. We completed several field expeditions. Our studies investigated the mechanisms of reactivation of the Watukosek fault system that crosses Lusi locality and continues to the NE of Java. Results show that after the 27-05-2009 earthquake it was activated the lateral movement of this strike-slip system resulting in these several aligned eruptions sites including Lusi. Further, our geochemical studies of the erupted fluids reveal a mantle signature and point to a connection with the neighboring Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex indicating that Lusi is a sedimentary hosted geothermal system. We have designed, developed and constructed the Lusi drone. This is a remote controlled hexacopter developed and assembled in order to complete multidisciplinary studies in extreme and

  13. Apollo 11 Facts Project [Pre-Launch Activities and Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The crewmembers of Apollo 11, Commander Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., are seen during various stages of preparation for the launch of Apollo 11, including suitup, breakfast, and boarding the spacecraft. They are also seen during mission training, including preparation for extravehicular activity on the surface of the Moon. The launch of Apollo 11 is shown. The ground support crew is also seen as they wait for the spacecraft to approach the Moon.

  14. Design requirements document for project W-520, immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-08-06

    This design requirements document (DRD) identifies the functions that must be performed to accept, handle, and dispose of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) private treatment contractors and close the facility. It identifies the requirements that are associated with those functions and that must be met. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized Low-Activity Waste disposal facility project (W-520) and provides traceability from the program-level requirements to the project design activity.

  15. Individualized Instruction in Science, Earth-Space Project, Self-Directed Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    As a supplement to Learning Activity Packages (LAP) of the earth-space project, this manual presents self-directed activities especially designed for individualized instruction. Besides an introduction to LAP characteristics, sets of instructions are given in connection with the metric system, the earth's dimensions, indirect evidence for atomic…

  16. A Student Activity for the James Bay Hydro Project. The Geography Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green-Milberg, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Provides activities for grades 6 to 8 that will promote student awareness and understanding of the use of hydropower in Canada, the benefits and drawbacks to hydropower, and also the drawbacks of electricity transmission lines. Explains that the activities focus on the James Bay Hydro Project in Canada. (CMK)

  17. Newspaper Content Analysis in Evaluation of a Community-Based Participatory Project to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granner, Michelle L.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Fields, Regina; Hallenbeck, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    This study conducted a newspaper content analysis as part of an evaluation of a community-based participatory research project focused on increasing physical activity through policy and environmental changes, which included activities related to media advocacy and media-based community education. Daily papers (May 2003 to December 2005) from both…

  18. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES, A GUIDE FOR 4-H CLUB LEADERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOSTER, ALBERT B.; FOX, ADRIAN C.

    THIS PUBLICATION WAS PREPARED BY THE SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE FOR USE WITH YOUTH GROUPS. VARIOUS ACTIVITIES AND PROJECTS ARE PRESENTED WHICH CAN BE USED TO DEVELOP CONCEPTS ABOUT SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION. IN ORDER TO SIMPLIFY THE PROCESS OF DEMONSTRATING THESE ACTIVITIES, MANY OF THE CONCEPTS ARE PICTORIALLY ILLUSTRATED. THE ACTIVITIES…

  19. 12 Years of Action Learning at EM Normandie: Monitored Field Projects as Regular Pedagogical Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anger, Sophie Gay; Hachard, Virginie

    2011-01-01

    The Master Grande Ecole curriculum at EM Normandie School is organized around junior consulting projects and real problem solving activities aiming at bridging the gap between classroom knowledge and professional competencies. Since the 90's, students are involved in regular consulting activities for local and national companies following the…

  20. Focused Campaign Increases Activity among Participants in "Nature's Notebook," a Citizen Science Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Surina, Echo M.; Marsh, Lee; Denny, Ellen G.

    2014-01-01

    Science projects, which engage non-professional scientists in one or more stages of scientific research, have been gaining popularity; yet maintaining participants' activity level over time remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for a short-term, focused campaign to increase participant activity in a…

  1. Nowcasting and forecasting of lightning activity: the Talos project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagouvardos, Kostas; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Kazadzis, Stelios; Giannaros, Theodore; Karagiannidis, Athanassios; Galanaki, Elissavet; Proestakis, Emmanouil

    2015-04-01

    Thunder And Lightning Observing System (TALOS) is a research program funded by the Greek Ministry of Education with the aim to promote excellence in the field of lightning meteorology. The study focuses on exploring the real-time observations provided by the ZEUS lightning detection system, operated by the National Observatory of Athens since 2005, as well as the 10-year long database of the same system. More precisely the main research issues explored are: - lightning climatology over the Mediterranean focusing on lightning spatial and temporal distribution, on the relation of lightning with topographical features and instability and on the importance of aerosols in lightning initiation and enhancement. - nowcasting of lightning activity over Greece, with emphasis on the operational aspects of this endeavour. The nowcasting tool is based on the use of lightning data complemented by high-time resolution METEOSAT imagery. - forecasting of lightning activity over Greece based on the use of WRF numerical weather prediction model. - assimilation of lightning with the aim to improve the model precipitation forecast skill. In the frame of this presentation the main findings of each of the aforementioned issues are highlighted.

  2. Data modeling and query processing for distributed surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Yunyoung; Hong, Sangjin; Rho, Seungmin

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents data modeling and query processing for distributed surveillance systems. We define a metadata rule to search and manage information for distributed or heterogeneous surveillance systems. For human activity recognition, we propose a method that classifies these actions separately from complicated activities as a sequence of basic activities. In addition, we define the domain and range of relations based on the relationship between elements. Furthermore, we describe the state descriptors to represent an image sequence. To address the interaction of multiple objects, we classify human actions into symmetric or asymmetric actions. The prior motion model and the inference approach are applied adaptively according to environments. We define the grammar for the representation of the surveillance video and specify different query criteria for surveillance video retrieval. In the experiments, we show the prototype system that provides event detection, object identification, object tracking, face recognition, and activity recognition.

  3. Surveillance of vaccine safety: comparison of parental reports with routine surveillance and a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Netterlid, Eva; Månsson, Marie Edwinson; Håkansson, Anders

    2009-03-23

    One way to maintain confidence in vaccination programmes is to improve monitoring of immunisation safety. We studied active parental reporting of adverse events after a booster dose of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid (DT). 7193 children received the vaccine. Questionnaires were submitted by 84.2% of the parents, who reported reactions for 9.2% of the children. Four percent of events were classified as moderate/severe by interviews. Relative risk of redness and swelling reported was 0.24 (95% CI, 0.13-0.42) compared to a clinical trial, while it was 71.0 (44-114) compared to passive surveillance. Active surveillance by parental reports is a useful complement to passive surveillance of childhood immunisations to generate hypotheses for evaluation in controlled studies.

  4. The activation patterns of embryonic chick motoneurones projecting to inappropriate muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Landmesser, L T; O'Donovan, M J

    1984-01-01

    Chick lumbosacral motoneurones were caused to innervate foreign muscles by surgically rotating or shifting the limb bud about the anterior-posterior axis in stage 17-18 embryos. The activation pattern of such wrongly projecting motoneurones was assessed at stages 35-38 by recording electromyographic activity from muscles in an isolated spinal cord/hind limb preparation. Muscle activity was classed as flexor- or extensor-like according to the characteristics of the patterned sequence of bursts elicited by a single shock to the thoracic cord. Wrongly projecting motoneurones did not have their activation pattern altered to one appropriate for the muscle innervated; therefore in some cases a particular muscle was activated with a pattern similar to its original one, and in other cases in an opposite manner. Mixed flexor-extensor-like activation of a single muscle was, however, rare. The identity of motoneurones projecting to a muscle was determined by their cord location following retrograde labelling with horseradish peroxidase. This allowed us to conclude that motoneurones could develop their normal pattern of activation even when projecting to foreign muscles. It is concluded that the cord circuits (presumably composed of local interneurones responsible for the activation of motoneurones in the isolated cord preparation are not altered by retrograde influences from the muscle. Wrongly projecting motoneurones, which were maintained throughout the normal cell death period, were activated during spontaneous embryonic movements, and in many cases were found to have a behaviourally inappropriate activation pattern. These observations are discussed in relation to proposed mechanisms by which developmental errors in connectivity are corrected. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6707957

  5. The activation patterns of embryonic chick motoneurones projecting to inappropriate muscles.

    PubMed

    Landmesser, L T; O'Donovan, M J

    1984-02-01

    Chick lumbosacral motoneurones were caused to innervate foreign muscles by surgically rotating or shifting the limb bud about the anterior-posterior axis in stage 17-18 embryos. The activation pattern of such wrongly projecting motoneurones was assessed at stages 35-38 by recording electromyographic activity from muscles in an isolated spinal cord/hind limb preparation. Muscle activity was classed as flexor- or extensor-like according to the characteristics of the patterned sequence of bursts elicited by a single shock to the thoracic cord. Wrongly projecting motoneurones did not have their activation pattern altered to one appropriate for the muscle innervated; therefore in some cases a particular muscle was activated with a pattern similar to its original one, and in other cases in an opposite manner. Mixed flexor-extensor-like activation of a single muscle was, however, rare. The identity of motoneurones projecting to a muscle was determined by their cord location following retrograde labelling with horseradish peroxidase. This allowed us to conclude that motoneurones could develop their normal pattern of activation even when projecting to foreign muscles. It is concluded that the cord circuits (presumably composed of local interneurones responsible for the activation of motoneurones in the isolated cord preparation are not altered by retrograde influences from the muscle. Wrongly projecting motoneurones, which were maintained throughout the normal cell death period, were activated during spontaneous embryonic movements, and in many cases were found to have a behaviourally inappropriate activation pattern. These observations are discussed in relation to proposed mechanisms by which developmental errors in connectivity are corrected.

  6. The SPARX Project: R & D Activity Towards X-Rays FEL Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Alesini, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Castellano, M.; Clozza, A.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Esposito, A.; Ferrario, M.; Filippetto, D.; Fusco, V.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Incurvati, M.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Migliorati, M.; /Frascati /ENEA, Frascati /INFN, Milan /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome2 /Milan Polytechnic /UCLA /SLAC

    2005-08-05

    SPARX is an evolutionary project proposed by a collaboration among ENEA-INFN-CNR-Universita di Roma Tor Vergata aiming at the construction of a FELSASE X-ray source in the Tor Vergata Campus. The first phase of the SPARX project, funded by Government Agencies, will be focused on R&D activity on critical components and techniques for future X-ray facilities as described in this paper.

  7. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1981-09-01

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  8. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate buffer concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. The remediation steps include changes in the coolant chemistry specification, development of a suite of new antimicrobial additives, and development of devices for the removal of nickel and phosphate ions from the coolant. This paper presents an overview of the anomalies, their known and suspected system effects, their causes, and the actions being taken to remediate the coolant.

  9. The Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance Study (Pak-NEDS): Introducing a pilot surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based decision making is essential for appropriate prioritization and service provision by healthcare systems. Despite higher demands, data needs for this practice are not met in many cases in low- and middle-income countries because of underdeveloped sources, among other reasons. Emergency departments (EDs) provide an important channel for such information because of their strategic position within healthcare systems. This paper describes the design and pilot test of a national ED based surveillance system suitable for the Pakistani context. Methods The Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance Study (Pak-NEDS) was pilot tested in the emergency departments of seven major tertiary healthcare centres across the country. The Aga Khan University, Karachi, served as the coordinating centre. Key stakeholders and experts from all study institutes were involved in outlining data needs, development of the study questionnaire, and identification of appropriate surveillance mechanisms such as methods for data collection, monitoring, and quality assurance procedures. The surveillance system was operational between November 2010 and March 2011. Active surveillance was done 24 hours a day by data collectors hired and trained specifically for the study. All patients presenting to the study EDs were eligible participants. Over 270,000 cases were registered in the surveillance system over a period of four months. Coverage levels in the final month ranged from 91-100% and were highest in centres with the least volume of patients. Overall the coverage for the four months was 79% and crude operational costs were less than $0.20 per patient. Conclusions Pak-NEDS is the first multi-centre ED based surveillance system successfully piloted in a sample of major EDs having some of the highest patient volumes in Pakistan. Despite the challenges identified, our pilot shows that the system is flexible and scalable, and could potentially be adapted for many other

  10. Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-27

    reconnaissance (ISR) model for coastal surveillance. The model needs to be developed in the System Toolkit (STK) software package version 10.0 (or...reconnaissance (ISR) model for coastal surveillance. The model needs to be developed in the System Toolkit (STK) software package version 10.0 (or...Catalogue STK System Toolkit TA Technical Authority DRDC CORA Task #185 Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development 27 February 2015 F-1 5758-001

  11. Bacteriological Surveillance of Drinking Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-15

    bacteriological surveillance and evaluation of drinking water quality. A separate information paper will address microbiological contaminants of a nonbacterial nature (e.g., Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia , and viruses).

  12. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  13. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2006-01-27

    This document contains the calendar year 2006 schedules for the routine and non-routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 2006 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. The project document package (PDP) for Surface Environmental Surveillance contains the milestone control log for the issuing of CY06 Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule WBS 4.2.3.21.3.03, milestone: RL00430306 (4830106-12).

  14. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-01-06

    Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal

  15. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  16. Remote, wireless stakeout surveillance for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Mike; Klein, Allen; Smith, Stan; Jones, John Paul

    2005-05-01

    Inflation combined with the added burden of homeland security requirements, is increasing pressure on local law enforcement budgets and manpower resources. The problem is: how can law enforcement agencies fulfill all of their requirements? How can they respond to these requirements, including homeland security, with limited manpower? Civil Rights considerations also place constraints on law enforcement. One possible solution is the Remote Law Enforcement Surveillance System (RLESS) concept. RLESS makes more efficient use of existing manpower while avoiding infringement on civil liberties. RLESS provides the capability for unattended stakeout and surveillance. Many stakeout or surveillance operations are conducted by vice, homicide, organized crime or other task forces. Lasting from days to weeks. Many large drug stings last months involving many persons of interest. A single surveillance mission usually involves a minimum of two persons X 3 shifts per day conducting active observation, equating to 48 man-hours per day. Their tasks include watching, listening, and documenting with photography. Recent military developments have included new technologies and techniques that enable remote unattended observation of areas or points of interest. This capability is now available to support law enforcement stakeouts, thereby significantly minimizes the stresses on manpower.

  17. European recommendations for antimicrobial resistance surveillance.

    PubMed

    Cornaglia, G; Hryniewicz, W; Jarlier, V; Kahlmeter, G; Mittermayer, H; Stratchounski, L; Baquero, F

    2004-04-01

    The problem of antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe has been debated extensively in many excellent documents issued by national committees that often assume the value of national guidelines. However, a comprehensive document addressing the whole matter from a European perspective, as well as reviewing its present status and drafting future perspectives, has been lacking. The present recommendations have been produced by the ESCMID Study Group for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (ESGARS) through a consensus process involving all members of the Study Group. The recommendations focus on the detection of bacterial resistance and its reporting to clinicians, public health officers and a wider-and ever-increasing-audience. The leading concept is that the basis for resistance monitoring is microbiological diagnostics. The prerequisites for resistance monitoring are findings of adequate quality and quantity, which have been recorded properly and evaluated correctly. Different types of surveillance studies should fulfil different requirements with regard to data collection and reporting, the expected use of data, and the prerequisites for networking such activities. To generate relevant indicators, bacterial resistance data should be reported using adequate denominators and stratification. Reporting of antimicrobial resistance data is necessary for selection of empirical therapy at the local level, for assessing the scale of the resistance problem at the local, national or international levels, for monitoring changes in resistance rates, and for detecting the emergence and spread of new resistances types. Any type of surveillance study should conclude, where appropriate, with a proposal for intervention based on the data obtained.

  18. Disease reporting and surveillance: where do companion animal diseases fit in?

    PubMed

    Moore, George E; Lund, Elizabeth

    2009-03-01

    Disease surveillance and reporting is a necessary and integral part of public health practice. Surveillance systems have been developed over many years for both human medicine and veterinary medicine. However, these systems are not usually interconnected. Today, with the benefits of advanced information technology, the development and integration of existing and new resources in companion-animal practice should be focused on "one medicine-one health" for the betterment and health of all species. This means more sharing of surveillance data, greater cooperation among organizations involved in surveillance, and further integration of human and animal surveillance activities.

  19. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Mexican Hat, Utah, disposal site. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Mexican Hat disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the disposal site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Mexican Hat disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct types of activities: (1) site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) monitoring of selected seeps to observe changes in flow rates and water quality. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Battlefield Acoustic Sensing, Multimodal Sensing, and Networked Sensing for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Applications by Latasha Solomon, Wesley Wang, and Miriam Häge...Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Applications by Latasha Solomon Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL Wesley Wang...Latasha Solomon, Wesley Wang, and Miriam Hӓge 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S

  1. Local collaborations: development and implementation of Boston's bioterrorism surveillance system.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Verna B; Gunn, Julia E; Auerbach, John; Brinsfield, Kathryn H; Dyer, K Sophia; Barry, M Anita

    2003-01-01

    The Boston Public Health Commission developed and implemented an active surveillance system for bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies. A bioterrorism Surveillance Task Force was formed with representatives from local emergency medicine, infection control, infectious diseases, public health, and emergency medical services. These local agencies worked together to develop a reliable, easy to use electronic surveillance system. Collaboration at the local level and building on existing relationships is a key component of this system. Effective follow-up systems and technology back-up plans are essential. Improved communication networks and increased bioterrorism education for clinicians and the general public have also been achieved.

  2. Challenges in mapping behaviours to activities using logs from a citizen science project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, Alessandra M. M.; Guarino de Vasconcelos, Leandro; Santos, Rafael D. C.

    2016-05-01

    Citizen science projects are those which recruit volunteers to participate as assistants in scientific studies. Since these projects depend on volunteer efforts, understanding the motivation that drives a volunteer to collaborate is important to ensure its success. One way to understand motivation is by interviewing the volunteers. While this approach may elicit detailed information on the volunteers' motivation and actions, it is restricted to a subset of willing participants. For web-based projects we could instead use logs of volunteers' activities, which measures which volunteer did what and when for all volunteers in a project. In this work we present some metrics that can be calculated from the logs, based on a model of interaction. We also comment on the applicability of those metrics, describe an ongoing work that may yield more precise logs and metrics and comment on issues for further research.

  3. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  4. Integrating Field-Centered, Project Based Activities with Academic Year Coursework: A Curriculum Wide Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, P. R.; Brown, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Based upon constructivist principles and the recognition that many students are motivated by hands-on activities and field experiences, we designed a new undergraduate curriculum at Lake Superior State University. One of our major goals was to develop stand-alone field projects in most of the academic year courses. Examples of courses impacted include structural geology, geophysics, and geotectonics, Students learn geophysical concepts in the context of near surface field-based geophysical studies while students in structural geology learn about structural processes through outcrop study of fractures, folds and faults. In geotectonics students learn about collisional and rifting processes through on-site field studies of specific geologic provinces. Another goal was to integrate data and samples collected by students in our sophomore level introductory field course along with stand-alone field projects in our clastic systems and sequence stratigraphy courses. Our emphasis on active learning helps students develop a meaningful geoscience knowledge base and complex reasoning skills in authentic contexts. We simulate the activities of practicing geoscientists by engaging students in all aspects of a project, for example: field-oriented project planning and design; acquiring, analyzing, and interpreting data; incorporating supplemental material and background data; and preparing oral and written project reports. We find through anecdotal evidence including student comments and personal observation that the projects stimulate interest, provide motivation for learning new concepts, integrate skill and concept acquisition vertically through the curriculum, apply concepts from multiple geoscience subdisiplines, and develop soft skills such as team work, problem solving, critical thinking and communication skills. Through this projected-centered Lake Superior State University geology curriculum students practice our motto of "learn geology by doing geology."

  5. ACFA 2020 - An FP7 project on active control of flexible fuel efficient aircraft configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper gives an overview about the project ACFA 2020 which is funded by the European Commission within the 7th framework program. The acronym ACFA 2020 stands for Active Control for Flexible Aircraft 2020. The project is dealing with the design of highly fuel efficient aircraft configurations and, in particular, on innovative active control concepts with the goal to reduce loads and structural weight. Major focus lays on blended wing body (BWB) aircraft. Blended wing body type aircraft configurations are seen as the most promising future concept to fulfill the so-called ACARE (Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe) vision 2020 goals in regards to reduce fuel consumption and external noise. The paper discusses in some detail the overall goals and how they are addressed in the workplan. Furthermore, the major achievements of the project are outlined and a short outlook on the remaining work is given.

  6. Design requirements document for Project W-465, immobilized low-activity waste interim storage

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1998-05-19

    The scope of this Design Requirements Document (DRD) is to identify the functions and associated requirements that must be performed to accept, transport, handle, and store immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the privatized Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) treatment contractors. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the TWRS ILAW Interim Storage facility project and provides traceability from the program level requirements to the project design activity. Technical and programmatic risk associated with the TWRS planning basis are discussed in the Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The design requirements provided in this document will be augmented by additional detailed design data documented by the project.

  7. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient’s side. PMID:26729130

  8. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-02

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient's side.

  9. The RAP: A Recreational Activities Project, Academic Service-Learning Course and Qualitative Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Kathlyn

    2009-01-01

    The author (a university instructor) and her community partner (a public school teacher) have collaborated in teaching an academic service-learning course in special education. This collaboration, the RAP (recreational activities project), was completed by university undergraduate students and young adults with cognitive impairment and/or…

  10. Design and Implementation of a Project-Based Active/Cooperative Engineering Design Course for Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulaal, R. M.; Al-Bahi, A. M.; Soliman, A. Y.; Iskanderani, F. I.

    2011-01-01

    A project-based active/cooperative design course is planned, implemented, assessed and evaluated to achieve several desired engineering outcomes. The course allows freshman-level students to gain professional hands-on engineering design experience through an opportunity to practise teamwork, quality principles, communication skills, life-long…

  11. Video: Animals; Electric Current; Force; Science Activities. Learning in Science Project. Working Papers 51-54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Beverley; And Others

    Four papers to be used in conjunction with video-tapes developed by the Learning in Science Project are presented. Topic areas of the papers focus on: (1) animals; (2) electric current; (3) force; and (4) science activities. The first paper presents transcripts of class discussions focusing on the scientific meaning of the word animal. The second…

  12. Using Sales Management Students to Manage Professional Selling Students in an Innovative Active Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Joyce A.; Hawes, Jon M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an application of active learning within two different courses: professional selling and sales management. Students assumed the roles of sales representatives and sales managers for an actual fund-raiser--a golf outing--sponsored by a student chapter of the American Marketing Association. The sales project encompassed an…

  13. 34 CFR 647.4 - What activities and services may a project provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... programs. (g) Mentoring programs involving faculty members or students at institutions of higher education... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities and services may a project provide? 647.4 Section 647.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education...

  14. Using Interdisciplinary, Project-Based, Multimodal Activities to Facilitate Literacy across the Content Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Archie E.

    2014-01-01

    Tour Across America is an interdisciplinary, project-based, multimodal (IPM) activity where students get the opportunity to apply what they learn to a real-life situation while illustrating the interdisciplinary nature of literacy. It provides students with a high-interest, creative platform to review, reinforce, and integrate learned literacy…

  15. Students' Network Project Activities in the Context of the Information Educational Medium of Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samerkhanova, Elvira K.; Krupoderova, Elena P.; Krupoderova, Klimentina R.; Bahtiyarova, Lyudmila N.; Ponachugin, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the research is justifying didactic possibilities of the use of network services for the organization of information for the learning environment of college, where students carry out their project activities, and where effective networking between students and teachers takes place. The authors consider didactic possibilities of…

  16. Secondary English Activities of the North Dakota Exemplary Project in Career Education. Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    The secondary English activities materials developed by the North Dakota Exemplary Project represent information that will be helpful to teachers in achieving the goals of a career education program. The guide provides a flexible framework to provide experiences that will support the learning principles needed to attain the required knowledge,…

  17. A Handbook of Projects and Activities for Marketing and Distributive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This handbook has been designed to provide classroom teachers with relevant, ready-to-use materials geared to supplement classroom instruction in marketing and distributive education. The projects/activities have been organized using the major units of instruction of the Montana Curriculum Guidelines for Distributive Education, except for a…

  18. Can Activity Projects Improve Children's Wellbeing during the Transition to Secondary Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akister, Jane; Guest, Hannah; Burch, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Promoting child mental wellbeing is an important part of UK early intervention policy. Children with poor physical or mental health have significantly lower educational attainment and lower social status as adults. "Activity" projects are one form of early intervention used to try and help vulnerable children. Evidence relating to the…

  19. Implementation of the Project "Including Disabled Senior Citizens in Creative Activities in 2013-2015"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploch, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    This paper made an attempt to indicate the findings of the author's research from the experiences of the implementation of the project "Including disabled senior citizens in creative activities in 2013-2015". The issues of disabled senior citizens have been an object of interest over the recent years though it still has not had a proper…

  20. Formative Evaluation of Project "TEAM" (Teens Making Environment and Activity Modifications)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Jessica M.; Roemer, Kristin; Liljenquist, Kendra; Shin, Julia; Hart, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Research documents the negative impact of physical and social environmental barriers on engagement in school, work, and the community for youth with intellectual and /or developmental disabilities (IDD). Project "TEAM" (Teens making Environment and Activity Modifications) was designed to teach youth to systematically identify…