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Sample records for active surveillance protocol

  1. Compliance of males with stage 1 testicular germ cell tumours on an active surveillance protocol.

    PubMed

    Honeyball, F; Murali-Ganesh, R; Hruby, G; Grimison, P

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the rate of compliance among 57 males with stage 1 testicular germ cell tumours on an active surveillance protocol at a single Australian centre. At median follow up of 24 months, 81% had adequate compliance with the follow-up regimen, 12% were lost to follow up, and 16% relapsed; none between protocol visits. Active surveillance is an acceptable alternative to adjuvant therapy for stage 1 testicular germ cell tumours, with reduced toxicity for most and equivalent survival, but requires efforts to maintain adequate compliance with follow up to avoid late detection of recurrence.

  2. European active surveillance study of women taking HRT (EURAS-HRT): study protocol [NCT00214903

    PubMed Central

    Dinger, Juergen C; Heinemann, Lothar AJ

    2006-01-01

    Background The post marketing safety surveillance program for a drug containing a new chemical entity should assess both, the safety outcomes that relate specifically to the targeted population, as well as those that could potentially be related to special pharmacological characteristics of the drug. Active safety surveillance using valid epidemiological study designs has been proven to be a pertinent and reliable method to approach this endeavor. Methods/design The primary objective of the study is to compare incidence rates of serious adverse events in users of all types of newly prescribed oral HRT products. This active surveillance study will assess pertinent cardiovascular outcomes - in particular venous and arterial thromboembolism - and other serious adverse events (SAEs) in new HRT users over a period of several years. One product under surveillance is Angeliq®, which contains the novel progestagen drospirenone (DRSP) combined with estradiol. In addition, all other oral combined HRT products with a novel progestagen or estrogen that will be newly marketed during the study period will be studied. These new HRT products will be compared with established HRT products. The combined cohort will include at least 30,000 women recruited in several European countries. At least 90,000 years of observation are expected from the field work which started in early 2002 and will end around 2008. The participating women will complete a baseline survey using a self-administered questionnaire to describe the baseline risk. After 6 months, 12 months, and then on an annual basis, they will fill out a questionnaire in which they record complaints and events during the use of the prescribed HRTs. All adverse outcomes occurring during the observational period will be evaluated. Discussion A complete lifetime medical history, individually validated SAEs over time, and a low loss to follow-up rate are essential for a robust safety assessment. Therefore, the lifetime history of

  3. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized.

  4. Association between number of prostate biopsies and patient-reported functional outcomes after radical prostatectomy: implications for active surveillance protocols

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christopher B.; Tin, Amy L.; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Mulhall, John P.; Sandhu, Jaspreet; Laudone, Vincent P.; Eastham, James A.; Scardino, Peter T.; Ehdaie, Behfar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Men with prostate cancer who progress on active surveillance (AS) are subject to multiple prostate biopsies prior to radical prostatectomy (RP). Our objective was to evaluate whether the number of preoperative prostate biopsies affects functional outcomes after RP. Materials and methods We identified men treated with RP at our institution between 2008 and 2011. At 6 and 12 months post-operatively, patients completed questionnaires assessing erectile and urinary function. Men with preoperative incontinence or erectile dysfunction or who did not complete the questionnaire were excluded. Primary outcomes were urinary and erectile function at 12 months postoperatively. We used logistic regression to estimate the impact of number of prostate biopsies on functional outcomes after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results We identified 2,712 men treated with RP between 2008 and 2011. Most men (80%) had 1 preoperative prostate biopsy, 16% had 2, and 4% had at least 3. On adjusted analysis, erectile function at 12 months was not significantly different for men with 2 (OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.90, 1.75) or 3 or more (OR 1.52; 95% CI 0.84, 2.78) biopsies, compared to those with 1. Similarly, urinary function at 12 months was not significantly different for men with 2 (0.84, 95% CI 0.64, 1.10) or 3 or more (0.99, 95% CI 0.60, 1.61) biopsies compared to those with 1. Conclusions We did not find evidence that more preoperative prostate biopsies adversely affected erectile or urinary function at 12 months following RP. PMID:26118438

  5. Active surveillance for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Makito; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    2016-06-01

    Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is known to be a heterogeneous malignancy that requires varying treatment modalities and follow-up schedules. Low-grade Ta papillary tumors are categorized as low-risk NMIBC because of their favorable prognosis. There is an expanding movement that overdiagnosis and overtreatment should be avoided considering the economic impact and the patients' quality of life. It has been over 10 years since the initial assessment of active surveillance for low-risk NMIBC suggested its feasibility and safety. However, urologists are still unfamiliar with this treatment option, which can be ideal in appropriately selected patients. In this review article, we focus on active surveillance for low-risk NMIBC and discuss the evidence and rationale for this treatment option. There are several issues to resolve in order to advocate active surveillance as a standard option in selected patients. A specific follow-up protocol including intervals of cystoscopy, urine cytology, urine markers, and other radiographic examinations need to be optimized and validated. Finally, we integrate the available data into the follow-up strategy and propose a new surveillance protocol for active surveillance of recurrent low-risk bladder cancer. PMID:27326406

  6. A Simulation-Based Evaluation of Premovement Active Surveillance Protocol Options for the Managed Movement of Turkeys to Slaughter During an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the United States.

    PubMed

    Todd Weaver, J; Malladi, Sasidhar; Bonney, Peter J; Patyk, Kelly A; Bergeron, Justin G; Middleton, Jamie L; Alexander, Catherine Y; Goldsmith, Timothy J; Halvorson, David A

    2016-05-01

    Risk management decisions associated with live poultry movement during a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak should be carefully considered. Live turkey movements may pose a risk for disease spread. On the other hand, interruptions in scheduled movements can disrupt business continuity. The Secure Turkey Supply (STS) Plan was developed through an industry-government-academic collaboration to address business continuity concerns that might arise during a HPAI outbreak. STS stakeholders proposed outbreak response measure options that were evaluated through risk assessment. The developed approach relies on 1) diagnostic testing of two pooled samples of swabs taken from dead turkeys immediately before movement via the influenza A matrix gene real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) test; 2) enhanced biosecurity measures in combination with a premovement isolation period (PMIP), restricting movement onto the premises for a few days before movement to slaughter; and 3) incorporation of a distance factor from known infected flocks such that exposure via local area spread is unlikely. Daily exposure likelihood estimates from spatial kernels from past HPAI outbreaks were coupled with simulation models of disease spread and active surveillance to evaluate active surveillance protocol options that differ with respect to the number of swabs per pooled sample and the timing of the tests in relation to movement. Simulation model results indicate that active surveillance testing, in combination with strict biosecurity, substantially increased HPAI virus detection probability. When distance from a known infected flock was considered, the overall combined likelihood of moving an infected, undetected turkey flock to slaughter was predicted to be lower at 3 and 5 km. The analysis of different active surveillance protocol options is designed to incorporate flexibility into HPAI emergency response plans.

  7. A Simulation-Based Evaluation of Premovement Active Surveillance Protocol Options for the Managed Movement of Turkeys to Slaughter During an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the United States.

    PubMed

    Todd Weaver, J; Malladi, Sasidhar; Bonney, Peter J; Patyk, Kelly A; Bergeron, Justin G; Middleton, Jamie L; Alexander, Catherine Y; Goldsmith, Timothy J; Halvorson, David A

    2016-05-01

    Risk management decisions associated with live poultry movement during a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak should be carefully considered. Live turkey movements may pose a risk for disease spread. On the other hand, interruptions in scheduled movements can disrupt business continuity. The Secure Turkey Supply (STS) Plan was developed through an industry-government-academic collaboration to address business continuity concerns that might arise during a HPAI outbreak. STS stakeholders proposed outbreak response measure options that were evaluated through risk assessment. The developed approach relies on 1) diagnostic testing of two pooled samples of swabs taken from dead turkeys immediately before movement via the influenza A matrix gene real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) test; 2) enhanced biosecurity measures in combination with a premovement isolation period (PMIP), restricting movement onto the premises for a few days before movement to slaughter; and 3) incorporation of a distance factor from known infected flocks such that exposure via local area spread is unlikely. Daily exposure likelihood estimates from spatial kernels from past HPAI outbreaks were coupled with simulation models of disease spread and active surveillance to evaluate active surveillance protocol options that differ with respect to the number of swabs per pooled sample and the timing of the tests in relation to movement. Simulation model results indicate that active surveillance testing, in combination with strict biosecurity, substantially increased HPAI virus detection probability. When distance from a known infected flock was considered, the overall combined likelihood of moving an infected, undetected turkey flock to slaughter was predicted to be lower at 3 and 5 km. The analysis of different active surveillance protocol options is designed to incorporate flexibility into HPAI emergency response plans. PMID:27309049

  8. Air Pollution Determination Using a Surveillance Internet Protocol Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow Jeng, C. J.; Hwee San, Hslim; Matjafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, Abdul, K.

    Air pollution has long been a problem in the industrial nations of the West It has now become an increasing source of environmental degradation in the developing nations of east Asia Malaysia government has built a network to monitor air pollution But the cost of these networks is high and limits the knowledge of pollutant concentration to specific points of the cities A methodology based on a surveillance internet protocol IP camera for the determination air pollution concentrations was presented in this study The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of using IP camera data for estimating real time particulate matter of size less than 10 micron PM10 in the campus of USM The proposed PM10 retrieval algorithm derived from the atmospheric optical properties was employed in the present study In situ data sets of PM10 measurements and sun radiation measurements at the ground surface were collected simultaneously with the IP camera images using a DustTrak meter and a handheld spectroradiometer respectively The digital images were separated into three bands namely red green and blue bands for multispectral algorithm calibration The digital number DN of the IP camera images were converted into radiance and reflectance values After that the reflectance recorded by the digital camera was subtracted by the reflectance of the known surface and we obtained the reflectance caused by the atmospheric components The atmospheric reflectance values were used for regression analysis Regression technique was employed to determine suitable

  9. Development of the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C.; Lias, Courtney; Beck, Stayce; Parkes, Joan Lee; Kovatchev, Boris; Vigersky, Robert A.; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Burk, Robert D.; Kowalski, Aaron; Little, Randie; Nichols, James; Petersen, Matt; Rawlings, Kelly; Sacks, David B.; Sampson, Eric; Scott, Steve; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Slingerland, Robbert; Vesper, Hubert W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inaccurate blood glucsoe monitoring systems (BGMSs) can lead to adverse health effects. The Diabetes Technology Society (DTS) Surveillance Program for cleared BGMSs is intended to protect people with diabetes from inaccurate, unreliable BGMS products that are currently on the market in the United States. The Surveillance Program will provide an independent assessment of the analytical performance of cleared BGMSs. Methods: The DTS BGMS Surveillance Program Steering Committee included experts in glucose monitoring, surveillance testing, and regulatory science. Over one year, the committee engaged in meetings and teleconferences aiming to describe how to conduct BGMS surveillance studies in a scientifically sound manner that is in compliance with good clinical practice and all relevant regulations. Results: A clinical surveillance protocol was created that contains performance targets and analytical accuracy-testing studies with marketed BGMS products conducted by qualified clinical and laboratory sites. This protocol entitled “Protocol for the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Program” is attached as supplementary material. Conclusion: This program is needed because currently once a BGMS product has been cleared for use by the FDA, no systematic postmarket Surveillance Program exists that can monitor analytical performance and detect potential problems. This protocol will allow identification of inaccurate and unreliable BGMSs currently available on the US market. The DTS Surveillance Program will provide BGMS manufacturers a benchmark to understand the postmarket analytical performance of their products. Furthermore, patients, health care professionals, payers, and regulatory agencies will be able to use the results of the study to make informed decisions to, respectively, select, prescribe, finance, and regulate BGMSs on the market. PMID:26481642

  10. A secure protocol for protecting the identity of providers when disclosing data for disease surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Mercer, Jay; Peyton, Liam; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Malin, Bradley; Buckeridge, David; Samet, Saeed; Earle, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Background Providers have been reluctant to disclose patient data for public-health purposes. Even if patient privacy is ensured, the desire to protect provider confidentiality has been an important driver of this reluctance. Methods Six requirements for a surveillance protocol were defined that satisfy the confidentiality needs of providers and ensure utility to public health. The authors developed a secure multi-party computation protocol using the Paillier cryptosystem to allow the disclosure of stratified case counts and denominators to meet these requirements. The authors evaluated the protocol in a simulated environment on its computation performance and ability to detect disease outbreak clusters. Results Theoretical and empirical assessments demonstrate that all requirements are met by the protocol. A system implementing the protocol scales linearly in terms of computation time as the number of providers is increased. The absolute time to perform the computations was 12.5 s for data from 3000 practices. This is acceptable performance, given that the reporting would normally be done at 24 h intervals. The accuracy of detection disease outbreak cluster was unchanged compared with a non-secure distributed surveillance protocol, with an F-score higher than 0.92 for outbreaks involving 500 or more cases. Conclusion The protocol and associated software provide a practical method for providers to disclose patient data for sentinel, syndromic or other indicator-based surveillance while protecting patient privacy and the identity of individual providers. PMID:21486880

  11. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    PubMed

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones.

  12. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    PubMed

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones. PMID:26378390

  13. Active Surveillance of Candidemia, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Monica; Nguyen, Quoc; Marriott, Deborah; Playford, E. Geoffrey; Ellis, David; Sorrell, Tania

    2006-01-01

    Population-based surveillance for candidemia in Australia from 2001 to 2004 identified 1,095 cases. Annual overall and hospital-specific incidences were 1.81/100,000 and 0.21/1,000 separations (completed admissions), respectively. Predisposing factors included malignancy (32.1%), indwelling vascular catheters (72.6%), use of antimicrobial agents (77%), and surgery (37.1%). Of 919 episodes, 81.5% were inpatient healthcare associated (IHCA), 11.6% were outpatient healthcare associated (OHCA), and 6.9% were community acquired (CA). Concomitant illnesses and risk factors were similar in IHCA and OHCA candidemia. IHCA candidemia was associated with sepsis at diagnosis (p<0.001), death <30 days after infection (p<0.001), and prolonged hospital admission (p<0.001). Non–Candida albicans species (52.7%) caused 60.5% of cases acquired outside hospitals and 49.9% of IHCA candidemia (p = 0.02). The 30-day death rate was 27.7% in those >65 years of age. Adult critical care stay, sepsis syndrome, and corticosteroid therapy were associated with the greatest risk for death. Systematic epidemiologic studies that use standardized definitions for IHCA, OHCA, and CA candidemia are indicated. PMID:17176564

  14. The Spanish Protocol for radiological surveillance of metal recycling: a collaboration of government and industry.

    PubMed

    Cadierno, Juan Pedro García; Renedo, J I Serrano; Lopez, E Gil

    2006-11-01

    The presence of radioactive materials in scrap metal has been detected relatively often in recent years. As a result of an accidental melting of a 137Cs source in a Spanish steel mill (Acerinox) in 1998, the national authorities, the involved private companies, and the main trade unions drafted a protocol for prevention of and responding to such events ("Spanish Protocol"). The Protocol was signed in 1999. The number of subscribing companies is 90. The Protocol is a voluntary agreement defining the radiological surveillance of scrap metal and its products and the duties and rights of the signatories. From the effective date of the Protocol to December 2004, 461 pieces of ferric scrap were detected including sources of radiation and contaminated metal. Four melting incidents have happened in different companies. PMID:17033458

  15. A Protocol for the Secure Linking of Registries for HPV Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    El Emam, Khaled; Samet, Saeed; Hu, Jun; Peyton, Liam; Earle, Craig; Jayaraman, Gayatri C.; Wong, Tom; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Dankar, Fida; Essex, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In order to monitor the effectiveness of HPV vaccination in Canada the linkage of multiple data registries may be required. These registries may not always be managed by the same organization and, furthermore, privacy legislation or practices may restrict any data linkages of records that can actually be done among registries. The objective of this study was to develop a secure protocol for linking data from different registries and to allow on-going monitoring of HPV vaccine effectiveness. Methods A secure linking protocol, using commutative hash functions and secure multi-party computation techniques was developed. This protocol allows for the exact matching of records among registries and the computation of statistics on the linked data while meeting five practical requirements to ensure patient confidentiality and privacy. The statistics considered were: odds ratio and its confidence interval, chi-square test, and relative risk and its confidence interval. Additional statistics on contingency tables, such as other measures of association, can be added using the same principles presented. The computation time performance of this protocol was evaluated. Results The protocol has acceptable computation time and scales linearly with the size of the data set and the size of the contingency table. The worse case computation time for up to 100,000 patients returned by each query and a 16 cell contingency table is less than 4 hours for basic statistics, and the best case is under 3 hours. Discussion A computationally practical protocol for the secure linking of data from multiple registries has been demonstrated in the context of HPV vaccine initiative impact assessment. The basic protocol can be generalized to the surveillance of other conditions, diseases, or vaccination programs. PMID:22768321

  16. Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer: Contemporary State of Practice

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Lepor, Abbey; Loeb, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains among the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide. Early diagnosis and curative treatment appear to improve survival in men with unfavorable-risk cancers, but significant concerns exist regarding the overdiagnosis and overtreatment of men with lower-risk cancers. To this end, active surveillance (AS) has emerged as a primary management strategy in men with favorable-risk disease, and contemporary data suggest that use of AS has increased worldwide. Although published surveillance cohorts differ by protocol, reported rates of metastatic disease and prostate cancer-specific mortality are exceedingly low in the intermediate term (5–10 years). Such outcomes appear to be closely associated with program-specific criteria for selection, monitoring, and intervention, suggesting that AS – like other management strategies – could be individualized based on the level of risk acceptable to patients in light of personal preferences. Additional data are needed to better establish the risks associated with AS and to identify patient-specific characteristics that could modify prognosis. PMID:26954332

  17. [Active surveillance for dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Gubler, D J

    1989-07-01

    Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are emerging as major public health problems in most tropical countries. Effective prevention and control programs will depend on improved surveillance. A new approach to active surveillance is outlined with emphasis on the interepidemic period. The objective is to develop an early warning surveillance system than can predict epidemic dengue. Virologic surveillance is the most important in an early warning system. Dengue virus transmission should be monitored to provide information on which serotypes are present, their distribution, and the type of illness associated with each serotype. Other components of the active surveillance system include fever alert and clinical surveillance for severe and fatal disease associated with viral syndrome. Individually, each component is not very sensitive, but collectively, they provide an early warning capability that allows detection of newly introduced dengue virus serotypes well in advance of epidemic transmission. With such information, emergency mosquito control can be implemented and major epidemics averted.

  18. Current status of active surveillance in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mun Su

    2016-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a management strategy involving close monitoring the course of disease with the expectation to intervene if the cancer progress, in a super-selected group of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Determining AS candidates should be based on careful individualized weighing of numerous factors: life expectancy, general health condition, disease characteristics, potential side effects of treatment, and patient preference. Several protocols have been developed to determine insignificant PCa for choosing ideal AS candidates. Results regarding disease reclassification during AS have been also reported. In an effort to enhance accuracy during selection of AS candidate, there were several reports on using magnetic resonance imaging for prediction of insignificant PCa. Currently, there is an urgent need for further clinical studies regarding the criteria for recommending AS, the criteria for reclassification on AS, and the schedule for AS. Considering the racial differences in behavior of PCa between Western and Asian populations, more stringent AS protocols for Asian patients should be established from additional, well-designed, large clinical studies. PMID:26966722

  19. Detection of Rare Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles by Active and Passive Surveillance Approaches.

    PubMed

    Mather, Alison E; Reeve, Richard; Mellor, Dominic J; Matthews, Louise; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Dutil, Lucie; Haydon, Daniel T; Reid, Stuart W J

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance systems are generally not specifically designed to detect emerging resistances and usually focus primarily on resistance to individual drugs. Evaluating the diversity of resistance, using ecological metrics, allows the assessment of sampling protocols with regard to the detection of rare phenotypes, comprising combinations of resistances. Surveillance data of phenotypic AMR of Canadian poultry Salmonella Heidelberg and swine Salmonella Typhimurium var. 5- were used to contrast active (representative isolates derived from healthy animals) and passive (diagnostic isolates) surveillance and assess their suitability for detecting emerging resistance patterns. Although in both datasets the prevalences of resistance to individual antimicrobials were not significantly different between the two surveillance systems, analysis of the diversity of entire resistance phenotypes demonstrated that passive surveillance of diagnostic isolates detected more unique phenotypes. Whilst the most appropriate surveillance method will depend on the relevant objectives, under the conditions of this study, passive surveillance of diagnostic isolates was more effective for the detection of rare and therefore potentially emerging resistance phenotypes. PMID:27391966

  20. Detection of Rare Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles by Active and Passive Surveillance Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Alison E.; Reeve, Richard; Mellor, Dominic J.; Matthews, Louise; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Haydon, Daniel T.; Reid, Stuart W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance systems are generally not specifically designed to detect emerging resistances and usually focus primarily on resistance to individual drugs. Evaluating the diversity of resistance, using ecological metrics, allows the assessment of sampling protocols with regard to the detection of rare phenotypes, comprising combinations of resistances. Surveillance data of phenotypic AMR of Canadian poultry Salmonella Heidelberg and swine Salmonella Typhimurium var. 5- were used to contrast active (representative isolates derived from healthy animals) and passive (diagnostic isolates) surveillance and assess their suitability for detecting emerging resistance patterns. Although in both datasets the prevalences of resistance to individual antimicrobials were not significantly different between the two surveillance systems, analysis of the diversity of entire resistance phenotypes demonstrated that passive surveillance of diagnostic isolates detected more unique phenotypes. Whilst the most appropriate surveillance method will depend on the relevant objectives, under the conditions of this study, passive surveillance of diagnostic isolates was more effective for the detection of rare and therefore potentially emerging resistance phenotypes. PMID:27391966

  1. Long Term Activity Analysis in Surveillance Video Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ming-yu

    2010-01-01

    Surveillance video recording is becoming ubiquitous in daily life for public areas such as supermarkets, banks, and airports. The rate at which surveillance video is being generated has accelerated demand for machine understanding to enable better content-based search capabilities. Analyzing human activity is one of the key tasks to understand and…

  2. Comparison between active and passive surveillance within the network of epidemiological surveillance of animal diseases in Chad.

    PubMed

    Ouagal, Mahamat; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, Dirk

    2010-11-01

    A comparative study between passive and active surveillance based on herd visits (villages) was conducted over a period of 24 months. It included 106 surveillance stations of the animal disease epidemiological surveillance network in Chad distributed randomly into 52 stations of active surveillance and 54 stations of passive surveillance. Nine diseases of various vaccination and expected prevalence status were monitored. The active surveillance stations carried out four herd visits monthly to look for the diseases under surveillance and organised four farmers awareness-raising meetings to stimulate them to make disease notifications. The passive surveillance stations held each month four farmer awareness-raising meetings. The suspicions recorded by the stations were consigned to a suspicion form specific to each disease, indicating whether a call from the farmer, a visit to the herd or a awareness-raising meeting was the source. The results showed that, irrespective of surveillance type, all diseases under surveillance, except the rare diseases (Rinderpest and Rift Valley Fever) were reported by the surveillance agents. However, suspicions recorded following farmer calls are significantly more important than suspicions carried out during herd visits or meetings. Nevertheless, a considerable number of suspicions is recorded during awareness-raising meetings. Finally approximately 83% of the herd visits realised by the active surveillance stations showed negative results (no suspicion identified). Passive surveillance stimulated by awareness-raising meetings appears to be better adapted to Chads conditions and less expensive for the surveillance of existing diseases. However, for the rare diseases, other methods of specific active surveillance (such as for example sentinel herds) remain important to complete passive surveillance.

  3. Prostate Active Surveillance Study — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Primary Objective: To discover and confirm biomarkers that predict aggressive disease as defined by pre-specified histological, PSA, clinical criteria, or outcomes based on these variables. Secondary Objectives: To determine the proportion of patients on active surveillance who progress based on the above criteria. To determine the clinical predictors of disease progression. To measure the recurrence-free, disease-specific, and overall survival of men on active surveillance for clinically localized prostate cancer.

  4. [Protocol and quality control for Chinese food and nutrition surveillance system in 1998 (1998 CFNSS)].

    PubMed

    He, W

    2000-09-01

    Establishment of Chinese Food and Nutrition Surveillance System is of great importance in providing information on food consumption behavior and nutrition status of the people which is essential for health, economic planning and agriculture development. Sampling of CFNSS is based on the 145 sites Disease Surveillance Point (DSP) System built by Ministry of Health, and in conjunction with the 600 sites Household Social Economic Survey System founded by State Statistics Bureau. According to indicator system developed by the Ministry of Health for stratification, strata of urban, general rural and less-developed rural were defined and 40 sites were randomly sampled as national sample. The CFNSS sample was the common sub-sample of DSP system and the SSB Household Survey System that makes sharing of information resources possible. The 40 sites are distributed in 26 Provinces/Municipalities/Autonomous Regions. All the sites information was collected on body weight and height of children under 6 years of age, and questionnaire covering the basic family information, feeding practice and disease, health conditions of the households were surveyed by interviews. Whole year food consumption data collected at the sampled households by SSB Urban Household Survey Team and Rural Household Survey Team in the previous year was provided. Comprehensive data analysis was done to formulate the information on the relationship of food, nutrition and health. The protocol, methodologies and principles for the survey are described. 5 sites of CFNSS were selected for quality evaluation on the anthropometric measurement and questionnaire interview. The body weight and length of 20 children of 3-5 years of age in each of 5 sites was measured again. The result showed that the completeness of questionnaires interview was 96%, the rate of logic error was zero. There was no significant difference between the results measured by supervisor and investigator and no significant error on repeated

  5. How integrating 3D LiDAR data in the dike surveillance protocol: The French case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretar, F.; Mériaux, P.; Fauchard, C.

    2012-04-01

    The recent and dramatic floods of the last years in Europe (e.g. Rhône river major flood, December 2003, Windstorm Xynthia, February 2010, in France) and in the United-States (Hurricane Katrina, August 2005) showed the vulnerability of flood or coastal defence systems. The first key point for avoiding these dramatic damages and the high cost of a failure and its consequences lies in the appropriate conception and construction of the dikes, but above all in the relevance of the surveillance protocol. Many factors introduce weaknesses in the fluvial or maritime dikes. Most of them are old embankment structures. For instance, some of the French Loire River dikes were built several centuries ago. They may have been rebuilt, modified, heightened several times, with some materials that do not necessarily match the original conception of the structure. In other respects, tree roots or animal burrows could modify the structure of the dike and reduce the watertightness or mechanical properties. The French government has built a national database, "BarDigues", since 1999 to inventory and characterize dikes. Today, there are approx. 9000 km of dikes protecting 1.5 to 2 millions of people. In the meantime, a GIS application, called « Dike SIRS » [Maurel P., 2004] , provides an operational and accurate tool to several great stakeholders in charge of managing more than 100 km of dikes. Today, the dike surveillance and diagnosis protocol consists in identifying the weaknesses of the structure and providing the degree of safety by making a preliminary study (historical research, geological and morphodynamic study, topography), geophysical study (e.g. electromagnetic methods and electrical resistivity tomography) and at last geotechnical study (e.g. drillings and stability modelling) at the very local scale when necessary [Mériaux P. & Royet P, 2007] . Considering the stretch of hundreds of kilometres, rapid, cost-effective and reliable techniques for surveying the dike must be

  6. A comparison of active adverse event surveillance systems worldwide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Lin; Moon, Jinhee; Segal, Jodi B

    2014-08-01

    Post-marketing drug surveillance for adverse drug events (ADEs) has typically relied on spontaneous reporting. Recently, regulatory agencies have turned their attention to more preemptive approaches that use existing data for surveillance. We conducted an environmental scan to identify active surveillance systems worldwide that use existing data for the detection of ADEs. We extracted data about the systems' structures, data, and functions. We synthesized the information across systems to identify common features of these systems. We identified nine active surveillance systems. Two systems are US based-the FDA Sentinel Initiative (including both the Mini-Sentinel Initiative and the Federal Partner Collaboration) and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD); two are Canadian-the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies (CNODES) and the Vaccine and Immunization Surveillance in Ontario (VISION); and two are European-the Exploring and Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions by Integrative Mining of Clinical Records and Biomedical Knowledge (EU-ADR) Alliance and the Vaccine Adverse Event Surveillance and Communication (VAESCO). Additionally, there is the Asian Pharmacoepidemiology Network (AsPEN) and the Shanghai Drug Monitoring and Evaluative System (SDMES). We identified two systems in the UK-the Vigilance and Risk Management of Medicines (VRMM) Division and the Drug Safety Research Unit (DSRU), an independent academic unit. These surveillance systems mostly use administrative claims or electronic medical records; most conduct pharmacovigilance on behalf of a regulatory agency. Either a common data model or a centralized model is used to access existing data. The systems have been built using national data alone or via partnership with other countries. However, active surveillance systems using existing data remain rare. North America and Europe have the most population coverage; with Asian countries making good advances. PMID:25022829

  7. [Epidemiology of caring problems and drug surveillance in the elderly: a cooperative development of research protocol].

    PubMed

    Saiani, Luisa

    2004-01-01

    Nurses care for elderly patients at home and in nursing homes but there is lack of data on the caring problems encountered, their causes and the solutions adopted. The aim of the study is to produce the epidemiology of such problems and, at the same time, focus nurses' attention on their causes and avoidability. The process of definition of caring problems (the focus of the study) and the discussion that brought to the draft protocol are described. The final protocol (presented with the data collection forms) is articulated in two phases: a prevalence survey through a random sampling of points estimates in index days over 6 months; a prospective registry over the same period of time of all causes perceived as clinically relevant by the nursing personnel, who will document the suspected risk factors and causes (including specifically drug therapy), and the interventions and measures which are activated.

  8. Low-cost active optical system for fire surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utkin, A. B.; Lavrov, A. V.; Vilar, R. M.

    2009-06-01

    Detection of smoke plumes using active optical sensors provides many advantages with respect to passive methods of fire surveillance. However, the price of these sensors is often too high as compared to passive fire detection instruments, such as infrared and video cameras. This article describes robust and cost effective diode-laser optical sensor for automatic fire surveillance in industrial environment. Physical aspects of the sensing process allowing to simplify the hardware and software design, eventually leading to significant reduction of manufacturing and maintenance costs, are discussed.

  9. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  10. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinlei; Yang, Bo; Huang, Jing; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan; Du, Zhanwei

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  11. Prostate cancer and the increasing role of active surveillance.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, David Gabriel; Mure, Amanda Lynne; Soloway, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most often diagnosed non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among men in the United States. As a result, for many years the American Urological Association (AUA) and the American Cancer Society have issued statements recommending screening for PC, resulting in its widespread implementation in the United States. Recently, the United States Preventative Services Task Force gave PC screening a recommendation of D, that is, against PC screening for all men. The AUA countered this recommendation, stating that since the development of PC screening using prostate-specific antigen, a reduction in PC-specific mortality has been seen, and that the risk reduction occurred in a setting in which many of the patients were not aggressively treated for prostate cancer. Active surveillance may be described as a method to potentially delay or obviate the need for treatment in men with clinically insignificant PC or PC thought to be at low risk for progression. Studies have shown no significant difference in outcome or pathology between men with low risk PC who receive treatment at the point of progression and those undergoing immediate treatment. Ongoing studies are evaluating the efficacy and utility of active surveillance for low-risk PC. Interim results of these studies have shown that approximately 30% of patients progress on active surveillance. However, "progression" does not necessarily mean treatment failure; rarely do patients develop locally advanced or metastatic disease. Active surveillance has also been shown to be cost-effective when compared with immediate treatment for PC. Longer follow-up may continue to show an increased benefit of active surveillance as a reasonable initial approach to the management of men with low-risk, clinically localized PC.

  12. LOW RISK PROSTATE CANCER: ACTIVE TREATMENT OR ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE?

    PubMed

    Tomašković, Igor

    2015-09-01

    The widely used screening for prostate cancer with prostate specific antigen has resulted in identification of potentially lethal prostate cancers at a much more curable stage and has been associated with significant falls in prostate cancer mortality. In spite of the fact that prostate cancer is one of the deadliest malignancies in men, the advent of sensitive diagnostic testing has also resulted in detection of low risk cancers due to the high incidence of latent prostate cancer in aging men and prolonged natural history of the disease. This, in turn, has entailed the problem of cancer overdiagnosis and subsequent overtreatment. Approximately 6 times as many men will be diagnosed with the disease as will die from it. Active surveillance appeared as a response to the clearly documented risks of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of low risk prostate cancer for localized prostate cancer. It entails initial expectant management rather than immediate therapy, with 'curative-intent' treatment deferred until there is evidence that the patient is at an increased risk of disease progression. This approach attempts to balance the risks and side effects of overtreatment against the possibility of disease progression and lost opportunity for cure. A systematic literature review brings current knowledge on the subject.

  13. A Detailed Protocol to Enable Safe-Handling, Preemptive Detection, and Systematic Surveillance of Rat-Vectored Pathogens in the Urban Environment.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Michael H; Sarno, Ronald J; Deutsch, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    We detail a five-stage protocol to address physical barriers and experimental limitations that have hindered routine pathogen monitoring of wild rats in urban settings. New York City potentially harbors from 2 to 32 million rats among its 8-million people. However, at a time, when people are most vulnerable to disease from over-crowdedness brought on by increased urbanization of society, the difficulty of studying wild rats has led to a paucity of ecological and epidemiological research. Challenges of safely handling animals and the difficulties of identifying individual animals and the emergence of their respective pathogen loads (timing of infection) have impeded progress. We previously reported a method using radio frequency identification paired with load cell and camera traps to enable the identification of individual animals and subsequent monitoring of the animals' weights (an indicator of health). However, efficient pathogen surveillance requires repeated captures of the same individual in order to isolate and document the emergence of new pathogens, or variations in pathogen load, over time. Most of these barriers are now addressed in our protocol, which is aided by the use of a mobile, outdoor laboratory, followed by incorporation of pheromone-based lures to attract individuals back to active sensors, within a camera trap. This approach allows for the assessment of individual animal health, behaviors under camera, and changing pathogen loads and weights in most urban environments (e.g., financial district, docks, sewers, and residential). Five phases are described and presented: (1) site selection and urban trapping, (2) anesthetization, (3) serological and ectoparasite collection, (4) microchip implantation, and (5) retrapping and luring animals back to active remote sensors. In order to fulfill the unmet call for preemptive pathogen surveillance, public health officials and researchers may wish to adapt, or modify, similar protocols to ensure early

  14. A Detailed Protocol to Enable Safe-Handling, Preemptive Detection, and Systematic Surveillance of Rat-Vectored Pathogens in the Urban Environment

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Michael H.; Sarno, Ronald J.; Deutsch, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    We detail a five-stage protocol to address physical barriers and experimental limitations that have hindered routine pathogen monitoring of wild rats in urban settings. New York City potentially harbors from 2 to 32 million rats among its 8-million people. However, at a time, when people are most vulnerable to disease from over-crowdedness brought on by increased urbanization of society, the difficulty of studying wild rats has led to a paucity of ecological and epidemiological research. Challenges of safely handling animals and the difficulties of identifying individual animals and the emergence of their respective pathogen loads (timing of infection) have impeded progress. We previously reported a method using radio frequency identification paired with load cell and camera traps to enable the identification of individual animals and subsequent monitoring of the animals’ weights (an indicator of health). However, efficient pathogen surveillance requires repeated captures of the same individual in order to isolate and document the emergence of new pathogens, or variations in pathogen load, over time. Most of these barriers are now addressed in our protocol, which is aided by the use of a mobile, outdoor laboratory, followed by incorporation of pheromone-based lures to attract individuals back to active sensors, within a camera trap. This approach allows for the assessment of individual animal health, behaviors under camera, and changing pathogen loads and weights in most urban environments (e.g., financial district, docks, sewers, and residential). Five phases are described and presented: (1) site selection and urban trapping, (2) anesthetization, (3) serological and ectoparasite collection, (4) microchip implantation, and (5) retrapping and luring animals back to active remote sensors. In order to fulfill the unmet call for preemptive pathogen surveillance, public health officials and researchers may wish to adapt, or modify, similar protocols to ensure early

  15. A Detailed Protocol to Enable Safe-Handling, Preemptive Detection, and Systematic Surveillance of Rat-Vectored Pathogens in the Urban Environment.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Michael H; Sarno, Ronald J; Deutsch, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    We detail a five-stage protocol to address physical barriers and experimental limitations that have hindered routine pathogen monitoring of wild rats in urban settings. New York City potentially harbors from 2 to 32 million rats among its 8-million people. However, at a time, when people are most vulnerable to disease from over-crowdedness brought on by increased urbanization of society, the difficulty of studying wild rats has led to a paucity of ecological and epidemiological research. Challenges of safely handling animals and the difficulties of identifying individual animals and the emergence of their respective pathogen loads (timing of infection) have impeded progress. We previously reported a method using radio frequency identification paired with load cell and camera traps to enable the identification of individual animals and subsequent monitoring of the animals' weights (an indicator of health). However, efficient pathogen surveillance requires repeated captures of the same individual in order to isolate and document the emergence of new pathogens, or variations in pathogen load, over time. Most of these barriers are now addressed in our protocol, which is aided by the use of a mobile, outdoor laboratory, followed by incorporation of pheromone-based lures to attract individuals back to active sensors, within a camera trap. This approach allows for the assessment of individual animal health, behaviors under camera, and changing pathogen loads and weights in most urban environments (e.g., financial district, docks, sewers, and residential). Five phases are described and presented: (1) site selection and urban trapping, (2) anesthetization, (3) serological and ectoparasite collection, (4) microchip implantation, and (5) retrapping and luring animals back to active remote sensors. In order to fulfill the unmet call for preemptive pathogen surveillance, public health officials and researchers may wish to adapt, or modify, similar protocols to ensure early

  16. An active vision system for multitarget surveillance in dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Bakhtari, Ardevan; Benhabib, Beno

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a novel agent-based method for the dynamic coordinated selection and positioning of active-vision cameras for the simultaneous surveillance of multiple objects-of-interest as they travel through a cluttered environment with a-priori unknown trajectories. The proposed system dynamically adjusts not only the orientation but also the position of the cameras in order to maximize the system's performance by avoiding occlusions and acquiring images with preferred viewing angles. Sensor selection and positioning are accomplished through an agent-based approach. The proposed sensing-system reconfiguration strategy has been verified via simulations and implemented on an experimental prototype setup for automated facial recognition. Both simulations and experimental analyses have shown that the use of dynamic sensors along with an effective online dispatching strategy may tangibly improve the surveillance performance of a sensing system.

  17. Online Nonparametric Bayesian Activity Mining and Analysis From Surveillance Video.

    PubMed

    Bastani, Vahid; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo S

    2016-05-01

    A method for online incremental mining of activity patterns from the surveillance video stream is presented in this paper. The framework consists of a learning block in which Dirichlet process mixture model is employed for the incremental clustering of trajectories. Stochastic trajectory pattern models are formed using the Gaussian process regression of the corresponding flow functions. Moreover, a sequential Monte Carlo method based on Rao-Blackwellized particle filter is proposed for tracking and online classification as well as the detection of abnormality during the observation of an object. Experimental results on real surveillance video data are provided to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in different tasks of trajectory clustering, classification, and abnormality detection. PMID:26978823

  18. Applying precision medicine to the active surveillance of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reichard, Chad A.; Stephenson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The recent introduction of a variety of molecular tests will potentially reshape the care of patients with prostate cancer. These tests may make more accurate management decisions possible for those patients who have been “overdiagnosed” with biologically indolent disease, which represents an exceptionally small mortality risk. There is a wide range of possible applications of these tests to different clinical scenarios in patient populations managed with active surveillance. Cancer 2015;121:3435–43. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26149066

  19. Active surveillance of prostate cancer in African American men.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Jonathan L; Feibus, Allison H; Maddox, Michael M; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Moparty, Krishnarao; Thomas, Raju; Sartor, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment strategy for prostate cancer (PCa) whereby patients diagnosed with PCa undergo ongoing characterization of their disease with the intent of avoiding radical treatment. Previously, AS has been demonstrated to be a reasonable option for men with low-risk PCa, but existing cohorts largely consist of Caucasian Americans. Because African Americans have a greater incidence, more aggressive, and potentially more lethal PCa than Caucasian Americans, it is unclear if AS is appropriate for African Americans. We performed a review of the available literature on AS with a focus on African Americans.

  20. Childhood hearing surveillance activity in Italy: preliminary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Orzan, E; Ruta, F; Bolzonello, P; Marchi, R; Ceschin, F; Ciciriello, E

    2016-02-01

    Following the positive outcomes of the newborn hearing screening programmes already underway in several Italian regions, it is now necessary to address the identification of childhood hearing impairments that missed the neonatal screening programme or have delayed onset. Within the framework of the Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", a group of professionals identified three main recommendations that can be useful to improve hearing surveillance activity within the regional and state Italian Health System. The family paediatrician is recognised as having a key role in ongoing monitoring of hearing capacity and development of the growing child.

  1. Active surveillance for prostate cancer: a legal perspective.

    PubMed

    Venderbos, Lionne Df; Roobol, Monique J; de Hoogh, August Nl

    2014-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer (PCa) has become a viable management strategy for men with low-risk PCa. With AS being offered more often and more patients being included in AS studies, the aim of this paper is to describe AS from a legal perspective. What might be pitfalls in the management strategy that urologists should be aware of? In order to construct an answer to our research question, a patient from the Prostate cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS) study will be used as an example. In the methods section, first some information on the PRIAS study is given. Then a PRIAS case will be described after which the Dutch legal framework will be set-out. Finally, the Dutch legal framework will be applied to the PRIAS case to find what would happen if that particular patient would file a complaint. On the basis of the analysis we can conclude that urologists that offer AS should be aware of the information that they provide to patients when entering AS but also during follow-up. It is furthermore important that urologists act in line with their medical professional standards. Therefore it is advised that urologists follow the progress that is made within the field of AS carefully, as the field is moving rapidly. PMID:25606578

  2. Active surveillance for prostate cancer: a legal perspective

    PubMed Central

    Venderbos, Lionne DF; Roobol, Monique J; de Hoogh, August NL

    2014-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer (PCa) has become a viable management strategy for men with low-risk PCa. With AS being offered more often and more patients being included in AS studies, the aim of this paper is to describe AS from a legal perspective. What might be pitfalls in the management strategy that urologists should be aware of? In order to construct an answer to our research question, a patient from the Prostate cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS) study will be used as an example. In the methods section, first some information on the PRIAS study is given. Then a PRIAS case will be described after which the Dutch legal framework will be set-out. Finally, the Dutch legal framework will be applied to the PRIAS case to find what would happen if that particular patient would file a complaint. On the basis of the analysis we can conclude that urologists that offer AS should be aware of the information that they provide to patients when entering AS but also during follow-up. It is furthermore important that urologists act in line with their medical professional standards. Therefore it is advised that urologists follow the progress that is made within the field of AS carefully, as the field is moving rapidly. PMID:25606578

  3. A National Surveillance Survey on Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors: Suriname Health Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Christel CF; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Hofman, Albert; Toelsie, Jerry R

    2015-01-01

    Background Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, the surveillance of risk factors has become an issue of major importance for planning and implementation of preventive measures. Unfortunately, in these countries data on NCDs and their risk factors are limited. This also prevails in Suriname, a middle-income country of the Caribbean, with a multiethnic/multicultural population living in diverse residential areas. For these reasons, “The Suriname Health Study” was designed. Objective The main objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of NCD risk factors, including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and diabetes in Suriname. Differences between specific age groups, sexes, ethnic groups, and geographical areas will be emphasized. In addition, risk groups will be identified and targeted actions will be designed and evaluated. Methods In this study, several methodologies were combined. A stratified multistage cluster sample was used to select the participants of 6 ethnic groups (Hindustani, Creole, Javanese, Maroon, Chinese, Amerindians, and mixed) divided into 5 age groups (between 15 and 65 years) who live in urban/rural areas or the hinterland. A standardized World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance questionnaire was adapted and used to obtain information about demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and risk factors. Physical examinations were performed to measure blood pressure, height, weight, and waist circumference. Biochemical analysis of collected blood samples evaluated the levels of glucose, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Statistical analysis will be used to identify the burden of modifiable and unmodifiable risk factors in the aforementioned subgroups. Subsequently, tailor-made interventions will be prepared and their effects will be evaluated. Results The data as collected allow for national inference and

  4. Active epidemiological surveillance of musculoskeletal disorders in a shoe factory

    PubMed Central

    Roquelaure, Y; Mariel, J; Fanello, S; Boissiere, J; Chiron, H; Dano, C; Bureau, D; Penneau-Fontbonne, D

    2002-01-01

    Aims: (1) To evaluate an active method of surveillance of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). (2) To compare different criteria for deciding whether or not a work situation could be considered at high risk of MSDs in a large, modern shoe factory. Methods: A total of 253 blue collar workers were interviewed and examined by the same physician in 1996; 191 of them were re-examined in 1997. Risk factors of MSDs were assessed for each worker by standardised job site work analysis. Prevalence and incidence rates of carpal tunnel syndrome, rotator cuff syndrome, and tension neck syndrome were calculated for each of the nine main types of work situation. Different criteria used to assess situations with high risk of MSDs were compared. Results: On the basis of prevalence data, three types of work situation were detected to be at high risk of MSDs: cutting, sewing, and assembly preparation. The three types of work situations identified on the basis of incidence data (sewing preparation, mechanised assembling, and finishing) were different from those identified by prevalence data. At least one recognised risk factor for MSDs was identified for all groups of work situations. The ergonomic risk could be considered as serious for the four types of work situation having the highest ergonomic scores (sewing, assembly preparation, pasting, and cutting). Conclusion: The results of the health surveillance method depend largely on the definition of the criteria used to define the risk of MSDs. The criteria based on incidence data are more valid than those based on prevalence data. Health and risk factor surveillance must be combined to predict the risk of MSDs in the company. However, exposure assessment plays a greater role in determining the priorities for ergonomic intervention. PMID:12107293

  5. Role of serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in prostate cancer active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Larissa J; Janoski, Michele; Wachowicz, Keith; Yahya, Atiyah; Boychak, Oleksandr; Amanie, John; Pervez, Nadeem; Parliament, Matthew B; Pituskin, Edith; Fallone, B Gino; Usmani, Nawaid

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether addition of 3T multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to an active surveillance protocol could detect aggressive or progressive prostate cancer. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with low risk disease were enrolled on this active surveillance study, all of which had Gleason score 6 or less disease. All patients had clinical assessments, including digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, every 6 mo with annual 3T mpMRI scans with gadolinium contrast and minimum sextant prostate biopsies. The MRI images were anonymized of patient identifiers and clinical information and each scan underwent radiological review without the other results known. Descriptive statistics for demographics and follow-up as well as the sensitivity and specificity of mpMRI to identify prostate cancer and progressive disease were calculated. RESULTS: During follow-up (median 24.8 mo) 11 of 23 patients with low-risk prostate cancer had disease progression and were taken off study to receive definitive treatment. Disease progression was identified through upstaging of Gleason score on subsequent biopsies for all 11 patients with only 2 patients also having a PSA doubling time of less than 2 years. All 23 patients had biopsy confirmed prostate cancer but only 10 had a positive index of suspicion on mpMRI scans at baseline (43.5% sensitivity). Aggressive disease prediction from baseline mpMRI scans had satisfactory specificity (81.8%) but low sensitivity (58.3%). Twenty-two patients had serial mpMRI scans and evidence of disease progression was seen for 3 patients all of whom had upstaging of Gleason score on biopsy (30% specificity and 100% sensitivity). CONCLUSION: Addition of mpMRI imaging in active surveillance decision making may help in identifying aggressive disease amongst men with indolent prostate cancer earlier than traditional methods. PMID:27158428

  6. Community paediatric respiratory infection surveillance study protocol: a feasibility, prospective inception cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emma C; Ingle, Suzanne Marie; Muir, Peter; Beck, Charles; Finn, Adam; Leeming, John Peter; Cabral, Christie; Kesten, Joanna May; Hay, Alastair D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common reasons for primary care consultations and antibiotic prescribing. Locally relevant syndromic and microbiological surveillance information has the potential to improve the care of children with RTIs by normalising illness (parents) and reducing uncertainty (clinicians). Currently, most RTI studies are conducted at the point of healthcare service consultation, leaving the community burden, microbiology, symptom duration and proportion consulting largely unknown. This study seeks to establish the feasibility of (mainly online) participant recruitment and retention, and the acceptability/comparability of parent versus nurse-collected microbiological sampling, to inform the design of a future surveillance intervention study. Evidence regarding consultation rates and symptom duration is also sought. Methods and analysis A community-based, feasibility prospective inception cohort study, recruiting children aged ≥3 months and <16 years and their parents via general practitioner surgery invitation letter, aiming to collect data on 300 incident RTIs by July 2016. Following informed consent, parents provide baseline (demographic) data online, and respond to weekly emails to confirm the absence/presence of new RTI symptoms. Once symptomatic, parents provide daily data online (RTI symptoms, school/day-care attendance, time off work, health service use, medication), and a research nurse visits to collect clinical examination data and microbiological (nasal and saliva) swabs. Parents are invited to provide symptomatic (at nurse visit, but without nurse assistance) and asymptomatic (alone) swabs on recovery. A review of primary care medical notes will gather medical history, health service utilisation, referral and antibiotic prescribing rates. Feasibility will be assessed using recruitment and retention rates, data completeness; and acceptability by quantitative survey and qualitative interviews

  7. Confirmatory biopsy for the assessment of prostate cancer in men considering active surveillance: reference centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Cecilia; Cozzi, Gabriele; Kinsella, Janette; Bianchi, Roberto; Acher, Peter; Challacombe, Benjamin; Popert, Rick; Brown, Christian; George, Gincy; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Cahill, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate how accurate a 12-core transrectal biopsy derived low-risk prostate cancer diagnosis is for an active surveillance programme by comparing the histological outcome with that from confirmatory transperineal sector biopsy. Subjects and methods The cohort included 166 men diagnosed with low volume Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer on initial transrectal biopsy who also underwent a confirmatory biopsy. Both biopsy techniques were performed according to standard protocols and samples were taken for histopathology analysis. Subgroup analysis was performed according to disease severity at baseline to determine possible disease parameters of upgrading at confirmatory biopsy. Results After confirmatory biopsy, 34% demonstrated Gleason score upgrade, out of which 25% were Gleason score 3+4 and 8.5% primary Gleason pattern 4. Results remained consistent for the subgroup analysis and a weak positive association, but not statistically significant, between prostate specific antigen (PSA), age, and percentage of positive cores, and PCa upgrading at confirmatory biopsy was found. Conclusion In our single centre study, we found that one-third of patients had higher Gleason score at confirmatory biopsy. Furthermore 8.5% of these upgraders had a primary Gleason pattern 4. Our results together with previously published evidence highlight the need for the revision of current guidelines in prostate cancer diagnosis for the selection of men for active surveillance. PMID:27170833

  8. Active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Laurence

    2015-04-01

    There is ample evidence that low risk and many cases of low-/intermediate-risk prostate cancer, are indolent, have little or no metastatic potential, and do not pose a threat to the patient in his lifetime. Major strides have been made in understanding who these patients are and in encouraging the use of conservative management in such individuals. A component of conservative management is the early identification of those 'low-risk' patients who harbour higher risk disease, and benefit from definitive therapy. This represents about 30% of newly diagnosed low-risk patients. A further small proportion of patients with low-risk disease demonstrate biological progression to higher grade disease. Men with lower risk disease can defer treatment, in most cases for life. Men with higher risk disease that can be localized to a relatively small volume of the prostate can undergo selective therapy. The results of active surveillance, embodying conservative management with selective delayed intervention for the subset who are re-classified as higher risk overtime based on repeat biopsy, imaging or biomarker results have shown that this approach is safe in the intermediate to long term, with a 3% cancer specific mortality at 10-15 years. Further refinement of the surveillance approach is ongoing, incorporating MRI, targeted biopsies and molecular biomarkers.

  9. [Protocol for sampling of Chinese food and nutrition surveillance system (CFNSS)].

    PubMed

    Fu, Z; He, W; Rao, K

    2000-09-01

    Based on the 145-site Disease Surveillance Point System (DSP) of the Ministry of Health in conjunction with 600-site Urban/Rural Household Socio-economic Survey System of State Statistic Bureau carried out by the Urban Household Socio-Economic Survey Team and Rural Household Socio-Economic Survey Team. Three strata including urban, general rural and less-developed rural were defined. Sample size of 16,000 children was designed according to the estimate of 5% underweight prevalence of children under 6 years of age. 40 sites were sampled by stratified random sampling, involving 14 urban sites, 17 general rural sites and 9 poor rural sites in 26 provinces. The total population of the 40 sites is 20.678 million, which is 1.7% of whole population of the country. 400 children under 6 years of age were sampled by Multi-stage Cluster Sampling at each site. The consistency of age distribution of children between the sample and the National Population Census data in 1990 by Goodness of Fit Test indicated the representativeness of the sample is reliable.

  10. Insights and clinical questions about the active surveillance of low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinomas [Review].

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Oda, Hitomi; Miyauchi, Akira

    2016-04-25

    Over 20 years ago, two Japanese institutions initiated an active surveillance policy for papillary microcarcinomas (PMCs) without high-risk features (such as clinical lymph node and distant metastases) and suspected trachea or recurrent laryngeal nerve invasion. Since the most recent American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines adopt active surveillance as a therapy option for low-risk PMCs, the number of institutions worldwide carrying out this policy can be expected to increase. However, before adopting an active surveillance strategy, some important clinical questions must be considered. In this review, conceivable clinical questions with our answers based on the present accumulation of low-risk PMC surveillance data are presented. PMID:26632168

  11. Childhood hearing surveillance activity in Italy: preliminary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Orzan, E; Ruta, F; Bolzonello, P; Marchi, R; Ceschin, F; Ciciriello, E

    2016-02-01

    Following the positive outcomes of the newborn hearing screening programmes already underway in several Italian regions, it is now necessary to address the identification of childhood hearing impairments that missed the neonatal screening programme or have delayed onset. Within the framework of the Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", a group of professionals identified three main recommendations that can be useful to improve hearing surveillance activity within the regional and state Italian Health System. The family paediatrician is recognised as having a key role in ongoing monitoring of hearing capacity and development of the growing child. PMID:27054386

  12. Active surveillance for prostate cancer: current evidence and contemporary state of practice.

    PubMed

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Carter, H Ballentine; Lepor, Abbey; Loeb, Stacy

    2016-04-01

    Prostate cancer remains one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide. Early diagnosis and curative treatment seem to improve survival in men with unfavourable-risk cancers, but significant concerns exist regarding the overdiagnosis and overtreatment of men with lower-risk cancers. To this end, active surveillance (AS) has emerged as a primary management strategy in men with favourable-risk disease, and contemporary data suggest that use of AS has increased worldwide. Although published surveillance cohorts differ by protocol, reported rates of metastatic disease and prostate-cancer-specific mortality are exceedingly low in the intermediate term (5-10 years). Such outcomes seem to be closely associated with programme-specific criteria for selection, monitoring, and intervention, suggesting that AS--like other management strategies--could be individualized based on the level of risk acceptable to patients in light of their personal preferences. Additional data are needed to better establish the risks associated with AS and to identify patient-specific characteristics that could modify prognosis. PMID:26954332

  13. Active surveillance for prostate cancer: current evidence and contemporary state of practice.

    PubMed

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Carter, H Ballentine; Lepor, Abbey; Loeb, Stacy

    2016-04-01

    Prostate cancer remains one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide. Early diagnosis and curative treatment seem to improve survival in men with unfavourable-risk cancers, but significant concerns exist regarding the overdiagnosis and overtreatment of men with lower-risk cancers. To this end, active surveillance (AS) has emerged as a primary management strategy in men with favourable-risk disease, and contemporary data suggest that use of AS has increased worldwide. Although published surveillance cohorts differ by protocol, reported rates of metastatic disease and prostate-cancer-specific mortality are exceedingly low in the intermediate term (5-10 years). Such outcomes seem to be closely associated with programme-specific criteria for selection, monitoring, and intervention, suggesting that AS--like other management strategies--could be individualized based on the level of risk acceptable to patients in light of their personal preferences. Additional data are needed to better establish the risks associated with AS and to identify patient-specific characteristics that could modify prognosis.

  14. Active surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome in Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed Central

    Thant, Kyaw-Zin; Oo, Win-Mar; Myint, Thein-Thein; Shwe, Than-Nu; Han, Aye-Maung; Aye, Khin-Mar; Aye, Kay-Thi; Moe, Kyaw; Thein, Soe; Robertson, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Rubella vaccine is not included in the immunization schedule in Myanmar. Although surveillance for outbreaks of measles and rubella is conducted nationwide, there is no routine surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Therefore, we organized a study to assess the burden of CRS. METHODS: From 1 December 2000 to 31 December 2002 active surveillance for CRS was conducted among children aged 0-17 months at 13 hospitals and 2 private clinics in Yangon, the capital city. Children with suspected CRS had a standard examination and a blood sample was obtained. All serum samples were tested for rubella-specific IgM; selected samples were tested for rubella-specific IgG and for rubella RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). FINDINGS: A total of 81 children aged 0-17 months were suspected of having CRS. Of these, 18 children had laboratory-confirmed CRS (7 were IgM positive; 7 were RT-PCR positive; and 10 were IgG positive at > 6 months of age). One additional child who tested positive by RT-PCR and whose mother had had rubella during pregnancy but who had a normal clinical examination was classified as having congenital rubella infection. During 2001-02 no rubella outbreaks were detected in Yangon Division. In the 31 urban townships of Yangon Division, the annual incidence was 0.1 laboratory-confirmed cases of CRS per 1000 live births. CONCLUSION: This is the first population-based study of CRS incidence from a developing country during a rubella-endemic period; the incidence of CRS is similar to endemic rates found in industrialized countries during the pre-vaccine era. Rubella-specific IgG tests proved practical for diagnosing CRS in children aged > 6 months. This is one of the first studies to report on the use of rubella-specific RT-PCR directly on serum samples; further studies are warranted to confirm the utility of this method as an additional means of diagnosing CRS. PMID:16501710

  15. Surveillance of rabies prevalence and bite protocols in captive mammals in American zoos.

    PubMed

    Zelepsky, Jacqueline; Harrison, Tara M

    2010-09-01

    A national survey questionnaire was conducted in 32 zoos throughout 17 U.S. states between February and May 2008. The questionnaire consisted of six questions that evaluated rabies prevalence on zoo grounds; captive mammalian bites among zoo visitors and personnel; and the outcome of each incident. The survey was completed by zoo staff after review of their most recent bite incident reports. Rabies was documented, albeit minimally, on zoo grounds in both wild and collection animals. The information collected documented that mammalian bites occur commonly. An average of 9.1 bite incidents per zoo involving zoo visitors were reported in the last 5 yr, compared to an average of 7.5 bite incidents per zoo involving personnel within the last 5 yr. Zoo personnel had a larger variety of mammals inflicting bites of greater injury severity, with an average rating 3.83 out of 5. While victim profile and severity of the wound differed between visitor and personnel bites, the majority of bites were not reported to the local health department. Lack of reporting may be due to low rabies risk, fear of media involvement, and an unknown conclusion for the offending animal. Animals involved in reported attacks had an average quarantine of 47.5 days when the bite involved a zoo visitor versus an average quarantine of 18 days when the bite involved personnel. These results demonstrate the need for a standardized protocol following a bite incident, including cooperation with the local health department, as necessary.

  16. Designing normative messages about active surveillance for men with localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Robert J.; Kinsman, Gianna T.; Le, Yen-Chi L.; Swank, Paul; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McFall, Stephanie L.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Cantor, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is increasingly recognized as a reasonable option for men with low-risk, localized prostate cancer, yet few men who might benefit from conservative management receive it. We examined the acceptability of normative messages about AS as a management option for patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Men with a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer who were recruited through prostate cancer support organizations completed a web-based survey (N=331). They rated messages about AS for believability, accuracy, and importance for men to hear when making treatment decisions. The message “you don’t have to panic…you have time to think about your options” was perceived as believable, accurate, and important by over 80% of the survivors. In contrast, messages about trust in the AS protocol and “knowing in plenty of time” if treatment is needed were rated as accurate by only about 36% of respondents. For AS to be viewed as a reasonable alternative, men will need reassurance that following an AS protocol is likely to allow time for curative treatment if the cancer progresses. PMID:26066011

  17. Active-passive bistatic surveillance for long range air defense

    SciTech Connect

    Wardrop, B.; Molyneux-Berry, M.R.B. )

    1992-06-01

    A hypothetical mobile support receiver capable of working within existing and future air defense networks as a means to maintain essential surveillance functions is considered. It is shown how multibeam receiver architecture supported by digital signal processing can substantially improve surveillance performance against chaff and jamming threats. A dual-mode support receiver concept is proposed which is based on the state-of-the-art phased-array technology, modular processing in industry standard hardware and existing networks. 20 refs.

  18. Active surveillance for avian influenza virus, Egypt, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Ghazi; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; Gomaa, Mokhtar M; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Moatasim, Yassmin; Bagato, Ola; Cai, Zhipeng; Rubrum, Adam; Kutkat, Mohamed A; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A

    2014-04-01

    Continuous circulation of influenza A(H5N1) virus among poultry in Egypt has created an epicenter in which the viruses evolve into newer subclades and continue to cause disease in humans. To detect influenza viruses in Egypt, since 2009 we have actively surveyed various regions and poultry production sectors. From August 2010 through January 2013, >11,000 swab samples were collected; 10% were positive by matrix gene reverse transcription PCR. During this period, subtype H9N2 viruses emerged, cocirculated with subtype H5N1 viruses, and frequently co-infected the same avian host. Genetic and antigenic analyses of viruses revealed that influenza A(H5N1) clade 2.2.1 viruses are dominant and that all subtype H9N2 viruses are G1-like. Cocirculation of different subtypes poses concern for potential reassortment. Avian influenza continues to threaten public and animal health in Egypt, and continuous surveillance for avian influenza virus is needed.

  19. Real-time Prescription Surveillance and its Application to Monitoring Seasonal Influenza Activity in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohkusa, Yasushi; Ibuka, Yoko; Kawanohara, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Background Real-time surveillance is fundamental for effective control of disease outbreaks, but the official sentinel surveillance in Japan collects information related to disease activity only weekly and updates it with a 1-week time lag. Objective To report on a prescription surveillance system using electronic records related to prescription drugs that was started in 2008 in Japan, and to evaluate the surveillance system for monitoring influenza activity during the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 influenza seasons. Methods We developed an automatic surveillance system using electronic records of prescription drug purchases collected from 5275 pharmacies through the application service provider’s medical claims service. We then applied the system to monitoring influenza activity during the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 influenza seasons. The surveillance system collected information related to drugs and patients directly and automatically from the electronic prescription record system, and estimated the number of influenza cases based on the number of prescriptions of anti-influenza virus medication. Then it shared the information related to influenza activity through the Internet with the public on a daily basis. Results During the 2009–2010 influenza season, the number of influenza patients estimated by the prescription surveillance system between the 28th week of 2009 and the 12th week of 2010 was 9,234,289. In the 2010–2011 influenza season, the number of influenza patients between the 36th week of 2010 and the 12th week of 2011 was 7,153,437. The estimated number of influenza cases was highly correlated with that predicted by the official sentinel surveillance (r = .992, P < .001 for 2009–2010; r = .972, P < .001 for 2010–2011), indicating that the prescription surveillance system produced a good approximation of activity patterns. Conclusions Our prescription surveillance system presents great potential for monitoring influenza activity and for

  20. [Results of active surveillance in low and intermediate risk prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Llorente, Carlos; Diaz Goizueta, Francisco Javier; Hernandez, Virginia; de la Morena, Jose Manuel; de la Peña, Enrique

    2014-06-01

    In this article we review the most significant published papers on active surveillance in prostate cancer and present the results of our case series. We used as main response variables the percentage of patients remaining in surveillance and the oncological results presented as global, cancer specific and metastasis free survivals. Globally, in published series 71.2% of patients included in active surveillance programs, 10-year overall survival is 68% in the series with longer follow up, and cancer-specific survival varies from 97% to 100%. In our series of 144 patients with median follow up of 3.2 years, 76.3% of the patients continue on surveillance. 24 patients (15.9%) stopped surveillance due to histological progression. 5 patients (21.3%) out of the 23 undergoing surgery presented unfavorable pathological criteria on prostatectomy specimen. No patient has died or developed metastases.

  1. The Activity of Antimicrobial Surfaces Varies by Testing Protocol Utilized

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Matias D.; Zucchi, Paola C.; Phung, Ann; Leonard, Steven N.; Hirsch, Elizabeth B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Contaminated hospital surfaces are an important source of nosocomial infections. A major obstacle in marketing antimicrobial surfaces is a lack of efficacy data based on standardized testing protocols. Aim We compared the efficacy of multiple testing protocols against several “antimicrobial” film surfaces. Methods Four clinical isolates were used: one Escherichia coli, one Klebsiella pneumoniae, and two Staphylococcus aureus strains. Two industry methods (modified ISO 22196 and ASTM E2149), a “dried droplet”, and a “transfer” method were tested against two commercially available antimicrobial films, one film in development, an untreated control, and a positive (silver) control film. At 2 (only ISO) and 24 hours following inoculation, bacteria were collected from film surfaces and enumerated. Results Compared to untreated films in all protocols, there were no significant differences in recovery on either commercial brand at 2 or 24 hours after inoculation. The silver surface demonstrated significant microbicidal activity (mean loss 4.9 Log10 CFU/ml) in all methods and time points with the exception of 2 hours in the ISO protocol and the transfer method. Using our novel droplet method, no differences between placebo and active surfaces were detected. The surface in development demonstrated variable activity depending on method, organism, and time point. The ISO demonstrated minimal activity at 2 hours but significant activity at 24 hours (mean 4.5 Log10 CFU/ml difference versus placebo). The ASTEM protocol exhibited significant differences in recovery of staphylococci (mean 5 Log10 CFU/ml) but not Gram-negative isolates (10 fold decrease). Minimal activity was observed with this film in the transfer method. Conclusions Varying results between protocols suggested that efficacy of antimicrobial surfaces cannot be easily and reproducibly compared. Clinical use should be considered and further development of representative methods is needed. PMID

  2. Prebreathe Protocol for Extravehicular Activity Technical Consultation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Jerry; Duncan, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In the performance of EVA by that National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronauts, there exists a risk of DCS as the suit pressure is reduced to 4.3 pounds per square inch, absolute (psia) from the International Space Station (ISS) pressure of 14.7 psia. Several DCS-preventive procedures have been developed and implemented. Each of these procedures involve the use of oxygen (O2) prebreathe to effectively washout tissue nitrogen (N2).The management of the ISS Programs convened an expert independent peer review Team to conduct a review of the Decompression Sickness (DCS) risks associated with the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Campout Prebreathe (PB) protocol for its consideration for use on future missions. The major findings and recommendations of the expert panel are: There is no direct experimental data to confirm the potential DCS risks of the Campout PB protocol. However, based on model data, statistical probability, physiology, and information derived from similar PB protocols, there is no compelling evidence to suggest that the Campout PB protocol is less safe than the other NASA approved PB protocols.

  3. [Epidemiological surveillance activities during the 2009 influenza pandemic in Spain: lessons learnt one year after].

    PubMed

    Sierra Moros, Maria José; Vázquez Torres, María; Santa-Olalla Peralta, Patricia; Limia Sánchez, Aurora; Cortes García, Marta; Pachón Del Amo, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    In this article the actions taken in the area of epidemiological surveillance in Spain during the influenza pandemic and the recommendations drawn from them during the progression of the pandemic are reviewed. The performance of the Surveillance Subcommittee established in the National Influenza Preparedness and Response Plan was central to the coordination of these activities. The Surveillance Subcommittee was immediately activated when the alert was issued. Its role is also described in this review. The existence of a National Plan allowed a rapid and coordinated response after the alert declaration. The epidemiological and virological surveillance of the influenza pandemic was adapted to an evolving situation. In addition to routine influenza monitoring systems, new surveillance systems were put in place such as a case-based surveillance for community influenza cases and a case-based surveillance for severe cases and deaths due to the pandemic. Among the lessons learned from this pandemic, we would highlight the need to strengthen the timely analysis of data collected during an alert, the need to promote the exchange of information among public health and health care professionals, and to strengthen the response capacity in order to have resilient and consolidated public health structures for future health alerts.

  4. Active surveillance for influenza A virus among swine, midwestern United States, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Corzo, Cesar A; Culhane, Marie; Juleen, Kevin; Stigger-Rosser, Evelyn; Ducatez, Mariette F; Webby, Richard J; Lowe, James F

    2013-06-01

    Veterinary diagnostic laboratories identify and characterize influenza A viruses primarily through passive surveillance. However, additional surveillance programs are needed. To meet this need, an active surveillance program was conducted at pig farms throughout the midwestern United States. From June 2009 through December 2011, nasal swab samples were collected monthly from among 540 groups of growing pigs and tested for influenza A virus by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Of 16,170 samples, 746 were positive for influenza A virus; of these, 18.0% were subtype H1N1, 16.0% H1N2, 7.6% H3N2, and 14.5% (H1N1)pdm09. An influenza (H3N2) and (H1N1)pdm09 virus were identified simultaneously in 8 groups. This active influenza A virus surveillance program provided quality data and increased the understanding of the current situation of circulating viruses in the midwestern US pig population.

  5. Active surveillance for the management of localized prostate cancer: Guideline recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Morash, Chris; Tey, Rovena; Agbassi, Chika; Klotz, Laurence; McGowan, Tom; Srigley, John; Evans, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The objective is to provide guidance on the role of active surveillance (AS) as a management strategy for low-risk prostate cancer patients and to ensure that AS is offered to appropriate patients assessed by a standardized protocol. Prostate cancer is often a slowly progressive or sometimes non-progressive indolent disease diagnosed at an early stage with localized tumours that are unlikely to cause morbidity or death. Standard active treatments for prostate cancer include radiotherapy (RT) or radical prostatectomy (RP), but the harms from over diagnosis and overtreatment are of a significant concern. AS is increasingly being considered as a management strategy to avoid or delay the potential harms caused by unnecessary radical treatment. Methods: A literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, guideline databases and relevant meeting proceedings was performed and a systematic review of identified evidence was synthesized to make recommendations relating to the role of AS in the management of localized prostate cancer. Results: No exiting guidelines or reviews were suitable for use in the synthesis of evidence for the recommendations, but 59 reports of primary studies were identified. Due to studies being either non-comparative or heterogeneous, pooled meta-analyses were not conducted. Conclusion: The working group concluded that for patients with low-risk (Gleason score ≤6) localized prostate cancer, AS is the preferred disease management strategy. Active treatment (RP or RT) is appropriate for patients with intermediate-risk (Gleason score 7) localized prostate cancer. For select patients with low-volume Gleason 3+4=7 localized prostate cancer, AS can be considered. PMID:26225165

  6. An overview of environmental surveillance of waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.H.; Chew, E.W.; Hedahl, T.G.; Mann, L.J.; Pointer, T.F.; Wiersma, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), in southeastern Idaho, is a principal center for nuclear energy development for the Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Nuclear Navy. Fifty-two reactors have been built at the INEL, with 15 still operable. Extensive environmental surveillance is conducted at the INEL by DOE's Radiological Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), EG&G Idaho, Inc., and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). Surveillance of waste management facilities radiation is integrated with the overall INEL Site surveillance program. Air, warer, soil, biota, and environmental radiation are monitored or sampled routinely at INEL. Results to date indicate very small or no impacts from INEL on the surrounding environment. Environmental surveillance activities are currently underway to address key environmental issues at the INEL.

  7. A method for active surveillance of selected communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, M J

    2000-09-01

    In 1991, an initiative was launched in the Western Pacific Region of WHO to eradicate poliomyelitis by the year 2000. Confirmation of eradication requires a certification process, in which specific criteria must be met. A hospital-based surveillance system was developed. It was sensitive enough to detect, at least one case of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) per 100,000 children under age 15 per year, which is considered the "background rate" of AFP. This system was instituted in 1997 in most countries in the Pacific, and included measles and neonatal tetanus as well as AFP. By mid-1998, 53 hospitals in the Pacific were submitting monthly forms indicating whether or not AFP, suspect measles, or neonatal tetanus had been seen in the preceding month. Compliance was excellent, with over 80% of forms submitted to WHO in 1998, thus meeting the certification standard. In 1999 a proposal was made to expand this method, in selected countries, to encompass most conditions presenting with acute fever plus rash, thus including, for example, cases of rubella and dengue. Important aspects of such surveillance include the capacity to confirm diagnoses in the laboratory, and to take effective public health action. A coordinated laboratory network had been established previously for virological analysis of stool specimens for conditions causing AFP, but laboratory support for other conditions is currently the responsibility of individual hospitals to arrange.

  8. The Tobacco Pack Surveillance System: A Protocol for Assessing Health Warning Compliance, Design Features, and Appeals of Tobacco Packs Sold in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Carmen; Brown, Jennifer; Vadnais, Alison; Kroart, Laura; Ferguson, Jacqueline; Cohen, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco remains the world’s leading preventable cause of death, with the majority of tobacco-caused deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries. The first global health treaty, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), outlines a set of policy initiatives that have been demonstrated as effective in reducing tobacco use. Article 11 of the FCTC focuses on using the tobacco package to communicate tobacco-caused harms; it also seeks to restrict the delivery of misleading information about the product on the pack. Objective The objective of this study was to establish a surveillance system for tobacco packs in the 14 low- and middle-income countries with the greatest number of smokers. The Tobacco Pack Surveillance System (TPackSS) monitors whether required health warnings on tobacco packages are being implemented as intended, and identifies pack designs and appeals that might violate or detract from the communication of harm-related information and undermine the impact of a country’s tobacco packaging laws. The protocol outlined is intended to be applicable or adaptable for surveillance efforts in other countries. Methods Tobacco packs were collected in 14 countries during 2013. The intention was, to the extent possible, to construct a census of “unique” pack presentations available for purchase in each country. The TPackSS team partnered with in-country field staff to implement a standardized protocol for acquiring packs from 36 diverse neighborhoods across three cities in each country. At the time of purchase, data on price and place of acquisition of each pack was recorded. The field staff, according to a standardized protocol, then photographed packs before they were shipped to the United States for coding and archiving. Results Each pack was coded for compliance with the country-specific health warning label laws, as well as for key design features of the pack and appeals of the branding elements. The coding protocols were

  9. Intussusception in southern India: comparison of retrospective analysis and active surveillance.

    PubMed

    Jehangir, Susan; John, Jacob; Rajkumar, Sangeeth; Mani, Betty; Srinivasan, Rajan; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-08-11

    Surveillance for intussusception is a post marketing requirement for rotavirus vaccines following observation of a small increased risk of intussusception after rotavirus vaccination in some global settings. This study presents the clinical presentation and outcomes of children who presented with intussusception at a large tertiary care facility directly (non-surveillance) as retrospective analysis of a period where rotavirus vaccine was not in routine use, or as part of active surveillance in a phase III oral rotavirus vaccine trial. Hospital records of children under 2 years of age treated for intussusception between 1 January 2010 and 31 August 2013 at the Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore, India, were reviewed. Sixty-one cases of intussusception in children under two years of age presented at the hospital. An additional 16 cases of ultrasound diagnosed intussusception were identified through the active surveillance of a cohort of 1500 children participating in a rotavirus phase III trial in the same period. In the nonsurveillance group, median age at presentation was 214 days (IQR 153-321) with 52 events (85.3%) occurring in the first year of life. Cases were seen year-round with no definitive evidence of seasonality. Thirty-one (50.8%) intussusceptions required surgical reduction, 26 (42.6%) had pneumatic reduction and 2 (3.3%) barium enema reduction. Two intussusceptions (3.3%) resolved spontaneously. There were no deaths, all children were discharged after recovery. Active surveillance identified 16 children with a median age at event of 375 days (IQR 248-574). Nine (56%) children had small bowel or transient intussusception that resolved spontaneously. Seven intussusceptions were reduced radiologically; none required surgery. In summary, there were significant differences between presentation and outcomes in cases of intussusception identified by passive and active surveillance, likely related to enhanced and early detection of intussusception

  10. Detection of septic transfusion reactions to platelet transfusions by active and passive surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hong; Xiao, Wenbin; Lazarus, Hillard M; Good, Caryn E; Maitta, Robert W; Jacobs, Michael R

    2016-01-28

    Septic transfusion reactions (STRs) resulting from transfusion of bacterially contaminated platelets are a major hazard of platelet transfusion despite recent interventions. Active and passive surveillance for bacterially contaminated platelets was performed over 7 years (2007-2013) by culture of platelet aliquots at time of transfusion and review of reported transfusion reactions. All platelet units had been cultured 24 hours after collection and released as negative. Five sets of STR criteria were evaluated, including recent AABB criteria; sensitivity and specificity of these criteria, as well as detection by active and passive surveillance, were determined. Twenty of 51,440 platelet units transfused (0.004%; 389 per million) were bacterially contaminated by active surveillance and resulted in 5 STRs occurring 9 to 24 hours posttransfusion; none of these STRs had been reported by passive surveillance. STR occurred only in neutropenic patients transfused with high bacterial loads. A total of 284 transfusion reactions (0.55%) were reported by passive surveillance. None of these patients had received contaminated platelets. However, 6 to 93 (2.1%-32.7%) of these 284 reactions met 1 or more STR criteria, and sensitivity of STR criteria varied from 5.1% to 45.5%. These results document the continued occurrence of bacterial contamination of platelets resulting in STR in neutropenic patients, failure of passive surveillance to detect STR, and lack of specificity of STR criteria. These findings highlight the limitations of reported national STR data based on passive surveillance and the need to implement further measures to address this problem such as secondary testing or use of pathogen reduction technologies.

  11. [Operative guidelines for the shoe industry: health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Massimo; Vignola, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Medical surveillance of workers exposed to occupational risk factors means secondary prevention and entails medical activities which are related to the assessed risk. In particular, the chief risk factors evaluated in the footwear industry frequently imply medical surveillance of exposed workers. These risk factors include organic solvents and chemicals, leather dust, noise, repetitive movements and upper limb overload, vibrations, manual lifting action and video display terminal operation. We consider some operative standardized and validated protocols for medical surveillance of these industry employees.

  12. Urinary TMPRSS2:ERG and PCA3 in an active surveillance cohort: results from a baseline analysis in the Canary Prostate Active Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Daniel W.; Newcomb, Lisa F.; Brown, Elissa C.; Brooks, James D.; Carroll, Peter R.; Feng, Ziding; Gleave, Martin E.; Lance, Raymond S.; Sanda, Martin G.; Thompson, Ian M.; Wei, John T.; Nelson, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance is used to manage low risk prostate cancer. Both PCA3 and TMRPSS2-ERG are promising biomarkers that may be associated with aggressive disease. This study examines the correlation of these biomarkers with higher cancer volume and grade determined at the time of biopsy in an active surveillance cohort. Experimental Design Post-DRE urine was collected prospectively as part of the multi-institutional Canary Prostate Active Surveillance Study (PASS). PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG levels were analyzed in urine collected at study entry. Biomarker scores were correlated to clinical and pathologic variables. Results In 387 men, both PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores were significantly associated with higher volume disease. For a negative repeat biopsy, and 1–10%, 11–33%, ≥34% positive cores, median PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores increased incrementally (P < 0.005). Both PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores were also significantly associated with presence of high grade disease. For a negative repeat biopsy, Gleason 6 and Gleason ≥7 cancers, the median PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores also increased incrementally (P = 0.02 and P = 0.001, respectively). Using the marker scores as a continuous variables, the odds ratio for a biopsy in which cancer was detected versus a negative repeat biopsy (ref) on modeling was 1.41 (95% CI 1.07–1.85), P = 0.01 for PCA3 and 1.28 (95% CI 1.10–1.49), P = 0.001 for TMPRSS2-ERG. Conclusions For men on active surveillance both PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG appear to stratify risk of having aggressive cancer as defined by tumor volume or Gleason score. PMID:23515404

  13. 77 FR 52317 - Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar systems with certain...

  14. Surveillance and maintenance activities of waste area groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.; Jones, R.G.

    1991-12-01

    Surveillance and maintenance (S M) of 75 sites were conductd by the Remedial Action Section for the Environmental Restoration Program for surplus facilities and sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals. S M activities on these sites were conducted from the end of their operating life until final facility disposal or site stabilization. The objectives of the Waste Area Grouping S M Program are met by maintaining a program of routine S M as well as by implementing interim corrective maintenance when deemed necessary as a result of site surveillance. This report briefly presents this program's activities and includes tables indicating tank levels and dry well data for FY 1991.

  15. Role for 11C-choline PET in active surveillance of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boychak, Oleksandr; Vos, Larissa; Makis, William; Buteau, Francois-Alexandre; Pervez, Nadeem; Parliament, Matthew; McEwan, Alexander J.B.; Usmani, Nawaid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Active surveillance (AS) is an increasingly popular management strategy for men diagnosed with low-risk indolent prostate cancer. Current tests (prostate-specific antigen [PSA], clinical staging, and prostate biopsies) to monitor indolent disease lack accuracy. 11C-choline positron emission tomography (PET) has excellent detection rates in local and distant recurrence of prostate cancer. We examine 11C-choline PET for identifying aggressive prostate cancer warranting treatment in the AS setting. Methods: In total, 24 patients on AS had clinical assessment and PSA testing every 6 months and 11C-choline PET and prostate biopsies annually. The sensitivity and specificity to identify prostate cancer and progressive disease (PD) were calculated for each 11C-choline PET scan. Results: In total, 62 biopsy-paired, serial 11C-choline PET scans were analyzed using a series of standard uptake value-maximum (SUVmax) cut-off thresholds. During follow-up (mean 25.3 months), 11 of the 24 low-risk prostate cancer patients developed PD and received definitive treatment. The prostate cancer detection rate with 11C-choline PET had moderate sensitivity (72.1%), but low specificity (45.0%). PD prediction from baseline 11C-choline PET had satisfactory sensitivity (81.8%), but low specificity (38.5%). The addition of clinical parameters to the baseline 11C-choline PET improved specificity (69.2%), with a slight reduction in sensitivity (72.7%) for PD prediction. Conclusions: Addition of 11C-choline PET imaging during AS may help to identify aggressive disease earlier than traditional methods. However, 11C-choline PET alone has low specificity due to overlap of SUV values with benign pathologies. Triaging low-risk prostate cancer patients into AS versus therapy will require further optimization of PET protocols or consideration of alternative strategies (i.e., magnetic resonance imaging, biomarkers). PMID:25844108

  16. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  17. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance project: establishing bi-national border surveillance.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Michelle; Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California-Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS.

  18. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance project: establishing bi-national border surveillance.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Michelle; Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California-Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ETD SURVEILLANCE CHECKLIST FOR MONITORING EPA RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEVELOPMENT OF AN ETD SURVEILLANCE CHECKLIST FOR MONITORING EPA RESEARCH ACTIVITIES, Thomas J. Hughes, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), ORD, U.S. EPA, Experimental Toxicology Division (ETD), MD 66, RTP, NC 27711

    Research studies condu...

  20. Penicillin Use in Meningococcal Disease Management: Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Sites, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Blain, Amy E.; Mandal, Sema; Wu, Henry; MacNeil, Jessica R.; Harrison, Lee H.; Farley, Monica M.; Lynfield, Ruth; Miller, Lisa; Nichols, Megin; Petit, Sue; Reingold, Arthur; Schaffner, William; Thomas, Ann; Zansky, Shelley M.; Anderson, Raydel; Harcourt, Brian H.; Mayer, Leonard W.; Clark, Thomas A.; Cohn, Amanda C.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, in the Active Bacterial Core surveillance sites, penicillin was not commonly used to treat meningococcal disease. This is likely because of inconsistent availability of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and ease of use of third-generation cephalosporins. Consideration of current practices may inform future meningococcal disease management guidelines. PMID:27704009

  1. Visceral Leishmaniasis Eradication is a Reality: Data from a Community-based Active Surveillance in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ferdousi, Farhana; Alam, Mohammad S.; Hossain, Mohammad S.; Ma, Enbo; Itoh, Makoto; Mondal, Dinesh; Haque, Rashidul; Wagatsuma, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    More than 20 million people in Bangladesh are considered at risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis (VL). A community-based active surveillance was conducted in eight randomly selected villages in a highly endemic area of Bangladesh from 2006 to 2008. A total of 6,761 individuals living in 1,550 mud-walled houses were included in the active surveillance. Rapid rK39 dipstick tests were conducted throughout the study period to facilitate the case diagnosis. Individuals with previous or current clinical leishmaniasis were identified on the basis of the case definition of the VL elimination program. Untreated cases of suspected VL were referred to the hospital for treatment. Socioeconomic and environmental information including bed net use was also collected. In 2006, the annual incidence of clinical leishmaniasis in the study area was 141.9 cases per 10,000 population, which was significantly increased by the following year owing to community-based active surveillance for case detection and reporting. However, early case detection and early referral for treatment led to a significant decrease in incidence in 2008. This study suggests that community-based active surveillance using a simple diagnostic tool might play a role in achieving the goal of the VL elimination program. PMID:23532674

  2. Inspection of surveillance equipment and activities at DOE Field Office, Richland

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The purpose of this inspection was to review surveillance activities by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Field Office, Richland (RL) and contractor employees at the RL Hanford site for efficiency and economy and compliance with laws and regulations. The scope included surveillance activities, procedures, training, types of surveillance equipment, and management controls over the equipment and activities. We also looked at Departmental policies and procedures regarding the equipment and activities. Allegations of illegal surveillance that came to our attention during the course of this inspection were referred to the Department of Justice. As part of our review, inspectors were on-site at RL from February 11, 1991, through March 1, 1991. Follow-up trips to RL were also made in April, May, and June 1991. We also conducted interviews at Albuquerque, Savannah River, and Germantown of former RL employees and RL contractors who were on travel. Officials from DOE's Office of General Counsel (OGC), Office of Security Affairs, and Office of Safeguards and Security (S S) were also interviewed regarding the Department's purchase and possession of wiretapping and eavesdropping devices. We obtained 75 signed sworn statements from 55 individuals during the course of the inspection. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. 'Active Surveillance' of Prostate Cancer Doesn't Dampen Quality of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160131.html 'Active Surveillance' of Prostate Cancer Doesn't Dampen Quality of Life Choosing no ... 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Men with low-risk prostate cancer report a good quality of life after choosing ...

  4. Emergency department syndromic surveillance providing early warning of seasonal respiratory activity in England.

    PubMed

    Hughes, H E; Morbey, R; Hughes, T C; Locker, T E; Pebody, R; Green, H K; Ellis, J; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal respiratory infections place an increased burden on health services annually. We used a sentinel emergency department syndromic surveillance system to understand the factors driving respiratory attendances at emergency departments (EDs) in England. Trends in different respiratory indicators were observed to peak at different points during winter, with further variation observed in the distribution of attendances by age. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed acute respiratory infection and bronchitis/bronchiolitis ED attendances in patients aged 1-4 years were particularly sensitive indicators for increasing respiratory syncytial virus activity. Using near real-time surveillance of respiratory ED attendances may provide early warning of increased winter pressures in EDs, particularly driven by seasonal pathogens. This surveillance may provide additional intelligence about different categories of attendance, highlighting pressures in particular age groups, thereby aiding planning and preparation to respond to acute changes in EDs, and thus the health service in general.

  5. Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network—2 Decades of Achievements, 1996–2015

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Timothy F.; Vugia, Duc J.; Griffin, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) provides a foundation for food safety policy and illness prevention in the United States. FoodNet conducts active, population-based surveillance at 10 US sites for laboratory-confirmed infections of 9 bacterial and parasitic pathogens transmitted commonly through food and for hemolytic uremic syndrome. Through FoodNet, state and federal scientists collaborate to monitor trends in enteric illnesses, identify their sources, and implement special studies. FoodNet’s major contributions include establishment of reliable, active population-based surveillance of enteric diseases; development and implementation of epidemiologic studies to determine risk and protective factors for sporadic enteric infections; population and laboratory surveys that describe the features of gastrointestinal illnesses, medical care–seeking behavior, frequency of eating various foods, and laboratory practices; and development of a surveillance and research platform that can be adapted to address emerging issues. The importance of FoodNet’s ongoing contributions probably will grow as clinical, laboratory, and informatics technologies continue changing rapidly. PMID:26292181

  6. Comparison of disease trends in the Ontario swine population using active practitioner-based surveillance and passive laboratory-based surveillance (2007–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Amezcua, Rocio; Pearl, David L.; Friendship, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    A concern about emerging swine diseases led to a pilot study to determine the feasibility of an active surveillance system referred to as the Ontario Swine Veterinary-based Surveillance System (OSVS). The OSVS recorded the incidence of various syndromes and investigated potential outbreaks. However, validation of the disease patterns observed was needed. The objective of this study was to compare the disease patterns observed in the OSVS system with submission data obtained from a regional diagnostic laboratory — the Animal Health Laboratory (AHL). Higher rates of submission were reported to the OSVS compared with AHL records. However, OSVS and AHL data captured similar trends of disease. The OSVS data captured potential outbreaks that were not reflected in the laboratory data. Validation of active and passive syndromic surveillance data is necessary, and efforts should be made to integrate these types of data sources. PMID:24155479

  7. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Loo, Virginia; Saidel, Tobi; Reddy, Amala; Htin, Khin Cho Win; Shwe, Ye Yu; Verbruggen, Bob

    2012-07-01

    In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings. PMID:23908915

  8. Active Surveillance for Small Renal Masses: A Review of the Aims and Preliminary Results of the DISSRM Registry.

    PubMed

    Danzig, Matthew R; Chang, Peter; Wagner, Andrew A; Allaf, Mohamad E; McKiernan, James M; Pierorazio, Phillip M

    2016-01-01

    Active surveillance is an increasingly accepted treatment modality for select patients with small renal masses. The DISSRM (delayed intervention and surveillance for small renal masses) registry is a multi-institutional, prospectively collected data repository which includes patients who select active surveillance for their small renal masses, as well as others who select immediate intervention. Preliminary results from the registry suggest oncological equivalence of active surveillance and surgical modalities in the intermediate term. Additionally, the registry provides the first published data regarding trends in renal function among patients undergoing active surveillance. On average, these patients experience a decline in renal function, and their renal functional outcomes are superior to those of patients undergoing radical nephrectomy, but do not significantly differ from those of patients undergoing partial nephrectomy.

  9. Active Surveillance for Influenza A Virus among Swine, Midwestern United States, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Corzo, Cesar A.; Juleen, Kevin; Stigger-Rosser, Evelyn; Ducatez, Mariette F.; Webby, Richard J.; Lowe, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Veterinary diagnostic laboratories identify and characterize influenza A viruses primarily through passive surveillance. However, additional surveillance programs are needed. To meet this need, an active surveillance program was conducted at pig farms throughout the midwestern United States. From June 2009 through December 2011, nasal swab samples were collected monthly from among 540 groups of growing pigs and tested for influenza A virus by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Of 16,170 samples, 746 were positive for influenza A virus; of these, 18.0% were subtype H1N1, 16.0% H1N2, 7.6% H3N2, and 14.5% (H1N1)pdm09. An influenza (H3N2) and (H1N1)pdm09 virus were identified simultaneously in 8 groups. This active influenza A virus surveillance program provided quality data and increased the understanding of the current situation of circulating viruses in the midwestern US pig population. PMID:23735740

  10. Global data collection and the surveillance of active volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    Data relay systems on existing earth-orbiting satellites provide an inexpensive way to collect environmental data from numerous remote sites around the world. This technology could be used effectively for fundamental monitoring of most of the world's active volcanoes. Such global monitoring would focus attention on the most dangerous volcanoes that are likely to significantly impact the geosphere and the biosphere. ?? 1990.

  11. The use of early summer mosquito surveillance to predict late summer West Nile virus activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rochlin, Ilia; Campbell, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Utility of early-season mosquito surveillance to predict West Nile virus activity in late summer was assessed in Suffolk County, NY. Dry ice-baited CDC miniature light traps paired with gravid traps were set weekly. Maximum-likelihood estimates of WNV positivity, minimum infection rates, and % positive pools were generally well correlated. However, positivity in gravid traps was not correlated with positivity in CDC light traps. The best early-season predictors of WNV activity in late summer (estimated using maximum-likelihood estimates of Culex positivity in August and September) were early date of first positive pool, low numbers of mosquitoes in July, and low numbers of mosquito species in July. These results suggest that early-season entomological samples can be used to predict WNV activity later in the summer, when most human cases are acquired. Additional research is needed to establish which surveillance variables are most predictive and to characterize the reliability of the predictions.

  12. [Improving public health and hygiene surveillance activity: the Lombardy experience].

    PubMed

    Poloni, M

    2012-01-01

    In light of changing health needs, it has become a necessity to modify the instruments used in prevention, and this is thanks also to all the new preventive health professions that have been added to the existing ones. This presentation describes the results of the activities of prevention and control of occupational injuries, environmental hygiene and food and nutrition security in the Lombardy Region. PMID:22880384

  13. Active surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis in poliomyelitis high-risk areas in southern China.

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Y.; Hikita, K.; Matuba, T.; Chosa, T.; Kyogoku, S.; Yu, J.; Wang, Z.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: On 29 October 2000 poliomyelitis was officially declared to have been eradicated from the Western Pacific Region. This article describes the results of surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in China during the final phase of the eradication effort. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based active surveillance in high-risk areas for poliomyelitis in 5 provinces of southern-China (Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Jiangxi) between 1995 and 1997 to determine the adequacy of reporting and laboratory diagnosis of cases of AFP. FINDINGS: A total of 1069 AFP cases occurring since 1993 were identified in 311 hospital visits. Less than 50% of AFP cases occurring in 1993 and 1994 had been reported by AFP surveillance, and laboratory diagnosis had been carried out on only a small proportion of these. However, improved cooperation between hospital sectors increased the rate of case reporting and laboratory diagnosis to 85% and 78%, respectively, in 1997. Despite this overall improvement, these two indicators were approximately 10-20% lower in Yunnan Province. Epidemiological analysis revealed that cases of clinical poliomyelitis accounted for as much as one-third of all AFP in 1993 and that some of these cases were clustered. Clusters were rarely observed after 1994. Active surveillance in the China-Myanmar border areas of Yunnan over 1995-96 detected 9 cross-border cases of clinical poliomyelitis, including 2 of wild poliomyelitis. Import of poliomyelitis was thus considered to have occurred frequently until 1996 in this border area of Yunnan. These data were important for the outbreak response immunization carried out in 1996 in the border prefectures of Yunnan. CONCLUSION: Our investigation confirmed a high level of AFP surveillance in poliomyelitis high-risk areas of the five provinces and provided valuable information on the interruption of wild poliovirus circulation in southern China that will be of use to countries in other regions that have

  14. [From surveillance to work-related accident prevention: the contribution of the ergonomics of the activity].

    PubMed

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Mendes, Renata Wey Berti

    2012-10-01

    Work-related accidents are complex phenomena determined by the work organization process, the dimensions of which are usually invisible to surveillance agents. The scope of this paper was a case study based on documentary evidence to analyze and compare the success of an intervention conducted at a meat processing and packaging factory, by focusing on checking health and safety norms in 1997, and incorporating ergonomic concepts in 2008. In 1997, surveillance actions focused primarily on visible risk factors. Despite fulfilling sanitation requirements, the company still had an annual accident rate of 26% in 2008, which motivated the search for a new approach. In 2008, it was seen that accidents were caused by a vicious cycle involving intense work, technical inadequacy, absenteeism and high turnover (84%) that led the company to recruit inexperienced workers. This scenario was aggravated by authoritarian management practices. The ergonomics of the activity contributed to the understanding of organizational causes -thus superseding the normative aspects of traditional surveillance - which revealed the importance of ensuring that surveillance actions for prevention are more effective. PMID:23099767

  15. [From surveillance to work-related accident prevention: the contribution of the ergonomics of the activity].

    PubMed

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Mendes, Renata Wey Berti

    2012-10-01

    Work-related accidents are complex phenomena determined by the work organization process, the dimensions of which are usually invisible to surveillance agents. The scope of this paper was a case study based on documentary evidence to analyze and compare the success of an intervention conducted at a meat processing and packaging factory, by focusing on checking health and safety norms in 1997, and incorporating ergonomic concepts in 2008. In 1997, surveillance actions focused primarily on visible risk factors. Despite fulfilling sanitation requirements, the company still had an annual accident rate of 26% in 2008, which motivated the search for a new approach. In 2008, it was seen that accidents were caused by a vicious cycle involving intense work, technical inadequacy, absenteeism and high turnover (84%) that led the company to recruit inexperienced workers. This scenario was aggravated by authoritarian management practices. The ergonomics of the activity contributed to the understanding of organizational causes -thus superseding the normative aspects of traditional surveillance - which revealed the importance of ensuring that surveillance actions for prevention are more effective.

  16. [Active clinical surveillance for detection of Legionnaires' disease: implications for health care structures].

    PubMed

    Marchesi, I; Bargellini, A; Cencetti, S; Concetti, S; Marchegiano, P; Cauteruccio, L; Casolari, C; Borella, P

    2007-01-01

    In an university hospital of about 900 beds, a clinical surveillance was activated to detect cases of Legionnaires' disease in patients affected by community and/or nosocomial-acquired pneumonia. In the hospital Legionella spp was detected in the hot water distribution system and various disinfecting and control procedures were adopted to reduce contamination. Contemporary, the clinical surveillance began with the systematic detection of Legionella urinary antigen among recovered pneumonia, seroconversion as confirmation test and the collection of respiratory secretions or other biological materials to isolate the microorganism in patients positive to the urinary antigen. From September 2003 to May 2005, 486 pneumonia were followed, 98 of which considered of nosocomial origin. In total, 15 cases of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease were detected by the urinary test, whereas no cases of nosocomial origin were found. The characteristics of the detected cases are described in comparison with the other pneumonia and the surveillance cost was evaluated. The systematic clinical surveillance for Legionella infections is feasible with limit costs, allows to detect community-acquired cases otherwise unknown and to ascertain the absence/presence of nosocomial-acquired pneumonia, irrespective of the environment contamination. PMID:17937322

  17. Advancing the science for active surveillance: rationale and design for the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership.

    PubMed

    Stang, Paul E; Ryan, Patrick B; Racoosin, Judith A; Overhage, J Marc; Hartzema, Abraham G; Reich, Christian; Welebob, Emily; Scarnecchia, Thomas; Woodcock, Janet

    2010-11-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 mandated that the FDA develop a system for using automated health care data to identify risks of marketed drugs and other medical products. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership is a public-private partnership among the FDA, academia, data owners, and the pharmaceutical industry that is responding to the need to advance the science of active medical product safety surveillance by using existing observational databases. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership's transparent, open innovation approach is designed to systematically and empirically study critical governance, data resource, and methodological issues and their interrelationships in establishing a viable national program of active drug safety surveillance by using observational data. This article describes the governance structure, data-access model, methods-testing approach, and technology development of this effort, as well as the work that has been initiated.

  18. Advancing the science for active surveillance: rationale and design for the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership.

    PubMed

    Stang, Paul E; Ryan, Patrick B; Racoosin, Judith A; Overhage, J Marc; Hartzema, Abraham G; Reich, Christian; Welebob, Emily; Scarnecchia, Thomas; Woodcock, Janet

    2010-11-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 mandated that the FDA develop a system for using automated health care data to identify risks of marketed drugs and other medical products. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership is a public-private partnership among the FDA, academia, data owners, and the pharmaceutical industry that is responding to the need to advance the science of active medical product safety surveillance by using existing observational databases. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership's transparent, open innovation approach is designed to systematically and empirically study critical governance, data resource, and methodological issues and their interrelationships in establishing a viable national program of active drug safety surveillance by using observational data. This article describes the governance structure, data-access model, methods-testing approach, and technology development of this effort, as well as the work that has been initiated. PMID:21041580

  19. Decision-Making in Prostate Cancer: Active Surveillance Over Other Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, David; Duff, Jed; Stricker, Phil; Walker, Kim

    2016-01-01

    A qualitative-descriptive study of four patients with prostate cancer used the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing framework to understand how and why men diagnosed with prostate cancer choose active surveillance over other treatment options. In accordance with the literature, it was found that the surgeon or general practitioner's recommendation was the most influential factor when patients are making a treatment decision. PMID:27501595

  20. Elevated Prostate Health Index (phi) and Biopsy Reclassification During Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Darian; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Landis, Patricia; Wolf, Sacha; Glavaris, Stephanie; Lotan, Tamara L; Schaeffer, Edward M; Sokoll, Lori J; Ross, Ashley E

    2016-07-01

    The Prostate Health Index (phi) has been FDA approved for decision-making regarding prostate biopsy. Phi has additionally been shown to positively correlate with tumor volume, extraprostatic disease and higher Gleason grade tumors. Here we describe a case in which an elevated phi encouraged biopsy of a gentleman undergoing active surveillance leading to reclassification of his disease as high risk prostate cancer. PMID:27335798

  1. 5-alpha reductase inhibitors in patients on active surveillance: do the benefits outweigh the risk?

    PubMed

    Al Edwan, Ghazi; Fleshner, Neil

    2013-06-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a slow, progressive disease. Prostate specific antigen testing, screening, and aggressive case identification has made PCa the most frequently diagnosed cancer. Concerns regarding overdiagnosis and overtreatment flourish on a large scale. In order to avoid overtreatment for those in whom therapeutic intervention is not required, active surveillance for eligible patients with the use of 5-alpha reductase can be considered a safe and a promising approach to delay the progression of the disease with minimal side effects. PMID:23579402

  2. Validation of a common data model for active safety surveillance research

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Patrick B; Reich, Christian G; Hartzema, Abraham G; Stang, Paul E

    2011-01-01

    Objective Systematic analysis of observational medical databases for active safety surveillance is hindered by the variation in data models and coding systems. Data analysts often find robust clinical data models difficult to understand and ill suited to support their analytic approaches. Further, some models do not facilitate the computations required for systematic analysis across many interventions and outcomes for large datasets. Translating the data from these idiosyncratic data models to a common data model (CDM) could facilitate both the analysts' understanding and the suitability for large-scale systematic analysis. In addition to facilitating analysis, a suitable CDM has to faithfully represent the source observational database. Before beginning to use the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) CDM and a related dictionary of standardized terminologies for a study of large-scale systematic active safety surveillance, the authors validated the model's suitability for this use by example. Validation by example To validate the OMOP CDM, the model was instantiated into a relational database, data from 10 different observational healthcare databases were loaded into separate instances, a comprehensive array of analytic methods that operate on the data model was created, and these methods were executed against the databases to measure performance. Conclusion There was acceptable representation of the data from 10 observational databases in the OMOP CDM using the standardized terminologies selected, and a range of analytic methods was developed and executed with sufficient performance to be useful for active safety surveillance. PMID:22037893

  3. Brucella abortus surveillance of cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands and a case for active disease surveillance as a training tool.

    PubMed

    Tukana, Andrew; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    There have been no surveys of the cattle population for brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) for more than 15 years. This study used disease surveillance as a capacity building training tool and to examine some of the constraints that impede surveillance in PICTs. The study also developed and implemented a series of surveys for detecting antibodies to B. abortus in cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands contributing to OIE requirements. The findings indicated lack of funds, lack of technical capacity, shortage of veterinarians, high turnover of in-country officials and lack of awareness on the impacts of animal diseases on public health that were constraining active disease surveillance. During the development and implementation of the surveys, constraints highlighted were outdated census data on farm numbers and cattle population, lack of funds for mobilisation of officials to carry out the surveys, lack of equipment for collecting and processing samples, lack of staff knowledge on blood sampling, geographical difficulties and security in accessing farms. Some of the reasons why these were constraints are discussed with likely solutions presented. The detection surveys had the objectives of building capacity for the country officials and demonstrating freedom from brucellosis in cattle for PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands all demonstrated freedom from bovine brucellosis in the areas surveyed using the indirect ELISA test. Fiji had an outbreak of brucellosis, and the objective was to determine its distribution and prevalence on untested farms. The Muaniweni district surveyed during the training had a 95 % confidence interval for true prevalence between 1.66 and 5.45 %. The study showed that active disease surveillance could be used as a tool for training officials thus, improves surveillance capacity in resource poor countries.

  4. Brucella abortus surveillance of cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands and a case for active disease surveillance as a training tool.

    PubMed

    Tukana, Andrew; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    There have been no surveys of the cattle population for brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) for more than 15 years. This study used disease surveillance as a capacity building training tool and to examine some of the constraints that impede surveillance in PICTs. The study also developed and implemented a series of surveys for detecting antibodies to B. abortus in cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands contributing to OIE requirements. The findings indicated lack of funds, lack of technical capacity, shortage of veterinarians, high turnover of in-country officials and lack of awareness on the impacts of animal diseases on public health that were constraining active disease surveillance. During the development and implementation of the surveys, constraints highlighted were outdated census data on farm numbers and cattle population, lack of funds for mobilisation of officials to carry out the surveys, lack of equipment for collecting and processing samples, lack of staff knowledge on blood sampling, geographical difficulties and security in accessing farms. Some of the reasons why these were constraints are discussed with likely solutions presented. The detection surveys had the objectives of building capacity for the country officials and demonstrating freedom from brucellosis in cattle for PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands all demonstrated freedom from bovine brucellosis in the areas surveyed using the indirect ELISA test. Fiji had an outbreak of brucellosis, and the objective was to determine its distribution and prevalence on untested farms. The Muaniweni district surveyed during the training had a 95 % confidence interval for true prevalence between 1.66 and 5.45 %. The study showed that active disease surveillance could be used as a tool for training officials thus, improves surveillance capacity in resource poor countries. PMID:27522595

  5. Conceptual evaluation of population health surveillance programs: method and example.

    PubMed

    El Allaki, Farouk; Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Ravel, André

    2013-03-01

    Veterinary and public health surveillance programs can be evaluated to assess and improve the planning, implementation and effectiveness of these programs. Guidelines, protocols and methods have been developed for such evaluation. In general, they focus on a limited set of attributes (e.g., sensitivity and simplicity), that are assessed quantitatively whenever possible, otherwise qualitatively. Despite efforts at standardization, replication by different evaluators is difficult, making evaluation outcomes open to interpretation. This ultimately limits the usefulness of surveillance evaluations. At the same time, the growing demand to prove freedom from disease or pathogen, and the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement and the International Health Regulations require stronger surveillance programs. We developed a method for evaluating veterinary and public health surveillance programs that is detailed, structured, transparent and based on surveillance concepts that are part of all types of surveillance programs. The proposed conceptual evaluation method comprises four steps: (1) text analysis, (2) extraction of the surveillance conceptual model, (3) comparison of the extracted surveillance conceptual model to a theoretical standard, and (4) validation interview with a surveillance program designer. This conceptual evaluation method was applied in 2005 to C-EnterNet, a new Canadian zoonotic disease surveillance program that encompasses laboratory based surveillance of enteric diseases in humans and active surveillance of the pathogens in food, water, and livestock. The theoretical standard used for evaluating C-EnterNet was a relevant existing structure called the "Population Health Surveillance Theory". Five out of 152 surveillance concepts were absent in the design of C-EnterNet. However, all of the surveillance concept relationships found in C-EnterNet were valid. The proposed method can be used to improve the design and documentation of surveillance programs. It

  6. Inspection of surveillance activities and administrative leave policy at Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The authors conducted an inspection of surveillance activities and administrative leave policy at the Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon. The purpose of their inspection was to determine if a covert video surveillance operation conducted at Bonneville Power Administration was consistent with Department of Energy policies and procedures and other applicable regulations and procedures, and to determine if administrative leave policies and procedures used at Bonneville Power Administration in a specific instance were consistent with Department of Energy requirements and the Code of Federal Regulations. This inspection focused on a specific incident that occurred in 1989 on the 5th floor of the BPA Headquarters Building located in Portland, Oregon. The incident involved the soiling of an employee`s personal property with what appeared to be urine.

  7. Development of an active risk-based surveillance strategy for avian influenza in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, E; Alfonso, P; Ippoliti, C; Abeledo, M; Calistri, P; Blanco, P; Conte, A; Sánchez, B; Fonseca, O; Percedo, M; Pérez, A; Fernández, O; Giovannini, A

    2014-09-01

    The authors designed a risk-based approach to the selection of poultry flocks to be sampled in order to further improve the sensitivity of avian influenza (AI) active surveillance programme in Cuba. The study focused on the western region of Cuba, which harbours nearly 70% of national poultry holdings and comprise several wetlands where migratory waterfowl settle (migratory waterfowl settlements - MWS). The model took into account the potential risk of commercial poultry farms in western Cuba contracting from migratory waterfowl of the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes through dispersion for pasturing of migratory birds around the MWS. We computed spatial risk index by geographical analysis with Python scripts in ESRI(®) ArcGIS 10 on data projected in the reference system NAD 1927-UTM17. Farms located closer to MWS had the highest values for the risk indicator pj and in total 31 farms were chosen for targeted surveillance during the risk period. The authors proposed to start active surveillance in the study area 3 weeks after the onset of Anseriformes migration, with additional sampling repeated twice in the same selected poultry farms at 15 days interval (Comin et al., 2012; EFSA, 2008) to cover the whole migration season. In this way, the antibody detectability would be favoured in case of either a posterior AI introduction or enhancement of a previous seroprevalence under the sensitivity level. The model identified the areas with higher risk for AIV introduction from MW, aiming at selecting poultry premises for the application of risk-based surveillance. Given the infrequency of HPAI introduction into domestic poultry populations and the relative paucity of occurrences of LPAI epidemics, the evaluation of the effectiveness of this approach would require its application for several migration seasons to allow the collection of sufficient reliable data.

  8. Surveillance for Neisseria meningitidis Disease Activity and Transmission Using Information Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S. Sohail; Oviedo-Orta, Ernesto; Mekaru, Sumiko R.; Freifeld, Clark C.; Tougas, Gervais; Brownstein, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Background While formal reporting, surveillance, and response structures remain essential to protecting public health, a new generation of freely accessible, online, and real-time informatics tools for disease tracking are expanding the ability to raise earlier public awareness of emerging disease threats. The rationale for this study is to test the hypothesis that the HealthMap informatics tools can complement epidemiological data captured by traditional surveillance monitoring systems for meningitis due to Neisseria meningitides (N. meningitides) by highlighting severe transmissible disease activity and outbreaks in the United States. Methods Annual analyses of N. meningitides disease alerts captured by HealthMap were compared to epidemiological data captured by the Centers for Disease Control’s Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) for N. meningitides. Morbidity and mortality case reports were measured annually from 2010 to 2013 (HealthMap) and 2005 to 2012 (ABCs). Findings HealthMap N. meningitides monitoring captured 80-90% of alerts as diagnosed N. meningitides, 5-20% of alerts as suspected cases, and 5-10% of alerts as related news articles. HealthMap disease alert activity for emerging disease threats related to N. meningitides were in agreement with patterns identified historically using traditional surveillance systems. HealthMap’s strength lies in its ability to provide a cumulative “snapshot” of weak signals that allows for rapid dissemination of knowledge and earlier public awareness of potential outbreak status while formal testing and confirmation for specific serotypes is ongoing by public health authorities. Conclusions The underreporting of disease cases in internet-based data streaming makes inadequate any comparison to epidemiological trends illustrated by the more comprehensive ABCs network published by the Centers for Disease Control. However, the expected delays in compiling confirmatory reports by traditional surveillance systems

  9. Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) glove evaluation test protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinman-Sweeney, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most critical components of a space suit is the gloves, yet gloves have traditionally presented significant design challenges. With continued efforts at glove development, a method for evaluating glove performance is needed. This paper presents a pressure-glove evaluation protocol. A description of this evaluation protocol, and its development is provided. The protocol allows comparison of one glove design to another, or any one design to bare-handed performance. Gloves for higher pressure suits may be evaluated at current and future design pressures to drive out differences in performance due to pressure effects. Using this protocol, gloves may be evaluated during design to drive out design problems and determine areas for improvement, or fully mature designs may be evaluated with respect to mission requirements. Several different test configurations are presented to handle these cases. This protocol was run on a prototype glove. The prototype was evaluated at two operating pressures and in the unpressurized state, with results compared to bare-handed performance. Results and analysis from this test series are provided, as is a description of the configuration used for this test.

  10. Bovine tuberculosis surveillance alternatives in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Welby, S; Govaerts, M; Vanholme, L; Hooyberghs, J; Mennens, K; Maes, L; Van Der Stede, Y

    2012-09-15

    Belgium obtained the bovine tuberculosis (bTB) officially free status in 2003 (EC Decision 2003/467/EC). This study was carried out to evaluate the components of the current bTB surveillance program in Belgium and to determine the sensitivity of this program. Secondly, alternatives to optimize the bTB surveillance in accordance with European legislation (Council Directive 64/432/EEC) were evaluated. Separate scenario trees were designed for each active surveillance component of the bTB surveillance program. Data from 2005 to 2009 regarding cattle population, movement and surveillance were collected to feed the stochastic scenario tree simulation model. A total of 7,403,826 cattle movement history records were obtained for the 2,678,020 cattle from 36,059 cattle herds still active in 2009. The current surveillance program sensitivity as well as the impact of alternative surveillance protocols was simulated in a stochastic model using 10,000 iterations per simulation. The median (50% percentile) of the component sensitivities across 10,000 iterations was 0.83, 0.85, 0.99, 0.99, respectively, for (i) testing the cattle only during the winter screening, (ii) testing only imported cattle, (iii) testing only purchased cattle and (iv) testing only all slaughtered cattle. The sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential input parameter explaining the variability around the output came from the uncertainty distribution around the sensitivity of the diagnostic tests used within the bTB surveillance. Providing all animals are inspected and post mortem inspection is highly sensitive, slaughterhouse surveillance was the most effective surveillance component. If these conditions were not met, the uncertainty around the mean sensitivity of this component was important. Using an antibody ELISA at purchase and an interferon gamma test during winter screening and at import would increase greatly the sensitivity and the confidence level of Belgium's freedom from b

  11. Transatlantic Consensus Group on active surveillance and focal therapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Hashim U.; Akin, Oguz; Coleman, Jonathan A.; Crane, Sarah; Emberton, Mark; Goldenberg, Larry; Hricak, Hedvig; Kattan, Mike W.; Kurhanewicz, John; Moore, Caroline M.; Parker, Chris; Polascik, Thomas J.; Scardino, Peter; van As, Nicholas; Villers, Arnauld

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To reach consensus on key issues for clinical practice and future research in active surveillance and focal therapy in managing localized prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS A group of expert urologists, oncologists, radiologists, pathologists and computer scientists from North America and Europe met to discuss issues in patient population, interventions, comparators and outcome measures to use in both tissue-preserving strategies of active surveillance and focal therapy. Break-out sessions were formed to provide agreement or highlight areas of disagreement on individual topics which were then collated by a writing group into statements that formed the basis of this report and agreed upon by the whole Transatlantic Consensus Group. RESULTS The Transatlantic group propose that emerging diagnostic tools such as precision imaging and transperineal prostate mapping biopsy can improve prostate cancer care. These tools should be integrated into prostate cancer management and research so that better risk stratification and more effective treatment allocation can be applied. The group envisaged a process of care in which active surveillance, focal therapy, and radical treatments lie on a continuum of complementary therapies for men with a range of disease grades and burdens, rather than being applied in the mutually exclusive and competitive way they are now. CONCLUSION The changing landscape of prostate cancer epidemiology requires the medical community to re-evaluate the entire prostate cancer diagnostic and treatment pathway in order to minimize harms resulting from over-diagnosis and over-treatment. Precise risk stratification at every point in this pathway is required alongside paradigm shifts in our thinking about what constitutes cancer in the prostate. PMID:22077593

  12. Prevention of stricture recurrence following urethral internal urethrotomy: routine repeated dilations or active surveillance?

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Wazir, Romel; Wang, Jianzhong; Wang, Kunjie; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Strictures of the urethra are the most common cause of obstructed micturition in younger men and there is frequent recurrence after initial treatment. Currently, routine repeated dilations, including intermittent self-catheterisation (ISC) are prescribed by urologists to prevent urethral stricture recurrence. There is, however, no high level evidence available supporting the effectiveness of practicing these painful techniques. Balancing efficacy, adverse effects and costs, we hypothesize that active surveillance is a better option for preventing stricture recurrence as compared with routine repeated dilations. However, well designed, adequately powered multi-center trials with comprehensive evaluation are urgently needed to confirm our hypothesis. .

  13. Prevention of stricture recurrence following urethral internal urethrotomy: routine repeated dilations or active surveillance?

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Wazir, Romel; Wang, Jianzhong; Wang, Kunjie; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Strictures of the urethra are the most common cause of obstructed micturition in younger men and there is frequent recurrence after initial treatment. Currently, routine repeated dilations, including intermittent self-catheterisation (ISC) are prescribed by urologists to prevent urethral stricture recurrence. There is, however, no high level evidence available supporting the effectiveness of practicing these painful techniques. Balancing efficacy, adverse effects and costs, we hypothesize that active surveillance is a better option for preventing stricture recurrence as compared with routine repeated dilations. However, well designed, adequately powered multi-center trials with comprehensive evaluation are urgently needed to confirm our hypothesis. . PMID:27576888

  14. Active surveillance of sudden cardiac death in young athletes by periodic Internet searches.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kristal; Pan, Yann Ping; Pock, Michelle; Chang, Ruey-Kang R

    2013-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that prospective, systematic Internet searches could identify occurrences of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes and would be useful for establishing a system of active surveillance. Weekly advanced Google searches of the Internet were conducted for cases of SCD in young athletes during a 12-month period (2007-2008). Athletes ages 11-30 years who collapsed during a game, practice, or within an hour of exercise were included in the study. Individuals with known histories of cardiac issues and events occurring outside the United States were excluded. Verification of SCD was by autopsy reports and death certificates from county coroner offices and vital record agencies. Initially, 71 events were identified. Verification for the cause of death by coroner reports was possible in 45 cases, 43 (96 %) of which were confirmed to be SCDs. A total of 69 individuals 11-30 years of age (mean 17 ± 5 years) died suddenly of cardiovascular causes while participating in 15 different organized sports and a variety of nonorganized physical activities. The most common cause of death was hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (30 %), followed by coronary artery anomalies (9 %), and myocarditis (9 %). The incidence of athlete SCD, the types of sports involved, and the cardiac causes of death in our study were comparable with those of previous reports. Readily available Internet searches have the potential to be a powerful tool for identifying occurrences of athlete SCD. An active surveillance system using Google searches followed by coroner report verification can provide important epidemiologic and clinical information.

  15. Active Surveillance of Sudden Cardiac Death in Young Athletes by Periodic Internet Searches

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kristal; Pan, Yann Ping; Pock, Michelle; Chang, Ruey-Kang R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that prospective, systematic Internet searches could identify occurrences of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes, and would be useful to establish a system of active surveillance. Methods Weekly advanced Google searches of the Internet were conducted for cases of SCD in young athletes over a 12-month period (2007–8). Athletes aged 11 to 30 years who collapsed during a game, practice, or within an hour of exercise were included. Individuals with known histories of cardiac issues and events occurring outside the United States were excluded. Verification of SCD was by autopsy reports and death certificates from county coroner offices and vital record agencies. Results A total of 71 events were initially identified. Verification of the cause of death by coroner reports was possible in 45 cases, of which 43 (96%) were confirmed to be SCDs. Sixty-nine individuals, 11 to 30 years of age (mean 17 ± 5), died suddenly from cardiovascular causes while participating in 15 different organized sports and a variety of non-organized physical activities. The most common cause of death was hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (30%), followed by coronary artery anomalies (9%), and myocarditis (9%). The incidence of athlete SCD, types of sports involved, and cardiac causes of death in our study were comparable to previous reports. Conclusions Readily available Internet searches have the potential to be a powerful tool for identifying occurrences of athlete SCD. An active surveillance system using Google searches followed by coroner report verification can provide important epidemiologic and clinical information. PMID:23681420

  16. Operational Activations Of Maritime Surveillance Services Within The Framework Of MARISS, NEREIDS And SAGRES Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarit, G.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the results obtained by GMV in the maritime surveillance operational activations conducted in a set of research projects. These activations have been actively supported by users, which feedback has been essential for better understanding their needs and the most urgent requested improvements. Different domains have been evaluated from pure theoretical and scientific background (in terms of processing algorithms) up to pure logistic issues (IT configuration issues, strategies for improving system performance and avoiding bottlenecks, parallelization and back-up procedures). In all the cases, automatizing is the key work because users need almost real time operations where the interaction of human operators is minimized. In addition, automatizing permits reducing human-derived errors and provides better error tracking procedures. In the paper, different examples will be depicted and analysed. For sake of space limitation, only the most representative ones will be selected. Feedback from users will be include and analysed as well.

  17. Active and Passive Surveillance and Phylogenetic Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Elucidate the Process of Lyme Disease Risk Emergence in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Nicholas H.; Bouchard, Catherine; Kurtenbach, Klaus; Margos, Gabriele; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Trudel, Louise; Nguon, Soulyvane; Milord, François

    2010-01-01

    Background Northward expansion of the tick Ixodes scapularis is driving Lyme disease (LD) emergence in Canada. Information on mechanisms involved is needed to enhance surveillance and identify where LD risk is emerging. Objectives We used passive and active surveillance and phylogeographic analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi to investigate LD risk emergence in Quebec. Methods In active surveillance, we collected ticks from the environment and from captured rodents. B. burgdorferi transmission was detected by serological analysis of rodents and by polymerase chain reaction assays of ticks. Spatiotemporal trends in passive surveillance data assisted interpretation of active surveillance. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of B. burgdorferi in ticks identified likely source locations of B. burgdorferi. Results In active surveillance, we found I. scapularis at 55% of sites, and we were more likely to find them at sites with a warmer climate. B. burgdorferi was identified at 13 I. scapularis–positive sites, but infection prevalence in ticks and animal hosts was low. Low infection prevalence in ticks submitted in passive surveillance after 2004—from the tick-positive regions identified in active surveillance—coincided with an exponential increase in tick submissions during this time. MLST analysis suggested recent introduction of B. burgdorferi from the northeastern United States. Conclusions These data are consistent with I. scapularis ticks dispersed from the United States by migratory birds, founding populations where the climate is warmest, and then establishment of B. burgdorferi from the United States several years after I. scapularis have established. These observations provide vital information for public health to minimize the impact of LD in Canada. PMID:20421192

  18. Vaxtracker: Active on-line surveillance for adverse events following inactivated influenza vaccine in children.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Patrick; Moberley, Sarah; Dalton, Craig; Stephenson, Jody; Elvidge, Elissa; Butler, Michelle; Durrheim, David N

    2014-09-22

    Vaxtracker is a web based survey for active post marketing surveillance of Adverse Events Following Immunisation. It is designed to efficiently monitor vaccine safety of new vaccines by early signal detection of serious adverse events. The Vaxtracker system automates contact with the parents or carers of immunised children by email and/or sms message to their smart phone. A hyperlink on the email and text messages links to a web based survey exploring adverse events following the immunisation. The Vaxtracker concept was developed during 2011 (n=21), and piloted during the 2012 (n=200) and 2013 (n=477) influenza seasons for children receiving inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in the Hunter New England Local Health District, New South Wales, Australia. Survey results were reviewed by surveillance staff to detect any safety signals and compare adverse event frequencies among the different influenza vaccines administered. In 2012, 57% (n=113) of the 200 participants responded to the online survey and 61% (290/477) in 2013. Vaxtracker appears to be an effective method for actively monitoring adverse events following influenza vaccination in children.

  19. Vaxtracker: Active on-line surveillance for adverse events following inactivated influenza vaccine in children.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Patrick; Moberley, Sarah; Dalton, Craig; Stephenson, Jody; Elvidge, Elissa; Butler, Michelle; Durrheim, David N

    2014-09-22

    Vaxtracker is a web based survey for active post marketing surveillance of Adverse Events Following Immunisation. It is designed to efficiently monitor vaccine safety of new vaccines by early signal detection of serious adverse events. The Vaxtracker system automates contact with the parents or carers of immunised children by email and/or sms message to their smart phone. A hyperlink on the email and text messages links to a web based survey exploring adverse events following the immunisation. The Vaxtracker concept was developed during 2011 (n=21), and piloted during the 2012 (n=200) and 2013 (n=477) influenza seasons for children receiving inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in the Hunter New England Local Health District, New South Wales, Australia. Survey results were reviewed by surveillance staff to detect any safety signals and compare adverse event frequencies among the different influenza vaccines administered. In 2012, 57% (n=113) of the 200 participants responded to the online survey and 61% (290/477) in 2013. Vaxtracker appears to be an effective method for actively monitoring adverse events following influenza vaccination in children. PMID:25077424

  20. [Influenza surveillance].

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Karolina; Hallmann-Szelińska, Ewelina; Kondratiuk, Katarzyna; Brydak, Lidia B

    2016-01-01

    Influenza surveillance was established in 1947. From this moment WHO (World Health Organization) has been coordinating international cooperation, with a goal of monitoring influenza virus activity, effective diagnostic of the circulating viruses and informing society about epidemics or pandemics, as well as about emergence of new subtypes of influenza virus type A. Influenza surveillance is an important task, because it enables people to prepare themselves for battle with the virus that is constantly mutating, what leads to circulation of new and often more virulent strains of influenza in human population. As vaccination is the most effective method of fighting the virus, one of the major tasks of GISRS is developing an optimal antigenic composition of the vaccine for the current epidemic season. European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN) has also developed over the years. EISN is running integrated epidemiological and virological influenza surveillance, to provide appropriate data to public health experts in member countries, to enable them undertaking relevant activities based on the current information about influenza activity. In close cooperation with GISRS and EISN are National Influenza Centres--national institutions designated by the Ministry of Health in each country. PMID:27117107

  1. Minimal residual disease surveillance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Ringelstein-Harlev, Shimrit; Fineman, Riva

    2014-10-01

    Achievement of complete response (CR) to therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has become a feasible goal, directly correlating with prolonged survival. It has been established that the classic definition of CR actually encompasses a variety of disease loads, and more sensitive multiparameter flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction methods can detect the disease burden with a much higher sensitivity. Detection of malignant cells with a sensitivity of 1 tumor cell in 10,000 cells (10(-4)), using the abovementioned sophisticated techniques, is the current cutoff for minimal residual disease (MRD). Tumor burdens lower than 10(-4) are defined as MRD-negative. Several studies in CLL have determined the achievement of MRD negativity as an independent favorable prognostic factor, leading to prolonged disease-free and overall survival, regardless of the treatment protocol or the presence of other pre-existing prognostic indicators. Minimal residual disease evaluation using flow cytometry is a sensitive and applicable approach which is expected to become an integral part of future prospective trials in CLL designed to assess the role of MRD surveillance in treatment tailoring.

  2. In vivo tumor surveillance by NK cells requires TYK2 but not TYK2 kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Prchal-Murphy, Michaela; Witalisz-Siepracka, Agnieszka; Bednarik, Karoline T; Putz, Eva Maria; Gotthardt, Dagmar; Meissl, Katrin; Sexl, Veronika; Müller, Mathias; Strobl, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) is a Janus kinase (JAK) that is crucially involved in inflammation, carcinogenesis and defense against infection. The cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells in TYK2-deficient (Tyk2−/−) mice is severely reduced, although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Using Tyk2−/− mice and mice expressing a kinase-inactive version of TYK2 (Tyk2K923E), we show that NK cell function is partly independent of the enzymatic activity of TYK2. Tyk2−/− and Tyk2K923E NK cells develop normally in the bone marrow, but the maturation of splenic Tyk2−/− NK cells (and to a lesser extent of Tyk2K923E NK cells) is impaired. In contrast, the production of interferon γ (IFNγ) in response to interleukin 12 (IL-12) or to stimulation through NK cell-activating receptors strictly depends on the presence of enzymatically active TYK2. The cytotoxic activity of Tyk2K923E NK cells against a range of target cells in vitro is higher than that of Tyk2−/− NK cells. Consistently, Tyk2K923E mice control the growth of NK cell-targeted tumors significantly better than TYK2-deficient mice, showing the physiological relevance of the finding. Inhibitors of TYK2's kinase activity are being developed for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancers, but their effects on tumor immune surveillance have not been investigated. Our finding that TYK2 has kinase-independent functions in vivo suggests that such inhibitors will leave NK cell mediated tumor surveillance largely intact and that they will be suitable for use in cancer therapy. PMID:26451322

  3. The use of surveillance data and market research to promote physical activity.

    PubMed

    Fridinger, Fred; Macera, Carol; Cordell, H Ken

    2002-08-01

    Using various types of data sources for assessing and monitoring physical activity behaviors on a population level adds to our ability to explain the relationships between individuals and their surrounding social and physical environments. This article presents the findings from part of a panel presentation on available data sets at the 2001 Cooper Conference on Innovative Approaches to Understanding and Influencing Physical Activity. First, an overview of large national epidemiologic and surveillance data sets is offered, followed by a discussion on the use of market segmentation data to complement more traditional sources of data by adding new dimensions to our understanding of target groups and potential intervention strategies. The relative advantages and disadvantages of using each type of data are also given, as well as recommendations for further use.

  4. Active surveillance for prostate cancer: a narrative review of clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bruinsma, Sophie M; Bangma, Chris H; Carroll, Peter R; Leapman, Michael S; Rannikko, Antti; Petrides, Neophytos; Weerakoon, Mahesha; Bokhorst, Leonard P; Roobol, Monique J

    2016-03-01

    In the past decade active surveillance (AS) of men with localized prostate cancer has become an increasingly popular management option, and a range of clinical guidelines have been published on this topic. Existing guidelines regarding AS for prostate cancer vary widely, but predominantly state that the most suitable patients for AS are those with pretreatment clinical stage T1c or T2 tumours, serum PSA levels <10 ng/ml, biopsy Gleason scores of 6 or less, a maximum of one or two tumour-positive biopsy core samples and/or a maximum of 50% of cancer per core sample. Following initiation of an AS programme, most guidelines recommend serial serum PSA measurements, digital rectal examinations and surveillance biopsies to check for and identify pathological indications of tumour progression. Definitions of disease reclassification and progression differ among guidelines and multiple criteria for initiation of definitive treatment are proposed. The variety of descriptions of criteria for clinically insignificant prostate cancer indicates a lack of consensus on optimal AS and intervention thresholds. A single set of guidelines are needed in order to reduce variations in clinical practice and to optimize clinical decision-making. To enable truly evidence-based guidelines, further research that combines existing evidence, while also gathering information from more long-term studies is needed. PMID:26813955

  5. Using Environmental DNA for Invasive Species Surveillance and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    The method employed for environmental DNA (eDNA) surveillance for detection and monitoring of rare species in aquatic systems has evolved dramatically since its first large-scale applications. Both active (targeted) and passive (total diversity) surveillance methods provide helpful information for management groups, but each has a suite of techniques that necessitate proper equipment training and use. The protocols described in this chapter represent some of the latest iterations in eDNA surveillance being applied in aquatic and marine systems. PMID:27460374

  6. Situational Awareness of Influenza Activity Based on Multiple Streams of Surveillance Data Using Multivariate Dynamic Linear Model

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Eric H. Y.; Cheng, Calvin K. Y.; Ip, Dennis K. M.; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Multiple sources of influenza surveillance data are becoming more available; however integration of these data streams for situational awareness of influenza activity is less explored. Methods and Results We applied multivariate time-series methods to sentinel outpatient and school absenteeism surveillance data in Hong Kong during 2004–2009. School absenteeism data and outpatient surveillance data experienced interruptions due to school holidays and changes in public health guidelines during the pandemic, including school closures and the establishment of special designated flu clinics, which in turn provided ‘drop-in’ fever counts surveillance data. A multivariate dynamic linear model was used to monitor influenza activity throughout epidemics based on all available data. The inferred level followed influenza activity closely at different times, while the inferred trend was less competent with low influenza activity. Correlations between inferred level and trend from the multivariate model and reference influenza activity, measured by the product of weekly laboratory influenza detection rates and weekly general practitioner influenza-like illness consultation rates, were calculated and compared with those from univariate models. Over the whole study period, there was a significantly higher correlation (ρ = 0.82, p≤0.02) for the inferred trend based on the multivariate model compared to other univariate models, while the inferred trend from the multivariate model performed as well as the best univariate model in the pre-pandemic and the pandemic period. The inferred trend and level from the multivariate model was able to match, if not outperform, the best univariate model albeit with missing data plus drop-in and drop-out of different surveillance data streams. An overall influenza index combining level and trend was constructed to demonstrate another potential use of the method. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the potential use of

  7. Active search strategies and the SETI protocols - Is there a conflict?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarchand, Guillermo A.; Tarter, Donald E.

    1993-10-01

    The widely approved Declaration of Principles Concerning Activities following the Detection of Extraterrestrial Intelligence and the Proposed Protocol for Sending of Communications to Extraterrestrial Intelligence are examined with respect to how they apply to active as opposed to passive search strategies by radio astronomers. This article maintains that the existing protocols do not and should not impede active search strategies. An active search strategy based on the transmission of an interstellar terrestrial message using the synchronization of the SN 1987A hyperboloid is described. A brief discussion is made concerning the social 'pros' and 'cons' of an active search for humanity.

  8. Is "Active Surveillance" an Acceptable Alternative?: A Qualitative Study of Couples' Decision Making about Early-Stage, Localized Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Le, Chi L; McFall, Stephanie L; Byrd, Theresa L; Volk, Robert J; Cantor, Scott B; Kuban, Deborah A; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to describe decision making by men and their partners regarding active surveillance (AS) or treatment for early-stage, localized prostate cancer. Fifteen couples were recruited from a cancer center multispecialty clinic, which gave full information about all options, including AS. Data were collected via individual, semi-structured telephone interviews. Most patients were white, non-Hispanic, had private insurance, had completed at least some college, and were aged 49-72 years. Ten chose AS. All partners were female, and couples reported strong marital satisfaction and cohesion. All couples described similar sequences of a highly emotional initial reaction and desire to be rid of the cancer, information seeking, and decision making. The choice of AS was built on a nuanced evaluation of the man's condition in which the couple differentiated prostate cancer from other cancers and early stage from later stages, wanted to avoid/delay side effects, and trusted the AS protocol to identify negative changes in time for successful treatment. Treated couples continued to want immediate treatment to remove the cancer. We concluded that having a partner's support for AS may help a man feel more comfortable with choosing and adhering to AS. Using decision aids that address both a man's and his partner's concerns regarding AS may increase its acceptability. Our research shows that some patients want to and do involve their partners in the decision-making process. Ethical issues are related to the tension between desire for partner involvement and the importance of the patient as autonomous decision-maker. The extended period of decision making, particularly for AS, is also an ethical issue that requires additional support for patients and couples in the making of fully informed choices that includes AS. PMID:27346824

  9. Is "Active Surveillance" an Acceptable Alternative?: A Qualitative Study of Couples' Decision Making about Early-Stage, Localized Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Le, Chi L; McFall, Stephanie L; Byrd, Theresa L; Volk, Robert J; Cantor, Scott B; Kuban, Deborah A; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to describe decision making by men and their partners regarding active surveillance (AS) or treatment for early-stage, localized prostate cancer. Fifteen couples were recruited from a cancer center multispecialty clinic, which gave full information about all options, including AS. Data were collected via individual, semi-structured telephone interviews. Most patients were white, non-Hispanic, had private insurance, had completed at least some college, and were aged 49-72 years. Ten chose AS. All partners were female, and couples reported strong marital satisfaction and cohesion. All couples described similar sequences of a highly emotional initial reaction and desire to be rid of the cancer, information seeking, and decision making. The choice of AS was built on a nuanced evaluation of the man's condition in which the couple differentiated prostate cancer from other cancers and early stage from later stages, wanted to avoid/delay side effects, and trusted the AS protocol to identify negative changes in time for successful treatment. Treated couples continued to want immediate treatment to remove the cancer. We concluded that having a partner's support for AS may help a man feel more comfortable with choosing and adhering to AS. Using decision aids that address both a man's and his partner's concerns regarding AS may increase its acceptability. Our research shows that some patients want to and do involve their partners in the decision-making process. Ethical issues are related to the tension between desire for partner involvement and the importance of the patient as autonomous decision-maker. The extended period of decision making, particularly for AS, is also an ethical issue that requires additional support for patients and couples in the making of fully informed choices that includes AS.

  10. Risk Reduction Activities for the Near-Earth Object Surveillance Satellite Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédard, D.; Scott, L.; Wallace, B.; Harvey, W.

    The Near-Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat) is a joint project between Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The NEOSSat project will develop a multi-mission micro-satellite bus that is expected to satisfy two concurrent missions: detection and tracking near-Earth asteroids (Near Earth Space Surveillance: NESS) and obtaining metric information on deep-space satellites (High Earth Orbit Surveillance System: HEOSS). The former will use NEOSSat's 15 cm diameter space telescope to discover and determine the orbits of inner Earth orbit (IEO) near-earth objects (NEOs) that cannot be easily observed from the ground. For its part, the HEOSS mission will demonstrate that a micro-satellite can be employed to produce surveillance of space (SofS) metric data of artificial earth-orbiting objects having orbital altitudes between 15,000 and 40,000 km having sufficient quality to be accepted by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network. As a risk reduction effort for the NEOSSat project, a joint satellite tracking experiment was conducted by DRDC, CSA, the University of British Columbia and Dynacon using the MOST (Microvariability Oscillations of STars) microsatellite. MOST conducts precision photometric observations of bright stars and does not usually image starfields, but in October 2005, MOST returned Canada's first space based satellite tracking observations of two GPS spacecraft. Good quality metric tracking data were obtained despite the fact MOST was not designed to image, let alone attempt satellite tracking. The observations also provided an estimate of the targeted satellite brightness and the results were consistent with ground based V-band observations. These results demonstrate the soundness of the NEOSSat concept and the feasibility of the HEOSS mission. The nature of both science missions will require the NEOSSat sensor to be pointed to a different position in the sky on average every five minutes, with a goal of

  11. Potential metal impurities in active pharmaceutical substances and finished medicinal products - A market surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Wollein, Uwe; Bauer, Bettina; Habernegg, Renate; Schramek, Nicholas

    2015-09-18

    A market surveillance study has been established by using different atomic spectrometric methods for the determination of selected elemental impurities of particular interest, to gain an overview about the quality of presently marketed drug products and their bulk drug substances. The limit tests were carried out with respect to the existing EMA guideline on the specification limits for residuals of metal catalysts or metal reagents. Also attention was given to the future implementation of two new chapters of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) stating limit concentrations of elemental impurities. The methods used for determination of metal residues were inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and atomic absorption spectrometry technologies (GFAAS, CVAAS, HGAAS). This article presents the development and validation of the methods used for the determination of 21 selected metals in 113 samples from drug products and their active pharmaceutical ingredients.

  12. Potential metal impurities in active pharmaceutical substances and finished medicinal products - A market surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Wollein, Uwe; Bauer, Bettina; Habernegg, Renate; Schramek, Nicholas

    2015-09-18

    A market surveillance study has been established by using different atomic spectrometric methods for the determination of selected elemental impurities of particular interest, to gain an overview about the quality of presently marketed drug products and their bulk drug substances. The limit tests were carried out with respect to the existing EMA guideline on the specification limits for residuals of metal catalysts or metal reagents. Also attention was given to the future implementation of two new chapters of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) stating limit concentrations of elemental impurities. The methods used for determination of metal residues were inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and atomic absorption spectrometry technologies (GFAAS, CVAAS, HGAAS). This article presents the development and validation of the methods used for the determination of 21 selected metals in 113 samples from drug products and their active pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:26036232

  13. Serial Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer: Incremental Value

    PubMed Central

    Felker, Ely R.; Wu, Jason; Natarajan, Shyam; Margolis, Daniel J.; Raman, Steven S.; Huang, Jiaoti; Dorey, Fred; Marks, Leonard S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We assessed whether changes in serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging can help predict the pathological progression of prostate cancer in men on active surveillance. Materials and Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 49 consecutive men with Gleason 6 prostate cancer who underwent multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and again more than 6 months later, each followed by a targeted prostate biopsy, between January 2011 and May 2015. We evaluated whether progression on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (an increase in index lesion suspicion score, increase in index lesion volume or decrease in index lesion apparent diffusion coefficient) could predict pathological progression (Gleason 3 + 4 or greater on subsequent biopsy, in systematic or targeted cores). Diagnostic performance of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was determined with and without clinical data using a binary logistic regression model. Results The mean interval between baseline and followup multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was 28.3 months (range 11 to 43). Pathological progression occurred in 19 patients (39%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was 37%, 90%, 69% and 70%, respectively. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.63. A logistic regression model using clinical information (maximum cancer core length greater than 3 mm on baseline biopsy or a prostate specific antigen density greater than 0.15 ng/ml2 at followup biopsy) had an AUC of 0.87 for predicting pathological progression. The addition of serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging data significantly improved the AUC to 0.91 (p = 0.044). Conclusions Serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging adds incremental value to prostate specific antigen density and baseline cancer core length for predicting Gleason 6 upgrading in men on

  14. Can Confirmatory Biopsy be Omitted in Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance Patients with Favorable Diagnostic Features?

    PubMed Central

    Satasivam, Prassannah; Poon, Bing Ying; Ehdaie, Behfar; Vickers, Andrew J.; Eastham, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated whether initial diagnostic parameters could predict the confirmatory biopsy result in patients initiating active surveillance for prostate cancer, to determine whether some men at low risk of reclassification could be spared unnecessary biopsy. Materials and Methods The cohort included 392 men with Gleason 6 prostate cancer on initial biopsy undergoing confirmatory biopsy. We used univariate and multivariable logistic regression to assess if high-grade cancer (Gleason ≥ 7) on confirmatory biopsy could be predicted from initial diagnostic parameters (prostate-specific antigen density, magnetic resonance imaging result, percent positive cores, percent cancer in positive cores, and total tumor length). Results Median age was 62 years (IQR 56–66) and 47% of patients were found to have a dominant or focal lesion on magnetic resonance imaging. Of the 392 patients, 44 (11%) were found to have high-grade cancer on confirmatory biopsy, among whom 39 had 3+4, 1 had 4+3, 3 had Gleason 8, and 1 patient had Gleason 9 disease. All predictors were significantly associated with high-grade cancer at confirmatory biopsy on univariate analysis. However, in the multivariable model only prostate-specific antigen density and total tumor length were significantly associated (AUC of 0.85). Using this model to select patients for confirmatory biopsy would generally provide a higher net benefit than performing confirmatory biopsy in all patients, across a wide range of threshold probabilities. Conclusion If externally validated, a model based on initial diagnostic criteria could be used to avoid confirmatory biopsy in many patients initiating active surveillance. PMID:26192258

  15. [Active surveillance of adverse drug reaction in the era of big data: challenge and opportunity for control selection].

    PubMed

    Wang, S F; Zhan, S Y

    2016-07-01

    Electronic healthcare databases have become an important source for active surveillance of drug safety in the era of big data. The traditional epidemiology research designs are needed to confirm the association between drug use and adverse events based on these datasets, and the selection of the comparative control is essential to each design. This article aims to explain the principle and application of each type of control selection, introduce the methods and parameters for method comparison, and describe the latest achievements in the batch processing of control selection, which would provide important methodological reference for the use of electronic healthcare databases to conduct post-marketing drug safety surveillance in China. PMID:27453095

  16. [Active surveillance of adverse drug reaction in the era of big data: challenge and opportunity for control selection].

    PubMed

    Wang, S F; Zhan, S Y

    2016-07-01

    Electronic healthcare databases have become an important source for active surveillance of drug safety in the era of big data. The traditional epidemiology research designs are needed to confirm the association between drug use and adverse events based on these datasets, and the selection of the comparative control is essential to each design. This article aims to explain the principle and application of each type of control selection, introduce the methods and parameters for method comparison, and describe the latest achievements in the batch processing of control selection, which would provide important methodological reference for the use of electronic healthcare databases to conduct post-marketing drug safety surveillance in China.

  17. Salmonella infections associated with international travel: a Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Laura R; Gould, L Hannah; Dunn, John R; Berkelman, Ruth; Mahon, Barbara E

    2011-09-01

    Salmonella species cause an estimated 1.2 million infections per year in the United States, making it one of the most commonly reported enteric pathogens. In addition, Salmonella is an important cause of travel-associated diarrhea and enteric fever, a systemic illness commonly associated with Salmonella serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A. We reviewed cases of Salmonella infection reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), a sentinel surveillance network, from 2004 to 2008. We compared travelers with Salmonella infection to nontravelers with Salmonella infection with respect to demographics, clinical characteristics, and serotypes. Among 23,712 case-patients with known travel status, 11% had traveled internationally in the 7 days before illness. Travelers with Salmonella infection tended to be older (median age, 30 years) than nontravelers (median age, 24 years; p<0.0001), but were similar with respect to gender. The most common destinations reported were Mexico (38% of travel-associated infections), India (9%), Jamaica (7%), the Dominican Republic (4%), China (3%), and the Bahamas (2%). The proportions of travelers with Salmonella infection hospitalized and with invasive disease were inversely related to the income level of the destination (p<0.0001). The most commonly reported serotypes, regardless of travel status, were Enteritidis (19% of cases), Typhimurium (14%), Newport (9%), and Javiana (5%). Among infections caused by these four serotypes, 22%, 6%, 5%, and 4%, respectively, were associated with travel. A high index of clinical suspicion for Salmonella infection is appropriate when evaluating recent travelers, especially those who visited Africa, Asia, or Latin America.

  18. Association Between User-Generated Commuting Data and Population-Representative Active Commuting Surveillance Data - Four Cities, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Ussery, Emily N; Riordan, Brian; Wendel, Arthur M

    2016-01-01

    Creating environments that support all types of physical activity, including active transportation, is a public health priority (1). Public health surveillance that identifies the locations where community members walk and bicycle (i.e., engage in active transportation) can inform such efforts. Traditional population-representative active transportation surveillance incurs a considerable time lag between data collection and dissemination, and often lacks geographic specificity (2). Conversely, user-generated active transportation data from Global Positioning System (GPS)-based activity tracking devices and mobile applications can provide near real-time information, but might be subject to self-selection bias among users. CDC analyzed the association between GPS-based commuting data from a company that allows tracking of activity with a mobile application (Strava, Inc., San Francisco, California) and population-representative commuting data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) (3) for four U.S. cities. The level of analysis was the Census block group. The number of GPS-tracked commuters in Strava was associated with the number of ACS active commuters (Spearman's rho = 0.60), suggesting block groups were ranked similarly based on these distinct but related measurements. The correlation was higher in high population density areas. User-generated active transportation data might complement traditional surveillance systems by providing near real-time, location-specific information on where active transportation occurs. PMID:27632357

  19. Association Between User-Generated Commuting Data and Population-Representative Active Commuting Surveillance Data - Four Cities, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Ussery, Emily N; Riordan, Brian; Wendel, Arthur M

    2016-09-16

    Creating environments that support all types of physical activity, including active transportation, is a public health priority (1). Public health surveillance that identifies the locations where community members walk and bicycle (i.e., engage in active transportation) can inform such efforts. Traditional population-representative active transportation surveillance incurs a considerable time lag between data collection and dissemination, and often lacks geographic specificity (2). Conversely, user-generated active transportation data from Global Positioning System (GPS)-based activity tracking devices and mobile applications can provide near real-time information, but might be subject to self-selection bias among users. CDC analyzed the association between GPS-based commuting data from a company that allows tracking of activity with a mobile application (Strava, Inc., San Francisco, California) and population-representative commuting data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) (3) for four U.S. cities. The level of analysis was the Census block group. The number of GPS-tracked commuters in Strava was associated with the number of ACS active commuters (Spearman's rho = 0.60), suggesting block groups were ranked similarly based on these distinct but related measurements. The correlation was higher in high population density areas. User-generated active transportation data might complement traditional surveillance systems by providing near real-time, location-specific information on where active transportation occurs.

  20. Efficacy of different final irrigant activation protocols on smear layer removal by EDTA and citric acid.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Daniel R; Santos, Zarina T; Tay, Lidia Y; Silva, Emmanuel J; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Gomes, Brenda P F A

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different activation protocols for chelating agents used after chemo-mechanical preparation (CMP), for smear layer (SL) removal. Forty-five single-rooted human premolars with straight canals and fully formed apex were selected. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups depending on the chelating agent used for smear layer removal: distilled water (DW, control group); 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); and 10% citric acid (CA). Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to the activation protocol used: no-activation (NA), manual dynamic activation (MDA), or sonic activation (SA). After CMP, all specimens were sectioned and processed for observation of the apical thirds by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two calibrated evaluators attributed scores to each specimen. The differences between activation protocols were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used for comparison between each root canal third. When chelating agents were activated, either by MDA or SA, it was obtained the best cleaning results with no significant difference between EDTA and CA (P > 0.05). Sonic activation showed the best results when root canal thirds were analyzed, in comparison to MDA and NA groups (P < 0.05). The activation of chelating agents, independent of the protocol used, benefits smear layer removal from root canals.

  1. HORMAD2 is essential for synapsis surveillance during meiotic prophase via the recruitment of ATR activity.

    PubMed

    Kogo, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Makiko; Inagaki, Hidehito; Ohye, Tamae; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Kurahashi, Hiroki

    2012-11-01

    Meiotic chromosome segregation requires homologous pairing, synapsis and crossover recombination during meiotic prophase. The checkpoint kinase ATR has been proposed to be involved in the quality surveillance of these processes, although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In our present study, we generated mice lacking HORMAD2, a protein that localizes to unsynapsed meiotic chromosomes. We show that this Hormad2 deficiency hampers the proper recruitment of ATR activity to unsynapsed chromosomes. Male Hormad2-deficient mice are infertile due to spermatocyte loss as a result of characteristic impairment of sex body formation; an ATR- and γH2AX-enriched repressive chromatin domain is formed, but is partially dissociated from the elongated sex chromosome axes. In contrast to males, Hormad2-deficient females are fertile. However, our analysis of Hormad2/Spo11 double-mutant females shows that the oocyte number is negatively correlated with the frequency of pseudo-sex body formation in a Hormad2 gene dosage-dependent manner. This result suggests that the elimination of Spo11-deficient asynaptic oocytes is associated with the HORMAD2-dependent pseudo-sex body formation that is likely initiated by local concentration of ATR activity in the absence of double-strand breaks. Our results thus show a HORMAD2-dependent quality control mechanism that recognizes unsynapsis and recruits ATR activity during mammalian meiosis. PMID:23039116

  2. Enhancing active surveillance of prostate cancer: the potential of exercise medicine.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Daniel A; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel; Gardiner, Robert A; Taylor, Renea; Risbridger, Gail P; Frydenberg, Mark; Hill, Michelle; Chambers, Suzanne K; Stricker, Phillip; Shannon, Tom; Hayne, Dickon; Zopf, Eva; Newton, Robert U

    2016-05-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a strategy for the management of patients with low-risk, localized prostate cancer, in which men undergo regular monitoring of serum PSA levels and tumour characteristics, using multiparametric MRI and repeat biopsy sampling, to identify signs of disease progression. This strategy reduces overtreatment of clinically insignificant disease while also preserving opportunities for curative therapy in patients whose disease progresses. Preliminary studies of lifestyle interventions involving basic exercise advice have indicated that exercise reduces the numbers of patients undergoing active treatment, as well as modulating the biological processes involved in tumour progression. Therefore, preliminary evidence suggests that lifestyle and/or exercise interventions might have therapeutic potential in this growing population of men with prostate cancer. However, several important issues remain unclear: the exact value of different types of lifestyle and exercise medicine interventions during AS; the biological mechanisms of exercise in delaying disease progression; and the influence of the anxieties and distress created by having a diagnosis of cancer without then receiving active treatment. Future studies are required to confirm and expand these findings and determine the relative contributions of each lifestyle component to specific end points and patient outcomes during AS. PMID:26954333

  3. [Protocol of the animal assisted activity program at a university hospital].

    PubMed

    Silveira, Isa Rodrigues; Santos, Nanci Cristiano; Linhares, Daniela Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Animal-Assisted Activity (AAA) consists in visitation and recreation through contact with animals, aiming at entertainment and improving the interpersonal relationship between patients and staff. Permission for the animals to visit an Institution requires a protocol with rules and safety routines to avoid accidents and zoonoses. The objective of this study is to describe the important points of the protocol to implement the AAA program. The protocol includes: introduction, objectives, inclusion and exclusion criteria for animals, drivers and patients; recommendations to the handlers and the health team, responsibilities of the Nosocomial Infection Control Committee, zoonoses posters, vaccination schedule for dogs and cats, free-informed consent to take part in the program and records with behavioral analysis of the animals. We believe that disclosing the protocol, based on scientific studies, favors the implementation of new programs in institutions considering the lack of national publications.

  4. Protocols to test the activity of antimicrobial peptides against the honey bee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.

    PubMed

    Khilnani, Jasmin C; Wing, Helen J

    2015-10-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causal agent of the honey bee disease American Foulbrood. Two enhanced protocols that allow the activity of antimicrobial peptides to be tested against P. larvae are presented. Proof of principle experiments demonstrate that the honey bee antimicrobial peptide defensin 1 is active in both assays. PMID:26210039

  5. First record of Stegomyia albopicta in Turkey determined by active ovitrap surveillance and DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Oter, Kerem; Gunay, Filiz; Tuzer, Erkut; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Bellini, Romeo; Alten, Bulent

    2013-10-01

    Despite its confirmed establishment in neighboring Greece and Bulgaria, the presence of the Oriental invasive species Stegomyia albopicta (Skuse) (=Aedes albopictus) has never been confirmed in Turkey. Active surveillance for this container-breeding species was carried out using oviposition traps at 15 discrete sites in the towns of Ipsala (n=8 sites), Kesan (n=5) (Edirne District), and Malkara (n=2) (Tekirdag District) in the Thrace region of northwestern Turkey, from May 23 through November 10, 2011. Eggs collected were reared to the fourth larval instar and adult stages where possible to facilitate integrated morphological and molecular species identification. DNA barcodes (658 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I [COI] gene) were compared with all four potentially invasive Stegomyia species: St. aegypti, St. albopicta, St. cretina, and St. japonica. Sequences generated for samples collected in Thrace Region were herein confirmed as St. albopicta, the first record of this vector species in Turkey. Eggs of St. albopicta were detected in two discrete localities: (1) In the grounds of a restaurant in Kesan (in week 36), and (2) in the customs area of the Turkish-Greek border at Ipsala (in weeks 32 and 38). Multiple detection of St. albopicta eggs indicates the possible establishment of the species in northwestern Turkey. Finding this important disease vector has implications for public health and requires the implementation of active vector monitoring programs and targeted vector suppression strategies to limit the spread of this invasive vector species in Turkey. PMID:23808976

  6. First record of Stegomyia albopicta in Turkey determined by active ovitrap surveillance and DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Oter, Kerem; Gunay, Filiz; Tuzer, Erkut; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Bellini, Romeo; Alten, Bulent

    2013-10-01

    Despite its confirmed establishment in neighboring Greece and Bulgaria, the presence of the Oriental invasive species Stegomyia albopicta (Skuse) (=Aedes albopictus) has never been confirmed in Turkey. Active surveillance for this container-breeding species was carried out using oviposition traps at 15 discrete sites in the towns of Ipsala (n=8 sites), Kesan (n=5) (Edirne District), and Malkara (n=2) (Tekirdag District) in the Thrace region of northwestern Turkey, from May 23 through November 10, 2011. Eggs collected were reared to the fourth larval instar and adult stages where possible to facilitate integrated morphological and molecular species identification. DNA barcodes (658 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I [COI] gene) were compared with all four potentially invasive Stegomyia species: St. aegypti, St. albopicta, St. cretina, and St. japonica. Sequences generated for samples collected in Thrace Region were herein confirmed as St. albopicta, the first record of this vector species in Turkey. Eggs of St. albopicta were detected in two discrete localities: (1) In the grounds of a restaurant in Kesan (in week 36), and (2) in the customs area of the Turkish-Greek border at Ipsala (in weeks 32 and 38). Multiple detection of St. albopicta eggs indicates the possible establishment of the species in northwestern Turkey. Finding this important disease vector has implications for public health and requires the implementation of active vector monitoring programs and targeted vector suppression strategies to limit the spread of this invasive vector species in Turkey.

  7. Using Animation in Active Learning Tool to Detect Possible Attacks in Cryptographic Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Mayouf, Mabroka; Shukur, Zarina

    Interactive Visualization tools for active learning of generic cryptographic protocols are very few. Although these tools provide the possibility to engage the learner by asking him to describe a cryptographic protocol using a simple visual metaphor to represent the abstraction of the concepts being visualized, the problem is that some cryptographic operations are not visualized or animated and hidden from the learner's perspective such as encryption/decryption actions. Other operations are not supported by these tools such as timestamp and freshness. So, it's difficult to cover all possible attack that the intruder might employ with such operations are missing. The purpose of this research is to provide an interactive visualization tool for teaching undergraduate students security protocols concepts especially key distribution, multiple operations such as encryption/decryption and signed/unsigned operations, and possible protocol attacks. By designing a high quality graphical user interface and simple visual metaphor, learners will be able to specify the protocols and consider the possible attack at each step of protocol demonstration.

  8. Prostatic and dietary omega-3 fatty acids and prostate cancer progression during active surveillance.

    PubMed

    Moreel, Xavier; Allaire, Janie; Léger, Caroline; Caron, André; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Lamarche, Benoît; Julien, Pierre; Desmeules, Patrice; Têtu, Bernard; Fradet, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    The association between omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids and prostate cancer has been widely studied. However, little is known about the impact of prostate tissue fatty acid content on prostate cancer progression. We hypothesized that compared with the estimated dietary ω-3 fatty acids intake and the ω-3 fatty acids levels measured in red blood cells (RBC), the prostate tissue ω-3 fatty acid content is more strongly related to prostate cancer progression. We present the initial observations from baseline data of a phase II clinical trial conducted in a cohort of 48 untreated men affected with low-risk prostate cancer, managed under active surveillance. These men underwent a first repeat biopsy session within 6 months after the initial diagnosis of low-risk prostate cancer, at which time 29% of the men had progressed from a Gleason score of 6 to a Gleason score of 7. At the first repeat biopsy session, fatty acid levels were assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire, and determined in the RBC and in the prostate tissue biopsy. We found that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer progression when measured directly in the prostate tissue. Thus, this initial interim study analysis suggests that prostate tissue ω-3 fatty acids, especially EPA, may be protective against prostate cancer progression in men with low-risk prostate cancer.

  9. The uptake of active surveillance for the management of prostate cancer: A population-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Patrick O.; Alibhai, Shabbir M.H.; Panzarella, Tony; Klotz, Laurence; Komisarenko, Maria; Fleshner, Neil E.; Urbach, David; Finelli, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Active surveillance (AS) is a strategy for the management of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). However, few studies have assessed the uptake of AS at a population level and none of these were based on a Canadian population. Therefore, our objectives were to estimate the proportion of men being managed by AS in Ontario and to assess the factors associated with its uptake. Methods: This was a retrospective, population-based study using administrative databases from the province of Ontario to identify men ≤75 years diagnosed with localized PCa between 2002 and 2010. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the proportion of men managed by AS, whereas mixed models were used to assess the factors associated with the uptake of AS. Results: 45 691 men met our inclusion criteria. Of these, 18% were managed by AS. Over time, the rates of AS increased significantly from 11% to 21% (p<0.001). Older age, residing in an urban centre, being diagnosed in the later years of the study period, having a neighborhood income in the highest quintile, and being managed by urologists were all associated with greater odds of receiving AS. Conclusions: There has been a steady increase in the uptake of AS between 2002 and 2010. However, only 18% of men diagnosed with localized PCa were managed by AS during the study period. The decisions to adopt AS were influenced by several individual and physician characteristics. The data suggest that there is significant opportunity for more widespread adoption of AS. PMID:27800055

  10. Third-Grader's Think-Aloud Protocols: Types of Reading Activities in Reading an Expository Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellings, Gonny; Aarnoutse, Cor; van Leeuwe, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the reading activities of young readers, while reading an expository text. A total of 24 third-graders was administered a think-aloud task on two occasions. Their protocols were analysed by a coding system that captured two levels of the reading process: the word identification level and the reading comprehension…

  11. The importance of active surveillance, and immediate re-biopsy in low-risk prostate cancer: The largest series from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Bayar, Göksel; Horasanlı, Kaya; Acinikli, Hüseyin; Tanrıverdi, Orhan; Dalkılıç, Ayhan; Arısan, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate long-term outcomes of active surveillance (AS) applied in low-risk prostate cancer patients, and the impact of re-biopsy results on the prediction of progression. Material and methods In our clinic, patients who had undergone AS for low-risk localized prostate cancer between the years 2005–2013 were included in the study. Our AS criteria are Gleason score ≤6, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level <10 ng/mL, number of positive cores <3, maximum cancer involvement ratio <50% each core. Immediate re-biopsy (within 3 months) was performed to 65 patients who accepted AS. Finally, 43 patients who met re-biopsy criteria were included in the study. Prostate biopsy specimens were harvested from 12 cores under the guidance of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). Re-biopsy was performed within 3 months (1–12 weeks). In re-biopsy, a total of 20 core biopsies were performed including the far lateral (6 cores) and transition zone (2 cores) in addition to standard 12 core biopsy. Our follow-up protocol is PSA measurement and digital rectal examination (DRE) every 3 months within the first 2 years, than every 6 months. Control biopsies was performed one year later and once upon every 3 years to patients whose PSA levels and DREs were normal at follow-up visits. More than 2 tumor invaded cores or 50% tumor in one core, and Gleason score exceeding 6 points were accepted as indications for definitive treatment. Patients were divided into two groups by re-biopsy results and compared according to the time to progression. We have done multivariate regression analysis to predict prognosis by using data on age, PSA level, and detection of tumor in re-biopsy specimens. Results Patients’ median age was 61 years and PSA level was 5 (2.7–9) ng/mL. Tumor was detected in 22 (34%) patients at re-biopsy and they underwent definitive treatment. Additionally tumor was detected in 9 patients, but active surveillance was maintained because their pathologic results met active

  12. A Multi-Institutional Evaluation of Active Surveillance for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eggener, Scott E; Mueller, Alex; Berglund, Ryan K; Ayyathurai, Raj; Soloway, Cindy; Soloway, Mark S; Abouassaly, Robert; Klein, Eric A; Jones, Steven J; Zappavigna, Chris; Goldenberg, Larry; Scardino, Peter T; Eastham, James A; Guillonneau, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Purpose For select men with low-risk prostate cancer, active surveillance (AS) is more often being considered a management strategy. In a multicenter retrospective study we evaluated the actuarial rates and predictors of remaining on AS, incidence of cancer progression, and pathologic findings of delayed radical prostatectomy. Methods A cohort of 262 men from four institutions met the following inclusion criteria: age ≤75, PSA ≤10 ng/ml, clinical stage T1-T2a, biopsy Gleason sum ≤6, ≤3 positive cores at diagnostic biopsy, a repeat biopsy before AS, and no treatment for six months following the repeat biopsy. AS started on the date of the second biopsy. Actuarial rates of remaining on AS were calculated and univariate Cox regression used to assess predictors of discontinuing AS. Results With a median follow-up of 29 months 43 patients ultimately received active treatment. The two and five-year probabilities of remaining on AS were 91% and 75%, respectively. Patients with cancer on the second biopsy (HR=2.23; 95% CI: 1.23–4.06; p=0.007) and a higher number of cancerous cores from the two biopsies combined (p=0.002) were more likely to undergo treatment. Age, PSA, clinical stage, prostate volume, and number of total biopsy cores sampled were not predictive of outcome. One patient developed skeletal metastases 38 months after starting AS. Of the 43 patients undergoing delayed treatment, 41 (95%) are without disease progression at a median of 23 months following treatment. Conclusions With a median follow-up of 29 months, AS for select patients appears to be safe and associated with a low risk of systemic progression. Cancer at restaging biopsy and a higher total number of cancerous cores are associated with a lower likelihood of remaining on AS. A restaging biopsy should be strongly considered to finalize eligibility for AS. PMID:19233410

  13. Survey of Software Problems with Impacts to 'Campout' Protocol Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Prebreathe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diderich, Greg; Matty, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    During International Space Station campout protocol ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) preparations, the crew is isolated overnight in the small airlock volume in a reduced pressure, oxygen enriched atmosphere. As such, there are special considerations for the software in terms of air composition, pressure control and emergency responses. For one, the ISS software must monitor and manage two distinct atmospheres. Also, the small airlock volume is especially sensitive to small changes in the environment, and what would be a minor emergency in the larger vehicle volume can have catastrophic results in the isolated airlock. Finally, in cases of emergency, the crew needs to rapidly egress the airlock, which requires an aggressive automatic repressurization to equalize pressure on the hatch. This paper will describe the software which is modified for the airlock campout protocol. In addition, the paper will describe the software problems and hardware problems with software workarounds which have affected campout protocol.

  14. A bacterial cyclic dinucleotide activates the cytosolic surveillance pathway and mediates innate resistance to tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Bappaditya; Dey, Ruchi Jain; Cheung, Laurene S.; Pokkali, Supriya; Guo, Haidan; Lee, Jong-Hee; Bishai, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Detection of cyclic-di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP), a bacterial second messenger, by the host cytoplasmic surveillance pathway (CSP) is known to elicit Type I interferon responses critical for antimicrobial defense1–3. However, the mechanisms and role of c-di-AMP signaling in Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence remain unclear. Here we show that resistance to tuberculosis (TB) requires CSP-mediated detection of c-di-AMP produced by M. tuberculosis and that levels of c-di-AMP modulate the fate of infection. We found that a di-adenylate cyclase (disA or dacA)4 over-expressing M. tuberculosis strain that secretes excess c-di-AMP activates the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) pathway with enhanced levels of IFN-β, elicits increased macrophage autophagy, and exhibits significant attenuation in mice. We show that c-di-AMP-mediated IFN-β induction during M. tuberculosis infection requires stimulator of interferon genes (STING)5-signaling. We observed that c-di-AMP induction of IFN-β is independent of the cytosolic nucleic acid receptor cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS)6–7, but cGAS nevertheless contributes substantially to the overall IFN-β response to M. tuberculosis infection. In sum, our results reveal c-di-AMP to be a key mycobacterial pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) driving host Type I IFN responses and autophagy. These findings suggest that modulating the levels of this small molecule may lead to novel immunotherapeutic strategies against TB. PMID:25730264

  15. Passive Surveillance of Ixodes scapularis (Say), Their Biting Activity, and Associated Pathogens in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guang; Mather, Thomas N.; Hollingsworth, Craig S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A passive surveillance of tick-borne pathogens was conducted over a 7-year period (2006–2012), in which a total of 3551 ticks were submitted to the University of Massachusetts for PCR testing. The vast majority of these ticks were Ixodes scapularis from Massachusetts (N = 2088) and hence were the focus of further analysis. Two TaqMan duplex qPCR assays were developed to test I. scapularis ticks for the presence of three human pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti. I. scapularis submissions were concentrated from Cape Cod, the eastern half of the state outside of the Boston metropolitan area, parts of Franklin and Hampshire counties along the Quabbin Reservoir watershed, and southwestern Berkshire county. Differences in seasonal activity pattern were observed for different developmental stages of I. scapularis. The largest proportion of tick bite victims were age 9 years and under. Nymphal ticks were found more often on lower extremities of their hosts, while more adult ticks were found on the head. Overall infection rate of B. burgdorferi, A. phagocytophilum, and B. microti in human-biting ticks was 29.6%, 4.6%, and 1.8%, respectively. B. burgdorferi-infected ticks were widely distributed, but A. phagocytophilum- and B. microti-infected I. scapularis were found mainly in the eastern half of the state. We found that 1.8%, 1.0%, and 0.4% of ticks were coinfected by B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi and B. microti, and A. phagocytophilum and B. microti, respectively, and 0.3% of ticks had triple coinfection. PMID:27248292

  16. Analysis of expanded criteria to select candidates for active surveillance of low-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Jung Ki; Lee, Han Sol; Lee, Young Ik; Lee, Sang Eun; Hong, Sung Kyu

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the value of each criterion for clinically insignificant prostate cancer (PCa) in the selection of men for active surveillance (AS) of low-risk PCa. We identified 532 men who were treated with radical prostatectomy from 2006 to 2013 who met 4 or all 5 of the criteria for clinically insignificant PCa (clinical stage ≤ T1, prostate specific antigen [PSA] density ≤ 0.15, biopsy Gleason score ≤ 6, number of positive biopsy cores ≤ 2, and no core with > 50% involvement) and analyzed their pathologic and biochemical outcomes. Patients who met all 5 criteria for clinically insignificant PCa were designated as group A (n = 172), and those who met 4 of 5 criteria were designated as group B (n = 360). The association of each criterion with adverse pathologic features was assessed via logistic regression analyses. Comparison of group A and B and also logistic regression analyses showed that PSA density > 0.15 ng ml−1 and high (≥7) biopsy Gleason score were associated with adverse pathologic features. Higher (> T1c) clinical stage was not associated with any adverse pathologic features. Although ≤ 3 positive cores were not associated with any adverse pathology, ≥4 positive cores were associated with higher risk of extracapsular extension. Among potential candidates for AS, PSA density > 0.15 ng ml−1 and biopsy Gleason score > 6 pose significantly higher risks of harboring more aggressive disease. The eligibility criteria for AS may be expanded to include men with clinical stage T2 tumor and 3 positive cores. PMID:25432498

  17. Control of dengue fever with active surveillance and the use of insecticidal aerosol cans.

    PubMed

    Osaka, K; Ha, D Q; Sakakihara, Y; Khiem, H B; Umenai, T

    1999-09-01

    An interventional study was conducted in southern Vietnam to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a new approach to control dengue fever. The approach consisted of active surveillance of dengue patients and the use of insecticidal aerosol cans. Febrile patients were tested serologically at local health centers and insecticidal aerosol cans were given to the family and employed in the neighborhood of dengue patients instead of ultra low volume (ULV) fogging with insecticide. The number of dengue IgM antibody positive cases among febrile patients, the number of reported dengue hemorrhagic fever patients and the total cost were compared in the 2 approaches (prompt focal ULV fogging and the use of insecticidal aerosol cans) in 1997. The aerosol cans were employed 5 times (in June, July, August, September and October) in the study area. ULV fogging in the control area was performed 5 times (in March, May, July, August and September). Twenty-two serologically positive cases were found in the study area which was about half that found in the control area (43 cases). A total of 16 dengue hemorrhagic fever patients was reported in the study area and 43 in the control area. Compared with the reported numbers of the previous year, the reduction rate in the number of dengue hemorrhagic fever cases was 71.4% in the study area and 51.7% in the control area. There were statistically significant differences in the morbidity of dengue fever and the reduction rate of dengue hemorrhagic fever. The cost of the insecticidal aerosol cans was US$393 which was lower than the cost of US$553 for ULV fogging. The findings suggest that insecticidal aerosol cans were effective and feasible for dengue fever control.

  18. Analysis of expanded criteria to select candidates for active surveillance of low-risk prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jung Ki; Lee, Han Sol; Lee, Young Ik; Lee, Sang Eun; Hong, Sung Kyu

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the value of each criterion for clinically insignificant prostate cancer (PCa) in the selection of men for active surveillance (AS) of low-risk PCa. We identified 532 men who were treated with radical prostatectomy from 2006 to 2013 who met 4 or all 5 of the criteria for clinically insignificant PCa (clinical stage ≤ T1, prostate specific antigen [PSA] density ≤ 0.15, biopsy Gleason score ≤ 6, number of positive biopsy cores ≤ 2, and no core with > 50% involvement) and analyzed their pathologic and biochemical outcomes. Patients who met all 5 criteria for clinically insignificant PCa were designated as group A (n = 172), and those who met 4 of 5 criteria were designated as group B (n = 360). The association of each criterion with adverse pathologic features was assessed via logistic regression analyses. Comparison of group A and B and also logistic regression analyses showed that PSA density > 0.15 ng ml-1 and high (≥7) biopsy Gleason score were associated with adverse pathologic features. Higher (> T1c) clinical stage was not associated with any adverse pathologic features. Although ≤ 3 positive cores were not associated with any adverse pathology, ≥4 positive cores were associated with higher risk of extracapsular extension. Among potential candidates for AS, PSA density > 0.15 ng ml-1 and biopsy Gleason score > 6 pose significantly higher risks of harboring more aggressive disease. The eligibility criteria for AS may be expanded to include men with clinical stage T2 tumor and 3 positive cores.

  19. Presence, Distribution, and Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Small Animal Teaching Hospital: A Year-Long Active Surveillance Targeting Dogs and Their Environment

    PubMed Central

    van Balen, Joany; Kelley, Christina; Nava-Hoet, Rocio C.; Bateman, Shane; Hillier, Andrew; Dyce, Jonathan; Wittum, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is known to be present in small animal veterinary clinical environments. However, a better understanding of the ecology and dynamics of MRSA in these environments is necessary for the development of effective infectious disease prevention and control programs. To achieve this goal, a yearlong active MRSA surveillance program was established at The Ohio State University (OSU) Veterinary Medical Center to describe the spatial and molecular epidemiology of this bacterium in the small animal hospital. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, and dendrogram analysis were used to characterize and analyze the 81 environmental and 37 canine-origin MRSA isolates obtained during monthly sampling events. Overall, 13.5% of surfaces were contaminated with MRSA at 1 or more sampling times throughout the year. The majority of the environmental and canine isolates were SCCmec type II (93.8% and 86.5%, respectively) and USA100 (90.1% and 86.5%, respectively). By PFGE analysis, these isolates were found to be closely related, which reflects a low diversity of MRSA strains circulating in the hospital. For 5 consecutive months, 1 unique pulsotype was the most prevalent across the medical services and was recovered from a variety of surfaces and hospital locations. Carts/gurneys, doors, and examination tables/floors were the most frequently contaminated surfaces. Some surfaces maintained the same pulsotypes for 3 consecutive months. Molecular analysis found that incoming MRSA-positive dogs were capable of introducing a new pulsotype into the hospital environment during the surveillance period. Our results suggest that once a MRSA strain is introduced into the hospital environment, it can be maintained and spread for extended periods of time. These findings can aid in the development of biosecurity and biocontainment protocols

  20. Establishing nurse-led active surveillance for men with localised prostate cancer: development and formative evaluation of a model of care in the ProtecT trial

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Julia; Holding, Peter N; Bonnington, Susan; Rooshenas, Leila; Lane, J Athene; Salter, C Elizabeth; Tilling, Kate; Speakman, Mark J; Brewster, Simon F; Evans, Simon; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop a nurse-led, urologist-supported model of care for men managed by active surveillance or active monitoring (AS/AM) for localised prostate cancer and provide a formative evaluation of its acceptability to patients, clinicians and nurses. Nurse-led care, comprising an explicit nurse-led protocol with support from urologists, was developed as part of the AM arm of the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Design Interviews and questionnaire surveys of clinicians, nurses and patients assessed acceptability. Setting Nurse-led clinics were established in 9 centres in the ProtecT trial and compared with 3 non-ProtecT urology centres elsewhere in UK. Participants Within ProtecT, 22 men receiving AM nurse-led care were interviewed about experiences of care; 11 urologists and 23 research nurses delivering ProtecT trial care completed a questionnaire about its acceptability; 20 men managed in urology clinics elsewhere in the UK were interviewed about models of AS/AM care; 12 urologists and three specialist nurses working in these clinics were also interviewed about management of AS/AM. Results Nurse-led care was commended by ProtecT trial participants, who valued the flexibility, accessibility and continuity of the service and felt confident about the quality of care. ProtecT consultant urologists and nurses also rated it highly, identifying continuity of care and resource savings as key attributes. Clinicians and patients outside the ProtecT trial believed that nurse-led care could relieve pressure on urology clinics without compromising patient care. Conclusions The ProtecT AM nurse-led model of care was acceptable to men with localised prostate cancer and clinical specialists in urology. The protocol is available for implementation; we aim to evaluate its impact on routine clinical practice. Trial registration numbers NCT02044172; ISRCTN20141297. PMID:26384727

  1. How Can We Identify the Elimination of Infectious Diseases? Experience From an Active Measles Laboratory Surveillance System in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tae Un; Kang, Hae Ji; Eom, Hye Eun; Park, Young-Joon; Park, Ok; Kim, Su Jin; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kim, Sung Soon; Jeong, Eun Kyeong

    2015-11-01

    Global efforts have markedly decreased the disease burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. Many countries have made considerable progress toward the elimination of measles. As elimination is approached, the very low incidence achieved by high vaccination coverage has underscored the need for a sensitive and timely surveillance system. In the Republic of Korea, an active laboratory surveillance system (ALSS) was implemented to supplement the existing passive surveillance system in 2006. The ALSS connects 5 major commercial laboratories and the national measles reference laboratory, where referred samples with positive or equivocal results are retested. Annually, from 2009 to 2013, 3714 suspected cases were detected through the ALSS, an expansion of 8- to 57-fold, compared with only the passive surveillance system. The ALSS, with its sensitivity and timeliness, is a reasonable strategy to supplement the existing measles surveillance system and to help identify the elimination of measles.

  2. Annual summary report on the surveillance and maintenance activities for the Oak Rige National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program for fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This Annual Summary Report on the Surveillance and Maintenance Activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program for Fiscal Year 1995 was prepared to communicate the accomplishments of the Program during fiscal year 1995. This work was performed under work breakdown structure element 1.4.12.6.1.14.20 (activity data sheet 3314, ``Remedial Action Surveillance and Maintenance``). Publication of this document meets the Life Cycle Baseline milestone date of November 30, 1995. This document provides the accomplishments for both the Remedial Action and Decontamination and Decommissioning Surveillance and Maintenance programs.

  3. Annual report on surveillance and maintenance activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1995, the sites and facilities from both the Remedial Action (RA) and Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) programs were combined to form the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) Program. Surveillance and Maintenance activities were conducted throughout FY 1996 at the RA facilities. Overall, the RA S and M Program consists of approximately 650 acres that include 14 waste area groupings with approximately 200 sites. These sites include 46 major facilities, several leak and contaminated soil sites, 38 inactive tanks, approximately 50 environmental study areas and approximately 2,973 wells and boreholes. Site inspections were conducted at established frequencies on appropriate sites in the RA S and M Program in accordance with the established S and M FY 1996 Incentive Task Order (ITO).

  4. Prostate Cancer: Can Multiparametric MR Imaging Help Identify Patients Who Are Candidates for Active Surveillance?

    PubMed Central

    Turkbey, Baris; Mani, Haresh; Aras, Omer; Ho, Jennifer; Hoang, Anthony; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R.; Agarwal, Harsh; Shah, Vijay; Bernardo, Marcelino; Pang, Yuxi; Daar, Dagane; McKinney, Yolanda L.; Linehan, W. Marston; Kaushal, Aradhana; Merino, Maria J.; Wood, Bradford J.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can help identify patients with prostate cancer who would most appropriately be candidates for active surveillance (AS) according to current guidelines and to compare the results with those of conventional clinical assessment scoring systems, including the D’Amico, Epstein, and Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) systems, on the basis of findings at prostatectomy. Materials and Methods: This institutional review board–approved HIPAA-compliant retrospectively designed study included 133 patients (mean age, 59.3 years) with a mean prostate-specific antigen level of 6.73 ng/mL (median, 4.39 ng/mL) who underwent multiparametric MR imaging at 3.0 T before radical prostatectomy. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. Patients were then retrospectively classified as to whether they would have met AS eligibility criteria or were better served by surgery. AS eligibility criteria for prostatectomy specimens were a dominant tumor smaller than 0.5 mL without Gleason 4 or 5 patterns or extracapsular or seminal vesicle invasion. Conventional clinical assessment scores (the D’Amico, Epstein, and CAPRA scoring systems) were compared with multiparametric MR imaging findings for predicting AS candidates. The level of significance of difference between scoring systems was determined by using the χ2 test for categoric variables with the level of significance set at P < .05. Results: Among 133 patients, 14 were eligible for AS on the basis of prostatectomy results. The sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and overall accuracy, respectively, were 93%, 25%, and 70% for the D’Amico system, 64%, 45%, and 88% for the Epstein criteria, and 93%, 20%, and 59% for the CAPRA scoring system for predicting AS candidates (P < .005 for all, χ2 test), while multiparametric MR imaging had a sensitivity of 93%, a PPV of 57%, and an overall accuracy of 92% (P < .005). Conclusion

  5. Dengue disease surveillance: an updated systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Runge-Ranzinger, S; McCall, P J; Kroeger, A; Horstick, O

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To review the evidence for the application of tools for dengue outbreak prediction/detection and trend monitoring in passive and active disease surveillance systems in order to develop recommendations for endemic countries and identify important research needs. Methods This systematic literature review followed the protocol of a review from 2008, extending the systematic search from January 2007 to February 2013 on PubMed, EMBASE, CDSR, WHOLIS and Lilacs. Data reporting followed the PRISMA statement. The eligibility criteria comprised (i) population at risk of dengue, (ii) dengue disease surveillance, (iii) outcome of surveillance described and (iv) empirical data evaluated. The analysis classified studies based on the purpose of the surveillance programme. The main limitation of the review was expected publication bias. Results A total of 1116 papers were identified of which 36 articles were included in the review. Four cohort-based prospective studies calculated expansion factors demonstrating remarkable levels of underreporting in the surveillance systems. Several studies demonstrated that enhancement methods such as laboratory support, sentinel-based reporting and staff motivation contributed to improvements in dengue reporting. Additional improvements for passive surveillance systems are possible by incorporating simple data forms/entry/electronic-based reporting; defining clear system objectives; performing data analysis at the lowest possible level (e.g. district); seeking regular data feedback. Six studies showed that serotype changes were positively correlated with the number of reported cases or with dengue incidence, with lag times of up to 6 months. Three studies found that data on internet searches and event-based surveillance correlated well with the epidemic curve derived from surveillance data. Conclusions Passive surveillance providing the baseline for outbreak alert should be strengthened and appropriate threshold levels for outbreak

  6. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  7. Evaluating, Migrating, and Consolidating Databases and Applications for Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Rocky Flats Site

    SciTech Connect

    Surovchak, S.; Marutzky, S.; Thompson, B.; Miller, K.; Labonte, E.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) is assuming responsibilities for long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) during fiscal year 2006. During the transition, LM is consolidating databases and applications that support these various functions into a few applications which will streamline future management and retrieval of data. This paper discussed the process of evaluating, migrating, and consolidating these databases and applications for LTS and M activities and provides lessons learned that will benefit future transitions. (authors)

  8. Using Electronic Health Record Data to Identify Prostate Cancer Patients That May Qualify for Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Knighton, Andrew J.; Belnap, Tom; Brunisholz, Kim; Huynh, Kelly; Bishoff, Jay T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The introduction of the protein-specific antigen (PSA) test in care means that prostate cancer (PCa) is being detected earlier and more frequently. The result of increased screening using PSA, digital rectal examination and awareness of prostate was an increase in the number of men with low risk cancers. Active surveillance has become a viable alternative to immediate treatment with surgery, radiation and other forms of localized treatment. Evidence suggests that there is no significant difference in mortality rates between AS and surgery. In addition, patients may potentially delay other complications associated with surgery, radiation or deprivation therapy. Methods: This quality improvement study using a delivery system science framework describes the electronic identification of AS candidates given an evidence-based identification criteria based upon national guidelines and clinical judgement. The study population (n=649) was drawn from health records of all patients who received a prostate biopsy (n=1731) at Intermountain Healthcare from 1/1/2013 to 12/31/2014. Automated and manual abstraction was performed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare AS-eligible patients to the actual treatment received to identify potential care improvement opportunities. Among those with complete data, 24.7% of this population (n=160) met “AS-eligible” criteria. 39.1% of the population had not received surgery, radiation or androgen deprivation therapy and were considered as being treated using an AS approach. 9% of AS-eligible patients did not receive AS; 27% of patients who did not meet AS-eligible criteria received AS. Estimated guideline adherence measured using area under the curve was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.66–0.73). Modest variation in criteria parameters for identifying AS-eligible patients did not significantly change estimated adherence levels. Conclusion: Implementation of evidence-based criteria for detection of AS

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Sexual Dysfunction in Men on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Shane M; Wang, Chi-Hsiung E; Victorson, David E; Helfand, Brian T; Novakovic, Kristian R; Brendler, Charles B; Albaugh, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sexual dysfunction, repeat biopsies and other demographic and clinical factors in men on active surveillance (AS). Methods Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measures were administered at enrollment and every 6 months to assess quality of life (QOL), psychosocial and urological health outcomes. Using mixed-effects models, we examined the impact of repeat biopsies, total number of cores taken, anxiety, age, and comorbidity on sexual function over the first 24 months of enrolling in AS. Main Outcome Measures PROs included the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 (EPIC-26) Sexual Function (SF) subscale, the American Urological Association-Symptom Index (AUA-SI), and the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC). Results At enrollment (n = 195), mean age was 66.5 ± 6.8 with a mean EPIC-26 SF score of 61.4 ± 30.4. EPIC-26 SF scores steadily decreased to 53.9 ± 30.7 at 24 months (P < 0.01). MAX-PC scores also progressively decreased over time (P = 0.03). Factors associated with lower EPIC-26 scores over time included age, unemployed status, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and hypertension (all P < 0.05). Higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was associated with a more rapid decline in EPIC-26 SF over time (P = 0.03). In multivariable analysis, age, diabetes, and PSA × time interaction remained significant predictors of diminished sexual function. Anxiety, number of biopsies, and total cores taken did not predict sexual dysfunction or change over time in our cohort. Conclusions Men on AS experienced a gradual decline in sexual function during the first 24 months of enrollment. Older age, PSA × time, and diabetes were all independent predictors of diminished sexual function over time. Anxiety, AUA-SI, the number of cores and the number of biopsies were not predictors of reduced sexual function in men in AS. PMID:26468379

  10. Multidrug-resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella in New York state's foodborne diseases active surveillance network counties.

    PubMed

    Solghan, Suzanne M; Dumas, Nellie B; Root, Timothy P; Quinlan, Tammy M; Armstrong, Leeanna R; Spina, Nancy L; Zansky, Shelley M

    2010-02-01

    With the emergence of multidrug-resistant nontyphoidal (NT) Salmonella, knowledge of resistance patterns is critical for appropriate presumptive treatment. This report describes the prevalence and trends of NT Salmonella antimicrobial susceptibility within the New York State (NYS) Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). The NYS Department of Health, Wadsworth Center Public Health Laboratory tested all Salmonella isolates from the NYS FoodNet catchment area between May 2003 and December 2007 for antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin. Isolate susceptibility results were linked to their corresponding demographic and clinical data and analyzed. Multidrug-resistant isolates were defined as resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline (R-type ACSSuT). Antimicrobial susceptibility for 2189 FoodNet cases (98.5% of total cases) showed 79.6% pansusceptible, 6.9% R-type ACSSuT, and 13.5% resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent but not R-type ACSSuT. Four (0.2%) isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. From 2004 to 2007, cases with R-type ACSSuT significantly decreased from 8.7% (37/424) to 4.8% (24/499) (p < 0.01). Serotypes with the highest proportion of R-type ACSSuT included Salmonella Typhimurium 17.9% (79/444), and Salmonella Newport 29.1% (51/175). Among Salmonella Typhimurium isolates, over 40% of the African-American cases (19/46) had R-type ACSSuT isolates, compared with 15.7% of the Caucasian cases (58/369) (p < 0.01). R-type ACSSuT Salmonella Typhimurium cases were hospitalized (41.8%) more frequently than pansusceptible Salmonella Typhimurium cases (24.9%), after controlling for age (p < 0.05). Length of hospitalization was not significantly different. Although R-type ACSSuT NT Salmonella has decreased since 2003 within the NYS FoodNet catchment area, monitoring resistance patterns remains important

  11. High Risk of Under-Grading and -Staging in Prostate Cancer Patients Eligible for Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Heidegger, Isabel; Skradski, Viktor; Steiner, Eberhard; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate; Pircher, Andreas; Horninger, Wolfgang; Bektic, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    Background Active surveillance (AS) is increasingly offered to patients with low risk prostate cancer. The present study was conducted to evaluate the risk of tumor under-grading and -staging for AS eligibility. Moreover, we analyzed possible biomarkers for predicting more unfavorable final tumor histology. Methods 197 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RPE) but would have met the EAU (European Association of Urology) criteria for AS (PSA<10 ng/ml, biopsy GS ≤6, ≤2 cancer-positive biopsy cores with ≤50% of tumor in any core and clinical stage ≤T2a) were included in the study. These AS inclusion parameters were correlated to the final histology of the RPE specimens. The impact of preoperative PSA level (low PSA ≤4 ng/ml vs. intermediate PSA of >4–10 ng/ml), PSA density (<15 vs. ≥ 15 ng/ml) and the number of positive biopsy cores (1 vs. 2 positive cores) on predicting upgrading and final adverse histology of the RPE specimens was analyzed in uni- and multivariate analyses. Moreover, clinical courses of undergraded patients were assessed. Results In our patient cohort 41.1% were found under-graded in the biopsy (final histology 40.1% GS7, 1% GS8). Preoperative PSA levels, PSA density or the number of positive cores were not predictive for worse final pathological findings including GS >6, extraprostatic extension and positive resection margin (R1) or correlated significantly with up-grading and/or extraprostatic extension in a multivariate model. Only R1 resections were predictable by combining intermediate PSA levels with two positive biopsy cores (p = 0.004). Sub-analyses showed that the number of biopsy cores (10 vs. 15 biopsy cores) had no influence on above mentioned results on predicting biopsy undergrading. Clinical courses of patients showed that 19.9% of patients had a biochemical relapse after RPE, among all of them were undergraded in the initial biopsy. Conclusion In summary, this study shows that a multitude of patients fulfilling

  12. Using Electronic Health Record Data to Identify Prostate Cancer Patients That May Qualify for Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Knighton, Andrew J.; Belnap, Tom; Brunisholz, Kim; Huynh, Kelly; Bishoff, Jay T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The introduction of the protein-specific antigen (PSA) test in care means that prostate cancer (PCa) is being detected earlier and more frequently. The result of increased screening using PSA, digital rectal examination and awareness of prostate was an increase in the number of men with low risk cancers. Active surveillance has become a viable alternative to immediate treatment with surgery, radiation and other forms of localized treatment. Evidence suggests that there is no significant difference in mortality rates between AS and surgery. In addition, patients may potentially delay other complications associated with surgery, radiation or deprivation therapy. Methods: This quality improvement study using a delivery system science framework describes the electronic identification of AS candidates given an evidence-based identification criteria based upon national guidelines and clinical judgement. The study population (n=649) was drawn from health records of all patients who received a prostate biopsy (n=1731) at Intermountain Healthcare from 1/1/2013 to 12/31/2014. Automated and manual abstraction was performed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare AS-eligible patients to the actual treatment received to identify potential care improvement opportunities. Among those with complete data, 24.7% of this population (n=160) met “AS-eligible” criteria. 39.1% of the population had not received surgery, radiation or androgen deprivation therapy and were considered as being treated using an AS approach. 9% of AS-eligible patients did not receive AS; 27% of patients who did not meet AS-eligible criteria received AS. Estimated guideline adherence measured using area under the curve was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.66–0.73). Modest variation in criteria parameters for identifying AS-eligible patients did not significantly change estimated adherence levels. Conclusion: Implementation of evidence-based criteria for detection of AS

  13. Visual Sensor Technology for Advanced Surveillance Systems: Historical View, Technological Aspects and Research Activities in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Gian Luca; Micheloni, Christian; Piciarelli, Claudio; Snidaro, Lauro

    2009-01-01

    The paper is a survey of the main technological aspects of advanced visual-based surveillance systems. A brief historical view of such systems from the origins to nowadays is given together with a short description of the main research projects in Italy on surveillance applications in the last twenty years. The paper then describes the main characteristics of an advanced visual sensor network that (a) directly processes locally acquired digital data, (b) automatically modifies intrinsic (focus, iris) and extrinsic (pan, tilt, zoom) parameters to increase the quality of acquired data and (c) automatically selects the best subset of sensors in order to monitor a given moving object in the observed environment. PMID:22574011

  14. in silico Surveillance: evaluating outbreak detection with simulation models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Detecting outbreaks is a crucial task for public health officials, yet gaps remain in the systematic evaluation of outbreak detection protocols. The authors’ objectives were to design, implement, and test a flexible methodology for generating detailed synthetic surveillance data that provides realistic geographical and temporal clustering of cases and use to evaluate outbreak detection protocols. Methods A detailed representation of the Boston area was constructed, based on data about individuals, locations, and activity patterns. Influenza-like illness (ILI) transmission was simulated, producing 100 years of in silico ILI data. Six different surveillance systems were designed and developed using gathered cases from the simulated disease data. Performance was measured by inserting test outbreaks into the surveillance streams and analyzing the likelihood and timeliness of detection. Results Detection of outbreaks varied from 21% to 95%. Increased coverage did not linearly improve detection probability for all surveillance systems. Relaxing the decision threshold for signaling outbreaks greatly increased false-positives, improved outbreak detection slightly, and led to earlier outbreak detection. Conclusions Geographical distribution can be more important than coverage level. Detailed simulations of infectious disease transmission can be configured to represent nearly any conceivable scenario. They are a powerful tool for evaluating the performance of surveillance systems and methods used for outbreak detection. PMID:23343523

  15. Activity and function recognition for moving and static objects in urban environments from wide-area persistent surveillance inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Bobick, Aaron; Jones, Eric

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we describe results from experimental analysis of a model designed to recognize activities and functions of moving and static objects from low-resolution wide-area video inputs. Our model is based on representing the activities and functions using three variables: (i) time; (ii) space; and (iii) structures. The activity and function recognition is achieved by imposing lexical, syntactic, and semantic constraints on the lower-level event sequences. In the reported research, we have evaluated the utility and sensitivity of several algorithms derived from natural language processing and pattern recognition domains. We achieved high recognition accuracy for a wide range of activity and function types in the experiments using Electro-Optical (EO) imagery collected by Wide Area Airborne Surveillance (WAAS) platform.

  16. [Surveillance and active search of suspected cases of hemorrhagic dengue in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Pontes, R J; Ruffino-Netto, A

    1997-03-01

    A clinical-epidemiological case study was carried out to evaluate a surveillance and active search system for suspect cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) during a dengue epidemic in the Ribeirão Preto municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil, between November 1990 and March 199. This was the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in this region. Although dengue is a growing public health problem in Brazil, and DHF/DSS has been reported to be evolving in the Americas, health officials have shown a passive attitude towards the disease, partly due to lack of experience. Reporting dengue occurrences, both of isolated cases and of epidemics, is essential to reduce mortality. The data analyzed were collected through the official epidemiological surveillance system during the 1990-1991 epidemic. Out of 2,521 confirmed cases of dengue, 34 cases of febrile acute illness with hemorrhagic manifestations were identified as possible cases of DHF/DSS, as well as two deaths associated to dengue. From these 36 cases, 12 cases were confirmed by laboratory exams as dengue with hemorrhagic manifestations. Examinations of clinical and laboratory data, and results of the autopsies suggested that the two deaths were cases of primary DHF/DSS. The difficulty of the health system in establishing the clinical suspicion of DHF/DSS was confirmed in the study. This resulted in delayed and inadequate clinical procedure. The present study also confirmed the need for a permanent active epidemiological surveillance system for the early identification of DHF/DSS suspect cases thus enabling quick and adequate control actions.

  17. [Activity of sanitary surveillances in Vilnius at the time of the Second Republic of Poland].

    PubMed

    Berner, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    At the time of the Second Republic of Poland, in March 1922, the city of Vilnius together with the Vilnius Region was incorporated into Poland. Sanitary and health negligence was one of the main problems of the city. The genesis of that situation dates back to the 120-year national bondage, when the city was under the Russian rule. Since 1915 it was occupied by the German invader, and from January to April 1919 it belonged to Soviet Russia. The legacy left by this epoch concerned bad housing conditions, problems with removal of impurities, scarcity of fresh water supply, uneven and dirt roads, which along with other bionegative factors resulted in dissemination of contagious diseases and occurrence of other health risks. In Vilnius of the interwar period, similarly to other big cities in Poland, sanitary surveillances played a significant role in controlling acute contagious diseases, inspecting sanitary conditions of living quarters, service outlets, industrial plants, sites of production and selling food articles, as well as surveillance of food. Municipal doctors supervised the work of sanitary inspectors in each sanitary office. PMID:19899609

  18. Active surveillance for Vibrio cholerae O1 and vibriophages in sewage water as a potential tool to predict cholera outbreaks.

    PubMed Central

    Madico, G; Checkley, W; Gilman, R H; Bravo, N; Cabrera, L; Calderon, M; Ceballos, A

    1996-01-01

    The 1991 Peruvian cholera epidemic has thus far been responsible for 600,000 cholera cases in Peru. In an attempt to design a cholera surveillance program in the capital city of Lima, weekly sewage samples were collected between August 1993 and May 1996 and examined for the presence of Vibrio cholerae O1 bacteria and V. cholerae O1 bacteriophages (i.e., vibriophages). During the 144 weeks of surveillance, 6,323 cases of clinically defined cholera were recorded in Lima. We arbitrarily defined an outbreak as five or more reported cases of cholera in a week. The odds of having an outbreak were 7.6 times greater when V. cholerae O1 was present in sewage water during the four previous weeks compared with when it was not (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the odds of having an outbreak increased as the number of V. cholerae O1 isolations during the previous 4 weeks increased (P < 0.001). The odds of having an outbreak were 2.4 times greater when vibriophages were present in sewage water during the four previous weeks compared with when they were not, but this increase was not statistically significant (P = 0.15). The odds of having an outbreak increased as the number of vibriophage isolations during the previous 4 weeks increased (P < 0.05). The signaling of a potential cholera outbreak 1 month in advance may be a valuable tool for implementation of preventive measures. In Peru, active surveillance for V. cholerae O1 and possibly vibriophages in sewage water appears to be a feasible and effective means of predicting and outbreak of cholera. PMID:8940432

  19. An exercise protocol that simulates the activity patterns of elite junior squash.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, M; James, N; Kilduff, L P; Dietzig, R E; Dietzig, B

    2006-12-01

    Squash is a popular racket sport that requires intermittent activity with frequent bursts of near maximal-intensity exercise. Consequently, effective physiological and thermoregulatory responses are important contributors to performance during squash match-play. Controlled field-based simulation protocols have been introduced in a growing number of sports, which allow sports scientists to investigate changes in physiology and the efficacy of various interventions in sport-specific contexts. This study aimed to develop an exercise protocol that simulates the physiological requirements of elite squash match-play. Eight elite junior squash players (age 16.2+/-0.8 years, height 1.76+/-0.06 m, body mass 61.3+/-5.9 kg; mean+/-s) completed the following in a randomized order: (1) a squash match against a player of similar standard and (2) a squash-specific incremental exercise protocol (multistage squash test [MST]) followed by the squash simulation protocol (SSP). The multistage squash test was continued for 18.0+/-1.0 min and elicited near maximal post-MST heart rates, blood lactate concentrations and ratings of perceived exertion (198+/-9 beats.min-1, 5.7+/-1.7 mmol.l-1 and 18+/-1, respectively). The SSP was 12.2 min in length compared with mean game length during competitive matches of 10.0+/-1.6 min (P=0.27). Peak heart rates were similar during the SSP and match-play (192+/-11 and 189+/-6 beats.min-1, respectively; P=0.44). Mean exercising heart rates were similar during the SSP (180+/-8 beats.min-1) and match-play (179+/-13 beats.min-1; P=0.73). Peak blood lactate concentrations during the SSP and match-play were 3.5+/-1.5 and 2.4+/-1.2 mmol.l-1 (P=0.07), respectively. Peak ratings of perceived exertion during the SSP and match-play were similar (17+/-2 and 17+/-2, respectively; P=0.64). It was concluded that the SSP closely replicated the demands of squash match-play in elite junior squash players. Furthermore, the SSP provides coaches and scientific support staff

  20. The importance of active surveillance, and immediate re-biopsy in low-risk prostate cancer: The largest series from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Bayar, Göksel; Horasanlı, Kaya; Acinikli, Hüseyin; Tanrıverdi, Orhan; Dalkılıç, Ayhan; Arısan, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate long-term outcomes of active surveillance (AS) applied in low-risk prostate cancer patients, and the impact of re-biopsy results on the prediction of progression. Material and methods In our clinic, patients who had undergone AS for low-risk localized prostate cancer between the years 2005–2013 were included in the study. Our AS criteria are Gleason score ≤6, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level <10 ng/mL, number of positive cores <3, maximum cancer involvement ratio <50% each core. Immediate re-biopsy (within 3 months) was performed to 65 patients who accepted AS. Finally, 43 patients who met re-biopsy criteria were included in the study. Prostate biopsy specimens were harvested from 12 cores under the guidance of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). Re-biopsy was performed within 3 months (1–12 weeks). In re-biopsy, a total of 20 core biopsies were performed including the far lateral (6 cores) and transition zone (2 cores) in addition to standard 12 core biopsy. Our follow-up protocol is PSA measurement and digital rectal examination (DRE) every 3 months within the first 2 years, than every 6 months. Control biopsies was performed one year later and once upon every 3 years to patients whose PSA levels and DREs were normal at follow-up visits. More than 2 tumor invaded cores or 50% tumor in one core, and Gleason score exceeding 6 points were accepted as indications for definitive treatment. Patients were divided into two groups by re-biopsy results and compared according to the time to progression. We have done multivariate regression analysis to predict prognosis by using data on age, PSA level, and detection of tumor in re-biopsy specimens. Results Patients’ median age was 61 years and PSA level was 5 (2.7–9) ng/mL. Tumor was detected in 22 (34%) patients at re-biopsy and they underwent definitive treatment. Additionally tumor was detected in 9 patients, but active surveillance was maintained because their pathologic results met active

  1. [TV, overweight and nutritional surveillance. Ads content, food intake and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, T D; Bioletti, L; Bo, C; Formigatti, M

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between television viewing and obesity in children and adults was examined in a large number of cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Some randomised, controlled trials confirmed the evidence that television viewing is a cause of increased body fatness. It seems of utility in nutritional surveillance to esteem time spent by children and adults in television watching and to evaluate ads contents and food preferences suggested by them. This editorial shows a two-years long analysis of food commercials broadcasted by the main Italian TV networks; food ads targeted on children, housewives and sport fans were evaluated; the relationship between television viewing, commercials and food intake or global lifestyle was investigated in a Piedmont's population (from Northern Italy). School projects aimed to reduce television viewing represent a promising strategy for preventing childhood obesity. PMID:14969315

  2. Lightweight Privacy-Preserving Authentication Protocols Secure against Active Attack in an Asymmetric Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yank; Kobara, Kazukuni; Matsuura, Kanta; Imai, Hideki

    As pervasive computing technologies develop fast, the privacy protection becomes a crucial issue and needs to be coped with very carefully. Typically, it is difficult to efficiently identify and manage plenty of the low-cost pervasive devices like Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID), without leaking any privacy information. In particular, the attacker may not only eavesdrop the communication in a passive way, but also mount an active attack to ask queries adaptively, which is obviously more dangerous. Towards settling this problem, in this paper, we propose two lightweight authentication protocols which are privacy-preserving against active attack, in an asymmetric way. That asymmetric style with privacy-oriented simplification succeeds to reduce the load of low-cost devices and drastically decrease the computation cost for the management of server. This is because that, unlike the usual management of the identities, our approach does not require any synchronization nor exhaustive search in the database, which enjoys great convenience in case of a large-scale system. The protocols are based on a fast asymmetric encryption with specialized simplification and only one cryptographic hash function, which consequently assigns an easy work to pervasive devices. Besides, our results do not require the strong assumption of the random oracle.

  3. Position surveillance using one active ranging satellite and time-of-arrival of a signal from an independent satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Frey, R. L.; Lewis, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Position surveillance using one active ranging/communication satellite and the time-of-arrival of signals from an independent satellite was shown to be feasible and practical. A towboat on the Mississippi River was equipped with a tone-code ranging transponder and a receiver tuned to the timing signals of the GOES satellite. A similar transponder was located at the office of the towing company. Tone-code ranging interrogations were transmitted from the General Electric Earth Station Laboratory through ATS-6 to the towboat and to the ground truth transponder office. Their automatic responses included digital transmissions of time-of-arrival measurements derived from the GOES signals. The Earth Station Laboratory determined ranges from the satellites to the towboat and computed position fixes. The ATS-6 lines-of-position were more precise than 0.1 NMi, 1 sigma, and the GOES lines-of-position were more precise than 1.6 NMi, 1 sigma. High quality voice communications were accomplished with the transponders using a nondirectional antenna on the towboat. The simple and effective surveillance technique merits further evaluation using operational maritime satellites.

  4. Effects of different sonic activation protocols on debridement efficacy in teeth with single-rooted canals

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Li-na; Luo, Xiao-juan; Li, Guo-hua; Bortoluzzi, Eduardo A.; Mao, Jing; Chen, Ji-hua; Gutmann, James L.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The effects of different EndoActivator® (EA) sonic activation protocols on root canal debridement efficacy were examined. Methods Root canals in 48 single-rooted teeth were instrumented, irrigated initially with NaOCl and divided into 6 groups (N=8) based on the application time of QMix (antimicrobial calcium-chelating irrigant), and the time and sequence of EA irrigant activation - Positive Control: 90 sec QMix; Negative Control: 90 sec saline; Group 1A: 15 sec QMix + 15 sec QMix with EA-activation; Group 1B: 30 sec QMix + 30 sec of QMix with EA-activation; Group 2A: 15 sec QMix with EA-activation + 15 sec QMix; Group 2B: 30 sec QMix with EA-activation + 30 sec QMix. Split roots were examined with scanning electron microscopy for assignment of smear and debris scores in locations along the coronal, middle and apical thirds of the canals. The overall cleanliness of pooled canal locations in the Positive Control and the 4 experimental groups were compared with chi-square tests. Results Significant differences were detected among the 5 groups (p<0.001). Post-hoc pairwise comparisons indicated that the overall canal cleanliness was in the order (from best to worst): 1B = 2B > 2A > 1A > Positive Control. Completely clean canals could not be achieved due to the absence of continuous irrigant flow for EA to clear intraradicular debris. Conclusions Irrespective of the sonic activation sequence, irrigant activation for 30 seconds during a 60-second period of QMix application appears to maximize the smear layer and debris removal potential of the EndoActivator® system. PMID:24878251

  5. Using semantic technologies and the OSU ontology for modelling context and activities in multi-sensory surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez A, Héctor F.; Martínez-Tomás, Rafael; Arias Tapia, Susana A.; Rincón Zamorano, Mariano

    2014-04-01

    Automatic systems that monitor human behaviour for detecting security problems are a challenge today. Previously, our group defined the Horus framework, which is a modular architecture for the integration of multi-sensor monitoring stages. In this work, structure and technologies required for high-level semantic stages of Horus are proposed, and the associated methodological principles established with the aim of recognising specific behaviours and situations. Our methodology distinguishes three semantic levels of events: low level (compromised with sensors), medium level (compromised with context), and high level (target behaviours). The ontology for surveillance and ubiquitous computing has been used to integrate ontologies from specific domains and together with semantic technologies have facilitated the modelling and implementation of scenes and situations by reusing components. A home context and a supermarket context were modelled following this approach, where three suspicious activities were monitored via different virtual sensors. The experiments demonstrate that our proposals facilitate the rapid prototyping of this kind of systems.

  6. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  7. Poliomyelitis surveillance.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    Attention to the 4 poliomyelitis surveillance indicators approved by the International Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (ICCPE) in 1994, has deteriorated since the Americas were declared free from wild poliovirus. The indicators are designed to measure the performance of health services and the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect wild poliovirus circulating in the community. Sensitivity is the most important characteristic of the poliomyelitis surveillance system and it is measured by the rate of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) per 100,000 under age 15 years. As of March 21, 1998, the AFP rate reached its lowest level yet in the Americas, with only Bolivia, Chile, and Honduras presenting an acceptable rate (the analysis does not include the US and Canada). The other countries in the Caribbean region and Latin America had rates under 1 AFP case per 100,000 children under age 15. It follows that only 6% of children under age 15 in the region are currently protected by a sensitive AFP surveillance system. Poliovirus may therefore be circulating silently in the region. Renewed attention must be given to the AFP surveillance indicators. PMID:12321498

  8. Development of an experimental apparatus and protocol for determining antimicrobial activities of gaseous plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyun-Sun; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2015-12-23

    There is a growing interest in the use of naturally-occurring antimicrobial agents such as plant essential oils (EOs) to inhibit the growth of hazardous and spoilage microorganisms in foods. Gaseous EOs (EO gases) have many potential applications in the food industry, including use as antimicrobial agents in food packaging materials and sanitizing agents for foods and food-contact surfaces, and in food processing environments. Despite the potentially beneficial applications of EO gases, there is no standard method to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. Thus, the present study was aimed at developing an experimental apparatus and protocol to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of EO gases against microorganisms. A sealed experimental apparatus was constructed for simultaneous evaluation of antimicrobial activities of EO gases at different concentrations without creating concentration gradients. A differential medium was then evaluated in which a color change allowed for the determination of growth of glucose-fermenting microorganisms. Lastly, an experimental protocol for the assessment of MIC and MLC values of EO gases was developed, and these values were determined for 31 EO gases against Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model bacterium. Results showed that cinnamon bark EO gas had the lowest MIC (0.0391 μl/ml), followed by thyme-thymol EO gas (0.0781 μl/ml), oregano EO gas (0.3125 μl/ml), peppermint EO gas (0.6250 μl/ml), and thyme-linalool EO gas (0.6250 μl/ml). The order of the MLC values of the EO gases against the E. coli O157:H7 was thyme-thymol (0.0781 μl/ml)protocol enable rapid and accurate determination of the MIC and MLC values of EO gases and perhaps other types of gaseous antimicrobial agents. PMID:26350124

  9. Development of an experimental apparatus and protocol for determining antimicrobial activities of gaseous plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyun-Sun; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2015-12-23

    There is a growing interest in the use of naturally-occurring antimicrobial agents such as plant essential oils (EOs) to inhibit the growth of hazardous and spoilage microorganisms in foods. Gaseous EOs (EO gases) have many potential applications in the food industry, including use as antimicrobial agents in food packaging materials and sanitizing agents for foods and food-contact surfaces, and in food processing environments. Despite the potentially beneficial applications of EO gases, there is no standard method to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. Thus, the present study was aimed at developing an experimental apparatus and protocol to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of EO gases against microorganisms. A sealed experimental apparatus was constructed for simultaneous evaluation of antimicrobial activities of EO gases at different concentrations without creating concentration gradients. A differential medium was then evaluated in which a color change allowed for the determination of growth of glucose-fermenting microorganisms. Lastly, an experimental protocol for the assessment of MIC and MLC values of EO gases was developed, and these values were determined for 31 EO gases against Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model bacterium. Results showed that cinnamon bark EO gas had the lowest MIC (0.0391 μl/ml), followed by thyme-thymol EO gas (0.0781 μl/ml), oregano EO gas (0.3125 μl/ml), peppermint EO gas (0.6250 μl/ml), and thyme-linalool EO gas (0.6250 μl/ml). The order of the MLC values of the EO gases against the E. coli O157:H7 was thyme-thymol (0.0781 μl/ml)protocol enable rapid and accurate determination of the MIC and MLC values of EO gases and perhaps other types of gaseous antimicrobial agents.

  10. Massive transfusion protocol activation does not result in preferential use of older red blood cells.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Lauren M; Triulzi, Darrell J; Cramer, James; Zuckerbraun, Brian S; Sperry, Jason L; Peitzman, Andrew B; Raval, Jay S; Neal, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Widespread, anecdotal belief exists that patients receiving massive transfusion, particularly those for whom a massive transfusion protocol (MTP) is activated, are more likely to receive older red blood cells (RBCs). Retrospective review of blood bank records from calendar year 2011 identified 131 patients emergently issued ≥10 RBC units (emergency release (ER)) prior to obtaining a type and screen. This cohort was subclassified based on whether there was MTP activation. For comparison, 176 identified patients transfused with ≥10 RBC units in a routine fashion over 24 hours represented the nonemergency release (nER) cohort. Though the median age of ER RBCs was 5 days older than nER RBCs (ER 20, nER 15 days, P < 0.001), both fell within the third week of storage. Regardless of MTP activation, transfused ER RBCs had the same median age (MTP 20, no-MTP 20 days, P = 0.069). In the ER cohort, transition to type-specific blood components increased the median age of transfused RBC units from 17 to 36 days (P < 0.001). These data refute the anecdotal belief that MTP activation results in transfusion of older RBCs. However, upon transition to type-specific blood components, the age of RBCs enters a range in which it is hypothesized that there may be a significant effect of storage age on clinical outcomes.

  11. Influence of light-activation protocol on methacrylate resin-composite evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis and degree of conversion.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Maria Cecília C; Pistor, Vinícius; Mauler, Raquel S; Lima, Débora A N L; Marchi, Giselle M; Aguiar, Flávio H B

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) and to identify the viscoelastic properties: storage modulus (E'), loss modulus (E"), tangent delta (tan δ), and glass transition temperature (T g ) of a microhybrid resin-composite light-activated by three different protocols. A Filtek Z250 (3 M ESPE) shade A3 was inserted in a Teflon mold (21 mm × 5 mm × 1 mm for viscoelastic properties; and 5 mm × 1 mm for DC) and light-activated according to the following light-activation protocols: (S) 1,000 mW/cm(2) × 19 s, (HP) 1,400 mW/cm(2) × 14 s, and (PE) 3,200 mW/cm(2) × 6 s, all set up to deliver 19 J/cm(2). Viscoelastic properties was assessed by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) (n = 3), performed in single cantilever clamped mode. DC (n = 5) was measured by FTIR on top (T) and bottom (B) surfaces, and the data was submitted to a split-plot one-way ANOVA. For DC, there was a significant effect for surface factor and light-activation protocols factor. Top surface showed higher DC than B in all experimental conditions. Light-activation protocols S and HP resulted in higher DC than PE and were similar between them. Viscoelastic properties (E', E", tan δ, T g ) were not affected by light-activation protocols. It could be concluded that light-activation protocols influenced DC but not influenced the viscoelastic properties. PMID:24740520

  12. Influence of light-activation protocol on methacrylate resin-composite evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis and degree of conversion.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Maria Cecília C; Pistor, Vinícius; Mauler, Raquel S; Lima, Débora A N L; Marchi, Giselle M; Aguiar, Flávio H B

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) and to identify the viscoelastic properties: storage modulus (E'), loss modulus (E"), tangent delta (tan δ), and glass transition temperature (T g ) of a microhybrid resin-composite light-activated by three different protocols. A Filtek Z250 (3 M ESPE) shade A3 was inserted in a Teflon mold (21 mm × 5 mm × 1 mm for viscoelastic properties; and 5 mm × 1 mm for DC) and light-activated according to the following light-activation protocols: (S) 1,000 mW/cm(2) × 19 s, (HP) 1,400 mW/cm(2) × 14 s, and (PE) 3,200 mW/cm(2) × 6 s, all set up to deliver 19 J/cm(2). Viscoelastic properties was assessed by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) (n = 3), performed in single cantilever clamped mode. DC (n = 5) was measured by FTIR on top (T) and bottom (B) surfaces, and the data was submitted to a split-plot one-way ANOVA. For DC, there was a significant effect for surface factor and light-activation protocols factor. Top surface showed higher DC than B in all experimental conditions. Light-activation protocols S and HP resulted in higher DC than PE and were similar between them. Viscoelastic properties (E', E", tan δ, T g ) were not affected by light-activation protocols. It could be concluded that light-activation protocols influenced DC but not influenced the viscoelastic properties.

  13. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance involves the collection and analysis of data for the detection and monitoring of threats to public health. Surveillance should also inform as to the epidemiology of the threat and its burden in the population. A further key component of surveillance is the timely feedback of data to stakeholders with a view to generating action aimed at reducing or preventing the public health threat being monitored. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation. Correlation of these data with demographic and clinical data for the patient populations from whom the pathogens were isolated gives insight into the underlying epidemiology and facilitates the formulation of rational interventions aimed at reducing the burden of resistance. This article describes a range of surveillance activities that have been undertaken in the UK over a number of years, together with current interventions being implemented. These activities are not only of national importance but form part of the international response to the global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. PMID:25918439

  14. A novel method of surgical site infection surveillance after cardiac surgery by active participation of stake holders.

    PubMed

    Noman, Fatima; Mahmood, Syed Faisal; Asif, Shaheen; Rahim, Noureen; Khan, Ghufranullah; Hanif, Bashir

    2012-06-01

    We describe a comprehensive surveillance system involving infection control practitioners, surgeons, administrative staff, and patients aimed at improving the postdischarge surveillance of surgical site infections. The system was able to detect 22 infections out of 538 procedures, 95% of which were detected during the postdischarge period.

  15. A critical comparison of systematic calibration protocols for activated sludge models: a SWOT analysis.

    PubMed

    Sin, Gürkan; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; De Pauw, Dirk J W; van Griensven, Ann; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2005-07-01

    Modelling activated sludge systems has gained an increasing momentum after the introduction of activated sludge models (ASMs) in 1987. Application of dynamic models for full-scale systems requires essentially a calibration of the chosen ASM to the case under study. Numerous full-scale model applications have been performed so far which were mostly based on ad hoc approaches and expert knowledge. Further, each modelling study has followed a different calibration approach: e.g. different influent wastewater characterization methods, different kinetic parameter estimation methods, different selection of parameters to be calibrated, different priorities within the calibration steps, etc. In short, there was no standard approach in performing the calibration study, which makes it difficult, if not impossible, to (1) compare different calibrations of ASMs with each other and (2) perform internal quality checks for each calibration study. To address these concerns, systematic calibration protocols have recently been proposed to bring guidance to the modeling of activated sludge systems and in particular to the calibration of full-scale models. In this contribution four existing calibration approaches (BIOMATH, HSG, STOWA and WERF) will be critically discussed using a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis. It will also be assessed in what way these approaches can be further developed in view of further improving the quality of ASM calibration. In this respect, the potential of automating some steps of the calibration procedure by use of mathematical algorithms is highlighted. PMID:15993465

  16. A critical comparison of systematic calibration protocols for activated sludge models: a SWOT analysis.

    PubMed

    Sin, Gürkan; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; De Pauw, Dirk J W; van Griensven, Ann; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2005-07-01

    Modelling activated sludge systems has gained an increasing momentum after the introduction of activated sludge models (ASMs) in 1987. Application of dynamic models for full-scale systems requires essentially a calibration of the chosen ASM to the case under study. Numerous full-scale model applications have been performed so far which were mostly based on ad hoc approaches and expert knowledge. Further, each modelling study has followed a different calibration approach: e.g. different influent wastewater characterization methods, different kinetic parameter estimation methods, different selection of parameters to be calibrated, different priorities within the calibration steps, etc. In short, there was no standard approach in performing the calibration study, which makes it difficult, if not impossible, to (1) compare different calibrations of ASMs with each other and (2) perform internal quality checks for each calibration study. To address these concerns, systematic calibration protocols have recently been proposed to bring guidance to the modeling of activated sludge systems and in particular to the calibration of full-scale models. In this contribution four existing calibration approaches (BIOMATH, HSG, STOWA and WERF) will be critically discussed using a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis. It will also be assessed in what way these approaches can be further developed in view of further improving the quality of ASM calibration. In this respect, the potential of automating some steps of the calibration procedure by use of mathematical algorithms is highlighted.

  17. Seroepidemiology and active surveillance of dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Kurukumbi, M; Wali, J P; Broor, S; Aggarwal, P; Seth, P; Handa, R; Dhar, L; Vajapayee, M

    2001-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to carry out surveillance for dengue virus infection in adults with short-duration fever, and serological study of dengue virus infection in persons without fever. Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients above 12 years of age with fever of 2-12 days duration without any apparent cause. Of these, patients who presented with fever for 2-5 days were included for virus isolation (group 1a) while those who presented within 6-12 days of the onset of fever were included for the dengue-specific IgM serology (group 1b). Group 2 included a sample of population belonging to all age groups but without pyrexia and blood was collected for dengue-specific IgG serology. Twenty-six patients were enrolled in group 1a over a period of 4 months (September to December, 1997). Of these, DEN1 was isolated in 5 cases. Group 1b included 182 patients, out of which 34 (18.68%) were positive for dengue-specific IgM antibodies. Significantly, all the positive cases were detected during the months of September to November. Retro-orbital pain was present in a significantly more number of IgM-positive cases as compared to IgM-negative cases. Group 2 included 125 cases without fever. The overall positivity for dengue-specific IgG antibodies was 77.6%, with the highest positivity of 100% in the age group of 31-40 years. It was concluded that dengue virus infection is endemic in and around Delhi with peak incidence between September and Novemver. The prevalent serotype during September and December 1997 was DEN1. Since previous epidemic of DHF was due to DEN2 type, isolation of DEN1 serotype indicates changes of another epidemic of DHF due to DEN1 serotype. The stresses the urgent need for implementation of measures to control the transmission of dengue infection.

  18. A Pilot Study for Applying an Extravehicular Activity Exercise Prebreathe Protocol to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Kristin K.; Johnson, Anyika N.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Gernhardt, Michael; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Foster, Philip P.

    2000-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a serious risk to astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA). To reduce this risk, the addition of ten minutes of moderate exercise (75% VO2pk) during prebreathe has been shown to decrease the total prebreathe time from 4 to 2 hours and to decrease the incidence of DCS. The overall purpose of this pilot study was to develop an exercise protocol using flight hardware and an in-flight physical fitness cycle test to perform prebreathe exercise before an EVA. Eleven subjects volunteered to participate in this study. The first objective of this study was to compare the steady-state heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) from a submaximal arm and leg exercise (ALE) session with those predicted from a maximal ALE test. The second objective was to compare the steady-state HR and V02 from a submaximal elastic tube and leg exercise (TLE) session with those predicted from the maximal ALE test. The third objective involved a comparison of the maximal ALE test with a maximal leg-only (LE) test to conform to the in- flight fitness assessment test. The 75% VO2pk target HR from the LE test was significantly less than the target HR from the ALE test. Prescribing exercise using data from the maximal ALE test resulted in the measured submaximal values being higher than predicted VO2 and HR. The results of this pilot study suggest that elastic tubing is valid during EVA prebreathe as a method of arm exercise with the flight leg ergometer and it is recommended that prebreathe countermeasure exercise protocol incorporate this method.

  19. Incidence of foodborne illnesses reported by the foodborne diseases active surveillance network (FoodNet)-1997. FoodNet Working Group.

    PubMed

    Wallace, D J; Van Gilder, T; Shallow, S; Fiorentino, T; Segler, S D; Smith, K E; Shiferaw, B; Etzel, R; Garthright, W E; Angulo, F J

    2000-06-01

    In 1997, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Program (FoodNet) conducted active surveillance for culture-confirmed cases of Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157, Listeria, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Yersinia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium in five Emerging Infections Program sites. FoodNet is a collaborative effort of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Infectious Diseases, the United States Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service, the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, and state health departments in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Minnesota, and Oregon. The population under active surveillance for foodborne infections was approximately 16.1 million persons or roughly 6% of the United States Population. Through weekly or monthly contact with all clinical laboratories in these sites, 8,576 total isolations were recorded: 2,205 cases of salmonellosis, 1,273 cases of shigellosis, 468 cases of cryptosporidiosis, 340 of E. coli O157:H7 infections, 139 of yersiniosis, 77 of listeriosis, 51 of Vibrio infections, and 49 of cyclosporiasis. Results from 1997 demonstrate that while there are regional and seasonal differences in reported incidence rates of certain bacterial and parasitic diseases, and that some pathogens showed a change in incidence from 1996, the overall incidence of illness caused by pathogens under surveillance was stable. More data over more years are needed to assess if observed variations in incidence reflect yearly fluctuations or true changes in the burden of foodborne illness.

  20. DNA detection on plastic: surface activation protocol to convert polycarbonate substrates to biochip platforms.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunchao; Wang, Zhen; Ou, Lily M L; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2007-01-15

    A mild and efficient surface activation protocol to convert polycarbonate (PC) substrates, e.g., plastic bases of compact disks, to biochip platforms for DNA probe immobilization and target detection is described. The preparation procedure (activation, patterning, and coupling) is simple and effective; the on-chip hybridization is sensitive and selective. Particularly, UV/ozone treatment of PC sheets produces a hydrophilic surface with a high density of reactive carboxylic acid groups [(4.8 +/- 0.2) x 10-10 mol/cm2] in less than 10 min at ambient conditions, and no significant aging or physical damage to the substrate is observed. Covalent immobilization of DNA probes via both passive (reagent-less photopatterning and coupling in bulk solution phase) and flow-through (creation of microarrays with microfluidic channel plates) procedures has been demonstrated. Subsequent hybridization shows uniform and strong fluorescent signals for complementary target DNA and allows clear discrimination between fully complementary targets and strands with a single base-pair mismatch. The surface chemistry described herein will facilitate the development of disposable plastic biochips (not limited to DNA microarrays) and the fabrication of biomedical devices that are readable with conventional optical drives.

  1. The effects of a unilateral gluteal activation protocol on single leg drop jump performance.

    PubMed

    Healy, Robin; Harrison, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Warm-up protocols are commonly used to acutely enhance the performance of dynamic activities. This study examined the acute effect of low-load gluteal exercises on the biomechanics of single-leg drop jumps. Eight men and seven women (18-22 years old) performed 10 single-leg drop jumps on three separate days. The gluteal exercises were performed within the warm-up on day 2. Contact time, flight time, peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF), rate of force development, vertical leg-spring stiffness, and reactive strength index were determined. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine differences on all variables across days. Significant differences were found for contact time, peak GRF, and flight time between days 1 and 2 and for flight time between days 1 and 3 (p < or = 0.05) with no significant difference in any variables between days 2 and 3. This suggested that the improvements in day 2 were due to practice effects rather than the gluteal activation exercises. In addition, a typical error analysis was used to determine individual responses to the gluteal exercises. The results using this analysis showed no discernible response pattern of enhancement or fatigue for any participant. PMID:24968509

  2. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Michael S.; Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A.

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  3. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  4. FY 1994 annual summary report of the surveillance and maintenance activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) Program was initiated to manage former waste management and environmental research sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals. The S and M Program is responsible for managing designated sites/facilities from the end of their operating lives until final disposition or site stabilization. To effectively manage and perform the various S and M Program responsibilities, five summary-level work breakdown structure (WBS) elements have been established: S and M Preliminary Investigations, Special Projects, Routine S and M, Inactive Groundwater Wells, and Project Management. Routine S and M activities were conducted as scheduled throughout fiscal years (FY) 1994 at applicable inactive waste management (WM) and other contaminated areas. Overall, the ER S and M Program maintains 47 facilities, performs vegetation maintenance on approximately 230 acres, maintains 54 inactive tanks, and provides overall site management on over 700 acres. In addition to the routine S and M activities, detailed site inspections were conducted at established frequencies on appropriate sites in the ER S and M Program. This document provides a summary of the FY 1994 ORNL ER S and M Program accomplishments.

  5. [Worker's Health Surveillance

    PubMed

    Machado

    1997-01-01

    This paper is part of a broader discussion on the need for more in-depth study of workers' health surveillance practices, which are most often developed empirically, without well-defined theoretical or technical foundations. The paper presents a concept of surveillance in workers' health as a fulcrum for actions in the relationship between the work process and health. It emphasizes the exposure-based perspective involved in the epidemiological approach. Risk situations and effects are placed in spatial and technological context. The model provides an interdisciplinary approach with a technological, social, and epidemiological basis in a three-dimensional structure. A matrix for planning actions in workers' health surveillance is also presented, focusing on the connections between effects, risks, territory, and activities.

  6. [Worker's Health Surveillance

    PubMed

    Machado

    1997-01-01

    This paper is part of a broader discussion on the need for more in-depth study of workers' health surveillance practices, which are most often developed empirically, without well-defined theoretical or technical foundations. The paper presents a concept of surveillance in workers' health as a fulcrum for actions in the relationship between the work process and health. It emphasizes the exposure-based perspective involved in the epidemiological approach. Risk situations and effects are placed in spatial and technological context. The model provides an interdisciplinary approach with a technological, social, and epidemiological basis in a three-dimensional structure. A matrix for planning actions in workers' health surveillance is also presented, focusing on the connections between effects, risks, territory, and activities. PMID:10886936

  7. A survey of Canadian urologists’ opinions and prescribing patterns of testosterone replacement therapy in men on active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Adam C.; Elterman, Dean S.; Goldenberg, Larry; Van Asseldonk, Brandon; Curtis, Ashley; Jarvi, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Attitudes regarding the safety of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in hypogonadal men with prostate cancer (PCa) have changed over the past few years with the emergence of case studies suggesting a low risk of cancer progression and a better understanding of the interaction of different levels of androgen with prostate cellular metabolism. This new view has the potential to change clinical practice. Methods: Active members of the Canadian Urological Association were surveyed about their opinions on the safety of TRT in men with low-risk PCa, as well as their current prescribing habits. Results: Of 57 responding urologists, 86% actively prescribe TRT in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS), 93% are involved in the treatment of men with PCa, and 95% offer active surveillance as a management option for low-grade/low-stage disease. Furthermore, 65% stated that they would offer TRT to men with TDS who were on active surveillance for PCa and 63% believed that TRT did not increase the risk of progression of PCa in these men. In terms of treatment methods, 96% believed TRT was safe for men who have undergone radical prostatectomy, while a smaller number felt it was safe for patients who have undergone brachytherapy (86%) or external beam radiation (84%). Despite these figures, only 35% of the surveyed physicians had ever offered TRT for men on active surveillance and only 42% actually had men in their practice who were taking testosterone while on active surveillance. Conclusions: The discrepancy between urologists’ beliefs about the safety of TRT and their clinical practice patterns may be due to multiple factors, such as hesitation in recommending treatment in real-life practice, low numbers of eligible patients, absence of screening for testosterone deficiency in patients on active surveillance, and patient preference or fears. Furthermore, the difference in perceived safety in men treated by radical prostatectomy vs. radiation therapy

  8. N-nitroso-N-ethylurea activates DNA damage surveillance pathways and induces transformation in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The DNA damage checkpoint signalling cascade sense damaged DNA and coordinates cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and/or apoptosis. However, it is still not well understood how the signalling system differentiates between different kinds of DNA damage. N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEU), a DNA ethylating agent induces both transversions and transition mutations. Methods Immunoblot and comet assays were performed to detect DNA breaks and activation of the canonical checkpoint signalling kinases following NEU damage upto 2 hours. To investigate whether mismatch repair played a role in checkpoint activation, knock-down studies were performed while flow cytometry analysis was done to understand whether the activation of the checkpoint kinases was cell cycle phase specific. Finally, breast epithelial cells were grown as 3-dimensional spheroid cultures to study whether NEU can induce upregulation of vimentin as well as disrupt cell polarity of the breast acini, thus causing transformation of epithelial cells in culture. Results We report a novel finding that NEU causes activation of major checkpoint signalling kinases, Chk1 and Chk2. This activation is temporally controlled with Chk2 activation preceding Chk1 phosphorylation, and absence of cross talk between the two parallel signalling pathways, ATM and ATR. Damage caused by NEU leads to the temporal formation of both double strand and single strand breaks. Activation of checkpoints following NEU damage is cell cycle phase dependent wherein Chk2 is primarily activated during G2-M phase whilst in S phase, there is immediate Chk1 phosphorylation and delayed Chk2 response. Surprisingly, the mismatch repair system does not play a role in checkpoint activation, at doses and duration of NEU used in the experiments. Interestingly, NEU caused disruption of the well-formed polarised spheroid archithecture and upregulation of vimentin in three-dimensional breast acini cultures of non-malignant breast epithelial cells upon NEU

  9. A randomized controlled clinical trial of SPA -- the Seattle Protocol for Activity in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Teri, Linda; McCurry, Susan M.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Buchner, David M.; Larson, Eric B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Evaluate the efficacy of a physical activity program (Seattle Protocol for Activity: SPA) for low-exercising older adults, compared to educational health promotion program (HP), combination treatment (SPA+HP), and routine medical care control conditions (RMC). DESIGN Single-blinded, randomized controlled trial with 2 × 2 factorial design. SETTING: November 2001 to September 2004, in community centers in King County, Washington. PARTICIPANTS 273 community-residing, cognitively intact older adults (mean age, 79.2 y; 62% women). INTERVENTIONS SPA (in-class exercises with assistance setting weekly home exercise goals), and HP (information about age-appropriate topics relevant to enhancing health), with randomization to four conditions: SPA only (n = 69), HP only (n = 73), SPA+HP (n = 67), and RMC control (n = 64). Active treatment participants attended nine group classes over three months, followed by five booster sessions over one year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-rated health (SF-36) and depression (GDS). Secondary ratings of physical performance, treatment adherence, and self-rated health and affective function were also collected. RESULTS At 3-months, participants in SPA exercised more and had significantly better self-reported health, strength, and general well-being (p<.05) than participants in HP or RMC. Over 18 months, SPA participants maintained health and physical function benefits, and had continued to exercise more than non-SPA participants. SPA+HP was not significantly better than SPA alone. Better adherence was associated with better outcomes. CONCLUSION Older adults participating in low levels of regular exercise can establish and maintain a home-based exercise program that yields immediate and long-term physical and affective benefits. PMID:21718259

  10. Increasing girls’ physical activity during an organised youth sport basketball program: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Participation in organised youth sports (OYS) has been recommended as an opportunity to increase young peoples’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels. Participants, however, spend a considerable proportion of time during OYS inactive. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate whether coaches who attended coach education sessions (where education on increasing MVPA and decreasing inactivity during training was delivered) can increase players’ MVPA during training sessions over a 5-day basketball program compared to coaches who did not receive coach education sessions. Methods/design A convenience sample of 80 female players and 8 coaches were recruited into the UWS School Holiday Basketball Program in Greater Western Sydney, Australia. A two-arm, parallel-group randomised controlled trial was employed to investigate whether coaches who attended 2 coach education sessions (compared with a no-treatment control) can increase their players’ MVPA during training sessions over a 5-day basketball program. Objectively measured physical activity, directly observed lesson context and leader behaviour, player motivation, players’ perceived autonomy support, and coaching information (regarding training session planning, estimations on player physical activity and lesson context during training, perceived ability to modify training sessions, perceived importance of physical activity during training, intention to increase physical activity/reduce inactivity, and likelihood of increasing physical activity/reducing inactivity) were assessed at baseline (day 1) and at follow-up (day 5). Linear mixed models will be used to analyse between arm differences in changes from baseline to follow-up on all outcomes. Discussion The current trial protocol describes, to our knowledge, the first trial conducted in an OYS context to investigate the efficacy of an intervention, relative to a control, in increasing MVPA. This study’s findings will

  11. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  12. Automatic association of chats and video tracks for activity learning and recognition in aerial video surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Riad I; Sahin, Cem S; Blasch, Erik P; Rhodes, Bradley J; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1) a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2) an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs) and targets of interest (TOIs) by movement type and geolocation; and (3) a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV). VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports. PMID:25340453

  13. Automatic Association of Chats and Video Tracks for Activity Learning and Recognition in Aerial Video Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Riad I.; Sahin, Cem S.; Blasch, Erik P.; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1) a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2) an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs) and targets of interest (TOIs) by movement type and geolocation; and (3) a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV). VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports. PMID:25340453

  14. Thermal surveillance of active volcanoes. [infrared scanner recordings of thermal anomalies of Mt. Baker volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. By the end of 1973, aerial infrared scanner traverses for thermal anomaly recordings of all Cascade Range volcanoes were essentially completed. Amplitude level slices of the Mount Baker anomalies were completed and compiled at a scale of 1:24,000, thus producing, for the first time, an accurate map of the distribution and intensity of thermal activity on Mount Baker. The major thermal activity is concentrated within the crater south of the main summit and although it is characterized by intensive solfataric activity and warm ground, it is largely subglacial, causing the development of sizable glacier perforation features. The outgoing radiative flux from the east breach anomalies is sufficient to account for the volume of ice melted to form the glacier perforations. DCP station 6251 has been monitoring a thermally anomalous area on the north slope of Mount Baker. The present thermal activity of Mount Baker accounts for continuing hydrothermal alteration in the crater south of the main summit and recurrent debris avalanches from Sherman Peak on its south rim. The infrared anomalies mapped as part of the experiment SR 251 are considered the basic evidence of the subglacial heating which was the probable triggering mechanism of an avalanche down Boulder Glacier on August 20-21, 1973.

  15. Overview of Randomized Controlled Treatment Trials for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: Implications for Active Surveillance and the United States Preventative Task Force Report on Screening?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer and its management have been intensely debated for years. Recommendations range from ardent support for active screening and immediate treatment to resolute avoidance of screening and active surveillance. There is a growing body of level I evidence establishing a clear survival advantage for treatment of subsets of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. This chapter presents a review of these randomized controlled trials. We argue that an understanding of this literature is relevant not only to those considering active surveillance but also to those evaluating the merits of screening. In addition, a number of important evidence-based conclusions concerning what should and should not be done can be gleaned from these trials. PMID:23271777

  16. [Opportunities and risks of 5α reductase inhibitors in the medical management of Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Linares Espinos, Estefania; Carballido Rodriguez, Joaquin

    2014-06-01

    Active surveillance (AS) as a therapeutic option is already integrated as a primary treatment strategy in low risk localized prostate cancer (PCa). There is a recent interest for the search of therapeutic interventions that result in a delay in the progression of such indolent cancers. The evaluation of the possible implication of 5 ARI drugs in the reduction of the risk of progression of PCa was enacted by the results of the clinical trials PCPT (Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial) and REDUCE (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events study). The results of the REDEEM clinical trial (Reduction by Dutasteride of clinical progression events in expectant management trial) revealed a delay in PCa progression favoring Dutasteride in comparison with placebo, being advanced age and PSA Density independent predictive factors for pathologic progression. Evidences regarding the influence of 5 ARIs in the evolution of AS patients come from few studies with limited follow up. Thus, the conclusions probably are far from being consiidered as definitive. PMID:24914845

  17. Metabolic and Energy Cost of Sitting, Standing, and a Novel Sitting/Stepping Protocol in Recreationally Active College Students

    PubMed Central

    FOUNTAINE, CHARLES J.; JOHANN, JOSH; SKALKO, CRAIG; LIGUORI, GARY A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in metabolic and energy cost (MEC) of college students while seated, standing, and during a sitting/stepping protocol. Participants were assessed via indirect calorimetry for 20 min in each of the following conditions: 1) seated in a standard office chair, 2) standing in place, and 3) a sitting/stepping protocol in which participants performed 1 min of stepping in place at 90 bpm, sat for 9 min, then repeated the stepping and sitting sequence once more. Participants completed each of the 3 trials in the aforementioned order, preceded with a 3 min acclimation period in each condition. A significant difference in MEC was observed between the 3 conditions, p < 0.001. Pairwise comparisons indicated that the sitting/stepping protocol resulted in significantly greater MEC than the seated and standing conditions (p < 0.001). Additionally, the standing protocol resulted in significantly greater MEC than the seated protocol (p < 0.001). The significant differences and large effect sizes between conditions indicate that interspersing sedentary bouts with brief activity can substantially increase MEC. Broader application of these findings may provide health promotion professionals with novel strategies to reduce sedentary behavior and improve health. PMID:27182423

  18. Microglial P2Y12 Receptors Regulate Microglial Activation and Surveillance during Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Nan; Eyo, Ukpong B.; Murugan, Madhuvika; Peng, Jiyun; Matta, Sanjana; Dong, Hailong; Wu, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microglial cells are critical in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain and several microglial receptors have been proposed to mediate this process. Of these receptors, the P2Y12 receptor is a unique purinergic receptor that is exclusively expressed by microglia in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we set forth to investigate the role of P2Y12 receptors in microglial electrophysiological and morphological (static and dynamic) activation during spinal nerve transection (SNT)-induced neuropathic pain in mice. First, we found that a genetic deficiency of the P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12−/− mice) ameliorated pain hypersensitivities during the initiation phase of neuropathic pain. Next, we characterized both the electrophysiological and morphological properties of microglia in the superficial spinal cord dorsal horn following SNT injury. We show dramatic alterations including a peak at 3 days post injury in microglial electrophysiology while high resolution two-photon imaging revealed significant changes of both static and dynamic microglial morphological properties by 7 days post injury. Finally, in P2Y12−/− mice, these electrophysiological and morphological changes were ameliorated suggesting roles for P2Y12 receptors in SNT-induced microglial activation. Our results therefore indicate that P2Y12 receptors regulate microglial electrophysiological as well as static and dynamic microglial properties after peripheral nerve injury, suggesting that the microglial P2Y12 receptor could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:26576724

  19. Safety and Acceptability of the PrePex Device When Used in Routine Male Circumcision Service Delivery During Active Surveillance in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mavhu, Webster; Ncube, Getrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Madidi, Ngonidzashe; Keatinge, Jo; Dhodho, Efison; Samkange, Christopher A.; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Mangwiro, Tonderayi; Mugurungi, Owen; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Cowan, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Male circumcision devices have the potential to accelerate voluntary medical male circumcision roll-out, with PrePex being one promising device. Here, we present findings on safety and acceptability from active surveillance of the implementation of PrePex among 1000 males circumcised in Zimbabwe. Methods: The first 1000 men consecutively circumcised using PrePex during routine service delivery were actively followed up. Outcome measures included PrePex uptake, attendance for postcircumcision visits, and adverse events (AEs). A survey was conducted among 500 consecutive active surveillance clients to assess acceptability and satisfaction with PrePex. Results: A total of 2156 men aged 18 years or older were circumcised across the 6 PrePex active surveillance sites. Of these, 1000 (46.4%) were circumcised using PrePex. Among them, 4 (0.4%) self-removals that required surgery (severe AEs) were observed. Six (0.6%) removals by providers (moderate AEs) did not require surgery. A further 280 (28%) AEs were mild or moderate pain during device removal. There were also 12 (1.2%) moderate AEs unrelated to pain. All AEs resolved without sequelae. There was high adherence to follow-up appointments, with 97.7% of clients attending the scheduled day 7 visit. Acceptability of PrePex was high among survey participants, 93% indicated willingness to recommend the device to peers. Of note, 95.8% of respondents reported experiencing pain when the device was being removed. Additionally, 85.2% reported experiencing odor while wearing the device or during removal. Conclusions: Active surveillance of the first 1000 men circumcised using PrePex suggests that the device is both safe and acceptable when used in routine service delivery. PMID:27331593

  20. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS PROTOCOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, T; P Fledderman, P

    2007-02-09

    Radiological sampling and analyses are performed to collect data for a variety of specific reasons covering a wide range of projects. These activities include: Effluent monitoring; Environmental surveillance; Emergency response; Routine ambient monitoring; Background assessments; Nuclear license termination; Remediation; Deactivation and decommissioning (D&D); and Waste management. In this chapter, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs at nuclear operating facilities and radiological sampling and analysis plans for remediation and D&D activities will be discussed.

  1. Predicting Pathological Features at Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Prostate Cancer Eligible for Active Surveillance by Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    de Cobelli, Ottavio; Terracciano, Daniela; Tagliabue, Elena; Raimondi, Sara; Bottero, Danilo; Cioffi, Antonio; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara; Petralia, Giuseppe; Cordima, Giovanni; Almeida, Gilberto Laurino; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Buonerba, Carlo; Matei, Deliu Victor; Renne, Giuseppe; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Ferro, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic performance of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PIRADS) score in predicting pathologic features in a cohort of patients eligible for active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy. Methods A total of 223 patients who fulfilled the criteria for “Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance”, were included. Mp–1.5 Tesla MRI examination staging with endorectal coil was performed at least 6–8 weeks after TRUS-guided biopsy. In all patients, the likelihood of the presence of cancer was assigned using PIRADS score between 1 and 5. Outcomes of interest were: Gleason score upgrading, extra capsular extension (ECE), unfavorable prognosis (occurrence of both upgrading and ECE), large tumor volume (≥0.5ml), and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and Decision Curve Analyses (DCA) were performed for models with and without inclusion of PIRADS score. Results Multivariate analysis demonstrated the association of PIRADS score with upgrading (P<0.0001), ECE (P<0.0001), unfavorable prognosis (P<0.0001), and large tumor volume (P = 0.002). ROC curves and DCA showed that models including PIRADS score resulted in greater net benefit for almost all the outcomes of interest, with the only exception of SVI. Conclusions mpMRI and PIRADS scoring are feasible tools in clinical setting and could be used as decision-support systems for a more accurate selection of patients eligible for AS. PMID:26444548

  2. Surveillance and maintenance activities of waste area groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Annual summary report for period ending September 30, 1991: Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.; Jones, R.G.

    1991-12-01

    Surveillance and maintenance (S & M) of 75 sites were conductd by the Remedial Action Section for the Environmental Restoration Program for surplus facilities and sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals. S & M activities on these sites were conducted from the end of their operating life until final facility disposal or site stabilization. The objectives of the Waste Area Grouping S & M Program are met by maintaining a program of routine S & M as well as by implementing interim corrective maintenance when deemed necessary as a result of site surveillance. This report briefly presents this program`s activities and includes tables indicating tank levels and dry well data for FY 1991.

  3. Assessing digital literacy in web-based physical activity surveillance: the WIN study.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Merly; Morrow, James R; Frierson, Georita M; Bain, Tyson M

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. Investigate relations between demographic characteristics and submission method, Internet or paper, when physical activity behaviors are reported. DESIGN. Observational. SETTING . Metropolitan. SUBJECTS. Adult women (N  =  918) observed weekly for 2 years (total number of weekly reports, 44,963). MEASURES. Independent variables included age, race, education, income, employment status, and Internet skills. Dependent variables were method of submission (Internet or paper) and adherence. ANALYSIS . Logistic regression to analyze weekly odds of submitting data online and meeting study adherence criteria. Model 1 investigated method of submission, model 2 analyzed meeting study's Internet adherence, and model 3 analyzed meeting total adherence regardless of submission method. RESULTS. Whites, those with good Internet skills, and those reporting higher incomes were more likely to log online. Those who were white, older, and reported good Internet skills were more likely to be at least 75% adherent online. Older women were more likely to be adherent regardless of method. Employed women were less likely to log online or be adherent. CONCLUSION . Providing participants with multiple submission methods may reduce potential bias and provide more generalizable results relevant for future Internet-based research.

  4. Evaluation of a MMW active through-the-wall surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Nicholas C.; Stiefvater, Kenneth

    2002-08-01

    This paper discusses the TWS data collected with a state-of- the-art 100 GHz radar imager developed for law enforcement use by Millivision, PPC. The system collects a cube of data consisting of 16 azimuth elements by 16 elevation elements by 256 range elements. The cube represents 11 degrees by 11 degrees by 25 m of coverage. The relatively narrow field-of- view (fov) was extended by physically moving the antenna in 11 degree segments and collecting data which is stitched together into larger images, e.g. a 3X3 stitched image represents 33 degrees by 33 degrees by 26 m of coverage. Unfortunately, this stitching process required up to 5 minutes to collect a single (3X3) stitched image. Thus, motion had to be simulated. The paper will discuss the phenomenology of the MMW radar return from various objects including walls, wall-corners, desks and other furniture, and persons simulating walking. Successive frames from a simulated move of a man and woman walking will be presented, and the actual movie shown at the presentation. Comments will be offered as to the practicality of active MMW imaging for TWS application.

  5. Effects of surveillance towed array sensor system (SURTASS) low frequency active sonar on fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Halvorsen, Michele B.; Miller, Diane; Smith, Michael E.; Song, Jiakun; Wysocki, Lidia E.; Hastings, Mardi C.; Kane, Andrew S.; Stein, Peter

    2005-04-01

    We investigated the effects of exposure to Low Frequency Active (LFA) sonar on rainbow trout (a hearing non-specialist related to several endangered salmonids) and channel catfish (a hearing specialist), using an element of the standard SURTASS LFA source array. We measured hearing sensitivity using auditory brainstem response, effects on inner ear structure using scanning electron microscopy, effects on non-auditory tissues using general pathology and histopathology, and behavioral effects with video monitoring. Exposure to 193 dB re 1 microPa (rms received level) in the LFA frequency band for 324 seconds resulted in a TTS of 20 dB at 400 Hz in rainbow trout, with less TTS at 100 and 200 Hz. TTS in catfish ranged from 6 to 12 dB at frequencies from 200 to 1000 Hz. Both species recovered from hearing loss in several days. Inner ears sensory tissues appeared unaffected by acoustic exposure. Gross pathology indicated no damage to non-auditory tissues, including the swim bladder. Both species showed consistent startle responses at sound onsets and changed their position relative to the sound source during exposures. There was no fish death attributable to sound exposure even up to four days post-exposure. [Work supported by Chief of Naval Operations.

  6. Assessing digital literacy in web-based physical activity surveillance: the WIN study.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Merly; Morrow, James R; Frierson, Georita M; Bain, Tyson M

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. Investigate relations between demographic characteristics and submission method, Internet or paper, when physical activity behaviors are reported. DESIGN. Observational. SETTING . Metropolitan. SUBJECTS. Adult women (N  =  918) observed weekly for 2 years (total number of weekly reports, 44,963). MEASURES. Independent variables included age, race, education, income, employment status, and Internet skills. Dependent variables were method of submission (Internet or paper) and adherence. ANALYSIS . Logistic regression to analyze weekly odds of submitting data online and meeting study adherence criteria. Model 1 investigated method of submission, model 2 analyzed meeting study's Internet adherence, and model 3 analyzed meeting total adherence regardless of submission method. RESULTS. Whites, those with good Internet skills, and those reporting higher incomes were more likely to log online. Those who were white, older, and reported good Internet skills were more likely to be at least 75% adherent online. Older women were more likely to be adherent regardless of method. Employed women were less likely to log online or be adherent. CONCLUSION . Providing participants with multiple submission methods may reduce potential bias and provide more generalizable results relevant for future Internet-based research. PMID:22040389

  7. Evidence-Based Referral: Effects of the Revised "Youth Fit 4 Life" Protocol on Physical Activity Outputs.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Vaughn, Linda L

    2015-01-01

    The authors contrasted 2 physical activity/nutrition treatments on the basis of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory, and a comparison condition, on time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during the 45-min/day physical activity segment of elementary after-school care. The Revised Youth Fit 4 Life protocol that sought to maximize participants' cardiovascular physical activity appeared to improve upon the Original Youth Fit For Life treatment on time in MVPA. Thus, pediatricians might have confidence in referring their patients to such evidence-based approaches. PMID:26057685

  8. Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae as leading causes of pediatric bacterial meningitis in nine Mexican hospitals following 3 years of active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Chacon-Cruz, Enrique; Martinez-Longoria, Cesar Adrian; Llausas-Magana, Eduardo; Luevanos-Velazquez, Antonio; Vazquez-Narvaez, Jorge Alejandro; Beltran, Sandra; Limon-Rojas, Ana Elena; Urtiz-Jeronimo, Fernando; Castaneda-Narvaez, Jose Luis; Otero-Mendoza, Francisco; Aguilar-Del Real, Fernando; Rodriguez-Chagoyan, Jesus; Rivas-Landeros, Rosa Maria; Volker-Soberanes, Maria Luisa; Hinojosa-Robles, Rosa Maria; Arzate-Barbosa, Patricia; Aviles-Benitez, Laura Karina; Elenes-Zamora, Fernando Ivan; Becka, Chandra M.; Ruttimann, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Meningococcal meningitis is reported as a rare condition in Mexico. There are no internationally published studies on bacterial causes of meningitis in the country based on active surveillance. This study focuses on finding the etiology of bacterial meningitis in children from nine Mexican Hospitals. Methods: From January 2010 to February 2013, we conducted a three years of active surveillance for meningitis in nine hospitals throughout Mexico. Active surveillance started at the emergency department for every suspected case, and microbiological studies confirmed/ruled out all potentially bacterial pathogens. We diagnosed based on routine cultures from blood and cerebrospinal fluid (not polymerase chain reaction or other molecular diagnostic tests), and both pneumococcal serotyping and meningococcal serogrouping by using standard methods. Results: Neisseria meningitidis was the leading cause, although 75% of cases occurred in the northwest of the country in Tijuana on the US border. Serogroup C was predominant. Streptococcus pneumoniae followed Neisseria meningitides, but was uniformly distributed throughout the country. Serotype 19A was the most incident but before universal implementation of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Other bacteria were much less common, including Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus agalactiae (these two affecting mostly young infants). Conclusions: Meningococcal meningitis is endemic in Tijuana, Mexico, and vaccination should be seriously considered in that region. Continuous universal vaccination with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine should be nationally performed, and polymerase chain reaction should be included for bacterial detection in all cultures – negative but presumably bacterial meningitis cases. PMID:27551428

  9. Adaptive maritime video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Kalyan Moy; Aha, David W.; Hartley, Ralph; Moore, Philip G.

    2009-05-01

    Maritime assets such as ports, harbors, and vessels are vulnerable to a variety of near-shore threats such as small-boat attacks. Currently, such vulnerabilities are addressed predominantly by watchstanders and manual video surveillance, which is manpower intensive. Automatic maritime video surveillance techniques are being introduced to reduce manpower costs, but they have limited functionality and performance. For example, they only detect simple events such as perimeter breaches and cannot predict emerging threats. They also generate too many false alerts and cannot explain their reasoning. To overcome these limitations, we are developing the Maritime Activity Analysis Workbench (MAAW), which will be a mixed-initiative real-time maritime video surveillance tool that uses an integrated supervised machine learning approach to label independent and coordinated maritime activities. It uses the same information to predict anomalous behavior and explain its reasoning; this is an important capability for watchstander training and for collecting performance feedback. In this paper, we describe MAAW's functional architecture, which includes the following pipeline of components: (1) a video acquisition and preprocessing component that detects and tracks vessels in video images, (2) a vessel categorization and activity labeling component that uses standard and relational supervised machine learning methods to label maritime activities, and (3) an ontology-guided vessel and maritime activity annotator to enable subject matter experts (e.g., watchstanders) to provide feedback and supervision to the system. We report our findings from a preliminary system evaluation on river traffic video.

  10. Defining 'surveillance' in drug safety.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Hauben, Manfred; Bate, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The concept of surveillance in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology has evolved from the concept of surveillance in epidemiology, particularly of infectious diseases. We have surveyed the etymology, usages, and previous definitions of 'surveillance' and its modifiers, such as 'active' and 'passive'. The following essential definitional features of surveillance emerge: (i) surveillance and monitoring are different--surveillance involves populations, while monitoring involves individuals; (ii) surveillance can be performed repeatedly and at any time during the lifetime of a medicinal product or device; (iii) although itself non-interventional, it can adduce any types of evidence (interventional, observational, or anecdotal, potentially at different times); (iv) it encompasses data collection, management, analysis, and interpretation; (v) it includes actions to be taken after signal detection, including initial evaluation and communication; and (vi) it should contribute to the classification of adverse reactions and their prevention or mitigation and/or to the harnessing of beneficial effects. We conclude that qualifiers add ambiguity and uncertainty without enhancing the idea of surveillance. We propose the following definition of surveillance of health-care products, which embraces all the surveyed ideas and reflects real-world pharmacovigilance processes: 'a form of non-interventional public health research, consisting of a set of processes for the continued systematic collection, compilation, interrogation, analysis, and interpretation of data on benefits and harms (including relevant spontaneous reports, electronic medical records, and experimental data).' As a codicil, we note that the purposes of surveillance are to identify, evaluate, understand, and communicate previously unknown effects of health-care products, or new aspects of known effects, in order to harness such effects (if beneficial) or prevent or mitigate them (if harmful).

  11. The association between institution at orchiectomy and outcomes on active surveillance for clinical stage I germ cell tumours

    PubMed Central

    Nayan, Madhur; Jewett, Michael A.S.; Anson-Cartwright, Lynn; Bedard, Philippe L.; Moore, Malcolm; Chung, Peter; Warde, Padraig; Sweet, Joan; O’Malley, Martin; Hamilton, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Institutional experience has been associated with improved outcomes for various malignancies, including testicular cancer. The present study evaluated whether institution at orchiectomy was associated with outcomes on active surveillance (AS) for clinical stage (CS) I germ cell tumours (GCT). Methods: 815 patients with CSI GCT managed with AS at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre were identified. Princess Margaret is a tertiary academic institution with a multidisciplinary testicular cancer clinic involving radiation oncologists, medical oncologists, and urologists, and has research experience in testicular cancer care. The association between institution of orchiectomy (Princess Margaret vs. Other) and time to progression on AS was analyzed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Academic vs. non-academic institutions were compared in a sensitivity analysis. Results: Patients undergoing orchiectomy at Princess Margaret for non-seminoma GCT were significantly less likely to have pure embryonal carcinoma (EC) in orchiectomy pathology (odds ratio [OR] 0.33; p=0.008) and CSIB disease (OR 0.47; p=0.014). Seminoma characteristics did not differ significantly between institution groups. In non-seminoma GCT, median followup was 5.4 years, 27% progressed on AS, and institution of orchiectomy was not associated with time to progression in either univariate (hazard ratio [HR] 0.79; p=0.33) or multivariable analyses (HR 1.01; p=0.97). In seminoma, median followup was 4.7 years, 12% progressed on AS, and institution of orchiectomy was not associated with progression (univariate: HR 0.87; p=0.73; multivariable: HR 0.98; p=0.96). Sensitivity analyses demonstrated similar results. Conclusions: Among CSI GCT patients managed on AS at a specialized cancer centre, there appears to be no difference in oncologic outcomes based upon the institution where orchiectomy was performed.

  12. A quantitative analysis of the prevalence of clinical depression and anxiety in patients with prostate cancer undergoing active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Sam; Leydon, Geraldine; Eyles, Caroline; Moore, Caroline M; Richardson, Alison; Birch, Brian; Prescott, Philip; Powell, Catrin; Lewith, George

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression in men on active surveillance (AS). Design Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Setting Secondary care prostate cancer (PCa) clinics across South, Central and Western England. Participants 313 men from a total sample of 426 with a histological diagnosis of PCa currently managed with AS were identified from seven UK urology departments. The mean age of respondents was 70 (51–86) years with the majority (76%) being married or in civil partnerships. 94% of responders were of white British ethnicity. Primary outcome measures The prevalence of clinically meaningful depression and anxiety as assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; score ≥8/21). Secondary outcome measures Patient demographic data (age, employment, relationship, ethnic and educational status). Each demographic variable was cross-tabulated against patients identified as depressed or anxious to allow for the identification of variables that were significantly associated with depression and anxiety. In order to determine predictors for depression and anxiety among the demographic variables, logistic regression analyses were conducted, with p<0.05 considered as indicating statistical significance. Results The prevalence of clinical anxiety and depression as determined via the HADS (HADS ≥8) was 23% (n=73) and 12.5% (n=39), respectively. Published data from men in the general population of similar age has shown prevalence rates of 8% and 6%, respectively, indicating a twofold increase in depression and a threefold increase in anxiety among AS patients. Our findings also suggest that AS patients experience substantially greater levels of anxiety than patients with PCa treated radically. The only demographic predictor for anxiety or depression was divorce. Conclusions Patients with PCa managed with AS experienced substantially higher rates of anxiety and depression than that expected in the general

  13. Study of Natural Health Product Adverse Reactions (SONAR): Active Surveillance of Adverse Events Following Concurrent Natural Health Product and Prescription Drug Use in Community Pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, Sunita; Cvijovic, Kosta; Boon, Heather; Foster, Brian C.; Jaeger, Walter; LeGatt, Don; Cembrowski, George; Murty, Mano; Tsuyuki, Ross T.; Barnes, Joanne; Charrois, Theresa L.; Arnason, John T.; Necyk, Candace; Ware, Mark; Rosychuk, Rhonda J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Many consumers use natural health products (NHPs) concurrently with prescription medications. As NHP-related harms are under-reported through passive surveillance, the safety of concurrent NHP-drug use remains unknown. To conduct active surveillance in participating community pharmacies to identify adverse events related to concurrent NHP-prescription drug use. Methodology/Principal Findings Participating pharmacists asked individuals collecting prescription medications about (i) concurrent NHP/drug use in the previous three months and (ii) experiences of adverse events. If an adverse event was identified and if the patient provided written consent, a research pharmacist conducted a guided telephone interview to gather additional information after obtaining additional verbal consent and documenting so within the interview form. Over a total of 112 pharmacy weeks, 2615 patients were screened, of which 1037 (39.7%; 95% CI: 37.8% to 41.5%) reported concurrent NHP and prescription medication use. A total of 77 patients reported a possible AE (2.94%; 95% CI: 2.4% to 3.7%), which represents 7.4% of those using NHPs and prescription medications concurrently (95%CI: 6.0% to 9.2%). Of 15 patients available for an interview, 4 (26.7%: 95% CI: 4.3% to 49.0%) reported an AE that was determined to be “probably” due to NHP use. Conclusions/Significance Active surveillance markedly improves identification and reporting of adverse events associated with concurrent NHP-drug use. Although not without challenges, active surveillance is feasible and can generate adverse event data of sufficient quality to allow for meaningful adjudication to assess potential harms. PMID:23028841

  14. Q-Learning and p-persistent CSMA based rendezvous protocol for cognitive radio networks operating with shared spectrum activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Clifton L.; Biswas, Subir

    2014-06-01

    With an increasing demand for spectrum, dynamic spectrum access (DSA) has been proposed as viable means for providing the flexibility and greater access to spectrum necessary to meet this demand. Within the DSA concept, unlicensed secondary users temporarily "borrow" or access licensed spectrum, while respecting the licensed primary user's rights to that spectrum. As key enablers for DSA, cognitive radios (CRs) are based on software-defined radios which allow them to sense, learn, and adapt to the spectrum environment. These radios can operate independently and rapidly switch channels. Thus, the initial setup and maintenance of cognitive radio networks are dependent upon the ability of CR nodes to find each other, in a process known as rendezvous, and create a link on a common channel for the exchange of data and control information. In this paper, we propose a novel rendezvous protocol, known as QLP, which is based on Q-learning and the p-persistent CSMA protocol. With the QLP protocol, CR nodes learn which channels are best for rendezvous and thus adapt their behavior to visit those channels more frequently. We demonstrate through simulation that the QLP protocol provides a rendevous capability for DSA environments with different dynamics of PU activity, while attempting to achieve the following performance goals: (1) minimize the average time-to-rendezvous, (2) maximize system throughput, (3) minimize primary user interference, and (4) minimize collisions among CR nodes.

  15. [Post-marketing surveillance of antibacterial activities of cefozopran against various clinical isolates--II. Gram-negative bacteria].

    PubMed

    Igari, Jun; Oguri, Toyoko; Hiramatsu, Nobuyoshi; Akiyama, Kazumitsu; Koyama, Tsuneo

    2002-02-01

    As a post-marketing surveillance, the in vitro antibacterial activities of cefozopran (CZOP), an agent of cephems, against various clinical isolates were yearly evaluated and compared with those of other cephems, oxacephems, penicillins, monobactams, and carbapenems. Changes in CZOP susceptibility for the bacteria were also evaluated with the bacterial resistance ratio calculated with the breakpoint MIC. Twenty-five species (3,362 strains) of Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from the clinical materials annually collected from 1996 to 2000, and consisted of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis (n = 136), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 289), Escherichia coli (n = 276), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 192), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 157), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 189), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 93), Serratia marcescens (n = 172), Serratia liquefaciens (n = 24), Citrobacter freundii (n = 177), Citrobacter koseri (n = 70), Proteus mirabilis (n = 113), Proteus vulgaris (n = 89), Morganella morganii (n = 116), Providencia spp. (n = 41), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 290), Pseudomonas fluorescens (n = 56), Pseudomonas putida (n = 63), Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 146), Acinetobacter lwoffii (n = 34), Burkholderia cepacia (n = 101), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 169), Bacteroides fragilis group (n = 196), and Prevotella/Porphyromonas (n = 173). An antibacterial activity of CZOP against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, and S. marcescens was potent and consistent with or more preferable than the study results obtained until the new drug application approval. MIC90 of CZOP against M.(B.) catarrhalis, C. koseri, and P. aeruginosa was not considerably changed and consistent with the study results obtained until the new drug application approval. MIC90 of CZOP against E. cloacae, E. aerogenes, and P. mirabilis increased year by year. The increase in MIC90 of CZOP against E. aerogenes and P. mirabilis, however, was not considered to be an obvious decline in susceptibility. In

  16. Improving surveillance of sexually transmitted infections using mandatory electronic clinical reporting: the genitourinary medicine clinic activity dataset, England, 2009 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Savage, E J; Mohammed, H; Leong, G; Duffell, S; Hughes, G

    2014-12-04

    A new electronic surveillance system for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was introduced in England in 2009. The genitourinary medicine clinic activity dataset (GUMCAD) is a mandatory, disaggregated, pseudo-anonymised data return submitted by all STI clinics across England. The dataset includes information on all STI diagnoses made and services provided alongside demographic characteristics for every patient attendance at a clinic. The new system enables the timely analysis and publication of routine STI data, detailed analyses of risk groups and longitudinal analyses of clinic attendees. The system offers flexibility so new codes can be introduced to help monitor outbreaks or unusual STI activity. From January 2009 to December 2013 inclusive, over twenty-five million records from a total of 6,668,648 patients of STI clinics have been submitted. This article describes the successful implementation of this new surveillance system and the types of epidemiological outputs and analyses that GUMCAD enables. The challenges faced are discussed and forthcoming developments in STI surveillance in England are described.

  17. Improving surveillance of sexually transmitted infections using mandatory electronic clinical reporting: the genitourinary medicine clinic activity dataset, England, 2009 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Savage, E J; Mohammed, H; Leong, G; Duffell, S; Hughes, G

    2014-01-01

    A new electronic surveillance system for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was introduced in England in 2009. The genitourinary medicine clinic activity dataset (GUMCAD) is a mandatory, disaggregated, pseudo-anonymised data return submitted by all STI clinics across England. The dataset includes information on all STI diagnoses made and services provided alongside demographic characteristics for every patient attendance at a clinic. The new system enables the timely analysis and publication of routine STI data, detailed analyses of risk groups and longitudinal analyses of clinic attendees. The system offers flexibility so new codes can be introduced to help monitor outbreaks or unusual STI activity. From January 2009 to December 2013 inclusive, over twenty-five million records from a total of 6,668,648 patients of STI clinics have been submitted. This article describes the successful implementation of this new surveillance system and the types of epidemiological outputs and analyses that GUMCAD enables. The challenges faced are discussed and forthcoming developments in STI surveillance in England are described. PMID:25496573

  18. Surface-water surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  19. Survey of Clostridium difficile infection surveillance systems in Europe, 2011.

    PubMed

    Kola, Axel; Wiuff, Camilla; Akerlund, Thomas; van Benthem, Birgit H; Coignard, Bruno; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Weitzel-Kage, Doris; Suetens, Carl; Wilcox, Mark H; Kuijper, Ed J; Gastmeier, Petra

    2016-07-21

    To develop a European surveillance protocol for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), existing national CDI surveillance systems were assessed in 2011. A web-based electronic form was provided for all national coordinators of the European CDI Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net). Of 35 national coordinators approached, 33 from 31 European countries replied. Surveillance of CDI was in place in 14 of the 31 countries, comprising 18 different nationwide systems. Three of 14 countries with CDI surveillance used public health notification of cases as the route of reporting, and in another three, reporting was limited to public health notification of cases of severe CDI. The CDI definitions published by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) were widely used, but there were differing definitions to distinguish between community- and healthcare-associated cases. All CDI surveillance systems except one reported annual national CDI rates (calculated as number of cases per patient-days). Only four surveillance systems regularly integrated microbiological data (typing and susceptibility testing results). Surveillance methods varied considerably between countries, which emphasises the need for a harmonised European protocol to allow consistent monitoring of the CDI epidemiology at European level. The results of this survey were used to develop a harmonised EU-wide hospital-based CDI surveillance protocol. PMID:27469420

  20. [Activity of sanitary surveillances/offices in Warsaw at the time of the second republic of Poland].

    PubMed

    Berner, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    At the time of the Second Republic of Poland, Warsaw, the capital of the rebirth country, was a neglected town as regards sanitary conditions. The genesis of this situation dates back to the period of the national bondage by the Russian partitioner, and since 1915 by the German invader who did not care about the problems associated with public health. The sanitary and hygienic conditions worsened significantly in 1916, after incorporating into Warsaw large out-of-town regions whose housing was of the rural character with numerous wooden cottages, field roads, without any sanitary sewage system. Poor municipal sanitary-maintenance conditions and infectious diseases spreading in Warsaw made the Town Authorities implement preventive action and entrust sanitary surveillances with this difficult task. These surveillances were set up at the time of the First World War, and after 1920 were changed into sanitary offices. Their duties included control of acute infectious diseases, sanitary inspection of living quarters, sites of production and selling of food articles, plants, service outlets, shops of a different character, as well as surveillance of food purchased by the inhabitants. In each sanitary office a doctor was employed who supervised the work of one, two or three sanitary inspectors. PMID:17682766

  1. [Activity of sanitary surveillances/offices in Warsaw at the time of the second republic of Poland].

    PubMed

    Berner, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    At the time of the Second Republic of Poland, Warsaw, the capital of the rebirth country, was a neglected town as regards sanitary conditions. The genesis of this situation dates back to the period of the national bondage by the Russian partitioner, and since 1915 by the German invader who did not care about the problems associated with public health. The sanitary and hygienic conditions worsened significantly in 1916, after incorporating into Warsaw large out-of-town regions whose housing was of the rural character with numerous wooden cottages, field roads, without any sanitary sewage system. Poor municipal sanitary-maintenance conditions and infectious diseases spreading in Warsaw made the Town Authorities implement preventive action and entrust sanitary surveillances with this difficult task. These surveillances were set up at the time of the First World War, and after 1920 were changed into sanitary offices. Their duties included control of acute infectious diseases, sanitary inspection of living quarters, sites of production and selling of food articles, plants, service outlets, shops of a different character, as well as surveillance of food purchased by the inhabitants. In each sanitary office a doctor was employed who supervised the work of one, two or three sanitary inspectors.

  2. Effect of a high intensity quadriceps fatigue protocol on knee joint mechanics and muscle activation during gait in young adults.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Gillian Hatfield; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of impaired quadriceps function on knee joint biomechanics and neuromuscular function during gait. Surface electromyograms, three-dimensional motion and ground reaction forces were collected during gait before and after 20 healthy adults completed a high intensity quadriceps fatigue protocol. Pattern recognition techniques were utilized to examine changes in amplitude and temporal characteristics of all gait variables. The fatigue protocol resulted in decreased knee extensor torque generation and quadriceps median power frequencies for 18 of 20 participants (p < 0.05). The gait data from these 18 participants was analyzed. The knee external rotation angle increased (p < 0.05), the net external flexion and external rotation moments decreased (p < 0.05), and the net external adduction moment increased (p < 0.05). Post-fatigue changes in periarticular muscle activation patterns were consistent with the biomechanical changes, but were not significantly altered. Even for this low demand task of walking the knee motion and loading characteristics were altered following a high intensity fatigue protocol in a manner that may place the knee joint at greater risk for joint pathology and injury.

  3. Expression of stemness markers in mouse parthenogenetic-diploid blastocysts is influenced by slight variation of activation protocol adopted.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Enrica; Geremia, Raffaele; Sette, Claudio

    2010-07-01

    The importance of obtaining stem cells through alternative methods has increased progressively in the recent years due to the potential role that embryonic stem (ES) cells play in the field of regenerative medicine. In this regard, generation of parthenogenetic blastocysts allows the production of ethic-free ES cells without the need to manipulate normal embryos. Our work was aimed at clarifying whether variations in the method adopted to generate diploid parthenogenetic blastocysts could determine differences in the quality of blastocysts produced. In vitro development of mouse oocytes activated with three protocols, using Sr2+ and cytochalasin for different time, was compared with that of in vivo fertilized embryos. We have evaluated the efficiency of blastocyst formation and analysed the expression pattern of the stemness markers OCT4, CDX2, and NANOG. Our results indicate that the yield of diploid parthenogenotes and the segregation of the stemness marker OCT4 in the developing blastocyst are influenced by the parthenogenetic protocol adopted. Particularly, even if all methods tested allowed the production of blastocysts in vitro, the correct segregation of OCT4 occurred only in blastocysts developed from oocytes concomitantly treated for 4 h with Sr2+ and cytochalasin D. Our results indicate that the protocol employed to develop parthenogenetic blastocysts in vitro affects the quality of cells in the inner cell mass.

  4. Expression of stemness markers in mouse parthenogenetic-diploid blastocysts is influenced by slight variation of activation protocol adopted.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Enrica; Geremia, Raffaele; Sette, Claudio

    2010-07-01

    The importance of obtaining stem cells through alternative methods has increased progressively in the recent years due to the potential role that embryonic stem (ES) cells play in the field of regenerative medicine. In this regard, generation of parthenogenetic blastocysts allows the production of ethic-free ES cells without the need to manipulate normal embryos. Our work was aimed at clarifying whether variations in the method adopted to generate diploid parthenogenetic blastocysts could determine differences in the quality of blastocysts produced. In vitro development of mouse oocytes activated with three protocols, using Sr2+ and cytochalasin for different time, was compared with that of in vivo fertilized embryos. We have evaluated the efficiency of blastocyst formation and analysed the expression pattern of the stemness markers OCT4, CDX2, and NANOG. Our results indicate that the yield of diploid parthenogenotes and the segregation of the stemness marker OCT4 in the developing blastocyst are influenced by the parthenogenetic protocol adopted. Particularly, even if all methods tested allowed the production of blastocysts in vitro, the correct segregation of OCT4 occurred only in blastocysts developed from oocytes concomitantly treated for 4 h with Sr2+ and cytochalasin D. Our results indicate that the protocol employed to develop parthenogenetic blastocysts in vitro affects the quality of cells in the inner cell mass. PMID:20376706

  5. The surveillant assemblage.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy. PMID:11140886

  6. Technology combined with a counseling protocol to stimulate physical activity of chronically ill patients in primary care.

    PubMed

    Verwey, R; van der Weegen, S; Spreeuwenberg, M; Tange, H; van der Weijden, T; de Witte, L

    2014-01-01

    An iterative user-centered design method was used to develop and test mobile technology (the It's LiFe! tool/monitor) embedded in primary care, followed by a three months feasibility study with 20 patients and three nurses. The tool consists of an accelerometer that transfers data to an app on a Smartphone, which is subsequently connected to a server. Physical activity levels are measured in minutes per day compared to pre-set activity goals, which are set by patients in dialogue with nurses. Nurses can monitor patients' physical activity via a secured website. The counseling protocol is based on the Five A's model and consists of a limited number of behavior change consultations intertwined with interaction with and responses from the tool. The technology supports nurses when performing physical activity counseling. Provided that no connectivity problems occur, the It's LiFe! intervention is feasible, and its longitudinal effects will be tested in a cluster RCT.

  7. Summary of Ceftaroline Activity against Pathogens in the United States, 2010: Report from the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Sader, Helio S.; Farrell, David J.; Jones, Ronald N.

    2012-01-01

    The Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) surveillance program is a sentinel resistance monitoring system designed to track the activity of ceftaroline and comparator agents. In the United States, a total of 8,434 isolates were collected during the 2010 surveillance program from 65 medical centers distributed across the nine census regions (5 to 10 medical centers per region). All organisms were isolated from documented infections, including 3,055 (36.2%) bloodstream infections, 2,282 (27.1%) respiratory tract infections, 1,965 (23.3%) acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, 665 (7.9%) urinary tract infections, and 467 (5.5%) miscellaneous other infection sites. Ceftaroline was the most potent β-lactam agent tested against staphylococci. The MIC90 values were 1 μg/ml for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; 98.4% susceptible) and 0.5 μg/ml for methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Ceftaroline was 16- to 32-fold more potent than ceftriaxone against methicillin-susceptible staphylococcal strains. All staphylococcus isolates (S. aureus and CoNS) were inhibited at ceftaroline MIC values of ≤2 μg/ml. Ceftaroline also displayed potent activity against streptococci (MIC90, 0.015 μg/ml for beta-hemolytic streptococci; MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml for penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae). Potent activity was also shown against Gram-negative pathogens (Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis). Furthermore, wild-type strains of Enterobacteriaceae (non-extended-spectrum β-lactamase [ESBL]-producing strains and non-AmpC-hyperproducing strains) were often susceptible to ceftaroline. Continued monitoring through surveillance networks will allow for the assessment of the evolution of resistance as this new cephalosporin is used more broadly to provide clinicians with up-to-date information to assist in antibiotic stewardship and therapeutic decision making

  8. Surveillance for dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Gubler, D J

    1989-01-01

    Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are emerging as major public health problems in most tropical countries. Effective prevention and control programs will depend on improved surveillance designed to provide early warning of dengue epidemics. This article outlines a reasonable approach to dengue surveillance of this kind. Virologic surveillance should be considered the most important element in any such early warning system. Dengue virus transmission should be monitored to determine which serotypes are present, their distribution, and the type of illnesses associated with each. Other key components of an active surveillance system should include monitoring of fever activity and clinical surveillance for cases of severe and fatal disease associated with viral syndromes. Collectively, these three surveillance components can provide an early warning capability permitting emergency mosquito control measures to be implemented and major epidemics to be averted.

  9. Monitoring activities of teenagers to comprehend their habits: study protocol for a mixed-methods cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Efforts to increase physical activity in youth need to consider which activities are most likely to be sustained over time in order to promote lifelong participation in physical activity. The Monitoring Activities of Teenagers to Comprehend their Habits (MATCH) study is a prospective cohort study that uses quantitative and qualitative methods to develop new knowledge on the sustainability of specific physical activities. Methods/design Eight hundred and forty-three grade 5 and 6 students recruited from 17 elementary schools in New Brunswick, Canada, are followed-up three times per year. At each survey cycle, participants complete self-report questionnaires in their classroom under the supervision of trained data collectors. A sub-sample of 24 physically active students is interviewed annually using a semi-structured interview protocol. Parents (or guardians) complete telephone administered questionnaires every two years, and a health and wellness school audit is completed for each school. Discussion MATCH will provide a description of the patterns of participation in specific physical activities in youth, and enable identification of the determinants of maintenance, decline, and uptake of participation in each activity. These data will inform the development of interventions that take into account which activities are the most likely to be maintained and why activities are maintained or dropped. PMID:23849265

  10. Housing conditions and sacrifice protocol affect neural activity and vocal behavior in a songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Elie, Julie Estelle; Soula, Hédi Antoine; Trouvé, Colette; Mathevon, Nicolas; Vignal, Clémentine

    2015-12-01

    Individual cages represent a widely used housing condition in laboratories. This isolation represents an impoverished physical and social environment in gregarious animals. It prevents animals from socializing, even when auditory and visual contact is maintained. Zebra finches are colonial songbirds that are widely used as laboratory animals for the study of vocal communication from brain to behavior. In this study, we investigated the effect of single housing on the vocal behavior and the brain activity of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata): male birds housed in individual cages were compared to freely interacting male birds housed as a social group in a communal cage. We focused on the activity of septo-hypothalamic regions of the "social behavior network" (SBN), a set of limbic regions involved in several social behaviors in vertebrates. The activity of four structures of the SBN (BSTm, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; POM, medial preoptic area; lateral septum; ventromedial hypothalamus) and one associated region (paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus) was assessed using immunoreactive nuclei density of the immediate early gene Zenk (egr-1). We further assessed the identity of active cell populations by labeling vasotocin (VT). Brain activity was related to behavioral activities of birds like physical and vocal interactions. We showed that individual housing modifies vocal exchanges between birds compared to communal housing. This is of particular importance in the zebra finch, a model species for the study of vocal communication. In addition, a protocol that daily removes one or two birds from the group affects differently male zebra finches depending of their housing conditions: while communally-housed males changed their vocal output, brains of individually housed males show increased Zenk labeling in non-VT cells of the BSTm and enhanced correlation of Zenk-revealed activity between the studied structures. These results show that

  11. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-09-15

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control.

  12. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-09-15

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control. PMID:27684046

  13. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control. PMID:27684046

  14. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control.

  15. Comparison of V-4 and V-5 Exercise/Oxygen Prebreathe Protocols to Support Extravehicular Activity in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, N. W.; Natoli, M. J.; Vann, R. D.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Conkin, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    The Prebreathe Reduction Program (PRP) used exercise during oxygen prebreathe to reduce necessary prebreathe time prior to depressurizing to work in a 4.3 psi suit during extravehicular activity (EVA). Initial testing produced a two-hour protocol incorporating ergometry exercise and a 30 min cycle of depress/repress to 10.2 psi where subjects breathed 26.5% oxygen/balance nitrogen (Phase II - 10 min at 75% peak oxygen consumption [VO2 peak] followed by 40 min intermittent light exercise [ILE] [approx. 5.8 mL-per kilogram- per minute], then 50 min of rest). The Phase II protocol (0/45 DCS) was approved for operations and has been used on 40 EVAs, providing significant time savings compared to the standard 4 h resting oxygen prebreathe. The Phase V effort focused on performing all light in-suit exercise. Two oxygen prebreathe protocols were tested sequentially: V-4) 160 min prebreathe with 150 min of continuous ILE. The entire protocol was completed at 14.7 psi. All exercise involved upper body effort. Exercise continued until decompression. V-5) 160 min prebreathe with 140 min of ILE - first 40 min at 14.7 psi, then 30 min at 10.2 psi (breathing 26.5% oxygen) after a 20 min depress, simulating a suit donning period. Subjects were then repressed to 14.7 psi and performed another 50 min of lower body ILE, followed by 50 min rest before decompression. The V-4 protocol was rejected with 3 DCS/6 person-exposures. Initial V-5 testing has produced 0 DCS/11 person-exposures (ongoing trials). The difference in DCS rate was significant (Fisher Exact p=0.029). The observations of DCS were significantly lower in early V-5 trials than in V-4 trials. Additional studies are required to evaluate the relative contribution of the variables in exercise distribution, the 10.2 psi depress/repress component, pre-decompression rest, or possible variation in total oxygen consumption.

  16. Quantifying Habitual Levels of Physical Activity According to Impact in Older People: Accelerometry Protocol for the VIBE Study.

    PubMed

    Deere, Kevin C; Hannam, Kimberly; Coulson, Jessica; Ireland, Alex; McPhee, Jamie S; Moss, Charlotte; Edwards, Mark H; Dennison, Elaine; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayers, Adrian; Lipperts, Matthijs; Grimm, Bernd; Tobias, Jon H

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) may need to produce high impacts to be osteogenic. The aim of this study was to identify threshold(s) for defining high impact PA for future analyses in the VIBE (Vertical Impact and Bone in the Elderly) study, based on home recordings with triaxial accelerometers. Recordings were obtained from 19 Master Athlete Cohort (MAC; mean 67.6 years) and 15 Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS; mean 77.7 years) participants. Data cleaning protocols were developed to exclude artifacts. Accelerations expressed in g units were categorized into three bands selected from the distribution of positive Y-axis peak accelerations. Data were available for 6.6 and 4.4 days from MAC and HCS participants respectively, with approximately 14 hr recording daily. Three-fold more 0.5-1.0g impacts were observed in MAC versus HCS, 20-fold more 1.0-1.5g impacts, and 140-fold more impacts ≥ 1.5g. Our analysis protocol successfully distinguishes PA levels in active and sedentary older individuals. PMID:26372670

  17. Quantifying Habitual Levels of Physical Activity According to Impact in Older People: Accelerometry Protocol for the VIBE Study

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Kevin C.; Hannam, Kimberly; Coulson, Jessica; Ireland, Alex; McPhee, Jamie S.; Moss, Charlotte; Edwards, Mark H.; Dennison, Elaine; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayers, Adrian; Lipperts, Matthijs; Grimm, Bernd; Tobias, Jon H.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) may need to produce high impacts to be osteogenic. The aim of this study was to identify threshold(s) for defining high impact PA for future analyses in the VIBE (Vertical Impact and Bone in the Elderly) study, based on home recordings with triaxial accelerometers. Recordings were obtained from 19 Master Athlete Cohort (MAC; mean 67.6 years) and 15 Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS; mean 77.7 years) participants. Data cleaning protocols were developed to exclude artifacts. Accelerations expressed in g units were categorized into three bands selected from the distribution of positive Y-axis peak accelerations. Data were available for 6.6 and 4.4 days from MAC and HCS participants respectively, with approximately 14 hr recording daily. Three-fold more 0.5–1.0g impacts were observed in MAC versus HCS, 20-fold more 1.0–1.5g impacts, and 140-fold more impacts ≥ 1.5g. Our analysis protocol successfully distinguishes PA levels in active and sedentary older individuals. PMID:26372670

  18. Systems for persistent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Keith

    2011-09-01

    The requirements for a persistent wide-area surveillance system are discussed in the context of evolving military operations. Significant emphasis has been placed on the development of new sensing technologies to meet the challenges posed by asymmetric threats. Within the UK, the Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC) has supported the research and development of new capabilities including radio-frequency (RF) and electro-optic (EO) systems, as well as work on sensor exploitation, with a goal of developing solutions for enhancing situational awareness. This activity has been supported by field trials to determine the efficacy of competing technologies in relation to realistic threat scenarios.

  19. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  20. [Measles surveillance in Germany. From sentinel to mandatory surveillance].

    PubMed

    Siedler, A; Grüber, A; Mankertz, A

    2013-09-01

    From September 1999 to March 2011, sentinel surveillance of measles was conducted by a self-selected sample of private physicians in Germany. From 2001, when mandatory surveillance for measles was established, two surveillance systems worked in parallel. The aim of this article is to summarize the strengths and limitations of sentinel versus mandatory surveillance. Active monthly reporting included case-based questionnaires on patients with (suspected) measles or zeroreporting. For confirmation of measles, the diagnostic patient specimens were sent to regional laboratories for serological tests or to the National Reference Laboratory (NRC). In the NRC in addition to serological tests measles-virus (MV) detection by PCR in urine, throat swabs, and oral fluid (since 2003) as well as MVgenotyping was offered. From January 2000 to December 2010, 934 out of 1,488 participating sentinel-practices did not see any measles case, while 554 reported 3,573 suspected cases. Measles was confirmed by laboratory testing in 801 cases, excluded in 473 cases, and the diagnosis remained uncertain in 215 cases. Of 3,100 analyzed cases, 2,712 (87 %) were unvaccinated, 217 (7 %) and 32 (1 %) were vaccinated with one or two doses, respectively, and for 139 (4 %) cases the vaccination status was unknown. The main reason for not being vaccinated against measles was refusal (n = 1,383). The confirmation rate was lower in the vaccinated than in the unvaccinated patients (19 % vs. 63 %). Since 2006, sentinel-cases have differed from notified cases by region and age. The proportion of sentinel cases from all NRC-investigated cases decreased from more than  50 % (2002) to less than  5 % (since 2007). Sentinel surveillance allowed for the detection of trends, delivered additional information for measles prevention, and played a major role in measles diagnostics. Since mandatory surveillance was established and sentinel surveillance no longer reflected the epidemiologic

  1. Active SAmpling Protocol (ASAP) to Optimize Individual Neurocognitive Hypothesis Testing: A BCI-Inspired Dynamic Experimental Design

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Gaëtan; Lecaignard, Françoise; Otman, Anatole; Maby, Emmanuel; Mattout, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    The relatively young field of Brain-Computer Interfaces has promoted the use of electrophysiology and neuroimaging in real-time. In the meantime, cognitive neuroscience studies, which make extensive use of functional exploration techniques, have evolved toward model-based experiments and fine hypothesis testing protocols. Although these two developments are mostly unrelated, we argue that, brought together, they may trigger an important shift in the way experimental paradigms are being designed, which should prove fruitful to both endeavors. This change simply consists in using real-time neuroimaging in order to optimize advanced neurocognitive hypothesis testing. We refer to this new approach as the instantiation of an Active SAmpling Protocol (ASAP). As opposed to classical (static) experimental protocols, ASAP implements online model comparison, enabling the optimization of design parameters (e.g., stimuli) during the course of data acquisition. This follows the well-known principle of sequential hypothesis testing. What is radically new, however, is our ability to perform online processing of the huge amount of complex data that brain imaging techniques provide. This is all the more relevant at a time when physiological and psychological processes are beginning to be approached using more realistic, generative models which may be difficult to tease apart empirically. Based upon Bayesian inference, ASAP proposes a generic and principled way to optimize experimental design adaptively. In this perspective paper, we summarize the main steps in ASAP. Using synthetic data we illustrate its superiority in selecting the right perceptual model compared to a classical design. Finally, we briefly discuss its future potential for basic and clinical neuroscience as well as some remaining challenges. PMID:27458364

  2. Impacts of the Kyoto protocol on U.S. energy markets and economic activity

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program in 1988 to assess the available scientific, technical, and socioeconomic information in the field of climate change. The most recent report of the IPCC concluded that ``Our ability to quantify the human influence on global climate is currently limited because the expected signal is still emerging from the noise of natural variability, and because there are uncertainties in key factors. These include the magnitudes and patterns of long-term variability and the time-evolving pattern of forcing by, and response to, changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and land surface changes. Nevertheless the balance of evidence suggests that there is a discernible human influence on global climate. The first and second Conference of the Parties in 1995 and 1996 agreed to address the issue of greenhouse gas emissions for the period beyond 2000, and to negotiate quantified emission limitations and reductions for the third Conference of the Parties. On December 1 through 11, 1997, representatives from more than 160 countries met in Kyoto, Japan, to negotiate binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for developed nations. The resulting Kyoto Protocol established emissions targets for each of the participating developed countries--the Annex 1 countries--relative to their 1990 emissions levels. 114 refs., 138 figs., 33 tabs.

  3. Digital Dashboard Design Using Multiple Data Streams for Disease Surveillance With Influenza Surveillance as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Calvin KY; Ip, Dennis KM; Cowling, Benjamin J; Ho, Lai Ming; Leung, Gabriel M

    2011-01-01

    Background Great strides have been made exploring and exploiting new and different sources of disease surveillance data and developing robust statistical methods for analyzing the collected data. However, there has been less research in the area of dissemination. Proper dissemination of surveillance data can facilitate the end user's taking of appropriate actions, thus maximizing the utility of effort taken from upstream of the surveillance-to-action loop. Objective The aims of the study were to develop a generic framework for a digital dashboard incorporating features of efficient dashboard design and to demonstrate this framework by specific application to influenza surveillance in Hong Kong. Methods Based on the merits of the national websites and principles of efficient dashboard design, we designed an automated influenza surveillance digital dashboard as a demonstration of efficient dissemination of surveillance data. We developed the system to synthesize and display multiple sources of influenza surveillance data streams in the dashboard. Different algorithms can be implemented in the dashboard for incorporating all surveillance data streams to describe the overall influenza activity. Results We designed and implemented an influenza surveillance dashboard that utilized self-explanatory figures to display multiple surveillance data streams in panels. Indicators for individual data streams as well as for overall influenza activity were summarized in the main page, which can be read at a glance. Data retrieval function was also incorporated to allow data sharing in standard format. Conclusions The influenza surveillance dashboard serves as a template to illustrate the efficient synthesization and dissemination of multiple-source surveillance data, which may also be applied to other diseases. Surveillance data from multiple sources can be disseminated efficiently using a dashboard design that facilitates the translation of surveillance information to public

  4. General Medical Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is presented. The purpose of the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the program are discussed.

  5. Accuracy of NHANES periodontal examination protocols.

    PubMed

    Eke, P I; Thornton-Evans, G O; Wei, L; Borgnakke, W S; Dye, B A

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the accuracy of periodontitis prevalence determined by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) partial-mouth periodontal examination protocols. True periodontitis prevalence was determined in a new convenience sample of 454 adults ≥ 35 years old, by a full-mouth "gold standard" periodontal examination. This actual prevalence was compared with prevalence resulting from analysis of the data according to the protocols of NHANES III and NHANES 2001-2004, respectively. Both NHANES protocols substantially underestimated the prevalence of periodontitis by 50% or more, depending on the periodontitis case definition used, and thus performed below threshold levels for moderate-to-high levels of validity for surveillance. Adding measurements from lingual or interproximal sites to the NHANES 2001-2004 protocol did not improve the accuracy sufficiently to reach acceptable sensitivity thresholds. These findings suggest that NHANES protocols produce high levels of misclassification of periodontitis cases and thus have low validity for surveillance and research.

  6. The impact of economic activity in Asturias on greenhouse gas emissions: consequences for environmental policy within the Kyoto Protocol framework.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Margarita; Benavides, Carmen; Junquera, Beatriz

    2006-11-01

    Climate change is one of the major worldwide environmental concerns. It is especially the case in many developed countries, where the greenhouse gas emissions responsible for this change are mainly concentrated. For the first time, the Kyoto Protocol includes an international agreement for the reduction of the net emissions of these gases. To fulfil this agreement measures designed to reduce or limit current emissions have to be brought into force. Consequently, fears have arisen about possible consequences on competitiveness and future development of manufacturing activities and the need for support mechanisms for the affected sectors is obvious. In this paper, we carry out a study of the emissions of gases responsible for climate change in Asturias (Spain), a region with an important economic presence of sectors with intensive emissions of CO(2), the chief greenhouse gas. To be precise, in the first place, the volumes of direct emissions of the said gases in 1995 were calculated, showing that the sectors most affected by the Kyoto Protocol in Asturias are iron and steel and electricity production. Secondly, input-output analysis was applied to determine the direct and indirect emissions and the direct, indirect and induced emissions of the different production sectors, respectively. The results derived from the direct and indirect emissions analysis and their comparison with the results of the former allow us to reach some conclusions and environmental policy implications.

  7. Environmental Surveillance of Polioviruses in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in Support to the Activities of Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Pereira, Joseane Simone; da Silva, Lidiane Rodrigues; de Meireles Nunes, Amanda; de Souza Oliveira, Silas; da Costa, Eliane Veiga; da Silva, Edson Elias

    2016-03-01

    Wild polioviruses still remain endemic in three countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria) and re-emergency of wild polio has been reported in previously polio-free countries. Environmental surveillance has been used as a supplementary tool in monitoring the circulation of wild poliovirus (PVs) and/or vaccine-derived PVs even in the absence of acute flaccid paralysis cases. This study aimed to monitor the presence of polioviruses in wastewater samples collected at one wastewater treatment plant located in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From December 2011 to June 2012 and from September to December 2012, 31 samples were collected and processed. RD and L20B cell cultures were able to isolate PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in 27/31 samples. Polioviruses were isolated in eight samples (type 1 Sabin = 1, type 2 Sabin = 5, and type 3 Sabin = 2). Vaccine-derived polioviruses were not detected nor evidence of recombination with other PVs or non-polio enterovirus serotypes were observed among the isolates. The Sabin-related serotypes 2 and 3 presented nucleotide substitutions in positions associated with the neurovirulent phenotype at the 5'-UTR. Changes in important Amino acid residues at VP1 were also observed in the serotypes 2 and 3. Environmental surveillance has been used successfully in monitoring the circulation of PVs and non-polio enteroviruses and it is of crucial importance in the final stages of the WHO global polio eradication initiative. Our results show the continuous circulation of Sabin-like PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in the analyzed area during the study period. PMID:26538420

  8. Environmental Surveillance of Polioviruses in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in Support to the Activities of Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Pereira, Joseane Simone; da Silva, Lidiane Rodrigues; de Meireles Nunes, Amanda; de Souza Oliveira, Silas; da Costa, Eliane Veiga; da Silva, Edson Elias

    2016-03-01

    Wild polioviruses still remain endemic in three countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria) and re-emergency of wild polio has been reported in previously polio-free countries. Environmental surveillance has been used as a supplementary tool in monitoring the circulation of wild poliovirus (PVs) and/or vaccine-derived PVs even in the absence of acute flaccid paralysis cases. This study aimed to monitor the presence of polioviruses in wastewater samples collected at one wastewater treatment plant located in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From December 2011 to June 2012 and from September to December 2012, 31 samples were collected and processed. RD and L20B cell cultures were able to isolate PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in 27/31 samples. Polioviruses were isolated in eight samples (type 1 Sabin = 1, type 2 Sabin = 5, and type 3 Sabin = 2). Vaccine-derived polioviruses were not detected nor evidence of recombination with other PVs or non-polio enterovirus serotypes were observed among the isolates. The Sabin-related serotypes 2 and 3 presented nucleotide substitutions in positions associated with the neurovirulent phenotype at the 5'-UTR. Changes in important Amino acid residues at VP1 were also observed in the serotypes 2 and 3. Environmental surveillance has been used successfully in monitoring the circulation of PVs and non-polio enteroviruses and it is of crucial importance in the final stages of the WHO global polio eradication initiative. Our results show the continuous circulation of Sabin-like PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in the analyzed area during the study period.

  9. Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES): Study protocol for a randomized trial evaluating a multi-component physical activity intervention in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a recognized public health concern. Inadequate proportions of children in the U.S, including those of preschool age, are meeting physical activity recommendations. In response to low numbers of preschool children attaining appropriate physical activity levels, combined with the large number of young children who attend preschool, researchers have identified the need to devise interventions to increase physical activity at preschools. However, few multi-component interventions to increase physical activity in preschool children exist. The aims of this study were to observe the effects of a multi-component intervention on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and physical activity energy expenditure in 3-5 year-old children; identify factors that associate with change in those variables; and evaluate the process of implementing the multi-component intervention. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the study design and intervention protocol. Methods/design The overall design of the Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES) was a two-year randomized trial (nested cohort design), with two conditions, two measurement occasions, and preschool serving as the unit of analysis. Sixteen schools (eight intervention and eight control) were enrolled. The intervention protocol was based on the social ecological model and included four main components: (a) indoor physical activity (“move inside”), (b) recess (“move outside”), (c) daily lessons (“move to learn”), and (d) social environment. Components were implemented using teacher and administrator trainings and workshops, site support visits, newsletters, and self-monitoring methods. Outcomes included accelerometer assessment of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and physical activity energy expenditure; weight status; and demographic factors; family/home social and physical environment; and parental characteristics. An extensive process evaluation

  10. Telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) activity upon recombinant expression and purification of human telomerase in a bacterial system.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Debra T; Thiyagarajan, Thirumagal; Larson, Amy C; Hansen, Jeffrey L

    2016-07-01

    Telomerase biogenesis is a highly regulated process that solves the DNA end-replication problem. Recombinant expression has so far been accomplished only within a eukaryotic background. Towards structural and functional analyses, we developed bacterial expression of human telomerase. Positive activity by the telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) was identified in cell extracts of Escherichia coli expressing a sequence-optimized hTERT gene, the full-length hTR RNA with a self-splicing hepatitis delta virus ribozyme, and the human heat shock complex of Hsp90, Hsp70, p60/Hop, Hsp40, and p23. The Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin did not affect post-assembly TRAP activity. By various purification methods, TRAP activity was also obtained upon expression of only hTERT and hTR. hTERT was confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry in a ∼120 kDa SDS-PAGE fragment from a TRAP-positive purification fraction. TRAP activity was also supported by hTR constructs lacking the box H/ACA small nucleolar RNA domain. End-point TRAP indicated expression levels within 3-fold of that from HeLa carcinoma cells, which is several orders of magnitude below detection by the direct assay. These results represent the first report of TRAP activity from a bacterium and provide a facile system for the investigation of assembly factors and anti-cancer therapeutics independently of a eukaryotic setting. PMID:26965413

  11. Surveillance in Barrett esophagus.

    PubMed

    Gindea, C; Birla, R; Hoara, P; Caragui, A; Constantinoiu, S

    2014-01-01

    The only known precursor of the esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is represented by the Barrett's esophagus (BE). EAC incidence has increased sharply in the last 4 decades. The annual conversion rate of BE to cancer is small but significant; therefore the identification of patients at a higher risk of cancer represents a dilemma. The endoscopic surveillance of BE aims to detect dysplasia and in particular high-grade dysplasia and intramucosal cancers that can be endoscopically treated before progressing to invasive cancer with lymph node metastases. Using standard white light endoscopy (WLE), these high-risk lesions are often subtle and hard to detect. In addition to high-definition standard endoscopy, chromoendoscopy (CE), virtual chromoendoscopy (e.g. narrow band imaging), and confocal laser endomicroscopy might increase the diagnostic efficiency for the detection of dysplastic lesions and can also increase the diagnostic efficiency for the detection of BE dysplasia or cancer. This ability to detect subtle mucosal abnormalities that harbor high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or intramucosal carcinoma might enable endoscopists skilled in the assessment of BE to perform targeted rather than random biopsies. The standard protocol will remain the careful examination by using conventional high-resolution endoscopes, combined with a longer inspection time, which is associated with an increased detection of dysplasia until these modalities have been demonstrated to enhance efficiency or be cost effective. Many of the limitations of the current clinical standard may be overcome in the future by the use of multi-modal imaging combined with molecular information. PMID:25870698

  12. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  13. Public participation in radiological surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hanf, R W; Schreckhise, R G; Patton, G W; Poston, T M; Jaquish, R E

    1997-10-01

    In 1989, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a program, for the U.S. Department of Energy, to involve local citizens in environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site. The Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program was patterned after similar community-involvement efforts at the Nevada Test Site and the Three Mile Island nuclear facility. Its purpose is to increase the flow of information to the public, thereby enhancing the public's awareness and understanding of surveillance activities. The program consists of two components: radiological air monitoring at nine offsite locations and agricultural product sampling at selected locations near the site. At each air-monitoring station, two local school teachers collect air particulate samples and operate equipment to monitor ambient radiation levels. Atmospheric tritium samples (as water vapor) are also collected at some locations. Four of the air-monitoring stations include large, colorful informational displays for public viewing. These displays provide details on station equipment, sample types, and sampling purposes. Instruments in the displays also monitor, record, and show real-time ambient radiation readings (measured with a pressurized ionization chamber) and meteorological conditions. Agricultural products, grown primarily by middle-school-aged students, are obtained from areas downwind of the site. Following analysis of these samples, environmental surveillance staff visit the schools to discuss the results with the students and their teachers. The data collected by these air and agricultural sampling efforts are summarized with other routinely collected sitewide surveillance data and reported annually in the Hanford Site environmental report. PMID:9314235

  14. Behavioural activation interventions for depressed individuals with a chronic physical illness: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is common in people with chronic physical illness and is associated with worse medical outcomes. Cognitive behavioural therapy and problem-solving improve depression, although usually have small to moderate effects among people with chronic physical illness. Behavioural activation interventions for depression, which aim to increase positive reinforcement from the environment by encouraging individuals to increase pleasant/rewarding activities, have been reported to be equivalent to cognitive behavioural therapy. However, the effectiveness of behavioural activation interventions for depression in individuals with chronic physical illness is unclear. The aims of this systematic review are to identify the extent to which different forms of behavioural activation have been used as a treatment for depression in this population, examine the effectiveness of the interventions, and identify any adaptations which have been made specifically to the interventions for individuals with a range of chronic physical illnesses. Methods/Design Electronic databases will be systematically searched using terms relevant to behavioural activation and depression, and the subset of studies in people with chronic physical illnesses will be identified by manual searching. References and citations of eligible studies will be searched and experts in this field will be contacted to identify additional papers. All study designs will be included in this review to allow for a more extensive identification of the extent of different forms of behavioural activation interventions. The different forms of behavioural activation and the specific chronic physical health conditions for which this intervention has been used will be reviewed narratively. For the effectiveness of the interventions, if sufficient randomised controlled trials have been undertaken the results will be meta-analysed. Non-randomised studies will be narratively synthesised and adaptations to the interventions

  15. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of transport mode to school; (2) examine the interaction between the transport choices, built environment, physical activity and weight status in adolescents; and (3) identify policies that promote or hinder ATS in adolescents. Methods and analysis The study will use a mixed-method approach incorporating both quantitative (surveys, anthropometry, accelerometers, Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, mapping) and qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews) to gather data from students, parents, teachers and school principals. The core data will include accelerometer-measured physical activity, anthropometry, GIS measures of the built environment and the use of maps indicating route to school (students)/work (parents) and perceived safe/unsafe areas along the route. To provide comprehensive data for understanding how to change the infrastructure to support ATS, the study will also examine complementary variables such as individual, family and social factors, including student and parental perceptions of walking and cycling to school, parental perceptions of different modes of transport to school, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, route to school (students)/work (parents), perceptions of driving, use of information communication technology, reasons for choosing a particular school and student and parental physical activity habits, screen time and weight status. The study has achieved a 100% school recruitment rate (12 secondary schools). Ethics and

  16. Telomerase activity in the various regions of mouse brain: non-radioactive telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay.

    PubMed

    Grin, Yossi; Admoni, Tamar; Priel, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein, is responsible for maintaining the telomere length and therefore promoting genomic integrity, proliferation, and lifespan. In addition, telomerase protects the mitochondria from oxidative stress and confers resistance to apoptosis, suggesting its possible importance for the surviving of non-mitotic, highly active cells such as neurons. We previously demonstrated the ability of novel telomerase activators to increase telomerase activity and expression in the various mouse brain regions and to protect motor neurons cells from oxidative stress. These results strengthen the notion that telomerase is involved in the protection of neurons from various lesions. To underline the role of telomerase in the brain, we here compare the activity of telomerase in male and female mouse brain and its dependence on age. TRAP assay is a standard method for detecting telomerase activity in various tissues or cell lines. Here we demonstrate the analysis of telomerase activity in three regions of the mouse brain by non-denaturing protein extraction using CHAPS lysis buffer followed by modification of the standard TRAP assay. In this 2-step assay, endogenous telomerase elongates a specific telomerase substrate (TS primer) by adding TTAGGG 6 bp repeats (telomerase reaction). The telomerase reaction products are amplified by PCR reaction creating a DNA ladder of 6 bp increments. The analysis of the DNA ladder is made by 4.5% high resolution agarose gel electrophoresis followed by staining with highly sensitive nucleic acid stain. Compared to the traditional TRAP assay that utilize (32)P labeled radioactive dCTP's for DNA detection and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for resolving the DNA ladder, this protocol offers a non-toxic time saving TRAP assay for evaluating telomerase activity in the mouse brain, demonstrating the ability to detect differences in telomerase activity in the various female and male mouse brain region. PMID:25225832

  17. [Diagnostic protocol and special tests].

    PubMed

    Bellia, M; Pennarola, R

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic protocol and special tests to ionizing radiations have a preventive function in the medical surveillance of the exposed worker. This protocol must be provided with laboratory and special test assessing fitness for working at the risk of ionizing radiations. The health of workers must be compatible with working conditions and radiation risk. This healthiness of workers is evalued in the time to give an assessment fitness for working at ionizing radiations. For this purpose the basic diagnostic protocol must guarantee minimum information about state of organs and apparatus in addition to the normality of the metabolisms. The diagnostic protocol of the exposed worker to ionizing radiations must be adapted to the specific clinical situation so as to finally make a costs-benefits balance sheet. PMID:19288808

  18. An ideal oocyte activation protocol and embryo culture conditions for somatic cell nuclear transfer using sheep oocytes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hiren; Chougule, Shruti; Chohan, Parul; Shah, Naval; Bhartiya, Deepa

    2014-10-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are possibly the best candidates for regenerative medicine, and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is one of the viable options to make patient-specific embryonic stem cells. Till date efficacy of SCNT embryos is very low and requires further improvement like ideal oocyte activation and in vitro culture system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate ideal oocyte activation using different stimulation protocols and to study the effect of cumulus co-culture conditions on embryo development. Results demonstrate that between electric stimulation and chemical stimulation using calcium ionomycin and ionophore, best oocyte activation was obtained using calcium ionomycin (5 microM for 5 min) which resulted in 83% cleavage followed by 7% of early blastocyst which further increased to 15% when a cumulus bed was also introduced during embryo culture. Sequential modified Charles Rosenkrans 2 (mCR2) medium was used for embryo culture in which glucose levels were increased from 1 mM to 5 mM from Day 3 onwards. SCNT using cumulus cells as donor somatic cell, calcium ionomycin to activate the reconstructed oocyte and embryo culture on a cumulus bed in sequential mCR2 medium, resulted in the development of 6% embryos to early blastocyst stage. Such technological advances will make SCNT a viable option to make patient-specific pluripotent stem cell lines in near future.

  19. Intelligent route surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoemaker, Robin; Sandbrink, Rody; van Voorthuijsen, Graeme

    2009-05-01

    Intelligence on abnormal and suspicious behaviour along roads in operational domains is extremely valuable for countering the IED (Improvised Explosive Device) threat. Local sensor networks at strategic spots can gather data for continuous monitoring of daily vehicle activity. Unattended intelligent ground sensor networks use simple sensing nodes, e.g. seismic, magnetic, radar, or acoustic, or combinations of these in one housing. The nodes deliver rudimentary data at any time to be processed with software that filters out the required information. At TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) research has started on how to equip a sensor network with data analysis software to determine whether behaviour is suspicious or not. Furthermore, the nodes should be expendable, if necessary, and be small in size such that they are hard to detect by adversaries. The network should be self-configuring and self-sustaining and should be reliable, efficient, and effective during operational tasks - especially route surveillance - as well as robust in time and space. If data from these networks are combined with data from other remote sensing devices (e.g. UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles)/aerostats), an even more accurate assessment of the tactical situation is possible. This paper shall focus on the concepts of operation towards a working intelligent route surveillance (IRS) research demonstrator network for monitoring suspicious behaviour in IED sensitive domains.

  20. Active surveillance of visual impairment due to adverse drug reactions: findings from a national study in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Cumberland, Phillippa M; Russell-Eggitt, Isabelle; Rahi, Jugnoo S

    2015-01-01

    As visual impairment (VI) due to adverse drug reactions (ADR) is rare in adults and children, there is an incomplete evidence base to inform guidance for screening and for counseling patients on the potential risks of medications. We report on suspected drugs and the eye conditions found in a national study of incidence of diagnosis of visual impairment due to suspected ADR. Case ascertainment was via the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit (BOSU), between March 2010 and February 2012, with follow-up after 6 months. Case definition: any child or adult with bilateral or unilateral visual impairment due to a suspected ADR, using distance acuity worse than Snellen 6/18 (logMAR 0.48) in the better eye (bilateral) or affected eye (unilateral). Anonymized patient information on potential cases was provided by managing ophthalmologists, comprising visual status before and after suspected ADR, ophthalmic condition attributable to the ADR, preexisting eye disease and prescribed medications at the time of the ADR. Permanency and causality of the visual impairment were confirmed by the managing clinician, after 6 months, using the WHO Uppsala Monitoring Committee criteria. Over 2 years, 36 eligible cases were reported of whom 23 had permanent VI. While most cases were due to drugs known to have adverse side-effects, some were unanticipated sporadic cases. Visual impairment due to ADRs is rare. However, with for example, increasing polypharmacy in the elderly, monitoring of ocular ADRs, although challenging, is necessary. PMID:25692024

  1. Genetic variants of the Wnt signaling pathway as predictors of aggressive disease and reclassification in men with early stage prostate cancer on active surveillance.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiang; Ye, Yuanqing; Gu, Jian; He, Yonggang; Davis, John W; Thompson, Timothy C; Logothetis, Christopher J; Kim, Jeri; Wu, Xifeng

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the genetic predictors of prostate cancer aggressiveness and reclassification in men with localized prostate cancer undergoing active surveillance. The Wnt signaling pathway is important for prostate cancer development and progression. Identifying genetic variants associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness and reclassification may have a potential role in the management of localized patients. In this study, we used a three-phase design. In phases I and II prostate cancer patient cohort, 578 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 45 genes of the Wnt signaling pathway were analyzed in 1762 localized prostate cancer patients. Twelve SNPs from four regions were significantly associated with aggressive disease, among which, three linked SNPs in CSNK1A1 at 5q32 (represented by rs752822) may differentiate GS 4+3 from GS 3+4 patients (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.12-1.87, P = 4.76×10(-3)). In phase III active surveillance (AS) cohort, genotyping of rs752822 (candidate from phases I and II) and previously identified rs2735839 were determined in 494 GS ≤7 patients. We found a significant association between rs2735839 and prostate cancer reclassification in the AS cohort (AG + AA versus GG, HR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.11-2.28, P = 0.012) and a suggestive association of rs752822. Jointly, rs752822 and rs2735839 showed good potentials in risk-stratifying GS 7 patients and predicting disease reclassification (OR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.62-4.51, P = 1×10(-4) in phase II; HR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.13-3.18, P = 0.016 in phase III). In summary, rs752822 and rs2735839 may assist in risk-stratifying GS 7 patients and predict prostate cancer reclassification. The significant associations were independent from GS, T stage and PSA levels at baseline. PMID:27515962

  2. PTEN loss and chromosome 8 alterations in Gleason grade 3 prostate cancer cores predicts the presence of un-sampled grade 4 tumor: implications for active surveillance.

    PubMed

    Trock, Bruce J; Fedor, Helen; Gurel, Bora; Jenkins, Robert B; Knudsen, B S; Fine, Samson W; Said, Jonathan W; Carter, H Ballentine; Lotan, Tamara L; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2016-07-01

    Men who enter active surveillance because their biopsy exhibits only Gleason grade 3 (G3) frequently have higher grade tumor missed by biopsy. Thus, biomarkers are needed that, when measured on G3 tissue, can predict the presence of higher grade tumor in the whole prostate. We evaluated whether PTEN loss, chromosome 8q gain (MYC) and/or 8p loss (LPL) measured only on G3 cores is associated with un-sampled G4 tumor. A tissue microarray was constructed of prostatectomy tissue from patients whose prostates exhibited only Gleason score 3+3, only 3+4 or only 4+3 tumor (n=50 per group). Cores sampled only from areas of G3 were evaluated for PTEN loss by immunohistochemistry, and PTEN deletion, LPL/8p loss and MYC/8q gain by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Biomarker results were compared between Gleason score 6 vs 7 tumors using conditional logistic regression. PTEN protein loss, odds ratio=4.99, P=0.033; MYC/8q gain, odds ratio=5.36, P=0.010; and LPL/8p loss, odds ratio=3.96, P=0.003 were significantly more common in G3 cores derived from Gleason 7 vs Gleason 6 tumors. PTEN gene deletion was not statistically significant. Associations were stronger comparing Gleason 4+3 vs 6 than for Gleason 3+4 vs 6. MYC/8q gain, LPL/8p loss and PTEN protein loss measured in G3 tissue microarray cores strongly differentiate whether the core comes from a Gleason 6 or Gleason 7 tumor. If validated to predict upgrading from G3 biopsy to prostatectomy these biomarkers could reduce the likelihood of enrolling high-risk men and facilitate safe patient selection for active surveillance.

  3. Genetic variants of the Wnt signaling pathway as predictors of aggressive disease and reclassification in men with early stage prostate cancer on active surveillance.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiang; Ye, Yuanqing; Gu, Jian; He, Yonggang; Davis, John W; Thompson, Timothy C; Logothetis, Christopher J; Kim, Jeri; Wu, Xifeng

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the genetic predictors of prostate cancer aggressiveness and reclassification in men with localized prostate cancer undergoing active surveillance. The Wnt signaling pathway is important for prostate cancer development and progression. Identifying genetic variants associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness and reclassification may have a potential role in the management of localized patients. In this study, we used a three-phase design. In phases I and II prostate cancer patient cohort, 578 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 45 genes of the Wnt signaling pathway were analyzed in 1762 localized prostate cancer patients. Twelve SNPs from four regions were significantly associated with aggressive disease, among which, three linked SNPs in CSNK1A1 at 5q32 (represented by rs752822) may differentiate GS 4+3 from GS 3+4 patients (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.12-1.87, P = 4.76×10(-3)). In phase III active surveillance (AS) cohort, genotyping of rs752822 (candidate from phases I and II) and previously identified rs2735839 were determined in 494 GS ≤7 patients. We found a significant association between rs2735839 and prostate cancer reclassification in the AS cohort (AG + AA versus GG, HR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.11-2.28, P = 0.012) and a suggestive association of rs752822. Jointly, rs752822 and rs2735839 showed good potentials in risk-stratifying GS 7 patients and predicting disease reclassification (OR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.62-4.51, P = 1×10(-4) in phase II; HR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.13-3.18, P = 0.016 in phase III). In summary, rs752822 and rs2735839 may assist in risk-stratifying GS 7 patients and predict prostate cancer reclassification. The significant associations were independent from GS, T stage and PSA levels at baseline.

  4. PTEN loss and chromosome 8 alterations in Gleason grade 3 prostate cancer cores predicts the presence of un-sampled grade 4 tumor: implications for Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Trock, Bruce J.; Fedor, Helen; Gurel, Bora; Jenkins, Robert B.; Knudsen, BS; Fine, Samson W.; Said, Jonathan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Lotan, Tamara L.; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2016-01-01

    Men who enter active surveillance because their biopsy exhibits only Gleason grade 3 (G3) frequently have higher grade tumor missed by biopsy. Thus, biomarkers are needed that, when measured on G3 tissue, can predict the presence of higher grade tumor in the whole prostate. We evaluated whether PTEN loss, chromosome 8q gain (MYC) and/or 8p loss (LPL) measured only on G3 cores is associated with un-sampled G4 tumor. A tissue microarray was constructed of prostatectomy tissue from patients whose prostates exhibited only Gleason score 3+3, only 3+4, or only 4+3 tumor (n=50 per group). Cores sampled only from areas of G3 were evaluated for PTEN loss by immunohistochemistry, and PTEN deletion, LPL/8p loss, and MYC/8q gain by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Biomarker results were compared between Gleason score 6 vs. 7 tumors using conditional logistic regression. PTEN protein loss, odds ratio=4.99, p=.033, MYC/8q gain, odds ratio=5.36, p=.010, and LPL/8p loss, odds ratio=3.96, p=.003 were significantly more common in G3 cores derived from Gleason 7 vs. Gleason 6 tumors. PTEN gene deletion was not statistically significant. Associations were stronger comparing Gleason 4+3 vs. 6 than for Gleason 3+4 vs. 6. MYC/8q gain, LPL/8p loss, and PTEN protein loss measured in G3 tissue microarray cores strongly differentiate whether the core comes from a Gleason 6 or Gleason 7 tumor. If validated to predict upgrading from G3 biopsy to prostatectomy these biomarkers could reduce the likelihood of enrolling high risk men and facilitate safe patient selection for active surveillance. PMID:27080984

  5. DATA SHARING REPORT CHARACTERIZATION OF POPULATION 7: PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, DRY ACTIVE WASTE, AND MISCELLANEOUS DEBRIS, SURVEILLANCE AND MAINTENANCE PROJECT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect

    Harpenau, Evan M

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing to determine a final pathway for disposal. Population 7 (POP 7) consists of 56 containers of aged, low-level and potentially mixed S&M waste that has been staged in various locations around ORNL. Several of these POP 7 containers primarily contain personal protective equipment (PPE) and dry active waste (DAW), but may contain other miscellaneous debris. This data sharing report addresses the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) specified waste in a 13-container subpopulation (including eight steel boxes, three 55-gal drums, one sealand, and one intermodal) that lacked sufficient characterization data for possible disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile.

  6. Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA): a study protocol for a multicentre project

    PubMed Central

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Panis, Luc Int; Anaya, Esther; Avila-Palencia, Ione; Boschetti, Florinda; Brand, Christian; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Dons, Evi; Eriksson, Ulf; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Laeremans, Michelle; Mueller, Natalie; Orjuela, Juan Pablo; Racioppi, Francesca; Raser, Elisabeth; Rojas-Rueda, David; Schweizer, Christian; Standaert, Arnout; Uhlmann, Tina; Wegener, Sandra; Götschi, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Only one-third of the European population meets the minimum recommended levels of physical activity (PA). Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases. Walking and cycling for transport (active mobility, AM) are well suited to provide regular PA. The European research project Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) pursues the following aims: (1) to investigate correlates and interrelations of AM, PA, air pollution and crash risk; (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of selected interventions to promote AM; (3) to improve health impact assessment (HIA) of AM; (4) to foster the exchange between the disciplines of public health and transport planning, and between research and practice. Methods and analysis PASTA pursues a mixed-method and multilevel approach that is consistently applied in seven case study cities. Determinants of AM and the evaluation of measures to increase AM are investigated through a large scale longitudinal survey, with overall 14 000 respondents participating in Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Örebro, Rome, Vienna and Zurich. Contextual factors are systematically gathered in each city. PASTA generates empirical findings to improve HIA for AM, for example, with estimates of crash risks, factors on AM-PA substitution and carbon emissions savings from mode shifts. Findings from PASTA will inform WHO's online Health Economic Assessment Tool on the health benefits from cycling and/or walking. The study's wide scope, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and health and transport methods, the innovative survey design, the general and city-specific analyses, and the transdisciplinary composition of the consortium and the wider network of partners promise highly relevant insights for research and practice. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained by the local ethics committees in the countries where the work is being conducted, and sent to the European

  7. Evidence-Based Referral: Effects of the Revised “Youth Fit 4 Life” Protocol on Physical Activity Outputs

    PubMed Central

    Annesi, James J; Vaughn, Linda L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lack of physical activity is prevalent in youths. Pediatricians seek referrals to reliably increase outputs, especially in their overweight and underactive patients. Objective: Within a randomized controlled trial, we contrasted 2 physical activity/nutrition treatments on the basis of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory, and a comparison condition, on time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during the 45-min/day physical activity segment of elementary afterschool care. Methods: In youths ranging in age from 9 to 12 years (9.7 ± 0.8 years, overall), the Original Youth Fit For Life treatment (Original YFFL; n = 49), the Revised Youth Fit 4 Life treatment (Revised YF4L, n = 43), and a comparison condition of typical care (Comparison, n = 46) were contrasted using a 3 (groups) × 2 (sexes) analysis of variance incorporating means of 3 accelerometer measurements over 12 weeks. Results: There was a significantly greater amount of time in MVPA in the Revised YF4L group than either the Original YFFL or Comparison groups (F2, 132 = 281.20, p < 0.001). Boys completed significantly more time in MVPA than girls (F2, 132 = 16.43, p < 0.001); however, there was not a significant group × sex interaction. Supplementary analyses indicated sedentary time was significantly less by 29% in the Revised YF4L when contrasted with the Comparison group. Conclusion: The Revised YF4L protocol that sought to maximize participants’ cardiovascular physical activity appeared to improve upon the Original YFFL treatment on time in MVPA. Thus, pediatricians might have confidence in referring their patients to such evidence-based approaches. Future research should also evaluate the effects of YF4L on psychosocial predictors of physical activity and change in body mass index. PMID:26057685

  8. Communications protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved communications protocol which increases the efficiency of transmission in return channels on a multi-channel slotted Alohas system by incorporating advanced error correction algorithms, selective retransmission protocols and the use of reserved channels to satisfy the retransmission requests.

  9. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones

    PubMed Central

    Tilston, Natasha; Skelly, Chris; Weinstein, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. This paper proposed pan-European surveillance zones for Chikungunya, based on the climatic conditions necessary for vector activity and viral transmission. Pan-European surveillance provides the best hope for an early-warning of outbreaks, because national boundaries do not play a role in defining the risk of this new vector borne disease threat. A review of climates, where Chikungunya has been active, was used to inform the delineation of three pan-European surveillance zones. These vary in size each month across the June-September period of greatest risk. The zones stretch across southern Europe from Portugal to Turkey. Although the focus of this study was to define the geography of potential surveillance zones based on the climatic limits on the vector and virus, a preliminary examination of inward bound airline passengers was also undertaken. This indicated that France and Italy are likely to be at greater risk due to the number of visitors they receive from Chikungunya active regions, principally viraemic visitors from India. Therefore this study represents a first attempt at creating risk stratified surveillance zones, which we believe could be usefully refined with the use of higher resolution climate data and more complete air travel data. PMID:19878588

  10. The value of information: Current challenges in surveillance implementation.

    PubMed

    Stärk, Katharina D C; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Animal health surveillance is a complex activity that involves multiple stakeholders and provides decision support across sectors. Despite progress in the design of surveillance systems, some technical challenges remain, specifically for emerging hazards. Surveillance can also be impacted by political interests and costly consequences of case reporting, particularly in relation to international trade. Constraints on surveillance can therefore be of technical, economic and political nature. From an economic perspective, both surveillance and intervention are resource-using activities that are part of a mitigation strategy. Surveillance provides information for intervention decisions and thereby helps to offset negative effects of animal disease and to reduce the decision uncertainty associated with choices on disease control. It thus creates monetary and non-monetary benefits, both of which may be challenging to quantify. The technical relationships between surveillance, intervention and loss avoidance have not been established for most hazards despite being important consideration for investment decisions. Therefore, surveillance cannot just be maximised to minimise intervention costs. Economic appraisals of surveillance need to be done on a case by case basis for any hazard considering both surveillance and intervention performance, the losses avoided and the values attached to them. This can be achieved by using an evaluation approach which provides a systematic investigation of the worth or merit of surveillance activities. Evaluation is driven by a specific evaluation question which for surveillance systems commonly considers effectiveness, efficiency, implementation and/or compliance issues. More work is needed to provide guidance on the appropriate selection of evaluation attributes and general good practice in surveillance evaluation. Due to technical challenges, economic constraints and variable levels of capacity, the implementation of surveillance systems

  11. The Increasing Challenge of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli: Results of a 5-Year Active Surveillance Program in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Giuffrè, Mario; Geraci, Daniela M; Bonura, Celestino; Saporito, Laura; Graziano, Giorgio; Insinga, Vincenzo; Aleo, Aurora; Vecchio, Davide; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Colonization and infection by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR GNB) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are increasingly reported.We conducted a 5-year prospective cohort surveillance study in a tertiary NICU of the hospital "Paolo Giaccone," Palermo, Italy. Our objectives were to describe incidence and trends of MDR GNB colonization and the characteristics of the most prevalent organisms and to identify the risk factors for colonization. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were prospectively collected. Active surveillance cultures (ASCs) were obtained weekly. Clusters of colonization by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were analyzed by conventional and molecular epidemiological tools.During the study period, 1152 infants were enrolled in the study. Prevalences of colonization by MDR GNB, ESBL-producing GNB and multiple species/genera averaged, respectively, 28.8%, 11.7%, and 3.7%. Prevalence and incidence density of colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing GNB showed an upward trend through the surveillance period. Rates of ESBL-producing E coli and K pneumoniae colonization showed wide fluctuations peaking over the last 2 years. The only independent variables associated with colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing organisms and multiple colonization were, respectively, the days of NICU stay (odds ratio [OR] 1.041), the days of exposure to ampicillin-sulbactam (OR 1.040), and the days of formula feeding (OR 1.031). Most clusters of E coli and K pneumoniae colonization were associated with different lineages. Ten out of 12 clusters had an outborn infant as their index case.Our study confirms that MDR GNB are an increasing challenge to NICUs. The universal once-a-week approach allowed us to understand the epidemiology of MDR GNB, to timely detect new clones and institute contact precautions, and to assess risk factors. Collection of these data can be an important tool to

  12. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan?

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Eireen; Pacho, Agnes; Galvan, Maria Adona; Corpuz, Aura

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR), Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR) and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED). Methods A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results Two of 11 (18%) surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45%) surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91%) rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7%) considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27%) surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6%) surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR) were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other. PMID:26767139

  13. Activity of ceftaroline and comparators against pathogens isolated from skin and soft tissue infections in Latin America - results of AWARE surveillance 2012.

    PubMed

    Hoban, Daryl; Biedenbach, Douglas; Sahm, Daniel; Reiszner, Edina; Iaconis, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) surveillance program in 2012 the in vitro activity of ceftaroline and relevant comparator antimicrobials was evaluated in six Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela) against pathogens isolated from patients with hospital associated skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). The study documented that ceftaroline was highly active (MIC90 0.25mg/L/% susceptible 100%) against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MIC90 2mg/L/% susceptible 83.3%) and β-hemolytic streptococci (MIC90 0.008-0.015mg/L/% susceptible 100%). The activity of ceftaroline against selected species of Enterobacteriaceae was dependent upon the presence or absence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Against ESBL screen-negative Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca the MIC90 and percent susceptible for ceftaroline were (0.5mg/L/94.1%), (0.5mg/L/99.0%) and (0.5mg/L/91.5%), respectively. Ceftaroline demonstrated potent activity against a recent collection of pathogens associated with SSTI in six Latin American countries in 2012.

  14. Active Surveillance for Adverse Events After a Mass Vaccination Campaign With a Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PsA-TT) in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Vannice, Kirsten S.; Keita, Modibo; Sow, Samba O.; Durbin, Anna P.; Omer, Saad B.; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Yaméogo, Téné M.; Zuber, Patrick L. F.; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Sacko, Massambou; Diomandé, Fabien V. K.; Halsey, Neal A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The monovalent meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac) was developed for use in the “meningitis belt” of sub-Saharan Africa. Mali was 1 of 3 countries selected for early introduction. As this is a new vaccine, postlicensure surveillance is particularly important to identify and characterize possible safety issues. Methods. The national vaccination campaign was phased from September 2010 to November 2011. We conducted postlicensure safety surveillance for PsA-TT in 40 government clinics from southern Mali serving approximately 400 000 people 1–29 years of age. We conducted analyses with individual-level data and population-level data, and we calculated rates of adverse events using the conditional exact test, a modified vaccine cohort risk interval method, and a modified self-controlled case series method for each outcome of interest, including 18 prespecified adverse events and 18 syndromic categories. Results. An increased rate of clinic visits for fever within 3 days after vaccination was found using multiple methods for all age groups. Although other signals were found with some methods, complete assessment of all other prespecified outcomes and syndromic categories did not reveal that PsA-TT was consistently associated with any other health problem. Conclusions. No new safety concerns were identified in this study. These results are consistent with prelicensure data and other studies indicating that PsA-TT is safe. The approach presented could serve as a model for future active postlicensure vaccine safety monitoring associated with large-scale immunization campaigns in low-income countries. PMID:26553680

  15. The validation of a three-stage screening methodology for detecting active convulsive epilepsy in population-based studies in health and demographic surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are few studies on the epidemiology of epilepsy in large populations in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). Most studies in these regions use two-stage population-based screening surveys, which are time-consuming and costly to implement in large populations required to generate accurate estimates. We examined the sensitivity and specificity of a three-stage cross-sectional screening methodology in detecting active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), which can be embedded within on-going census of demographic surveillance systems. We validated a three-stage cross-sectional screening methodology on a randomly selected sample of participants of a three-stage prevalence survey of epilepsy. Diagnosis of ACE by an experienced clinician was used as ‘gold standard’. We further compared the expenditure of this method with the standard two-stage methodology. Results We screened 4442 subjects in the validation and identified 35 cases of ACE. Of these, 18 were identified as false negatives, most of whom (15/18) were missed in the first stage and a few (3/18) in the second stage of the three-stage screening. Overall, this methodology had a sensitivity of 48.6% and a specificity of 100%. It was 37% cheaper than a two-stage survey. Conclusion This was the first study to evaluate the performance of a multi-stage screening methodology used to detect epilepsy in demographic surveillance sites. This method had poor sensitivity attributed mainly to stigma-related non-response in the first stage. This method needs to take into consideration the poor sensitivity and the savings in expenditure and time as well as validation in target populations. Our findings suggest the need for continued efforts to develop and improve case-ascertainment methods in population-based epidemiological studies of epilepsy in LMIC. PMID:23171721

  16. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html). PMID:27389614

  17. The proteolytic digestive activity and growth during ontogeny of Parachromis dovii larvae (Pisces: Cichlidae) using two feeding protocols.

    PubMed

    Quirós Orlich, José R; Valverde Chavarría, Silvia; Ulloa Rojas, Juan B

    2014-08-01

    The proteolytic digestive activity and growth of Parachromis dovii larvae during the ontogeny were evaluated in a recirculation system using two feeding strategies during a 28-day period. Larvae were reared using two feeding protocols (three replicates each): (A) Artemia nauplii (at satiation), fed from exogenous feeding [8 days after hatching (DAH)] until 15 DAH followed by nauplii substitution by formulated feed (20% day(-1)) until 20 DAH and then formulated feed until 28 DAH; (B) formulated feed (100 % BW daily) from exogenous feeding until 28 DAH. Levels of acid (pepsin type) and alkaline digestive proteases as well as growth and survival of larvae were measured along the feeding period. Survival was high and similar between treatments: 98.9 ± 0.0 for Artemia, 97.3 ± 0.0% for formulated feed. The specific growth rate for length and weight was higher in larvae fed with Artemia nauplii than in larvae reared with formulated feed: 3.4 ± 0.1 versus 1.8 ± 0.1% day(-1) for body length (P = 0.009) and 12.2 ± 0.1 versus 6.5 ± 0.3% day(-1) for body weight (P = 0.002). The acid and alkaline proteolytic activity was detected, in both treatments, from the beginning of the experiment, at 8 DAH. The total enzymatic activity (U larva(-1)) for acid and alkaline proteases was higher in larvae reared with Artemia after 12 DAH, whereas the specific enzymatic activity was similar for both enzyme types in the two treatments. The results suggest that P. dovii larvae were capable to digest formulated diets from the beginning of exogenous feeding and that they could be reared with formulated feeds. However, the formulated feed used should be nutritionally improved because of the poor growth obtained in this research.

  18. 76 FR 40736 - NIH State-of-the-Science Conference on the Role of Active Surveillance in the Management of Men...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Surveillance in the Management of Men With Localized Prostate Cancer ACTION: Notice. Notice is hereby given of... Surveillance in the Management of Men With Localized Prostate Cancer,'' to be held December 5-7, 2011, in the... cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. It...

  19. Influence of Individual Determinants on Physical Activity at Work and During Leisure Time in Soldiers: A Prospective Surveillance Study.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Christoph; Lindner, Tobias; Goethel, Pauline; Müller, Marie; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Quantified physical activity is an important parameter for evaluating the risk of the incidence of internal and musculoskeletal disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical activity of German Soldiers on duty and during leisure time with regard to individual determinants and to evaluate if factors associated with the risk of the incidence of internal or musculoskeletal disorders are of relevance for physical activity. For this purpose, we conducted activity measurements on 169 subjects. The accelerometer-based activity sensor was worn for 7 consecutive days. The number of steps taken was evaluated as an activity marker.We observed that a high body mass index and a large waist circumference were associated with a low activity level. Women were found to be more active than men, particularly during leisure time. Personnel under 25 years of age were more physically active than those between 25 and 50 years of age. Subjects with underlying musculoskeletal disorders were less active than those who had internal disorders or were healthy. Men and overweight people run a higher risk of developing musculoskeletal and internal disorders. Health promotion should focus on raising the physical activity level with the aim of exerting a positive influence on the associated risk factors. PMID:26874098

  20. Influence of Individual Determinants on Physical Activity at Work and During Leisure Time in Soldiers: A Prospective Surveillance Study.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Christoph; Lindner, Tobias; Goethel, Pauline; Müller, Marie; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Quantified physical activity is an important parameter for evaluating the risk of the incidence of internal and musculoskeletal disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical activity of German Soldiers on duty and during leisure time with regard to individual determinants and to evaluate if factors associated with the risk of the incidence of internal or musculoskeletal disorders are of relevance for physical activity. For this purpose, we conducted activity measurements on 169 subjects. The accelerometer-based activity sensor was worn for 7 consecutive days. The number of steps taken was evaluated as an activity marker.We observed that a high body mass index and a large waist circumference were associated with a low activity level. Women were found to be more active than men, particularly during leisure time. Personnel under 25 years of age were more physically active than those between 25 and 50 years of age. Subjects with underlying musculoskeletal disorders were less active than those who had internal disorders or were healthy. Men and overweight people run a higher risk of developing musculoskeletal and internal disorders. Health promotion should focus on raising the physical activity level with the aim of exerting a positive influence on the associated risk factors.

  1. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance.

  2. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. PMID:25744760

  3. Innovative approach for increasing physical activity among breast cancer survivors: protocol for Project MOVE, a quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Sabiston, Catherine M; Clark, Marianne I; Bottorff, Joan L; Toxopeus, Renee; Campbell, Kristin L; Eves, Neil D; Ellard, Susan L; Gotay, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is a cost-effective and non-pharmaceutical strategy that can help mitigate the physical and psychological health challenges associated with breast cancer survivorship. However, up to 70% of women breast cancer survivors are not meeting minimum recommended physical activity guidelines. Project MOVE is an innovative approach to increase physical activity among breast cancer survivors through the use of Action Grants, a combination of microgrants (small amounts of money awarded to groups of individuals to support a physical activity initiative) and financial incentives. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale and protocol of Project MOVE. Method and analysis A quasi-experimental pre–post design will be used. Twelve groups of 8–12 adult women who are breast cancer survivors (N=132) were recruited for the study via face-to-face meetings with breast cancer-related stakeholders, local print and radio media, social media, and pamphlets and posters at community organisations and medical clinics. Each group submitted a microgrant application outlining their proposed physical activity initiative. Successful applicants were determined by a grant review panel and informed of a financial incentive on meeting their physical activity goals. An evaluation of feasibility will be guided by the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance (RE-AIM) framework and assessed through focus groups, interviews and project-related reports. Physical activity will be assessed through accelerometry and by self-report. Quality of life, motivation to exercise and social connection will also be assessed through self-report. Assessments will occur at baseline, 6 months and 1 year. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the University of British Columbia's Behavioural Research Ethics Board (#H14-02502) and has been funded by the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute (project number #702913). Study findings

  4. A monitoring and feedback tool embedded in a counselling protocol to increase physical activity of patients with COPD or type 2 diabetes in primary care: study protocol of a three-arm cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is important for a healthy lifestyle. Although physical activity can delay complications and decrease the burden of the disease, the level of activity of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) is often far from optimal. To stimulate physical activity, a monitoring and feedback tool, consisting of an accelerometer linked to a smart phone and webserver (It’s LiFe! tool), and a counselling protocol for practice nurses in primary care was developed (the Self-management Support Program). The main objective of this study is to measure the longitudinal effects of this counselling protocol and the added value of using the tool. Methods/Design This three-armed cluster randomised controlled trial with 120 participants with COPD and 120 participants with DM2 (aged 40–70), compares the counselling protocol with and without the use of the tool (group 1 and 2) with usual care (group 3). Recruitment takes place at GP practices in the southern regions of the Netherlands. Randomisation takes place at the practice level. The intended sample (three arms of 8 practices) powers the study to detect a 10-minute difference of moderate and intense physical activity per day between groups 1 and 3. Participants in the intervention groups have to visit the practice nurse 3–4 times for physical activity counselling, in a 4-6-month period. Specific activity goals tailored to the individual patient's preferences and needs will be set. In addition, participants in group 1 will be instructed to use the tool in daily life. The primary outcome, physical activity, will be measured in all groups with a physical activity monitor (PAM). Secondary outcomes are quality of life, general - and exercise - self-efficacy, and health status. Follow-up will take place after 6 and 9 months. Separately, a process evaluation will be conducted to explore reasons for trial non-participation, and the intervention

  5. Simple Protocol for Secondary School Hands-On Activity: Electrophoresis of Pre-Stained Nucleic Acids on Agar-Agar Borate Gels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britos, Leticia; Goyenola, Guillermo; Orono, Silvia Umpierrez

    2004-01-01

    An extremely simple, inexpensive, and safe method is presented, which emulates nucleic acids isolation and electrophoretic analysis as performed in a research environment, in the context of a secondary school hands-on activity. The protocol is amenable to an interdisciplinary approach, taking into consideration the electrical and chemical…

  6. Testing Activity Monitors’ Effect on Health: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial Among Older Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Fisher, Steve R; Jennings, Kristofer; Brown, Arleen F; Swartz, Maria C; Lyons, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Maintaining healthy levels of physical activity is critical to cardiovascular health, but many older adults are inactive. There is a growing body of evidence linking low motivation and inactivity. Standard behavioral counseling techniques used within the primary care setting strive to increase motivation, but often do not emphasize the key component of self-control. The addition of electronic activity monitors (EAMs) to counseling protocols may provide more effective behavior change and increase overall motivation for exercise through interactive self-monitoring, feedback, and social support from other users. Objective The objective of the study is to conduct a three month intervention trial that will test the feasibility of adding an EAM system to brief counseling within a primary care setting. Participants (n=40) will be randomized to receive evidence-based brief counseling plus either an EAM or a pedometer. Methods Throughout the intervention, we will test its feasibility and acceptability, the change in primary outcomes (cardiovascular risk and physical activity), and the change in secondary outcomes (adherence, weight and body composition, health status, motivation, physical function, psychological feelings, and self-regulation). Upon completion of the intervention, we will also conduct focus groups with the participants and with primary care stakeholders. Results The study started recruitment in October 2015 and is scheduled to be completed by October 2016. Conclusions This project will lay the groundwork and establish the infrastructure for intervention refinement and ultimately translation within the primary care setting in order to prevent cardiovascular disease on a population level. Trial Registration ClinicalTrails.gov NCT02554435; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02554435 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation/6fUlW5tdT) PMID:27129602

  7. On-line image analysis of the stromboli volcanic activity recorded by the surveillance camera helps the forecasting of the major eruptive events.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristaldi, A.; Coltelli, M.; Mangiagli, S.; Pecora, E.

    2003-04-01

    The typical activity of Stromboli consists of intermittent mild explosions lasting a few seconds, which take place at different vents and at variable intervals, the most common time interval being 10-20 minutes. However, the routine activity can be interrupted by more violent, paroxysmal explosions, that eject m-sized scoriaceous bombs and lava blocks to a distance of several hundreds of meters from the craters, endangering the numerous tourists that watch the spectacular activity from the volcano's summit located about two hundreds meters from the active vents. On average, 1-2 paroxysmal explosions occurred per year over the past century, but this statistic may be underestimated in absence of continuous monitoring. For this reason from summer 1996 a remote surveillance camera works on Stromboli recording continuously the volcanic activity. It is located on Pizzo Sopra la Fossa, 100 metres above the crater terrace where are the active vents. Using image analysis we seeks to identify any change of the explosive activity trend that could precede a particular eruptive event, like paroxysmal explosions, fire fountains, lava flows. From the day of the camera installation up to present 12 paroxysmal events and lava flows occurred. The analysis include the counting of the explosions occurred at the different craters and the parameterization in classes of intensity for each explosion on the base of tephra dispersion and kinetics energy. The plot of dissipated energy by each crater versus time shows a cyclic behavior with max and min of explosive activity ranging from a few days to a month. Often the craters show opposite trends so when the activity decreases in a crater, increases in the other. Before every paroxysmal explosions recorded, the crater that produced the event decreased and then stopped its activity from a few days to weeks before. The other crater tried to compensate increasing its activity and when it declined the paroxysmal explosion occurred suddenly at

  8. A Systematic Review Protocol to Assess the Effects of Physical Activity on Health and Quality of Life Outcomes in Adolescent Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Wurz, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background The benefits of physical activity for child and adult cancer survivors have been summarized in previous systematic reviews. However, no review has summarized the evidence for adolescent cancer survivors. Objective This paper describes the design of a protocol to conduct a systematic review of published studies examining the effects of physical activity on health and quality of life outcomes for adolescent cancer survivors. Methods Several guidelines informed the development of this protocol. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols guidelines provided the structure by which to conduct and report the protocol; though some adaptations were made with regards to search terms, data synthesis, and evaluating the risk of bias. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions was used to guide research question development, search term selection, and the data extraction form. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines helped inform the data extraction form. Lastly, the Guidance on the Conduct of Narrative Synthesis in Systematic Reviews informed the data synthesis. Ten electronic databases were identified and a search strategy was developed using a combination of Medical Subject Headings terms and keywords that were developed by the authors and peer reviewed by a university librarian. Both authors independently screened eligible studies for final inclusion, and data were abstracted using a form developed by the research team. A decision was made to synthesize all data narratively. Results The review has now been completed, peer-reviewed, and accepted for publication in a forthcoming issue of JMIR Cancer. Conclusions As this will be the first systematic review on this topic, outlining the protocol ensures transparency for the completed review. Further, this protocol illustrates how elements from several guidelines were incorporated to answer the research question (ie, what is the effect of

  9. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  10. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    network and use the specific presentation methods. In addition, the S4 is compliant with Open Geospatial Consortium - Sensor Web Enablement (OGC-SWE) standards to efficiently discover, access, use, and control heterogeneous sensors and their metadata. These S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. The S4 system is directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  11. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  12. Surveillance Strategies for Sarcoma: Results of a Survey of Members of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surveillance is crucial to oncology, yet there is scant evidence to guide strategies. Purpose. This survey identified sarcoma surveillance strategies for Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) members and rationales behind them. Understanding current practice should facilitate studies to generate evidence-based surveillance protocols. Methods. Permission was granted by the Research and Executive Committee of the MSTS to survey members on surveillance strategies. First, the questionnaire requested demographic and clinical practice information. Second, the survey focused on clinicians' specific surveillance soft tissue and bone sarcoma protocols. Results. 20 percent of MSTS members completed the survey. The primary rationale for protocols was training continuation, followed by published guidelines, and finally personal interpretation of the literature. 95% of the respondents believe that additional studies regarding appropriate surveillance protocols are needed. 87% reported patient concerns regarding radiation exposure from surveillance imaging. For soft tissue and bone sarcoma local recurrence, responders identified surgical margin, histologic grade, and tumor size as the most important factors. For metastases, important risk factors identified included histologic grade, tumor size, and histologic type. Protocols demonstrated wide variation. Conclusion. This survey demonstrates that surveillance strategies utilized by MSTS members are not evidence-based, providing rationale for multi-institutional studies. It also confirms the public health issue of excessive radiation exposure. PMID:27478404

  13. Optimized dissociation protocol for isolating human glioma stem cells from tumorspheres via fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Lv, Donglai; Ma, Qing-Hua; Duan, Jiang-Jie; Wu, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Xi-Long; Yu, Shi-Cang; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2016-07-10

    Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) based on the surface marker CD133 is the most common method for isolating glioma stem cells (GSCs) from heterogeneous glioma cell populations. Optimization of this method will have profound implications for the future of GSC research. Five commonly used digestion reagents, Liberase-TL, trypsin, TrypLE, Accutase, and non-enzymatic cell dissociation solution (NECDS), were used to dissociate glioma tumorspheres derived from two primary glioma specimens (091214 and 090116) and the cell lines U87 and T98G. The dissociation time, cell viability, retention of CD133, and stemness capacity were assessed. The results showed that single cells derived from the Liberase-TL (200 µg/ml) group exhibited high viability and less damage to the antigen CD133. However, the efficiency of NECDS for dissociating the tumorspheres into single cells was fairly low. Meanwhile, the use of this digestion reagent resulted in obvious cellular and antigenic impairments. Taken together, Liberase-TL (200 µg/ml) is an ideal reagent for isolating GSCs from tumorspheres. In contrast, the use of NECDS for such a protocol should be carefully considered. PMID:27091400

  14. Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Clinic-admitted Raptors, Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Gail; Edwards, Eric; Scherpelz, Judy; Bowen, Richard; Komar, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, 13.5% of clinic-admitted raptors in northern Colorado tested positive for West Nile virus (WNV). Clinic-admitted–raptor surveillance detected WNV activity nearly 14 weeks earlier than other surveillance systems. WNV surveillance using live raptor admissions to rehabilitation clinics may offer a novel surveillance method and should be considered along with other techniques already in use. PMID:17479898

  15. Individuals with a family history of ESRD are a high-risk population for CKD: implications for targeted surveillance and intervention activities.

    PubMed

    McClellan, William M; Satko, Scott G; Gladstone, Elisa; Krisher, Jenna O; Narva, Andrew S; Freedman, Barry I

    2009-03-01

    Activities intended to improve the detection, treatment, and control of chronic kidney disease (CKD) should be incorporated into existing health care systems and targeted to high-risk populations to avoid redundancy and waste of resources. One high-risk population consists of first- or second-degree family members of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), who are 2 to 3 times as likely to have incident ESRD, have high rates of impaired kidney function and undetected and uncontrolled high blood pressure, and are more likely to be obese. These individuals usually are unaware of their underlying CKD and may discount their own risk of ESRD. The ESRD Network 6 Family History Project shows that the ESRD Networks, which constitute a national CKD surveillance system for patients with stage 5 CKD, may be an existing resource that can be used to identify relatives of incident patients with ESRD and provide these families with information about CKD. Nationally available resources have been developed by the National Kidney Disease Education Program for use with these at-risk families. Individuals interested in population-based CKD control activities should be aware of and use these resources. PMID:19231753

  16. Surveillance and maintenance report on decontamination and decommissioning and remedial action activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    King, H.L.; Sollenberger, M.L.; Sparkman, D.E.; Reynolds, R.M.; Wayland, G.S.

    1996-12-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) and Remedial Action (RA) programs are part of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Division and are funded by the Office of Environmental Management (EM-40). Building 9201-4 (known as Alpha-4), three sites located within Building 9201-3 (the Oil Storage Tank, the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Fuel Handling Facility, and the Coolant Salt Technology Facility), and Building 9419-1 (the Decontamination Facility) are currently the facilities at the Y-12 Plant included in the D&D program. The RA program provides surveillance and maintenance (S&M) and program management of ER sites at the Y-12 Plant, including selected sites listed in Appendix C of the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA), sites listed in the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendment (HSWA) permit Solid Waste Management Unit (SWM-U) list, and sites currently closed or undergoing post-closure activities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This report communicates the status of the program plans and specific S&M activities for the D&D and RA programs.

  17. Clinical Protocol Information System

    PubMed Central

    Wirtschafter, David D.; Gams, Richard; Ferguson, Carol; Blackwell, William; Boackle, Paul

    1980-01-01

    The Clinical Protocol Information System (CPIS) supports the clinical research and patient care objectives of the SouthEastern Cancer Study Group (SEG). The information system goals are to improve the evaluability of clinical trials, decrease the frequency of adverse patient events, implement drug toxicity surveillance, improve the availability of study data and demonstrate the criteria for computer networks that can impact on the general medical care of the community. Nodes in the network consist of Data General MicroNova MP-100 minicomputers that drive the interactive data dialogue and communicate with the network concentrator (another DG MicroNova) in Birmingham. Functions supported include: source data editing, care “advice,” care “audit,” care “explanation,” and treatment note printing. The complete database is updated nightly and resides on UAB's IBM 370/158-AP.

  18. Patient perspectives on the promptness and quality of care of road traffic incident victims in Peru: a cross-sectional, active surveillance study

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Background: Road injuries are the second-leading cause of disease and injury in the Andean region of South America. Adequate management of road traffic crash victims is important to prevent and reduce deaths and serious long-term injuries. Objective: To evaluate the promptness of health care services provided to those injured in road traffic incidents (RTIs) and the satisfaction with those services during the pre-hospital and hospital periods. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with active surveillance to recruit participants in emergency departments at eight health care facilities in three Peruvian cities: a large metropolitan city (Lima) and two provincial cities (an urban center in the southern Andes and an urban center in the rainforest region), between August and September 2009. The main outcomes of interest were promptness of care, measured by time between injury and each service offered, as well as patient satisfaction measured by the Service Quality (SERVQUAL) survey. We explored the association between outcomes and city, type of health care facility (HCF), and type of provider. Results: We recruited 644 adults seeking care for RTIs. This active surveillance strategy yielded 34% more events than anticipated, suggesting under-reporting in traditional registries. Median response time between a RTI and any care at a HCF was 33 minutes overall and only 62% of participants received professional care during the initial “golden” hour after the RTI. After adjustment for various factors, there was strong evidence of higher global dissatisfaction levels among those receiving care at public HCFs compared to private ones (odds ratio (OR) 5.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.88-13.54). This difference was not observed when provincial sites were compared to Lima (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.42-4.70). Conclusions: Response time to RTIs was adequate overall, though a large proportion of RTI victims could have received more prompt care. Overall, dissatisfaction was

  19. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    SciTech Connect

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-02-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities. However, ongoing S&M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations.

  20. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  1. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  2. Arsenic surveillance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background information about arsenic is presented including forms, common sources, and clinical symptoms of arsenic exposure. The purpose of the Arsenic Surveillance Program and LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Arsenic Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  3. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  4. Asbestos Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on asbestos is presented including the different types and the important medical distinctions between those different types. The four diseases associated with asbestos exposure are discussed: mesothelioma, lung cancer, asbestosis, and benign pleural disorders. The purpose of the LeRC Asbestos Surveillance Program is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Asbestos Monitoring at LeRC are discussed.

  5. Mercury Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on mercury exposure is presented including forms, sources, permissible exposure limits, and physiological effects. The purpose of the Mercury Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Mercury Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  6. Lead Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on lead exposure is presented including forms of lead, sources, hematologic effects, neurologic effects, endocrine effects, renal effects, and reproductive and developmental effects. The purpose of the Lead Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Lead Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  7. Continuous thermal infrared monitoring at Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius (Italy) by automated data processing: an effective surveillance tool of active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansivero, Fabio; Vilardo, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano Thermal Infrared Imagery Monitoring Network (TIIMNet) is made up of IR acquisition stations designed to continuously acquire IR scenes of diffuse degassing areas in the Neapolitan volcanic district. Every station consists of a RMS (Remote Monitoring Station) which manages the shooting functionalities of the IR camera and the connection to the surveillance Centre of INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano in Naples. The first developed station was equipped with a NEC Thermo Tracer TS7302 IR camera (with 320x240 pixel FPA uncooled microbolometer); a newer one is equipped with a FLIR SC645 IR camera (with 640x480 pixel FPA uncooled microbolometer) and is supported by an in-house developed hardware which manages a fully real-time control of data acquisition and transfer procedures. As a whole, TIIMNet is composed of four permanent stations and three transportable ones. The first permanent NEC Station was installed at Vesuvius on July 2004 and dismissed on May 2007. A new permanent FLIR Station was set up on June 2011 and it acquires IR scenes from the inner SW slope of Vesuvius crater. In the Campi Flegrei caldera (Pozzuoli, Italy) a permanent NEC Station was operative at Solfatara since September 2004 and it acquired scenes of the major fumaroles area located on the SE inner slope at the intersection of two active, SW-NE and NW-SE main faults. A permanent FLIR Station has been installed at Solfatara on June 2013 and takes IR shots of a significant thermal anomaly on the Northern inner slope of the crater. At Pisciarelli locality, on the Solfatara NE outer slope, a transportable NEC Station was set up on October 2006 and dismissed on September 2013. It was abreast of a permanent FLIR Station on March 2013. Both stations stored IR scenes of the outer eastern flank of the Solfatara tuff-cone characterized by heavy water vapor and CO2 emissions close to an active NW-SE fault. IR scenes are acquired every night by the TIIMNet stations and in real time

  8. Dengue surveillance in the Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Condon, R; Taleo, G; Stewart, T; Sweeney, T; Kiedrzynski, T

    2000-09-01

    Adequate monitoring of dengue activity can be achieved using a combination of mosquito vector surveillance, fever surveillance, sentinel clinicians and laboratory screening. An apparent increase in fever cases or clinically suspected DF should prompt a careful clinical and laboratory investigation. If an outbreak of dengue is confirmed, health authorities will need to implement emergency community-wide control strategies. Laboratories will quickly feel the burden of clinical monitoring of cases admitted with DHF/DSS. Surveillance can change to clinical case definitions as health workers become familiar with the presenting features of DF and DHF/DSS. Criteria for hospital referral and admission must be well understood. Routine laboratory and sentinel surveillance may resume as the epidemic wanes, and should then continue indefinitely to monitor any resurgence of dengue activity.

  9. Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MARQUEZ, D.L.

    2000-12-21

    The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities.

  10. Evaluation of Aryoseven Safety (Recombinant Activated Factor VII) in Patients with Bleeding Disorders (An Observational Post-Marketing Surveillance Study)

    PubMed Central

    Toogeh, Gholamreza; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Eshghi, Peyman; Managhchi, Mohammadreza; Shaverdi-niasari, Mohammadreza; Karimi, Katayoon; Roostaei, Samin; Emran, Neda; Abdollahi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recombinant activated factor VII induces hemostasis in patients with coagulopathy disorders. AryoSeven™ as a safe Iranian Recombinant activated factor VII has been available on our market. This study was performed to establish the safety of AryoSeven on patients with coagulopathy disorder. Methods: This single-center, descriptive, cross sectional study was carried out in Thrombus and Homeostasis Research Center ValiAsr Hospital during 2013-2014. Fifty one patients with bleeding disorders who received at least one dose of Aryoseven were enrolled. Patients’ demographic data and adverse effect of drug and reaction related to Aryoseven or previous usage of Recombinant activated FVII were recorded in questionnaires. Finally data were analyzed to compare side effects of Aryoseven and other Recombinant activated FVII brands. Results: Aryoseven was prescribed for 51 Patients. Of all participants with mean age 57.18+21.38 yr, 31 cases were male and 26 subjects had past history of recombinant activated FVII usage. Glanzman was the most frequent disorder followed by congenital FVII deficiency, hemophilia with inhibitors, factor 5 deficiency, acquired hemophilia, hemophilia A with inhibitor, and hemophilia A or B with inhibitor. The majority of bleeding episodes had occurred in joints. Three patients (5.9%) complained about adverse effects of Aryoseven vs. 11.5 % about adverse effects of other brands. However this difference was not significant, statistically. Conclusion: Based on monitor patients closely for any adverse events, we concluded that Aryoseven administration under careful weighing of benefit versus potential harm may comparable with other counterpart drugs. PMID:27799968

  11. Annual summary report on surveillance and maintenance activities of the surplus contaminated facilities program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for period ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, T.R.; Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.

    1991-09-01

    The Surplus Contaminated Facilities Program (SCFP) was established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1985 to provide support for inactive contaminated facilities that were largely abandoned by the programs which they formerly served. This support provides for routine surveillance and maintenance (S M) and special projects beyond a routine nature when such actions are needed to ensure adequate protection of personnel or the environment. The facilities included in the program had been used for research, technology development, isotope production and processing, and waste management. Support for facilities in the SCFP has previously been provided by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Research: Multiprogram Energy Laboratories -- Facilities Support (ERKG) because of multiprogram use of the facilities or because of the landlord responsibility of Energy Research. Recently, an integrated Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) program within the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management has been established to collectively manage the former Surplus Facilities Management Program, Defense D D Program, and the KG-funded, ORNL-originated SCFP. This report gives an overview of the S M planning, routine S M, and special maintenance project activities which have occurred at the SCFP facilities during the 1991 Fiscal Year.

  12. Out of the black box: expansion of a theory-based intervention to self-manage the uncertainty associated with active surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kazer, Meredith Wallace; Bailey, Donald E; Whittemore, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) (sometimes referred to as watchful waiting) is an alternative approach to managing low-risk forms of prostate cancer. This management approach allows men to avoid expensive prostate cancer treatments and their well-documented adverse events of erectile dysfunction and incontinence. However, AS is associated with illness uncertainty and reduced quality of life (QOL; Wallace, 2003). An uncertainty management intervention (UMI) was developed by Mishel et al. (2002) to manage uncertainty in women treated for breast cancer and men treated for prostate cancer. However, the UMI was not developed for men undergoing AS for prostate cancer and has not been adequately tested in this population. This article reports on the expansion of a theory-based intervention to manage the uncertainty associated with AS for prostate cancer. Intervention Theory (Sidani & Braden, 1998) is discussed as a framework for revising the UMI intervention for men undergoing AS for prostate cancer (UMI-AS). The article concludes with plans for testing of the expanded intervention and implications for the extended theory. PMID:20549916

  13. Preliminary incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food - Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. sites, 2006-2014.

    PubMed

    Crim, Stacy M; Griffin, Patricia M; Tauxe, Robert; Marder, Ellyn P; Gilliss, Debra; Cronquist, Alicia B; Cartter, Matthew; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Blythe, David; Smith, Kirk; Lathrop, Sarah; Zansky, Shelley; Cieslak, Paul R; Dunn, John; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly; Henao, Olga L

    2015-05-15

    Foodborne illnesses represent a substantial, yet largely preventable, health burden in the United States. In 10 U.S. geographic areas, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food. This report summarizes preliminary 2014 data and describes changes in incidence compared with 2006-2008 and 2011-2013. In 2014, FoodNet reported 19,542 infections, 4,445 hospitalizations, and 71 deaths. The incidence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium infections declined in 2014 compared with 2006-2008, and the incidence of infection with Campylobacter, Vibrio, and Salmonella serotypes Infantis and Javiana was higher. Compared with 2011-2013, the incidence of STEC O157 and Salmonella Typhimurium infections was lower, and the incidence of STEC non-O157 and Salmonella serotype Infantis infections was higher in 2014. Despite ongoing food safety efforts, the incidence of many infections remains high, indicating that further prevention measures are needed to make food safer and achieve national health objectives.

  14. Applying the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to increase European preschool children's physical activity levels: the ToyBox-study.

    PubMed

    De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verloigne, M; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Grammatikaki, E; Moreno, L; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Szott, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2014-08-01

    Although sufficient physical activity is beneficial for preschoolers' health, activity levels in most preschoolers are low. As preschoolers spend a considerable amount of time at home and at kindergarten, interventions should target both environments to increase their activity levels. The aim of the current paper was to describe the six different steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol towards the systematic development and implementation of the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention. This intervention is a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention implemented across six European countries. Based on the results of literature reviews and focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers, matrices of change objectives were created. Then, theory-based methods and practical strategies were selected to develop intervention materials at three different levels: (i) individual level (preschoolers); (ii) interpersonal level (parents/caregivers) and (iii) organizational level (teachers). This resulted in a standardized intervention with room for local and cultural adaptations in each participating country. Although the Intervention Mapping protocol is a time-consuming process, using this systematic approach may lead to an increase in intervention effectiveness. The presented matrices of change objectives are useful for future programme planners to develop and implement an intervention based on the Intervention Mapping protocol to increase physical activity levels in preschoolers.

  15. Repeat-swap homology modeling of secondary active transporters: updated protocol and prediction of elevator-type mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Jaque, Ariela; Fenollar-Ferrer, Cristina; Kaufmann, Desirée; Forrest, Lucy R.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary active transporters are critical for neurotransmitter clearance and recycling during synaptic transmission and uptake of nutrients. These proteins mediate the movement of solutes against their concentration gradients, by using the energy released in the movement of ions down pre-existing concentration gradients. To achieve this, transporters conform to the so-called alternating-access hypothesis, whereby the protein adopts at least two conformations in which the substrate binding sites are exposed to one or other side of the membrane, but not both simultaneously. Structures of a bacterial homolog of neuronal glutamate transporters, GltPh, in several different conformational states have revealed that the protein structure is asymmetric in the outward- and inward-open states, and that the conformational change connecting them involves a elevator-like movement of a substrate binding domain across the membrane. The structural asymmetry is created by inverted-topology repeats, i.e., structural repeats with similar overall folds whose transmembrane topologies are related to each other by two-fold pseudo-symmetry around an axis parallel to the membrane plane. Inverted repeats have been found in around three-quarters of secondary transporter folds. Moreover, the (a)symmetry of these systems has been successfully used as a bioinformatic tool, called “repeat-swap modeling” to predict structural models of a transporter in one conformation using the known structure of the transporter in the complementary conformation as a template. Here, we describe an updated repeat-swap homology modeling protocol, and calibrate the accuracy of the method using GltPh, for which both inward- and outward-facing conformations are known. We then apply this repeat-swap homology modeling procedure to a concentrative nucleoside transporter, VcCNT, which has a three-dimensional arrangement related to that of GltPh. The repeat-swapped model of VcCNT predicts that nucleoside transport

  16. Data Sharing Report for the Quantification of Removable Activity in Various Surveillance and Maintenance Facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN

    SciTech Connect

    King, David A

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OR-EM) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. Specifically, DOE OR-EM requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting potential removable radiological contamination that may be transferrable to future personal protective equipment (PPE) and contamination control materials—collectively referred to as PPE throughout the remainder of this report—used in certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Project facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Routine surveys in Bldgs. 3001, 3005, 3010, 3028, 3029, 3038, 3042, 3517, 4507, and 7500 continuously generate PPE. The waste is comprised of Tyvek coveralls, gloves, booties, Herculite, and other materials used to prevent worker exposure or the spread of contamination during routine maintenance and monitoring activities. This report describes the effort to collect and quantify removable activity that may be used by the ORNL S&M Project team to develop radiation instrumentation “screening criteria.” Material potentially containing removable activity was collected on smears, including both masselin large-area wipes (LAWs) and standard paper smears, and analyzed for site-related constituents (SRCs) in an analytical laboratory. The screening criteria, if approved, may be used to expedite waste disposition of relatively clean PPE. The ultimate objectives of this effort were to: 1) determine whether screening criteria can be developed for these facilities, and 2) provide process knowledge information for future site planners. The screening criteria, if calculated, must be formally approved by Federal Facility Agreement parties prior to use for

  17. Critical issues in implementing a national integrated all-vaccine preventable disease surveillance system☆

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Terri B.; Andrus, Jon K.; Dietz, Vance J.; Andrus, Jon K.; Hyde, Terri B.; Lee, Carla E.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Verani, Jennifer R.; Friedman, Cindy; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Lopez, Adriana S.; Jumaan, Aisha; Dietz, Vance J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization published the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance (GFIMS) outlining measures to enhance national surveillance for vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). The GFIMS emphasized that VPD surveillance should be integrated and placed in a ‘unified framework’ building upon the strengths of existing surveillance systems to prevent duplication of activities common to all surveillance systems and to minimize human resource and supply expenditures. Unfortunately, there was little experience in actually developing integrated VPD surveillance. We describe the process of developing operational guidance for ministries of health to implement such an integrated surveillance system for multiple VPDs. PMID:23777699

  18. ATIVS: analytical tool for influenza virus surveillance.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Chieh; Ko, Chin-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Hsin; Lee, Min-Shi; Hsiung, Chao A

    2009-07-01

    The WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network has routinely performed genetic and antigenic analyses of human influenza viruses to monitor influenza activity. Although these analyses provide supporting data for the selection of vaccine strains, it seems desirable to have user-friendly tools to visualize the antigenic evolution of influenza viruses for the purpose of surveillance. To meet this need, we have developed a web server, ATIVS (Analytical Tool for Influenza Virus Surveillance), for analyzing serological data of all influenza viruses and hemagglutinin sequence data of human influenza A/H3N2 viruses so as to generate antigenic maps for influenza surveillance and vaccine strain selection. Functionalities are described and examples are provided to illustrate its usefulness and performance. The ATIVS web server is available at http://influenza.nhri.org.tw/ATIVS/.

  19. Breaking Out of Surveillance Silos: Integrative Geospatial Data Collection for Child Injury Risk and Active School Transport.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Laura; Curtis, Jacqueline W; Curtis, Andrew; Hudson, Courtney; Wuensch, Heather; Sampsell, Malinda; Wiles, Erika; Infantino, Mary; Davis, Andrew J

    2016-02-01

    The preponderance of active school transport (AST) and child injury research has occurred independently, yet they are inherently related. This is particularly true in urban areas where the environmental context of AST may pose risks to safety. However, it can be difficult to make these connections due to the often segregated nature in which these veins of research operate. Spatial video presents a geospatial approach for simultaneous data collection related to both issues. This article reports on a multi-sector pilot project among researchers, a children's hospital, and a police department, using spatial video to map child AST behaviors; a geographic information system (GIS) is used to analyze these data in the environmental context of child pedestrian injury and community violence.

  20. One Decade of Active Avian Influenza Wild Bird Surveillance in Belgium Showed a Higher Viroprevalence in Hunter-Harvested Than in Live-Ringed Birds.

    PubMed

    Steensels, M; Vangeluwe, D; Linden, A; Houdart, Ph; van den Berg, Thierry P; Lambrecht, B

    2016-05-01

    Active monitoring of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild birds was initiated in Belgium in 2005 in response to the first highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks occurring in Europe. In Belgium, active wild bird surveillance that targeted live-ringed and hunter-harvested wild birds was developed and maintained from 2005 onward. After one decade, this program assimilated, analyzed, and reported on over 35,000 swabs. The 2009-2014 datasets were used for the current analysis because detailed information was available for this period. The overall prevalence of avian influenza (AI) in samples from live-ringed birds during this period was 0.48% whereas it was 6.12% in hunter-harvested samples. While the ringing sampling targeted a large number of bird species and was realized over the years, the hunting sampling was mainly concentrated on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) during the hunting season, from mid-August to late January. Even when using just AI prevalence for live-ringed A. platyrhynchos during the hunting season, the value remained significantly lower (2.10%) compared to that detected for hunter-harvested mallards. One explanation for this significant difference in viroprevalence in hunter-harvested mallards was the game restocking practice, which released captive-bred birds in the wild before the hunting period. Indeed, the released game restocking birds, having an AI-naïve immune status, could act as local amplifiers of AI viruses already circulating in the wild, and this could affect AI epidemiology. Also, the release into the wild of noncontrolled restocking birds might lead to the introduction of new strains in the natural environment, leading to increased AI presence in the environment. Consequently, the release of naïve or infected restocking birds may affect AI dynamics. PMID:27309083

  1. One Decade of Active Avian Influenza Wild Bird Surveillance in Belgium Showed a Higher Viroprevalence in Hunter-Harvested Than in Live-Ringed Birds.

    PubMed

    Steensels, M; Vangeluwe, D; Linden, A; Houdart, Ph; van den Berg, Thierry P; Lambrecht, B

    2016-05-01

    Active monitoring of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild birds was initiated in Belgium in 2005 in response to the first highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks occurring in Europe. In Belgium, active wild bird surveillance that targeted live-ringed and hunter-harvested wild birds was developed and maintained from 2005 onward. After one decade, this program assimilated, analyzed, and reported on over 35,000 swabs. The 2009-2014 datasets were used for the current analysis because detailed information was available for this period. The overall prevalence of avian influenza (AI) in samples from live-ringed birds during this period was 0.48% whereas it was 6.12% in hunter-harvested samples. While the ringing sampling targeted a large number of bird species and was realized over the years, the hunting sampling was mainly concentrated on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) during the hunting season, from mid-August to late January. Even when using just AI prevalence for live-ringed A. platyrhynchos during the hunting season, the value remained significantly lower (2.10%) compared to that detected for hunter-harvested mallards. One explanation for this significant difference in viroprevalence in hunter-harvested mallards was the game restocking practice, which released captive-bred birds in the wild before the hunting period. Indeed, the released game restocking birds, having an AI-naïve immune status, could act as local amplifiers of AI viruses already circulating in the wild, and this could affect AI epidemiology. Also, the release into the wild of noncontrolled restocking birds might lead to the introduction of new strains in the natural environment, leading to increased AI presence in the environment. Consequently, the release of naïve or infected restocking birds may affect AI dynamics.

  2. Implementation of surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in Belgium according to the ECDC guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2012, the new guidelines for the surveillance of IMS in Europe, produced by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), were tested in Belgium. This study aimed at (1) testing the usefulness and applicability in the field of the ECDC guidelines for the surveillance of IMS in Europe and (2) surveying IMS throughout Belgium. Methods First, the scenarios, which Belgium is facing, were identified according to the ECDC guidelines. Second, the surveillance strategy and the methods were identified based on the guidelines and adjusted to the Belgium context. Two areas colonised by IMS and 20 potential points of entry (PoE) were selected. Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus (CO2-baited) traps (23) and oviposition traps (147) were set-up, and larval sampling was performed monthly or bi-monthly from July till October 2012. Finally, the costs and workload of the surveillance activities were compared to the estimates provided by the ECDC guidelines. Results Surveillance at 20 potential PoE (complying with scenario 1) revealed that no new IMS were established in Belgium. Surveillance at two sites colonised by IMS (scenario 2) indicated that although control measures have drastically reduced the Ae. j. japonicus population this species is still present. Furthermore, Ae. koreicus is permanently established. For both scenarios, the problems encountered are discussed and recommendations are given. In addition, the actual workload was lower than the estimated workload, while the actual costs were higher than the estimated ones. Conclusions The ECDC guidelines are helpful, applicable and efficient to implement surveillance of IMS in Belgium. Recommendations were customised to the local context (political demands, salary and investment costs, and existing expertise). The workload and costs related to the preparatory phase (i.e., planning, contacts with the PoE, writing a protocol) were found to be missing in the cost evaluation suggested in the guidelines

  3. IMPROVING WATERBORNE DISEASE SURVEILLANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health surveillance has played a key role in controlling the spread of communicable disease and identifying the need for specific publich health practices, such as the filteration and chlorination of drinking water supplies. However, the characteristics of waterborne ou...

  4. Active post-marketing surveillance of the intralesional administration of human recombinant epidermal growth factor in diabetic foot ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background After several exploratory and confirmatory clinical trials, the intralesional administration of human recombinant epidermal growth factor (hrEGF) has been approved for the treatment of advanced diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this procedure in medical practice. Methods A prospective, post-marketing active pharmacosurveillance was conducted in 41 hospitals and 19 primary care polyclinics. Patients with DFU received hrEGF, 25 or 75 μg, intralesionally 3 times per week until complete granulation of the ulcer or 8 weeks maximum, adjuvant to standard wound care. Outcomes measured were complete granulation, amputations, and adverse events (AE) during treatment; complete lesion re-epithelization and relapses in follow-up (median: 1.2; maximum 4.2 years). Results The study included 1788 patients with 1835 DFU (81% Wagner’s grades 3 or 4; 43% ischemic) treated from May 2007 to April 2010. Complete granulation was observed in 76% of the ulcers in 5 weeks (median). Ulcer non-ischemic etiology (OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 2.8-4.7) and age (1.02; 1.01-1.03, for each younger year) were the main variables with influence on this outcome. During treatment, 220 (12%) amputations (171 major) were required in 214 patients, mostly in ischemic or Wagner’s grade 3 to 5 ulcers. Re-epithelization was documented in 61% of the 1659 followed-up cases; 5% relapsed per year. AE (4171) were reported in 47% of the subjects. Mild or moderate local pain and burning sensation, shivering and chills, were 87% of the events. Serious events, not related to treatment, occurred in 1.7% of the patients. Conclusions The favorable benefit/risk balance, confirms the beneficial clinical profile of intralesional hrEGF in the treatment of DFUs. PMID:24004460

  5. Privacy information management for video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ying; Cheung, Sen-ching S.

    2013-05-01

    The widespread deployment of surveillance cameras has raised serious privacy concerns. Many privacy-enhancing schemes have been proposed to automatically redact images of trusted individuals in the surveillance video. To identify these individuals for protection, the most reliable approach is to use biometric signals such as iris patterns as they are immutable and highly discriminative. In this paper, we propose a privacy data management system to be used in a privacy-aware video surveillance system. The privacy status of a subject is anonymously determined based on her iris pattern. For a trusted subject, the surveillance video is redacted and the original imagery is considered to be the privacy information. Our proposed system allows a subject to access her privacy information via the same biometric signal for privacy status determination. Two secure protocols, one for privacy information encryption and the other for privacy information retrieval are proposed. Error control coding is used to cope with the variability in iris patterns and efficient implementation is achieved using surrogate data records. Experimental results on a public iris biometric database demonstrate the validity of our framework.

  6. Groundwater surveillance plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Forstrom, J.M.; Smith, E.D.; Winters, S.L.; Haase, C.S.; King, H.L.; McMaster, W.M.

    1994-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the preparation of environmental monitoring plans and implementation of environmental monitoring programs for all DOE facilities. The order identifies two distinct components of environmental monitoring, namely effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. In general, effluent monitoring has the objectives of characterizing contaminants and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, whereas environmental surveillance has the broader objective of monitoring the effects of DOE activities on on- and off-site environmental and natural resources. The purpose of this document is to support the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) by describing the groundwater component of the environmental surveillance program for the DOE facilities on the ORR. The distinctions between groundwater effluent monitoring and groundwater surveillance have been defined in the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Surveillance Strategy. As defined in the strategy, a groundwater surveillance program consists of two parts, plant perimeter surveillance and off-site water well surveillance. This document identifies the sampling locations, parameters, and monitoring frequencies for both of these activities on and around the ORR and describes the rationale for the program design. The program was developed to meet the objectives of DOE Order 5400.1 and related requirements in DOE Order 5400.5 and to conform with DOE guidance on environmental surveillance and the Energy Systems Groundwater Surveillance Strategy.

  7. Anomaly detection for internet surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Henri; Raaijmakers, Stephan; Halma, Arvid; Wedemeijer, Harry

    2012-06-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming to monitor many websites. In this paper, we present a novel method to automatically monitor trends and find anomalies on the internet. The system was tested on Twitter data. The results showed that it can successfully recognize abnormal changes in activity or emotion.

  8. Rational Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachin, Christian

    Security research continues to provide a plethora of new protocols and mechanisms; these solutions patch either existing vulnerabilities found in practical systems or solve hypothetical security problems in the sense that the problem is often conceived at the same time when the first solution is proposed. Yet only a very small fraction of this research is relevant to ordinary users in the sense that they are willing to actually deploy the technology.

  9. Cost and outcome of behavioural activation versus cognitive behaviour therapy for depression (COBRA): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for depression. However, CBT is a complex therapy that requires highly trained and qualified practitioners, and its scalability is therefore limited by the costs of training and employing sufficient therapists to meet demand. Behavioural activation (BA) is a psychological treatment for depression that may be an effective alternative to CBT and, because it is simpler, might also be delivered by less highly trained and specialised mental health workers. Methods/Design COBRA is a two-arm, non-inferiority, patient-level randomised controlled trial, including clinical, economic, and process evaluations comparing CBT delivered by highly trained professional therapists to BA delivered by junior professional or para-professional mental health workers to establish whether the clinical effectiveness of BA is non-inferior to CBT and if BA is cost effective compared to CBT. Four hundred and forty patients with major depressive disorder will be recruited through screening in primary care. We will analyse for non-inferiority in per-protocol and intention-to-treat populations. Our primary outcome will be severity of depression symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) at 12 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be clinically significant change and severity of depression at 18 months, and anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form Health Survey-36) at 12 and 18 months. Our economic evaluation will take the United Kingdom National Health Service/Personal Social Services perspective to include costs of the interventions, health and social care services used, plus productivity losses. Cost-effectiveness will explored in terms of quality-adjusted life years using the EuroQol-5D measure of health-related quality of life. Discussion The clinical and economic outcomes of this trial will provide the evidence to help policy makers, clinicians and guideline

  10. Effect of affordable technology on physical activity levels and mobility outcomes in rehabilitation: a protocol for the Activity and MObility UsiNg Technology (AMOUNT) rehabilitation trial

    PubMed Central

    Hassett, Leanne; van den Berg, Maayken; Lindley, Richard I; Crotty, Maria; McCluskey, Annie; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Smith, Stuart T; Schurr, Karl; Killington, Maggie; Bongers, Bert; Howard, Kirsten; Heritier, Stephane; Togher, Leanne; Hackett, Maree; Treacy, Daniel; Dorsch, Simone; Wong, Siobhan; Scrivener, Katharine; Chagpar, Sakina; Weber, Heather; Pearson, Ross; Sherrington, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction People with mobility limitations can benefit from rehabilitation programmes that provide a high dose of exercise. However, since providing a high dose of exercise is logistically challenging and resource-intensive, people in rehabilitation spend most of the day inactive. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of affordable technology to usual care on physical activity and mobility in people with mobility limitations admitted to inpatient aged and neurological rehabilitation units compared to usual care alone. Methods and analysis A pragmatic, assessor blinded, parallel-group randomised trial recruiting 300 consenting rehabilitation patients with reduced mobility will be conducted. Participants will be individually randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention group will receive technology-based exercise to target mobility and physical activity problems for 6 months. The technology will include the use of video and computer games/exercises and tablet applications as well as activity monitors. The control group will not receive any additional intervention and both groups will receive usual inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation care over the 6-month study period. The coprimary outcomes will be objectively assessed physical activity (proportion of the day spent upright) and mobility (Short Physical Performance Battery) at 6 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes will include: self-reported and objectively assessed physical activity, mobility, cognition, activity performance and participation, utility-based quality of life, balance confidence, technology self-efficacy, falls and service utilisation. Linear models will assess the effect of group allocation for each continuously scored outcome measure with baseline scores entered as a covariate. Fall rates between groups will be compared using negative binomial regression. Primary analyses will be preplanned, conducted while masked to group allocation and use an

  11. African American Men With Very Low–Risk Prostate Cancer Exhibit Adverse Oncologic Outcomes After Radical Prostatectomy: Should Active Surveillance Still Be an Option for Them?

    PubMed Central

    Sundi, Debasish; Ross, Ashley E.; Humphreys, Elizabeth B.; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment option for men with very low–risk prostate cancer (PCa); however, favorable outcomes achieved for men in AS are based on cohorts that under-represent African American (AA) men. To explore whether race-based health disparities exist among men with very low–risk PCa, we evaluated oncologic outcomes of AA men with very low–risk PCa who were candidates for AS but elected to undergo radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients and Methods We studied 1,801 men (256 AA, 1,473 white men, and 72 others) who met National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria for very low–risk PCa and underwent RP. Presenting characteristics, pathologic data, and cancer recurrence were compared among the groups. Multivariable modeling was performed to assess the association of race with upgrading and adverse pathologic features. Results AA men with very low–risk PCa had more adverse pathologic features at RP and poorer oncologic outcomes. AA men were more likely to experience disease upgrading at prostatectomy (27.3% v 14.4%; P < .001), positive surgical margins (9.8% v 5.9%; P = .02), and higher Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Post-Surgical scoring system (CAPRA-S) scores. On multivariable analysis, AA race was an independent predictor of adverse pathologic features (odds ratio, [OR], 3.23; P = .03) and pathologic upgrading (OR, 2.26; P = .03). Conclusion AA men with very low–risk PCa who meet criteria for AS but undergo immediate surgery experience significantly higher rates of upgrading and adverse pathology than do white men and men of other races. AA men with very low–risk PCa should be counseled about increased oncologic risk when deciding among their disease management options. PMID:23775960

  12. Species distribution and susceptibility profile of yeasts isolated from blood cultures: results of a multicenter active laboratory-based surveillance study in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Susana; Vivot, Walter; Bosco-Borgeat, Maria E; Taverna, Constanza; Szusz, Wanda; Murisengo, Omar; Isla, Guillermina; Davel, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    The Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas "Dr. C. Malbrán", conducted the Second National Multicenter Survey on Fungemia due to Yeasts in Argentina. The aim was to obtain updated data of the frequency of the causative species encountered and their in vitro susceptibility to seven antifungal agents. Yeast species were identified by micromorphological and biochemical studies. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the reference microdilution method E.Def 7.1 of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). A total of 461 viable yeasts were identified. The most frequent species were: Candida albicans (38.4 %), Candida parapsilosis (26 %), Candida tropicalis (15.4 %) and Candida glabrata (4.3 %). Other uncommon species, such as Candida viswanathii (0.6 %), Candida haemulonii (0.4 %), Candida inconspicua (0.2 %) and Candida fermentati (0.2 %) were also isolated. Among the Candida spp., 5.4 % and 1.6 % were resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively. Itraconazole and caspofungin were the most efficient agents against all Candida spp. tested (MIC < 1 mg/l). For anidulafungin, 21.6 % of C. parapsilosis showed a MIC value of 4 mg/l. Fluconazole was less active against 53.1 % of Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC > 8 mg/l), 75 % of Trichosporon spp., and 100 % of Rhodotorula spp., Geotrichum candidum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The global percentage of mortality was 20 %. The presence of uncommon species reinforces the need for performing continuous laboratory surveillance in order to monitor possible changes, not only in the epidemiological distribution of species, but also in the resistance to antifungal drugs.

  13. Clinical implications of family history of prostate cancer and genetic risk single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profiles in an active surveillance cohort

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Chee L.; Saunders, Edward J.; Leongamornlert, Daniel A.; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Thomas, Karen; Selvadurai, Elizabeth D.; Woode-Amissah, Ruth; Dadaev, Tokhir; Mahmud, Nadiya; Castro, Elena; Olmos, David; Guy, Michelle; Govindasami, Koveela; O’Brien, Lynne T.; Hall, Amanda L.; Wilkinson, Rosemary A.; Sawyer, Emma J.; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Easton, Douglas F.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Parker, Chris C.; Eeles, Rosalind A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explore the potential prognostic role of family history (FH) of prostate cancer and prostate cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patients undergoing active surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer. This is the first study to date, which has investigated the potential prognostic role of SNP profiles in an AS cohort Patients and methods FH data were collected from patients in the Royal Marsden Hospital AS study. In all, 39 prostate cancer-risk SNPs identified from published genome wide association studies (GWAS) were genotyped using the Sequenom Platform and TaqMan™ assays from available DNA. The cumulative genetic-risk scores for each patient were then calculated using the weighted effect estimated from previous GWAS (log-additive model). FH status and the genetic-risk scores were assessed against adverse outcomes in AS, time to treatment and adverse histology on repeat biopsy, using univariable and multivariable Cox regression models to address time to treatment; and binary logistic regression to address biopsy upgrade. Results Of 471 patients, 55 (13.6%) had adverse histology on repeat biopsies and 145 (30.8%) had deferred treatment. On univariate analysis, there was no significant relationship between FH of prostate cancer in any degree of relation, and adverse histology or time to treatment. For risk score analyses, 386 patients’ DNA was studied; and there was also no relationship found between the calculated genetic risk scores and adverse histology or time to treatment (P = 0.573 and P = 0.965, respectively). The retrospective study design and the few events was the main limitation of the study. Conclusions There is currently insufficient data to support the use of FH status or prostate cancer SNP profile-risk scores as prognostic factors in AS and these should not be used to influence management decisions. As more genetic variants are discovered this may change and should be reassessed in multicentre AS cohorts. PMID:23320731

  14. HIV surveillance among injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, D C; Dehne, K; Casabona, J

    2001-04-01

    Injecting drug users (IDUs) should be considered a 'partially hidden population' at high risk for HIV infection. In almost all locations it should be possible to locate and conduct research with IDUs, but it will probably never be possible to enumerate or draw random samples from an IDU population. Surveillance research studies with IDUs should include risk behaviors, as surveillance of HIV infection only will not be sufficiently time sensitive, and be used to develop and refine HIV prevention programming for the population. Contacts with IDUs can be developed at multiple settings, including voluntary treatment programs, law enforcement settings, and through 'street outreach.' Each type of setting has different advantages, disadvantages and ethical concerns. HIV testing as part of surveillance also raises additional important ethical concerns. The primary risk behaviors that should be included in surveillance studies are 'sharing' of drug injection equipment, the potential for rapid partner change among risk partners, and sexual risk behavior. Additional important objectives for surveillance research include: (1) the size of the local IDU population, (2) patterns of drug use, (3) availability injection equipment, (4) participation in prevention activities, and (5) access to and use of anti-retroviral treatments. HIV incidence is an ultimate objective for surveillance research, but there are no currently available cost-efficient methods for studying HIV incidence, so estimation from indirect measurements is usually required. PMID:11421178

  15. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. Characteristics of Korean patients with suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid: Preliminary study of the Korean Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease active surveillance program.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae-Sung; Kwon, Hyung-Min; Jang, Jae-Won; Ju, Young-Ran; Kim, SuYeon; Park, Young Ho; Park, So Young; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Although Korea had a national surveillance system for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), it was mainly dependent on attending physician's reports. Thus, little prospective data about the epidemiology, characteristics, and final diagnoses of suspected patients were available. We have established a nationwide network for the active surveillance of patients with suspected CJD. When the requested cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples tested positive for 14-3-3 protein, we investigated the clinical characteristics of the corresponding patients and followed them until their final diagnoses were confirmed. A total of 218 samples were requested for CSF assays from May 2010 to August 2012, and 106 (48.6%) were positive for 14-3-3 protein. In 89 patients with complete clinical data, 38 (42.7%) were diagnosed with probable CJD and the estimated annual occurrence of CJD was 16.3 persons-per-year. The most common diagnoses of the remainder were central nervous system infection and any-cause encephalopathy. Non-CJD subjects showed worse initial consciousness levels than CJD patients. This preliminary study showed that the number of reported cases of CJD and the true positivity rates of CSF 14-3-3 protein assays were both low in Korea. An active surveillance system is urgently needed to provide the latest nationwide epidemiological data of CJD.

  17. Characteristics of Korean patients with suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid: Preliminary study of the Korean Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease active surveillance program

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae-Sung; Kwon, Hyung-Min; Jang, Jae-Won; Ju, Young-Ran; Kim, SuYeon; Park, Young Ho; Park, So Young; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although Korea had a national surveillance system for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), it was mainly dependent on attending physician's reports. Thus, little prospective data about the epidemiology, characteristics, and final diagnoses of suspected patients were available. We have established a nationwide network for the active surveillance of patients with suspected CJD. When the requested cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples tested positive for 14-3-3 protein, we investigated the clinical characteristics of the corresponding patients and followed them until their final diagnoses were confirmed. A total of 218 samples were requested for CSF assays from May 2010 to August 2012, and 106 (48.6%) were positive for 14-3-3 protein. In 89 patients with complete clinical data, 38 (42.7%) were diagnosed with probable CJD and the estimated annual occurrence of CJD was 16.3 persons-per-year. The most common diagnoses of the remainder were central nervous system infection and any-cause encephalopathy. Non-CJD subjects showed worse initial consciousness levels than CJD patients. This preliminary study showed that the number of reported cases of CJD and the true positivity rates of CSF 14-3-3 protein assays were both low in Korea. An active surveillance system is urgently needed to provide the latest nationwide epidemiological data of CJD. PMID:25996401

  18. Fifteen-minute Extravehicular Activity Prebreathe Protocol Using NASA's Exploration Atmosphere (8.2 psia/ 34% 02)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Conkin, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    A TBDM DCS probability model based on an existing biophysical model of inert gas bubble growth provides significant prediction and goodness-of-fit with 84 cases of DCS in 668 human altitude exposures. 2. Model predictions suggest that 15-minute O2 prebreathe protocols used in conjunction with suit ports and an 8.2 psi, 34% O2, 66% N2 atmosphere may enable rapid EVA capability for future exploration missions with the risk of DCS = 12%. ? EVA could begin immediately at 6.0 psi, with crewmembers decreasing suit pressure to 4.3 psi after completing the 15-minute in-suit prebreathe. 3. Model predictions suggest that intermittent recompression during exploration EVA may reduce decompression stress by 1.8% to 2.3% for 6 hours of total EVA time. Savings in gas consumables and crew time may be accumulated by abbreviating the EVA suit N2 purge to 2 minutes (20% N2) compared with 8 minutes (5% N2) at the expense of an increase in estimated decompression risk of up to 2.4% for an 8-hour EVA. ? Increased DCS risk could be offset by IR or by spending additional time at 6 psi at the beginning of the EVA. ? Savings of 0.48 lb of gas and 6 minutes per person per EVA corresponds to more than 31 hours of crew time and 1800 lb of gas and tankage under the Constellation lunar architecture. 6. Further research is needed to characterize and optimize breathing mixtures and intermittent recompression across the range of environments and operational conditions in which astronauts will live and work during future exploration missions. 7. Development of exploration prebreathe protocols will begin with definition of acceptable risk, followed by development of protocols based on models such as ours, and, ultimately, validation of protocols through ground trials before operational implementation.

  19. Reducing treatments in cattle superovulation protocols by combining a pituitary extract with a 5% hyaluronan solution: Is it able to diminish activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis compared to the traditional protocol?

    PubMed

    Biancucci, Andrea; Sbaragli, Tatiana; Comin, Antonella; Sylla, Lakamy; Monaci, Maurizio; Peric, Tanja; Stradaioli, Giuseppe

    2016-03-15

    Traditional superovulation protocols that include multiple gonadotropin treatments are time-consuming and labor intensive. These protocols require multiple handling and restraining of embryo donors. This will likely increase the risks of injuries in both animals and humans and induce stress that may lead to a reduced superovulatory response. These are more evident when working with cattle that are rarely handled or raised on extensive grazing. The objectives of this experiment were to compare the efficacy of a split-injection protocol of porcine pituitary-derived porcine FSH (pFSH) preparation (slow release [SR] group) to the traditional 4-day treatment with pFSH administered twice daily (C group) and to determine the concentrations of cortisol in the hair as a marker of activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during the two superovulatory treatments. Thirty-two heifers were stimulated twice in a 2 × 2 crossover design and compared for ovarian response and numbers and characteristics of recovered ova-embryo among treatments. No differences between SR and C groups were found in terms of percentage of responsive animals (100% vs. 93.8%) and ovulation rate (83.7 ± 1.1 vs. 79.5 ± 1.0%). A positive correlation was found between the number of follicles responsive to pFSH (2-8 mm) at the beginning of treatments and the superovulatory response, and no differences were found in these follicular populations between the two treatment groups. The numbers of CLs, ova-embryos, fertilized ova, transferable and freezable embryos recovered per cow were found to be significantly higher in SR compared with C group (14.0 ± 1.6 vs. 10.6 ± 1.0, 12.1 ± 1.6 vs. 7.6 ± 1.0, 11.1 ± 1.1 vs. 7.3 ± 1.0, 9.6 ± 1.4 vs. 6.6 ± 1.0, and 9.4 ± 1.4 vs. 6.0 ± 1.0 for SR and C group, respectively). The SR group produced also a significantly greater number of excellent- and/or good-quality embryos compared with the C group. The concentrations of cortisol in the hair at

  20. Reducing treatments in cattle superovulation protocols by combining a pituitary extract with a 5% hyaluronan solution: Is it able to diminish activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis compared to the traditional protocol?

    PubMed

    Biancucci, Andrea; Sbaragli, Tatiana; Comin, Antonella; Sylla, Lakamy; Monaci, Maurizio; Peric, Tanja; Stradaioli, Giuseppe

    2016-03-15

    Traditional superovulation protocols that include multiple gonadotropin treatments are time-consuming and labor intensive. These protocols require multiple handling and restraining of embryo donors. This will likely increase the risks of injuries in both animals and humans and induce stress that may lead to a reduced superovulatory response. These are more evident when working with cattle that are rarely handled or raised on extensive grazing. The objectives of this experiment were to compare the efficacy of a split-injection protocol of porcine pituitary-derived porcine FSH (pFSH) preparation (slow release [SR] group) to the traditional 4-day treatment with pFSH administered twice daily (C group) and to determine the concentrations of cortisol in the hair as a marker of activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during the two superovulatory treatments. Thirty-two heifers were stimulated twice in a 2 × 2 crossover design and compared for ovarian response and numbers and characteristics of recovered ova-embryo among treatments. No differences between SR and C groups were found in terms of percentage of responsive animals (100% vs. 93.8%) and ovulation rate (83.7 ± 1.1 vs. 79.5 ± 1.0%). A positive correlation was found between the number of follicles responsive to pFSH (2-8 mm) at the beginning of treatments and the superovulatory response, and no differences were found in these follicular populations between the two treatment groups. The numbers of CLs, ova-embryos, fertilized ova, transferable and freezable embryos recovered per cow were found to be significantly higher in SR compared with C group (14.0 ± 1.6 vs. 10.6 ± 1.0, 12.1 ± 1.6 vs. 7.6 ± 1.0, 11.1 ± 1.1 vs. 7.3 ± 1.0, 9.6 ± 1.4 vs. 6.6 ± 1.0, and 9.4 ± 1.4 vs. 6.0 ± 1.0 for SR and C group, respectively). The SR group produced also a significantly greater number of excellent- and/or good-quality embryos compared with the C group. The concentrations of cortisol in the hair at

  1. Surface change of root canal dentin after the use of irrigation activation protocols: electron microscopy and an energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Capar, Ismail Davut; Aydinbelge, Hale Ari

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluated the mineral contents of root-canal dentin after treatment with different irrigation activation protocols. One hundred and eight maxillary lateral incisor teeth were randomly divided into eight experimental groups and one control group. Root canals were prepared using ProTaper rotary files, with the exception of the Self-Adjusting File (SAF) group. Canals were irrigated with 2 mL of 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) at each instrument change, and received a final flush with 10 mL of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and 10 mL of 5% NaOCl for 1 min. The control group was irrigated with distilled water. Group I (GI): Needle syringe irrigation; Group II (GII): NaviTip FX; Group III (GIII): CanalBrush; Group IV (GIV): Manual dynamic activation with gutta-percha; Group V (GV): Passive ultrasonic irrigation; Group VI (GVI): EndoActivator; Group VII (GVII): EndoVac; Group VIII (GVIII): SAF. The level of elemental composition was analyzed by a scanning electron microscopy and an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) system. The results were then statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Ca/P ratio was changed after treatment with SAF and EndoActivator. The Ca, P, Mg, and S level changes were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Final irrigation activation protocols did not alter the mineral level of root dentin surface.

  2. The development of an evaluation framework for injury surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Williamson, Ann M; O'Connor, Rod

    2009-01-01

    Background Access to good quality information from injury surveillance is essential to develop and monitor injury prevention activities. To determine if information obtained from surveillance is of high quality, the limitations and strengths of a surveillance system are often examined. Guidelines have been developed to assist in evaluating certain types of surveillance systems. However, to date, no standard guidelines have been developed to specifically evaluate an injury surveillance system. The aim of this research is to develop a framework to guide the evaluation of injury surveillance systems. Methods The development of an Evaluation Framework for Injury Surveillance Systems (EFISS) involved a four stage process. First, a literature review was conducted to identify an initial set of characteristics that were recognised as important and/or had been recommended to be assessed in an evaluation of a surveillance system. Second, this set of characteristics was assessed using SMART criteria. Third, those surviving were presented to an expert panel using a two round modified-Delphi study to gain an alternative perspective on characteristic definitions, practicality of assessment, and characteristic importance. Finally, a rating system was created for the EFISS characteristics. Results The resulting EFISS consisted of 18 characteristics that assess three areas of an injury surveillance system – five characteristics assess data quality, nine characteristics assess the system's operation, and four characteristics assess the practical capability of an injury surveillance system. A rating system assesses the performance of each characteristic. Conclusion The development of the EFISS builds upon existing evaluation guidelines for surveillance systems and provides a framework tailored to evaluate an injury surveillance system. Ultimately, information obtained through an evaluation of an injury data collection using the EFISS would be useful for agencies to recommend how a

  3. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  4. Surveillance for Occupational Respiratory Diseases in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Antao, Vinicius C.; Pinheiro, Germania A.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa. PMID:26024351

  5. Modeling a 15-min extravehicular activity prebreathe protocol using NASA's exploration atmosphere (56.5 kPa/34% O2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Conkin, Johnny; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2015-04-01

    NASA's plans for future human exploration missions utilize a new atmosphere of 56.5 kPa (8.2 psia), 34% O2, 66% N2 to enable rapid extravehicular activity (EVA) capability with minimal gas losses; however, existing EVA prebreathe protocols to mitigate risk of decompression sickness (DCS) are not applicable to the new exploration atmosphere. We provide preliminary analysis of a 15-min prebreathe protocol and examine the potential benefits of intermittent recompression (IR) and an abbreviated N2 purge on crew time and gas consumables usage. A probabilistic model of decompression stress based on an established biophysical model of DCS risk was developed, providing significant (p<0.0001) prediction and goodness-of-fit with 84 cases of DCS in 668 human altitude exposures including a variety of pressure profiles. DCS risk for a 15-min prebreathe protocol was then estimated under different exploration EVA scenarios. Estimated DCS risk for all EVA scenarios modeled using the 15-min prebreathe protocol ranged between 6.1% and 12.1%. Supersaturation in neurological tissues (5- and 10-min half-time compartments) is prevented and tissue tensions in faster half-time compartments (≤40 min), where the majority of whole-body N2 is located, are reduced to about the levels (30.0 vs. 27.6 kPa) achieved during a standard Shuttle prebreathe protocol. IR reduced estimated DCS risk from 9.7% to 7.9% (1.8% reduction) and from 8.4% to 6.1% (2.3% reduction) for the scenarios modeled; the penalty of N2 reuptake during IR may be outweighed by the benefit of decreased bubble size. Savings of 75% of purge gas and time (0.22 kg gas and 6 min of crew time per person per EVA) are achievable by abbreviating the EVA suit purge to 20% N2 vs. 5% N2 at the expense of an increase in estimated DCS risk from 9.7% to 12.1% (2.4% increase). A 15-min prebreathe protocol appears feasible using the new exploration atmosphere. IR between EVAs may enable reductions in suit purge and prebreathe requirements

  6. Camden active spaces: Does the construction of active school playgrounds influence children's physical activity levels? A longitudinal quasi-experiment protocol

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lee; Kipps, Courtney; Aggio, Daniel; Fox, Paul; Robinson, Nigel; Trend, Verena; Munnery, Suzie; Kelly, Barry; Hamer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is essential for every facet of children's health. However, physical activity levels in British children are low. The school environment is a promising setting to increase children's physical activity but limited empirical evidence exists on how a change in the outdoor physical school environment influences physical activity behaviour. The London Borough of Camden is redesigning seven existing school playgrounds to engage children to become more physically active. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the impact of the redesigned playgrounds on children's physical activity, well-being and physical function/fitness. Method and analysis This project will use a longitudinal quasi-experimental design. Seven experimental schools and one control school will take part. One baseline data collection session and two follow-ups will be carried out. Between baseline and follow-up, the experimental school playgrounds will be redesigned. At baseline, a series of fitness tests, anthropometric and questionnaire measurements, and 7-day objective physical activity monitoring (Actigraph accelerometer) will be carried out on children (aged 5–16 years). This will be repeated at follow-up. Changes in overall physical activity levels and levels during different times of the day (eg, school breaks) will be examined. Multilevel regression modelling will be used to analyse the data. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-review publications and scientific presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University College London Research Ethics Committee (Reference number: 4400/002). PMID:25232566

  7. Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

    2002-05-01

    There is strong epidemiological evidence that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of low back pain (LBP), sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. A prototype health surveillance scheme for WBV is presented in this paper. Surveillance is the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for the purpose of prevention. The aims are to assess health status and diagnose vibration-induced disorders at an early stage, to inform the workers on the potential risk associated with vibration exposure, to give preventive advice to employers and employees and to control whether preventive measures which have been taken, were successful. It is suggested that a pre-placement health examination should be offered to each worker who will be exposed to WBV so as to make the worker aware of the hazards, to obtain baseline health data, and to identify medical conditions that may increase the risk due to WBV. The case history should focus on personal history, work history, and leisure activities involving driving of vehicles. The personal medical history should detail back pain complaints, disorders in the spine, any injuries or surgery to the musculoskeletal system. A physical examination on the lower back should be performed on workers who have experienced LBP symptoms over the past 12 months. The preplacement examination should be followed by periodic health reassessment with a regular interval according to the legislation of the country. It is suggested that periodic medical examination should be made available at least every 2 years to all workers who are exposed to WBV. Any change in vibration exposure at the workplace should be reported by the employer. If an increase in vibration exposure or a change in health status have occurred, the medical re-examination should be offered at shorter intervals at the discretion of the attending physician. There should be a periodic medical

  8. Neighbourhoods for Active Kids: study protocol for a cross-sectional examination of neighbourhood features and children's physical activity, active travel, independent mobility and body size

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Melody; McPhee, Julia; Carroll, Penelope; Ikeda, Erika; Mavoa, Suzanne; Mackay, Lisa; Kearns, Robin A; Kyttä, Marketta; Asiasiga, Lanuola; Garrett, Nicholas; Lin, Judy; Mackett, Roger; Zinn, Caryn; Moewaka Barnes, Helen; Egli, Victoria; Prendergast, Kate; Witten, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction New Zealand children's physical activity, including independent mobility and active travel, has declined markedly over recent decades. The Neighbourhoods for Active Kids (NfAK) study examines how neighbourhood built environments are associated with the independent mobility, active travel, physical activity and neighbourhood experiences of children aged 9–12 years in primary and intermediate schools across Auckland, New Zealand's largest city. Methods and analysis Child-specific indices of walkability, destination accessibility and traffic exposure will be constructed to measure the built environment in 8 neighbourhoods in Auckland. Interactive online-mapping software will be used to measure children's independent mobility and transport mode to destinations and to derive measures of neighbourhood use and perceptions. Physical activity will be measured using 7-day accelerometry. Height, weight and waist circumference will be objectively measured. Parent telephone interviews will collect sociodemographic information and parent neighbourhood perceptions. Interviews with school representative will capture supports and barriers for healthy activity and nutrition behaviours at the school level. Multilevel modelling approaches will be used to understand how differing built environment variables are associated with activity, neighbourhood experiences and health outcomes. Discussion We anticipate that children who reside in neighbourhoods considered highly walkable will be more physically active, accumulate more independent mobility and active travel, and be more likely to have a healthy body size. This research is timely as cities throughout New Zealand develop and implement plans to improve the liveability of intensifying urban neighbourhoods. Results will be disseminated to participants, local government agencies and through conventional academic avenues. PMID:27531740

  9. Viral surveillance and discovery

    PubMed Central

    Lipkin, Walter Ian; Firth, Cadhla

    2014-01-01

    The field of virus discovery has burgeoned with the advent of high throughput sequencing platforms and bioinformatics programs that enable rapid identification and molecular characterization of known and novel agents, investments in global microbial surveillance that include wildlife and domestic animals as well as humans, and recognition that viruses may be implicated in chronic as well as acute diseases. Here we review methods for viral surveillance and discovery, strategies and pitfalls in linking discoveries to disease, and identify opportunities for improvements in sequencing instrumentation and analysis, the use of social media and medical informatics that will further advance clinical medicine and public health. PMID:23602435

  10. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir New ... Minority Data Released! The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors ...

  11. Plutonium Surveillance Destructive Examination Requirements at Savannah River National Laboratory for K-Area Interim Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Stefek, T. M.

    2005-09-29

    The DOE 3013 storage standard requires nested, welded 300 series stainless steel containers to store plutonium-bearing materials for up to 50 years. Packaged contents include stabilized plutonium-bearing residues that contain chloride salts and a low (< 0.5 weight %) water content. The DOE 3013 STD requires surveillance of the packages over the 50 year lifetime. These surveillance requirements have been further defined by the Integrated Surveillance Program to include both non-destructive examination (NDE) and destructive examination (DE) of the 3013 container. The DE portion of surveillance involves examining the 3013 nested containers, analyzing the head space gas, and evaluating the plutonium oxide chemistry. At SRS, the stored 3013 containers will undergo preparation for the DE surveillance activities in facilities located in K-Area. The actual DE surveillance will be performed in SRNL. This report provides preliminary functional requirements for the destructive examination (DE) of plutonium-bearing oxide materials and containers in support of K-Area Interim Surveillance (KIS). The KIS project will install interim facilities to prepare the samples for analysis in SRNL. This document covers the requirements for the interim period beginning in 2007, and lasting until the Container Storage and Surveillance Capability (CSSC) project provides the permanent facilities in K-Area to perform sampling and repackaging operations associated with the 3013 container storage and surveillance program. Initial requirements for the CSSC project have been previously defined in WSRC-TR-2004-00584 ''Plutonium Surveillance Destructive Examination Requirements at Savannah River National Laboratory''. As part of the Plutonium Surveillance Program of 3013 Containers at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) will receive the emptied 3013 container components, plutonium oxide samples and headspace gas samples from K-Area. The DE program scope

  12. Application of industrial hygiene techniques for work-place exposure assessment protocols related to petro-chemical exploration and production field activities

    SciTech Connect

    Koehn, J.

    1995-12-31

    Standard industrial hygiene techniques for recognition, evaluation, and control can be directly applied to development of technical protocols for workplace exposure assessment activities for a variety of field site locations. Categories of occupational hazards include chemical and physical agents. Examples of these types of hazards directly related to oil and gas exploration and production workplaces include hydrocarbons, benzene, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), asbestos-containing materials, and noise. Specific components of well process chemicals include potential hazardous chemical substances such as methanol, acrolein, chlorine dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Other types of exposure hazards may result from non-routine conduct of sandblasting and painting operations.

  13. Small animal disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Jones, Philip H; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Radford, Alan D; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Noble, Peter J M; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J; McConnell, Katie

    2015-12-12

    This is the first UK small animal disease surveillance report from SAVSNET. Future reports will expand to other syndromes and diseases. As data are collected for longer, the estimates of changes in disease burden will become more refined, allowing more targeted local and perhaps national interventions. Anonymised data can be accessed for research purposes by contacting the authors. SAVSNET welcomes feedback on this report.

  14. Volcano surveillance using infrared cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spampinato, Letizia; Calvari, Sonia; Oppenheimer, Clive; Boschi, Enzo

    2011-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions are commonly preceded, accompanied, and followed by variations of a number of detectable geophysical and geochemical manifestations. Many remote sensing techniques have been applied to tracking anomalies and eruptive precursors, and monitoring ongoing volcanic eruptions, offering obvious advantages over in situ techniques especially during hazardous activity. Whilst spaceborne instruments provide a distinct advantage for collecting data remotely in this regard, they still cannot match the spatial detail or time resolution achievable using portable imagers on the ground or aircraft. Hand-held infrared camera technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, resulting in a proliferation of commercially available instruments, such that volcano observatories are increasingly implementing them in monitoring efforts. Improved thermal surveillance of active volcanoes has not only enhanced hazard assessment but it has contributed substantially to understanding a variety of volcanic processes. Drawing on over a decade of operational volcano surveillance in Italy, we provide here a critical review of the application of infrared thermal cameras to volcano monitoring. Following a summary of key physical principles, instrument capabilities, and the practicalities and methods of data collection, we discuss the types of information that can be retrieved from thermal imagery and what they have contributed to hazard assessment and risk management, and to physical volcanology. With continued developments in thermal imager technology and lower instrument costs, there will be increasing opportunity to gather valuable observations of volcanoes. It is thus timely to review the state of the art and we hope thereby to stimulate further research and innovation in this area.

  15. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  16. The dimensions of nursing surveillance: a concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Lesly; Vincent, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Aim This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of nursing surveillance. Background Nursing surveillance, a primary function of acute care nurses, is critical to patient safety and outcomes. Although it has been associated with patient outcomes and organizational context of care, little knowledge has been generated about the conceptual and operational process of surveillance. Data sources A search using the CINAHL, Medline and PubMed databases was used to compile an international data set of 18 papers and 4 book chapters published from 1985 to 2009. Review methods Rodger’s evolutionary concept analysis techniques were used to analyse surveillance in a systems framework. This method focused the search to nursing surveillance (as opposed to other medical uses of the term) and used a theoretical framework to guide the analysis. Results The examination of the literature clarifies the multifaceted nature of nursing surveillance in the acute care setting. Surveillance involves purposeful and ongoing acquisition, interpretation and synthesis of patient data for clinical decision- making. Behavioural activities and multiple cognitive processes are used in surveillance in order for the nurse to make decisions for patient safety and health maintenance. A systems approach to the analysis also demonstrates how organizational characteristics and contextual factors influence the process in the acute care environment. Conclusion This conceptual analysis describes the nature of the surveillance process and clarifies the concept for effective communication and future use in health services research. PMID:21129007

  17. The Past, Present, and Future of Public Health Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bernard C. K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the past, present, and future of public health surveillance—the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epidemic in 3180 B.C. in Egypt. Hippocrates (460 B.C.–370 B.C.) coined the terms endemic and epidemic, John Graunt (1620–1674) introduced systematic data analysis, Samuel Pepys (1633–1703) started epidemic field investigation, William Farr (1807–1883) founded the modern concept of surveillance, John Snow (1813–1858) linked data to intervention, and Alexander Langmuir (1910–1993) gave the first comprehensive definition of surveillance. Current theories, principles, and practice of public health surveillance are summarized. A number of surveillance dichotomies, such as epidemiologic surveillance versus public health surveillance, are described. Some future scenarios are presented, while current activities that can affect the future are summarized: exploring new frontiers; enhancing computer technology; improving epidemic investigations; improving data collection, analysis, dissemination, and use; building on lessons from the past; building capacity; enhancing global surveillance. It is concluded that learning from the past, reflecting on the present, and planning for the future can further enhance public health surveillance. PMID:24278752

  18. Unattended digital video surveillance: A system prototype for EURATOM safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Chare, P.; Goerten, J.; Wagner, H.; Rodriguez, C.; Brown, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Ever increasing capabilities in video and computer technology have changed the face of video surveillance. From yesterday`s film and analog video tape-based systems, we now emerge into the digital era with surveillance systems capable of digital image processing, image analysis, decision control logic, and random data access features -- all of which provide greater versatility with the potential for increased effectiveness in video surveillance. Digital systems also offer other advantages such as the ability to ``compress`` data, providing increased storage capacities and the potential for allowing longer surveillance Periods. Remote surveillance and system to system communications are also a benefit that can be derived from digital surveillance systems. All of these features are extremely important in today`s climate Of increasing safeguards activity and decreasing budgets -- Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Safeguards Systems Group and the EURATOM Safeguards Directorate have teamed to design and implement a period surveillance system that will take advantage of the versatility of digital video for facility surveillance system that will take advantage of the versatility of digital video for facility surveillance and data review. In this Paper we will familiarize you with system components and features and report on progress in developmental areas such as image compression and region of interest processing.

  19. An emergency response UAV Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro A; Geckle, William J; Barton, Jeffrey D; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z; Martin, Sean R

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs.

  20. Association of physical activity with cognition, metacognition and academic performance in children and adolescents: a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Pesce, Caterina; Cavero-Redondo, Iván; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Pardo-Guijarro, María Jesús; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Schools provide a relevant context for improving children's and adolescents’ physical and mental health by increasing physical activity during school hours and/or beyond. The interest in the relationship between physical activity programmes and cognition during development has recently increased, with evidence suggesting a positive association. We present a protocol of systematic reviews and meta-analysis of intervention studies that, by determining the effects of chronic physical exercise on children's and adolescents’ cognitive and metacognitive functions, cognitive life skills, academic behaviours and achievement, aims to ensure procedural objectivity and transparency, and maximise the extraction of relevant information to inform policy development. Methods This protocol is guided by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) and by the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook. Databases to be utilised for a thorough selection of the pertinent literature are MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, PsycINFO and ERIC. Selection is proposed to encompass an international and a national publication level, with inclusion of experimental studies written in English or in Spanish, respectively. Also, relevant references included in the selected studies will be considered suitable for review as supplemental sources. We present an integrated approach to the methodological quality assessment of the selected studies, including the Jadad Scale for the assessment of the quality of randomised controlled trials and the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies for pre–post studies and non-randomised controlled trials. The pre–post interventions mean differences will be the primary indicator of the intervention outcome. Statistical analysis A subgroup analysis is proposed based on cognitive functions and their neural correlates

  1. Enterovirus spectrum from the active surveillance of hand foot and mouth disease patients under the clinical trial of inactivated Enterovirus A71 vaccine in Jiangsu, China, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin; Bian, Lian-Lian; Lu, Wei-Wei; Li, Jing-Xin; Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yi-Ping; Gao, Fan; Wu, Xing; Ye, Qiang; Xu, Miao; Li, Xiu-Ling; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Liang, Zheng-Lun

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological data from active surveillance on human enterovirus, which could cause hand, foot, and mouth disease, were limited. An active surveillance system was used to investigate the enterovirus spectrum and the incidence of different enteroviruses in infants aged 6-35 months in Jiangsu Province from 2012 to 2013. Fifty-nine infants were randomly selected from 522 non-EV-A71/CV-A16 HFMD patients. We collected 173 throat swabs and 174 rectal swabs from these infants. RT-PCR was used to amplify 5'-UTR and VP1 regions of enteroviruses and the serotypes were determined by the sequence comparison using BLAST. Twenty-one non-EV-A71/CA16 enterovirus serotypes were detected in those infants. E16, E18 were firstly reported in HFMD patients. The four top common non-EV-A71/CV-A enteroviruses among infants were CV-B3, CV-A10, CV-A6, and E9 with the HFMD incidence rates at 1.4%, 0.84%, 0.56%, and 0.47%, respectively. Over 20.8% patients were co-infected with multiple enteroviruses. Neither the course of sickness nor clinical symptoms of the co-infected patients was more severe than those infected with single enterovirus. Two patients were infected different enterovirus successively within 2 months. Several new enterovirus serotypes and multiple models of infection associated with HFMD were discovered through the active surveillance system. These data provide a better understanding of the viral etiology of HFMD.

  2. Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities with which citizens living near the Hanford Site have been participating. Local teachers have been managing and operating three special radiological air sampling stations located in Richland, Basin City, and Franklin County, Washington. Other expansion efforts of this program are also described.

  3. Semantic-based surveillance video retrieval.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiming; Xie, Dan; Fu, Zhouyu; Zeng, Wenrong; Maybank, Steve

    2007-04-01

    Visual surveillance produces large amounts of video data. Effective indexing and retrieval from surveillance video databases are very important. Although there are many ways to represent the content of video clips in current video retrieval algorithms, there still exists a semantic gap between users and retrieval systems. Visual surveillance systems supply a platform for investigating semantic-based video retrieval. In this paper, a semantic-based video retrieval framework for visual surveillance is proposed. A cluster-based tracking algorithm is developed to acquire motion trajectories. The trajectories are then clustered hierarchically using the spatial and temporal information, to learn activity models. A hierarchical structure of semantic indexing and retrieval of object activities, where each individual activity automatically inherits all the semantic descriptions of the activity model to which it belongs, is proposed for accessing video clips and individual objects at the semantic level. The proposed retrieval framework supports various queries including queries by keywords, multiple object queries, and queries by sketch. For multiple object queries, succession and simultaneity restrictions, together with depth and breadth first orders, are considered. For sketch-based queries, a method for matching trajectories drawn by users to spatial trajectories is proposed. The effectiveness and efficiency of our framework are tested in a crowded traffic scene. PMID:17405446

  4. Cryptanalysis on Cheng et al. protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Tejeshwari

    2016-06-01

    Deployment of new node in any wireless sensor network is a sensitive task. This is the reason why, an Access Control Protocol is required in WSN. In this paper, we demonstrate that Access Control Protocol proposed by Cheng et al.[1] for Wireless Sensor Network is insecure. The reason is that this protocol fails to resist the active attack.

  5. Postmarketing surveillance for drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Cicero, Theodore J

    2003-06-01

    Assessing actual abuse of prescribed medications requires postmarketing surveillance. In this article we discuss general systems of postmarketing surveillance that exist as of the end of 2002 in the United States and two medication-specific surveillance systems that were devised and tested. The two specific surveillance systems are compared with limitations highlighted. Postmarketing surveillance is in its infancy and requires more research on ways to improve its validity without inducing illicit experimentation. Information on comparator medications is highly recommended both to validate the system and to place the results in context.

  6. Detection and Isolation of Swine Influenza A Virus in Spiked Oral Fluid and Samples from Individually Housed, Experimentally Infected Pigs: Potential Role of Porcine Oral Fluid in Active Influenza A Virus Surveillance in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Decorte, Inge; Steensels, Mieke; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    Background The lack of seasonality of swine influenza A virus (swIAV) in combination with the capacity of swine to harbor a large number of co-circulating IAV lineages, resulting in the risk for the emergence of influenza viruses with pandemic potential, stress the importance of swIAV surveillance. To date, active surveillance of swIAV worldwide is barely done because of the short detection period in nasal swab samples. Therefore, more sensitive diagnostic methods to monitor circulating virus strains are requisite. Methods qRT-PCR and virus isolations were performed on oral fluid and nasal swabs collected from individually housed pigs that were infected sequentially with H1N1 and H3N2 swIAV strains. The same methods were also applied to oral fluid samples spiked with H1N1 to study the influence of conservation time and temperature on swIAV infectivity and detectability in porcine oral fluid. Results All swIAV infected animals were found qRT-PCR positive in both nasal swabs and oral fluid. However, swIAV could be detected for a longer period in oral fluid than in nasal swabs. Despite the high detectability of swIAV in oral fluid, virus isolation from oral fluid collected from infected pigs was rare. These results are supported by laboratory studies showing that the PCR detectability of swIAV remains unaltered during a 24 h incubation period in oral fluid, while swIAV infectivity drops dramatically immediately upon contact with oral fluid (3 log titer reduction) and gets lost after 24 h conservation in oral fluid at ambient temperature. Conclusions Our data indicate that porcine oral fluid has the potential to replace nasal swabs for molecular diagnostic purposes. The difficulty to isolate swIAV from oral fluid could pose a drawback for its use in active surveillance programs. PMID:26431039

  7. Effect on swimming start performance of two types of activation protocols: lunge and YoYo squat.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Fernández, Francisco; López-Contreras, Gracia; Arellano, Raúl

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 protocols of postactivation potentiation (PAP) on swimming start perfomance (SS). Fourteen trained swimmers (10 men and 4 women) volunteered for this study. An intragroup design of randomized repetitive measurements was applied. A previous SS trial, performed after a standard warm-up (SWU), served as a reference. Two methods of PAP, performed after 1 hour of rest, were randomly added to the SWU: (a) 3 lunges at 85% of 1 repetition maximum (LWU) and (b) 4 repetitions on the flywheel device YoYo squat (YWU). Swimmers were tested in an SS 8 minutes after the PAP warm-ups. Kinematic variables were collected using 3 underwater digital video cameras fixed poolside and operating at 25 Hz, and 1 high-speed camera focused on the block and operating at 300 Hz. Data obtained from the video analysis were processed using a repeated measures analysis of the variance. The mean horizontal velocity of the swimmer's flight improved after both PAP methods, with the greatest improvement after YWU (F2,12 = 47.042, p < 0.001; SWU = 3.63 ± 0.11; LWU = 4.15 ± 0.122; YWU = 4.89 ± 0.12 m·s). After YWU, it took the subjects less time to cover a distance of 5 m (F2,12 = 24.453, p < 0.001) and 15 m (F2,12 = 4.262, p < 0.04). Subjects also achieved a higher mean angular velocity of the knee extension (F2,12 = 23.286, p < 0.001) and a reduction of the time on the block (F2,12 = 6.595, p ≤ 0.05). These results demonstrate that muscle performance in the execution of an SS is enhanced after a warm-up with specific PAP protocols. YWU leads to the greatest improvement in the performance of the swimmer's start and, therefore, may be especially beneficial in short events. PMID:25226318

  8. Mobile security surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolnikov, Andre

    2006-05-01

    The necessity to control certain areas from outside intrusion or, vice versa, preventing subjects/objects (e.g. prisoners) from leaving a controlled area has brought to life numerous designs of surveillance systems for the above-mentioned tasks. Fibers, laser beams, microwaves, etc have been used for decades to provide an alarm signal, should anyone or anything cross a light, radio beam or break a fiber. However, it is difficult to distinguish a stray animal from a human being, or even a snow ball from the first two using the conventional surveillance designs. False alarms render practically useless the above means, especially for field applications. It is possible, nonetheless, to set up an automatic system that discriminates objects/subjects crossing the control line/perimeter - a statistical approach which includes time series analysis is proposed as a solution for the problem.

  9. [Health surveillance of workers].

    PubMed

    Alessio, L; Curti, R; Rivolta, G

    1987-01-01

    The paper deals with the concepts of environmental monitoring and health surveillance, which include the following tasks: biological monitoring, health information, pre-employment and periodical medical examinations. Biological monitoring permits evaluation of the degree of exposure and its early effects. The early effects can be detected with specific tests exploring initial biological alterations while the organism is still capable of compensating such changes. Application of biological monitoring requires a profound knowledge of toxicology and health surveillance in general terms requires a solid basis of occupational medicine in order to set objectives and make judgements concerning fitness for specific jobs. Details are given of the measures the occupational health physician must take and when he must take them in the case of development of an occupational disease. Particular attention is given to the removal of the subject from exposure, the first certificate of occupational disease, the notification to the Local Health Unit and the diagnosis.

  10. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ashish K; Laird-Fick, Heather S; Wali, Ramesh K; Roy, Hemant K

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms, thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses. Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions, therefore, is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy. In order to efficiently detect these lesions, systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed. However, most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example, serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma, and fecal occult blood test, for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures, such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes. Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool, the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can’t be avoided. The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs. Moreover, only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies, and indeed needs surveillance. To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention, it’s important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (risk-stratification), and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts. We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies, and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them. PMID:22969223

  11. Patient education interventions to improve physical activity in patients with intermittent claudication: a protocol for a systematic mixed-studies review

    PubMed Central

    Abaraogu, Ukachukwu Okoroafor; Dall, Philippa Margaret; Seenan, Christopher Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and intermittent claudication (IC) decrease an individual's capacity to engage in physical activity (PA) with potentially negative effects on PA behaviour. Strategies to improve PA among this population may provide a range of positive health benefits. We present a protocol to assess the components of patient education interventions that improve PA capacity and PA behaviour in patients with PAD and IC. Methods and analysis Published peer-reviewed studies will be searched in the following databases: CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, OVID, ProQuest, AMED, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science Core Collection and PEDro, to identify literature investigating the effect of patient education on PA of patients with PAD and IC, or studies that investigated patients' perceptions or experience with these interventions. Two authors will independently perform screening for study eligibility, result synthesis and then appraise study quality. For interventions without follow-up, primary outcome measures will include change in PA capacity, or change in free-living PA behaviour; where there was a follow-up postintervention, the primary outcome will be rate of adherence to PA behaviour improvement. A three-phase sequential explanatory synthesis of mixed studies will be employed to answer the research questions. Homogenous quantitative data will be analysed using a random-effects model of meta-analysis with results presented as relative risk for dichotomous outcomes and as weighted or standardised means for continuous outcomes. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic synthesis. This review protocol is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 guidelines. Trial registration number CRD42015027314. PMID:27207628

  12. Supportive housing and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jade; Cunningham, David; Anderson, Solanna; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Urban centres in the US, Britain and Canada have responded to identified visible 'social problems' such addiction, mental health and homelessness by providing some supportive housing for the urban poor and marginalized. While some critics have questioned what supportive housing specifically entails in terms of the built environment, what remains under explored, though a growing area of concern, is the relationship between surveillance and supportive housing for urban residents identified as having addiction and mental health problems - a gap addressed in this paper. Drawing upon qualitative ethnographic observational data we examine some of the measures of control and coercion that are encroaching into social housing primarily established for poor and marginalized people with addiction and mental health problems in the urban centre of Vancouver, Canada. We witnessed three modes of regulation and control, that vary widely, among the residencies observed: physical surveillance technologies; site-specific modes of coercion; police presence and staff surveillance, which all together impact the everyday lives of residents living in low-income and supportive housing. We argue that supportive housing has the potential to provide its intended commitment - safe and secure affordable housing. However, owing to an (over)emphasis on 'security', the supportive housing we observed were also sites of social control. PMID:27453148

  13. Protocols for distributive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

  14. Surveillance for fetal alcohol syndrome in Colorado.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, L A; Shaikh, T; Stanton, C; Montgomery, A; Rickard, R; Keefer, S; Hoffman, R

    1995-01-01

    The authors performed surveillance for fetal alcohol syndrome with an existing birth defects registry. Fetal alcohol syndrome cases were identified from multiple sources using passive surveillance and from two selected medical sites using enhanced surveillance. Between May 1992 and March 1994, a total of 173 cases were identified, and the medical records of the cases were reviewed to determine whether the cases met a surveillance case definition for fetal alcohol syndrome. Of these cases, 37 (21 percent) met either definite (28) or probable (9) criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome, 76 met possible criteria (44 percent), and 60 (35 percent) were defined as not fetal alcohol syndrome. Enhanced surveillance had the highest sensitivity for definite or probable cases, 31 of 37 (84 percent), followed by hospital discharge data, 14 of 37 (38 percent). The authors also compared birth certificate information for 22 definite or probable cases in children born between 1989 and 1992 to birth certificate information for all Colorado births for that period. The proportion of mothers of children with fetal alcohol syndrome was statistically significantly greater (as determined by exact binomial 95 percent confidence limits) than the proportion of all mothers for the following characteristics: black race (0.23 versus 0.05), unmarried (0.55 versus 0.22), not employed during pregnancy (0.86 versus 0.43), and started prenatal care in the third trimester (0.18 versus 0.04). Surveillance for fetal alcohol syndrome can be accomplished with an existing registry system in combination with additional case finding and verification activities. Through followup investigation of reported cases, data can be gathered on the mothers of children with fetal alcohol syndrome. These data could be used to target fetal alcohol syndrome prevention programs. PMID:8570819

  15. A massive transfusion protocol incorporating a higher FFP/RBC ratio is associated with decreased use of recombinant activated factor VII in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Tan, Josenia N M; Burke, Peter A; Agarwal, Suresh K; Mantilla-Rey, Nelson; Quillen, Karen

    2012-04-01

    We implemented a protocol incorporating a higher fresh frozen plasma (FFP)/RBC ratio for the management of trauma patients requiring massive transfusion in 2007. This study aims to identify issues that affected the effective deployment of the massive transfusion protocol (MTP) and compare outcome variables with a historic cohort. Data from 49 trauma patients who received at least 10 units of packed RBCs within 24 hours were analyzed and compared with a historic massively transfused cohort who had received recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa). Of the patients, 28 received an FFP/RBC ratio of 1:1 to 1:2; 12 received a lower ratio of 1:2 to 1:4; 3 received more than 1:1 and 6 had less than 1:4. Compared with the historic cohort, the 1:1-1:2 group received significantly fewer blood components and did not require rescue rFVIIa. An MTP incorporating a higher FFP/RBC ratio of 1:1 to 1:2 is associated with decreased use of blood components and may obviate the need for rFVII.

  16. Radiological surveillance of Remedial Action activities at the processing site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, April 12--16, 1993. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) performed a radiological surveillance of the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), MK-Ferguson and CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., at the processing site in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The requirements and attributes examined during the audit were developed from reviewing working-level procedures developed by the RAC. Objective evidence, comments, and observations were verified based on investigating procedures, documentation, records located at the site, personal interviews, and tours of the site. No findings were identified during this audit. Ten site-specific observations, three good practice observations, and five programmatic observations are presented in this report. The overall conclusion from the surveillance is that the radiological aspects of the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, remedial action program are performed adequately. The results of the good practice observations indicate that the site health physics (HP) staff is taking the initiative to address and resolve potential issues, and implement suggestions useful to the UMTRA Project. However, potential exists for improving designated storage areas for general items, and the RAC Project Office should consider resolving site-specific and procedural inconsistencies.

  17. Assessing Metacognitive Activities: The In-Depth Comparison of a Task-Specific Questionnaire with Think-Aloud Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellings, Gonny L.; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette H. A .M.; Veenman, Marcel V. J.; Meijer, Joost

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and assessing metacognitive activities are important educational objectives, and teachers are calling for efficient instruments. The advantages of questionnaires in measuring metacognitive activities are obvious, but serious validity issues appear. For example, correlations of questionnaire data with think-aloud measures are generally…

  18. Assessment of Arbovirus Surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States.

    PubMed

    Hadler, James L; Patel, Dhara; Nasci, Roger S; Petersen, Lyle R; Hughes, James M; Bradley, Kristy; Etkind, Paul; Kan, Lilly; Engel, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Before 1999, the United States had no appropriated funding for arboviral surveillance, and many states conducted no such surveillance. After emergence of West Nile virus (WNV), federal funding was distributed to state and selected local health departments to build WNV surveillance systems. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists conducted assessments of surveillance capacity of resulting systems in 2004 and in 2012; the assessment in 2012 was conducted after a 61% decrease in federal funding. In 2004, nearly all states and assessed local health departments had well-developed animal, mosquito, and human surveillance systems to monitor WNV activity and anticipate outbreaks. In 2012, many health departments had decreased mosquito surveillance and laboratory testing capacity and had no systematic disease-based surveillance for other arboviruses. Arboviral surveillance in many states might no longer be sufficient to rapidly detect and provide information needed to fully respond to WNV outbreaks and other arboviral threats (e.g., dengue, chikungunya).

  19. Public Health Surveillance Strategies for Mass Gatherings: Super Bowl XLIX and Related Events, Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Aurimar; Berisha, Vjollca; Goodin, Kate; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Levy, Craig; McKinney, Benita; Koski, Lia; Imholte, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Super Bowl XLIX took place on February 1, 2015, in Glendale, Arizona. In preparation for this event and associated activities, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) developed methods for enhanced surveillance, situational awareness, and early detection of public health emergencies. Surveillance strategies implemented from January 22 to February 6, 2015, included enhanced surveillance alerts; animal disease surveillance; review of NFL clinic visits; syndromic surveillance for emergency room visits, urgent care facilities, and hotels; real-time onsite syndromic surveillance; all-hazards mortality surveillance; emergency medical services surveillance, review of poison control center reports; media surveillance; and aberration detection algorithms for notifiable diseases. Surveillance results included increased influenzalike illness activity reported from urgent care centers and a few influenza cases reported in the NFL clinic. A cyanide single event exposure was investigated and determined not to be a public health threat. Real-time field syndromic surveillance documented minor injuries at all events and sporadic cases of gastrointestinal and neurological (mostly headaches) disease. Animal surveillance reports included a cat suspected of carrying plague and tularemia and an investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza in a backyard chicken flock. Laboratory results in both instances were negative. Aberration detection and syndromic surveillance detected an increase in measles reports associated with a Disneyland exposure, and syndromic surveillance was used successfully during this investigation. Coordinated enhanced epidemiologic surveillance during Super Bowl XLIX increased the response capacity and preparedness of MCDPH to make informed decisions and take public health actions in a timely manner during these mass gathering events.

  20. Review of the United States universal varicella vaccination program: Herpes zoster incidence rates, cost-effectiveness, and vaccine efficacy based primarily on the Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project data

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, G.S.; King, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    In a cooperative agreement starting January 1995, prior to the FDA's licensure of the varicella vaccine on March 17, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded the Los Angeles Department of Health Services’ Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project (AV-VASP). Since only varicella case reports were gathered, baseline incidence data for herpes zoster (HZ) or shingles was lacking. Varicella case reports decreased 72%, from 2834 in 1995 to 836 in 2000 at which time approximately 50% of children under 10 years of age had been vaccinated. Starting in 2000, HZ surveillance was added to the project. By 2002, notable increases in HZ incidence rates were reported among both children and adults with a prior history of natural varicella. However, CDC authorities still claimed that no increase in HZ had occurred in any US surveillance site. The basic assumptions inherent to the varicella cost–benefit analysis ignored the significance of exogenous boosting caused by those shedding wild-type VZV. Also ignored was the morbidity associated with even rare serious events following varicella vaccination as well as the morbidity from increasing cases of HZ among adults. Vaccine efficacy declined below 80% in 2001. By 2006, because 20% of vaccinees were experiencing breakthrough varicella and vaccine-induced protection was waning, the CDC recommended a booster dose for children and, in 2007, a shingles vaccination was approved for adults aged 60 years and older. In the prelicensure era, 95% of adults experienced natural chickenpox (usually as children)—these cases were usually benign and resulted in long-term immunity. Varicella vaccination is less effective than the natural immunity that existed in prevaccine communities. Universal varicella vaccination has not proven to be cost-effective as increased HZ morbidity has disproportionately offset cost savings associated with reductions in varicella disease. Universal varicella vaccination has failed to

  1. Review of the United States universal varicella vaccination program: Herpes zoster incidence rates, cost-effectiveness, and vaccine efficacy based primarily on the Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project data.

    PubMed

    Goldman, G S; King, P G

    2013-03-25

    In a cooperative agreement starting January 1995, prior to the FDA's licensure of the varicella vaccine on March 17, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded the Los Angeles Department of Health Services' Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project (AV-VASP). Since only varicella case reports were gathered, baseline incidence data for herpes zoster (HZ) or shingles was lacking. Varicella case reports decreased 72%, from 2834 in 1995 to 836 in 2000 at which time approximately 50% of children under 10 years of age had been vaccinated. Starting in 2000, HZ surveillance was added to the project. By 2002, notable increases in HZ incidence rates were reported among both children and adults with a prior history of natural varicella. However, CDC authorities still claimed that no increase in HZ had occurred in any US surveillance site. The basic assumptions inherent to the varicella cost-benefit analysis ignored the significance of exogenous boosting caused by those shedding wild-type VZV. Also ignored was the morbidity associated with even rare serious events following varicella vaccination as well as the morbidity from increasing cases of HZ among adults. Vaccine efficacy declined below 80% in 2001. By 2006, because 20% of vaccinees were experiencing breakthrough varicella and vaccine-induced protection was waning, the CDC recommended a booster dose for children and, in 2007, a shingles vaccination was approved for adults aged 60 years and older. In the prelicensure era, 95% of adults experienced natural chickenpox (usually as children)-these cases were usually benign and resulted in long-term immunity. Varicella vaccination is less effective than the natural immunity that existed in prevaccine communities. Universal varicella vaccination has not proven to be cost-effective as increased HZ morbidity has disproportionately offset cost savings associated with reductions in varicella disease. Universal varicella vaccination has failed to provide

  2. Disease surveillance in Guam: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Robert L

    2005-09-01

    Passive, active, and syndromic disease surveillance, together with disease registries and surveys, are undertaken by the Guam Department of Public Health and Social Services to provide a rational basis for decision making by health care officials. Each of these activities serves a unique purpose in the process of detecting and confirming or disproving the presence or extent of disease on the island and evaluating the effectiveness of control measures.

  3. Detailed protocol to assess in vivo and ex vivo myeloperoxidase activity in mouse models of vascular inflammation and disease using hydroethidine.

    PubMed

    Talib, Jihan; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Cheng, David; Stocker, Roland

    2016-08-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity contributes to arterial inflammation, vascular dysfunction and disease, including atherosclerosis. Current assessment of MPO activity in biological systems in vivo utilizes 3-chlorotyrosine (3-Cl-Tyr) as a biomarker of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and other chlorinating species. However, 3-Cl-Tyr is formed in low yield and is subject to further metabolism. Recently, we reported a method to selectively assess MPO-activity in vivo by measuring the conversion of hydroethidine to 2-chloroethidium (2-Cl-E(+)) by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (J. Biol. Chem., 289, 2014, pp. 5580-5595). The hydroethidine-based method has greater sensitivity for MPO activity than measurement of 3-Cl-Tyr. The current methods paper provides a detailed protocol to determine in vivo and ex vivo MPO activity in arteries from mouse models of vascular inflammation and disease by utilizing the conversion of hydroethidine to 2-Cl-E(+). Procedures for the synthesis of standards, preparation of tissue homogenates and the generation of 2-Cl-E(+) are also provided in detail, as are the conditions for LC-MS/MS detection of 2-Cl-E(+). PMID:27184954

  4. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  5. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  6. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  7. Surveillance and response to drive the national malaria elimination program.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin-Yu; Xia, Zhi-Gui; Vong, Sirenda; Yang, Wei-Zhong; Zhou, Shui-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The national action plan for malaria elimination in China (2010-2020) was issued by the Chinese Ministry of Health along with other 13 ministries and commissions in 2010. The ultimate goal of the national action plan was to eliminate local transmission of malaria by the end of 2020. Surveillance and response are the most important components driving the whole process of the national malaria elimination programme (NMEP), under the technical guidance used in NMEP. This chapter introduces the evolution of the surveillance from the control to the elimination stages and the current structure of national surveillance system in China. When the NMEP launched, both routine surveillance and sentinel surveillance played critical role in monitoring the process of NMEP. In addition, the current response strategy of NMEP was also reviewed, including the generally developed "1-3-7 Strategy". More effective and sensitive risk assessment tools were introduced, which cannot only predict the trends of malaria, but also are important for the design and adjustment of the surveillance and response systems in the malaria elimination stage. Therefore, this review presents the landscape of malaria surveillance and response in China as well as their contribution to the NMEP, with a focus on activities for early detection of malaria cases, timely control of malaria foci and epidemics, and risk prediction. Furthermore, challenges and recommendations for accelerating NMEP through surveillance are put forward. PMID:25476882

  8. A cluster-randomised controlled trial of a physical activity and nutrition programme in retirement villages: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Anne-Marie; Jancey, Jonine; Lee, Andy H; Kerr, Deborah A; Hills, Andrew P; Anderson, Annie S; Howat, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity levels of Australia's ageing population are declining and coincidentally rates of overweight and obesity are increasing. Adequate levels of physical activity and a healthy diet are recognised as important lifestyle factors for the maintenance of a healthy weight and prevention of chronic diseases. Retirement village (RV) residents rarely engage in physical activity and nutrition programmes offered, with poor attendance and low use of existing facilities such as on-site fitness centres and classes and nutrition seminars. The RV provides a unique setting to access and engage with this older target group, to test the effectiveness of strategies to increase levels of physical activity, improve nutrition and maintain a healthy weight. Method and analysis This cluster-randomised controlled trial will evaluate a physical activity, nutrition and healthy weight management intervention for insufficiently active (‘not achieving 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per week’) adults aged 60–75 residing in RV's. A total of 400 participants will be recruited from 20 randomly selected RV's in Perth, Western Australia. Villages will be assigned to either the intervention group (n=10) or the control group (n=10) each containing 200 participants. The Retirement Village Physical Activity and Nutrition for Seniors (RVPANS) programme is a home-based physical activity and nutrition programme that includes educational resources, along with facilitators who will motivate and guide the participants during the 6-month intervention. Descriptive statistics and mixed regression models will be performed to assess the intervention effects. This trial will evaluate an intervention for the modification of health risk factors in the RV setting. Such research conducted in RV's has been limited. Ethics and dissemination Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: HR128/2012). Dissemination of the study results will occur

  9. In vitro equine embryo production using air-dried spermatozoa, with different activation protocols and culture systems.

    PubMed

    Alonso, A; Baca Castex, C; Ferrante, A; Pinto, M; Castañeira, C; Trasorras, V; Gambarotta, M C; Losinno, L; Miragaya, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of air-dried spermatozoa for in vitro production of equine embryos and verify if sperm extract activation and in vivo culture improve in vitro embryo production. Cooled spermatozoa (control) and air-dried spermatozoa stored for 2, 14 or 28 days were used for ICSI sperm extract, or ionomycin was used for oocyte activation, and embryos were in vitro or in vivo (in mare's oviduct) cultured for 7 days. With in vitro culture, cleavage rate was higher when activating with sperm extract (P < 0.05). No differences in embryo development were seen between the two activation treatments nor between storage periods (P > 0.05). Blastocysts were obtained with cooled spermatozoa, and morulae were achieved using in vivo culture with 28-day storage spermatozoa and ionomycin-activated oocytes. When in vivo culture was performed, sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed using the sperm chromatin dispersion test and did not show statistical correlation with cleavage nor embryo recovery rates. In conclusion, equine embryos can be produced using air-dried spermatozoa stored for several weeks. Sperm extract activation increased cleavage rates but did not improve embryo development. In vivo culture allowed intrauterine stage embryos to be achieved.

  10. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  11. The Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance Study (Pak-NEDS): Introducing a pilot surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based decision making is essential for appropriate prioritization and service provision by healthcare systems. Despite higher demands, data needs for this practice are not met in many cases in low- and middle-income countries because of underdeveloped sources, among other reasons. Emergency departments (EDs) provide an important channel for such information because of their strategic position within healthcare systems. This paper describes the design and pilot test of a national ED based surveillance system suitable for the Pakistani context. Methods The Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance Study (Pak-NEDS) was pilot tested in the emergency departments of seven major tertiary healthcare centres across the country. The Aga Khan University, Karachi, served as the coordinating centre. Key stakeholders and experts from all study institutes were involved in outlining data needs, development of the study questionnaire, and identification of appropriate surveillance mechanisms such as methods for data collection, monitoring, and quality assurance procedures. The surveillance system was operational between November 2010 and March 2011. Active surveillance was done 24 hours a day by data collectors hired and trained specifically for the study. All patients presenting to the study EDs were eligible participants. Over 270,000 cases were registered in the surveillance system over a period of four months. Coverage levels in the final month ranged from 91-100% and were highest in centres with the least volume of patients. Overall the coverage for the four months was 79% and crude operational costs were less than $0.20 per patient. Conclusions Pak-NEDS is the first multi-centre ED based surveillance system successfully piloted in a sample of major EDs having some of the highest patient volumes in Pakistan. Despite the challenges identified, our pilot shows that the system is flexible and scalable, and could potentially be adapted for many other

  12. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  13. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  14. Remote, wireless stakeout surveillance for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Mike; Klein, Allen; Smith, Stan; Jones, John Paul

    2005-05-01

    Inflation combined with the added burden of homeland security requirements, is increasing pressure on local law enforcement budgets and manpower resources. The problem is: how can law enforcement agencies fulfill all of their requirements? How can they respond to these requirements, including homeland security, with limited manpower? Civil Rights considerations also place constraints on law enforcement. One possible solution is the Remote Law Enforcement Surveillance System (RLESS) concept. RLESS makes more efficient use of existing manpower while avoiding infringement on civil liberties. RLESS provides the capability for unattended stakeout and surveillance. Many stakeout or surveillance operations are conducted by vice, homicide, organized crime or other task forces. Lasting from days to weeks. Many large drug stings last months involving many persons of interest. A single surveillance mission usually involves a minimum of two persons X 3 shifts per day conducting active observation, equating to 48 man-hours per day. Their tasks include watching, listening, and documenting with photography. Recent military developments have included new technologies and techniques that enable remote unattended observation of areas or points of interest. This capability is now available to support law enforcement stakeouts, thereby significantly minimizes the stresses on manpower.

  15. Built environment and physical activity in New Zealand adolescents: a protocol for a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hinckson, Erica A; Duncan, Scott; Oliver, Melody; Mavoa, Suzanne; Cerin, Ester; Badland, Hannah; Stewart, Tom; Ivory, Vivienne; McPhee, Julia; Schofield, Grant

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Built-environment interventions have the potential to provide population-wide effects and the means for a sustained effect on behaviour change. Population-wide effects for adult physical activity have been shown with selected built environment attributes; however, the association between the built environment and adolescent health behaviours is less clear. This New Zealand study is part of an international project across 10 countries (International Physical Activity and the Environment Network–adolescents) that aims to characterise the links between built environment and adolescent health outcomes. Methods and analyses An observational, cross-sectional study of the associations between measures of the built environment with physical activity, sedentary behaviour, body size and social connectedness in 1600 New Zealand adolescents aged 12–18 years will be conducted in 2013–2014. Walkability and neighbourhood destination accessibility indices will be objectively measured using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Physical activity and sedentary behaviours will be objectively measured using accelerometers over seven consecutive days. Body mass index will be calculated as weight divided by squared height. Demographics, socioeconomic status, active commuting behaviours and perceived neighbourhood walkability will be assessed using the Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth and psychosocial indicators. A web-based computer-assisted personal interview tool Visualisation and Evaluation of Route Itineraries, Travel Destinations, and Activity Spaces (VERITAS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers will be used in a subsample of 300 participants. A qualitative research component will explore barriers and facilitators for physical activity in adolescents with respect to the built and social environment in a subsample of 80 participants. Ethics and dissemination The study received ethical approval from the Auckland University of

  16. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-01-06

    Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal

  17. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  18. Study protocol: translating and implementing psychosocial interventions in aged home care the lifestyle engagement activity program (LEAP) for life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tailored psychosocial activity-based interventions have been shown to improve mood, behaviour and quality of life for nursing home residents. Occupational therapist delivered activity programs have shown benefits when delivered in home care settings for people with dementia. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of LEAP (Lifestyle Engagement Activity Program) for Life, a training and practice change program on the engagement of home care clients by care workers. Secondary aims are to evaluate the impact of the program on changes in client mood and behaviour. Methods/design The 12 month LEAP program has three components: 1) engaging site management and care staff in the program; 2) employing a LEAP champion one day a week to support program activities; 3) delivering an evidence-based training program to care staff. Specifically, case managers will be trained and supported to set meaningful social or recreational goals with clients and incorporate these into care plans. Care workers will be trained in and encouraged to practise good communication, promote client independence and choice, and tailor meaningful activities using Montessori principles, reminiscence, music, physical activity and play. LEAP Champions will be given information about theories of organisational change and trained in interpersonal skills required for their role. LEAP will be evaluated in five home care sites including two that service ethnic minority groups. A quasi experimental design will be used with evaluation data collected four times: 6-months prior to program commencement; at the start of the program; and then after 6 and 12 months. Mixed effect models will enable comparison of change in outcomes for the periods before and during the program. The primary outcome measure is client engagement. Secondary outcomes for clients are satisfaction with care, dysphoria/depression, loneliness, apathy and agitation; and work satisfaction for care workers. A process

  19. Surveillance strategy for an extended operating cycle in commercial nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    McHenry, R.S.; Moore, T.J.; Maurer, J.H.; Todreas, N.E.

    1997-05-01

    The impetus for improved economic performance of commercial nuclear power plants can be partially satisfied by increasing plant capacity factors through operating cycle extension. One aspect of an operating cycle extension effort is the modification of plant surveillance programs to complete required regulatory and investment protection surveillance activities within the extended planned outage schedule. The goal of this paper is to introduce a general strategy for existing power plants to transition their surveillance programs to an extended operating cycle up to 48 months in length, and to test the feasibility of this strategy through the complete analysis of the surveillance programs at operating BWR and PWR case study plants. The reconciliation of surveillances at these plants demonstrates that surveillance performance will not preclude 48 month operating cycles. Those surveillance activities that could not be resolved to an extended cycle are identified for further study. Finally, a number of general issues are presented that should be considered before implementing a cycle extension effort.

  20. A systematic review of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain—protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic musculoskeletal pain is highly prevalent, affecting around one in five people across Europe. Osteoarthritis, low back pain, neck pain and other musculoskeletal disorders are leading causes of disability worldwide and the most common source of chronic pain. Exercise and/or physical activity interventions have the potential to address not only the pain and disability associated with chronic pain but also the increased risk of morbidity and mortality seen in this population. Although exercise and/or physical activity is widely recommended, there is currently a paucity of research that offers an evidence base upon which the development or optimisation of interventions can be based. This systematic review will investigate the components of interventions associated with changes in physical activity levels in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Methods/Design This systematic review will be reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidance. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain will be included. Articles will be identified through a comprehensive search of the following databases: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and AMED. Two review authors will independently screen articles retrieved from the search for eligibility, extract relevant data on methodological issues and code interventions according to the behaviour change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques. As complex healthcare interventions can be modified by a wide variety of factors, data will be summarised statistically when the data are available, are sufficiently similar and are of sufficient quality. A narrative synthesis will be completed if there is insufficient data to permit a formal meta

  1. Community-based physical activity and nutrition programme for adults with metabolic syndrome in Vietnam: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Van Dinh; Lee, Andy H; Jancey, Jonine; James, Anthony P; Howat, Peter; Thi Phuong Mai, Le

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes. In Vietnam, more than one-quarter of its population aged 50–65 have MetS. This cluster-randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase levels of physical activity and improve dietary behaviours among Vietnamese adults aged 50–65 years with MetS. Method and analysis This 6-month community-based intervention includes a range of strategies to improve physical activity and nutrition for adults with MetS in Hanam, a province located in northern Vietnam. 600 participants will be recruited from 6 communes with 100 participants per commune. The 6 selected communes will be randomly allocated to either an intervention group (m=3; n=300) or a control group (m=3; n=300). The intervention comprises booklets, education sessions, resistance bands and attending local walking groups that provide information and encourage participants to improve their physical activity and healthy eating behaviours during the 6-month period. The control group participants will receive standard and 1-time advice. Social cognitive theory is the theoretical concept underpinning this study. Measurements will be taken at baseline and postintervention to evaluate programme effectiveness. Ethics and dissemination The research protocol was approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: HR139/2014). The results of the study will be disseminated through publications, reports and conference presentations. Trial registration number ACTRN12614000811606. PMID:27256094

  2. Influenza epidemiology and influenza vaccine effectiveness during the 2014-2015 season: annual report from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network.

    PubMed

    Puig-Barberà, Joan; Burtseva, Elena; Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J; Badur, Selim; Kyncl, Jan; Sominina, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network (GIHSN) has established a prospective, active surveillance, hospital-based epidemiological study to collect epidemiological and virological data for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres over several consecutive seasons. It focuses exclusively on severe cases of influenza requiring hospitalization. A standard protocol is shared between sites allowing comparison and pooling of results. During the 2014-2015 influenza season, the GIHSN included seven coordinating sites from six countries (St. Petersburg and Moscow, Russian Federation; Prague, Czech Republic; Istanbul, Turkey; Beijing, China; Valencia, Spain; and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Here, we present the detailed epidemiological and influenza vaccine effectiveness findings for the Northern Hemisphere 2014-2015 influenza season. PMID:27556802

  3. Study protocol. The Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark (The CHAMPS-study DK)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An increasingly passive life-style in the Western World has led to a rise in life-style related disorders. This is a major concern for all segments of society. The county council of the municipality of Svendborg in Denmark, created six Sport Schools with increased levels of suitable physical activities, which made it possible to study the health outcomes in these children whilst comparing them to children who attended the ‘normal’ schools of the region using the design of a “natural experiment”. Methods Children from the age of 6 till the age of 10, who accepted to be included in the monitoring process, were surveyed at baseline with questionnaires, physical examinations and physical and biological testing, including DXA scans. The physical examination and testing was repeated during the early stage of the study. Every week over the whole study period, the children will be followed with an automated mobile phone text message (SMS-Track) asking questions on their leisure time sports activities and the presence of any musculoskeletal problems. Children who report any such problems are monitored individually by health care personnel. Data are collected on demography, health habits and attitudes, physical characteristics, physical activity using accelerometers, motor performance, fitness, bone health, life-style disorders, injuries and musculoskeletal problems. Data collection will continue at least once a year until the children reach grade 9. Discussion This project is embedded in a local community, which set up the intervention (The Sport Schools) and thereafter invited researchers to provide documentation and evaluation. Sport schools are well matched with the ‘normal’ schools, making comparisons between these suitable. However, subgroups that would be specifically targeted in lifestyle intervention studies (such as the definitely obese) could be relatively small. Therefore, results specific to minority groups may be diluted. Nonetheless, the

  4. [Ethical problems in health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Toffoletto, F; Briatico Vangosa, G; Panizza, C

    2000-01-01

    Surveillance of workers' health in the field of occupational medicine poses substantial ethical problems in view of occupational medicine's complex responsibilities towards workers and employers, preventive and protection services, workers' representatives, public healthcare and preventive medicine facilities, controlling agencies and judicial authorities. Potentially conflicting rights and duties often come into play in this sector. In the last few years various international and national bodies have drawn up codes of ethics or guidelines for the conduct of physicians in occupational medicine, three of which are of particular importance: 1) The International Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH, 1992); 2) The Code of Conduct of the National Association of Company Doctors (ANMA, 1997); 3) The Technical and Ethical Guidelines for workers' health (ILO, 1998). The chief purpose of all these documents is to safeguard the health of workers and to guarantee the safety of the workplace by defining programmes of health supervision to match specific risks. The methods should be non-invasive and should allow for a check or efficiency. The physician is expected to have a high degree of professionalism and up-to-date skills; to be independent and impartial; to be reserved and capable of inter-disciplinary co-operation. On the basis of the above documents, a number of problematic aspects may be appraised concerning the relationship between the occupational health physician responsible for the surveillance activities of the local health authority and the relative company physician. The documents stress the importance of keeping up to date and of quality, fields in which the dominant role played by Scientific Societies is underlined. Finally it is recommended that health supervision be arranged in such a manner as to foster the professionalism and responsibility of the physician in charge rather than the formal implementation of health

  5. National influenza surveillance in Vietnam, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hien T; Dharan, Nila J; Le, Mai T Q; Nguyen, Nguyen B; Nguyen, Chung T; Hoang, Dong V; Tran, Huu N; Bui, Chien T; Dang, Dat T; Pham, Dinh N; Nguyen, Hoa T; Phan, Tu V; Dennis, David T; Uyeki, Timothy M; Mott, Joshua; Nguyen, Yen T

    2009-12-11

    In 2006, national influenza surveillance was implemented in Vietnam. Epidemiologic and demographic data and a throat swab for influenza testing were collected from a subset of outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI). During January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2007, of 184,521 ILI cases identified at surveillance sites, 11,082 were tested and 2112 (19%) were positive for influenza by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Influenza viruses were detected year-round, and similar peaks in influenza activity were observed in all surveillance regions, coinciding with cooler and rainy periods. Studies are needed to ascertain the disease burden and impact of influenza in Vietnam. PMID:19853073

  6. Working memory training for adult hearing aid users: study protocol for a double-blind randomized active controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One in ten people aged between 55 to 74 years have a significant hearing impairment in their better hearing ear (as defined by audiometric hearing thresholds). However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the challenges faced by older listeners cannot be explained by the audiogram alone. The ability for people with hearing loss to use cognition to support speech perception allows for compensation of the degraded auditory input. This in turn offers promise for new cognitive-based rehabilitative interventions. Working memory is known to be highly associated with language comprehension and recent evidence has shown significant generalization of learning from trained working memory tasks to improvements in sentence-repetition skills of children with severe to profound hearing loss. This evidence offers support for further investigation into the potential benefits of working memory training to improve speech perception abilities in other hearing impaired populations. Methods/Design This is a double-blind randomized active controlled trial aiming to assess whether a program of working memory training results in improvements in untrained measures of cognition, speech perception and self-reported hearing abilities in adult hearing aid users (aged 50 to 74 years) with mild-to-moderate hearing loss, compared with an active control group who receive a placebo version of the working memory training program. Discussion The present study aims to generate high-quality preliminary evidence for the efficacy of working memory training for adults with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss who are existing hearing aid users. This trial addresses a number of gaps in the published literature assessing training interventions for people with hearing loss, and in the general literature surrounding working memory training, such as the inclusion of an active control group, participant and tester blinding, and increased transparency in reporting. Trial registration

  7. Equine Disease Surveillance: Quarterly Summary.

    PubMed

    2016-01-23

    West Nile virus in Europe and the USA. Evidence that the spread of vesicular stomatitis in the USA is beginning to slow. Summary of UK surveillance testing, July to September 2015 These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:26795859

  8. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Gonorrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... and 44.1% among women. Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project Antimicrobial resistance remains an important consideration in the ... 4–9 In 1986, the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP), a national sentinel surveillance system, was established ...

  9. Managed Activity Graded Exercise iN Teenagers and pre-Adolescents (MAGENTA) feasibility randomised controlled trial: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brigden, Amberly; Beasant, Lucy; Hollingworth, William; Metcalfe, Chris; Gaunt, Daisy; Mills, Nicola; Jago, Russell; Crawley, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a relatively common and disabling condition, yet there is a limited evidence base for treatment. There is good evidence that graded exercise therapy is moderately effective in adults with CFS/ME, but there is little evidence for the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, acceptability or best method of delivery for paediatric CFS/ME. This study aims to investigate the acceptability and feasibility of carrying out a multicentre randomised controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of graded exercise therapy compared with activity management for children/teenagers who are mildly or moderately affected with CFS/ME. Methods and analysis 100 paediatric patients (8–17 years) with CFS/ME will be recruited from 3 specialist UK National Health Service (NHS) CFS/ME services (Bath, Cambridge and Newcastle). Patients will be randomised (1:1) to receive either graded exercise therapy or activity management. Feasibility analysis will include the number of young people eligible, approached and consented to the trial; attrition rate and treatment adherence; questionnaire and accelerometer completion rates. Integrated qualitative methods will ascertain perceptions of feasibility and acceptability of recruitment, randomisation and the interventions. All adverse events will be monitored to assess the safety of the trial. Ethics and dissemination The trial has received ethical approval from the National Research Ethics Service (South West—Frenchay 15/SW/0124). Trial registration number ISRCTN23962803; Pre-results. PMID:27377634

  10. Investigating Within-day and Longitudinal Effects of Maternal Stress on Children's Physical Activity, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition: Protocol for the MATCH Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunton, Genevieve F.; Liao, Yue; Dzubur, Eldin; Leventhal, Adam; Huh, Jimi; Gruenewald, Tara; Margolin, Gayla; Koprowski, Carol; Tate, Eleanor; Intille, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Parental stress is an understudied factor that may compromise parenting practices related to children's dietary intake, physical activity, and obesity. However, studies examining these associations have been subject to methodological limitations, including cross-sectional designs, retrospective measures, a lack of stress biomarkers, and the tendency to overlook momentary etiologic processes occurring within each day. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the MATCH (Mothers And Their Children's Health) study, a longitudinal investigation using novel real-time data capture strategies to examine within-day associations of maternal stress with children's physical activity and dietary intake, and how these effects contribute to children's obesity risk. In the MATCH study, 200 mothers and their 8 to 12 year-old children are participating in 6 semi-annual assessment waves across 3 years. At each wave, measures for mother-child dyads include: (a) real-time Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of self-reported daily psychosocial stressors (e.g., work at a job, family demands), feeling stressed, perceived stress, parenting practices, dietary intake, and physical activity with time and location stamps; (b) diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, accelerometer-monitored physical activity, and 24-hour dietary recalls; (c) retrospective questionnaires of sociodemographic, cultural, family, and neighborhood covariates; and (d) height, weight, and waist circumference. Putative within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's dietary intake, physical activity, and body composition will be tested through multilevel modeling and latent growth curve models, respectively. The results will inform interventions that help mothers reduce the negative effects of stress on weight-related parenting practices and children's obesity risk. PMID:25987483

  11. The surveillance error grid.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris

    2014-07-01

    Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to

  12. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-02

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient's side.

  13. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient's side. PMID:26729130

  14. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient’s side. PMID:26729130

  15. [Influence of a program of physical activity in children and obese adolescents with sleep apnea; study protocol].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cordero, M J; Sánchez López, A M; Mur Villar, N; Sánchez Marenco, A; Guisado Barrilao, R

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies show an alarming increase in the rate of overweight / obesity among the infant - juvenile population. Obesity in childhood is associated with a significant number of complications, such as sleep apnea syndrome, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. It is estimated that the prevalence of sleep apnea in children is 2-3% in the general population, while in obese adolescents, varies between 13% and 66%, according to various studies. It is associated with impairment of neurocognitive function, behavior, cardiovascular system, metabolic disorders and growth. Sleep apnea is a serious public health problem that increases when children and adolescents are overweight or obese. We hypothesize that aerobic endurance exercise can be an effective treatment for obesity and apnea at the same time. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of physical activity in children and adolescents with overweight / obesity in sleep apnea. An observational, descriptive, prospective, longitudinal study will be carried out in children with sleep apnea and obesity. The universe will be made up of 60 children and adolescents aged between 10 and 18 years, attending the endocrinology service for suffering of obesity in the Hospital Clinico San Cecilio of Granada during the period September 2012-September 2013. The smple will consist of children and adolescents that meet these characteristics and to whom their parents/tutors have authorized through the informed consent. Sleep apnea in children wil be measured by polysomnography and sleep quality questionnaire. There will also be a nutritional assessment by a food frequency questionnaire and an anthropometric assessment. Among the expected results are the lower overweight and obesity in children through the physical activity program. To reduce apnea and to improve sleep quality.

  16. Effectiveness of various irrigation activation protocols and the self-adjusting file system on smear layer and debris removal.

    PubMed

    Çapar, İsmail Davut; Aydinbelge, Hale Ari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate smear layer generation and residual debris after using self-adjusting file (SAF) or rotary instrumentation and to compare the debris and smear layer removal efficacy of the SAF cleaning/shaping irrigation system against final agitation techniques. One hundred and eight maxillary lateral incisor teeth were randomly divided into nine experimental groups (n = 12), and root canals were prepared using ProTaper Universal rotary files, with the exception of the SAF instrumentation group. During instrumentation, root canals were irrigated with a total of 16 mL of 5% NaOCl. For final irrigation, rotary-instrumented groups were irrigated with 10 mL of 17% EDTA and 10 mL of 5% NaOCl using different irrigation agitation regimens (syringe irrigation with needles, NaviTip FX, manual dynamic irrigation, CanalBrush, EndoActivator, EndoVac, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and SAF irrigation). In the SAF instrumentation group, root canals were instrumented for 4 min at a rate of 4 mL/min with 5% NaOCl and received a final flush with same as syringe irrigation with needles. The surface of the root dentin was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The SAF instrumentation group generated less smear layer and yielded cleaner canals compared to rotary instrumentation. The EndoActivator, EndoVac, PUI, and SAF irrigation groups increased the efficacy of irrigating solutions on the smear layer and debris removal. The SAF instrumentation yielded cleaner canal walls when compared to rotary instrumentation. None of the techniques completely removed the smear layer from the root canal walls.

  17. Video surveillance at night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Mark R.; Pollak, Joshua B.; Ralph, Scott; Snorrason, Magnus S.

    2005-05-01

    The interpretation of video imagery is the quintessential goal of computer vision. The ability to group moving pixels into regions and then associate those regions with semantic labels has long been studied by the vision community. In urban nighttime scenarios, the difficulty of this task is simultaneously alleviated and compounded. At night there is typically less movement in the scene, which makes the detection of relevant motion easier. However, the poor quality of the imagery makes it more difficult to interpret actions from these motions. In this paper, we present a system capable of detecting moving objects in outdoor nighttime video. We focus on visible-and-near-infrared (VNIR) cameras, since they offer low cost and very high resolution compared to alternatives such as thermal infrared. We present empirical results demonstrating system performance on a parking lot surveillance scenario. We also compare our results to a thermal infrared sensor viewing the same scene.

  18. Restoration of blood pH between repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise: effects of various active-recovery protocols.

    PubMed

    Del Coso, Juan; Hamouti, Nassim; Aguado-Jimenez, Roberto; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2010-02-01

    To determine which active-recovery protocol would reduce faster the high blood H(+) and lactate concentrations produced by repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise (HIE). On three occasions, 11 moderately trained males performed 4 bouts (1.5 min) at 163% of their respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) interspersed with active-recovery: (1) 4.5 min pedalling at 24% RCT (S(HORT)); (2) 6 min at 18% RCT (M(EDIUM)); (3) 9 min at 12% RCT (L(ONG)). The total work completed during recovery was the same in all three trials. Respiratory gases and arterialized-blood samples were obtained during exercise. At the end of exercise, L(ONG) in comparison to S(HORT) and M(EDIUM) increased plasma pH (7.32 +/- 0.02 vs. approximately 7.22 +/- 0.03; P < 0.05), while reduced lactate concentration (8.5 +/- 0.9 vs. approximately 10.9 +/- 0.8 mM; P < 0.05). Ventilatory equivalent for CO(2) was higher in L(ONG) than S(HORT) and M(EDIUM) (31.4 +/- 0.5 vs. approximately 29.6 +/- 0.5; P < 0.05). Low-intensity prolonged recovery between repeated bouts of HIE maximized H(+) and lactate removal likely by enhancing CO(2) unloading.

  19. Drug approval and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance.

  20. Global Post-Authorization Safety Surveillance Study: real-world data on prophylaxis and on-demand treatment using FEIBA (an activated prothrombin complex concentrate)

    PubMed Central

    Negrier, Claude; Voisin, Sophie; Baghaei, Fariba; Numerof, Robert; Novack, Aaron; Doralt, Jennifer E.; Romanov, Vadim; Gringeri, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This prospective, Post-Authorization Safety Surveillance (PASS) study was carried out in patients with hemophilia A or B and inhibitors treated with FEIBA for 1 year to collect real-world data on safety and effectiveness of FEIBA. The study followed a cohort design and did not make stipulations on treatment or observation schedule, as it was designed to observe routine medical practices based on physicians’ treatment decisions, including whether patients received on-demand or prophylaxis with FEIBA. The attending physician maintained documentation, including medical records, laboratory reports, adverse event reports, and so on and a subject diary was used. Eighty-one patients were treated with FEIBA at 40 sites in 10 countries over a 4-year period. Sixty-nine patients (85.2%) had hemophilia A, two had (2.5%) hemophilia B, and ten (12.3%) had acquired hemophilia A. At baseline 45 patients (55.6%) were prescribed prophylaxis and 36 (44.6%) on-demand treatment. This study was novel in following safety and effectiveness in ‘real world’ on-demand and prophylactic use of FEIBA, and was able to collect data in these rare patients under routine clinical practice. PMID:26829366

  1. 2006 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2008 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2006 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2007 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2006 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2006 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2006 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2010 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2010 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2010 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2010 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2008 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2008 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2009 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-08-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2010 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2007 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2007 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2008 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2009 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2010 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2009 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2009 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2007 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-02-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2008 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2007 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2007 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2007 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2008 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Transrectal Ultrasonography Fusion Prostate Biopsy Significantly Outperforms Systematic 12–Core Biopsy for Prediction of Total Magnetic Resonance Imaging Tumor Volume in Active Surveillance Patients

    PubMed Central

    Okoro, Chinonyerem; George, Arvin K.; Siddiqui, M. Minhaj; Rais–Bahrami, Soroush; Walton–Diaz, Annerleim; Shakir, Nabeel A.; Rothwax, Jason T.; Raskolnikov, Dima; Stamatakis, Lambros; Su, Daniel; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L.; Merino, Maria J.; Parnes, Howard L.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To correlate the highest percentage core involvement (HPCI) and corresponding tumor length (CTL) on systematic 12-core biopsy (SBx) and targeted magnetic resonance imaging/transrectal ultrasonography (MRI/TRUS) fusion biopsy (TBx), with total MRI prostate cancer (PCa) tumor volume (TV). Patients and Methods: Fifty patients meeting criteria for active surveillance (AS) based on outside SBx, who underwent 3.0T multiparametric prostate MRI (MP–MRI), followed by SBx and TBx during the same session at our institution were examined. PCa TVs were calculated using MP-MRI and then correlated using bivariate analysis with the HPCI and CTL for SBx and TBx. Results: For TBx, HPCI and CTL showed a positive correlation (R2=0.31, P<0.0001 and R2=0.37, P<0.0001, respectively) with total MRI PCa TV, whereas for SBx, these parameters showed a poor correlation (R2=0.00006, P=0.96 and R2=0.0004, P=0.89, respectively). For detection of patients with clinically significant MRI derived tumor burden greater than 500 mm3, SBx was 25% sensitive, 90.9% specific (falsely elevated because of missed tumors and extremely low sensitivity), and 54% accurate in comparison with TBx, which was 53.6% sensitive, 86.4% specific, and 68% accurate. Conclusions: HPCI and CTL on TBx positively correlates with total MRI PCa TV, whereas there was no correlation seen with SBx. TBx is superior to SBx for detecting tumor burden greater than 500 mm3. When using biopsy positive MRI derived TVs, TBx better reflects overall disease burden, improving risk stratification among candidates for active surveillance. PMID:25897467

  14. A kinematic comparison of alterations to knee and ankle angles from resting measures to active pedaling during a graded exercise protocol.

    PubMed

    Peveler, Willard W; Shew, Brandy; Johnson, Samantha; Palmer, Thomas G

    2012-11-01

    Saddle height is one of the most researched areas of bike fit. The current accepted method for adjusting saddle height involves the use of a goniometer to adjust saddle height so that a knee angle between 25° and 35° is obtained. This measurement is taken while the cyclist maintains a static position with the pedal at the 6-o'-clock position. However, the act of pedaling is dynamic, and angles may alter during movement. The purpose of this study was to examine the alterations to knee and ankle angle occurring from static measures to active pedaling across intensities experienced by cyclists during a graded exercise protocol. Thirty-four recreational to highly trained cyclists were evaluated using 2D analysis of stationary position and 3 active levels (level 1, respiratory exchange ratio of 1.00, and max). Dependent measures were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (p = 0.05). When examining the results, it is evident that significant alterations to pedal stroke occur from stationary measures to active pedaling and as intensity increases toward maximal. Plantar flexion increased when moving from stationary measures to active pedaling, which resulted in an increase in knee angle. Although still greater than stationary measures, less plantar flexion occurred at higher intensities when compared with lower intensity cycling. Less plantar flexion at higher intensities is most likely a result of application of a larger downward torque occurring because of greater power requirements at higher intensities. There appeared to be greater variability in angle when examining novice cyclists in relation to more experienced cyclists. Although stationary measures are where a bike fit session will begin, observation during the pedal cycle may be needed to fine-tune the riders' fit.

  15. Study protocol: a multi-professional team intervention of physical activity referrals in primary care patients with cardiovascular risk factors—the Dalby lifestyle intervention cohort (DALICO) study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present study protocol describes the trial design of a primary care intervention cohort study, which examines whether an extended, multi-professional physical activity referral (PAR) intervention is more effective in enhancing and maintaining self-reported physical activity than physical activity prescription in usual care. The study targets patients with newly diagnosed hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes. Secondary outcomes include: need of pharmacological therapy; blood pressure/plasma glucose; physical fitness and anthropometric variables; mental health; health related quality of life; and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design The study is designed as a long-term intervention. Three primary care centres are involved in the study, each constituting one of three treatment groups: 1) Intervention group (IG): multi-professional team intervention with PAR, 2) Control group A (CA): physical activity prescription in usual care and 3) Control group B: treatment as usual (retrospective data collection). The intervention is based on self-determination theory and follows the principles of motivational interviewing. The primary outcome, physical activity, is measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-minutes per week. Physical fitness is estimated with the 6-minute walk test in IG only. Variables such as health behaviours; health-related quality of life; motivation to change; mental health; demographics and socioeconomic characteristics are assessed with an electronic study questionnaire that submits all data to a patient database, which automatically provides feed-back to the health-care providers on the patients’ health status. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention is evaluated continuously and the intermediate outcomes of the intervention are extrapolated by economic modelling. Discussions By helping patients to overcome practical, social and cultural obstacles and increase