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Sample records for active surveillance protocol

  1. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized.

  2. A Simulation-Based Evaluation of Premovement Active Surveillance Protocol Options for the Managed Movement of Turkeys to Slaughter During an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the United States.

    PubMed

    Todd Weaver, J; Malladi, Sasidhar; Bonney, Peter J; Patyk, Kelly A; Bergeron, Justin G; Middleton, Jamie L; Alexander, Catherine Y; Goldsmith, Timothy J; Halvorson, David A

    2016-05-01

    Risk management decisions associated with live poultry movement during a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak should be carefully considered. Live turkey movements may pose a risk for disease spread. On the other hand, interruptions in scheduled movements can disrupt business continuity. The Secure Turkey Supply (STS) Plan was developed through an industry-government-academic collaboration to address business continuity concerns that might arise during a HPAI outbreak. STS stakeholders proposed outbreak response measure options that were evaluated through risk assessment. The developed approach relies on 1) diagnostic testing of two pooled samples of swabs taken from dead turkeys immediately before movement via the influenza A matrix gene real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) test; 2) enhanced biosecurity measures in combination with a premovement isolation period (PMIP), restricting movement onto the premises for a few days before movement to slaughter; and 3) incorporation of a distance factor from known infected flocks such that exposure via local area spread is unlikely. Daily exposure likelihood estimates from spatial kernels from past HPAI outbreaks were coupled with simulation models of disease spread and active surveillance to evaluate active surveillance protocol options that differ with respect to the number of swabs per pooled sample and the timing of the tests in relation to movement. Simulation model results indicate that active surveillance testing, in combination with strict biosecurity, substantially increased HPAI virus detection probability. When distance from a known infected flock was considered, the overall combined likelihood of moving an infected, undetected turkey flock to slaughter was predicted to be lower at 3 and 5 km. The analysis of different active surveillance protocol options is designed to incorporate flexibility into HPAI emergency response plans.

  3. Air Pollution Determination Using a Surveillance Internet Protocol Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow Jeng, C. J.; Hwee San, Hslim; Matjafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, Abdul, K.

    Air pollution has long been a problem in the industrial nations of the West It has now become an increasing source of environmental degradation in the developing nations of east Asia Malaysia government has built a network to monitor air pollution But the cost of these networks is high and limits the knowledge of pollutant concentration to specific points of the cities A methodology based on a surveillance internet protocol IP camera for the determination air pollution concentrations was presented in this study The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of using IP camera data for estimating real time particulate matter of size less than 10 micron PM10 in the campus of USM The proposed PM10 retrieval algorithm derived from the atmospheric optical properties was employed in the present study In situ data sets of PM10 measurements and sun radiation measurements at the ground surface were collected simultaneously with the IP camera images using a DustTrak meter and a handheld spectroradiometer respectively The digital images were separated into three bands namely red green and blue bands for multispectral algorithm calibration The digital number DN of the IP camera images were converted into radiance and reflectance values After that the reflectance recorded by the digital camera was subtracted by the reflectance of the known surface and we obtained the reflectance caused by the atmospheric components The atmospheric reflectance values were used for regression analysis Regression technique was employed to determine suitable

  4. The Spanish Protocol for radiological surveillance of metal recycling: a collaboration of government and industry.

    PubMed

    Cadierno, Juan Pedro García; Renedo, J I Serrano; Lopez, E Gil

    2006-11-01

    The presence of radioactive materials in scrap metal has been detected relatively often in recent years. As a result of an accidental melting of a 137Cs source in a Spanish steel mill (Acerinox) in 1998, the national authorities, the involved private companies, and the main trade unions drafted a protocol for prevention of and responding to such events ("Spanish Protocol"). The Protocol was signed in 1999. The number of subscribing companies is 90. The Protocol is a voluntary agreement defining the radiological surveillance of scrap metal and its products and the duties and rights of the signatories. From the effective date of the Protocol to December 2004, 461 pieces of ferric scrap were detected including sources of radiation and contaminated metal. Four melting incidents have happened in different companies.

  5. A Protocol for the Secure Linking of Registries for HPV Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    El Emam, Khaled; Samet, Saeed; Hu, Jun; Peyton, Liam; Earle, Craig; Jayaraman, Gayatri C.; Wong, Tom; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Dankar, Fida; Essex, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In order to monitor the effectiveness of HPV vaccination in Canada the linkage of multiple data registries may be required. These registries may not always be managed by the same organization and, furthermore, privacy legislation or practices may restrict any data linkages of records that can actually be done among registries. The objective of this study was to develop a secure protocol for linking data from different registries and to allow on-going monitoring of HPV vaccine effectiveness. Methods A secure linking protocol, using commutative hash functions and secure multi-party computation techniques was developed. This protocol allows for the exact matching of records among registries and the computation of statistics on the linked data while meeting five practical requirements to ensure patient confidentiality and privacy. The statistics considered were: odds ratio and its confidence interval, chi-square test, and relative risk and its confidence interval. Additional statistics on contingency tables, such as other measures of association, can be added using the same principles presented. The computation time performance of this protocol was evaluated. Results The protocol has acceptable computation time and scales linearly with the size of the data set and the size of the contingency table. The worse case computation time for up to 100,000 patients returned by each query and a 16 cell contingency table is less than 4 hours for basic statistics, and the best case is under 3 hours. Discussion A computationally practical protocol for the secure linking of data from multiple registries has been demonstrated in the context of HPV vaccine initiative impact assessment. The basic protocol can be generalized to the surveillance of other conditions, diseases, or vaccination programs. PMID:22768321

  6. Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer: Contemporary State of Practice

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Lepor, Abbey; Loeb, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains among the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide. Early diagnosis and curative treatment appear to improve survival in men with unfavorable-risk cancers, but significant concerns exist regarding the overdiagnosis and overtreatment of men with lower-risk cancers. To this end, active surveillance (AS) has emerged as a primary management strategy in men with favorable-risk disease, and contemporary data suggest that use of AS has increased worldwide. Although published surveillance cohorts differ by protocol, reported rates of metastatic disease and prostate cancer-specific mortality are exceedingly low in the intermediate term (5–10 years). Such outcomes appear to be closely associated with program-specific criteria for selection, monitoring, and intervention, suggesting that AS – like other management strategies – could be individualized based on the level of risk acceptable to patients in light of personal preferences. Additional data are needed to better establish the risks associated with AS and to identify patient-specific characteristics that could modify prognosis. PMID:26954332

  7. [Decrease of urinary tract infections following catheterization after the education of health care workers, introduction of protocols and surveillance lists].

    PubMed

    Paradzik, Maja Tomić; Levojević, Bozana; Gabrić, Antonija

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) following catheterization are the most common hospital-acquired infections, with their frequency amounting to 30-40% of all hospital infections. Major percentage of this kind of infectious episodes can be prevented via active and continual education of health care workers (HCW), implementation of transparent protocols concerning installation and attendance of urinary catheters and regular control of catheterized patients through surveillance lists. This research shows the importance of a fore-mentioned activities, demonstrating a significant decrease of UTI following catheterization at the Department of Urology in Slavonski Brod General Hospital during two periods. After the aforementioned procedures were conducted, a statistically significant discrepancy in the decrease of the UTI incidence following catheterization was identified, from 20.4% to 11.7%, i.e. chi2 = 17.5; p < 0.01, and accordingly, significant decrease of the number of hospital bed-days, i.e. chi2 = 16.62; p < 0.0, while total consumption of antibiotics at the Department was not reduced, despite the decrease in the number of UTI. The most common uropathogens, with no significant difference in both periods, were E. coli (29.7%), Enterococcus spp (20%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.8%). Strict implementation and close surveillance of the recommended preventive measures are an important factor in reducing the number of hospital infections.

  8. Long Term Activity Analysis in Surveillance Video Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ming-yu

    2010-01-01

    Surveillance video recording is becoming ubiquitous in daily life for public areas such as supermarkets, banks, and airports. The rate at which surveillance video is being generated has accelerated demand for machine understanding to enable better content-based search capabilities. Analyzing human activity is one of the key tasks to understand and…

  9. Comparison between active and passive surveillance within the network of epidemiological surveillance of animal diseases in Chad.

    PubMed

    Ouagal, Mahamat; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, Dirk

    2010-11-01

    A comparative study between passive and active surveillance based on herd visits (villages) was conducted over a period of 24 months. It included 106 surveillance stations of the animal disease epidemiological surveillance network in Chad distributed randomly into 52 stations of active surveillance and 54 stations of passive surveillance. Nine diseases of various vaccination and expected prevalence status were monitored. The active surveillance stations carried out four herd visits monthly to look for the diseases under surveillance and organised four farmers awareness-raising meetings to stimulate them to make disease notifications. The passive surveillance stations held each month four farmer awareness-raising meetings. The suspicions recorded by the stations were consigned to a suspicion form specific to each disease, indicating whether a call from the farmer, a visit to the herd or a awareness-raising meeting was the source. The results showed that, irrespective of surveillance type, all diseases under surveillance, except the rare diseases (Rinderpest and Rift Valley Fever) were reported by the surveillance agents. However, suspicions recorded following farmer calls are significantly more important than suspicions carried out during herd visits or meetings. Nevertheless, a considerable number of suspicions is recorded during awareness-raising meetings. Finally approximately 83% of the herd visits realised by the active surveillance stations showed negative results (no suspicion identified). Passive surveillance stimulated by awareness-raising meetings appears to be better adapted to Chads conditions and less expensive for the surveillance of existing diseases. However, for the rare diseases, other methods of specific active surveillance (such as for example sentinel herds) remain important to complete passive surveillance.

  10. Expectant Management (Watchful Waiting) and Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prostate Cancer Watchful Waiting or Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer Because prostate cancer often grows very slowly, some ... Away or Comes Back After Treatment More In Prostate Cancer About Prostate Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  11. Comparison of active and passive surveillance for cerebrovascular disease: The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project.

    PubMed

    Piriyawat, Paisith; Smajsová, Miriam; Smith, Melinda A; Pallegar, Sanjay; Al-Wabil, Areej; Garcia, Nelda M; Risser, Jan M; Moyé, Lemuel A; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2002-12-01

    To provide a scientific rationale for choosing an optimal stroke surveillance method, the authors compared active surveillance with passive surveillance. The methods involved ascertaining cerebrovascular events that occurred in Nueces County, Texas, during calendar year 2000. Active methods utilized screening of hospital and emergency department logs and routine visiting of hospital wards and out-of-hospital sources. Passive means relied on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), discharge codes for case ascertainment. Cases were validated by fellowship-trained stroke neurologists on the basis of published criteria. The results showed that, of the 6,236 events identified through both active and passive surveillance, 802 were validated to be cerebrovascular events. When passive surveillance alone was used, 209 (26.1%) cases were missed, including 73 (9.1%) cases involving hospital admission and 136 (17.0%) out-of-hospital strokes. Through active surveillance alone, 57 (7.1%) cases were missed. The positive predictive value of active surveillance was 12.2%. Among the 2,099 patients admitted to a hospital, passive surveillance using ICD-9 codes missed 73 cases of cerebrovascular disease and mistakenly included 222 noncases. There were 57 admitted hospital cases missed by active surveillance, including 13 not recognized because of human error. This study provided a quantitative means of assessing the utility of active and passive surveillance for cerebrovascular disease. More uniform surveillance methods would allow comparisons across studies and communities.

  12. Prostate Active Surveillance Study — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Primary Objective: To discover and confirm biomarkers that predict aggressive disease as defined by pre-specified histological, PSA, clinical criteria, or outcomes based on these variables. Secondary Objectives: To determine the proportion of patients on active surveillance who progress based on the above criteria. To determine the clinical predictors of disease progression. To measure the recurrence-free, disease-specific, and overall survival of men on active surveillance for clinically localized prostate cancer.

  13. How integrating 3D LiDAR data in the dike surveillance protocol: The French case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretar, F.; Mériaux, P.; Fauchard, C.

    2012-04-01

    The recent and dramatic floods of the last years in Europe (e.g. Rhône river major flood, December 2003, Windstorm Xynthia, February 2010, in France) and in the United-States (Hurricane Katrina, August 2005) showed the vulnerability of flood or coastal defence systems. The first key point for avoiding these dramatic damages and the high cost of a failure and its consequences lies in the appropriate conception and construction of the dikes, but above all in the relevance of the surveillance protocol. Many factors introduce weaknesses in the fluvial or maritime dikes. Most of them are old embankment structures. For instance, some of the French Loire River dikes were built several centuries ago. They may have been rebuilt, modified, heightened several times, with some materials that do not necessarily match the original conception of the structure. In other respects, tree roots or animal burrows could modify the structure of the dike and reduce the watertightness or mechanical properties. The French government has built a national database, "BarDigues", since 1999 to inventory and characterize dikes. Today, there are approx. 9000 km of dikes protecting 1.5 to 2 millions of people. In the meantime, a GIS application, called « Dike SIRS » [Maurel P., 2004] , provides an operational and accurate tool to several great stakeholders in charge of managing more than 100 km of dikes. Today, the dike surveillance and diagnosis protocol consists in identifying the weaknesses of the structure and providing the degree of safety by making a preliminary study (historical research, geological and morphodynamic study, topography), geophysical study (e.g. electromagnetic methods and electrical resistivity tomography) and at last geotechnical study (e.g. drillings and stability modelling) at the very local scale when necessary [Mériaux P. & Royet P, 2007] . Considering the stretch of hundreds of kilometres, rapid, cost-effective and reliable techniques for surveying the dike must be

  14. Existing Models of Maternal Death Surveillance Systems: Protocol for a Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Shahabuddin, ASM; Zhang, Wei Hong; Firoz, Tabassum; Englert, Yvon; Nejjari, Chakib; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality measurement remains a critical challenge, particularly in low and middle income countries (LMICs) where little or no data are available and maternal mortality and morbidity are often the highest in the world. Despite the progress made in data collection, underreporting and translating the results into action are two major challenges that maternal death surveillance systems (MDSSs) face in LMICs. Objective This paper presents a protocol for a scoping review aimed at synthesizing the existing models of MDSSs and factors that influence their completeness and usefulness. Methods The methodology for scoping reviews from the Joanna Briggs Institute was used as a guide for developing this protocol. A comprehensive literature search will be conducted across relevant electronic databases. We will include all articles that describe MDSSs or assess their completeness or usefulness. At least two reviewers will independently screen all articles, and discrepancies will be resolved through discussion. The same process will be used to extract data from studies fulfilling the eligibility criteria. Data analysis will involve quantitative and qualitative methods. Results Currently, the abstracts screening is under way and the first results are expected to be publicly available by mid-2017. The synthesis of the reviewed materials will be presented in tabular form completed by a narrative description. The results will be classified in main conceptual categories that will be obtained during the results extraction. Conclusions We anticipate that the results will provide a broad overview of MDSSs and describe factors related to their completeness and usefulness. The results will allow us to identify research gaps concerning the barriers and facilitating factors facing MDSSs. Results will be disseminated through publication in a peer-reviewed journal and conferences as well as domestic and international agencies in charge of implementing MDSS. PMID:27729305

  15. A comparison of active adverse event surveillance systems worldwide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Lin; Moon, Jinhee; Segal, Jodi B

    2014-08-01

    Post-marketing drug surveillance for adverse drug events (ADEs) has typically relied on spontaneous reporting. Recently, regulatory agencies have turned their attention to more preemptive approaches that use existing data for surveillance. We conducted an environmental scan to identify active surveillance systems worldwide that use existing data for the detection of ADEs. We extracted data about the systems' structures, data, and functions. We synthesized the information across systems to identify common features of these systems. We identified nine active surveillance systems. Two systems are US based-the FDA Sentinel Initiative (including both the Mini-Sentinel Initiative and the Federal Partner Collaboration) and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD); two are Canadian-the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies (CNODES) and the Vaccine and Immunization Surveillance in Ontario (VISION); and two are European-the Exploring and Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions by Integrative Mining of Clinical Records and Biomedical Knowledge (EU-ADR) Alliance and the Vaccine Adverse Event Surveillance and Communication (VAESCO). Additionally, there is the Asian Pharmacoepidemiology Network (AsPEN) and the Shanghai Drug Monitoring and Evaluative System (SDMES). We identified two systems in the UK-the Vigilance and Risk Management of Medicines (VRMM) Division and the Drug Safety Research Unit (DSRU), an independent academic unit. These surveillance systems mostly use administrative claims or electronic medical records; most conduct pharmacovigilance on behalf of a regulatory agency. Either a common data model or a centralized model is used to access existing data. The systems have been built using national data alone or via partnership with other countries. However, active surveillance systems using existing data remain rare. North America and Europe have the most population coverage; with Asian countries making good advances.

  16. Public health surveillance of automated external defibrillators in the USA: protocol for the dynamic automated external defibrillator registry study

    PubMed Central

    Elrod, JoAnn Broeckel; Merchant, Raina; Daya, Mohamud; Youngquist, Scott; Salcido, David; Valenzuela, Terence; Nichol, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Lay use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) before the arrival of emergency medical services (EMS) providers on scene increases survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). AEDs have been placed in public locations may be not ready for use when needed. We describe a protocol for AED surveillance that tracks these devices through time and space to improve public health, and survival as well as facilitate research. Methods and analysis Included AEDs are installed in public locations for use by laypersons to treat patients with OHCA before the arrival of EMS providers on scene. Included cases of OHCA are patients evaluated by organised EMS personnel and treated for OHCA. Enrolment of 10 000 AEDs annually will yield precision of 0.4% in the estimate of readiness for use. Enrolment of 2500 patients annually will yield precision of 1.9% in the estimate of survival to hospital discharge. Recruitment began on 21 Mar 2014 and is ongoing. AEDs are found by using multiple methods. Each AED is then tagged with a label which is a unique two-dimensional (2D) matrix code; the 2D matrix code is recorded and the location and status of the AED tracked using a smartphone; these elements are automatically passed via the internet to a secure and confidential database in real time. Whenever the 2D matrix code is rescanned for any non-clinical or clinical use of an AED, the user is queried to answer a finite set of questions about the device status. The primary outcome of any clinical use of an AED is survival to hospital discharge. Results are summarised descriptively. Ethics and dissemination These activities are conducted under a grant of authority for public health surveillance from the Food and Drug Administration. Results are provided periodically to participating sites and sponsors to improve public health and quality of care. PMID:28360255

  17. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  18. Active surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae using stool specimens submitted for testing for Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Banach, David B; Francois, Jeannette; Blash, Stephanie; Patel, Gopi; Jenkins, Stephen G; LaBombardi, Vincent; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Srinivasan, Arjun; Calfee, David P

    2014-01-01

    Active surveillance to identify asymptomatic carriers of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a recommended strategy for CRE control in healthcare facilities. Active surveillance using stool specimens tested for Clostridium difficile is a relatively low-cost strategy to detect CRE carriers. Further evaluation of this and other risk factor-based active surveillance strategies is warranted.

  19. A Detailed Protocol to Enable Safe-Handling, Preemptive Detection, and Systematic Surveillance of Rat-Vectored Pathogens in the Urban Environment

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Michael H.; Sarno, Ronald J.; Deutsch, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    We detail a five-stage protocol to address physical barriers and experimental limitations that have hindered routine pathogen monitoring of wild rats in urban settings. New York City potentially harbors from 2 to 32 million rats among its 8-million people. However, at a time, when people are most vulnerable to disease from over-crowdedness brought on by increased urbanization of society, the difficulty of studying wild rats has led to a paucity of ecological and epidemiological research. Challenges of safely handling animals and the difficulties of identifying individual animals and the emergence of their respective pathogen loads (timing of infection) have impeded progress. We previously reported a method using radio frequency identification paired with load cell and camera traps to enable the identification of individual animals and subsequent monitoring of the animals’ weights (an indicator of health). However, efficient pathogen surveillance requires repeated captures of the same individual in order to isolate and document the emergence of new pathogens, or variations in pathogen load, over time. Most of these barriers are now addressed in our protocol, which is aided by the use of a mobile, outdoor laboratory, followed by incorporation of pheromone-based lures to attract individuals back to active sensors, within a camera trap. This approach allows for the assessment of individual animal health, behaviors under camera, and changing pathogen loads and weights in most urban environments (e.g., financial district, docks, sewers, and residential). Five phases are described and presented: (1) site selection and urban trapping, (2) anesthetization, (3) serological and ectoparasite collection, (4) microchip implantation, and (5) retrapping and luring animals back to active remote sensors. In order to fulfill the unmet call for preemptive pathogen surveillance, public health officials and researchers may wish to adapt, or modify, similar protocols to ensure early

  20. Online Nonparametric Bayesian Activity Mining and Analysis From Surveillance Video.

    PubMed

    Bastani, Vahid; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo S

    2016-05-01

    A method for online incremental mining of activity patterns from the surveillance video stream is presented in this paper. The framework consists of a learning block in which Dirichlet process mixture model is employed for the incremental clustering of trajectories. Stochastic trajectory pattern models are formed using the Gaussian process regression of the corresponding flow functions. Moreover, a sequential Monte Carlo method based on Rao-Blackwellized particle filter is proposed for tracking and online classification as well as the detection of abnormality during the observation of an object. Experimental results on real surveillance video data are provided to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in different tasks of trajectory clustering, classification, and abnormality detection.

  1. Surveillance report for active trachoma, 2006: National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit.

    PubMed

    Tellis, Betty; Keeffe, Jill E; Taylor, Hugh R

    2007-12-01

    The National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit (NTSRU) was established in November 2006 to improve the quality and consistency of data collection and reporting of active trachoma in Australia. Active trachoma data collected in 2006, prior to the commencement of the NTSRU, were reported by the Northern Territory, South Australia and Western Australia. In most regions, Aboriginal children aged 5-9 years were screened for signs of active trachoma, following the World Health Organization simplified trachoma grading system. In the Northern Territory the Healthy School Aged Kids program conducted school-based screening for active trachoma in 74 schools in five regions (n = 2,253). In South Australia Aboriginal school children presented for active trachoma screening when an eye team visited five Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (n = 275). In Western Australia population health units in collaboration with staff from population health care services, conducted school based screening for active trachoma in 53 schools in four regions (n = 1,719). Regional active trachoma prevalence for 2006 varied between the states and the Northern Territory with reported prevalences ranging from: Northern Territory = 2.5%-30%, South Australia = 0%-25%, and Western Australia = 18%-53%. Few data were reported on facial cleanliness or other aspects of the SAFE strategy, and no data were reported for trichiasis.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Polio from Environmental Samples: ISSP, The Israeli Sewage Surveillance Protocol.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Lester M; Manor, Yossi; Hindiyeh, Musa; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-01-01

    Polioviruses are enteric viruses that cause paralytic poliomyelitis in less than 0.5 % of infections and are asymptomatic in >90 % infections of naïve hosts. Environmental surveillance monitors polio in populations rather than in individuals. When this very low morbidity to infection ratio, drops drastically in highly vaccinated populations, environmental surveillance employing manual or automatic sampling coupled with molecular analysis carried out in well-equipped central laboratories becomes the surveillance method of choice since polioviruses are excreted by infected individuals regardless of whether or not the infection is symptomatic. This chapter describes a high throughput rapid turn-around time method for molecular characterization of polioviruses from sewage. It is presented in five modules: (1) Sewage collection and concentration of the viruses in the sewage; (2) Cell cultures for identification of virus in the concentrated sewage; (3) Nucleic acid extractions directly from sewage and from tissue cultures infected with aliquots of concentrated sewage; (4) Nucleic Acid Amplification for poliovirus serotype identification and intratypic differentiation (discriminating wild and vaccine derived polioviruses form vaccine strains); and (5) Molecular characterization of viral RNA by qRT-PCR, TR-PCR, and Sequence analysis. Monitoring silent or symptomatic transmission of vaccine-derived polioviruses or wild polioviruses is critical for the endgame of poliovirus eradication. We present methods for adapting standard kits and validating the changes for this purpose based on experience gained during the recent introduction and sustained transmission of a wild type 1 poliovirus in Israel in 2013 in a population with an initial IPV vaccine coverage >90 %.

  3. A National Surveillance Survey on Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors: Suriname Health Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Christel CF; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Hofman, Albert; Toelsie, Jerry R

    2015-01-01

    Background Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, the surveillance of risk factors has become an issue of major importance for planning and implementation of preventive measures. Unfortunately, in these countries data on NCDs and their risk factors are limited. This also prevails in Suriname, a middle-income country of the Caribbean, with a multiethnic/multicultural population living in diverse residential areas. For these reasons, “The Suriname Health Study” was designed. Objective The main objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of NCD risk factors, including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and diabetes in Suriname. Differences between specific age groups, sexes, ethnic groups, and geographical areas will be emphasized. In addition, risk groups will be identified and targeted actions will be designed and evaluated. Methods In this study, several methodologies were combined. A stratified multistage cluster sample was used to select the participants of 6 ethnic groups (Hindustani, Creole, Javanese, Maroon, Chinese, Amerindians, and mixed) divided into 5 age groups (between 15 and 65 years) who live in urban/rural areas or the hinterland. A standardized World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance questionnaire was adapted and used to obtain information about demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and risk factors. Physical examinations were performed to measure blood pressure, height, weight, and waist circumference. Biochemical analysis of collected blood samples evaluated the levels of glucose, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Statistical analysis will be used to identify the burden of modifiable and unmodifiable risk factors in the aforementioned subgroups. Subsequently, tailor-made interventions will be prepared and their effects will be evaluated. Results The data as collected allow for national inference and

  4. Role of serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in prostate cancer active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Larissa J; Janoski, Michele; Wachowicz, Keith; Yahya, Atiyah; Boychak, Oleksandr; Amanie, John; Pervez, Nadeem; Parliament, Matthew B; Pituskin, Edith; Fallone, B Gino; Usmani, Nawaid

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether addition of 3T multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to an active surveillance protocol could detect aggressive or progressive prostate cancer. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with low risk disease were enrolled on this active surveillance study, all of which had Gleason score 6 or less disease. All patients had clinical assessments, including digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, every 6 mo with annual 3T mpMRI scans with gadolinium contrast and minimum sextant prostate biopsies. The MRI images were anonymized of patient identifiers and clinical information and each scan underwent radiological review without the other results known. Descriptive statistics for demographics and follow-up as well as the sensitivity and specificity of mpMRI to identify prostate cancer and progressive disease were calculated. RESULTS: During follow-up (median 24.8 mo) 11 of 23 patients with low-risk prostate cancer had disease progression and were taken off study to receive definitive treatment. Disease progression was identified through upstaging of Gleason score on subsequent biopsies for all 11 patients with only 2 patients also having a PSA doubling time of less than 2 years. All 23 patients had biopsy confirmed prostate cancer but only 10 had a positive index of suspicion on mpMRI scans at baseline (43.5% sensitivity). Aggressive disease prediction from baseline mpMRI scans had satisfactory specificity (81.8%) but low sensitivity (58.3%). Twenty-two patients had serial mpMRI scans and evidence of disease progression was seen for 3 patients all of whom had upstaging of Gleason score on biopsy (30% specificity and 100% sensitivity). CONCLUSION: Addition of mpMRI imaging in active surveillance decision making may help in identifying aggressive disease amongst men with indolent prostate cancer earlier than traditional methods. PMID:27158428

  5. Community paediatric respiratory infection surveillance study protocol: a feasibility, prospective inception cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emma C; Ingle, Suzanne Marie; Muir, Peter; Beck, Charles; Finn, Adam; Leeming, John Peter; Cabral, Christie; Kesten, Joanna May; Hay, Alastair D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common reasons for primary care consultations and antibiotic prescribing. Locally relevant syndromic and microbiological surveillance information has the potential to improve the care of children with RTIs by normalising illness (parents) and reducing uncertainty (clinicians). Currently, most RTI studies are conducted at the point of healthcare service consultation, leaving the community burden, microbiology, symptom duration and proportion consulting largely unknown. This study seeks to establish the feasibility of (mainly online) participant recruitment and retention, and the acceptability/comparability of parent versus nurse-collected microbiological sampling, to inform the design of a future surveillance intervention study. Evidence regarding consultation rates and symptom duration is also sought. Methods and analysis A community-based, feasibility prospective inception cohort study, recruiting children aged ≥3 months and <16 years and their parents via general practitioner surgery invitation letter, aiming to collect data on 300 incident RTIs by July 2016. Following informed consent, parents provide baseline (demographic) data online, and respond to weekly emails to confirm the absence/presence of new RTI symptoms. Once symptomatic, parents provide daily data online (RTI symptoms, school/day-care attendance, time off work, health service use, medication), and a research nurse visits to collect clinical examination data and microbiological (nasal and saliva) swabs. Parents are invited to provide symptomatic (at nurse visit, but without nurse assistance) and asymptomatic (alone) swabs on recovery. A review of primary care medical notes will gather medical history, health service utilisation, referral and antibiotic prescribing rates. Feasibility will be assessed using recruitment and retention rates, data completeness; and acceptability by quantitative survey and qualitative interviews

  6. Confirmatory biopsy for the assessment of prostate cancer in men considering active surveillance: reference centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Cecilia; Cozzi, Gabriele; Kinsella, Janette; Bianchi, Roberto; Acher, Peter; Challacombe, Benjamin; Popert, Rick; Brown, Christian; George, Gincy; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Cahill, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate how accurate a 12-core transrectal biopsy derived low-risk prostate cancer diagnosis is for an active surveillance programme by comparing the histological outcome with that from confirmatory transperineal sector biopsy. Subjects and methods The cohort included 166 men diagnosed with low volume Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer on initial transrectal biopsy who also underwent a confirmatory biopsy. Both biopsy techniques were performed according to standard protocols and samples were taken for histopathology analysis. Subgroup analysis was performed according to disease severity at baseline to determine possible disease parameters of upgrading at confirmatory biopsy. Results After confirmatory biopsy, 34% demonstrated Gleason score upgrade, out of which 25% were Gleason score 3+4 and 8.5% primary Gleason pattern 4. Results remained consistent for the subgroup analysis and a weak positive association, but not statistically significant, between prostate specific antigen (PSA), age, and percentage of positive cores, and PCa upgrading at confirmatory biopsy was found. Conclusion In our single centre study, we found that one-third of patients had higher Gleason score at confirmatory biopsy. Furthermore 8.5% of these upgraders had a primary Gleason pattern 4. Our results together with previously published evidence highlight the need for the revision of current guidelines in prostate cancer diagnosis for the selection of men for active surveillance. PMID:27170833

  7. Active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bangma, Chris H; Bul, Meelan; van der Kwast, Theo H; Pickles, Tom; Korfage, Ida J; Hoeks, Caroline M; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Jenster, Guido; Kattan, Michael W; Bellardita, Lara; Carroll, Peter R; Denis, Louis J; Parker, Chris; Roobol, Monique J; Emberton, Mark; Klotz, Laurence H; Rannikko, Antti; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Lane, Janet A; Schröder, Fritz H; Semjonow, Axel; Trock, Bruce J; Valdagni, Riccardo

    2013-03-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is an important management strategy for men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The need for AS is increasing due to the awareness that many PCa are identified that show a low growth potential and therefore are likely to remain clinically asymptomatic during the lifetime of an individual. Currently there is no good method to prevent the overdiagnosis of indolent cancers upfront. During the last decade, several studies on AS around the world have made observations that feed the discussion on how to select and monitor these patients, how to proceed with the research to develop a better and more precise clinical definition of indolent cancers and how to manage men under AS clinically. Furthermore, patients' perspectives have become clearer, and quality of life studies give direction to the practical approach and care for patients and partners. This paper reflects the consensus on the state of the art and the future direction of AS, based on the Inside Track Conference "Active Surveillance for low risk prostate cancer" (Chairmen: C.H. Bangma, NL, and L. Klotz, CA; Co-Chairmen: L.J. Denis, BE, and C. Parker, UK; Scientific Coordinators: M. J. Roobol, NL, and E.W. Steyerberg, NL), organized by the European School of Oncology in collaboration with Europa Uomo in Rotterdam, the Netherlands in January 2012. Topics for discussion were the optimisation of patient selection based on indolent disease definition, the incorporation of therapeutic agents into AS programs, the optimisation of patient care, and the application of emerging technologies and biomarkers.

  8. Active surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome in Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed Central

    Thant, Kyaw-Zin; Oo, Win-Mar; Myint, Thein-Thein; Shwe, Than-Nu; Han, Aye-Maung; Aye, Khin-Mar; Aye, Kay-Thi; Moe, Kyaw; Thein, Soe; Robertson, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Rubella vaccine is not included in the immunization schedule in Myanmar. Although surveillance for outbreaks of measles and rubella is conducted nationwide, there is no routine surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Therefore, we organized a study to assess the burden of CRS. METHODS: From 1 December 2000 to 31 December 2002 active surveillance for CRS was conducted among children aged 0-17 months at 13 hospitals and 2 private clinics in Yangon, the capital city. Children with suspected CRS had a standard examination and a blood sample was obtained. All serum samples were tested for rubella-specific IgM; selected samples were tested for rubella-specific IgG and for rubella RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). FINDINGS: A total of 81 children aged 0-17 months were suspected of having CRS. Of these, 18 children had laboratory-confirmed CRS (7 were IgM positive; 7 were RT-PCR positive; and 10 were IgG positive at > 6 months of age). One additional child who tested positive by RT-PCR and whose mother had had rubella during pregnancy but who had a normal clinical examination was classified as having congenital rubella infection. During 2001-02 no rubella outbreaks were detected in Yangon Division. In the 31 urban townships of Yangon Division, the annual incidence was 0.1 laboratory-confirmed cases of CRS per 1000 live births. CONCLUSION: This is the first population-based study of CRS incidence from a developing country during a rubella-endemic period; the incidence of CRS is similar to endemic rates found in industrialized countries during the pre-vaccine era. Rubella-specific IgG tests proved practical for diagnosing CRS in children aged > 6 months. This is one of the first studies to report on the use of rubella-specific RT-PCR directly on serum samples; further studies are warranted to confirm the utility of this method as an additional means of diagnosing CRS. PMID:16501710

  9. Surveillance of Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Coleen A.; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the autism surveillance activities of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It considers why surveillance to track prevalence of autistic disorders is needed, how such surveillance is conducted, and the special challenges of autism surveillance. (DB)

  10. Designing normative messages about active surveillance for men with localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Robert J.; Kinsman, Gianna T.; Le, Yen-Chi L.; Swank, Paul; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McFall, Stephanie L.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Cantor, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is increasingly recognized as a reasonable option for men with low-risk, localized prostate cancer, yet few men who might benefit from conservative management receive it. We examined the acceptability of normative messages about AS as a management option for patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Men with a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer who were recruited through prostate cancer support organizations completed a web-based survey (N=331). They rated messages about AS for believability, accuracy, and importance for men to hear when making treatment decisions. The message “you don’t have to panic…you have time to think about your options” was perceived as believable, accurate, and important by over 80% of the survivors. In contrast, messages about trust in the AS protocol and “knowing in plenty of time” if treatment is needed were rated as accurate by only about 36% of respondents. For AS to be viewed as a reasonable alternative, men will need reassurance that following an AS protocol is likely to allow time for curative treatment if the cancer progresses. PMID:26066011

  11. [Active surveillance in prostate cancer and quality of life].

    PubMed

    Dominguez Escrig, Jose L; Romero, Rocio

    2014-06-01

    Active surveillance was born as a therapeutic strategy for a well selected group of patients with low risk prostate cancer with the aim to defer or completely avoid the negative impact of secondary effects of curative therapies. Nevertheless, the patient who chooses this treatment does it at the expense of greater anxiety and doubts about the possible progression of the disease. The main psychological features influencing the quality of life of these patients are, on one hand anxiety, due to the uncertainty and fear to disease progression, and on the other hand, the difficult decision making process. Among the factors that seem to influence the election are: urologist's recommendation, effects on urinary function, age and impact of the therapy on sexual function. In the timorous journey walked, it is recommended to apply psycho-educational programs, with the objective of increasing the perceived control and adaptive confrontation. We propose an intervention with 4 group sessions, the objectives of which would be first to improve the decision making process and diminish the fear to progression and, second to reinforce the information already given at the time of diagnosis and increase the sensation of control, e.g promoting healthy habits.

  12. Active surveillance for avian influenza virus, Egypt, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Ghazi; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; Gomaa, Mokhtar M; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Moatasim, Yassmin; Bagato, Ola; Cai, Zhipeng; Rubrum, Adam; Kutkat, Mohamed A; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A

    2014-04-01

    Continuous circulation of influenza A(H5N1) virus among poultry in Egypt has created an epicenter in which the viruses evolve into newer subclades and continue to cause disease in humans. To detect influenza viruses in Egypt, since 2009 we have actively surveyed various regions and poultry production sectors. From August 2010 through January 2013, >11,000 swab samples were collected; 10% were positive by matrix gene reverse transcription PCR. During this period, subtype H9N2 viruses emerged, cocirculated with subtype H5N1 viruses, and frequently co-infected the same avian host. Genetic and antigenic analyses of viruses revealed that influenza A(H5N1) clade 2.2.1 viruses are dominant and that all subtype H9N2 viruses are G1-like. Cocirculation of different subtypes poses concern for potential reassortment. Avian influenza continues to threaten public and animal health in Egypt, and continuous surveillance for avian influenza virus is needed.

  13. Modeling Grade Progression In An Active Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Lurdes Y.T.; Trock, Bruce J.; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Etzioni, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer grade, assessed with the Gleason score, describes how abnormal the tumor tissue and cells appear and it is an important prognostic indicator of disease progression. Whether prostate tumors change grade is a question that has implications for screening and treatment. Empirical data on tumor grade over time have become available from men biopsied regularly as part of active surveillance (AS). However, biopsy grade is subject to misclassification. In this article we develop a model that allows for estimation of the time of grade change while accounting for the misclassification error from biopsy grade. We use misclassification rates from studies of prostate cancer biopsies followed by radical prostatectomy. Estimation of the transition times from true low-grade to high-grade disease is conducted within a Bayesian framework. We apply our model to serial observations on biopsy grade among 627 cases enrolled in a cohort of AS patients at Johns Hopkins University who were biopsied annually and referred to treatment if there was any evidence of disease progression on biopsy. We consider different prior distributions for the time to true grade progression. The estimated likelihood of grade progression within 10 years of study entry ranges from 12% to 24% depending on the prior. We conclude that knowledge of rates of grade misclassification allows for determination of true grade progression rates among men with serial biopsies on AS. While our results are sensitive to prior specifications they indicate that in a non-trivial fraction of the patient population, tumor grade can progress. PMID:24123208

  14. Modeling grade progression in an active surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Lurdes Y T; Trock, Bruce J; Partin, Alan W; Carter, Herbert B; Etzioni, Ruth

    2014-03-15

    Prostate cancer grade, assessed with the Gleason score, describes how abnormal the tumor tissue and cells appear, and it is an important prognostic indicator of disease progression. Whether prostate tumors change grade is a question that has implications for screening and treatment. Empirical data on tumor grade over time have become available from men biopsied regularly as part of active surveillance (AS). However, biopsy (BX) grade is subject to misclassification. In this article, we develop a model that allows for estimation of the time of grade change while accounting for the misclassification error from BX grade. We use misclassification rates from studies of prostate cancer BXs followed by radical prostatectomy. Estimation of the transition times from true low-grade to high-grade disease is conducted within a Bayesian framework. We apply our model to serial observations on BX grade among 627 cases enrolled in a cohort of AS patients at Johns Hopkins University who were biopsied annually and referred to treatment if there was any evidence of disease progression on BX. We consider different prior distributions for the time to true grade progression. The estimated likelihood of grade progression within 10 years of study entry ranges from 12% to 24% depending on the prior. We conclude that knowledge of rates of grade misclassification allows for determination of true grade progression rates among men with serial BXs on AS. Although our results are sensitive to prior specifications, they indicate that in a nontrivial fraction of the patient population, tumor grade can progress.

  15. Inference of Japanese encephalitis virus ecological and evolutionary dynamics from passive and active virus surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Truc T.; Meng, Shengli; Sun, Yan; Lv, Wenli; Bahl, Justin

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive monitoring strategy is vital for tracking the spread of mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Virus detection consists of passive surveillance of primarily humans and swine, and/or active surveillance in mosquitoes, which may be a valuable proxy in providing insights into ecological processes underlying the spread and persistence of JEV. However, it has not been well characterized whether passive surveillance alone can capture the circulating genetic diversity to make reasonable inferences. Here, we develop phylogenetic models to infer JEV host changes, spatial diffusion patterns, and evolutionary dynamics from data collected through active and passive surveillance. We evaluate the feasibility of using JEV sequence data collected from mosquitoes to estimate the migration histories of genotypes GI and GIII. We show that divergence times estimated from this dataset were comparable to estimates from all available data. Increasing the amount of data collected from active surveillance improved time of most recent common ancestor estimates and reduced uncertainty. Phylogenetic estimates using all available data and only mosquito data from active surveillance produced similar results, showing that GI epidemics were widespread and diffused significantly faster between regions than GIII. In contrast, GIII outbreaks were highly structured and unlinked suggesting localized, unsampled infectious sources. Our results show that active surveillance of mosquitoes can sufficiently capture circulating genetic diversity of JEV to confidently estimate spatial and evolutionary patterns. While surveillance of other hosts could contribute to more detailed disease tracking and evaluation, comprehensive JEV surveillance programs should include systematic surveillance in mosquitoes to infer the most complete patterns for epidemiology, and risk assessment. PMID:27774302

  16. Inference of Japanese encephalitis virus ecological and evolutionary dynamics from passive and active virus surveillance.

    PubMed

    Pham, Truc T; Meng, Shengli; Sun, Yan; Lv, Wenli; Bahl, Justin

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive monitoring strategy is vital for tracking the spread of mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Virus detection consists of passive surveillance of primarily humans and swine, and/or active surveillance in mosquitoes, which may be a valuable proxy in providing insights into ecological processes underlying the spread and persistence of JEV. However, it has not been well characterized whether passive surveillance alone can capture the circulating genetic diversity to make reasonable inferences. Here, we develop phylogenetic models to infer JEV host changes, spatial diffusion patterns, and evolutionary dynamics from data collected through active and passive surveillance. We evaluate the feasibility of using JEV sequence data collected from mosquitoes to estimate the migration histories of genotypes GI and GIII. We show that divergence times estimated from this dataset were comparable to estimates from all available data. Increasing the amount of data collected from active surveillance improved time of most recent common ancestor estimates and reduced uncertainty. Phylogenetic estimates using all available data and only mosquito data from active surveillance produced similar results, showing that GI epidemics were widespread and diffused significantly faster between regions than GIII. In contrast, GIII outbreaks were highly structured and unlinked suggesting localized, unsampled infectious sources. Our results show that active surveillance of mosquitoes can sufficiently capture circulating genetic diversity of JEV to confidently estimate spatial and evolutionary patterns. While surveillance of other hosts could contribute to more detailed disease tracking and evaluation, comprehensive JEV surveillance programs should include systematic surveillance in mosquitoes to infer the most complete patterns for epidemiology, and risk assessment.

  17. The Activity of Antimicrobial Surfaces Varies by Testing Protocol Utilized

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Matias D.; Zucchi, Paola C.; Phung, Ann; Leonard, Steven N.; Hirsch, Elizabeth B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Contaminated hospital surfaces are an important source of nosocomial infections. A major obstacle in marketing antimicrobial surfaces is a lack of efficacy data based on standardized testing protocols. Aim We compared the efficacy of multiple testing protocols against several “antimicrobial” film surfaces. Methods Four clinical isolates were used: one Escherichia coli, one Klebsiella pneumoniae, and two Staphylococcus aureus strains. Two industry methods (modified ISO 22196 and ASTM E2149), a “dried droplet”, and a “transfer” method were tested against two commercially available antimicrobial films, one film in development, an untreated control, and a positive (silver) control film. At 2 (only ISO) and 24 hours following inoculation, bacteria were collected from film surfaces and enumerated. Results Compared to untreated films in all protocols, there were no significant differences in recovery on either commercial brand at 2 or 24 hours after inoculation. The silver surface demonstrated significant microbicidal activity (mean loss 4.9 Log10 CFU/ml) in all methods and time points with the exception of 2 hours in the ISO protocol and the transfer method. Using our novel droplet method, no differences between placebo and active surfaces were detected. The surface in development demonstrated variable activity depending on method, organism, and time point. The ISO demonstrated minimal activity at 2 hours but significant activity at 24 hours (mean 4.5 Log10 CFU/ml difference versus placebo). The ASTEM protocol exhibited significant differences in recovery of staphylococci (mean 5 Log10 CFU/ml) but not Gram-negative isolates (10 fold decrease). Minimal activity was observed with this film in the transfer method. Conclusions Varying results between protocols suggested that efficacy of antimicrobial surfaces cannot be easily and reproducibly compared. Clinical use should be considered and further development of representative methods is needed. PMID

  18. Active surveillance of avian influenza viruses in Egyptian poultry, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kayed, A S; Kandeil, A; El Shesheny, R; Ali, M A; Kayali, G

    2016-10-02

    Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in Egyptian poultry has been conducted since 2009. Up to 2011, all the detected viruses were H5N1, and the overall prevalence was 5%. In 2011, H9N2 viruses were observed to be co-circulating and co-infecting the same hosts as H5N1 viruses. Since then, the detection rate has increased to around 10%. In the 2014-2015 winter season, H5N1 was circulating heavily in poultry flocks and caused an unprecedented number of human infections. In contrast, surveillance in the last quarter of 2015 indicated a near absence of H5N1 in Egyptian poultry. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses must continue in Egypt to monitor further developments in H5N1 circulation in poultry.

  19. Evaluation of an Active Surveillance System for Stillbirths in Metropolitan Atlanta

    PubMed Central

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Duke, C. Wes; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Correa, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2005, a pilot project was started at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to expand an existing birth defects surveillance program, the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP), to conduct active surveillance of stillbirth. This pilot project was evaluated using CDC’s current guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Methods We conducted stakeholder interviews with the staff of MACDP’s stillbirth surveillance system. We reviewed the published literature on stillbirth ascertainment including 4 previous publications about the MACDP stillbirth surveillance system. Using fetal death certificates (FDC) as a second, independent data source, we estimated the total number and prevalence of stillbirths in metropolitan Atlanta using capture-recapture methods, and calculated the sensitivity of the MACDP stillbirth surveillance system. Results The MACDP stillbirth surveillance system is useful, flexible, acceptable, and stable. The system’s data quality is improved because it uses multiple sources for case ascertainment. Based on 2006 data, estimated sensitivities of FDCs, MACDP, and both sources combined for identifying a stillbirth were 78.5%, 76.8%, and 95.0%, respectively. The prevalence of stillbirths per 1,000 live births and stillbirths was 8.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.5-9.0) based on FDC data alone and 9.9 (95% CI: 9.1-10.8) when combined with MACDP data. Conclusion Use of MACDP as an additional data source for stillbirth surveillance resulted in higher levels of case ascertainment, better data quality, and a higher estimate of stillbirth prevalence than using FDC data alone. MACDP could be considered as a model to enhance stillbirth surveillance by other active birth defects surveillance programs. PMID:23270086

  20. [New biomarkers to optimize the selection and follow up of patients with prostate cancer on active surveillance].

    PubMed

    López-Guerrero, Jose A; Casanova-Salas, Irene; Fernández-Serra, Antonio; Rubio, Luis; Calatrava, Ana; García-Flores, María; García-Casado, Zaida; Rubio-Briones, José

    2014-06-01

    Identification of biomarkers that, at the time of diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), are associated with presence of disease or a more aggressive behavior will transform the clinical management of this disease. If both patients and clinicians would have reproducible and valid tools to estimate the specific risk of morbidity associated with PCa, then many patients would opt to and join active surveillance (AS) protocols, and consequently costs and comorbidities associated with the current overtreatment of prostate cancer would be reduced. Thus, a biomarker, or a panel of biomarkers, with high specificity to identify patients at risk for progression in AS protocols, would identify those men who could benefit from less intensive AS protocols with less repeated biopsies, so reducing the risk and cost of these invasive procedures. In this review we try to offer an overview of the new markers identified by genomic techniques and to discuss their potential role in an AS context. Moreover, the AS protocol offers an adequate setting for validation of biomarkers associated to disease progression.

  1. Prebreathe Protocol for Extravehicular Activity Technical Consultation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Jerry; Duncan, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In the performance of EVA by that National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronauts, there exists a risk of DCS as the suit pressure is reduced to 4.3 pounds per square inch, absolute (psia) from the International Space Station (ISS) pressure of 14.7 psia. Several DCS-preventive procedures have been developed and implemented. Each of these procedures involve the use of oxygen (O2) prebreathe to effectively washout tissue nitrogen (N2).The management of the ISS Programs convened an expert independent peer review Team to conduct a review of the Decompression Sickness (DCS) risks associated with the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Campout Prebreathe (PB) protocol for its consideration for use on future missions. The major findings and recommendations of the expert panel are: There is no direct experimental data to confirm the potential DCS risks of the Campout PB protocol. However, based on model data, statistical probability, physiology, and information derived from similar PB protocols, there is no compelling evidence to suggest that the Campout PB protocol is less safe than the other NASA approved PB protocols.

  2. [Epidemiological surveillance activities during the 2009 influenza pandemic in Spain: lessons learnt one year after].

    PubMed

    Sierra Moros, Maria José; Vázquez Torres, María; Santa-Olalla Peralta, Patricia; Limia Sánchez, Aurora; Cortes García, Marta; Pachón Del Amo, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    In this article the actions taken in the area of epidemiological surveillance in Spain during the influenza pandemic and the recommendations drawn from them during the progression of the pandemic are reviewed. The performance of the Surveillance Subcommittee established in the National Influenza Preparedness and Response Plan was central to the coordination of these activities. The Surveillance Subcommittee was immediately activated when the alert was issued. Its role is also described in this review. The existence of a National Plan allowed a rapid and coordinated response after the alert declaration. The epidemiological and virological surveillance of the influenza pandemic was adapted to an evolving situation. In addition to routine influenza monitoring systems, new surveillance systems were put in place such as a case-based surveillance for community influenza cases and a case-based surveillance for severe cases and deaths due to the pandemic. Among the lessons learned from this pandemic, we would highlight the need to strengthen the timely analysis of data collected during an alert, the need to promote the exchange of information among public health and health care professionals, and to strengthen the response capacity in order to have resilient and consolidated public health structures for future health alerts.

  3. Association of [-2]proPSA with Biopsy Reclassification During Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; Loeb, Stacy; Feng, Zhaoyong; Isharwal, Sumit; Landis, Patricia; Elliot, Debra J.; Veltri, Robert; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Trock, Bruce; Sokoll, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have suggested an association between [-2]proPSA expression and prostate cancer detection. Less is known about the utility of this marker in following prostate cancer patients on active surveillance. Thus, our objective was to examine the relationship between [-2]proPSA and biopsy results in men enrolled in an active surveillance program. Materials and Methods In 167 men from our institutional active surveillance program, we used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the relationship between [-2]proPSA and annual surveillance biopsy results. The outcome of interest was biopsy reclassification (Gleason score ≥7, or >2 positive biopsy cores, or >50% involvement of any core with cancer). We also examined the association of biopsy results with total PSA, %fPSA, [-2]proPSA/%fPSA, and the Beckman Coulter Prostate Health Index [phi=([-2]proPSA/fPSA) x (tPSA)½]. Results While on active surveillance (median time from diagnosis 4.3 years), 63 (37.7%) men demonstrated biopsy reclassification based on the above criteria, including 28 (16.7%) of whom had reclassification based on Gleason score upgrading (Gleason score≥7). Baseline and longitudinal %fPSA, %[-2]proPSA, [-2]proPSA/%fPSA, and phi measurements were significantly associated with biopsy reclassification, and %[-2]proPSA and phi provided the greatest predictive accuracy for high-grade cancer. Conclusions In men on active surveillance, measures based on [-2]proPSA such as phi, appear to provide improved prediction of biopsy reclassification during follow-up. Additional validation is warranted to determine whether clinically useful thresholds can be defined, and to better characterize the role of %[-2]proPSA and phi in conjunction with other markers in monitoring patients enrolled in active surveillance. PMID:22901577

  4. An overview of environmental surveillance of waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.H.; Chew, E.W.; Hedahl, T.G.; Mann, L.J.; Pointer, T.F.; Wiersma, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), in southeastern Idaho, is a principal center for nuclear energy development for the Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Nuclear Navy. Fifty-two reactors have been built at the INEL, with 15 still operable. Extensive environmental surveillance is conducted at the INEL by DOE's Radiological Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), EG&G Idaho, Inc., and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). Surveillance of waste management facilities radiation is integrated with the overall INEL Site surveillance program. Air, warer, soil, biota, and environmental radiation are monitored or sampled routinely at INEL. Results to date indicate very small or no impacts from INEL on the surrounding environment. Environmental surveillance activities are currently underway to address key environmental issues at the INEL.

  5. Active surveillance for the management of localized prostate cancer: Guideline recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Morash, Chris; Tey, Rovena; Agbassi, Chika; Klotz, Laurence; McGowan, Tom; Srigley, John; Evans, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The objective is to provide guidance on the role of active surveillance (AS) as a management strategy for low-risk prostate cancer patients and to ensure that AS is offered to appropriate patients assessed by a standardized protocol. Prostate cancer is often a slowly progressive or sometimes non-progressive indolent disease diagnosed at an early stage with localized tumours that are unlikely to cause morbidity or death. Standard active treatments for prostate cancer include radiotherapy (RT) or radical prostatectomy (RP), but the harms from over diagnosis and overtreatment are of a significant concern. AS is increasingly being considered as a management strategy to avoid or delay the potential harms caused by unnecessary radical treatment. Methods: A literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, guideline databases and relevant meeting proceedings was performed and a systematic review of identified evidence was synthesized to make recommendations relating to the role of AS in the management of localized prostate cancer. Results: No exiting guidelines or reviews were suitable for use in the synthesis of evidence for the recommendations, but 59 reports of primary studies were identified. Due to studies being either non-comparative or heterogeneous, pooled meta-analyses were not conducted. Conclusion: The working group concluded that for patients with low-risk (Gleason score ≤6) localized prostate cancer, AS is the preferred disease management strategy. Active treatment (RP or RT) is appropriate for patients with intermediate-risk (Gleason score 7) localized prostate cancer. For select patients with low-volume Gleason 3+4=7 localized prostate cancer, AS can be considered. PMID:26225165

  6. [Operative guidelines for the shoe industry: health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Massimo; Vignola, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Medical surveillance of workers exposed to occupational risk factors means secondary prevention and entails medical activities which are related to the assessed risk. In particular, the chief risk factors evaluated in the footwear industry frequently imply medical surveillance of exposed workers. These risk factors include organic solvents and chemicals, leather dust, noise, repetitive movements and upper limb overload, vibrations, manual lifting action and video display terminal operation. We consider some operative standardized and validated protocols for medical surveillance of these industry employees.

  7. Using Environmental DNA for Invasive Species Surveillance and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    The method employed for environmental DNA (eDNA) surveillance for detection and monitoring of rare species in aquatic systems has evolved dramatically since its first large-scale applications. Both active (targeted) and passive (total diversity) surveillance methods provide helpful information for management groups, but each has a suite of techniques that necessitate proper equipment training and use. The protocols described in this chapter represent some of the latest iterations in eDNA surveillance being applied in aquatic and marine systems.

  8. The Tobacco Pack Surveillance System: A Protocol for Assessing Health Warning Compliance, Design Features, and Appeals of Tobacco Packs Sold in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Carmen; Brown, Jennifer; Vadnais, Alison; Kroart, Laura; Ferguson, Jacqueline; Cohen, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco remains the world’s leading preventable cause of death, with the majority of tobacco-caused deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries. The first global health treaty, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), outlines a set of policy initiatives that have been demonstrated as effective in reducing tobacco use. Article 11 of the FCTC focuses on using the tobacco package to communicate tobacco-caused harms; it also seeks to restrict the delivery of misleading information about the product on the pack. Objective The objective of this study was to establish a surveillance system for tobacco packs in the 14 low- and middle-income countries with the greatest number of smokers. The Tobacco Pack Surveillance System (TPackSS) monitors whether required health warnings on tobacco packages are being implemented as intended, and identifies pack designs and appeals that might violate or detract from the communication of harm-related information and undermine the impact of a country’s tobacco packaging laws. The protocol outlined is intended to be applicable or adaptable for surveillance efforts in other countries. Methods Tobacco packs were collected in 14 countries during 2013. The intention was, to the extent possible, to construct a census of “unique” pack presentations available for purchase in each country. The TPackSS team partnered with in-country field staff to implement a standardized protocol for acquiring packs from 36 diverse neighborhoods across three cities in each country. At the time of purchase, data on price and place of acquisition of each pack was recorded. The field staff, according to a standardized protocol, then photographed packs before they were shipped to the United States for coding and archiving. Results Each pack was coded for compliance with the country-specific health warning label laws, as well as for key design features of the pack and appeals of the branding elements. The coding protocols were

  9. Outcome of long term active surveillance for estrogen receptor-positive ductal carcinoma in situ

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Anna F.; Lessing, Juan N.; Itakura, Kaoru; Hylton, Nola M.; Wolverton, Dulcy E.; Joe, Bonnie N.; Esserman, Laura J.; Hwang, E. Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Introduction An option for active surveillance is not currently offered to patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); however a small number of women decline standard surgical treatment for noninvasive cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess outcomes in a cohort of 14 well-informed women who elected non-surgical active surveillance with endocrine treatment alone for estrogen receptor-positive DCIS. Methods Retrospective review of 14 women, 12 of whom were enrolled in an IRB-approved single-arm study of 3 months of neoadjuvant endocrine therapy prior to definitive surgical management. The patients in this report withdrew from the parent study opting instead for active surveillance with endocrine treatment and imaging. Results 8 women had surgery at a median follow up of 28.3 months (range 10.1–70 months), 5 had stage I IDC at surgical excision, and 3 had DCIS alone. 6 women remain on surveillance without evidence of invasive disease for a median of 31.8 months (range 11.8–80.8 months). Conclusion Long-term active surveillance for DCIS is feasible in a well-informed patient population, but is associated with risk of invasive cancer at surgical excision. PMID:21843942

  10. Detection of septic transfusion reactions to platelet transfusions by active and passive surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hong; Xiao, Wenbin; Lazarus, Hillard M; Good, Caryn E; Maitta, Robert W; Jacobs, Michael R

    2016-01-28

    Septic transfusion reactions (STRs) resulting from transfusion of bacterially contaminated platelets are a major hazard of platelet transfusion despite recent interventions. Active and passive surveillance for bacterially contaminated platelets was performed over 7 years (2007-2013) by culture of platelet aliquots at time of transfusion and review of reported transfusion reactions. All platelet units had been cultured 24 hours after collection and released as negative. Five sets of STR criteria were evaluated, including recent AABB criteria; sensitivity and specificity of these criteria, as well as detection by active and passive surveillance, were determined. Twenty of 51,440 platelet units transfused (0.004%; 389 per million) were bacterially contaminated by active surveillance and resulted in 5 STRs occurring 9 to 24 hours posttransfusion; none of these STRs had been reported by passive surveillance. STR occurred only in neutropenic patients transfused with high bacterial loads. A total of 284 transfusion reactions (0.55%) were reported by passive surveillance. None of these patients had received contaminated platelets. However, 6 to 93 (2.1%-32.7%) of these 284 reactions met 1 or more STR criteria, and sensitivity of STR criteria varied from 5.1% to 45.5%. These results document the continued occurrence of bacterial contamination of platelets resulting in STR in neutropenic patients, failure of passive surveillance to detect STR, and lack of specificity of STR criteria. These findings highlight the limitations of reported national STR data based on passive surveillance and the need to implement further measures to address this problem such as secondary testing or use of pathogen reduction technologies.

  11. 77 FR 52317 - Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar systems with certain...

  12. Urinary TMPRSS2:ERG and PCA3 in an active surveillance cohort: results from a baseline analysis in the Canary Prostate Active Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Daniel W.; Newcomb, Lisa F.; Brown, Elissa C.; Brooks, James D.; Carroll, Peter R.; Feng, Ziding; Gleave, Martin E.; Lance, Raymond S.; Sanda, Martin G.; Thompson, Ian M.; Wei, John T.; Nelson, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance is used to manage low risk prostate cancer. Both PCA3 and TMRPSS2-ERG are promising biomarkers that may be associated with aggressive disease. This study examines the correlation of these biomarkers with higher cancer volume and grade determined at the time of biopsy in an active surveillance cohort. Experimental Design Post-DRE urine was collected prospectively as part of the multi-institutional Canary Prostate Active Surveillance Study (PASS). PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG levels were analyzed in urine collected at study entry. Biomarker scores were correlated to clinical and pathologic variables. Results In 387 men, both PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores were significantly associated with higher volume disease. For a negative repeat biopsy, and 1–10%, 11–33%, ≥34% positive cores, median PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores increased incrementally (P < 0.005). Both PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores were also significantly associated with presence of high grade disease. For a negative repeat biopsy, Gleason 6 and Gleason ≥7 cancers, the median PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores also increased incrementally (P = 0.02 and P = 0.001, respectively). Using the marker scores as a continuous variables, the odds ratio for a biopsy in which cancer was detected versus a negative repeat biopsy (ref) on modeling was 1.41 (95% CI 1.07–1.85), P = 0.01 for PCA3 and 1.28 (95% CI 1.10–1.49), P = 0.001 for TMPRSS2-ERG. Conclusions For men on active surveillance both PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG appear to stratify risk of having aggressive cancer as defined by tumor volume or Gleason score. PMID:23515404

  13. Can testosterone therapy be offered to men on active surveillance for prostate cancer? Preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Kacker, Ravi; Hult, Mariam; San Francisco, Ignacio F; Conners, William P; Rojas, Pablo A; Dewolf, William C; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    This report presents our experience with T therapy in a cohort of T-deficient men on active surveillance (AS) for Gleason 3 + 3 and Gleason 3 + 4 prostate cancer (PCa). A retrospective chart review identified 28 men with T deficiency who underwent T therapy (T group) for at least 6 months while on AS for PCa. A comparison group of 96 men on AS for PCa with untreated T deficiency (no-T group) was identified at the same institution. The AS protocol followed a modified Epstein criteria and allowed inclusion of men with a single core of low-volume Gleason 3 + 4 PCa. Mean age was 59.5 and 61.3 years, and mean follow-up was 38.9 and 42.4 months for the T and no-T groups, respectively. Of all 28 men in the T group, 3 (10.7%) men developed an increase in Gleason score while on AS. Of 22 men in the T group with Gleason 3 + 3 disease, 7 (31.8%) men developed biopsy progression including 3 men (13.6%) who developed Gleason 3 + 4 PCa. Of 6 men with Gleason 3 + 4 disease at baseline, 2 (33.3%) men developed an increase in tumor volume, and none developed upgrading beyond Gleason 3 + 4. All 96 men in the no-T group had Gleason 3 + 3 disease at baseline and, 43 (44.7%) developed biopsy progression, including 9 men (9.38%) with upgrading to Gleason 7 (3 + 4). Biopsy progression rates were similar for both groups and historical controls. Biopsy progression in men on AS appears unaffected by T therapy over 3 years. Prospective placebo-controlled trials of T therapy in T-deficient men on AS should be considered given the symptomatic benefits experienced by treated men. PMID:26306850

  14. Can Contemporary Patients with Biopsy Gleason Score 3+4 Be Eligible for Active Surveillance?

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ohseong; Kim, Tae Jin; Lee, In Jae; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun; Hong, Sung Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We analyzed whether expansion of existing active surveillance (AS) protocols to include men with biopsy Gleason score (GS) 3+4 prostate cancer (PCa) would significantly alter pathologic and biochemical outcomes of potential candidates of AS. Methods Among patients who underwent radical prostatectomy at our center between 2006 and 2013, we identified 577 patients (group A) who preoperatively fulfilled at least one of 6 different AS criteria. Also, we identified 217 patients (group B) with biopsy GS 3+4 but fulfilled non-GS criteria from at least one of 6 AS criteria. Designating group C as expanded group incorporating all patients in group A and B, we compared risk of unfavorable disease (pathologic GS ≥4+3 and/or pathologic T stage ≥pT3a) and biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival between groups. Results Rates of unfavorable disease were not significantly different between patients of group A and C who met AS criteria from 5 institutions (all p>0.05), not including University of Toronto (p<0.001). Also BCR-free survivals were not significantly different between patients in group A and C meeting each of 6 AS criteria (all p>0.05). Among group B, PSAD>0.15 ng/mL/cm3 (p = 0.011) and tumor length of biopsy GS 3+4 core>4 mm (p = 0.007) were significant predictors of unfavorable disease. When these two criteria were newly applied in defining group B, rates of unfavorable disease in group A and B was 15.6% and 14.7%, respectively (p = 0.886). Conclusion Overall rate of pathologically aggressive PCa harbored by potential candidates for AS may not be increased significantly with expansion of criteria to biopsy GS 3+4 under most contemporary AS protocols. PSAD and tumor length of biopsy GS 3+4 core may be useful predictors of more aggressive disease among potential candidates for AS with biopsy GS 3+4. PMID:25268898

  15. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  16. Civilian Demonstrations Near the Military Installation: Restraints on Military Surveillance and Other Intelligence Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    may be used as a tool to deter lawful political activity, and courts may view overt military surveillance as evidence of a bad faith purpose instead of...a good faith physical security purpose.19 Evidence of bad faith makes it more likely that a court will find standing.󈨧 Surveillance can become...event of a delu~ohoal aflhto srenewved or the iiaUtKi’i is o)therisie nainr and assorted Srauik" fils may be McAWi~i * retnainabh!e munder this

  17. Suspicious activity recognition in infrared imagery using Hidden Conditional Random Fields for outdoor perimeter surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogotis, Savvas; Ioannidis, Dimosthenis; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Likothanassis, Spiros

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to present a novel approach for automatic recognition of suspicious activities in outdoor perimeter surveillance systems based on infrared video processing. Through the combination of size, speed and appearance based features, like the Center-Symmetric Local Binary Patterns, short-term actions are identified and serve as input, along with user location, for modeling target activities using the theory of Hidden Conditional Random Fields. HCRFs are used to directly link a set of observations to the most appropriate activity label and as such to discriminate high risk activities (e.g. trespassing) from zero risk activities (e.g loitering outside the perimeter). Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in identifying suspicious activities for video surveillance systems.

  18. Elevated Prostate Health Index (phi) and Biopsy Reclassification During Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Darian; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Landis, Patricia; Wolf, Sacha; Glavaris, Stephanie; Lotan, Tamara L; Schaeffer, Edward M; Sokoll, Lori J; Ross, Ashley E

    2016-07-01

    The Prostate Health Index (phi) has been FDA approved for decision-making regarding prostate biopsy. Phi has additionally been shown to positively correlate with tumor volume, extraprostatic disease and higher Gleason grade tumors. Here we describe a case in which an elevated phi encouraged biopsy of a gentleman undergoing active surveillance leading to reclassification of his disease as high risk prostate cancer.

  19. Visceral Leishmaniasis Eradication is a Reality: Data from a Community-based Active Surveillance in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ferdousi, Farhana; Alam, Mohammad S.; Hossain, Mohammad S.; Ma, Enbo; Itoh, Makoto; Mondal, Dinesh; Haque, Rashidul; Wagatsuma, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    More than 20 million people in Bangladesh are considered at risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis (VL). A community-based active surveillance was conducted in eight randomly selected villages in a highly endemic area of Bangladesh from 2006 to 2008. A total of 6,761 individuals living in 1,550 mud-walled houses were included in the active surveillance. Rapid rK39 dipstick tests were conducted throughout the study period to facilitate the case diagnosis. Individuals with previous or current clinical leishmaniasis were identified on the basis of the case definition of the VL elimination program. Untreated cases of suspected VL were referred to the hospital for treatment. Socioeconomic and environmental information including bed net use was also collected. In 2006, the annual incidence of clinical leishmaniasis in the study area was 141.9 cases per 10,000 population, which was significantly increased by the following year owing to community-based active surveillance for case detection and reporting. However, early case detection and early referral for treatment led to a significant decrease in incidence in 2008. This study suggests that community-based active surveillance using a simple diagnostic tool might play a role in achieving the goal of the VL elimination program. PMID:23532674

  20. Inspection of surveillance equipment and activities at DOE Field Office, Richland

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The purpose of this inspection was to review surveillance activities by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Field Office, Richland (RL) and contractor employees at the RL Hanford site for efficiency and economy and compliance with laws and regulations. The scope included surveillance activities, procedures, training, types of surveillance equipment, and management controls over the equipment and activities. We also looked at Departmental policies and procedures regarding the equipment and activities. Allegations of illegal surveillance that came to our attention during the course of this inspection were referred to the Department of Justice. As part of our review, inspectors were on-site at RL from February 11, 1991, through March 1, 1991. Follow-up trips to RL were also made in April, May, and June 1991. We also conducted interviews at Albuquerque, Savannah River, and Germantown of former RL employees and RL contractors who were on travel. Officials from DOE's Office of General Counsel (OGC), Office of Security Affairs, and Office of Safeguards and Security (S S) were also interviewed regarding the Department's purchase and possession of wiretapping and eavesdropping devices. We obtained 75 signed sworn statements from 55 individuals during the course of the inspection. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Penicillin Use in Meningococcal Disease Management: Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Sites, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Blain, Amy E.; Mandal, Sema; Wu, Henry; MacNeil, Jessica R.; Harrison, Lee H.; Farley, Monica M.; Lynfield, Ruth; Miller, Lisa; Nichols, Megin; Petit, Sue; Reingold, Arthur; Schaffner, William; Thomas, Ann; Zansky, Shelley M.; Anderson, Raydel; Harcourt, Brian H.; Mayer, Leonard W.; Clark, Thomas A.; Cohn, Amanda C.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, in the Active Bacterial Core surveillance sites, penicillin was not commonly used to treat meningococcal disease. This is likely because of inconsistent availability of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and ease of use of third-generation cephalosporins. Consideration of current practices may inform future meningococcal disease management guidelines. PMID:27704009

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ETD SURVEILLANCE CHECKLIST FOR MONITORING EPA RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEVELOPMENT OF AN ETD SURVEILLANCE CHECKLIST FOR MONITORING EPA RESEARCH ACTIVITIES, Thomas J. Hughes, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), ORD, U.S. EPA, Experimental Toxicology Division (ETD), MD 66, RTP, NC 27711

    Research studies condu...

  3. Penicillin Use in Meningococcal Disease Management: Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Sites, 2009.

    PubMed

    Blain, Amy E; Mandal, Sema; Wu, Henry; MacNeil, Jessica R; Harrison, Lee H; Farley, Monica M; Lynfield, Ruth; Miller, Lisa; Nichols, Megin; Petit, Sue; Reingold, Arthur; Schaffner, William; Thomas, Ann; Zansky, Shelley M; Anderson, Raydel; Harcourt, Brian H; Mayer, Leonard W; Clark, Thomas A; Cohn, Amanda C

    2016-09-01

    In 2009, in the Active Bacterial Core surveillance sites, penicillin was not commonly used to treat meningococcal disease. This is likely because of inconsistent availability of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and ease of use of third-generation cephalosporins. Consideration of current practices may inform future meningococcal disease management guidelines.

  4. Emergency department syndromic surveillance providing early warning of seasonal respiratory activity in England.

    PubMed

    Hughes, H E; Morbey, R; Hughes, T C; Locker, T E; Pebody, R; Green, H K; Ellis, J; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal respiratory infections place an increased burden on health services annually. We used a sentinel emergency department syndromic surveillance system to understand the factors driving respiratory attendances at emergency departments (EDs) in England. Trends in different respiratory indicators were observed to peak at different points during winter, with further variation observed in the distribution of attendances by age. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed acute respiratory infection and bronchitis/bronchiolitis ED attendances in patients aged 1-4 years were particularly sensitive indicators for increasing respiratory syncytial virus activity. Using near real-time surveillance of respiratory ED attendances may provide early warning of increased winter pressures in EDs, particularly driven by seasonal pathogens. This surveillance may provide additional intelligence about different categories of attendance, highlighting pressures in particular age groups, thereby aiding planning and preparation to respond to acute changes in EDs, and thus the health service in general.

  5. Familial adenomatous polyposis in pediatrics: natural history, emerging surveillance and management protocols, chemopreventive strategies, and areas of ongoing debate.

    PubMed

    Septer, Seth; Lawson, Caitlin E; Anant, Shrikant; Attard, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary condition with a near 100 % lifetime risk of colorectal cancer without prophylactic colectomy. Most patients with FAP have a mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene on chromosome 5q22. This condition frequently presents in children with polyps developing most frequently in the second decade of life and surveillance colonoscopy is required starting at age ten. Polyps are found not only in the colon, but in the stomach and duodenum. Knowledge of the natural history of FAP is important as there are several extra-colonic sequelae which also require surveillance. In infants and toddlers, there is an increased risk of hepatoblastoma, while in teenagers and adults duodenal carcinomas, desmoid tumors, thyroid cancer and medulloblastoma are more common in FAP than in the general population. Current chemopreventive strategies include several medications and natural products, although to this point there is no consensus on the most efficacious and safe agent. Genetic counseling is an important part of the diagnostic process for FAP. Appropriate use and interpretation of genetic testing is best accomplished with genetic counselor involvement as many families also have concerns regarding future insurability or discrimination when faced with genetic testing.

  6. Comparison of two active surveillance programs for the detection of clinical dengue cases in Iquitos, Peru.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Claudio; Morrison, Amy C; Forshey, Brett M; Blair, Patrick J; Olson, James G; Stancil, Jeffrey D; Sihuincha, Moises; Scott, Thomas W; Kochel, Tadeusz J

    2009-04-01

    Endemic dengue transmission has been documented in the Amazonian city of Iquitos, Peru, since the early 1990s. To better understand the epidemiology of dengue transmission in Iquitos, we established multiple active surveillance systems to detect symptomatic infections. Here we compare the efficacy of distinct community-based (door to door) and school absenteeism-based febrile surveillance strategies in detecting active cases of dengue. Febrile episodes were detected by both systems with equal rapidity after disease onset. However, during the period that both programs were running simultaneously in 2004, a higher number of febrile cases in general (4.52/100 versus 1.64/100 person-years) and dengue cases specifically (2.35/100 versus 1.29/100 person-years) were detected in school-aged children through the community-based surveillance program. Similar results were obtained by direct comparison of 435 participants concurrently enrolled in both programs (P < 0.005). We conclude that, in Iquitos, community-based door-to-door surveillance is a more efficient and sensitive design for detecting active dengue cases than programs based on school absenteeism.

  7. Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network-2 Decades of Achievements, 1996-2015.

    PubMed

    Henao, Olga L; Jones, Timothy F; Vugia, Duc J; Griffin, Patricia M

    2015-09-01

    The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) provides a foundation for food safety policy and illness prevention in the United States. FoodNet conducts active, population-based surveillance at 10 US sites for laboratory-confirmed infections of 9 bacterial and parasitic pathogens transmitted commonly through food and for hemolytic uremic syndrome. Through FoodNet, state and federal scientists collaborate to monitor trends in enteric illnesses, identify their sources, and implement special studies. FoodNet's major contributions include establishment of reliable, active population-based surveillance of enteric diseases; development and implementation of epidemiologic studies to determine risk and protective factors for sporadic enteric infections; population and laboratory surveys that describe the features of gastrointestinal illnesses, medical care-seeking behavior, frequency of eating various foods, and laboratory practices; and development of a surveillance and research platform that can be adapted to address emerging issues. The importance of FoodNet's ongoing contributions probably will grow as clinical, laboratory, and informatics technologies continue changing rapidly.

  8. Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network—2 Decades of Achievements, 1996–2015

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Timothy F.; Vugia, Duc J.; Griffin, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) provides a foundation for food safety policy and illness prevention in the United States. FoodNet conducts active, population-based surveillance at 10 US sites for laboratory-confirmed infections of 9 bacterial and parasitic pathogens transmitted commonly through food and for hemolytic uremic syndrome. Through FoodNet, state and federal scientists collaborate to monitor trends in enteric illnesses, identify their sources, and implement special studies. FoodNet’s major contributions include establishment of reliable, active population-based surveillance of enteric diseases; development and implementation of epidemiologic studies to determine risk and protective factors for sporadic enteric infections; population and laboratory surveys that describe the features of gastrointestinal illnesses, medical care–seeking behavior, frequency of eating various foods, and laboratory practices; and development of a surveillance and research platform that can be adapted to address emerging issues. The importance of FoodNet’s ongoing contributions probably will grow as clinical, laboratory, and informatics technologies continue changing rapidly. PMID:26292181

  9. Microprocessors for auditing the surveillance activity of the Infection Control Nurse.

    PubMed

    Desai, N; Honeywell, K; Casewell, M W

    1991-06-01

    An important part of the Infection Control Nurse's activity in the UK is the laboratory-based surveillance of patients with infections that are known to be transmissible, i.e. of 'alert' organisms. We have replaced a manual 'T-card' system in which relevant patient information, microbiology and nursing notes are held on all patients yielding 'alert' organisms. The programme is menu driven, requires minimal coding and runs on a microprocessor with a hard disc. The programme enables surveillance patient information to be entered, edited, archived and recorded. Instant retrieval on screen or hard copy includes summarized or full displays of all patients on all wards, sorted by wards, organism, date or risk category. Archived data may be retrieved within minutes and this avoids having to interrogate the whole laboratory database overnight. To illustrate an additional use of the data stored, we analysed the surveillance activities of the Control of Infection Nurse for one year. Of 203 laboratory diagnoses requiring patient surveillance, 30% were viral infections, of which more than two-thirds were caused by hepatitis B virus; of the 142 bacterial isolates, 27% were multiply antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, 25% Pseudomonas spp, 12% Salmonella spp., 9% methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 7% Group A streptococci and 8% meningococci. These isolates resulted in only four outbreaks involving nine patients or staff. This information has proved useful for auditing the nurse's activity and provides evidence for the cost-effectiveness of infection control.

  10. Establishing a reproducible protocol for measuring index active extension strength.

    PubMed

    Matter-Parrat, V; Hidalgo Diaz, J J; Collon, S; Salazar Botero, S; Prunières, G; Ichihara, S; Facca, S; Liverneaux, P

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to establish a reproducible protocol to measure active extension strength in the index finger. The secondary objectives consisted in correlating the independent or associated index extension strength to the other fingers force of contraction of the extensor indicis propius with hand dominance. The population studied consisted of 24 healthy volunteers, including 19 women and 20 right-handed individuals. The independent and dependent index extension strength in each hand was measured three times with a dynamometer by three examiners at Day 0 and again at Day 7. Intra and inter-examiner reproducibility were, respectively, >0.90 and >0.75 in all cases. The independent extension strength was lower than the dependent one. There was no difference between the independent index extension strength on the dominant and non-dominant sides. The same was true for the dependent strength. Our results show that our protocol is reproducible in measuring independent and dependent index extension strength. Dominance did not come into account.

  11. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    PubMed

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  12. The use of early summer mosquito surveillance to predict late summer West Nile virus activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rochlin, Ilia; Campbell, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Utility of early-season mosquito surveillance to predict West Nile virus activity in late summer was assessed in Suffolk County, NY. Dry ice-baited CDC miniature light traps paired with gravid traps were set weekly. Maximum-likelihood estimates of WNV positivity, minimum infection rates, and % positive pools were generally well correlated. However, positivity in gravid traps was not correlated with positivity in CDC light traps. The best early-season predictors of WNV activity in late summer (estimated using maximum-likelihood estimates of Culex positivity in August and September) were early date of first positive pool, low numbers of mosquitoes in July, and low numbers of mosquito species in July. These results suggest that early-season entomological samples can be used to predict WNV activity later in the summer, when most human cases are acquired. Additional research is needed to establish which surveillance variables are most predictive and to characterize the reliability of the predictions.

  13. Active surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis in poliomyelitis high-risk areas in southern China.

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Y.; Hikita, K.; Matuba, T.; Chosa, T.; Kyogoku, S.; Yu, J.; Wang, Z.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: On 29 October 2000 poliomyelitis was officially declared to have been eradicated from the Western Pacific Region. This article describes the results of surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in China during the final phase of the eradication effort. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based active surveillance in high-risk areas for poliomyelitis in 5 provinces of southern-China (Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Jiangxi) between 1995 and 1997 to determine the adequacy of reporting and laboratory diagnosis of cases of AFP. FINDINGS: A total of 1069 AFP cases occurring since 1993 were identified in 311 hospital visits. Less than 50% of AFP cases occurring in 1993 and 1994 had been reported by AFP surveillance, and laboratory diagnosis had been carried out on only a small proportion of these. However, improved cooperation between hospital sectors increased the rate of case reporting and laboratory diagnosis to 85% and 78%, respectively, in 1997. Despite this overall improvement, these two indicators were approximately 10-20% lower in Yunnan Province. Epidemiological analysis revealed that cases of clinical poliomyelitis accounted for as much as one-third of all AFP in 1993 and that some of these cases were clustered. Clusters were rarely observed after 1994. Active surveillance in the China-Myanmar border areas of Yunnan over 1995-96 detected 9 cross-border cases of clinical poliomyelitis, including 2 of wild poliomyelitis. Import of poliomyelitis was thus considered to have occurred frequently until 1996 in this border area of Yunnan. These data were important for the outbreak response immunization carried out in 1996 in the border prefectures of Yunnan. CONCLUSION: Our investigation confirmed a high level of AFP surveillance in poliomyelitis high-risk areas of the five provinces and provided valuable information on the interruption of wild poliovirus circulation in southern China that will be of use to countries in other regions that have

  14. Global data collection and the surveillance of active volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    Data relay systems on existing earth-orbiting satellites provide an inexpensive way to collect environmental data from numerous remote sites around the world. This technology could be used effectively for fundamental monitoring of most of the world's active volcanoes. Such global monitoring would focus attention on the most dangerous volcanoes that are likely to significantly impact the geosphere and the biosphere. ?? 1990.

  15. [Active clinical surveillance for detection of Legionnaires' disease: implications for health care structures].

    PubMed

    Marchesi, I; Bargellini, A; Cencetti, S; Concetti, S; Marchegiano, P; Cauteruccio, L; Casolari, C; Borella, P

    2007-01-01

    In an university hospital of about 900 beds, a clinical surveillance was activated to detect cases of Legionnaires' disease in patients affected by community and/or nosocomial-acquired pneumonia. In the hospital Legionella spp was detected in the hot water distribution system and various disinfecting and control procedures were adopted to reduce contamination. Contemporary, the clinical surveillance began with the systematic detection of Legionella urinary antigen among recovered pneumonia, seroconversion as confirmation test and the collection of respiratory secretions or other biological materials to isolate the microorganism in patients positive to the urinary antigen. From September 2003 to May 2005, 486 pneumonia were followed, 98 of which considered of nosocomial origin. In total, 15 cases of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease were detected by the urinary test, whereas no cases of nosocomial origin were found. The characteristics of the detected cases are described in comparison with the other pneumonia and the surveillance cost was evaluated. The systematic clinical surveillance for Legionella infections is feasible with limit costs, allows to detect community-acquired cases otherwise unknown and to ascertain the absence/presence of nosocomial-acquired pneumonia, irrespective of the environment contamination.

  16. Multitarget visual tracking based effective surveillance with cooperation of multiple active cameras.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Ming; Fu, Li-Chen

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a tracking-based surveillance system that is capable of tracking multiple moving objects, with almost real-time response, through the effective cooperation of multiple pan-tilt cameras. To construct this surveillance system, the distributed camera agent, which tracks multiple moving objects independently, is first developed. The particle filter is extended with target depth estimate to track multiple targets that may overlap with one another. A strategy to select the suboptimal camera action is then proposed for a camera mounted on a pan-tilt platform that has been assigned to track multiple targets within its limited field of view simultaneously. This strategy is based on the mutual information and the Monte Carlo method to maintain coverage of the tracked targets. Finally, for a surveillance system with a small number of active cameras to effectively monitor a wide space, this system is aimed to maximize the number of targets to be tracked. We further propose a hierarchical camera selection and task assignment strategy, known as the online position strategy, to integrate all of the distributed camera agents. The overall performance of the multicamera surveillance system has been verified with computer simulations and extensive experiments.

  17. An effective active surveillance method for controlling nosocomial MRSA transmission in a Japanese hospital.

    PubMed

    Ohkushi, Daisuke; Uehara, Yuki; Iwamoto, Akira; Misawa, Shigeki; Kondo, Shigemi; Shimizu, Kenichiro; Hori, Satoshi; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2013-10-01

    Hospital-wide active surveillance for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) targeted to adult patients with a history of MRSA carriage within the past 5 years was performed in Juntendo University Hospital (JUH) over a 2-year period. In the first year, MRSA screening culture was ordered by physicians in charge. In the second year, infection-control practitioners (ICPs) took samples for active surveillance culture. The average monthly transmission rate of MRSA in JUH was 0.35 per 1,000 bed-days in the first year and decreased significantly to 0.26 per 1,000 bed-days in the second year (P < 0.05). In the second year, more active commitment of ICPs to MRSA screening was effective in improving the performance rate of screening, shortening turn-around time of screening results, and decreasing transmission rate. Increasing compliance with active MRSA surveillance by involvement of ICPs, targeting patients with a previous history of MRSA carriage in the previous 5 years, was effective to control nosocomial MRSA transmission.

  18. Advancing the science for active surveillance: rationale and design for the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership.

    PubMed

    Stang, Paul E; Ryan, Patrick B; Racoosin, Judith A; Overhage, J Marc; Hartzema, Abraham G; Reich, Christian; Welebob, Emily; Scarnecchia, Thomas; Woodcock, Janet

    2010-11-02

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 mandated that the FDA develop a system for using automated health care data to identify risks of marketed drugs and other medical products. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership is a public-private partnership among the FDA, academia, data owners, and the pharmaceutical industry that is responding to the need to advance the science of active medical product safety surveillance by using existing observational databases. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership's transparent, open innovation approach is designed to systematically and empirically study critical governance, data resource, and methodological issues and their interrelationships in establishing a viable national program of active drug safety surveillance by using observational data. This article describes the governance structure, data-access model, methods-testing approach, and technology development of this effort, as well as the work that has been initiated.

  19. Conceptual evaluation of population health surveillance programs: method and example.

    PubMed

    El Allaki, Farouk; Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Ravel, André

    2013-03-01

    Veterinary and public health surveillance programs can be evaluated to assess and improve the planning, implementation and effectiveness of these programs. Guidelines, protocols and methods have been developed for such evaluation. In general, they focus on a limited set of attributes (e.g., sensitivity and simplicity), that are assessed quantitatively whenever possible, otherwise qualitatively. Despite efforts at standardization, replication by different evaluators is difficult, making evaluation outcomes open to interpretation. This ultimately limits the usefulness of surveillance evaluations. At the same time, the growing demand to prove freedom from disease or pathogen, and the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement and the International Health Regulations require stronger surveillance programs. We developed a method for evaluating veterinary and public health surveillance programs that is detailed, structured, transparent and based on surveillance concepts that are part of all types of surveillance programs. The proposed conceptual evaluation method comprises four steps: (1) text analysis, (2) extraction of the surveillance conceptual model, (3) comparison of the extracted surveillance conceptual model to a theoretical standard, and (4) validation interview with a surveillance program designer. This conceptual evaluation method was applied in 2005 to C-EnterNet, a new Canadian zoonotic disease surveillance program that encompasses laboratory based surveillance of enteric diseases in humans and active surveillance of the pathogens in food, water, and livestock. The theoretical standard used for evaluating C-EnterNet was a relevant existing structure called the "Population Health Surveillance Theory". Five out of 152 surveillance concepts were absent in the design of C-EnterNet. However, all of the surveillance concept relationships found in C-EnterNet were valid. The proposed method can be used to improve the design and documentation of surveillance programs. It

  20. The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Morley, David; Dummett, Sarah; Kelly, Laura; Dawson, Jill; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Jenkinson, Crispin

    2014-01-01

    Background With an ageing population and increasing demands on health and social care services, there is growing importance attached to the management of long-term conditions, including maximizing the cost-effectiveness of treatments. In line with this, there is increasing emphasis on the need to keep people both active and participating in daily life. Consequently, it is essential that well developed and validated instruments that can meaningfully assess levels of participation and activity are widely available. Current measures, however, are largely focused on disability and rehabilitation, and there is no measure of activity or participation for generic use that fully meets the standards set by regulatory bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration. Here we detail a protocol for the development and validation of a new patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) for assessment of participation and activity in people experiencing a variety of health conditions, ie, the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ). The stages incorporated in its development are entirely in line with current regulations and represent best practice in the development of PROMs. Methods Development of the Ox-PAQ is theoretically grounded in the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The project incorporates a new strategy of engaging with stakeholders from the outset in an attempt to identify those characteristics of PROMs considered most important to a range of potential users. Items will be generated through interviews with patients from a range of conditions. Pretesting of the instrument will be via cognitive interviews and focus groups. A postal survey will be conducted, with data subject to factor and Rasch analysis in order to identify appropriate dimensions and redundant items. Reliability will be assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and item-total correlations. A second, large-scale postal survey will follow

  1. Cancer Prehabilitation for Patients Starting from Active Treatment to Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Shun, Shiow-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this brief summary is to introduce the concept of cancer prehabilitation and the role of oncology nurses in prehabilitation care. Cancer prehabilitation has been defined by Sliver and Baima (2013) as “a process on the cancer continuum of care that occurs between the time of cancer diagnosis and the beginning of acute treatment.” The evidence supports the notion that prehabilitation programs can improve physical and psychological health outcomes and decrease overall health care costs. The care model for cancer prehabilitation should include timely and efficient assessment throughout the care continuum with a focus on improving outcomes in cancer at every stage. During the cancer journey, three types of assessment with different aims are included: (1) prehabilitation assessment pretreatment, (2) rehabilitation assessment at early post treatment, and (3) health promotion assessment at the end of treatment. Specific prehabilitation assessment and interventions for treatment-related complications or major side-effects should be considered. Teaching, counseling, discharge planning, and coordination should also be part of an oncology nurse's role in cancer prehabilitation. It is suggested that cancer care managers or navigators be trained in the assessment of their patients’ physical and psychological status once the cancer diagnosis has been identified and the patient has decided to receive active treatment, especially for those waiting for surgery at home. Oncology nurses could increase their competence with prehabilitation care by gaining knowledge about cancer-related treatments and their outcomes for specific cancers and by strengthening the ability to assess the functional status and psychological distress of their patients. PMID:27981135

  2. Brucella abortus surveillance of cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands and a case for active disease surveillance as a training tool.

    PubMed

    Tukana, Andrew; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    There have been no surveys of the cattle population for brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) for more than 15 years. This study used disease surveillance as a capacity building training tool and to examine some of the constraints that impede surveillance in PICTs. The study also developed and implemented a series of surveys for detecting antibodies to B. abortus in cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands contributing to OIE requirements. The findings indicated lack of funds, lack of technical capacity, shortage of veterinarians, high turnover of in-country officials and lack of awareness on the impacts of animal diseases on public health that were constraining active disease surveillance. During the development and implementation of the surveys, constraints highlighted were outdated census data on farm numbers and cattle population, lack of funds for mobilisation of officials to carry out the surveys, lack of equipment for collecting and processing samples, lack of staff knowledge on blood sampling, geographical difficulties and security in accessing farms. Some of the reasons why these were constraints are discussed with likely solutions presented. The detection surveys had the objectives of building capacity for the country officials and demonstrating freedom from brucellosis in cattle for PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands all demonstrated freedom from bovine brucellosis in the areas surveyed using the indirect ELISA test. Fiji had an outbreak of brucellosis, and the objective was to determine its distribution and prevalence on untested farms. The Muaniweni district surveyed during the training had a 95 % confidence interval for true prevalence between 1.66 and 5.45 %. The study showed that active disease surveillance could be used as a tool for training officials thus, improves surveillance capacity in resource poor countries.

  3. Surveillance Systems from Public Health Institutions and Scientific Societies for Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare-Associated Infections in Europe (SUSPIRE): protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Núñez-Núñez, María; Navarro, María Dolores; Gkolia, Panagiota; Babu Rajendran, Nithya; del Toro, María Dolores; Voss, Andreas; Sharland, Mike; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Tacconelli, Evelina; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The worldwide spread of antimicrobial resistance is now recognised as a global public health threat. Owing to the geographical heterogeneity, complexity and continuously evolving dynamics of resistant organisms and genes, surveillance is a key tool for understanding, measuring and informing actions in the fight against this problem. To date there is no harmonisation of key indicators or of methodologies used to obtain them. Methods and analysis The main objective of this project is to systematically review and analyse the current publicly available surveillance activities on antimicrobial resistance and healthcare-associated infections in Europe. Eligible activities are those endorsed by regional, national or transnational health organisations and scientific societies providing data on a periodic basis. Grey and peer-reviewed literature will be searched with no language restrictions. Three independent reviewers will perform a two-step selection process using a previously piloted, tailored electronic data extraction form. Descriptive summaries and tables of all relevant findings will be performed and reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Ethics and dissemination We did not seek ethical approval for this study because the data to be collected are not linked to individuals. Data will be presented at international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number CRD42016033867. PMID:28348192

  4. Surveillance of probably benign (BI-RADS 3) lesions in mammography: what is the right follow-up protocol?

    PubMed

    Buch, Karen A; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Carpentier, Bianca; Cunningham, Deborah A; Stone, Michael; Jaffe, Carl; Quinn, Marie; Gonzalez, Carlos; LaVoye, Justine; Hines, Neely; Bloch, Boris Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    BI-RADS-3 is a category in mammography for probably benign lesions and for which periodic follow-up with repeat imaging is recommended. At our institution repeated mammograms are performed at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. The purpose of this study was to assess the significance of 18-month mammogram for evaluation of BI-RADS-3 lesions. Following IRB approval, electronic medical records and picture archiving and communications system were used to review 121,862 consecutive mammograms between February, 2002-May, 2009. A total of 8,400 patients with BI-RADS-3 mammograms were identified. Of these, 7,632 patients were followed until completion of 24 month mammogram or biopsy following an upgrade in their BI-RADS status. Over the follow-up, 197 patients received an upgrade in their BI-RADS status of which 179 were biopsied. Histopathologic results were reviewed. The majority of the BI-RADS-3 lesions were upgraded at 6-month mammogram (n = 150, 76.1%) followed by 32 (16.2%), 11 (5.6%), and 4 (2.0%) at 12, 18, and 24 month mammograms respectively. Thirty-four of 179 upgraded and biopsied lesions were found to be malignant. From these 27 (79.4%), 3 (8.8%), 3 (8.8%), and 1 (2.9%) lesions were identified at 6, 12, 18, and 24 month mammograms respectively. At the 18-month mammogram 3/7,632 lesions (0.04%) were found to be malignant. The vast majority of malignant lesions (88.2%) were detected within the first 12-months of follow-up. Only three of 179 biopsies (1.7%) were malignant at 18-month follow-up. Based on those results a 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up protocol for BI-RADS-3 lesions is sufficient.

  5. Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) glove evaluation test protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinman-Sweeney, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most critical components of a space suit is the gloves, yet gloves have traditionally presented significant design challenges. With continued efforts at glove development, a method for evaluating glove performance is needed. This paper presents a pressure-glove evaluation protocol. A description of this evaluation protocol, and its development is provided. The protocol allows comparison of one glove design to another, or any one design to bare-handed performance. Gloves for higher pressure suits may be evaluated at current and future design pressures to drive out differences in performance due to pressure effects. Using this protocol, gloves may be evaluated during design to drive out design problems and determine areas for improvement, or fully mature designs may be evaluated with respect to mission requirements. Several different test configurations are presented to handle these cases. This protocol was run on a prototype glove. The prototype was evaluated at two operating pressures and in the unpressurized state, with results compared to bare-handed performance. Results and analysis from this test series are provided, as is a description of the configuration used for this test.

  6. A case against justified non-voluntary active euthanasia (the Groningen Protocol).

    PubMed

    Jotkowitz, Alan; Glick, S; Gesundheit, B

    2008-11-01

    The Groningen Protocol allows active euthanasia of severely ill newborns with unbearable suffering. Defenders of the protocol insist that the protocol refers to terminally ill infants and that quality of life should not be a factor in the decision to euthanize an infant. They also argue that there should be no ethical difference between active and passive euthanasia of these infants. However, nowhere in the protocol does it refer to terminally ill infants; on the contrary, the developers of the protocol take into account the future quality of life of the infant. We also note how the Nazi Euthanasie Programm started with the premise that there is some life not worthy of living. Therefore, in our opinion, the protocol violates the traditional ethical codes of physicians and the moral values of the overwhelming majority of the citizens of the world.

  7. Analysis of Novel Prostate Cancer Biomarkers and their Predictive Utility in an Active Surveillance Protocol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    of 56 men, both from PrCA and Controls. These urine specimens were selected from our urine biospecimen bank, prospectively obtained and developed...both PrCA and Controls, as we had analyzed by Western blot. Although we demonstrated differential expression across our cohort, we were unable to...Antichymotrypsin (SerpinA3), and Growth-Inhibiting Protein 12 (GIP 12) are the most interesting showing varying protein levels comparing PrCA and Controls

  8. Analysis of Novel Prostate Cancer Biomarkers and their Predictive Utility in an Active Surveillance Protocol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase Type 1 (TIMP-1). We used urine specimens of 56 men, both from PrCA and Controls. These urine specimens...both PrCA and Controls, as analyzed by Western blot. Although we demonstrated differential expression across our cohort, we were unable to effectively...the proteins, I tested a larger cohort of patients (56 total of PrCA and Normal Controls). The initial trend of potentially significant Westerns did

  9. Analysis of Novel Prostate Cancer Biomarkers and their Predictive Utility in an Active Surveillance Protocol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Patient information: Blood in the urine (hematuria) in adults. UpToDate 19.3. October 14, 2011. Report of Scholarship Peer Reviewed... UpToDate 19.2. June 17, 2011. 12. Psutka SP, Daha A, McGovern FM, McDougal WS, Mueller PR, Gervais D, Feldman AS. Complication rates increase with

  10. Analysis of Novel Prostate Cancer Biomarkers and their Predictive Utility in an Active Surveillance Protocol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Concomitant Chemoradiation by Either BID Irradiation Plus 5-Fluorouracil and Cisplatin or QD Irradiation Plus Gemcitabine Followed by Selective...Bladder Preservation and Gemcitabine/ Cisplatin Adjuvant Chemotherapy 2011-present P.I. Department of Defense Prostate Cancer Research Program - Physician...D, Lee RJ. Pathologic down-staging with gemcitabine and cisplatin neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

  11. Potential Utility of Novel Biomarkers in Active Surveillance of Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Hyun; Hong, Sung Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is now an accepted management strategy for men with low-risk localized prostate cancer (PCa). However, detecting disease progression in a patient selected for AS remains a challenge. It is crucial to know what will serve as the best parameter to correctly identify tumors that progress to a more aggressive phenotype so as not to miss the window of curability. Several biomarkers are now being actively investigated as novel tools to improve PCa risk assessments. To date, several serum, urinary, and tissue biomarkers have shown promising prognostic value. %[−2]proPSA and PHI showed improved predictive value for an unfavorable biopsy conversion at annual surveillance biopsy in the AS program. PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG had additional independent predictive value for the prediction of PCa detection and progression, although PCA3 was limited in predicting aggressive cancer. Other tissue biomarkers also showed promising ability to predict disease progression. Although several of these novel biomarkers have an improved predictive accuracy that is better than classical parameters, there is still a need for further well-designed, large, multicenter, prospective trials to avoid common bias and clinical validation. PMID:26339615

  12. Cost-effectiveness of adding decolonization to a surveillance strategy of screening and isolation for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers.

    PubMed

    Nelson, R E; Samore, M H; Smith, K J; Harbarth, S; Rubin, M A

    2010-12-01

    We compared the cost-effectiveness of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) programme of active surveillance plus decolonization with the current Veterans Health Administration (VHA) strategy of active surveillance alone, as well as a common strategy of no surveillance. A decision-analytical model was developed for an inpatient stay time horizon, using the VHA's perspective. Model inputs were taken from published literature where available, and supplemented with expert opinion when necessary. Effectiveness outcomes were hospital-acquired MRSA infections and deaths avoided. One-way and two-way sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulations were performed. In the base-case analysis, the strategy of active surveillance plus decolonization dominated (i.e. lower cost and greater effectiveness) both the comparison strategies of active surveillance and no surveillance. In addition, the active surveillance strategy dominated the strategy of no surveillance. One-way and two-way sensitivity analyses demonstrated that at low levels of direct benefit of decolonization (1-4%), the strategy of active surveillance plus decolonization would no longer be dominant. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, active surveillance plus decolonization dominated both the other two strategies, and the active surveillance strategy dominated no surveillance in all of 1000 Monte Carlo simulations. These results provide a strong economic argument for adding an MRSA decolonization protocol to the current VHA active surveillance strategy.

  13. The relationships between body surveillance, body shame, and contextual body concern during sexual activities in ethnically diverse female college students.

    PubMed

    Claudat, Kim; Warren, Cortney S; Durette, Robert T

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the relationships between body surveillance, body shame, and contextual body image during sexual activity in American female college students of European, African, Asian, and Hispanic/Latina descent (N=1174). Responses to self-report questionnaires indicated that body surveillance and body shame were significantly positively correlated with contextual body concern during sexual activities for women of all ethnic groups. Examination of direct and indirect effects using structural equation modeling indicated that body shame partially mediated the relationship between body surveillance and contextual body image during sexual activity for the sample as a whole. However, multiple-group analyses (i.e., path invariance tests) showed that some of these relationships differed by ethnic group, with European American women reporting the strongest relationships. Study results generally support the mediational role of body shame, but highlight that the strength of these relationships and means may differ across ethnic groups.

  14. The use of surveillance data and market research to promote physical activity.

    PubMed

    Fridinger, Fred; Macera, Carol; Cordell, H Ken

    2002-08-01

    Using various types of data sources for assessing and monitoring physical activity behaviors on a population level adds to our ability to explain the relationships between individuals and their surrounding social and physical environments. This article presents the findings from part of a panel presentation on available data sets at the 2001 Cooper Conference on Innovative Approaches to Understanding and Influencing Physical Activity. First, an overview of large national epidemiologic and surveillance data sets is offered, followed by a discussion on the use of market segmentation data to complement more traditional sources of data by adding new dimensions to our understanding of target groups and potential intervention strategies. The relative advantages and disadvantages of using each type of data are also given, as well as recommendations for further use.

  15. Active surveillance and focal therapy for low-intermediate risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Low risk and many cases of low-intermediate risk prostate cancer, are indolent, have little or no metastatic potential, and are not life threatening. Major advances have been made in understanding who these patients are, and in encouraging the use of conservative management in such individuals. Conservative management incorporates the early identification of those ‘low risk’ patients who harbor higher risk disease, and benefit from definitive therapy. Based on the current algorithm of PSA followed by systematic biopsy, this represents about 30% of newly diagnosed low risk patients. A further small proportion of patients with low risk disease demonstrate biological progression to higher grade disease. Men with lower risk disease can defer treatment, usually for life. Men with higher risk disease that can be localized to a relatively small volume of the prostate may be candidates for focal, prostate sparing therapy. The results of active surveillance, embodying conservative management with selective delayed intervention for the subset who are re-classified as higher risk over time based on repeat biopsy, imaging, or biomarker results, have shown that this approach is safe in the intermediate to long term, with a 1-5% cancer specific mortality at 15 years. Further refinement of the surveillance approach is ongoing, incorporating MRI, targeted biopsies, and molecular biomarkers. PMID:26816834

  16. Active surveillance for prostate cancer: a narrative review of clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bruinsma, Sophie M; Bangma, Chris H; Carroll, Peter R; Leapman, Michael S; Rannikko, Antti; Petrides, Neophytos; Weerakoon, Mahesha; Bokhorst, Leonard P; Roobol, Monique J

    2016-03-01

    In the past decade active surveillance (AS) of men with localized prostate cancer has become an increasingly popular management option, and a range of clinical guidelines have been published on this topic. Existing guidelines regarding AS for prostate cancer vary widely, but predominantly state that the most suitable patients for AS are those with pretreatment clinical stage T1c or T2 tumours, serum PSA levels <10 ng/ml, biopsy Gleason scores of 6 or less, a maximum of one or two tumour-positive biopsy core samples and/or a maximum of 50% of cancer per core sample. Following initiation of an AS programme, most guidelines recommend serial serum PSA measurements, digital rectal examinations and surveillance biopsies to check for and identify pathological indications of tumour progression. Definitions of disease reclassification and progression differ among guidelines and multiple criteria for initiation of definitive treatment are proposed. The variety of descriptions of criteria for clinically insignificant prostate cancer indicates a lack of consensus on optimal AS and intervention thresholds. A single set of guidelines are needed in order to reduce variations in clinical practice and to optimize clinical decision-making. To enable truly evidence-based guidelines, further research that combines existing evidence, while also gathering information from more long-term studies is needed.

  17. Surveillance-activated defenses block the ROS-induced mitochondrial unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Runkel, Eva D; Liu, Shu; Baumeister, Ralf; Schulze, Ekkehard

    2013-01-01

    Disturbance of cellular functions results in the activation of stress-signaling pathways that aim at restoring homeostasis. We performed a genome-wide screen to identify components of the signal transduction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) to a nuclear chaperone promoter. We used the ROS generating complex I inhibitor paraquat to induce the UPR(mt), and we employed RNAi exposure post-embryonically to allow testing genes whose knockdown results in embryonic lethality. We identified 54 novel regulators of the ROS-induced UPR(mt). Activation of the UPR(mt), but not of other stress-signaling pathways, failed when homeostasis of basic cellular mechanisms such as translation and protein transport were impaired. These mechanisms are monitored by a recently discovered surveillance system that interprets interruption of these processes as pathogen attack and depends on signaling through the JNK-like MAP-kinase KGB-1. Mutation of kgb-1 abrogated the inhibition of ROS-induced UPR(mt), suggesting that surveillance-activated defenses specifically inhibit the UPR(mt) but do not compromise activation of the heat shock response, the UPR of the endoplasmic reticulum, or the SKN-1/Nrf2 mediated response to cytosolic stress. In addition, we identified PIFK-1, the orthologue of the Drosophila PI 4-kinase four wheel drive (FWD), and found that it is the only known factor so far that is essential for the unfolded protein responses of both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. This suggests that both UPRs may share a common membrane associated mechanism.

  18. Active search strategies and the SETI protocols - Is there a conflict?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarchand, Guillermo A.; Tarter, Donald E.

    1993-10-01

    The widely approved Declaration of Principles Concerning Activities following the Detection of Extraterrestrial Intelligence and the Proposed Protocol for Sending of Communications to Extraterrestrial Intelligence are examined with respect to how they apply to active as opposed to passive search strategies by radio astronomers. This article maintains that the existing protocols do not and should not impede active search strategies. An active search strategy based on the transmission of an interstellar terrestrial message using the synchronization of the SN 1987A hyperboloid is described. A brief discussion is made concerning the social 'pros' and 'cons' of an active search for humanity.

  19. Risk Reduction Activities for the Near-Earth Object Surveillance Satellite Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédard, D.; Scott, L.; Wallace, B.; Harvey, W.

    The Near-Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat) is a joint project between Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The NEOSSat project will develop a multi-mission micro-satellite bus that is expected to satisfy two concurrent missions: detection and tracking near-Earth asteroids (Near Earth Space Surveillance: NESS) and obtaining metric information on deep-space satellites (High Earth Orbit Surveillance System: HEOSS). The former will use NEOSSat's 15 cm diameter space telescope to discover and determine the orbits of inner Earth orbit (IEO) near-earth objects (NEOs) that cannot be easily observed from the ground. For its part, the HEOSS mission will demonstrate that a micro-satellite can be employed to produce surveillance of space (SofS) metric data of artificial earth-orbiting objects having orbital altitudes between 15,000 and 40,000 km having sufficient quality to be accepted by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network. As a risk reduction effort for the NEOSSat project, a joint satellite tracking experiment was conducted by DRDC, CSA, the University of British Columbia and Dynacon using the MOST (Microvariability Oscillations of STars) microsatellite. MOST conducts precision photometric observations of bright stars and does not usually image starfields, but in October 2005, MOST returned Canada's first space based satellite tracking observations of two GPS spacecraft. Good quality metric tracking data were obtained despite the fact MOST was not designed to image, let alone attempt satellite tracking. The observations also provided an estimate of the targeted satellite brightness and the results were consistent with ground based V-band observations. These results demonstrate the soundness of the NEOSSat concept and the feasibility of the HEOSS mission. The nature of both science missions will require the NEOSSat sensor to be pointed to a different position in the sky on average every five minutes, with a goal of

  20. Registry-Based Prospective, Active Surveillance of Medical-Device Safety.

    PubMed

    Resnic, Frederic S; Majithia, Arjun; Marinac-Dabic, Danica; Robbins, Susan; Ssemaganda, Henry; Hewitt, Kathleen; Ponirakis, Angelo; Loyo-Berrios, Nilsa; Moussa, Issam; Drozda, Joseph; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Matheny, Michael E

    2017-02-09

    Background The process of assuring the safety of medical devices is constrained by reliance on voluntary reporting of adverse events. We evaluated a strategy of prospective, active surveillance of a national clinical registry to monitor the safety of an implantable vascular-closure device that had a suspected association with increased adverse events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods We used an integrated clinical-data surveillance system to conduct a prospective, propensity-matched analysis of the safety of the Mynx vascular-closure device, as compared with alternative approved vascular-closure devices, with data from the CathPCI Registry of the National Cardiovascular Data Registry. The primary outcome was any vascular complication, which was a composite of access-site bleeding, access-site hematoma, retroperitoneal bleeding, or any vascular complication requiring intervention. Secondary safety end points were access-site bleeding requiring treatment and postprocedural blood transfusion. Results We analyzed data from 73,124 patients who had received Mynx devices after PCI procedures with femoral access from January 1, 2011, to September 30, 2013. The Mynx device was associated with a significantly greater risk of any vascular complication than were alternative vascular-closure devices (absolute risk, 1.2% vs. 0.8%; relative risk, 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42 to 1.78; P<0.001); there was also a significantly greater risk of access-site bleeding (absolute risk, 0.4% vs. 0.3%; relative risk, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.62; P=0.001) and transfusion (absolute risk, 1.8% vs. 1.5%; relative risk, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.34; P<0.001). The initial alerts occurred within the first 12 months of monitoring. Relative risks were greater in three prespecified high-risk subgroups: patients with diabetes, those 70 years of age or older, and women. All safety alerts were confirmed in an independent sample of 48,992 patients from April 1, 2014, to

  1. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia-like ductal prostatic adenocarcinoma: A case suitable for active surveillance?

    PubMed Central

    Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Dillard, Melissa R.; Zhu, Grace G.; Gordetsky, Jennifer B.

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to typical prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN)-like ductal adenocarcinoma is a rare variant of prostate cancer with low-grade clinical behavior. We report a case of a 66-year-old African-American male with an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen who underwent multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI/ultrasound fusion-guided biopsies. Pathology demonstrated low-volume Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 (Grade Group 1), acinar adenocarcinoma involving one core and PIN-like ductal adenocarcinoma on a separate core. Herein, we discuss the potential role of active surveillance for patients with this rare variant of prostate cancer found in the era of advanced imaging with multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer. PMID:28216939

  2. Falls in residential carpentry and drywall installation: findings from active injury surveillance with union carpenters.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Dement, John M; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Li, Leiming; Cameron, Wilfred

    2003-08-01

    Active injury surveillance was conducted with a large, unionized workforce of residential and drywall carpenters over a 3-year period. Injured carpenters were interviewed by trained carpenter investigators and sites were visited where falls occurred. Qualitative information was collected on exposures, risk perception, training, and mentoring. Falls accounted for 20% of injuries. Same-level falls were often related to weather, carrying objects-sometimes with an obstructed view-housekeeping, terrain of the lot, and speed of work. Falls from height occurred from a variety of work surfaces and involved ladders, scaffolding, roofs, work on other unsecured surfaces, unprotected openings, speed, and weather conditions. Recognized fall protection strategies, such as guardrails, toe boards, tying off to appropriate anchors, and guarding openings, would have prevented many of these falls; these practices were not the norm on many sites.

  3. [Active surveillance of adverse drug reaction in the era of big data: challenge and opportunity for control selection].

    PubMed

    Wang, S F; Zhan, S Y

    2016-07-01

    Electronic healthcare databases have become an important source for active surveillance of drug safety in the era of big data. The traditional epidemiology research designs are needed to confirm the association between drug use and adverse events based on these datasets, and the selection of the comparative control is essential to each design. This article aims to explain the principle and application of each type of control selection, introduce the methods and parameters for method comparison, and describe the latest achievements in the batch processing of control selection, which would provide important methodological reference for the use of electronic healthcare databases to conduct post-marketing drug safety surveillance in China.

  4. A high yield multi-method extraction protocol for protein quantification in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Monique, Ras; Elisabeth, Girbal-Neuhauser; Etienne, Paul; Dominique, Lefebvre

    2008-11-01

    A multi-method extraction protocol based on mechanical, ionic and hydrophobic methods was investigated on two types of activated sludge samples. Extraction methods were chosen with regards to optimal protein yield without cell disruption. Sonication, EDTA and Tween extraction methods were selected and combined. The total amount of protein released by the multi-method protocol sums up to 191 and 264 mg equiv. BSA/g VSS for the two different sludge samples. Protocol repetition on the same sample showed that protein yield after each successive protocol fitted an exponential curve model. The total amount of extractable proteins was evaluated by model predictions, 423 and 516 mg equiv. BSA/g VSS for the two sludge samples. The multi-method extraction protocol appears relevant for harvesting a representative quantity of proteins from the original sample (45-49%), moreover the multi-method criterion of the protocol also offers a heterogeneous pool of proteins. Thus, further qualitative studies may not be biased by the extraction protocol.

  5. Association Between User-Generated Commuting Data and Population-Representative Active Commuting Surveillance Data - Four Cities, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Ussery, Emily N; Riordan, Brian; Wendel, Arthur M

    2016-09-16

    Creating environments that support all types of physical activity, including active transportation, is a public health priority (1). Public health surveillance that identifies the locations where community members walk and bicycle (i.e., engage in active transportation) can inform such efforts. Traditional population-representative active transportation surveillance incurs a considerable time lag between data collection and dissemination, and often lacks geographic specificity (2). Conversely, user-generated active transportation data from Global Positioning System (GPS)-based activity tracking devices and mobile applications can provide near real-time information, but might be subject to self-selection bias among users. CDC analyzed the association between GPS-based commuting data from a company that allows tracking of activity with a mobile application (Strava, Inc., San Francisco, California) and population-representative commuting data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) (3) for four U.S. cities. The level of analysis was the Census block group. The number of GPS-tracked commuters in Strava was associated with the number of ACS active commuters (Spearman's rho = 0.60), suggesting block groups were ranked similarly based on these distinct but related measurements. The correlation was higher in high population density areas. User-generated active transportation data might complement traditional surveillance systems by providing near real-time, location-specific information on where active transportation occurs.

  6. Salmonella infections associated with international travel: a Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Laura R; Gould, L Hannah; Dunn, John R; Berkelman, Ruth; Mahon, Barbara E

    2011-09-01

    Salmonella species cause an estimated 1.2 million infections per year in the United States, making it one of the most commonly reported enteric pathogens. In addition, Salmonella is an important cause of travel-associated diarrhea and enteric fever, a systemic illness commonly associated with Salmonella serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A. We reviewed cases of Salmonella infection reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), a sentinel surveillance network, from 2004 to 2008. We compared travelers with Salmonella infection to nontravelers with Salmonella infection with respect to demographics, clinical characteristics, and serotypes. Among 23,712 case-patients with known travel status, 11% had traveled internationally in the 7 days before illness. Travelers with Salmonella infection tended to be older (median age, 30 years) than nontravelers (median age, 24 years; p<0.0001), but were similar with respect to gender. The most common destinations reported were Mexico (38% of travel-associated infections), India (9%), Jamaica (7%), the Dominican Republic (4%), China (3%), and the Bahamas (2%). The proportions of travelers with Salmonella infection hospitalized and with invasive disease were inversely related to the income level of the destination (p<0.0001). The most commonly reported serotypes, regardless of travel status, were Enteritidis (19% of cases), Typhimurium (14%), Newport (9%), and Javiana (5%). Among infections caused by these four serotypes, 22%, 6%, 5%, and 4%, respectively, were associated with travel. A high index of clinical suspicion for Salmonella infection is appropriate when evaluating recent travelers, especially those who visited Africa, Asia, or Latin America.

  7. [Protocol of the animal assisted activity program at a university hospital].

    PubMed

    Silveira, Isa Rodrigues; Santos, Nanci Cristiano; Linhares, Daniela Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Animal-Assisted Activity (AAA) consists in visitation and recreation through contact with animals, aiming at entertainment and improving the interpersonal relationship between patients and staff. Permission for the animals to visit an Institution requires a protocol with rules and safety routines to avoid accidents and zoonoses. The objective of this study is to describe the important points of the protocol to implement the AAA program. The protocol includes: introduction, objectives, inclusion and exclusion criteria for animals, drivers and patients; recommendations to the handlers and the health team, responsibilities of the Nosocomial Infection Control Committee, zoonoses posters, vaccination schedule for dogs and cats, free-informed consent to take part in the program and records with behavioral analysis of the animals. We believe that disclosing the protocol, based on scientific studies, favors the implementation of new programs in institutions considering the lack of national publications.

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis activates the DNA-dependent cytosolic surveillance pathway within macrophages.

    PubMed

    Manzanillo, Paolo S; Shiloh, Michael U; Portnoy, Daniel A; Cox, Jeffery S

    2012-05-17

    Cytosolic bacterial pathogens activate the cytosolic surveillance pathway (CSP) and induce innate immune responses, but how the host detects vacuolar pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis is poorly understood. We show that M. tuberculosis also initiates the CSP upon macrophage infection via limited perforation of the phagosome membrane mediated by the ESX-1 secretion system. Although the bacterium remains within the phagosome, this permeabilization results in phagosomal and cytoplasmic mixing and allows extracellular mycobacterial DNA to access host cytosolic receptors, thus blurring the distinction between "vacuolar" and "cytosolic" pathogens. Activation of cytosolic receptors induces signaling through the Sting/Tbk1/Irf3 axis, resulting in IFN-β production. Surprisingly, Irf3(-/-) mice, which cannot respond to cytosolic DNA, are resistant to long-term M. tuberculosis infection, suggesting that the CSP promotes M. tuberculosis infection. Thus, cytosolic sensing of mycobacterial DNA plays a key role in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and likely contributes to the high type I IFN signature in tuberculosis.

  9. First record of Stegomyia albopicta in Turkey determined by active ovitrap surveillance and DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Oter, Kerem; Gunay, Filiz; Tuzer, Erkut; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Bellini, Romeo; Alten, Bulent

    2013-10-01

    Despite its confirmed establishment in neighboring Greece and Bulgaria, the presence of the Oriental invasive species Stegomyia albopicta (Skuse) (=Aedes albopictus) has never been confirmed in Turkey. Active surveillance for this container-breeding species was carried out using oviposition traps at 15 discrete sites in the towns of Ipsala (n=8 sites), Kesan (n=5) (Edirne District), and Malkara (n=2) (Tekirdag District) in the Thrace region of northwestern Turkey, from May 23 through November 10, 2011. Eggs collected were reared to the fourth larval instar and adult stages where possible to facilitate integrated morphological and molecular species identification. DNA barcodes (658 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I [COI] gene) were compared with all four potentially invasive Stegomyia species: St. aegypti, St. albopicta, St. cretina, and St. japonica. Sequences generated for samples collected in Thrace Region were herein confirmed as St. albopicta, the first record of this vector species in Turkey. Eggs of St. albopicta were detected in two discrete localities: (1) In the grounds of a restaurant in Kesan (in week 36), and (2) in the customs area of the Turkish-Greek border at Ipsala (in weeks 32 and 38). Multiple detection of St. albopicta eggs indicates the possible establishment of the species in northwestern Turkey. Finding this important disease vector has implications for public health and requires the implementation of active vector monitoring programs and targeted vector suppression strategies to limit the spread of this invasive vector species in Turkey.

  10. Using Animation in Active Learning Tool to Detect Possible Attacks in Cryptographic Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Mayouf, Mabroka; Shukur, Zarina

    Interactive Visualization tools for active learning of generic cryptographic protocols are very few. Although these tools provide the possibility to engage the learner by asking him to describe a cryptographic protocol using a simple visual metaphor to represent the abstraction of the concepts being visualized, the problem is that some cryptographic operations are not visualized or animated and hidden from the learner's perspective such as encryption/decryption actions. Other operations are not supported by these tools such as timestamp and freshness. So, it's difficult to cover all possible attack that the intruder might employ with such operations are missing. The purpose of this research is to provide an interactive visualization tool for teaching undergraduate students security protocols concepts especially key distribution, multiple operations such as encryption/decryption and signed/unsigned operations, and possible protocol attacks. By designing a high quality graphical user interface and simple visual metaphor, learners will be able to specify the protocols and consider the possible attack at each step of protocol demonstration.

  11. The cost-utility of open prostatectomy compared with active surveillance in early localised prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an on-going debate about whether to perform surgery on early stage localised prostate cancer and risk the common long term side effects such as urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Alternatively these patients could be closely monitored and treated only in case of disease progression (active surveillance). The aim of this paper is to develop a decision-analytic model comparing the cost-utility of active surveillance (AS) and radical prostatectomy (PE) for a cohort of 65 year old men with newly diagnosed low risk prostate cancer. Methods A Markov model comparing PE and AS over a lifetime horizon was programmed in TreeAge from a German societal perspective. Comparative disease specific mortality was obtained from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group trial. Direct costs were identified via national treatment guidelines and expert interviews covering in-patient, out-patient, medication, aids and remedies as well as out of pocket payments. Utility values were used as factor weights for age specific quality of life values of the German population. Uncertainty was assessed deterministically and probabilistically. Results With quality adjustment, AS was the dominant strategy compared with initial treatment. In the base case, it was associated with an additional 0.04 quality adjusted life years (7.60 QALYs vs. 7.56 QALYs) and a cost reduction of €6,883 per patient (2011 prices). Considering only life-years gained, PE was more effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €96,420/life year gained. Sensitivity analysis showed that the probability of developing metastases under AS and utility weights under AS are a major sources of uncertainty. A Monte Carlo simulation revealed that AS was more likely to be cost-effective even under very high willingness to pay thresholds. Conclusion AS is likely to be a cost-saving treatment strategy for some patients with early stage localised prostate cancer. However, cost-effectiveness is

  12. Cytokine-release kinetics of platelet-rich plasma according to various activation protocols

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Y. H.; Kim, W.; Park, K. U.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to evaluate the cytokine-release kinetics of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) according to different activation protocols. Methods Two manual preparation procedures (single-spin (SS) at 900 g for five minutes; double-spin (DS) at 900 g for five minutes and then 1500 g for 15 minutes) were performed for each of 14 healthy subjects. Both preparations were tested for platelet activation by one of three activation protocols: no activation, activation with calcium (Ca) only, or calcium with a low dose (50 IU per 1 ml PRP) of thrombin. Each preparation was divided into four aliquots and incubated for one hour, 24 hours, 72 hours, and seven days. The cytokine-release kinetics were evaluated by assessing PDGF, TGF, VEGF, FGF, IL-1, and MMP-9 concentrations with bead-based sandwich immunoassay. Results The concentration of cytokine released from PRP varied over time and was influenced by various activation protocols. Ca-only activation had a significant effect on the DS PRPs (where the VEGF, FGF, and IL-1 concentrations were sustained) while Ca/thrombin activation had effects on both SS and DS PRPs (where the PDGF and VEGF concentrations were sustained and the TGF and FGF concentrations were short). The IL-1 content showed a significant increase with Ca-only or Ca/thrombin activation while these activations did not increase the MMP-9 concentration. Conclusion The SS and DS methods differed in their effect on cytokine release, and this effect varied among the cytokines analysed. In addition, low dose of thrombin/calcium activation increased the overall cytokine release of the PRP preparations over seven days, relative to that with a calcium-only supplement or non-activation. Cite this article: Professor J. H. Oh. Cytokine-release kinetics of platelet-rich plasma according to various activation protocols. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:37–45. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.52.2000540 PMID:26862077

  13. Active surveillance of postmarket medical product safety in the Federal Partners' Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Robb, Melissa A; Racoosin, Judith A; Worrall, Chris; Chapman, Summer; Coster, Trinka; Cunningham, Francesca E

    2012-11-01

    After half a century of monitoring voluntary reports of medical product adverse events, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has launched a long-term project to build an adverse events monitoring system, the Sentinel System, which can access and evaluate electronic health care data to help monitor the safety of regulated medical products once they are marketed. On the basis of experience gathered through a number of collaborative efforts, the Federal Partners' Collaboration pilot project, involving FDA, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the Department of Veteran Affairs, and the Department of Defense, is already enabling FDA to leverage the power of large public health care databases to assess, in near real time, the utility of analytical tools and methodologies that are being developed for use in the Sentinel System. Active medical product safety surveillance is enhanced by use of these large public health databases because specific populations of exposed patients can be identified and analyzed, and can be further stratified by key variables such as age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and basis for eligibility to examine important subgroups.

  14. Fast range estimation based on active range-gated imaging for coastal surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Qingshan; Cao, Yinan; Wang, Xinwei; Tong, Youwan; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Yuliang

    2012-11-01

    Coastal surveillance is very important because it is useful for search and rescue, illegal immigration, or harbor security and so on. Furthermore, range estimation is critical for precisely detecting the target. Range-gated laser imaging sensor is suitable for high accuracy range especially in night and no moonlight. Generally, before detecting the target, it is necessary to change delay time till the target is captured. There are two operating mode for range-gated imaging sensor, one is passive imaging mode, and the other is gate viewing mode. Firstly, the sensor is passive mode, only capturing scenes by ICCD, once the object appears in the range of monitoring area, we can obtain the course range of the target according to the imaging geometry/projecting transform. Then, the sensor is gate viewing mode, applying micro second laser pulses and sensor gate width, we can get the range of targets by at least two continuous images with trapezoid-shaped range intensity profile. This technique enables super-resolution depth mapping with a reduction of imaging data processing. Based on the first step, we can calculate the rough value and quickly fix delay time which the target is detected. This technique has overcome the depth resolution limitation for 3D active imaging and enables super-resolution depth mapping with a reduction of imaging data processing. By the two steps, we can quickly obtain the distance between the object and sensor.

  15. Multiparametric-MRI and Targeted Biopsies in the Management of Prostate Cancer Patients on Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Kiri; Patel, Mausam; Lynne, Charles; Parekh, Dipen J.; Punnen, Sanoj; Jorda, Merce; Casillas, Javier; Pollack, Alan; Stoyanova, Radka

    2015-01-01

    An important key to clinical management of prostate cancer patients is to determine early those who will benefit from primary treatment and are not good candidates for active surveillance (AS). We describe a 67-year-old gentleman with a long history of stable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and a negative biopsy. After slight PSA rise and low volume Gleason score 6 biopsy, the patient was considered for primary treatment or AS. A multiparametric (MP)-MRI exam revealed a suspicious lesion in the anterior apex of the prostate. Biopsies were carried out on a 3D-ultrasound prostate biopsy system with MRI-fusion. The location of the target area was challenging and could have been missed using standard 12-core biopsy template. The pathology determined Gleason 3 + 4 disease in 30% of the core from this region. Consequently, the patient underwent radiotherapy (RT). MP-MRI was also used to follow the changes from pre- to post-RT. PMID:25674540

  16. A novel thermometric biosensor for fast surveillance of β-lactamase activity in milk.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Mecklenburg, Michael; Yang, Dajin; Xie, Bin

    2013-11-15

    Regulatory restrictions on antibiotic residues in dairy products have resulted in the illegal addition of β-lactamase to lower antibiotic levels in milk in China. Here we demonstrate a fast, sensitive and convenient method based on enzyme thermistor (ET) for the surveillance of β-lactamase in milk. A fixed amount of penicillin G, which is a specific substrate of β-lactamase, was incubated with the milk sample, and an aliquot of the mixture was directly injected into the ET system to give a temperature change corresponding to the remained penicillin G. The amount of β-lactamase present in sample was deduced by the penicillin G consumed during incubation. This method was successfully applied to quantify β-lactamase in milk with the linear range of 1.1-20 UmL(-1) and the detection limit of 1.1 UmL(-1). The recoveries ranged from 93% to 105%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 8%. The stability of the column equipped in ET was also studied, and only 5% decrease of activity was observed after 60 days of use. Compared with the conventional culture-based assay, the advantages of high throughput, timesaving and accurate quantification have made this method an ideal alternative for routine use.

  17. Toxic-Pfiesteria--surveillance for human disease in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Matuszak, D L; Taylor, J L; Dickson, C; Benjamin, G C

    1998-05-01

    The presence of toxic stages of the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida and other morphologically related organisms was documented in three estuarine waterways on the lower Eastern Shore of Maryland in 1997. The Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, working closely with the local health departments, established a surveillance system to collect reports of human illnesses. Maryland's experience has formed the base on which national surveillance criteria for Estuary Associated Syndrome have been developed and regional surveillance protocols have been built. The cooperation of practicing physicians is essential to continued surveillance efforts to further delineate the extent and nature of human health effects following exposures to waters where toxic forms of these dinoflagellates are active. Physicians wishing to report persons who may have Estuary Associated Syndrome should contact their local health department. Persons wanting information or wishing to report finding lesioned fish or a fish kill in progress should call the Maryland Pfiesteria Hotline at 1- 888-584-3110.

  18. Early active motion protocol following open reduction internal fixation of the scaphoid: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dunn, J-C; Kusnezov, N; Fares, A; Buccino, Z; Esquivel, D; Mitchell, J

    2017-02-01

    Scaphoid fractures are common injuries which traditionally have been treated with long periods of immobilization even after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). The purpose of this pilot investigation was two-fold: 1) describe a precise postoperative Early Active Motion (EAM) rehabilitation protocol following ORIF of scaphoid fractures and 2) record the outcomes of the EAM protocol. Eight consecutive patients having undergone ORIF of the scaphoid were enrolled in the EAM and followed for a minimum of 1 year. At 12 weeks, Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score, Mayo Wrist score, and range of motion values were obtained. At 1 year, a telephone survey was conducted and several data points were obtained including DASH and Mayo Wrist score, number of push-ups, satisfaction with surgery and ability to remain on active duty. All 8 patients were male, on active duty, with an average age of 26 years. Two patients used tobacco products and none had major health problems. All patients completed the EAM protocol and obtained CT; all CT exams demonstrated healing at 8 weeks. At 12 weeks postoperatively, the average DASH score was 8.8±16 (range: 0-47.5), Mayo wrist score was 88±10 (range: 75-100) and range of motion nearly symmetrical. At a mean final follow-up of 15.4 months postoperatively, the average DASH score was 1.1±1.7 (Range: 0-4.5), Mayo wrist score was 97.5±4 (range 90-100), average number of push-ups was 57 (40-70) at the prior Army Physical Fitness Test. All patients were satisfied with surgery and all remained on active duty at 1 year. There were no reported complications. The EAM protocol following scaphoid fracture ORIF is safe and effective. The EAM can reliably return patients back to high demand activity earlier than a traditional protocol.

  19. Performance Effects of Repetition Specific Gluteal Activation Protocols on Acceleration in Male Rugby Union Players

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Lorna; Kenny, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Warm-up protocols have the potential to cause an acute enhancement of dynamic sprinting performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three repetition specific gluteal activation warm-up protocols on acceleration performance in male rugby union players. Forty male academy rugby union players were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups (control, 5, 10 or 15 repetition gluteal activation group) and performed 10 m sprints at baseline and 30 s, 2, 4, 6 and 8 min after their specific intervention protocol. Five and ten meter sprint times were the dependent variable and dual-beam timing gates were used to record all sprint times. Repeated measures analysis of variance found no significant improvement in 5 and 10 m sprint times between baseline and post warm-up scores (p ≥ 0.05) for all groups. There were no reported significant differences between groups at any of the rest interval time points (p ≥ 0.05). However, when individual responses to the warm-up protocols were analyzed, the 15 repetition gluteal activation group had faster 10 m times post-intervention and this improvement was significant (p = 0.021). These results would indicate that there is no specific rest interval for any of the gluteal interventions that results in a potentiation effect on acceleration performance. However, the individual response analysis would seem to indicate that a 15 repetition gluteal activation warm-up protocol has a potentiating effect on acceleration performance provided that the rest interval is adequately and individually determined. PMID:28031755

  20. Presence, Distribution, and Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Small Animal Teaching Hospital: A Year-Long Active Surveillance Targeting Dogs and Their Environment

    PubMed Central

    van Balen, Joany; Kelley, Christina; Nava-Hoet, Rocio C.; Bateman, Shane; Hillier, Andrew; Dyce, Jonathan; Wittum, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is known to be present in small animal veterinary clinical environments. However, a better understanding of the ecology and dynamics of MRSA in these environments is necessary for the development of effective infectious disease prevention and control programs. To achieve this goal, a yearlong active MRSA surveillance program was established at The Ohio State University (OSU) Veterinary Medical Center to describe the spatial and molecular epidemiology of this bacterium in the small animal hospital. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, and dendrogram analysis were used to characterize and analyze the 81 environmental and 37 canine-origin MRSA isolates obtained during monthly sampling events. Overall, 13.5% of surfaces were contaminated with MRSA at 1 or more sampling times throughout the year. The majority of the environmental and canine isolates were SCCmec type II (93.8% and 86.5%, respectively) and USA100 (90.1% and 86.5%, respectively). By PFGE analysis, these isolates were found to be closely related, which reflects a low diversity of MRSA strains circulating in the hospital. For 5 consecutive months, 1 unique pulsotype was the most prevalent across the medical services and was recovered from a variety of surfaces and hospital locations. Carts/gurneys, doors, and examination tables/floors were the most frequently contaminated surfaces. Some surfaces maintained the same pulsotypes for 3 consecutive months. Molecular analysis found that incoming MRSA-positive dogs were capable of introducing a new pulsotype into the hospital environment during the surveillance period. Our results suggest that once a MRSA strain is introduced into the hospital environment, it can be maintained and spread for extended periods of time. These findings can aid in the development of biosecurity and biocontainment protocols

  1. How Can We Identify the Elimination of Infectious Diseases? Experience From an Active Measles Laboratory Surveillance System in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tae Un; Kang, Hae Ji; Eom, Hye Eun; Park, Young-Joon; Park, Ok; Kim, Su Jin; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kim, Sung Soon; Jeong, Eun Kyeong

    2015-11-01

    Global efforts have markedly decreased the disease burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. Many countries have made considerable progress toward the elimination of measles. As elimination is approached, the very low incidence achieved by high vaccination coverage has underscored the need for a sensitive and timely surveillance system. In the Republic of Korea, an active laboratory surveillance system (ALSS) was implemented to supplement the existing passive surveillance system in 2006. The ALSS connects 5 major commercial laboratories and the national measles reference laboratory, where referred samples with positive or equivocal results are retested. Annually, from 2009 to 2013, 3714 suspected cases were detected through the ALSS, an expansion of 8- to 57-fold, compared with only the passive surveillance system. The ALSS, with its sensitivity and timeliness, is a reasonable strategy to supplement the existing measles surveillance system and to help identify the elimination of measles.

  2. Passive Surveillance of Ixodes scapularis (Say), Their Biting Activity, and Associated Pathogens in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guang; Mather, Thomas N.; Hollingsworth, Craig S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A passive surveillance of tick-borne pathogens was conducted over a 7-year period (2006–2012), in which a total of 3551 ticks were submitted to the University of Massachusetts for PCR testing. The vast majority of these ticks were Ixodes scapularis from Massachusetts (N = 2088) and hence were the focus of further analysis. Two TaqMan duplex qPCR assays were developed to test I. scapularis ticks for the presence of three human pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti. I. scapularis submissions were concentrated from Cape Cod, the eastern half of the state outside of the Boston metropolitan area, parts of Franklin and Hampshire counties along the Quabbin Reservoir watershed, and southwestern Berkshire county. Differences in seasonal activity pattern were observed for different developmental stages of I. scapularis. The largest proportion of tick bite victims were age 9 years and under. Nymphal ticks were found more often on lower extremities of their hosts, while more adult ticks were found on the head. Overall infection rate of B. burgdorferi, A. phagocytophilum, and B. microti in human-biting ticks was 29.6%, 4.6%, and 1.8%, respectively. B. burgdorferi-infected ticks were widely distributed, but A. phagocytophilum- and B. microti-infected I. scapularis were found mainly in the eastern half of the state. We found that 1.8%, 1.0%, and 0.4% of ticks were coinfected by B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi and B. microti, and A. phagocytophilum and B. microti, respectively, and 0.3% of ticks had triple coinfection. PMID:27248292

  3. A case for justified non‐voluntary active euthanasia: exploring the ethics of the Groningen Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Manninen, B A

    2006-01-01

    One of the most recent controversies to arise in the field of bioethics concerns the ethics for the Groningen Protocol: the guidelines proposed by the Groningen Academic Hospital in The Netherlands, which would permit doctors to actively euthanise terminally ill infants who are suffering. The Groningen Protocol has been met with an intense amount of criticism, some even calling it a relapse into a Hitleresque style of eugenics, where people with disabilities are killed solely because of their handicaps. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, the paper will attempt to disabuse readers of this erroneous understanding of the Groningen Protocol by showing how such a policy does not aim at making quality‐of‐life judgements, given that it restricts euthanasia to suffering and terminally ill infants. Second, the paper illustrates that what the Groningen Protocol proposes to do is both ethical and also the most humane alternative for these suffering and dying infants. Lastly, responses are given to some of the worries expressed by ethicists on the practice of any type of non‐voluntary active euthanasia. PMID:17074822

  4. Annual summary report on the surveillance and maintenance activities for the Oak Rige National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program for fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This Annual Summary Report on the Surveillance and Maintenance Activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program for Fiscal Year 1995 was prepared to communicate the accomplishments of the Program during fiscal year 1995. This work was performed under work breakdown structure element 1.4.12.6.1.14.20 (activity data sheet 3314, ``Remedial Action Surveillance and Maintenance``). Publication of this document meets the Life Cycle Baseline milestone date of November 30, 1995. This document provides the accomplishments for both the Remedial Action and Decontamination and Decommissioning Surveillance and Maintenance programs.

  5. Establishing nurse-led active surveillance for men with localised prostate cancer: development and formative evaluation of a model of care in the ProtecT trial

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Julia; Holding, Peter N; Bonnington, Susan; Rooshenas, Leila; Lane, J Athene; Salter, C Elizabeth; Tilling, Kate; Speakman, Mark J; Brewster, Simon F; Evans, Simon; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop a nurse-led, urologist-supported model of care for men managed by active surveillance or active monitoring (AS/AM) for localised prostate cancer and provide a formative evaluation of its acceptability to patients, clinicians and nurses. Nurse-led care, comprising an explicit nurse-led protocol with support from urologists, was developed as part of the AM arm of the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Design Interviews and questionnaire surveys of clinicians, nurses and patients assessed acceptability. Setting Nurse-led clinics were established in 9 centres in the ProtecT trial and compared with 3 non-ProtecT urology centres elsewhere in UK. Participants Within ProtecT, 22 men receiving AM nurse-led care were interviewed about experiences of care; 11 urologists and 23 research nurses delivering ProtecT trial care completed a questionnaire about its acceptability; 20 men managed in urology clinics elsewhere in the UK were interviewed about models of AS/AM care; 12 urologists and three specialist nurses working in these clinics were also interviewed about management of AS/AM. Results Nurse-led care was commended by ProtecT trial participants, who valued the flexibility, accessibility and continuity of the service and felt confident about the quality of care. ProtecT consultant urologists and nurses also rated it highly, identifying continuity of care and resource savings as key attributes. Clinicians and patients outside the ProtecT trial believed that nurse-led care could relieve pressure on urology clinics without compromising patient care. Conclusions The ProtecT AM nurse-led model of care was acceptable to men with localised prostate cancer and clinical specialists in urology. The protocol is available for implementation; we aim to evaluate its impact on routine clinical practice. Trial registration numbers NCT02044172; ISRCTN20141297. PMID:26384727

  6. Annual report on surveillance and maintenance activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1995, the sites and facilities from both the Remedial Action (RA) and Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) programs were combined to form the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) Program. Surveillance and Maintenance activities were conducted throughout FY 1996 at the RA facilities. Overall, the RA S and M Program consists of approximately 650 acres that include 14 waste area groupings with approximately 200 sites. These sites include 46 major facilities, several leak and contaminated soil sites, 38 inactive tanks, approximately 50 environmental study areas and approximately 2,973 wells and boreholes. Site inspections were conducted at established frequencies on appropriate sites in the RA S and M Program in accordance with the established S and M FY 1996 Incentive Task Order (ITO).

  7. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Sexual Dysfunction in Men on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Shane M; Wang, Chi-Hsiung E; Victorson, David E; Helfand, Brian T; Novakovic, Kristian R; Brendler, Charles B; Albaugh, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sexual dysfunction, repeat biopsies and other demographic and clinical factors in men on active surveillance (AS). Methods Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measures were administered at enrollment and every 6 months to assess quality of life (QOL), psychosocial and urological health outcomes. Using mixed-effects models, we examined the impact of repeat biopsies, total number of cores taken, anxiety, age, and comorbidity on sexual function over the first 24 months of enrolling in AS. Main Outcome Measures PROs included the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 (EPIC-26) Sexual Function (SF) subscale, the American Urological Association-Symptom Index (AUA-SI), and the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC). Results At enrollment (n = 195), mean age was 66.5 ± 6.8 with a mean EPIC-26 SF score of 61.4 ± 30.4. EPIC-26 SF scores steadily decreased to 53.9 ± 30.7 at 24 months (P < 0.01). MAX-PC scores also progressively decreased over time (P = 0.03). Factors associated with lower EPIC-26 scores over time included age, unemployed status, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and hypertension (all P < 0.05). Higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was associated with a more rapid decline in EPIC-26 SF over time (P = 0.03). In multivariable analysis, age, diabetes, and PSA × time interaction remained significant predictors of diminished sexual function. Anxiety, number of biopsies, and total cores taken did not predict sexual dysfunction or change over time in our cohort. Conclusions Men on AS experienced a gradual decline in sexual function during the first 24 months of enrollment. Older age, PSA × time, and diabetes were all independent predictors of diminished sexual function over time. Anxiety, AUA-SI, the number of cores and the number of biopsies were not predictors of reduced sexual function in men in AS. PMID:26468379

  9. in silico Surveillance: evaluating outbreak detection with simulation models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Detecting outbreaks is a crucial task for public health officials, yet gaps remain in the systematic evaluation of outbreak detection protocols. The authors’ objectives were to design, implement, and test a flexible methodology for generating detailed synthetic surveillance data that provides realistic geographical and temporal clustering of cases and use to evaluate outbreak detection protocols. Methods A detailed representation of the Boston area was constructed, based on data about individuals, locations, and activity patterns. Influenza-like illness (ILI) transmission was simulated, producing 100 years of in silico ILI data. Six different surveillance systems were designed and developed using gathered cases from the simulated disease data. Performance was measured by inserting test outbreaks into the surveillance streams and analyzing the likelihood and timeliness of detection. Results Detection of outbreaks varied from 21% to 95%. Increased coverage did not linearly improve detection probability for all surveillance systems. Relaxing the decision threshold for signaling outbreaks greatly increased false-positives, improved outbreak detection slightly, and led to earlier outbreak detection. Conclusions Geographical distribution can be more important than coverage level. Detailed simulations of infectious disease transmission can be configured to represent nearly any conceivable scenario. They are a powerful tool for evaluating the performance of surveillance systems and methods used for outbreak detection. PMID:23343523

  10. Visual Sensor Technology for Advanced Surveillance Systems: Historical View, Technological Aspects and Research Activities in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Gian Luca; Micheloni, Christian; Piciarelli, Claudio; Snidaro, Lauro

    2009-01-01

    The paper is a survey of the main technological aspects of advanced visual-based surveillance systems. A brief historical view of such systems from the origins to nowadays is given together with a short description of the main research projects in Italy on surveillance applications in the last twenty years. The paper then describes the main characteristics of an advanced visual sensor network that (a) directly processes locally acquired digital data, (b) automatically modifies intrinsic (focus, iris) and extrinsic (pan, tilt, zoom) parameters to increase the quality of acquired data and (c) automatically selects the best subset of sensors in order to monitor a given moving object in the observed environment. PMID:22574011

  11. The European surveillance activities EARSS and ESAC in the context of ABS International.

    PubMed

    Metz-Gercek, Sigrid; Mittermayer, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Development of resistance obstructs the successful use of antimicrobial drugs, since shortly after each and every introduction of a new antibiotic resistant pathogens have emerged. The hope of being able to reverse or at least slow down the occurrence of antibiotic resistance has led to a number of actions and initiatives. The project "ABS International - Implementing antibiotic strategies for appropriate use of antibiotics in hospitals in member states of the European Union", together with the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS) and the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC), covers a large proportion of possible actions against antibiotic resistance. The data generated by EARSS and ESAC are an essential prerequisite for targeted interventions to cope with the problem of antibiotic resistance. The project ABS International constitutes an impressive initiative to optimize the situation in hospitals in nine European member states.

  12. An Intelligent Active Video Surveillance System Based on the Integration of Virtual Neural Sensors and BDI Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorio, Massimo De

    In this paper we present an intelligent active video surveillance system currently adopted in two different application domains: railway tunnels and outdoor storage areas. The system takes advantages of the integration of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and symbolic Artificial Intelligence (AI). This hybrid system is formed by virtual neural sensors (implemented as WiSARD-like systems) and BDI agents. The coupling of virtual neural sensors with symbolic reasoning for interpreting their outputs, makes this approach both very light from a computational and hardware point of view, and rather robust in performances. The system works on different scenarios and in difficult light conditions.

  13. Potential clinical and economic outcomes of active beta-D-glucan surveillance with preemptive therapy for invasive candidiasis at intensive care units: a decision model analysis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Y-K; Ip, M; You, J H S

    2017-01-01

    Early initiation of antifungal treatment for invasive candidiasis is associated with change in mortality. Beta-D-glucan (BDG) is a fungal cell wall component and a serum diagnostic biomarker of fungal infection. Clinical findings suggested an association between reduced invasive candidiasis incidence in intensive care units (ICUs) and BDG-guided preemptive antifungal therapy. We evaluated the potential cost-effectiveness of active BDG surveillance with preemptive antifungal therapy in patients admitted to adult ICUs from the perspective of Hong Kong healthcare providers. A Markov model was designed to simulate the outcomes of active BDG surveillance with preemptive therapy (surveillance group) and no surveillance (standard care group). Candidiasis-associated outcome measures included mortality rate, quality-adjusted life year (QALY) loss, and direct medical cost. Model inputs were derived from the literature. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of model results. In base-case analysis, the surveillance group was more costly (1387 USD versus 664 USD) (1 USD = 7.8 HKD), with lower candidiasis-associated mortality rate (0.653 versus 1.426 per 100 ICU admissions) and QALY loss (0.116 versus 0.254) than the standard care group. The incremental cost per QALY saved by the surveillance group was 5239 USD/QALY. One-way sensitivity analyses found base-case results to be robust to variations of all model inputs. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the surveillance group was cost-effective in 50 % and 100 % of 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations at willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds of 7200 USD/QALY and ≥27,800 USD/QALY, respectively. Active BDG surveillance with preemptive therapy appears to be highly cost-effective to reduce the candidiasis-associated mortality rate and save QALYs in the ICU setting.

  14. [The environment as a health surveillance issue: analysis of nursing activities].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maria Celeste Soares; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita

    2004-01-01

    The fact that the need for environmental conservation has been on the national and international agenda determined the development of this study, which aims to examine how the environment is an issue for nurses working in health surveillance services, according to their testimonies. From July to August 1999, eight female nurses described their routine. Their reports were studied by means of the discourse analysis technique. It was concluded that, in general, their actions were not aimed at environmental conservation and were limited to factual and emergency issues.

  15. Head modeling for realistic electrical brain activity mapping identification of a multimodal neuroimaging protocol.

    PubMed

    Vatta, F; Bruno, P; Di Salle, F; Esposito, F; Meneghini, F; Mininel, S; Rodaro, M

    2008-01-01

    Realistic electrical brain activity mapping implies reconstructing and visualizing sources of electrical brain activity within the specific patient's head. This requires the assumption of a precise and realistic volume conductor model of the specific subject's head, i.e., a 3-D representation of the head's electrical properties in terms of shape and electrical conductivities. Source reconstruction accuracy is influenced by errors committed in head modeling. Clinical images, MRI and CT, are used to identify the head structures to be included in the volume conductor head model. Modeling accuracy mainly relies on the correct image-based identification of head structures, characterized by different electrical conductivities, to be included as separate compartments in the model. This paper analyzes the imaging protocols used in clinical practice to define the most suitable procedures for identification of the various head structures necessary to build an accurate head model also in the presence of morphologic brain pathologies. Furthermore, tissues anisotropy is discussed and identified as well. With this work we have identified a protocol for the acquisition of multimodal patient's imaging data for realistic electrical brain activity mapping purposes, able to account for pathological conditions and for head tissues anisotropy.

  16. The importance of active surveillance, and immediate re-biopsy in low-risk prostate cancer: The largest series from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Bayar, Göksel; Horasanlı, Kaya; Acinikli, Hüseyin; Tanrıverdi, Orhan; Dalkılıç, Ayhan; Arısan, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate long-term outcomes of active surveillance (AS) applied in low-risk prostate cancer patients, and the impact of re-biopsy results on the prediction of progression. Material and methods In our clinic, patients who had undergone AS for low-risk localized prostate cancer between the years 2005–2013 were included in the study. Our AS criteria are Gleason score ≤6, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level <10 ng/mL, number of positive cores <3, maximum cancer involvement ratio <50% each core. Immediate re-biopsy (within 3 months) was performed to 65 patients who accepted AS. Finally, 43 patients who met re-biopsy criteria were included in the study. Prostate biopsy specimens were harvested from 12 cores under the guidance of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). Re-biopsy was performed within 3 months (1–12 weeks). In re-biopsy, a total of 20 core biopsies were performed including the far lateral (6 cores) and transition zone (2 cores) in addition to standard 12 core biopsy. Our follow-up protocol is PSA measurement and digital rectal examination (DRE) every 3 months within the first 2 years, than every 6 months. Control biopsies was performed one year later and once upon every 3 years to patients whose PSA levels and DREs were normal at follow-up visits. More than 2 tumor invaded cores or 50% tumor in one core, and Gleason score exceeding 6 points were accepted as indications for definitive treatment. Patients were divided into two groups by re-biopsy results and compared according to the time to progression. We have done multivariate regression analysis to predict prognosis by using data on age, PSA level, and detection of tumor in re-biopsy specimens. Results Patients’ median age was 61 years and PSA level was 5 (2.7–9) ng/mL. Tumor was detected in 22 (34%) patients at re-biopsy and they underwent definitive treatment. Additionally tumor was detected in 9 patients, but active surveillance was maintained because their pathologic results met active

  17. Position surveillance using one active ranging satellite and time-of-arrival of a signal from an independent satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Frey, R. L.; Lewis, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Position surveillance using one active ranging/communication satellite and the time-of-arrival of signals from an independent satellite was shown to be feasible and practical. A towboat on the Mississippi River was equipped with a tone-code ranging transponder and a receiver tuned to the timing signals of the GOES satellite. A similar transponder was located at the office of the towing company. Tone-code ranging interrogations were transmitted from the General Electric Earth Station Laboratory through ATS-6 to the towboat and to the ground truth transponder office. Their automatic responses included digital transmissions of time-of-arrival measurements derived from the GOES signals. The Earth Station Laboratory determined ranges from the satellites to the towboat and computed position fixes. The ATS-6 lines-of-position were more precise than 0.1 NMi, 1 sigma, and the GOES lines-of-position were more precise than 1.6 NMi, 1 sigma. High quality voice communications were accomplished with the transponders using a nondirectional antenna on the towboat. The simple and effective surveillance technique merits further evaluation using operational maritime satellites.

  18. Efficacy of wildlife rehabilitation centers in surveillance and monitoring of pathogen activity: a case study with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Randall, Natalie J; Blitvich, Bradley J; Blanchong, Julie A

    2012-07-01

    Surveillance is critical for identifying and monitoring pathogen activity in wildlife populations, but often is cost- and time-prohibitive and logistically challenging. We tested the hypothesis that wildlife rehabilitation centers are useful for monitoring pathogen activity using West Nile virus (WNV) as a case study. We hypothesized that birds submitted to wildlife rehabilitation centers would have a similar prevalence of antibody to WNV as free-ranging birds. From 2008 to 2010, we collected sera from peridomestic birds submitted to the Wildlife Care Clinic (WCC), a wildlife rehabilitation center in central Iowa, and tested them for antibodies to WNV. We also collected and tested sera from free-ranging peridomestic birds in the area from which approximately 50% of WCC submissions historically originated. Prevalences of WNV antibodies in free-ranging birds and in peridomestic WCC birds were 2.3% (44/1,936) and 2.8% (2/72), respectively. However, none of the birds submitted to the WCC from the area where we captured free-ranging birds had antibodies (0/29). Our results indicate that rehabilitation facilities are not likely to be useful for monitoring WNV activity at small spatial scales or over short-time periods due to the low endemic prevalence of WNV, and low and variable submission rates. However, at larger spatial scales (ca. nine Iowa counties) WNV antibody prevalence in peridomestic birds submitted to the WCC was similar to that of free-ranging birds. Although limitations to using rehabilitation birds to monitor WNV must be considered, testing these birds could be useful for monitoring WNV activity regionally, especially with many states limiting surveillance due to budgetary constraints.

  19. The presence of primary circulating prostate cells is associated with upgrading and upstaging in patients eligible for active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Nigel P; Reyes, Eduardo; Fuentealba, Cynthia; Aedo, Socrates; Jacob, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a considered treatment option for men with low or very low-risk prostate cancer. However, on repeat biopsy some 25% were upgraded and recommended for active treatment. We compare the presence or absence of primary circulating prostate cells (CPCs) with the clinical pathological findings after radical prostatectomy in men fulfilling the criteria for active surveillance and the risk of reclassification for active observation (AO). Methods and patients A single centre observational study was done involving 102 men who fulfilled the Epstein criteria for AS and underwent radical prostatectomy as mono-therapy for prostate cancer. The patients were classified according to the presence or absence of CPCs detected immediately before the prostate biopsy. Mononuclear cells were obtained by differential gel centrifugation of 8 mL of venous blood and CPCs identified using immunocytochemistry with anti-PSA and anti-P504S. A positive CPC test was defined as at least 1 PSA (+), P504S (+) cell detected/blood sample. The surgical specimen was analysed for Gleason score and pathological stage. Results A total of 25 out of 102 (24.5%) men were upgraded based on the pathological findings of the surgical specimen. Among which 45 (44%) men were positive for CPCs. They were younger, 63.9 versus 68.1 years (p = 0.0148), had a lower frequency of pT2 or lower disease (64.4% versus 91.2% p <0.001), higher median Gleason scores (6 versus 5 p < 0.001) in both the biopsy and surgical specimens, and a higher frequency of upgrading 44% versus 9% (p < 0.001) Conclusions In men fulfilling the criteria for AS, the presence of primary CPCs suggests a high risk for disease upgrade and therefore these men may not be ideal for observational therapy. Further studies with a larger population are warranted. PMID:28144285

  20. [TV, overweight and nutritional surveillance. Ads content, food intake and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, T D; Bioletti, L; Bo, C; Formigatti, M

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between television viewing and obesity in children and adults was examined in a large number of cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Some randomised, controlled trials confirmed the evidence that television viewing is a cause of increased body fatness. It seems of utility in nutritional surveillance to esteem time spent by children and adults in television watching and to evaluate ads contents and food preferences suggested by them. This editorial shows a two-years long analysis of food commercials broadcasted by the main Italian TV networks; food ads targeted on children, housewives and sport fans were evaluated; the relationship between television viewing, commercials and food intake or global lifestyle was investigated in a Piedmont's population (from Northern Italy). School projects aimed to reduce television viewing represent a promising strategy for preventing childhood obesity.

  1. Outcomes of active surveillance for the management of clinically localized prostate cancer in the prospective, multi-institutional Canary PASS cohort

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Lisa F.; Thompson, Ian M.; Boyer, Hilary D.; Brooks, James D.; Carroll, Peter R.; Cooperberg, Matthew R.; Dash, Atreya; Ellis, William J.; Fazli, Ladan; Feng, Ziding; Gleave, Martin E.; Kunju, Priya; Lance, Raymond S.; McKenney, Jesse K.; Meng, Maxwell V.; Nicolas, Marlo M.; Sanda, Martin G.; Simko, Jeffry; So, Alan; Tretiakova, Maria S.; Troyer, Dean A.; True, Lawrence D.; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Virgin, Jeff; Wagner, Andrew A.; Wei, John T.; Zheng, Yingye; Nelson, Peter S.; Lin, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance represents a strategy to address the overtreatment of prostate cancer, yet uncertainty regarding individual patient outcomes remains a concern. We evaluated outcomes in a prospective multi-center study of active surveillance. Methods We studied 905 men in the prospective Canary Prostate cancer Active Surveillance Study (PASS) enrolled between 2008 to 2013. We collected clinical data at study entry and at pre-specified intervals and determined associations with adverse reclassification defined as increased Gleason grade or greater cancer volume on follow-up biopsy. We also evaluated the relationships of clinical parameters with pathology findings in participants who underwent surgery after a period of active surveillance. Results During a median follow-up of 28 months, 24% of participants experienced adverse reclassification, of whom 53% underwent treatment while 31% continued active surveillance. Overall, 19% of participants received treatment, 68% with adverse reclassification while 32% opted for treatment without disease reclassification. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, percent of biopsy cores with cancer, BMI, and PSA density were associated with adverse reclassification (P = 0.01, 0.04, 0.04). Of 103 participants subsequently treated by radical prostatectomy, 34% had adverse pathology, defined as primary pattern 4–5 or non-organ confined disease, including two with positive lymph nodes, with no significant relationship between risk category at diagnosis and findings at surgery (P = 0.76). Conclusion Most men remain on active surveillance at five years without adverse reclassification or adverse pathology at surgery. However, clinical factors had only modest association with disease reclassification, supporting the need for approaches that improve prediction of this outcome. PMID:26327354

  2. [The results of the introduction of a protocol of preventive activities in a primary care center].

    PubMed

    Tamayo Marco, B; Deniel Rosanas, J; López Plana, A; Trallero Fort, J C; Lafuente Navarro, A; Lafuente Navarro, C

    1991-04-01

    A sample of 360 people was analyzed. They had received the protocol of preventive activities of the "Unitat Docent de Medicina Familiar i Comunitària de Barcelona" during 1989. The results of those activities directed to the prevention of cardiovascular risk and to the detection of excessive alcohol intake are reported, as they are those with the easiest and widest implementation. Overall results include hypercholesterolemia in 43.9%, abnormal blood pressure in 10.5%, a rate of smokers of 31.7%, 7.7% with an excessive alcohol intake, and 51.9% of obese individuals. The results are also shown by age and sex groups. In the discussion, the results are compared with those expected for our population. It is concluded that preventive measures should be encouraged by primary health are teams.

  3. Pathological Outcomes in Men with Low Risk and Very Low Risk Prostate Cancer: Implications on the Practice of Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; JohnBull, Eric; Trock, Bruce J.; Landis, Patricia; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Partin, Alan W.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Carter, H. Ballentine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We assessed oncologic outcomes at surgery in men with low risk and very low risk prostate cancer who were candidates for active surveillance. Materials and Methods In a prospectively collected institutional database, we identified 7,486 subjects eligible for active surveillance who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy. Candidates were designated as being at low risk (stage T1c/T2a, prostate specific antigen 10 ng/ml or less, and Gleason score 6 or less) or very low risk (stage T1c, prostate specific antigen density 0.15 or less, Gleason score 6 or less, 2 or fewer positive biopsy cores, 50% or less cancer involvement per core) based on preoperative data. Adverse findings were Gleason score upgrade (score 7 or greater) and nonorgan confined cancer on surgical pathology. The relative risk of adverse findings in men at low risk with very low risk disease was evaluated in a multivariate model using Poisson regression. Results A total of 7,333 subjects met the criteria for low risk disease and 153 had very low risk disease. The proportion of subjects at low risk found to have Gleason score upgrade or nonorgan confined cancer on final pathology was 21.8% and 23.1%, respectively. Corresponding values in those at very low risk were 13.1% and 8.5%, respectively. After adjusting for age, race, year of surgery, body mass index, and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis, the relative risk of Gleason score upgrade in men with low risk vs very low risk disease was 1.89 (95% CI 1.21–2.95). The relative risk of nonorgan confined cancer was 2.06 (95% CI 1.19–3.57). Conclusions Men with very low risk prostate cancer were at significantly lower risk for adverse findings at surgery compared to those with low risk disease. These data support the stratification of low risk cancer when selecting and counseling men who may be appropriate for active surveillance. PMID:23643603

  4. Effects of dynamic and static stretching within general and activity specific warm-up protocols.

    PubMed

    Samson, Michael; Button, Duane C; Chaouachi, Anis; Behm, David G

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of static and dynamic stretching protocols within general and activity specific warm-ups. Nine male and ten female subjects were tested under four warm-up conditions including a 1) general aerobic warm-up with static stretching, 2) general aerobic warm-up with dynamic stretching, 3) general and specific warm-up with static stretching and 4) general and specific warm-up with dynamic stretching. Following all conditions, subjects were tested for movement time (kicking movement of leg over 0.5 m distance), countermovement jump height, sit and reach flexibility and 6 repetitions of 20 metre sprints. Results indicated that when a sport specific warm-up was included, there was an 0.94% improvement (p = 0.0013) in 20 meter sprint time with both the dynamic and static stretch groups. No such difference in sprint performance between dynamic and static stretch groups existed in the absence of the sport specific warm-up. The static stretch condition increased sit and reach range of motion (ROM) by 2.8% more (p = 0.0083) than the dynamic condition. These results would support the use of static stretching within an activity specific warm-up to ensure maximal ROM along with an enhancement in sprint performance. Key pointsActivity specific warm-up may improve sprint performance.Static stretching was more effective than dynamic stretching for increasing static range of motion.There was no effect of the warm-up protocols on countermovement jump height or movement time.

  5. Using semantic technologies and the OSU ontology for modelling context and activities in multi-sensory surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez A, Héctor F.; Martínez-Tomás, Rafael; Arias Tapia, Susana A.; Rincón Zamorano, Mariano

    2014-04-01

    Automatic systems that monitor human behaviour for detecting security problems are a challenge today. Previously, our group defined the Horus framework, which is a modular architecture for the integration of multi-sensor monitoring stages. In this work, structure and technologies required for high-level semantic stages of Horus are proposed, and the associated methodological principles established with the aim of recognising specific behaviours and situations. Our methodology distinguishes three semantic levels of events: low level (compromised with sensors), medium level (compromised with context), and high level (target behaviours). The ontology for surveillance and ubiquitous computing has been used to integrate ontologies from specific domains and together with semantic technologies have facilitated the modelling and implementation of scenes and situations by reusing components. A home context and a supermarket context were modelled following this approach, where three suspicious activities were monitored via different virtual sensors. The experiments demonstrate that our proposals facilitate the rapid prototyping of this kind of systems.

  6. Systematic, active surveillance for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in camels in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed A; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Gomaa, Mokhtar R; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; El-Taweel, Ahmed N; Atea, Mohamed; Hassan, Nagla; Bagato, Ola; Moatasim, Yassmin; Mahmoud, Sara H; Kutkat, Omnia; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Osman, Ahmed; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; Kayali, Ghazi

    2017-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe human infections and dromedary camels are considered an intermediary host. The dynamics of natural infection in camels are not well understood. Through systematic surveillance in Egypt, nasal, rectal, milk, urine and serum samples were collected from camels between June 2014 and February 2016. Locations included quarantines, markets, abattoirs, free-roaming herds and farmed breeding herds. The overall seroprevalence was 71% and RNA detection rate was 15%. Imported camels had higher seroprevalence (90% vs 61%) and higher RT-PCR detection rates (21% vs 12%) than locally raised camels. Juveniles had lower seroprevalence than adults (37% vs 82%) but similar RT-PCR detection rates (16% vs 15%). An outbreak in a breeding herd, showed that antibodies rapidly wane, that camels become re-infected, and that outbreaks in a herd are sustained for an extended time. Maternal antibodies titers were very low in calves regardless of the antibody titers of the mothers. Our results support the hypothesis that camels are a reservoir for MERS-CoV and that camel trade is an important route of introducing the virus into importing countries. Findings related to waning antibodies and re-infection have implications for camel vaccine development, disease management and zoonotic threat. PMID:28050021

  7. Surveillance of tobacco industry retail marketing activities of reduced harm products.

    PubMed

    Slater, Sandy; Giovino, Gary; Chaloupka, Frank

    2008-01-01

    With the introduction of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) and the interest in studying tobacco harm reduction, sound research and surveillance are needed to examine and understand the distribution and availability of PREPs in communities, as well as the tobacco industry's marketing practices surrounding these products. We examined the availability and marketing of PREPs in a national sample of tobacco retail stores. We also compared the price of PREPs to those of premium brand cigarettes and examined the distribution of PREPs in comparison with premium brand cigarettes by store type, urbanization, region, and race/ethnicity. We found that PREPs are not widely available, are priced similarly to leading cigarette brands, and have few promotional offers. We also found some significant differences in the distribution of PREPs and cigarettes, as well as in the distribution of Ariva and Omni, by store type and community demographics. The fact that this study used data collected nationally emphasizes the importance of these findings and helps shed some light on the tobacco industry's PREP marketing strategies. This study's national sample provides a unique perspective that needs to be replicated if and when other PREPs are widely marketed.

  8. The activity of French Research Ethics Committees and characteristics of biomedical research protocols involving humans: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Decullier, Evelyne; Lhéritier, Véronique; Chapuis, François

    2005-01-01

    Background Clinical trials throughout the world must be evaluated by research ethics committees. No one has yet attempted to clearly quantify at the national level the activity of ethics committees and describe the characteristics of the protocols submitted. The objectives of this study were to describe 1) the workload and the activity of Research Ethics Committees in France, and 2) the characteristics of protocols approved on a nation-wide basis. Methods Retrospective cohort of 976 protocols approved by a representative sample of 25/48 of French Research Ethics Committees in 1994. Protocols characteristics (design, study size, investigator), number of revisions requested by the ethics committee before approval, time to approval and number of amendments after approval were collected for each protocol by trained research assistant using the committee's files and archives. Results Thirty-one percent of protocols were approved with no modifications requested in 16 days (95% CI: 14–17). The number of revisions requested by the committee, and amendments submitted by the investigator was on average respectively 39 (95% CI: 25–53) and 37 (95% CI: 27–46), per committee and per year. When revisions were requested, the main reasons were related to information to the patient (28%) and consent modalities (18%). Drugs were the object of research in 68% of the protocols examined. The majority of the research was national (80%) with a predominance of single-centre studies. Workload per protocol has been estimated at twelve and half hours on average for administrative support and at eleven and half hours for expertise. Conclusion The estimated workload justifies specific and independent administrative and financial support for Research Ethics Committees. PMID:16229743

  9. Recognizing suspicious activities in infrared imagery using appearance-based features and the theory of hidden conditional random fields for outdoor perimeter surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogotis, Savvas; Palaskas, Christos; Ioannidis, Dimosthenis; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Likothanassis, Spiros

    2015-11-01

    This work aims to present an extended framework for automatically recognizing suspicious activities in outdoor perimeter surveilling systems based on infrared video processing. By combining size-, speed-, and appearance-based features, like the local phase quantization and the histograms of oriented gradients, actions of small duration are recognized and used as input, along with spatial information, for modeling target activities using the theory of hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs). HCRFs are used to classify an observation sequence into the most appropriate activity label class, thus discriminating high-risk activities like trespassing from zero risk activities, such as loitering outside the perimeter. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated with experimental results in various scenarios that represent suspicious activities in perimeter surveillance systems.

  10. Incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food - foodborne diseases active surveillance network, 10 U.S. sites, 1996-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-04-19

    Foodborne diseases are an important public health problem in the United States. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network* (FoodNet) conducts surveillance in 10 U.S. sites for all laboratory-confirmed infections caused by selected pathogens transmitted commonly through food to quantify them and monitor their incidence. This report summarizes 2012 preliminary surveillance data and describes trends since 1996. A total of 19,531 infections, 4,563 hospitalizations, and 68 deaths associated with foodborne diseases were reported in 2012. For most infections, incidence was highest among children aged <5 years; the percentage of persons hospitalized and the percentage who died were highest among persons aged ≥65 years. In 2012, compared with the 2006-2008 period, the overall incidence of infection† was unchanged, and the estimated incidence of infections caused by Campylobacter and Vibrio increased. These findings highlight the need for targeted action to address food safety gaps.

  11. Bacterial Enteric Infections Among Older Adults in the United States: Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 1996–2012

    PubMed Central

    Scallan, Elaine; Crim, Stacy M.; Runkle, Arthur; Henao, Olga L.; Mahon, Barbara E.; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Griffin, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing segment of the population—adults aged ≥65 years—is more susceptible than younger adults to certain enteric (including foodborne) infections and experience more severe disease. Materials and Methods Using data on laboratory-confirmed infections from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), we describe trends in the incidence of Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, and nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in adults aged ≥65 years over time and by age group and sex. We used data from FoodNet and other sources to estimate the total number of illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths in the United States caused by these infections each year using a statistical model to adjust for underdiagnosis (taking into account medical care-seeking, stool sample submission, laboratory practices, and test sensitivity). Results From 1996 to 2012, 4 pathogens caused 21,405 laboratory-confirmed infections among older adults residing in the FoodNet surveillance area; 49.3% were hospitalized, and 2.6% died. The average annual rate of infection was highest for Salmonella (12.8/100,000) and Campylobacter (12.1/100,000). Salmonella and Listeria led as causes of death. Among older adults, rates of laboratory-confirmed infection and the percentage of patients who were hospitalized and who died generally increased with age. A notable exception was the rate of Campylobacter infections, which decreased with increasing age. Adjusting for underdiagnosis, we estimated that these pathogens caused about 226,000 illnesses (~600/100,000) annually among U.S. adults aged ≥65 years, resulting in ~9700 hospitalizations and ~500 deaths. Conclusion Campylobacter, E. coli O157, Listeria, and Salmonella are major contributors to illness in older adults, highlighting the value of effective and targeted intervention. PMID:26067228

  12. Active buildings: modelling physical activity and movement in office buildings. An observational study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lee; Ucci, Marcella; Marmot, Alexi; Spinney, Richard; Laskowski, Marek; Sawyer, Alexia; Konstantatou, Marina; Hamer, Mark; Ambler, Gareth; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Health benefits of regular participation in physical activity are well documented but population levels are low. Office layout, and in particular the number and location of office building destinations (eg, print and meeting rooms), may influence both walking time and characteristics of sitting time. No research to date has focused on the role that the layout of the indoor office environment plays in facilitating or inhibiting step counts and characteristics of sitting time. The primary aim of this study was to investigate associations between office layout and physical activity, as well as sitting time using objective measures. Methods and analysis Active buildings is a unique collaboration between public health, built environment and computer science researchers. The study involves objective monitoring complemented by a larger questionnaire arm. UK office buildings will be selected based on a variety of features, including office floor area and number of occupants. Questionnaires will include items on standard demographics, well-being, physical activity behaviour and putative socioecological correlates of workplace physical activity. Based on survey responses, approximately 30 participants will be recruited from each building into the objective monitoring arm. Participants will wear accelerometers (to monitor physical activity and sitting inside and outside the office) and a novel tracking device will be placed in the office (to record participant location) for five consecutive days. Data will be analysed using regression analyses, as well as novel agent-based modelling techniques. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and scientific presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University College London Research Ethics Committee (Reference number 4400/001). PMID:24227873

  13. Influence of the protocol of fibroin extraction on the antibiotic activities of the constructed composites.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; Atwa, Nagwa; Ali, Ghareib W

    The effect of the solvents for silk fibroin (SF) extraction on its antimicrobial activity was studied. Extraction protocols were performed using LiBr (SFL) and Ajisawa's reagent (CaCl2:ethanol:H2O) (SFC). The morphological and structural characteristics of the extracted SF and their composites were assessed. Corresponding bactericidal activities against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Pseudomonas aeroginosa (ATCC 27853) were performed. The resulting solutions were either casted into films or individually incorporated into composites of silver nanoparticles (NS) embedded into chitosan fragments (Cs) through γ-irradiation. Films of SF, obtained by using the two solvents, as well as the final prepared composites of SF, NS and Cs were analyzed using XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM and zeta potential at several pH values. The band gap values were calculated. The results proved that, although SFC consumed shorter gelation time, yet SFL exerted higher antibiotic activity against the tested microorganisms. Moreover, the final composites had the ability to significantly reduce the growth of these medically relevant bacteria and are, therefore, recommended as a novel natural antibacterial biomaterial for several biomedical applications.

  14. A Pilot Study for Applying an Extravehicular Activity Exercise Prebreathe Protocol to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Kristin K.; Johnson, Anyika N.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Gernhardt, Michael; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Foster, Philip P.

    2000-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a serious risk to astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA). To reduce this risk, the addition of ten minutes of moderate exercise (75% VO2pk) during prebreathe has been shown to decrease the total prebreathe time from 4 to 2 hours and to decrease the incidence of DCS. The overall purpose of this pilot study was to develop an exercise protocol using flight hardware and an in-flight physical fitness cycle test to perform prebreathe exercise before an EVA. Eleven subjects volunteered to participate in this study. The first objective of this study was to compare the steady-state heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) from a submaximal arm and leg exercise (ALE) session with those predicted from a maximal ALE test. The second objective was to compare the steady-state HR and V02 from a submaximal elastic tube and leg exercise (TLE) session with those predicted from the maximal ALE test. The third objective involved a comparison of the maximal ALE test with a maximal leg-only (LE) test to conform to the in- flight fitness assessment test. The 75% VO2pk target HR from the LE test was significantly less than the target HR from the ALE test. Prescribing exercise using data from the maximal ALE test resulted in the measured submaximal values being higher than predicted VO2 and HR. The results of this pilot study suggest that elastic tubing is valid during EVA prebreathe as a method of arm exercise with the flight leg ergometer and it is recommended that prebreathe countermeasure exercise protocol incorporate this method.

  15. Immunoglobulin D enhances immune surveillance by activating antimicrobial, proinflammatory and B cell-stimulating programs in basophils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kang; Xu, Weifeng; Wilson, Melanie; He, Bing; Miller, Norman W; Bengtén, Eva; Edholm, Eva-Stina; Santini, Paul A; Rath, Poonam; Chiu, April; Cattalini, Marco; Litzman, Jiri; B Bussel, James; Huang, Bihui; Meini, Antonella; Riesbeck, Kristian; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Plebani, Alessandro; Cerutti, Andrea

    2009-08-01

    Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is an enigmatic antibody isotype that mature B cells express together with IgM through alternative RNA splicing. Here we report active T cell-dependent and T cell-independent IgM-to-IgD class switching in B cells of the human upper respiratory mucosa. This process required activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and generated local and circulating IgD-producing plasmablasts reactive to respiratory bacteria. Circulating IgD bound to basophils through a calcium-mobilizing receptor that induced antimicrobial, opsonizing, inflammatory and B cell-stimulating factors, including cathelicidin, interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-4 and B cell-activating factor (BAFF), after IgD crosslinking. By showing dysregulation of IgD class-switched B cells and 'IgD-armed' basophils in autoinflammatory syndromes with periodic fever, our data indicate that IgD orchestrates an ancestral surveillance system at the interface between immunity and inflammation.

  16. Treatment trends for retinopathy of prematurity in the UK: active surveillance study of infants at risk

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Gillian G W; Xing, Wen; Butler, Lucilla; Long, Vernon; Reddy, Aravind

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the incidence of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring treatment and describe current treatment patterns in the UK. Design Nationwide population-based case ascertainment study via the British Ophthalmic Surveillance Unit and a national collaborative ROP special interest group. Practitioners completed a standardised case report form (CRF). Setting All paediatric ophthalmologists providing screening and/or treatment for retinopathy in the UK were invited to take part. Participants Any baby with ROP treated or referred for treatment between 1 December 2013 and 30 November 2014, treated with laser, cryotherapy, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor or vitrectomy/scleral buckling, or a combination. Main outcome measure Incidence of ROP requiring treatment. Results We received 370 CRFs; 327 were included. Denominator from epidemiological data: 8112 infants with birth weight of <1500 g. The incidence of ROP requiring treatment was 4% (327/8112, 95% CI 3.6% to 4.5%). Median gestational age was 25 weeks (IQR 24.3–26.1), and median birth weight 706 g (IQR 620–821). Median age at first treatment was 80 days (IQR 71–96). 204 right eyes (62.39%) had type 1 ROP, and 27 (8.26%) had aggressive posterior ROP. Infants were also treated for milder disease: 9 (2.75%) right eyes were treated for type 2 ROP, and 74 (22.63%) for disease milder than type 1 with plus or preplus, which we defined here as ‘type 2 plus’ disease. First-line treatment was diode laser photoablation of the avascular retina in 90.5% and injection of VEGF inhibitor in 8%. Conclusions ROP treatment incidence in the UK is 2.5 times higher than previously estimated. 8% of treated infants receive intravitreal VEGF inhibitor, currently unlicensed. Research is needed urgently to establish safety and efficacy of this approach. Earlier treatment and increasing numbers of surviving premature infants require an increase in appropriate eye care facilities and

  17. Chemical activation of in vitro matured dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) oocytes: optimization of protocols.

    PubMed

    Wani, N A

    2008-03-15

    obtained was higher (P<0.05) in oocytes activated after 28 h of maturation when compared with oocytes activated after 32, 36, 40, 44 and 48 h of maturation. In conclusion, a protocol for chemical activation of dromedary camel oocytes with ionomycine/6-DMAP is demonstrated and optimized in the present study for further use in the development of assisted reproductive techniques in this species.

  18. Cross-layer active predictive congestion control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jiangwen; Xu, Xiaofeng; Feng, Renjian; Wu, Yinfeng

    2009-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), there are numerous factors that may cause network congestion problems, such as the many-to-one communication modes, mutual interference of wireless links, dynamic changes of network topology and the memory-restrained characteristics of nodes. All these factors result in a network being more vulnerable to congestion. In this paper, a cross-layer active predictive congestion control scheme (CL-APCC) for improving the performance of networks is proposed. Queuing theory is applied in the CL-APCC to analyze data flows of a single-node according to its memory status, combined with the analysis of the average occupied memory size of local networks. It also analyzes the current data change trends of local networks to forecast and actively adjust the sending rate of the node in the next period. In order to ensure the fairness and timeliness of the network, the IEEE 802.11 protocol is revised based on waiting time, the number of the node's neighbors and the original priority of data packets, which dynamically adjusts the sending priority of the node. The performance of CL-APCC, which is evaluated by extensive simulation experiments. is more efficient in solving the congestion in WSNs. Furthermore, it is clear that the proposed scheme has an outstanding advantage in terms of improving the fairness and lifetime of networks.

  19. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  20. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Michael S.; Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A.

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  1. [Worker's Health Surveillance

    PubMed

    Machado

    1997-01-01

    This paper is part of a broader discussion on the need for more in-depth study of workers' health surveillance practices, which are most often developed empirically, without well-defined theoretical or technical foundations. The paper presents a concept of surveillance in workers' health as a fulcrum for actions in the relationship between the work process and health. It emphasizes the exposure-based perspective involved in the epidemiological approach. Risk situations and effects are placed in spatial and technological context. The model provides an interdisciplinary approach with a technological, social, and epidemiological basis in a three-dimensional structure. A matrix for planning actions in workers' health surveillance is also presented, focusing on the connections between effects, risks, territory, and activities.

  2. FY 1994 annual summary report of the surveillance and maintenance activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) Program was initiated to manage former waste management and environmental research sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals. The S and M Program is responsible for managing designated sites/facilities from the end of their operating lives until final disposition or site stabilization. To effectively manage and perform the various S and M Program responsibilities, five summary-level work breakdown structure (WBS) elements have been established: S and M Preliminary Investigations, Special Projects, Routine S and M, Inactive Groundwater Wells, and Project Management. Routine S and M activities were conducted as scheduled throughout fiscal years (FY) 1994 at applicable inactive waste management (WM) and other contaminated areas. Overall, the ER S and M Program maintains 47 facilities, performs vegetation maintenance on approximately 230 acres, maintains 54 inactive tanks, and provides overall site management on over 700 acres. In addition to the routine S and M activities, detailed site inspections were conducted at established frequencies on appropriate sites in the ER S and M Program. This document provides a summary of the FY 1994 ORNL ER S and M Program accomplishments.

  3. Cognitive and Affective Representations of Active Surveillance as a Treatment Option for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kathleen D; Li, Hsin H; Mader, Emily M; Stewart, Telisa M; Morley, Christopher P; Formica, Margaret K; Perrapato, Scott D; Seigne, John D; Hyams, Elias S; Irwin, Brian H; Mosher, Terry; Hegel, Mark T

    2016-06-29

    Benefits of early diagnosis and treatment remain debatable for men with low-risk prostate cancer. Active surveillance (AS) is an alternative to treatment. The goal of AS is to identify patients whose cancer is progressing rapidly while avoiding treatment in the majority of patients. The purpose of this study was to explore cognitive and affective representations of AS within a clinical environment that promotes AS a viable option for men with low-risk prostate cancer. Participants included patients for whom AS and active treatment were equally viable options, as well as practitioners who were involved in consultations for prostate cancer. Data were generated from semistructured interviews and audits of consultation notes and were analyzed using thematic analysis. Nineteen patients and 16 practitioners completed a semistructured interview. Patients generally viewed AS as a temporary strategy that was largely equated with inaction. There was variation in the degree to which inaction was viewed as warranted or favorable. Patient perceptions of AS were generally malleable and able to be influenced by information from trusted sources. Encouraging slow deliberation and multiple consultations may facilitate greater understanding and acceptance of AS as a viable treatment option for low-risk prostate cancer.

  4. Western equine encephalitis surveillance in Utah.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, K H; Dickson, S L; Bailey, A

    1986-06-01

    The history of WEE surveillance in Utah is reviewed, beginning with the 1933 outbreak involving 3,958 horses. The step by step formation of the Utah Mosquito Abatement Associations surveillance program from 1957 to the present is discussed. Results of an enlarged sentinel chicken flock surveillance program in Utah during 1983 (3 sero-conversions in September), 1984 and 1985 (no sero-conversion) show the lack of WEE activity in the surveillance area.

  5. The Study of Active Monitoring in Sweden (SAMS): A randomized study comparing two different follow-up schedules for active surveillance of low-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Stefan; Holmberg, Erik; Holmberg, Lars; Johansson, Eva; Josefsson, Andreas; Nilsson, Annika; Nyberg, Maria; Robinsson, David; Sandberg, Jonas; Sandblom, Dag; Stattin, Pär

    2013-01-01

    Objective Only a minority of patients with low-risk prostate cancer needs treatment, but the methods for optimal selection of patients for treatment are not established. This article describes the Study of Active Monitoring in Sweden (SAMS), which aims to improve those methods. Material and methods SAMS is a prospective, multicentre study of active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer. It consists of a randomized part comparing standard rebiopsy and follow-up with an extensive initial rebiopsy coupled with less intensive follow-up and no further scheduled biopsies (SAMS-FU), as well as an observational part (SAMS-ObsQoL). Quality of life is assessed with questionnaires and compared with patients receiving primary curative treatment. SAMS-FU is planned to randomize 500 patients and SAMS-ObsQoL to include at least 500 patients during 5 years. The primary endpoint is conversion to active treatment. The secondary endpoints include symptoms, distant metastases and mortality. All patients will be followed for 10–15 years. Results Inclusion started in October 2011. In March 2013, 148 patients were included at 13 Swedish urological centres. Conclusions It is hoped that the results of SAMS will contribute to fewer patients with indolent, low-risk prostate cancer receiving unnecessary treatment and more patients on active surveillance who need treatment receiving it when the disease is still curable. The less intensive investigational follow-up in the SAMS-FU trial would reduce the healthcare resources allocated to this large group of patients if it replaced the present standard schedule. PMID:23883427

  6. N-nitroso-N-ethylurea activates DNA damage surveillance pathways and induces transformation in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The DNA damage checkpoint signalling cascade sense damaged DNA and coordinates cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and/or apoptosis. However, it is still not well understood how the signalling system differentiates between different kinds of DNA damage. N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEU), a DNA ethylating agent induces both transversions and transition mutations. Methods Immunoblot and comet assays were performed to detect DNA breaks and activation of the canonical checkpoint signalling kinases following NEU damage upto 2 hours. To investigate whether mismatch repair played a role in checkpoint activation, knock-down studies were performed while flow cytometry analysis was done to understand whether the activation of the checkpoint kinases was cell cycle phase specific. Finally, breast epithelial cells were grown as 3-dimensional spheroid cultures to study whether NEU can induce upregulation of vimentin as well as disrupt cell polarity of the breast acini, thus causing transformation of epithelial cells in culture. Results We report a novel finding that NEU causes activation of major checkpoint signalling kinases, Chk1 and Chk2. This activation is temporally controlled with Chk2 activation preceding Chk1 phosphorylation, and absence of cross talk between the two parallel signalling pathways, ATM and ATR. Damage caused by NEU leads to the temporal formation of both double strand and single strand breaks. Activation of checkpoints following NEU damage is cell cycle phase dependent wherein Chk2 is primarily activated during G2-M phase whilst in S phase, there is immediate Chk1 phosphorylation and delayed Chk2 response. Surprisingly, the mismatch repair system does not play a role in checkpoint activation, at doses and duration of NEU used in the experiments. Interestingly, NEU caused disruption of the well-formed polarised spheroid archithecture and upregulation of vimentin in three-dimensional breast acini cultures of non-malignant breast epithelial cells upon NEU

  7. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  8. Metabolic and Energy Cost of Sitting, Standing, and a Novel Sitting/Stepping Protocol in Recreationally Active College Students

    PubMed Central

    FOUNTAINE, CHARLES J.; JOHANN, JOSH; SKALKO, CRAIG; LIGUORI, GARY A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in metabolic and energy cost (MEC) of college students while seated, standing, and during a sitting/stepping protocol. Participants were assessed via indirect calorimetry for 20 min in each of the following conditions: 1) seated in a standard office chair, 2) standing in place, and 3) a sitting/stepping protocol in which participants performed 1 min of stepping in place at 90 bpm, sat for 9 min, then repeated the stepping and sitting sequence once more. Participants completed each of the 3 trials in the aforementioned order, preceded with a 3 min acclimation period in each condition. A significant difference in MEC was observed between the 3 conditions, p < 0.001. Pairwise comparisons indicated that the sitting/stepping protocol resulted in significantly greater MEC than the seated and standing conditions (p < 0.001). Additionally, the standing protocol resulted in significantly greater MEC than the seated protocol (p < 0.001). The significant differences and large effect sizes between conditions indicate that interspersing sedentary bouts with brief activity can substantially increase MEC. Broader application of these findings may provide health promotion professionals with novel strategies to reduce sedentary behavior and improve health. PMID:27182423

  9. Intermediate and Longer-Term Outcomes From a Prospective Active-Surveillance Program for Favorable-Risk Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; Mamawala, Mufaddal; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Landis, Patricia; Wolf, Sacha; Trock, Bruce J.; Carter, H. Ballentine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess long-term outcomes of men with favorable-risk prostate cancer in a prospective, active-surveillance program. Methods Curative intervention was recommended for disease reclassification to higher cancer grade or volume on prostate biopsy. Primary outcomes were overall, cancer-specific, and metastasis-free survival. Secondary outcomes were the cumulative incidence of reclassification and curative intervention. Factors associated with grade reclassification and curative intervention were evaluated in a Cox proportional hazards model. Results A total of 1,298 men (median age, 66 years) with a median follow-up of 5 years (range, 0.01 to 18.00 years) contributed 6,766 person-years of follow-up since 1995. Overall, cancer-specific, and metastasis-free survival rates were 93%, 99.9%, and 99.4%, respectively, at 10 years and 69%, 99.9%, and 99.4%, respectively, at 15 years. The cumulative incidence of grade reclassification was 26% at 10 years and was 31% at 15 years; cumulative incidence of curative intervention was 50% at 10 years and was 57% at 15 years. The median treatment-free survival was 8.5 years (range, 0.01 to 18 years). Factors associated with grade reclassification were older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.03 for each additional year; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.06), prostate-specific antigen density (HR, 1.21 per 0.1 unit increase; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.46), and greater number of positive biopsy cores (HR, 1.47 for each additional positive core; 95% CI, 1.26 to 1.69). Factors associated with intervention were prostate-specific antigen density (HR, 1.38 per 0.1 unit increase; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.56) and a greater number of positive biopsy cores (HR, 1.35 for one additional positive core; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.53). Conclusion Men with favorable-risk prostate cancer should be informed of the low likelihood of harm from their diagnosis and should be encouraged to consider surveillance rather than curative intervention. PMID:26324359

  10. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging findings in men with low-risk prostate cancer followed using active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Jeffrey K.; Bonekamp, David; Landis, Patricia; Begum, Hosne; Partin, Alan W.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Macura, Katarzyna J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the performance of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying pathological-index (path-index) lesions, defined as cancer present in the same prostate sextant in two separate surveillance biopsies, in men followed within an active surveillance (AS) programme for low-risk prostate cancer (CaP) with extended follow-up. Materials and Methods A total of 50 men, representing >215 person-years of follow-up in an AS programme, who were referred for prostate MRI were randomly chosen to have their images reviewed by a radiologist with expertise in prostate MRI, who was blinded to biopsy results. Index lesions on MRI were defined as a single suspicious lesion ≥10 mm or >2 lesions in a given prostate sextant. Lesions on MRI were considered suspicious if ≥2 abnormal parameters co-registered anatomically. Path-index lesions were defined as cancer present in a given prostate sextant on two separate biopsy sessions. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated to test the performance of MRI for identifying path-index lesions. Clinical and pathological features were compared between men with and without a MRI-index lesion. Results A total of 31 path-index and 13 MRI-index lesions were detected in 22 and 10 patients, respectively. Multiparametric MRI demonstrated excellent specificity and negative predictive value (0.974 and 0.897, respectively) for the detection of path-index lesions. Sensitivity (0.19) and positive predictive value (0.46) were considerably lower. Patients with an index lesion on MRI were younger and less likely to have met the ‘Epstein’ criteria for very low-risk CaP. Compared with men without an MRI lesion, a significant increase in biopsy reclassification was noted for men with a MRI lesion (40 vs 12.5%, P = 0.04). Conclusions A non-suspicious MRI was highly correlated with a lack of path-index lesions in an AS population. Multiparametric MRI may be useful in both the selection and monitoring of patients undergoing

  11. Automatic Association of Chats and Video Tracks for Activity Learning and Recognition in Aerial Video Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Riad I.; Sahin, Cem S.; Blasch, Erik P.; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1) a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2) an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs) and targets of interest (TOIs) by movement type and geolocation; and (3) a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV). VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports. PMID:25340453

  12. Automatic association of chats and video tracks for activity learning and recognition in aerial video surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Riad I; Sahin, Cem S; Blasch, Erik P; Rhodes, Bradley J; Wang, Tao

    2014-10-22

    We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1) a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2) an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs) and targets of interest (TOIs) by movement type and geolocation; and (3) a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV). VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports.

  13. [Study of the health surveillance activities of the C.P.T. of Bergamo].

    PubMed

    Simat, D; Ramenghi, D; Riva, M M; Mosconi, G

    2006-01-01

    A "customer satisfaction" research about the approving of the sanitary watching activities provided by the "Comitato paritetico territoriale" of Bergamo and the Department of Occupational Medicine of "Ospedali Riuniti" in Bergamo, comprehensive of the diferent points of view by the different subjects involved in the process, in order to estimate and improve the facilities provided.

  14. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS PROTOCOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, T; P Fledderman, P

    2007-02-09

    Radiological sampling and analyses are performed to collect data for a variety of specific reasons covering a wide range of projects. These activities include: Effluent monitoring; Environmental surveillance; Emergency response; Routine ambient monitoring; Background assessments; Nuclear license termination; Remediation; Deactivation and decommissioning (D&D); and Waste management. In this chapter, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs at nuclear operating facilities and radiological sampling and analysis plans for remediation and D&D activities will be discussed.

  15. Intraprostatic locations of tumor foci of higher grade missed by diagnostic prostate biopsy among potential candidates for active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangmo; Lee, Jung Keun; Choe, Gheeyoung; Hong, Sung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    To establish optimal biopsy scheme for selection of candidates for active surveillance (AS) among prostate cancer (PCa) patients, information on topographical distribution of tumor foci of higher grade missed by contemporary biopsy amongst potential candidates of AS would certainly be useful. Thus we analyzed topographic distribution of tumor foci by examining prostatectomy specimens in 444 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for low risk PCa. Anterior and posterior prostate areas were demarcated by a horizontal line drawn at midpoint of prostatic urethra. Among 444 subjects, patients with upgrading showed relatively higher prevalence of index tumor foci in anterior prostate than those without upgrading, though not reaching statistical significance (p = 0.252). Meanwhile, among 135 (30.4%) patients with very low risk PCa, patients with upgrading showed significantly higher prevalence of index tumor foci in anterior prostate than those without upgrading (52.2% vs 33.8%; p = 0.031). In conclusions, tumor foci of higher grade missed by diagnostic biopsy were mostly located in anterior prostate among very low risk PCa patients. Such finding would be concrete evidence to support the notion that more efforts are needed to increase accuracy in detecting tumor foci in anterior prostate among potential candidates for AS. PMID:27827421

  16. Expert consensus document: Semantics in active surveillance for men with localized prostate cancer - results of a modified Delphi consensus procedure.

    PubMed

    Bruinsma, Sophie M; Roobol, Monique J; Carroll, Peter R; Klotz, Laurence; Pickles, Tom; Moore, Caroline M; Gnanapragasam, Vincent J; Villers, Arnauld; Rannikko, Antti; Valdagni, Riccardo; Frydenberg, Mark; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Filson, Christopher P; Bangma, Chris H

    2017-03-14

    Active surveillance (AS) is broadly described as a management option for men with low-risk prostate cancer, but semantic heterogeneity exists in both the literature and in guidelines. To address this issue, a panel of leading prostate cancer specialists in the field of AS participated in a consensus-forming project using a modified Delphi method to reach international consensus on definitions of terms related to this management option. An iterative three-round sequence of online questionnaires designed to address 61 individual items was completed by each panel member. Consensus was considered to be reached if ≥70% of the experts agreed on a definition. To facilitate a common understanding among all experts involved and resolve potential ambiguities, a face-to-face consensus meeting was held between Delphi survey rounds two and three. Convenience sampling was used to construct the panel of experts. In total, 12 experts from Australia, France, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, Japan, the UK, Canada and the USA participated. By the end of the Delphi process, formal consensus was achieved for 100% (n = 61) of the terms and a glossary was then developed. Agreement between international experts has been reached on relevant terms and subsequent definitions regarding AS for patients with localized prostate cancer. This standard terminology could support multidisciplinary communication, reduce the extent of variations in clinical practice and optimize clinical decision making.

  17. Surveillance of waste disposal activity at sea using satellite ocean color imagers: GOCI and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Gi Hoon; Yang, Dong Beom; Lee, Hyun-Mi; Yang, Sung Ryull; Chung, Hee Woon; Kim, Chang Joon; Kim, Young-Il; Chung, Chang Soo; Ahn, Yu-Hwan; Park, Young-Je; Moon, Jeong-Eon

    2012-09-01

    Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua observations of the variation in ocean color at the sea surface were utilized to monitor the impact of nutrient-rich sewage sludge disposal in the oligotrophic area of the Yellow Sea. MODIS revealed that algal blooms persisted in the spring annually at the dump site in the Yellow Sea since year 2000 to the present. A number of implications of using products of the satellite ocean color imagers were exploited here based on the measurements in the Yellow Sea. GOCI observes almost every hour during the daylight period, every day since June 2011. Therefore, GOCI provides a powerful tool to monitor waste disposal at sea in real time. Tracking of disposal activity from a large tanker was possible hour by hour from the GOCI timeseries images compared to MODIS. Smaller changes in the color of the ocean surface can be easily observed, as GOCI resolves images at smaller scales in space and time in comparison to polar orbiting satellites, e.g., MODIS. GOCI may be widely used to monitor various marine activities in the sea, including waste disposal activity from ships.

  18. Safety and Acceptability of the PrePex Device When Used in Routine Male Circumcision Service Delivery During Active Surveillance in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mavhu, Webster; Ncube, Getrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Madidi, Ngonidzashe; Keatinge, Jo; Dhodho, Efison; Samkange, Christopher A.; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Mangwiro, Tonderayi; Mugurungi, Owen; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Cowan, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Male circumcision devices have the potential to accelerate voluntary medical male circumcision roll-out, with PrePex being one promising device. Here, we present findings on safety and acceptability from active surveillance of the implementation of PrePex among 1000 males circumcised in Zimbabwe. Methods: The first 1000 men consecutively circumcised using PrePex during routine service delivery were actively followed up. Outcome measures included PrePex uptake, attendance for postcircumcision visits, and adverse events (AEs). A survey was conducted among 500 consecutive active surveillance clients to assess acceptability and satisfaction with PrePex. Results: A total of 2156 men aged 18 years or older were circumcised across the 6 PrePex active surveillance sites. Of these, 1000 (46.4%) were circumcised using PrePex. Among them, 4 (0.4%) self-removals that required surgery (severe AEs) were observed. Six (0.6%) removals by providers (moderate AEs) did not require surgery. A further 280 (28%) AEs were mild or moderate pain during device removal. There were also 12 (1.2%) moderate AEs unrelated to pain. All AEs resolved without sequelae. There was high adherence to follow-up appointments, with 97.7% of clients attending the scheduled day 7 visit. Acceptability of PrePex was high among survey participants, 93% indicated willingness to recommend the device to peers. Of note, 95.8% of respondents reported experiencing pain when the device was being removed. Additionally, 85.2% reported experiencing odor while wearing the device or during removal. Conclusions: Active surveillance of the first 1000 men circumcised using PrePex suggests that the device is both safe and acceptable when used in routine service delivery. PMID:27331593

  19. Microglial P2Y12 Receptors Regulate Microglial Activation and Surveillance during Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Nan; Eyo, Ukpong B.; Murugan, Madhuvika; Peng, Jiyun; Matta, Sanjana; Dong, Hailong; Wu, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microglial cells are critical in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain and several microglial receptors have been proposed to mediate this process. Of these receptors, the P2Y12 receptor is a unique purinergic receptor that is exclusively expressed by microglia in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we set forth to investigate the role of P2Y12 receptors in microglial electrophysiological and morphological (static and dynamic) activation during spinal nerve transection (SNT)-induced neuropathic pain in mice. First, we found that a genetic deficiency of the P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12−/− mice) ameliorated pain hypersensitivities during the initiation phase of neuropathic pain. Next, we characterized both the electrophysiological and morphological properties of microglia in the superficial spinal cord dorsal horn following SNT injury. We show dramatic alterations including a peak at 3 days post injury in microglial electrophysiology while high resolution two-photon imaging revealed significant changes of both static and dynamic microglial morphological properties by 7 days post injury. Finally, in P2Y12−/− mice, these electrophysiological and morphological changes were ameliorated suggesting roles for P2Y12 receptors in SNT-induced microglial activation. Our results therefore indicate that P2Y12 receptors regulate microglial electrophysiological as well as static and dynamic microglial properties after peripheral nerve injury, suggesting that the microglial P2Y12 receptor could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:26576724

  20. Comparative in vitro activity of gemifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and ofloxacin in a North American surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Hoban, D J; Bouchillon, S K; Johnson, J L; Zhanel, G G; Butler, D L; Miller, L A; Poupard, J A

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of gemifloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone, was compared to three marketed fluoroquinolones; ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and ofloxacin against over 4,000 recent clinical isolates covering 29 species isolated in the United States and Canada between 1997-1999. Based on MIC(90)s, gemifloxacin was the most potent fluoroquinolone tested against a majority of Gram-positive isolates: Streptococcus pneumoniae, penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae, macrolide resistant S. pneumoniae, ciprofloxacin non-susceptible (MIC > or = 4 microg/mL) S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, viridans streptococci, Enterococcus faecalis, methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. hemolyticus, and S. saprophyticus. Against Enterobacteriaceae and aerobic non-Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negatives, gemifloxacin was usually comparable to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin and more potent than ofloxacin for the following species: Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, Providencia stuartii, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter lwoffii, A. baumannii, Burkholderia cepacia, Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Gemifloxacin was generally 16-64 fold more potent than the other fluoroquinolones tested against Gram-positive organisms and retains excellent activity comparable with ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin against a majority of Gram-negative pathogens.

  1. Variations in Repetition Duration and Repetition Numbers Influence Muscular Activation and Blood Lactate Response in Protocols Equalized by Time Under Tension.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Lucas T; Martins-Costa, Hugo C; Diniz, Rodrigo C R; Lima, Fernando V; Andrade, André G P; Tourino, Frank D; Bemben, Michael G; Chagas, Mauro H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of protocols equalized by the time under tension (TUT) but composed of different repetition durations and repetitions numbers on muscle activation and blood lactate concentration. Twenty-two males with previous experience in resistance training performed 2 training protocols (A and B) with the Smith machine bench press exercise, both with 3 sets, 3 minutes' rest, and 60% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Protocol A consisted of 6 repetitions with a 6-second repetition duration for each repetition, whereas in Protocol B the subjects performed 12 repetitions with a 3-second repetition duration for each repetition. Muscular activation was measured in the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, and triceps brachii muscles while performing the 2 protocols, and the normalized root mean square of the electromyographic signal (EMGRMS) was calculated for each set. Blood lactate concentrations were measured during and until 12 minutes after the completion of each protocol. The results showed that the EMGRMS of all muscles increased during the sets and was higher in Protocol B when compared with Protocol A. Likewise, blood lactate concentrations also increased throughout the sets and were higher in Protocol B both during and after the completion of each training session. The data obtained in this study show that training protocols conducted with the same TUT, but with different configurations, produce distinct neuromuscular and metabolic responses so that performing higher repetition numbers with shorter repetition durations might be a more appropriate strategy to increase muscle activation and blood lactate concentration.

  2. [Post-marketing surveillance of antibacterial activities of cefozopran against various clinical isolates--II. Gram-negative bacteria].

    PubMed

    Igari, Jun; Oguri, Toyoko; Hiramatsu, Nobuyoshi; Akiyama, Kazumitsu; Koyama, Tsuneo

    2003-10-01

    As a post-marketing surveillance, the in vitro antibacterial activities of cefozopran (CZOP), an agent of cephems, against various clinical isolates were yearly evaluated and compared with those of other cephems, oxacephems, carbapenems, monobactams, and penicillins. Changes in CZOP susceptibility among bacteria were also evaluated with the bacterial resistance ratio calculated from the breakpoint MIC. Twenty-five species (4,154 strains) of Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from the clinical materials annually collected from 1996 to 2001, and consisted of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia marcescens, Serratia liquefaciens, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter koseri, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Morganella morganii, Providencia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter Iwoffii, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Bacteroides fragilis group, and Prevotella/Porphyromonas. CZOP preserved its antibacterial activity against M. (B.) catarrhalis (MIC90: 4 micrograms/mL) and showed comparable activity to carbapenems against H. influenzae (MIC90: 1 microgram/mL). The antibacterial activity of CZOP against E. coli was preferable (MIC90: 0.125 microgram/mL) and comparable to those of cefpirome (CPR), cefepime (CFPM), and imipenem (IPM). The MIC90 of CZOP against K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca was 1 and 0.25 microgram/mL, respectively. The MIC90 of CZOP against E. cloacae increased during 6 years (32 to 128 micrograms/mL). The antibacterial activity of CZOP against E. aerogenes was preferable (MIC90: 1 microgram/mL). The antibacterial activities of CZOP against S. marcescens and S. liquefaciens were relatively potent (MIC90: 0.5 and 0.25 microgram/mL) and comparable to those of CPR, CFPM, and carumonam. CZOP preserved comparable antibacterial

  3. Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae as leading causes of pediatric bacterial meningitis in nine Mexican hospitals following 3 years of active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Chacon-Cruz, Enrique; Martinez-Longoria, Cesar Adrian; Llausas-Magana, Eduardo; Luevanos-Velazquez, Antonio; Vazquez-Narvaez, Jorge Alejandro; Beltran, Sandra; Limon-Rojas, Ana Elena; Urtiz-Jeronimo, Fernando; Castaneda-Narvaez, Jose Luis; Otero-Mendoza, Francisco; Aguilar-Del Real, Fernando; Rodriguez-Chagoyan, Jesus; Rivas-Landeros, Rosa Maria; Volker-Soberanes, Maria Luisa; Hinojosa-Robles, Rosa Maria; Arzate-Barbosa, Patricia; Aviles-Benitez, Laura Karina; Elenes-Zamora, Fernando Ivan; Becka, Chandra M.; Ruttimann, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Meningococcal meningitis is reported as a rare condition in Mexico. There are no internationally published studies on bacterial causes of meningitis in the country based on active surveillance. This study focuses on finding the etiology of bacterial meningitis in children from nine Mexican Hospitals. Methods: From January 2010 to February 2013, we conducted a three years of active surveillance for meningitis in nine hospitals throughout Mexico. Active surveillance started at the emergency department for every suspected case, and microbiological studies confirmed/ruled out all potentially bacterial pathogens. We diagnosed based on routine cultures from blood and cerebrospinal fluid (not polymerase chain reaction or other molecular diagnostic tests), and both pneumococcal serotyping and meningococcal serogrouping by using standard methods. Results: Neisseria meningitidis was the leading cause, although 75% of cases occurred in the northwest of the country in Tijuana on the US border. Serogroup C was predominant. Streptococcus pneumoniae followed Neisseria meningitides, but was uniformly distributed throughout the country. Serotype 19A was the most incident but before universal implementation of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Other bacteria were much less common, including Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus agalactiae (these two affecting mostly young infants). Conclusions: Meningococcal meningitis is endemic in Tijuana, Mexico, and vaccination should be seriously considered in that region. Continuous universal vaccination with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine should be nationally performed, and polymerase chain reaction should be included for bacterial detection in all cultures – negative but presumably bacterial meningitis cases. PMID:27551428

  4. Effects of surveillance towed array sensor system (SURTASS) low frequency active sonar on fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Halvorsen, Michele B.; Miller, Diane; Smith, Michael E.; Song, Jiakun; Wysocki, Lidia E.; Hastings, Mardi C.; Kane, Andrew S.; Stein, Peter

    2005-04-01

    We investigated the effects of exposure to Low Frequency Active (LFA) sonar on rainbow trout (a hearing non-specialist related to several endangered salmonids) and channel catfish (a hearing specialist), using an element of the standard SURTASS LFA source array. We measured hearing sensitivity using auditory brainstem response, effects on inner ear structure using scanning electron microscopy, effects on non-auditory tissues using general pathology and histopathology, and behavioral effects with video monitoring. Exposure to 193 dB re 1 microPa (rms received level) in the LFA frequency band for 324 seconds resulted in a TTS of 20 dB at 400 Hz in rainbow trout, with less TTS at 100 and 200 Hz. TTS in catfish ranged from 6 to 12 dB at frequencies from 200 to 1000 Hz. Both species recovered from hearing loss in several days. Inner ears sensory tissues appeared unaffected by acoustic exposure. Gross pathology indicated no damage to non-auditory tissues, including the swim bladder. Both species showed consistent startle responses at sound onsets and changed their position relative to the sound source during exposures. There was no fish death attributable to sound exposure even up to four days post-exposure. [Work supported by Chief of Naval Operations.

  5. Evaluation of a MMW active through-the-wall surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Nicholas C.; Stiefvater, Kenneth

    2002-08-01

    This paper discusses the TWS data collected with a state-of- the-art 100 GHz radar imager developed for law enforcement use by Millivision, PPC. The system collects a cube of data consisting of 16 azimuth elements by 16 elevation elements by 256 range elements. The cube represents 11 degrees by 11 degrees by 25 m of coverage. The relatively narrow field-of- view (fov) was extended by physically moving the antenna in 11 degree segments and collecting data which is stitched together into larger images, e.g. a 3X3 stitched image represents 33 degrees by 33 degrees by 26 m of coverage. Unfortunately, this stitching process required up to 5 minutes to collect a single (3X3) stitched image. Thus, motion had to be simulated. The paper will discuss the phenomenology of the MMW radar return from various objects including walls, wall-corners, desks and other furniture, and persons simulating walking. Successive frames from a simulated move of a man and woman walking will be presented, and the actual movie shown at the presentation. Comments will be offered as to the practicality of active MMW imaging for TWS application.

  6. Assessing digital literacy in web-based physical activity surveillance: the WIN study.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Merly; Morrow, James R; Frierson, Georita M; Bain, Tyson M

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. Investigate relations between demographic characteristics and submission method, Internet or paper, when physical activity behaviors are reported. DESIGN. Observational. SETTING . Metropolitan. SUBJECTS. Adult women (N  =  918) observed weekly for 2 years (total number of weekly reports, 44,963). MEASURES. Independent variables included age, race, education, income, employment status, and Internet skills. Dependent variables were method of submission (Internet or paper) and adherence. ANALYSIS . Logistic regression to analyze weekly odds of submitting data online and meeting study adherence criteria. Model 1 investigated method of submission, model 2 analyzed meeting study's Internet adherence, and model 3 analyzed meeting total adherence regardless of submission method. RESULTS. Whites, those with good Internet skills, and those reporting higher incomes were more likely to log online. Those who were white, older, and reported good Internet skills were more likely to be at least 75% adherent online. Older women were more likely to be adherent regardless of method. Employed women were less likely to log online or be adherent. CONCLUSION . Providing participants with multiple submission methods may reduce potential bias and provide more generalizable results relevant for future Internet-based research.

  7. Exposure of Threatened Accipitridae to Mycobacterium bovis Calls for Active Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Mónica V; Azorín, Beatriz; Peñuela, Rocío G; Albuquerque, Teresa; Botelho, Ana

    2017-03-03

    Anthropogenic activities have cumulatively led to the dramatic decline of world populations of vultures that currently face serious survival challenges in several regions of the world. In Portugal, the three resident species qualify as endangered and are under conservation efforts, mainly in the central east and south-east regions, where habitat protection and artificial feeding stations were implemented. Concurrently, the areas under protection are highly affected by tuberculosis (TB) in cattle and wild ungulates, whose potentially infected carcasses may naturally or artificially be used as feed by local vultures. In this work, we opportunistically surveyed populations of Eurasian griffon (Gyps fulvus) and Eurasian black vulture (Aegypius monachus) for the presence of Mycobacterium bovis. Nine pathogenic mycobacteria, including one M. bovis isolate, were cultured from the oropharynx of nine of the surveyed vultures (n = 55), sampled in recovery centres or in artificial feeding stations. Genotyping of the M. bovis strain indicated spoligotype SB0121, the most frequent type in Portugal, and a unique MIRU-VNTR profile that differed in two loci from the profiles of SB0121 bovine and deer strains from the same geographical area. The M. bovis-positive griffon exhibited poor clinical condition when admitted to the recovery centre; however, clinical evidence of TB was not present. Although the significance of M. bovis isolation in this vulture specimen could not be ascertained and despite the accepted notion that vultures are naturally resistant to microbial pathogens, the sanitary follow-up of Accipitridae vulture populations in TB-hotspot areas is essential to safeguard ongoing conservation efforts and also to evaluate the suitability of standing legislation on deliberate supplementary feeding schemes for menaced birds of prey.

  8. Effects of task complexity on activation of language areas in a semantic decision fMRI protocol.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Tátila Martins; Yasuda, Clarissa Lin; de Campos, Brunno Machado; Balthazar, Marcio L F; Binder, Jeffrey R; Cendes, Fernando

    2016-01-29

    Language tasks used for clinical fMRI studies may be too complex for some patients with cognitive impairments, and "easier" versions are sometimes substituted, though the effects on brain activity of such changes in task complexity are largely unknown. To investigate these differences, we compared two versions of an fMRI language comprehension protocol, with different levels of difficulty, in 24 healthy right-handed adults. The protocol contrasted an auditory word comprehension task (semantic decision) with a nonspeech control task using tone sequences (tone decision). In the "complex" version (CV), the semantic decision task required two complex semantic decisions for each word, and the tone decision task required the participant to count the number of target tones in each sequence. In the "easy" version (EV), the semantic task required only a single easier decision, and the tone task required only detection of the presence or absence of a target tone in each sequence. The protocols were adapted for a Brazilian population. Typical left hemisphere language lateralization was observed in 92% of participants for both CV and EV using the whole-brain lateralization index, and typical language lateralization was also observed for others regions of interest. Task performance was superior on the EV compared to the CV (p=0.014). There were many common areas of activation across the two version; however, the CV produced greater activation in the left superior and middle frontal giri, angular gyrus, and left posterior cingulate gyrus compared to the EV, the majority of which are areas previously identified with language and semantic processing. The EV produced stronger activation only in a small area in the posterior middle temporal gyrus. These results reveal differences between two versions of the protocol and provide evidence that both are useful for language lateralization and worked well for Brazilian population. The complex version produces stronger activation in

  9. EPS Biomarkers Improve Stratification of NCCN Active Surveillance Candidates: Performance of Secretion Capacity and TMPRSS2:ERG Models

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Christopher; Kawachi, Mark; Smith, David D.; Linehan, Jennifer; Babilonia, Gail; Mejia, Rosa; Wilson, Timothy; Smith, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance (AS) is a viable patient option for prostate cancer where a clinical determination of low-risk and presumably organ-confined disease can be made. In an effort to standardize risk stratification schemes, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) has provided guidelines for the AS option. Our purpose was to determine the effectiveness of expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) biomarkers in detecting occult risk factors in NCCN AS candidates. Materials and Methods EPS specimens were obtained prior to Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy (RARP). Secretion capacity biomarkers: total RNA and EPS specimen volume were measured by standard techniques. RNA expression biomarkers: TXNRD1-mRNA, PSA-mRNA, TMPRSS2:ERG fusion mRNA and PCA3-mRNAs were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Results Of the 528 patients from whom EPS was collected, 216 were eligible for AS under NCCN guidelines. Variable Selection in logistic regression identified two models, one featuring Type III and Type VI TMPRSS2:ERG variants, and one featuring two secretion capacity biomarkers. Of the two high performing models, the secretion capacity model was the most effective in detecting patients within this group that were upstaged or both upstaged and upgraded. It reduced the risk of upstaging in patients with a negative test by nearly 8 fold, and reduced the risk of being both upstaged and upgraded by about 5 fold, while doubling the prevalence upstaging in the positive test group. Conclusions Non-invasive EPS testing may improve patient acceptance of AS by dramatically reducing the presence of occult risk factors among patients eligible for AS under NCCN guidelines. PMID:23669563

  10. Increased Incidence of Pathologically Nonorgan Confined Prostate Cancer in African-American Men Eligible for Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Yun-Sok; Salmasi, Amirali; Karellas, Michael; Singer, Eric A.; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the clinicopathologic findings of African-American (AA) and White-American (WA) men with prostate cancer (PCa) who were candidates for active surveillance (AS) and underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS Prospectively maintained database of men who underwent RP from 2 academic centers were analyzed retrospectively. Postoperative pathologic characteristics of patients who met the AS inclusion criteria of the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) were evaluated. After RP, the rate of pathological upstaging and Gleason upgrading were compared between AA and WA men. RESULTS In the AA cohort, 196 and 124 men met the UCSF and NCCN criteria for AS, respectively. With respect to WA patients, 191 and 148 fulfilled the AS criteria for UCSF and NCCN, respectively. AA men had a higher percentage of maximum biopsy core than WA men (15.3%–20.4% vs 11.5%–15.0%, P <.05, respectively) in both cohorts. In addition, a greater proportion of AA men had multiple positive biopsy cores compared to WA men (45.2% vs 33.1%, P = .046) under the NCCN criteria. A higher proportion of AA men were upstaged (≥pT3) compared to WA men (19.4% vs 10.1%, P = .037). A multivariate regression test revealed that age, preoperative PSA, and number of positive cores were independent predictors of more advanced disease (upstaging and/or upgrading) in AA men. CONCLUSION AA men who were candidates for AS criteria had worse clinicopathological features on final surgical pathology thanWA men. These results suggest that a more stringent AS criteria should be considered in AA men with prostate cancer. PMID:23465143

  11. LANL surveillance requirements management and surveillance requirements from NA-12 tasking memo

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, Charles R

    2011-01-25

    Surveillance briefing to NNSA to support a tasking memo from NA-12 on Surveillance requirements. This talk presents the process for developing surveillance requirements, discusses the LANL requirements that were issued as part of that tasking memo, and presents recommendations on Component Evaluation and Planning Committee activities for FY11.

  12. Q-Learning and p-persistent CSMA based rendezvous protocol for cognitive radio networks operating with shared spectrum activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Clifton L.; Biswas, Subir

    2014-06-01

    With an increasing demand for spectrum, dynamic spectrum access (DSA) has been proposed as viable means for providing the flexibility and greater access to spectrum necessary to meet this demand. Within the DSA concept, unlicensed secondary users temporarily "borrow" or access licensed spectrum, while respecting the licensed primary user's rights to that spectrum. As key enablers for DSA, cognitive radios (CRs) are based on software-defined radios which allow them to sense, learn, and adapt to the spectrum environment. These radios can operate independently and rapidly switch channels. Thus, the initial setup and maintenance of cognitive radio networks are dependent upon the ability of CR nodes to find each other, in a process known as rendezvous, and create a link on a common channel for the exchange of data and control information. In this paper, we propose a novel rendezvous protocol, known as QLP, which is based on Q-learning and the p-persistent CSMA protocol. With the QLP protocol, CR nodes learn which channels are best for rendezvous and thus adapt their behavior to visit those channels more frequently. We demonstrate through simulation that the QLP protocol provides a rendevous capability for DSA environments with different dynamics of PU activity, while attempting to achieve the following performance goals: (1) minimize the average time-to-rendezvous, (2) maximize system throughput, (3) minimize primary user interference, and (4) minimize collisions among CR nodes.

  13. Improving surveillance of sexually transmitted infections using mandatory electronic clinical reporting: the genitourinary medicine clinic activity dataset, England, 2009 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Savage, E J; Mohammed, H; Leong, G; Duffell, S; Hughes, G

    2014-12-04

    A new electronic surveillance system for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was introduced in England in 2009. The genitourinary medicine clinic activity dataset (GUMCAD) is a mandatory, disaggregated, pseudo-anonymised data return submitted by all STI clinics across England. The dataset includes information on all STI diagnoses made and services provided alongside demographic characteristics for every patient attendance at a clinic. The new system enables the timely analysis and publication of routine STI data, detailed analyses of risk groups and longitudinal analyses of clinic attendees. The system offers flexibility so new codes can be introduced to help monitor outbreaks or unusual STI activity. From January 2009 to December 2013 inclusive, over twenty-five million records from a total of 6,668,648 patients of STI clinics have been submitted. This article describes the successful implementation of this new surveillance system and the types of epidemiological outputs and analyses that GUMCAD enables. The challenges faced are discussed and forthcoming developments in STI surveillance in England are described.

  14. Dental utilization of active duty/previous active duty US military: a cross-sectional analysis of the 2010 Behavior and Risk Surveillance Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sambamoorthi, Usha; Jurevic, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study is to understand dental utilization of 1) individuals serving/having served in active duty in the U.S. military as compared with the general public and 2) individuals who are currently serving as compared with individuals who are no longer active duty, but have been in active duty within the previous year. Methods The Behavior and Risk Surveillance Survey, 2010, was used in cross-sectional analyses to determine the comparisons. Chi square and multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied. Results 70.7% of participants who had served/currently serving had a dental visit within the previous 12 months; 69.9% of the general public reported a dental visit (p = 0.0265). 69.8% of participants who had served/currently serving had a dental hygiene visit within the previous 12 months and 68.1% of the general public reported a dental hygiene visit (p <0.0001). The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for participants who had served/currently serving vs. the general public was 1.10 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.05, 1.16; p<0.0001) for dental visits and 1.11 (95%CI 1.05, 1.17; p<0.0001) for dental hygiene visits. Conclusion Participants who are serving or have served were more likely to have any dental visit and dental hygiene visit than the general public; but the results were not substantively important. PMID:26086028

  15. [Post-marketing surveillance of antibacterial activities of cefozopran against various clinical isolates--II. Gram-negative bacteria].

    PubMed

    Igari, Jun; Oguri, Toyoko; Hiramatsu, Nobuyoshi; Akiyama, Kazumitsu; Koyama, Tsuneo

    2002-02-01

    As a post-marketing surveillance, the in vitro antibacterial activities of cefozopran (CZOP), an agent of cephems, against various clinical isolates were yearly evaluated and compared with those of other cephems, oxacephems, penicillins, monobactams, and carbapenems. Changes in CZOP susceptibility for the bacteria were also evaluated with the bacterial resistance ratio calculated with the breakpoint MIC. Twenty-five species (3,362 strains) of Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from the clinical materials annually collected from 1996 to 2000, and consisted of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis (n = 136), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 289), Escherichia coli (n = 276), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 192), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 157), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 189), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 93), Serratia marcescens (n = 172), Serratia liquefaciens (n = 24), Citrobacter freundii (n = 177), Citrobacter koseri (n = 70), Proteus mirabilis (n = 113), Proteus vulgaris (n = 89), Morganella morganii (n = 116), Providencia spp. (n = 41), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 290), Pseudomonas fluorescens (n = 56), Pseudomonas putida (n = 63), Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 146), Acinetobacter lwoffii (n = 34), Burkholderia cepacia (n = 101), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 169), Bacteroides fragilis group (n = 196), and Prevotella/Porphyromonas (n = 173). An antibacterial activity of CZOP against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, and S. marcescens was potent and consistent with or more preferable than the study results obtained until the new drug application approval. MIC90 of CZOP against M.(B.) catarrhalis, C. koseri, and P. aeruginosa was not considerably changed and consistent with the study results obtained until the new drug application approval. MIC90 of CZOP against E. cloacae, E. aerogenes, and P. mirabilis increased year by year. The increase in MIC90 of CZOP against E. aerogenes and P. mirabilis, however, was not considered to be an obvious decline in susceptibility. In

  16. Building a benchmark through active surveillance of intensive care unit-acquired infections: the Italian network SPIN-UTI.

    PubMed

    Agodi, A; Auxilia, F; Barchitta, M; Brusaferro, S; D'Alessandro, D; Montagna, M T; Orsi, G B; Pasquarella, C; Torregrossa, V; Suetens, C; Mura, I

    2010-03-01

    The Italian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) (SPIN-UTI) project of the Italian Study Group of Hospital Hygiene (GISIO - SItI) was undertaken to ensure standardisation of definitions, data collection and reporting procedures using the Hospital in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance (HELICS)-ICU benchmark. Before starting surveillance, participant ICUs met in order to involve the key stakeholders in the project through participation in planning. Four electronic data forms for web-based data collection were designed. The six-month patient-based prospective survey was undertaken from November 2006 to May 2007, preceded by a one-month surveillance pilot study to assess the overall feasibility of the programme and to determine the time needed and resources for participant hospitals. The SPIN-UTI project included 49 ICUs, 3053 patients with length of stay >2 days and 35 498 patient-days. The cumulative incidence of infections was 19.8 per 100 patients and the incidence density was 17.1 per 1000 patient-days. The most frequently encountered infection type was pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most frequent infection-associated micro-organism, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. Site-specific infection rates for pneumonia, bloodstream infections, central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections and urinary tract infections, stratified according to patient risk factors, were below the 75th centile reported by the HELICS network benchmark. The SPIN-UTI project showed that introduction of ongoing surveillance should be possible in many Italian hospitals. The study provided the opportunity to participate in the HELICS project using benchmark data for comparison and for better understanding of factors influencing risks.

  17. Effect of impregnation protocol in the metallic sites of Pt-Ag/activated carbon catalysts for water denitration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristizábal, A.; Contreras, S.; Divins, N. J.; Llorca, J.; Medina, F.

    2014-04-01

    The influence of the Pt precursor and the impregnation protocol in the catalytic behavior of 3%Pt-1.5%Ag supported on activated carbon for water denitration in a continuous reactor was studied. Pt(NH3)4(NO3)2 and H2PtCl6 were selected as Pt precursors. Five protocols were investigated: sequential impregnations (both sequences), co-impregnation, physical mixture of monometallic catalysts, and physical mixture of a bimetallic catalyst with a Pt monometallic catalyst. The samples were characterized by XRD, XPS, TPR, HRTEM and physisorption. It was found that the catalytic activity strongly depends on the synthesis protocol and the Pt precursor, which modify the particle size. Higher nitrate rates are achieved using H2PtCl6 than Pt(NH3)4(NO3)2; this is mainly related to the smaller metal particle size of the former, evidenced by HRTEM. Nitrate consumption rate is directly related with the mean particle size. The physical mixture of monometallic catalysts resulted in the highest nitrogen rate.

  18. Meningococcal Disease in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Review of Cases Reported Through Active Surveillance in the United States, 2000–2008

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christine M.; Li, Jianmin; Hall, H. Irene; Lee, Adria; Zell, Elizabeth; Harrison, Lee H.; Petit, Susan; Farley, Monica M.; Lynfield, Ruth; Miller, Lisa; Nichols, Megin; Reingold, Arthur; Schaffner, William; Thomas, Ann; MacNeil, Jessica R.; Clark, Thomas A.; Cohn, Amanda C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an established risk factor for several bacterial infections, the association between HIV infection and meningococcal disease remains unclear. Methods. Expanded chart reviews were completed on persons with meningococcal disease and HIV infection reported from 2000 through 2008 from 9 US sites participating in an active population-based surveillance system for meningococcal disease. The incidence of meningococcal disease among patients meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) surveillance criteria was estimated using data from the National HIV Surveillance System for the participating sites. Results. Thirty-three cases of meningococcal disease in individuals with HIV infection were reported from participating sites, representing 2.0% of all reported meningococcal disease cases. Most (75.8%) persons with HIV infection were adult males aged 25 to 64 years old. Among all meningococcal disease cases aged 25 to 64 years old, case fatality ratios were similar among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons (13.3% vs 10.6%; P = .6). The cumulative, mean incidence of meningococcal disease among patients aged 25 to 64 years old with HIV infection ever classified as AIDS was 3.5 cases per 100000 person years (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1–5.6), compared with 0.3 cases per 100000 person years (95% CI, 0.3–0.3) for persons of the same age group not reported to have AIDS (relative risk = 12.9; 95% CI, 7.9–20.9). Conclusions. Individuals with HIV infection meeting the AIDS surveillance case definition have a higher incidence of meningococcal disease compared with the general adult population. PMID:28018927

  19. Surface-water surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  20. The Cost of Surveillance After Urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zaid, Uwais B.; Hawkins, Mitchel; Wilson, Leslie; Ting, Jie; Harris, Catherine; Alwaal, Amjad; Zhao, Lee C.; Morey, Allen F.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine variability in urethral stricture surveillance. Urethral strictures impact quality of life and exact a large economic burden. Although urethroplasty is the gold standard for durable treatment, strictures recur in 8–18%. There are no universally accepted guidelines for post-urethroplasty surveillance. We performed a literature search to evaluate variability in surveillance protocols, analyzed costs, and reviewed performance of each commonly employed modality. Methods Medline search was performed using the keywords: “urethroplasty,” “urethral stricture,” “stricture recurrence” to ascertain commonly used surveillance strategies for stricture recurrence. We included English language manuscripts from the past 10 years with at least 10 patients, and age greater than 18. Cost data was calculated based on standard 2013 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services physician’s fees. Results Surveillance methods included retrograde urethrogram/voiding cystourethrogram (RUG/VCUG), cystourethroscopy, urethral ultrasound, AUA-Symptom Score, and post void residual (PVR) and urine flowmetry (UF) measurement. Most protocols call for a RUG/VCUG at time of catheter removal. Following this, UF/PVR, cystoscopy, urine culture, or a combination of UF and AUA-SS were performed at variable intervals. The first year follow-up cost of anterior urethral surgery ranged from $205 to $1,784. For posterior urethral surgery, follow-up cost for the first year ranged from $404 to $961. Conclusions Practice variability for surveillance of urethral stricture recurrence after urethroplasty leads to significant differences in cost. PMID:25819624

  1. Defense Health Care: DOD Needs to Clarify Policies Related to Occupational and Environmental Health Surveillance and Monitor Risk Mitigation Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    and environmental health surveillance OEHSA Occupational and Environmental Health Site Assessment POEMS Periodic Occupational and...inhalation from burn pits in Iraq and Afghanistan, the Institute of Medicine was unable to determine whether long -term health effects are likely to result...Washington, D.C.: May 1, 2012). 5See Institute of Medicine for the Department of Veterans’ Affairs. Long -Term Health Consequences of Exposure to Burn

  2. The surveillant assemblage.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  3. A study on the development of the protocol of leisure activity program for the elderly's deviant prevention.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chan-Woo; Yi, Eun-Surk; Park, Dong-Kyun; Lee, Hi-Wan; Lee, Kwang-Uk; Min, Byeong-Seok; Cho, Gun-Sang; Chang, Ik-Young

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide planning methods for leisure activity program to prevent the elderly's deviance, using the program components and protocol factors. This section discusses the results obtained through document analysis and Delphi technique. First, the components of leisure activity program were classified into five stages such as definition, condition analysis, program composition, application and evaluation. Second, the protocol factors in each stage of leisure activity program for the elderly's deviant prevention were 19 main themes and 75 sub-themes respectively. In the stage of condition analysis, five main themes such as deviant prediction, individual, socio-demographic, social and cultural factors and 25 sub-themes were found. Program composition included three main themes, facilities, instructor and program and 16 sub-themes and in the application stage, there were three key themes, facilities, instructor and program and 14 sub-themes. Lastly, the evaluation found four main themes such as deviant prevention, participation in leisure activities, management and wellbeing and 16 sub-themes.

  4. Influenza surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, M.; Assaad, F. A.; Delon, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    The main objectives of influenza surveillance are: to measure the impact of the disease by collection and analysis of epidemiological information on morbidity and mortality, and to anticipate future epidemics and pandemics by the collection and analysis of influenza viruses. The World Health Organization's influenza programme is based on the collaboration of 98 national influenza centres in 70 countries and the 2 WHO Collaborating Centres in Atlanta and London. Epidemiological information may be based on morbidity figures derived from a variety of sources such as returns from physicians or hospitals; mortality statistics or new claims for sickness benefit; school or industrial absenteeism, etc. The laboratory aspects of influenza epidemiology are certainly more uniformly covered than the statistical aspects. Since the advent of the A/Hong Kong/1/68 (H3N2) influenza virus A subtype there have been a number of variants with antigenic ”drift” but only three succeeded in causing widespread epidemics: A/England/42/72, A/Port Chalmers/1/73, and A/Victoria/3/75. In 1972, the influenza B virus also showed some antigenic ”drift”, the new variants being characterized by B/Hong Kong/5/72. Whenever a new variant appears, the degree of protection afforded to the population by the available vaccine is assessed. In the light of these data, WHO publishes annually in the Weekly epidemiological record recommendations formulated by the WHO Collaborating Centres on vaccine composition. PMID:78771

  5. Technology combined with a counseling protocol to stimulate physical activity of chronically ill patients in primary care.

    PubMed

    Verwey, R; van der Weegen, S; Spreeuwenberg, M; Tange, H; van der Weijden, T; de Witte, L

    2014-01-01

    An iterative user-centered design method was used to develop and test mobile technology (the It's LiFe! tool/monitor) embedded in primary care, followed by a three months feasibility study with 20 patients and three nurses. The tool consists of an accelerometer that transfers data to an app on a Smartphone, which is subsequently connected to a server. Physical activity levels are measured in minutes per day compared to pre-set activity goals, which are set by patients in dialogue with nurses. Nurses can monitor patients' physical activity via a secured website. The counseling protocol is based on the Five A's model and consists of a limited number of behavior change consultations intertwined with interaction with and responses from the tool. The technology supports nurses when performing physical activity counseling. Provided that no connectivity problems occur, the It's LiFe! intervention is feasible, and its longitudinal effects will be tested in a cluster RCT.

  6. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-09-15

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control.

  7. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control. PMID:27684046

  8. Monitoring activities of teenagers to comprehend their habits: study protocol for a mixed-methods cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Efforts to increase physical activity in youth need to consider which activities are most likely to be sustained over time in order to promote lifelong participation in physical activity. The Monitoring Activities of Teenagers to Comprehend their Habits (MATCH) study is a prospective cohort study that uses quantitative and qualitative methods to develop new knowledge on the sustainability of specific physical activities. Methods/design Eight hundred and forty-three grade 5 and 6 students recruited from 17 elementary schools in New Brunswick, Canada, are followed-up three times per year. At each survey cycle, participants complete self-report questionnaires in their classroom under the supervision of trained data collectors. A sub-sample of 24 physically active students is interviewed annually using a semi-structured interview protocol. Parents (or guardians) complete telephone administered questionnaires every two years, and a health and wellness school audit is completed for each school. Discussion MATCH will provide a description of the patterns of participation in specific physical activities in youth, and enable identification of the determinants of maintenance, decline, and uptake of participation in each activity. These data will inform the development of interventions that take into account which activities are the most likely to be maintained and why activities are maintained or dropped. PMID:23849265

  9. Housing conditions and sacrifice protocol affect neural activity and vocal behavior in a songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Elie, Julie Estelle; Soula, Hédi Antoine; Trouvé, Colette; Mathevon, Nicolas; Vignal, Clémentine

    2015-12-01

    Individual cages represent a widely used housing condition in laboratories. This isolation represents an impoverished physical and social environment in gregarious animals. It prevents animals from socializing, even when auditory and visual contact is maintained. Zebra finches are colonial songbirds that are widely used as laboratory animals for the study of vocal communication from brain to behavior. In this study, we investigated the effect of single housing on the vocal behavior and the brain activity of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata): male birds housed in individual cages were compared to freely interacting male birds housed as a social group in a communal cage. We focused on the activity of septo-hypothalamic regions of the "social behavior network" (SBN), a set of limbic regions involved in several social behaviors in vertebrates. The activity of four structures of the SBN (BSTm, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; POM, medial preoptic area; lateral septum; ventromedial hypothalamus) and one associated region (paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus) was assessed using immunoreactive nuclei density of the immediate early gene Zenk (egr-1). We further assessed the identity of active cell populations by labeling vasotocin (VT). Brain activity was related to behavioral activities of birds like physical and vocal interactions. We showed that individual housing modifies vocal exchanges between birds compared to communal housing. This is of particular importance in the zebra finch, a model species for the study of vocal communication. In addition, a protocol that daily removes one or two birds from the group affects differently male zebra finches depending of their housing conditions: while communally-housed males changed their vocal output, brains of individually housed males show increased Zenk labeling in non-VT cells of the BSTm and enhanced correlation of Zenk-revealed activity between the studied structures. These results show that

  10. Comparison of V-4 and V-5 Exercise/Oxygen Prebreathe Protocols to Support Extravehicular Activity in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, N. W.; Natoli, M. J.; Vann, R. D.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Conkin, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    The Prebreathe Reduction Program (PRP) used exercise during oxygen prebreathe to reduce necessary prebreathe time prior to depressurizing to work in a 4.3 psi suit during extravehicular activity (EVA). Initial testing produced a two-hour protocol incorporating ergometry exercise and a 30 min cycle of depress/repress to 10.2 psi where subjects breathed 26.5% oxygen/balance nitrogen (Phase II - 10 min at 75% peak oxygen consumption [VO2 peak] followed by 40 min intermittent light exercise [ILE] [approx. 5.8 mL-per kilogram- per minute], then 50 min of rest). The Phase II protocol (0/45 DCS) was approved for operations and has been used on 40 EVAs, providing significant time savings compared to the standard 4 h resting oxygen prebreathe. The Phase V effort focused on performing all light in-suit exercise. Two oxygen prebreathe protocols were tested sequentially: V-4) 160 min prebreathe with 150 min of continuous ILE. The entire protocol was completed at 14.7 psi. All exercise involved upper body effort. Exercise continued until decompression. V-5) 160 min prebreathe with 140 min of ILE - first 40 min at 14.7 psi, then 30 min at 10.2 psi (breathing 26.5% oxygen) after a 20 min depress, simulating a suit donning period. Subjects were then repressed to 14.7 psi and performed another 50 min of lower body ILE, followed by 50 min rest before decompression. The V-4 protocol was rejected with 3 DCS/6 person-exposures. Initial V-5 testing has produced 0 DCS/11 person-exposures (ongoing trials). The difference in DCS rate was significant (Fisher Exact p=0.029). The observations of DCS were significantly lower in early V-5 trials than in V-4 trials. Additional studies are required to evaluate the relative contribution of the variables in exercise distribution, the 10.2 psi depress/repress component, pre-decompression rest, or possible variation in total oxygen consumption.

  11. Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Deverell, Marie; Zurynski, Yvonne A; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2014-12-31

    This report provides an update on the surveillance conducted by the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) during the period January to December 2013. The APSU facilitates national active surveillance of uncommon diseases of childhood including selected communicable diseases. This report includes data on the following conditions: acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV), congenital rubella, perinatal exposure to HIV and paediatric HIV infection, neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV), congenital varicella, neonatal varicella, severe complications of varicella and juvenile onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JoRRP). Surveillance of severe complications of influenza was undertaken during the influenza season (July to September 2013).

  12. [Active epidemiological surveillance and prevention of diseases caused by biomechanical overload of the upper limbs: experience at a territorial service of occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, P G; Pezzotti, C; Rocco, A

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays in the western countries, the Work Musculoscheletal Disorders (WMSDs) are the most relevant work-related diseases either for the large number of at-risk workers and for the high prevalence of cases among them. Among WMSDs, the Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is considered a sentinel event in occupational medicine and epidemiological surveillance systems were set up to study its temporal occurrence and spatial spread. Surprisingly enough, in our country the epidemiology of the WMSDs is still unknown; although observations of important clusters of cases are increasing, these pathologies are still largely underreported by medical doctors. In the high industrialised province of Brescia, Northwestern Italy, only 1% of the 25.000 occupational disease, collected by the occupational medicine and prevention service of the National Health Service (SPSAL) since 1989 to 1997, were coded as WMSDs. Even if the notification of these work-related disorders is compulsory by low since 1973, up-to-now very few cases were reported to SPSALs, and consequently active prevention programs were very few too. For that reason, a project of active surveillance of WMSDs diagnosed on the general population was carried out to improve their identification and to evaluate the work-related etiological fraction as well as to address primary prevention projects. During 1997-1999 618 upper limb musculoskeletal disorders were collected from 2 orthopaedic hospital divisions where cases underwent surgical treatment. 369 of them were interviewed by telephone (253 female, 116 man) and 128 cases (34%) were classified as probable professionally exposed to some known hazard. Female were prevalent (71%), involved particularly in textile, garments, plastic, food production and domestic services. Among men, construction, metallurgic and mechanic were the more frequent jobs. 116 WMSDs were reported to the National Insurance Institute (INAIL). The collection of these WMSDs was the basis for specific

  13. Quantifying Habitual Levels of Physical Activity According to Impact in Older People: Accelerometry Protocol for the VIBE Study

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Kevin C.; Hannam, Kimberly; Coulson, Jessica; Ireland, Alex; McPhee, Jamie S.; Moss, Charlotte; Edwards, Mark H.; Dennison, Elaine; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayers, Adrian; Lipperts, Matthijs; Grimm, Bernd; Tobias, Jon H.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) may need to produce high impacts to be osteogenic. The aim of this study was to identify threshold(s) for defining high impact PA for future analyses in the VIBE (Vertical Impact and Bone in the Elderly) study, based on home recordings with triaxial accelerometers. Recordings were obtained from 19 Master Athlete Cohort (MAC; mean 67.6 years) and 15 Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS; mean 77.7 years) participants. Data cleaning protocols were developed to exclude artifacts. Accelerations expressed in g units were categorized into three bands selected from the distribution of positive Y-axis peak accelerations. Data were available for 6.6 and 4.4 days from MAC and HCS participants respectively, with approximately 14 hr recording daily. Three-fold more 0.5–1.0g impacts were observed in MAC versus HCS, 20-fold more 1.0–1.5g impacts, and 140-fold more impacts ≥ 1.5g. Our analysis protocol successfully distinguishes PA levels in active and sedentary older individuals. PMID:26372670

  14. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  15. Digital Dashboard Design Using Multiple Data Streams for Disease Surveillance With Influenza Surveillance as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Calvin KY; Ip, Dennis KM; Cowling, Benjamin J; Ho, Lai Ming; Leung, Gabriel M

    2011-01-01

    Background Great strides have been made exploring and exploiting new and different sources of disease surveillance data and developing robust statistical methods for analyzing the collected data. However, there has been less research in the area of dissemination. Proper dissemination of surveillance data can facilitate the end user's taking of appropriate actions, thus maximizing the utility of effort taken from upstream of the surveillance-to-action loop. Objective The aims of the study were to develop a generic framework for a digital dashboard incorporating features of efficient dashboard design and to demonstrate this framework by specific application to influenza surveillance in Hong Kong. Methods Based on the merits of the national websites and principles of efficient dashboard design, we designed an automated influenza surveillance digital dashboard as a demonstration of efficient dissemination of surveillance data. We developed the system to synthesize and display multiple sources of influenza surveillance data streams in the dashboard. Different algorithms can be implemented in the dashboard for incorporating all surveillance data streams to describe the overall influenza activity. Results We designed and implemented an influenza surveillance dashboard that utilized self-explanatory figures to display multiple surveillance data streams in panels. Indicators for individual data streams as well as for overall influenza activity were summarized in the main page, which can be read at a glance. Data retrieval function was also incorporated to allow data sharing in standard format. Conclusions The influenza surveillance dashboard serves as a template to illustrate the efficient synthesization and dissemination of multiple-source surveillance data, which may also be applied to other diseases. Surveillance data from multiple sources can be disseminated efficiently using a dashboard design that facilitates the translation of surveillance information to public

  16. Advances in surveillance of periodontitis: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention periodontal disease surveillance project.

    PubMed

    Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Dye, Bruce; Genco, Robert

    2012-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has as one of its strategic goals to support and improve surveillance of periodontal disease. In 2003, the CDC initiated the CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology to address population-based surveillance of periodontal disease at the local, state, and national levels. This initiative has made significant advancements toward the goal of improved surveillance, including developing valid self-reported measures that can be obtained from interview-based surveys to predict prevalence of periodontitis in populations. This will allow surveillance of periodontitis at the state and local levels and in countries where clinical resources for surveillance are scarce. This work has produced standard case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis that are now widely recognized and applied in population studies and research. At the national level, this initiative has evaluated the validity of previous clinical examination protocols and tested new protocols on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), recommending and supporting funding for the gold-standard full-mouth periodontal examination in NHANES 2009 to 2012. These examinations will generate accurate estimates of the prevalence of periodontitis in the US adult population and provide a superior dataset for surveillance and research. Also, this data will be used to generate the necessary coefficients for our self-report questions for use in subsets of the total US population. The impact of these findings on population-based surveillance of periodontitis and future directions of the project are discussed along with plans for dissemination and translation efforts for broader public health use.

  17. Impacts of the Kyoto protocol on U.S. energy markets and economic activity

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program in 1988 to assess the available scientific, technical, and socioeconomic information in the field of climate change. The most recent report of the IPCC concluded that ``Our ability to quantify the human influence on global climate is currently limited because the expected signal is still emerging from the noise of natural variability, and because there are uncertainties in key factors. These include the magnitudes and patterns of long-term variability and the time-evolving pattern of forcing by, and response to, changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and land surface changes. Nevertheless the balance of evidence suggests that there is a discernible human influence on global climate. The first and second Conference of the Parties in 1995 and 1996 agreed to address the issue of greenhouse gas emissions for the period beyond 2000, and to negotiate quantified emission limitations and reductions for the third Conference of the Parties. On December 1 through 11, 1997, representatives from more than 160 countries met in Kyoto, Japan, to negotiate binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for developed nations. The resulting Kyoto Protocol established emissions targets for each of the participating developed countries--the Annex 1 countries--relative to their 1990 emissions levels. 114 refs., 138 figs., 33 tabs.

  18. ProPSA and Diagnostic Biopsy Tissue DNA Content Combination Improves Accuracy to Predict Need for Prostate Cancer Treatment Among Men Enrolled in an Active Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Isharwal, Sumit; Makarov, Danil V.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Landis, Patricia; Marlow, Cameron; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Veltri, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess a novel application of the Prostate Health Index (phi) and biopsy tissue DNA content in benign-adjacent and cancer areas to predict which patients would eventually require treatment of prostate cancer in the Proactive Surveillance cohort. METHODS We identified 71 men who had had serum and biopsy tissue from their diagnosis banked and available for the present study. Of the 71 patients, 39 had developed unfavorable biopsy findings and 32 had maintained favorable biopsy status during surveillance. The serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and [−2]proPSA were measured using the Beckman Coulter immunoassay. The DNA content measurements of Feulgen-stained biopsy sections were performed using the AutoCyte imaging system. RESULTS The ratio of phi was significantly greater (37.23 ± 15.76 vs 30.60 ± 12.28; P = .03) in men who ultimately had unfavorable biopsy findings. The serum phi ratio (P = .003), [−2]proPSA/%fPSA (P = .004), biopsy tissue DNA content (ie, benign-adjacent excess of optical density, P = .019; and cancer area standard deviation of optical density, P = .002) were significant predictors of unfavorable biopsy conversion on Cox regression analysis. However, phi and [−2]proPSA/%fPSA showed a highly significant correlation (rho = 0.927, P < .0001) and no difference in accuracy (c-index, 0.6247 vs 0.6158; P = .704) for unfavorable biopsy conversion prediction. Furthermore, phi and [−2]proPSA/%fPSA remained significant (P = .047 and P = .036, respectively) in the multivariate models and, combined with the biopsy tissue DNA content, showed improvement in the predictive accuracy (c-index, 0.6908 and 0.6884, respectively) for unfavorable biopsy conversion. CONCLUSIONS The Prostate Health Index to proPSA/%fPSA, combined with biopsy tissue DNA content, improved the accuracy to about 70% to predict unfavorable biopsy conversion at the annual surveillance biopsy examination among men enrolled in an Active

  19. General Medical Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is presented. The purpose of the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the program are discussed.

  20. The impact of economic activity in Asturias on greenhouse gas emissions: consequences for environmental policy within the Kyoto Protocol framework.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Margarita; Benavides, Carmen; Junquera, Beatriz

    2006-11-01

    Climate change is one of the major worldwide environmental concerns. It is especially the case in many developed countries, where the greenhouse gas emissions responsible for this change are mainly concentrated. For the first time, the Kyoto Protocol includes an international agreement for the reduction of the net emissions of these gases. To fulfil this agreement measures designed to reduce or limit current emissions have to be brought into force. Consequently, fears have arisen about possible consequences on competitiveness and future development of manufacturing activities and the need for support mechanisms for the affected sectors is obvious. In this paper, we carry out a study of the emissions of gases responsible for climate change in Asturias (Spain), a region with an important economic presence of sectors with intensive emissions of CO(2), the chief greenhouse gas. To be precise, in the first place, the volumes of direct emissions of the said gases in 1995 were calculated, showing that the sectors most affected by the Kyoto Protocol in Asturias are iron and steel and electricity production. Secondly, input-output analysis was applied to determine the direct and indirect emissions and the direct, indirect and induced emissions of the different production sectors, respectively. The results derived from the direct and indirect emissions analysis and their comparison with the results of the former allow us to reach some conclusions and environmental policy implications.

  1. Environmental Surveillance of Polioviruses in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in Support to the Activities of Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Pereira, Joseane Simone; da Silva, Lidiane Rodrigues; de Meireles Nunes, Amanda; de Souza Oliveira, Silas; da Costa, Eliane Veiga; da Silva, Edson Elias

    2016-03-01

    Wild polioviruses still remain endemic in three countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria) and re-emergency of wild polio has been reported in previously polio-free countries. Environmental surveillance has been used as a supplementary tool in monitoring the circulation of wild poliovirus (PVs) and/or vaccine-derived PVs even in the absence of acute flaccid paralysis cases. This study aimed to monitor the presence of polioviruses in wastewater samples collected at one wastewater treatment plant located in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From December 2011 to June 2012 and from September to December 2012, 31 samples were collected and processed. RD and L20B cell cultures were able to isolate PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in 27/31 samples. Polioviruses were isolated in eight samples (type 1 Sabin = 1, type 2 Sabin = 5, and type 3 Sabin = 2). Vaccine-derived polioviruses were not detected nor evidence of recombination with other PVs or non-polio enterovirus serotypes were observed among the isolates. The Sabin-related serotypes 2 and 3 presented nucleotide substitutions in positions associated with the neurovirulent phenotype at the 5'-UTR. Changes in important Amino acid residues at VP1 were also observed in the serotypes 2 and 3. Environmental surveillance has been used successfully in monitoring the circulation of PVs and non-polio enteroviruses and it is of crucial importance in the final stages of the WHO global polio eradication initiative. Our results show the continuous circulation of Sabin-like PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in the analyzed area during the study period.

  2. Telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) activity upon recombinant expression and purification of human telomerase in a bacterial system.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Debra T; Thiyagarajan, Thirumagal; Larson, Amy C; Hansen, Jeffrey L

    2016-07-01

    Telomerase biogenesis is a highly regulated process that solves the DNA end-replication problem. Recombinant expression has so far been accomplished only within a eukaryotic background. Towards structural and functional analyses, we developed bacterial expression of human telomerase. Positive activity by the telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) was identified in cell extracts of Escherichia coli expressing a sequence-optimized hTERT gene, the full-length hTR RNA with a self-splicing hepatitis delta virus ribozyme, and the human heat shock complex of Hsp90, Hsp70, p60/Hop, Hsp40, and p23. The Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin did not affect post-assembly TRAP activity. By various purification methods, TRAP activity was also obtained upon expression of only hTERT and hTR. hTERT was confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry in a ∼120 kDa SDS-PAGE fragment from a TRAP-positive purification fraction. TRAP activity was also supported by hTR constructs lacking the box H/ACA small nucleolar RNA domain. End-point TRAP indicated expression levels within 3-fold of that from HeLa carcinoma cells, which is several orders of magnitude below detection by the direct assay. These results represent the first report of TRAP activity from a bacterium and provide a facile system for the investigation of assembly factors and anti-cancer therapeutics independently of a eukaryotic setting.

  3. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  4. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of transport mode to school; (2) examine the interaction between the transport choices, built environment, physical activity and weight status in adolescents; and (3) identify policies that promote or hinder ATS in adolescents. Methods and analysis The study will use a mixed-method approach incorporating both quantitative (surveys, anthropometry, accelerometers, Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, mapping) and qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews) to gather data from students, parents, teachers and school principals. The core data will include accelerometer-measured physical activity, anthropometry, GIS measures of the built environment and the use of maps indicating route to school (students)/work (parents) and perceived safe/unsafe areas along the route. To provide comprehensive data for understanding how to change the infrastructure to support ATS, the study will also examine complementary variables such as individual, family and social factors, including student and parental perceptions of walking and cycling to school, parental perceptions of different modes of transport to school, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, route to school (students)/work (parents), perceptions of driving, use of information communication technology, reasons for choosing a particular school and student and parental physical activity habits, screen time and weight status. The study has achieved a 100% school recruitment rate (12 secondary schools). Ethics and

  5. An ideal oocyte activation protocol and embryo culture conditions for somatic cell nuclear transfer using sheep oocytes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hiren; Chougule, Shruti; Chohan, Parul; Shah, Naval; Bhartiya, Deepa

    2014-10-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are possibly the best candidates for regenerative medicine, and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is one of the viable options to make patient-specific embryonic stem cells. Till date efficacy of SCNT embryos is very low and requires further improvement like ideal oocyte activation and in vitro culture system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate ideal oocyte activation using different stimulation protocols and to study the effect of cumulus co-culture conditions on embryo development. Results demonstrate that between electric stimulation and chemical stimulation using calcium ionomycin and ionophore, best oocyte activation was obtained using calcium ionomycin (5 microM for 5 min) which resulted in 83% cleavage followed by 7% of early blastocyst which further increased to 15% when a cumulus bed was also introduced during embryo culture. Sequential modified Charles Rosenkrans 2 (mCR2) medium was used for embryo culture in which glucose levels were increased from 1 mM to 5 mM from Day 3 onwards. SCNT using cumulus cells as donor somatic cell, calcium ionomycin to activate the reconstructed oocyte and embryo culture on a cumulus bed in sequential mCR2 medium, resulted in the development of 6% embryos to early blastocyst stage. Such technological advances will make SCNT a viable option to make patient-specific pluripotent stem cell lines in near future.

  6. Efficacy of interventions to improve physical activity levels in individuals with stroke: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Martins, Júlia Caetano; Nadeau, Sylvie; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Faria, Christina D C M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a leading health problem worldwide and an important cause of disability. Stroke survivors show low levels of physical activity, and increases in physical activity levels may improve function and health status. Therefore, the aims are to identify which interventions that have been employed to increase physical activity levels with stroke survivors, to verify their efficacy and to identify the gaps in the literature. Methods and analysis A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of interventions aiming at increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in the MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) databases. Hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies or relevant reviews will also be employed. Two independent reviewers will screen all the retrieved titles, abstracts and full texts. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreements. The quality of the included studies will be assessed by the PEDro Rating Scale. This systematic review will also include a qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses will be performed, if the studies are sufficiently homogeneous. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The quality of the evidence regarding physical activity will be assessed, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Discussion This systematic review will provide information on which interventions are effective for increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors. This evidence may be important for clinical decision-making and will allow the identification of gaps in the literature that may be useful for the definition of future research

  7. The epidemiological features of invasive mycotic infections in the San Francisco Bay area, 1992-1993: results of population-based laboratory active surveillance.

    PubMed

    Rees, J R; Pinner, R W; Hajjeh, R A; Brandt, M E; Reingold, A L

    1998-11-01

    Population-based active laboratory surveillance for invasive mycotic infections was conducted during 1992 and 1993 in three California counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, and San Francisco (population, 2.94 million). The cumulative incidence of invasive mycotic infections was 178.3 per million per year. Invasive mycoses were most commonly caused by Candida (72.8 per million per year), Cryptococcus (65.5), Coccidioides (15.3), Aspergillus (12.4), and Histoplasma (7.1). The clinical significance of other, less common fungi was determined by detailed chart review. The cumulative incidence was determined for zygomycosis (1.7 per million per year), hyalohyphomycosis (1.2), and phaeohyphomycosis (1.0). The most common underlying conditions were human immunodeficiency virus infection (47.4%), nonhematologic malignancy (14.7%), diabetes mellitus (9.9%), and chronic lung disease (9.3%). This represents the first population-based epidemiological assessment of invasive mycoses in the United States.

  8. Communications protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved communications protocol which increases the efficiency of transmission in return channels on a multi-channel slotted Alohas system by incorporating advanced error correction algorithms, selective retransmission protocols and the use of reserved channels to satisfy the retransmission requests.

  9. A qualitative approach to measure the effectiveness of active avian influenza virus surveillance with respect to its cost: a case study from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Häsler, B; Howe, K S; Hauser, R; Stärk, K D C

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the project was to apply cost-effectiveness analysis to the economic appraisal of avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance, using the implemented surveillance programme in Switzerland as a case study. First a qualitative risk assessment approach was used to assess the expected impact of surveillance on the transmission and spread of AIV. The effectiveness of surveillance was expressed as the difference in defined probabilities between a scenario with surveillance and a scenario without surveillance. The following probabilities were modelled (i) transmission of highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) from wild birds to poultry, (ii) mutation from low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) into HPAIV in poultry, and (iii) transmission of HPAIV to other poultry holdings given a primary outbreak. The cost-effectiveness ratio was defined conventionally as the difference in surveillance costs (ΔC) divided by the change in probability (ΔP), the technical objective, on the presumption that surveillance diminishes the respective probabilities. However, results indicated that surveillance in both wild birds and poultry was not expected to change the probabilities of primary and secondary AIV outbreaks in Switzerland. The overall surveillance costs incurred were estimated at 31,000 €/year, which, to be a rational investment of resources, must still reflect the value policy makers attribute to other benefits from having surveillance (e.g. peace of mind). The advantage of the approach adopted is that it is practical, transparent, and thus able to clarify for policy makers the key variables to be taken into account when evaluating the economic efficiency of resources invested in surveillance, prevention and intervention to exclude AIV.

  10. PTEN loss and chromosome 8 alterations in Gleason grade 3 prostate cancer cores predicts the presence of un-sampled grade 4 tumor: implications for Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Trock, Bruce J.; Fedor, Helen; Gurel, Bora; Jenkins, Robert B.; Knudsen, BS; Fine, Samson W.; Said, Jonathan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Lotan, Tamara L.; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2016-01-01

    Men who enter active surveillance because their biopsy exhibits only Gleason grade 3 (G3) frequently have higher grade tumor missed by biopsy. Thus, biomarkers are needed that, when measured on G3 tissue, can predict the presence of higher grade tumor in the whole prostate. We evaluated whether PTEN loss, chromosome 8q gain (MYC) and/or 8p loss (LPL) measured only on G3 cores is associated with un-sampled G4 tumor. A tissue microarray was constructed of prostatectomy tissue from patients whose prostates exhibited only Gleason score 3+3, only 3+4, or only 4+3 tumor (n=50 per group). Cores sampled only from areas of G3 were evaluated for PTEN loss by immunohistochemistry, and PTEN deletion, LPL/8p loss, and MYC/8q gain by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Biomarker results were compared between Gleason score 6 vs. 7 tumors using conditional logistic regression. PTEN protein loss, odds ratio=4.99, p=.033, MYC/8q gain, odds ratio=5.36, p=.010, and LPL/8p loss, odds ratio=3.96, p=.003 were significantly more common in G3 cores derived from Gleason 7 vs. Gleason 6 tumors. PTEN gene deletion was not statistically significant. Associations were stronger comparing Gleason 4+3 vs. 6 than for Gleason 3+4 vs. 6. MYC/8q gain, LPL/8p loss, and PTEN protein loss measured in G3 tissue microarray cores strongly differentiate whether the core comes from a Gleason 6 or Gleason 7 tumor. If validated to predict upgrading from G3 biopsy to prostatectomy these biomarkers could reduce the likelihood of enrolling high risk men and facilitate safe patient selection for active surveillance. PMID:27080984

  11. Data sharing report characterization of population 7: Personal protective equipment, dry active waste, and miscellaneous debris, surveillance and maintenance project Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Harpenau, Evan M.

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing to determine a final pathway for disposal. Population 7 (POP 7) consists of 56 containers of aged, low-level and potentially mixed S&M waste that has been staged in various locations around ORNL. Several of these POP 7 containers primarily contain personal protective equipment (PPE) and dry active waste (DAW), but may contain other miscellaneous debris. This data sharing report addresses the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) specified waste in a 13-container subpopulation (including eight steel boxes, three 55-gal drums, one sealand, and one intermodal) that lacked sufficient characterization data for possible disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile.

  12. Study Protocol: A randomized controlled trial of patient navigation-activation to reduce cancer health disparities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer health disparities affecting low-income and minority patients are well documented. Root-causes are multifactorial, including diagnostic and treatment delays, social and financial barriers, and poor communication. Patient navigation and communication coaching (activation) are potential interventions to address disparities in cancer treatment. The purpose of this clinical trial is to test the effectiveness of an intervention combining patient navigation and activation to improve cancer treatment. Methods/Design The Rochester Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) is a National Cancer Institute-sponsored, patient-level randomized trial (RCT) of patient navigation and activation, targeting newly-diagnosed breast and colorectal cancer patients in Rochester, NY. The goal of the program is to decrease cancer health disparities by addressing barriers to receipt of cancer care and promoting patient self-efficacy. The intervention uses trained, paraprofessional patient navigators recruited from the target community, and a detailed training and supervisory program. Recruited patients are randomly assigned to receive either usual care (except for baseline and follow-up questionnaires and interviews) or intervention. The intervention patients receive tailored assistance from their patient navigators, including phone calls, in-person meetings, and behind-the-scenes coordination of care. A total of 344 patients have been recruited. Outcomes measured at three month intervals include timeliness of care, patient adherence, patient satisfaction, quality of life, self-efficacy, health literacy, and cancer knowledge. Discussion This unique intervention combining patient navigation and patient activation is designed to address the multifactorial problem of cancer health disparities. If successful, this study will affect the design and implementation of patient navigation programs. Trials Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00496678 PMID:20939928

  13. Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA): a study protocol for a multicentre project

    PubMed Central

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Panis, Luc Int; Anaya, Esther; Avila-Palencia, Ione; Boschetti, Florinda; Brand, Christian; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Dons, Evi; Eriksson, Ulf; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Laeremans, Michelle; Mueller, Natalie; Orjuela, Juan Pablo; Racioppi, Francesca; Raser, Elisabeth; Rojas-Rueda, David; Schweizer, Christian; Standaert, Arnout; Uhlmann, Tina; Wegener, Sandra; Götschi, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Only one-third of the European population meets the minimum recommended levels of physical activity (PA). Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases. Walking and cycling for transport (active mobility, AM) are well suited to provide regular PA. The European research project Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) pursues the following aims: (1) to investigate correlates and interrelations of AM, PA, air pollution and crash risk; (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of selected interventions to promote AM; (3) to improve health impact assessment (HIA) of AM; (4) to foster the exchange between the disciplines of public health and transport planning, and between research and practice. Methods and analysis PASTA pursues a mixed-method and multilevel approach that is consistently applied in seven case study cities. Determinants of AM and the evaluation of measures to increase AM are investigated through a large scale longitudinal survey, with overall 14 000 respondents participating in Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Örebro, Rome, Vienna and Zurich. Contextual factors are systematically gathered in each city. PASTA generates empirical findings to improve HIA for AM, for example, with estimates of crash risks, factors on AM-PA substitution and carbon emissions savings from mode shifts. Findings from PASTA will inform WHO's online Health Economic Assessment Tool on the health benefits from cycling and/or walking. The study's wide scope, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and health and transport methods, the innovative survey design, the general and city-specific analyses, and the transdisciplinary composition of the consortium and the wider network of partners promise highly relevant insights for research and practice. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained by the local ethics committees in the countries where the work is being conducted, and sent to the European

  14. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan?

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Eireen; Pacho, Agnes; Galvan, Maria Adona; Corpuz, Aura

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR), Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR) and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED). Methods A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results Two of 11 (18%) surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45%) surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91%) rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7%) considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27%) surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6%) surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR) were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other. PMID:26767139

  15. Surveillance strategies for Classical Swine Fever in wild boar - a comprehensive evaluation study to ensure powerful surveillance.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Katja; Peyre, Marisa; Staubach, Christoph; Schauer, Birgit; Schulz, Jana; Calba, Clémentine; Häsler, Barbara; Conraths, Franz J

    2017-03-07

    Surveillance of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) should not only focus on livestock, but must also include wild boar. To prevent disease transmission into commercial pig herds, it is therefore vital to have knowledge about the disease status in wild boar. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of alternative surveillance strategies for Classical Swine Fever (CSF) in wild boar and compared them with the currently implemented conventional approach. The evaluation protocol was designed using the EVA tool, a decision support tool to help in the development of an economic and epidemiological evaluation protocol for surveillance. To evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance strategies, we investigated their sensitivity and timeliness. Acceptability was analysed and finally, the cost-effectiveness of the surveillance strategies was determined. We developed 69 surveillance strategies for comparative evaluation between the existing approach and the novel proposed strategies. Sampling only within sub-adults resulted in a better acceptability and timeliness than the currently implemented strategy. Strategies that were completely based on passive surveillance performance did not achieve the desired detection probability of 95%. In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that risk-based approaches can be an option to design more effective CSF surveillance strategies in wild boar.

  16. Surveillance strategies for Classical Swine Fever in wild boar – a comprehensive evaluation study to ensure powerful surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Katja; Peyre, Marisa; Staubach, Christoph; Schauer, Birgit; Schulz, Jana; Calba, Clémentine; Häsler, Barbara; Conraths, Franz J.

    2017-01-01

    Surveillance of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) should not only focus on livestock, but must also include wild boar. To prevent disease transmission into commercial pig herds, it is therefore vital to have knowledge about the disease status in wild boar. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of alternative surveillance strategies for Classical Swine Fever (CSF) in wild boar and compared them with the currently implemented conventional approach. The evaluation protocol was designed using the EVA tool, a decision support tool to help in the development of an economic and epidemiological evaluation protocol for surveillance. To evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance strategies, we investigated their sensitivity and timeliness. Acceptability was analysed and finally, the cost-effectiveness of the surveillance strategies was determined. We developed 69 surveillance strategies for comparative evaluation between the existing approach and the novel proposed strategies. Sampling only within sub-adults resulted in a better acceptability and timeliness than the currently implemented strategy. Strategies that were completely based on passive surveillance performance did not achieve the desired detection probability of 95%. In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that risk-based approaches can be an option to design more effective CSF surveillance strategies in wild boar. PMID:28266576

  17. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-07-08

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).

  18. Effectiveness of β-blockers in physically active patients with hypertension: protocol of a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tučková, Dagmar; Klugar, Miloslav; Sovová, Eliška; Sovová, Markéta; Štégnerová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Based on more than 5 decades of epidemiological studies, it is now widely accepted that higher physical activity patterns and levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with better health outcomes. Therefore, it is necessary to consider how treatment methods affect these two components. Clinically, one very important question concerns the influence of aerobic performance on patients being treated for hypertension. The administration of β-blockers can significantly reduce maximal—and especially submaximal—aerobic exercise capacity. The objective of this review is to determine, by comparison of existing mono and combination therapy, which β-blockers are less physically limiting for patients with hypertension who are physically active. Methods A three-step strategy will be adopted in the review, following the methods used by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). The initial search will be conducted using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. The second search will involve the listed databases for the published literature (MEDLINE, Biomedica Czechoslovaca, Tripdatabase, Pedro, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cinahl, WoS) and the unpublished literature (Open Grey, Current Controlled Trials, MedNar, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cos Conference Papers Index, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the WHO). Following the JBI methodology, analysis of title/abstracts and full texts, critical appraisal and data extraction will be carried out on selected studies using the JBI tool, MAStARI. This will be performed by two independent reviewers. If possible, statistical meta-analysis will be pooled. Statistical heterogeneity will be assessed. Subgroup analysis will be used for different age and gender characteristics. Funnel plots, Begg's rank correlation and Egger's regression test will be used to detect or correct publication bias. Ethics and dissemination The results will be disseminated by publishing in a peer

  19. Surveillance of tedizolid activity and resistance: In vitro susceptibility of Gram-positive pathogens collected over 5 years from the United States and Europe.

    PubMed

    Bensaci, Mekki; Sahm, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    In vitro activity of tedizolid and comparators against 11,231 Gram-positive clinical isolates from the United States (84 centers) and Europe (115 centers) were summarized as part of the Surveillance of Tedizolid Activity and Resistance program between 2009 and 2013. Susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretations were based on CLSI and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing criteria. Tedizolid inhibited 99.7% of all isolates at MIC ≤0.5 mg/L; activity was similar regardless of methicillin or vancomycin resistance phenotypes of Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci, respectively. Tedizolid MIC >1 mg/L was reported for 3 S. aureus, 4 coagulase-negative staphylococci, and 2 enterococcal isolates; all streptococci were inhibited at MIC ≤0.5 mg/L. Tedizolid was ≥4-fold more potent than linezolid against all groups, including resistant phenotypes. Tedizolid had potent/stable activity against a large, contemporary collection of Gram-positive clinical isolates, with low rates of resistance.

  20. Bat rabies surveillance in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1985, a bat researcher in Finland died of rabies encephalitis caused by European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2), but an epidemiological study in 1986 did not reveal EBLV-infected bats. In 2009, an EBLV-2-positive Daubenton’s bat was detected. The EBLV-2 isolate from the human case in 1985 and the isolate from the bat in 2009 were genetically closely related. In order to assess the prevalence of EBLVs in Finnish bat populations and to gain a better understanding of the public health risk that EBLV-infected bats pose, a targeted active surveillance project was initiated. Results Altogether, 1156 bats of seven species were examined for lyssaviruses in Finland during a 28–year period (1985–2012), 898 in active surveillance and 258 in passive surveillance, with only one positive finding of EBLV-2 in a Daubenton’s bat in 2009. In 2010–2011, saliva samples from 774 bats of seven species were analyzed for EBLV viral RNA, and sera from 423 bats were analyzed for the presence of bat lyssavirus antibodies. Antibodies were detected in Daubenton’s bats in samples collected from two locations in 2010 and from one location in 2011. All seropositive locations are in close proximity to the place where the EBLV-2 positive Daubenton’s bat was found in 2009. In active surveillance, no EBLV viral RNA was detected. Conclusions These data suggest that EBLV-2 may circulate in Finland, even though the seroprevalence is low. Our results indicate that passive surveillance of dead or sick bats is a relevant means examine the occurrence of lyssavirus infection, but the number of bats submitted for laboratory analysis should be higher in order to obtain reliable information on the lyssavirus situation in the country. PMID:24011337

  1. Work-related fatalities in west virginia. A summary of surveillance, investigation, and prevention activities, july 1996-DECEMBER 1999.

    PubMed

    Helmkamp; Lundstrom; Williams

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: From 1990-95, West Virginia (WV) had a work-related death (WRD) rate of 8.9 deaths per 100,000-the fifth highest rate among all states and twice the national rate. As a result, a Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (WV FACE) program was established to identify all WRDs, define workers at high risk for fatal injury, investgate selected causes, and formulate and disseminate prevention strategies.METHODS: Surveillance and investigation data were used to describe trends and rates and identify hazardous conditions, unsafe work practices, and management-leadership problems through the use of the traditional epidemiologic model and the Haddon temporal matrix. Prevention strategies were developed and disseminated utilizing various written media.RESULTS: From 7/1996-12/1999, 191 persons died from work-related injuries. The WRD rate was 7.6 per 100,000 compared to 4.7 for the U.S. (1996-98). 94% of the victims were male and all Caucasian. Mean age at death was 43 years. Leading external causes of death: motor vehicle (48), struck by object (38), machinery-related (24), fall from elevation (15), and homicide (10). WRDs occurred most often in the trans/public utilities (37; truckers-22), manufacturing (32; loggers-24), mining (28), construction (26), and services (25) industry sectors. 19 on-site investigations were conducted (10 logging, 5 machine-related, and 4 fall from elevation); no company safety programs, inadequate training, lack of oversight were consistently noted. Summary reports were prepared for employers, Fatal Incident Alerts written for workers, and a scientific article was published.CONCLUSIONS: FACE has contributed to a better understanding of fatal occupational injuries within WV and the importance of coordinated efforts by employees, employers, and safety and public health specialists to reduce the frequency and societal impact of these injuries.

  2. Active Surveillance for Adverse Events After a Mass Vaccination Campaign With a Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PsA-TT) in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Vannice, Kirsten S.; Keita, Modibo; Sow, Samba O.; Durbin, Anna P.; Omer, Saad B.; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Yaméogo, Téné M.; Zuber, Patrick L. F.; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Sacko, Massambou; Diomandé, Fabien V. K.; Halsey, Neal A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The monovalent meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac) was developed for use in the “meningitis belt” of sub-Saharan Africa. Mali was 1 of 3 countries selected for early introduction. As this is a new vaccine, postlicensure surveillance is particularly important to identify and characterize possible safety issues. Methods. The national vaccination campaign was phased from September 2010 to November 2011. We conducted postlicensure safety surveillance for PsA-TT in 40 government clinics from southern Mali serving approximately 400 000 people 1–29 years of age. We conducted analyses with individual-level data and population-level data, and we calculated rates of adverse events using the conditional exact test, a modified vaccine cohort risk interval method, and a modified self-controlled case series method for each outcome of interest, including 18 prespecified adverse events and 18 syndromic categories. Results. An increased rate of clinic visits for fever within 3 days after vaccination was found using multiple methods for all age groups. Although other signals were found with some methods, complete assessment of all other prespecified outcomes and syndromic categories did not reveal that PsA-TT was consistently associated with any other health problem. Conclusions. No new safety concerns were identified in this study. These results are consistent with prelicensure data and other studies indicating that PsA-TT is safe. The approach presented could serve as a model for future active postlicensure vaccine safety monitoring associated with large-scale immunization campaigns in low-income countries. PMID:26553680

  3. 76 FR 40736 - NIH State-of-the-Science Conference on the Role of Active Surveillance in the Management of Men...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Surveillance in the Management of Men With Localized Prostate Cancer ACTION: Notice. Notice is hereby given of... Surveillance in the Management of Men With Localized Prostate Cancer,'' to be held December 5-7, 2011, in the... estimated that in 2010, approximately 32,000 American men died of prostate cancer and 218,000 were...

  4. Adult-Based Massive Transfusion Protocol Activation Criteria Do Not Work in Children.

    PubMed

    Acker, Shannon N; Hall, Brianne; Hill, Lauren; Partrick, David A; Bensard, Denis D

    2017-02-01

    Introduction In the adult population, assessment of blood consumption (ABC) score [penetrating mechanism, positive focused assessment sonography for trauma (FAST), systolic blood pressure < 90, and heart rate (HR) > 120] ≥2 identifies trauma patients who require massive transfusion (MT) with sensitivity and specificity of 75 and 86%. We hypothesized that the adult criteria cannot be applied to children, as the vital sign cut-offs are not age-adjusted. We aimed to determine if the use of a shock index, pediatric age-adjusted (SIPA) would improve the discriminate ability of the ABC score in children. Materials and Methods A retrospective review of children age 4 to 15 who received a packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion during admission for trauma between 2008 and 2014 was performed. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of ABC score ≥ 2, elevated SIPA, and age-adjusted ABC score (ABC-S) utilizing SIPA in place of HR and BP, to determine the need for MT. Results A total of 50 children were included, 31 received PRBC transfusion within 6 hours of injury, 7 children had a positive FAST, and 3 suffered penetrating trauma, all in the early transfusion group. ABC score ≥ 2 is 29% sensitive and 100% specific at predicting need for MT while ABC-S score ≥ 1 is 65% sensitive and 84% specific. Conclusions Adult-based criteria for activation of MT perform poorly in the pediatric population. The use of SIPA modestly improves the sensitivity of the ABC score in children; however, the sensitivity and specificity of this score are still worse than when used in an adult population. This suggests the need to develop a new score that takes into account the low rate of penetrating trauma and positive FAST in the pediatric population.

  5. GEIS Surveillance Network Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    identification. Malaria Journal 2013, 12:113 Enterics: Enteric pathogen surveillance in a case- control study of acute diarrhoea in the town of...comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS...areas in which work is performed include respiratory illness surveillance (particularly influenza), acute febrile illness surveillance, malaria

  6. Surveillance as cultural practice.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Torin

    2011-01-01

    This special section of The Sociological Quarterly explores research on “surveillance as cultural practice,” which indicates an orientation to surveillance that views it as embedded within, brought about by, and generative of social practices in specific cultural contexts. Such an approach is more likely to include elements of popular culture, media, art, and narrative; it is also more likely to try to comprehend people's engagement with surveillance on their own terms, stressing the production of emic over etic forms of knowledge. This introduction sketches some key developments in this area and discusses their implications for the field of “surveillance studies” as a whole.

  7. Surveillance for West Nile virus in clinic-admitted raptors, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Nicole; Kratz, Gail; Edwards, Eric; Scherpelz, Judy; Bowen, Richard; Komar, Nicholas

    2007-02-01

    In 2005, 13.5% of clinic-admitted raptors in northern Colorado tested positive for West Nile virus (WNV). Clinic-admitted-raptor surveillance detected WNV activity nearly 14 weeks earlier than other surveillance systems. WNV surveillance using live raptor admissions to rehabilitation clinics may offer a novel surveillance method and should be considered along with other techniques already in use.

  8. Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Clinic-admitted Raptors, Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Gail; Edwards, Eric; Scherpelz, Judy; Bowen, Richard; Komar, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, 13.5% of clinic-admitted raptors in northern Colorado tested positive for West Nile virus (WNV). Clinic-admitted–raptor surveillance detected WNV activity nearly 14 weeks earlier than other surveillance systems. WNV surveillance using live raptor admissions to rehabilitation clinics may offer a novel surveillance method and should be considered along with other techniques already in use. PMID:17479898

  9. Innovative approach for increasing physical activity among breast cancer survivors: protocol for Project MOVE, a quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Sabiston, Catherine M; Clark, Marianne I; Bottorff, Joan L; Toxopeus, Renee; Campbell, Kristin L; Eves, Neil D; Ellard, Susan L; Gotay, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is a cost-effective and non-pharmaceutical strategy that can help mitigate the physical and psychological health challenges associated with breast cancer survivorship. However, up to 70% of women breast cancer survivors are not meeting minimum recommended physical activity guidelines. Project MOVE is an innovative approach to increase physical activity among breast cancer survivors through the use of Action Grants, a combination of microgrants (small amounts of money awarded to groups of individuals to support a physical activity initiative) and financial incentives. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale and protocol of Project MOVE. Method and analysis A quasi-experimental pre–post design will be used. Twelve groups of 8–12 adult women who are breast cancer survivors (N=132) were recruited for the study via face-to-face meetings with breast cancer-related stakeholders, local print and radio media, social media, and pamphlets and posters at community organisations and medical clinics. Each group submitted a microgrant application outlining their proposed physical activity initiative. Successful applicants were determined by a grant review panel and informed of a financial incentive on meeting their physical activity goals. An evaluation of feasibility will be guided by the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance (RE-AIM) framework and assessed through focus groups, interviews and project-related reports. Physical activity will be assessed through accelerometry and by self-report. Quality of life, motivation to exercise and social connection will also be assessed through self-report. Assessments will occur at baseline, 6 months and 1 year. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the University of British Columbia's Behavioural Research Ethics Board (#H14-02502) and has been funded by the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute (project number #702913). Study findings

  10. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  11. Privacy-protecting video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasuriya, Jehan; Alhazzazi, Mohanned; Datt, Mahesh; Mehrotra, Sharad; Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    2005-02-01

    Forms of surveillance are very quickly becoming an integral part of crime control policy, crisis management, social control theory and community consciousness. In turn, it has been used as a simple and effective solution to many of these problems. However, privacy-related concerns have been expressed over the development and deployment of this technology. Used properly, video cameras help expose wrongdoing but typically come at the cost of privacy to those not involved in any maleficent activity. This work describes the design and implementation of a real-time, privacy-protecting video surveillance infrastructure that fuses additional sensor information (e.g. Radio-frequency Identification) with video streams and an access control framework in order to make decisions about how and when to display the individuals under surveillance. This video surveillance system is a particular instance of a more general paradigm of privacy-protecting data collection. In this paper we describe in detail the video processing techniques used in order to achieve real-time tracking of users in pervasive spaces while utilizing the additional sensor data provided by various instrumented sensors. In particular, we discuss background modeling techniques, object tracking and implementation techniques that pertain to the overall development of this system.

  12. Simple Protocol for Secondary School Hands-On Activity: Electrophoresis of Pre-Stained Nucleic Acids on Agar-Agar Borate Gels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britos, Leticia; Goyenola, Guillermo; Orono, Silvia Umpierrez

    2004-01-01

    An extremely simple, inexpensive, and safe method is presented, which emulates nucleic acids isolation and electrophoretic analysis as performed in a research environment, in the context of a secondary school hands-on activity. The protocol is amenable to an interdisciplinary approach, taking into consideration the electrical and chemical…

  13. Testing Activity Monitors’ Effect on Health: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial Among Older Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Fisher, Steve R; Jennings, Kristofer; Brown, Arleen F; Swartz, Maria C; Lyons, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Maintaining healthy levels of physical activity is critical to cardiovascular health, but many older adults are inactive. There is a growing body of evidence linking low motivation and inactivity. Standard behavioral counseling techniques used within the primary care setting strive to increase motivation, but often do not emphasize the key component of self-control. The addition of electronic activity monitors (EAMs) to counseling protocols may provide more effective behavior change and increase overall motivation for exercise through interactive self-monitoring, feedback, and social support from other users. Objective The objective of the study is to conduct a three month intervention trial that will test the feasibility of adding an EAM system to brief counseling within a primary care setting. Participants (n=40) will be randomized to receive evidence-based brief counseling plus either an EAM or a pedometer. Methods Throughout the intervention, we will test its feasibility and acceptability, the change in primary outcomes (cardiovascular risk and physical activity), and the change in secondary outcomes (adherence, weight and body composition, health status, motivation, physical function, psychological feelings, and self-regulation). Upon completion of the intervention, we will also conduct focus groups with the participants and with primary care stakeholders. Results The study started recruitment in October 2015 and is scheduled to be completed by October 2016. Conclusions This project will lay the groundwork and establish the infrastructure for intervention refinement and ultimately translation within the primary care setting in order to prevent cardiovascular disease on a population level. Trial Registration ClinicalTrails.gov NCT02554435; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02554435 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation/6fUlW5tdT) PMID:27129602

  14. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  15. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    network and use the specific presentation methods. In addition, the S4 is compliant with Open Geospatial Consortium - Sensor Web Enablement (OGC-SWE) standards to efficiently discover, access, use, and control heterogeneous sensors and their metadata. These S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. The S4 system is directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  16. On-line image analysis of the stromboli volcanic activity recorded by the surveillance camera helps the forecasting of the major eruptive events.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristaldi, A.; Coltelli, M.; Mangiagli, S.; Pecora, E.

    2003-04-01

    The typical activity of Stromboli consists of intermittent mild explosions lasting a few seconds, which take place at different vents and at variable intervals, the most common time interval being 10-20 minutes. However, the routine activity can be interrupted by more violent, paroxysmal explosions, that eject m-sized scoriaceous bombs and lava blocks to a distance of several hundreds of meters from the craters, endangering the numerous tourists that watch the spectacular activity from the volcano's summit located about two hundreds meters from the active vents. On average, 1-2 paroxysmal explosions occurred per year over the past century, but this statistic may be underestimated in absence of continuous monitoring. For this reason from summer 1996 a remote surveillance camera works on Stromboli recording continuously the volcanic activity. It is located on Pizzo Sopra la Fossa, 100 metres above the crater terrace where are the active vents. Using image analysis we seeks to identify any change of the explosive activity trend that could precede a particular eruptive event, like paroxysmal explosions, fire fountains, lava flows. From the day of the camera installation up to present 12 paroxysmal events and lava flows occurred. The analysis include the counting of the explosions occurred at the different craters and the parameterization in classes of intensity for each explosion on the base of tephra dispersion and kinetics energy. The plot of dissipated energy by each crater versus time shows a cyclic behavior with max and min of explosive activity ranging from a few days to a month. Often the craters show opposite trends so when the activity decreases in a crater, increases in the other. Before every paroxysmal explosions recorded, the crater that produced the event decreased and then stopped its activity from a few days to weeks before. The other crater tried to compensate increasing its activity and when it declined the paroxysmal explosion occurred suddenly at

  17. Nanomaterial transformation and association with fresh and freeze-dried wastewater activated sludge: implications for testing protocol and environmental fate.

    PubMed

    Kiser, Mehlika A; Ladner, David A; Hristovski, Kiril D; Westerhoff, Paul K

    2012-07-03

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are an emerging class of contaminants entering wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and standardized testing protocols are needed by industry and regulators to assess the potential removal of ENMs during wastewater treatment. A United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standard method (OPPTS 835.1110) for estimating soluble pollutant removal during wastewater treatment using freeze-dried, heat-treated (FDH) activated sludge (AS) has been recently proposed for predicting ENM fate in WWTPs. This study is the first to evaluate the use of FDH AS in batch experiments for quantifying ENM removal from wastewater. While soluble pollutants sorbed equally to fresh and FDH AS, fullerene, silver, gold, and polystyrene nanoparticles' removals with FDH AS were approximately 60-100% less than their removals with fresh AS. Unlike fresh AS, FDH AS had a high concentration of proteins and other soluble organics in the liquid phase, an indication of bacterial membrane disintegration due to freeze-drying and heat exposure. This cellular matter stabilized ENMs such that they were poorly removed by FDH AS. Therefore, FDH AS is not a suitable sorbent for estimating nanoparticle removal in WWTPs, whereas fresh AS has been shown to reasonably predict full-scale performance for titanium removal. This study indicates that natural or engineered processes (e.g., anaerobic digestion, biosolids decomposition in soils) that result in cellular degradation and matrices rich in surfactant-like materials (natural organic matter, proteins, phospholipids, etc.) may transform nanoparticle surfaces and significantly alter their fate in the environment.

  18. Uniform implantation of CNTs on total activated carbon surfaces: a smart engineering protocol for commercial supercapacitor applications.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Linpo; Liu, Yani; Liu, Siyuan; Xu, Maowen; Zhu, Jianhui

    2017-04-07

    The main obstacles to building better supercapacitors are still trade-offs between energy and power parameters. To promote commercial supercapacitor behaviors, proper optimization toward electrode configurations/architectures may be a feasible and effective way. We herein propose a smart and reliable electrode engineering protocol, by in situ implantation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on total activated carbon (AC) surfaces via a mild chemical vapor deposition process at ∼550 °C, using nickel nitrate hydroxide (NNH) thin films and waste ethanol solvents as the catalyst and carbon sources, respectively. The direct and conformal growth of NNH layers onto carbonaceous scaffold guarantees the later uniform implantation of long and high-quality CNTs on total AC outer surfaces. Such fluffy and entangled CNTs preserve ionic diffusion channels, well connect neighboring ACs and function as superhighways for electrons transfer, endowing electrodes with outstanding capacitive behaviors including large output capacitances of ∼230 F g(-1) in 1 M Na2SO4 neutral solution and ∼502.5 F g(-1) in 6 M KOH using Ni valence state variation, and very negligible capacity decay in long-term cycles. Furthermore, a full symmetric supercapacitor device of CNTs@ACs//CNTs@ACs has been constructed, capable of delivering both high specific energy and power densities (maximum values reaching up to ∼97.2 Wh kg(-1) and ∼10.84 kW kg(-1)), which holds great potential in competing with current mainstream supercapacitors.

  19. Uniform implantation of CNTs on total activated carbon surfaces: a smart engineering protocol for commercial supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Linpo; Liu, Yani; Liu, Siyuan; Xu, Maowen; Zhu, Jianhui

    2017-04-01

    The main obstacles to building better supercapacitors are still trade-offs between energy and power parameters. To promote commercial supercapacitor behaviors, proper optimization toward electrode configurations/architectures may be a feasible and effective way. We herein propose a smart and reliable electrode engineering protocol, by in situ implantation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on total activated carbon (AC) surfaces via a mild chemical vapor deposition process at ∼550 °C, using nickel nitrate hydroxide (NNH) thin films and waste ethanol solvents as the catalyst and carbon sources, respectively. The direct and conformal growth of NNH layers onto carbonaceous scaffold guarantees the later uniform implantation of long and high-quality CNTs on total AC outer surfaces. Such fluffy and entangled CNTs preserve ionic diffusion channels, well connect neighboring ACs and function as superhighways for electrons transfer, endowing electrodes with outstanding capacitive behaviors including large output capacitances of ∼230 F g‑1 in 1 M Na2SO4 neutral solution and ∼502.5 F g‑1 in 6 M KOH using Ni valence state variation, and very negligible capacity decay in long-term cycles. Furthermore, a full symmetric supercapacitor device of CNTs@ACs//CNTs@ACs has been constructed, capable of delivering both high specific energy and power densities (maximum values reaching up to ∼97.2 Wh kg‑1 and ∼10.84 kW kg‑1), which holds great potential in competing with current mainstream supercapacitors.

  20. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  1. Participatory Online Surveillance as a Supplementary Tool to Sentinel Doctors for Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bella, Antonino; Rizzo, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring of seasonal influenza yearly epidemics remains one of the main activity of national syndromic surveillance systems. The development of internet-based surveillance tools has brought an innovative approach to seasonal influenza surveillance by directly involving self-selected volunteers among the general population reporting their health status on a weekly basis throughout the flu season. In this paper, we explore how Influweb, an internet-based monitoring system for influenza surveillance, deployed in Italy since 2008 has performed during three years from 2012 to 2015 in comparison with data collected during the same period by the Italian sentinel doctors surveillance system. PMID:28076411

  2. Oral selenium supplementation has no effect on prostate-specific antigen velocity in men undergoing active surveillance for localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Stratton, M Suzanne; Algotar, Amit M; Ranger-Moore, James; Stratton, Steven P; Slate, Elizabeth H; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Thompson, Patricia A; Clark, Larry C; Ahmann, Frederick R

    2010-08-01

    The Nutritional Prevention of Cancer trial showed a 52% lower incidence of prostate cancer in men supplemented with selenium. As a result, our study was designed to assess whether selenium supplementation attenuates the progression of prostate cancer. A phase 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in men with localized nonmetastatic prostate cancer who had elected to forgo active treatment and be followed by active surveillance. A total of 140 men were randomized to placebo (n = 46), 200 microg/d (n = 47), or 800 microg/d (n = 47) selenium p.o. (as selenized yeast) and followed every 3 months for up to 5 years. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity was used as a marker of prostate cancer progression and was estimated using mixed-effects regression. Adjusting for age, body mass index, baseline selenium, smoking, baseline PSA, race, PSA method, and Gleason score, PSA velocities for the 200 microg/d and 800 microg/d treatment groups were not statistically significantly different from placebo (P = 0.32 and P = 0.61, respectively). In the highest quartile of baseline selenium, men supplemented with 800 microg selenium showed statistically significantly higher PSA velocity as compared with placebo (P = 0.018). Selenium supplementation did not show a protective effect on PSA velocity in subjects with localized prostate cancer. On the contrary, supplementation with high-dose selenium was observed to be a risk factor for increased PSA velocity in men with high baseline plasma selenium concentrations.

  3. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    SciTech Connect

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-02-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities. However, ongoing S&M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations.

  4. Economics of zoonoses surveillance in a 'One Health' context: an assessment of Campylobacter surveillance in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2017-01-23

    Cross-sectorial surveillance and general collaboration between the animal and the public health sectors are increasingly recognized as needed to better manage the impacts of zoonoses. From 2009, the Swiss established a Campylobacter mitigation system that includes human and poultry surveillance data-sharing within a multi-sectorial platform, in a 'One Health' approach. The objective of this study was to explore the economics of this cross-sectorial approach, including surveillance and triggered interventions. Costs and benefits of the One Health and of the uni-sectorial approach to Campylobacter surveillance were identified using an economic assessment framework developed earlier. Cost information of surveillance activities and interventions was gathered and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the disease estimated for 2008 and 2013. In the first 5 years of this One Health approach to Campylobacter mitigation, surveillance contributed with information mainly used to perform risk assessments, monitor trends and shape research efforts on Campylobacter. There was an increase in costs associated with the mitigation activities following integration, due mainly to the allocation of additional resources to research and implementation of poultry surveillance. The overall burden of campylobacteriosis increased by 3·4-8·8% to 1751-2852 DALYs in 2013. In the timing of the analysis, added value associated with this cross-sectorial approach to surveillance of Campylobacter in the country was likely generated through non-measurable benefits such as intellectual capital and social capital.

  5. Asbestos Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on asbestos is presented including the different types and the important medical distinctions between those different types. The four diseases associated with asbestos exposure are discussed: mesothelioma, lung cancer, asbestosis, and benign pleural disorders. The purpose of the LeRC Asbestos Surveillance Program is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Asbestos Monitoring at LeRC are discussed.

  6. Mercury Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on mercury exposure is presented including forms, sources, permissible exposure limits, and physiological effects. The purpose of the Mercury Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Mercury Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  7. Arsenic surveillance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background information about arsenic is presented including forms, common sources, and clinical symptoms of arsenic exposure. The purpose of the Arsenic Surveillance Program and LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Arsenic Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  8. Lead Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on lead exposure is presented including forms of lead, sources, hematologic effects, neurologic effects, endocrine effects, renal effects, and reproductive and developmental effects. The purpose of the Lead Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Lead Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  9. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  10. Updated Draft Protocol for the Evaluation of Bactericidal Activity of Hard, Non-porous Copper Containing Surface Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the updated draft testing protocol recommended by the EPA to support the registration of copper-containing surface products (such as door knobs, or other items that are not intended for food contact) that bear sanitizer claims.

  11. Patient perspectives on the promptness and quality of care of road traffic incident victims in Peru: a cross-sectional, active surveillance study

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Background: Road injuries are the second-leading cause of disease and injury in the Andean region of South America. Adequate management of road traffic crash victims is important to prevent and reduce deaths and serious long-term injuries. Objective: To evaluate the promptness of health care services provided to those injured in road traffic incidents (RTIs) and the satisfaction with those services during the pre-hospital and hospital periods. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with active surveillance to recruit participants in emergency departments at eight health care facilities in three Peruvian cities: a large metropolitan city (Lima) and two provincial cities (an urban center in the southern Andes and an urban center in the rainforest region), between August and September 2009. The main outcomes of interest were promptness of care, measured by time between injury and each service offered, as well as patient satisfaction measured by the Service Quality (SERVQUAL) survey. We explored the association between outcomes and city, type of health care facility (HCF), and type of provider. Results: We recruited 644 adults seeking care for RTIs. This active surveillance strategy yielded 34% more events than anticipated, suggesting under-reporting in traditional registries. Median response time between a RTI and any care at a HCF was 33 minutes overall and only 62% of participants received professional care during the initial “golden” hour after the RTI. After adjustment for various factors, there was strong evidence of higher global dissatisfaction levels among those receiving care at public HCFs compared to private ones (odds ratio (OR) 5.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.88-13.54). This difference was not observed when provincial sites were compared to Lima (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.42-4.70). Conclusions: Response time to RTIs was adequate overall, though a large proportion of RTI victims could have received more prompt care. Overall, dissatisfaction was

  12. Critical issues in implementing a national integrated all-vaccine preventable disease surveillance system☆

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Terri B.; Andrus, Jon K.; Dietz, Vance J.; Andrus, Jon K.; Hyde, Terri B.; Lee, Carla E.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Verani, Jennifer R.; Friedman, Cindy; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Lopez, Adriana S.; Jumaan, Aisha; Dietz, Vance J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization published the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance (GFIMS) outlining measures to enhance national surveillance for vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). The GFIMS emphasized that VPD surveillance should be integrated and placed in a ‘unified framework’ building upon the strengths of existing surveillance systems to prevent duplication of activities common to all surveillance systems and to minimize human resource and supply expenditures. Unfortunately, there was little experience in actually developing integrated VPD surveillance. We describe the process of developing operational guidance for ministries of health to implement such an integrated surveillance system for multiple VPDs. PMID:23777699

  13. Applying the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to increase European preschool children's physical activity levels: the ToyBox-study.

    PubMed

    De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verloigne, M; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Grammatikaki, E; Moreno, L; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Szott, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2014-08-01

    Although sufficient physical activity is beneficial for preschoolers' health, activity levels in most preschoolers are low. As preschoolers spend a considerable amount of time at home and at kindergarten, interventions should target both environments to increase their activity levels. The aim of the current paper was to describe the six different steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol towards the systematic development and implementation of the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention. This intervention is a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention implemented across six European countries. Based on the results of literature reviews and focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers, matrices of change objectives were created. Then, theory-based methods and practical strategies were selected to develop intervention materials at three different levels: (i) individual level (preschoolers); (ii) interpersonal level (parents/caregivers) and (iii) organizational level (teachers). This resulted in a standardized intervention with room for local and cultural adaptations in each participating country. Although the Intervention Mapping protocol is a time-consuming process, using this systematic approach may lead to an increase in intervention effectiveness. The presented matrices of change objectives are useful for future programme planners to develop and implement an intervention based on the Intervention Mapping protocol to increase physical activity levels in preschoolers.

  14. Repeat-swap homology modeling of secondary active transporters: updated protocol and prediction of elevator-type mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Jaque, Ariela; Fenollar-Ferrer, Cristina; Kaufmann, Desirée; Forrest, Lucy R.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary active transporters are critical for neurotransmitter clearance and recycling during synaptic transmission and uptake of nutrients. These proteins mediate the movement of solutes against their concentration gradients, by using the energy released in the movement of ions down pre-existing concentration gradients. To achieve this, transporters conform to the so-called alternating-access hypothesis, whereby the protein adopts at least two conformations in which the substrate binding sites are exposed to one or other side of the membrane, but not both simultaneously. Structures of a bacterial homolog of neuronal glutamate transporters, GltPh, in several different conformational states have revealed that the protein structure is asymmetric in the outward- and inward-open states, and that the conformational change connecting them involves a elevator-like movement of a substrate binding domain across the membrane. The structural asymmetry is created by inverted-topology repeats, i.e., structural repeats with similar overall folds whose transmembrane topologies are related to each other by two-fold pseudo-symmetry around an axis parallel to the membrane plane. Inverted repeats have been found in around three-quarters of secondary transporter folds. Moreover, the (a)symmetry of these systems has been successfully used as a bioinformatic tool, called “repeat-swap modeling” to predict structural models of a transporter in one conformation using the known structure of the transporter in the complementary conformation as a template. Here, we describe an updated repeat-swap homology modeling protocol, and calibrate the accuracy of the method using GltPh, for which both inward- and outward-facing conformations are known. We then apply this repeat-swap homology modeling procedure to a concentrative nucleoside transporter, VcCNT, which has a three-dimensional arrangement related to that of GltPh. The repeat-swapped model of VcCNT predicts that nucleoside transport

  15. Outbreaks of H5N1 in poultry in Thailand: the relative role of poultry production types in sustaining transmission and the impact of active surveillance in control.

    PubMed

    Walker, Patrick; Cauchemez, Simon; Hartemink, Nienke; Tiensin, Thanawat; Ghani, Azra C

    2012-08-07

    H5N1, highly pathogenic avian influenza, continues to pose a public health risk in the countries of southeast Asia where it has become endemic. However, in Thailand, which experienced two of the largest recorded epidemics in 2004-2005, the disease has been successfully reduced to very low levels. We fitted a spatio-temporal model of the spread of infection to outbreak data collected during the second wave of outbreaks to assess the extent to which different poultry types were responsible for propagating infection. Our estimates suggest that the wave of outbreaks would not have been possible without the contribution of backyard flocks to the susceptibility of a sub-district. However, we also estimated that outbreaks involving commercial poultry, a much larger sector in Thailand than in neighbouring countries, were disproportionately infectious, a factor which was also crucial in sustaining the wave. As a result, implemented measures that aim to reduce the role of commercial farms in the spread of infection, such as the drive to bring aspects of the supply chain 'in house', may help to explain the subsequent success in controlling H5N1 in Thailand. We also found that periods of active surveillance substantially improved the rate of outbreak detection.

  16. Estimating the individual benefit of immediate treatment or active surveillance for prostate cancer after screen-detection in older (65+) men.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Tiago M; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; de Koning, Harry J

    2016-05-15

    A significant proportion of screen-detected men with prostate cancer is likely to be overtreated, especially in older age groups. We aim to find which groups of screen-detected older men (65+) benefit the most from Immediate Radical Treatment or Active Surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer, depending on age, screening history, health status and prostate cancer stage at detection. We used a microsimulation model (MISCAN) of the natural history of prostate cancer based on ERSPC data. Individual life histories are simulated with US comorbidity lifetables based on a random sample of MEDICARE data. Different screening histories are simulated and we count outcomes for men screen-detected from ages 66 to 72. For immediately treated men with low-risk disease (≤ T2a, Gleason 6) the probability of overtreatment ranges from 61% to 86% decreasing to between 37 and 46%, if they are assigned to AS. For intermediate risk men (≤ T2, Gleason 3 + 4) overtreatment ranges from 23 to 60%, which reduces to between 16 and 31% for AS. For high risk men (T3, or ≥ Gleason 4 + 3), overtreatment ranges from 11 to 51%. The disease stage at screen-detection is a critical risk factor for overtreatment. For low risk men, AS seems to significantly reduce overtreatment at a modest cost. For intermediate risk men, the decision between immediate treatment or AS depends on age and comorbidity status. Men screen-detected in a high risk disease stage may benefit from immediate treatment even beyond age 69.

  17. Evaluation of Aryoseven Safety (Recombinant Activated Factor VII) in Patients with Bleeding Disorders (An Observational Post-Marketing Surveillance Study)

    PubMed Central

    Toogeh, Gholamreza; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Eshghi, Peyman; Managhchi, Mohammadreza; Shaverdi-niasari, Mohammadreza; Karimi, Katayoon; Roostaei, Samin; Emran, Neda; Abdollahi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recombinant activated factor VII induces hemostasis in patients with coagulopathy disorders. AryoSeven™ as a safe Iranian Recombinant activated factor VII has been available on our market. This study was performed to establish the safety of AryoSeven on patients with coagulopathy disorder. Methods: This single-center, descriptive, cross sectional study was carried out in Thrombus and Homeostasis Research Center ValiAsr Hospital during 2013-2014. Fifty one patients with bleeding disorders who received at least one dose of Aryoseven were enrolled. Patients’ demographic data and adverse effect of drug and reaction related to Aryoseven or previous usage of Recombinant activated FVII were recorded in questionnaires. Finally data were analyzed to compare side effects of Aryoseven and other Recombinant activated FVII brands. Results: Aryoseven was prescribed for 51 Patients. Of all participants with mean age 57.18+21.38 yr, 31 cases were male and 26 subjects had past history of recombinant activated FVII usage. Glanzman was the most frequent disorder followed by congenital FVII deficiency, hemophilia with inhibitors, factor 5 deficiency, acquired hemophilia, hemophilia A with inhibitor, and hemophilia A or B with inhibitor. The majority of bleeding episodes had occurred in joints. Three patients (5.9%) complained about adverse effects of Aryoseven vs. 11.5 % about adverse effects of other brands. However this difference was not significant, statistically. Conclusion: Based on monitor patients closely for any adverse events, we concluded that Aryoseven administration under careful weighing of benefit versus potential harm may comparable with other counterpart drugs. PMID:27799968

  18. Squamous cell carcinomas escape immune surveillance via inducing chronic activation and exhaustion of CD8+ T Cells co-expressing PD-1 and LAG-3 inhibitory receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Ameet K.; Kadoishi, Tanya; Wang, Xiaoguang; Driver, Emily; Chen, Zhangguo; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Jing H.

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second commonest type of skin cancer. Moreover, about 90% of head and neck cancers are SCCs. SCCs develop at a significantly higher rate under chronic immunosuppressive conditions, implicating a role of immune surveillance in controlling SCCs. It remains largely unknown how SCCs evade immune recognition. Here, we established a mouse model by injecting tumor cells derived from primary SCCs harboring KrasG12D mutation and Smad4 deletion into wild-type (wt) or CD8−/− recipients. We found comparable tumor growth between wt and CD8−/− recipients, indicating a complete escape of CD8+ T cell-mediated anti-tumor responses by these SCCs. Mechanistically, CD8+ T cells apparently were not defective in infiltrating tumors given their relatively increased percentage among tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). CD8+ TILs exhibited phenotypes of chronic activation and exhaustion, including overexpression of activation markers, co-expression of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), as well as TCRβ downregulation. Among CD4+ TILs, T regulatory cells (Tregs) were preferentially expanded. Contradictory to prior findings in melanoma, Treg expansion was independent of CD8+ T cells in our SCC model. Unexpectedly, CD8+ T cells were required for promoting NK cell infiltration within SCCs. Furthermore, we uncovered AKT-dependent lymphocyte-induced PD-L1 upregulation on SCCs, which was contributed greatly by combinatorial effects of CD8+ T and NK cells. Lastly, dual blockade of PD-1 and LAG-3 inhibited the tumor growth of SCCs. Thus, our findings identify novel immune evasion mechanisms of SCCs and suggest that immunosuppressive mechanisms operate in a cancer-type specific and context-dependent manner. PMID:27835902

  19. Squamous cell carcinomas escape immune surveillance via inducing chronic activation and exhaustion of CD8+ T Cells co-expressing PD-1 and LAG-3 inhibitory receptors.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ameet K; Kadoishi, Tanya; Wang, Xiaoguang; Driver, Emily; Chen, Zhangguo; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Jing H

    2016-12-06

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second commonest type of skin cancer. Moreover, about 90% of head and neck cancers are SCCs. SCCs develop at a significantly higher rate under chronic immunosuppressive conditions, implicating a role of immune surveillance in controlling SCCs. It remains largely unknown how SCCs evade immune recognition. Here, we established a mouse model by injecting tumor cells derived from primary SCCs harboring KrasG12D mutation and Smad4 deletion into wild-type (wt) or CD8-/- recipients. We found comparable tumor growth between wt and CD8-/- recipients, indicating a complete escape of CD8+ T cell-mediated anti-tumor responses by these SCCs. Mechanistically, CD8+ T cells apparently were not defective in infiltrating tumors given their relatively increased percentage among tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). CD8+ TILs exhibited phenotypes of chronic activation and exhaustion, including overexpression of activation markers, co-expression of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), as well as TCRβ downregulation. Among CD4+ TILs, T regulatory cells (Tregs) were preferentially expanded. Contradictory to prior findings in melanoma, Treg expansion was independent of CD8+ T cells in our SCC model. Unexpectedly, CD8+ T cells were required for promoting NK cell infiltration within SCCs. Furthermore, we uncovered AKT-dependent lymphocyte-induced PD-L1 upregulation on SCCs, which was contributed greatly by combinatorial effects of CD8+ T and NK cells. Lastly, dual blockade of PD-1 and LAG-3 inhibited the tumor growth of SCCs. Thus, our findings identify novel immune evasion mechanisms of SCCs and suggest that immunosuppressive mechanisms operate in a cancer-type specific and context-dependent manner.

  20. Thermal surveillance of volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A systematic aircraft program to monitor changes in the thermal emission from volcanoes of the Cascade Range has been initiated and is being carried out in conjunction with ERTS-1 thermal surveillance experiments. Night overflights by aircraft equipped with thermal infrared scanners sensitive to terrestrial emission in the 4-5.5 and 8-14 micron bands are currently being carried out at intervals of a few months. Preliminary results confirm that Mount Rainier, Mount Baker, Mount Saint Helens, Mount Shasta, and the Lassen area continue to be thermally active, although with the exception of Lassen which erupted between 1914 and 1917, and Mount Saint Helens which had a series of eruptions between 1831 and 1834, there has been no recent eruptive activity. Excellent quality infrared images recorded over Mount Rainier, as recently as April, 1972, show similar thermal patterns to those reported in 1964-1966. Infrared images of Mount Baker recorded in November 1970 and again in April 1972 revealed a distinct array of anomalies 1000 feet below the crater rim and associated with fumaroles or structures permitting convective heat transfer to the surface.

  1. Global Assessment of the Activity of Tigecycline against Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Pathogens between 2004 and 2014 as Part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial.

    PubMed

    Giammanco, Anna; Calà, Cinzia; Fasciana, Teresa; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative organisms are a burden on the global health care system. The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST) is an ongoing global study designed to monitor the in vitro activities of tigecycline and a panel of marketed antimicrobials against a range of clinically significant pathogens. In this study, in vitro data are presented for MDR Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae isolates collected from 2004 to 2014. In total, 13% (21,967/170,759) of isolates displayed multidrug resistance globally, with the highest rates recorded among A. baumannii (overall rate, 44% [8,294/18,741], increasing from 23% [309/1,323] in 2004 to 63% [447/712] in 2014). Other multidrug resistance rates ranged from 2.5% for K. oxytoca (203/8,000) to 12% for P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae (3,951/32,786 and 3,895/32,888, respectively), and rates among these pathogens remained stable during the study period. Against MDR E. coli, Klebsiella spp., and E. aerogenes, the lowest rates of resistance were to tigecycline (0.2%, 6%, and 12%, respectively), and the lowest MIC90 value against A. baumannii was observed for tigecycline (2 mg/liter; MIC range, ≤0.008 to ≥32 mg/liter). The only significant change in resistance to tigecycline during the study period was for MDR E. coli (P < 0.01), among which eight resistant isolates were identified globally from 2009 to 2013. In summary, these results show that tigecycline retained in vitro activity against the majority of MDR Gram-negative organisms presented here, but the rising rates of MDR A. baumannii highlight the need for the continued monitoring of global multidrug resistance. IMPORTANCE Multidrug resistance among bacterial pathogens is an ongoing global problem and renders antimicrobial agents ineffective at treating bacterial infections. In the health care setting

  2. Global Assessment of the Activity of Tigecycline against Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Pathogens between 2004 and 2014 as Part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial

    PubMed Central

    Calà, Cinzia; Fasciana, Teresa; Dowzicky, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative organisms are a burden on the global health care system. The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST) is an ongoing global study designed to monitor the in vitro activities of tigecycline and a panel of marketed antimicrobials against a range of clinically significant pathogens. In this study, in vitro data are presented for MDR Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae isolates collected from 2004 to 2014. In total, 13% (21,967/170,759) of isolates displayed multidrug resistance globally, with the highest rates recorded among A. baumannii (overall rate, 44% [8,294/18,741], increasing from 23% [309/1,323] in 2004 to 63% [447/712] in 2014). Other multidrug resistance rates ranged from 2.5% for K. oxytoca (203/8,000) to 12% for P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae (3,951/32,786 and 3,895/32,888, respectively), and rates among these pathogens remained stable during the study period. Against MDR E. coli, Klebsiella spp., and E. aerogenes, the lowest rates of resistance were to tigecycline (0.2%, 6%, and 12%, respectively), and the lowest MIC90 value against A. baumannii was observed for tigecycline (2 mg/liter; MIC range, ≤0.008 to ≥32 mg/liter). The only significant change in resistance to tigecycline during the study period was for MDR E. coli (P < 0.01), among which eight resistant isolates were identified globally from 2009 to 2013. In summary, these results show that tigecycline retained in vitro activity against the majority of MDR Gram-negative organisms presented here, but the rising rates of MDR A. baumannii highlight the need for the continued monitoring of global multidrug resistance. IMPORTANCE Multidrug resistance among bacterial pathogens is an ongoing global problem and renders antimicrobial agents ineffective at treating bacterial infections. In the health care setting

  3. Data Sharing Report for the Quantification of Removable Activity in Various Surveillance and Maintenance Facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN

    SciTech Connect

    King, David A.

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OR-EM) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. Specifically, DOE OR-EM requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting potential removable radiological contamination that may be transferrable to future personal protective equipment (PPE) and contamination control materials—collectively referred to as PPE throughout the remainder of this report—used in certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Project facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Routine surveys in Bldgs. 3001, 3005, 3010, 3028, 3029, 3038, 3042, 3517, 4507, and 7500 continuously generate PPE. The waste is comprised of Tyvek coveralls, gloves, booties, Herculite, and other materials used to prevent worker exposure or the spread of contamination during routine maintenance and monitoring activities. This report describes the effort to collect and quantify removable activity that may be used by the ORNL S&M Project team to develop radiation instrumentation “screening criteria.” Material potentially containing removable activity was collected on smears, including both masselin large-area wipes (LAWs) and standard paper smears, and analyzed for site-related constituents (SRCs) in an analytical laboratory. The screening criteria, if approved, may be used to expedite waste disposition of relatively clean PPE. The ultimate objectives of this effort were to: 1) determine whether screening criteria can be developed for these facilities, and 2) provide process knowledge information for future site planners. The screening criteria, if calculated, must be formally approved by Federal Facility Agreement parties prior to use for

  4. Implementation of surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in Belgium according to the ECDC guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2012, the new guidelines for the surveillance of IMS in Europe, produced by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), were tested in Belgium. This study aimed at (1) testing the usefulness and applicability in the field of the ECDC guidelines for the surveillance of IMS in Europe and (2) surveying IMS throughout Belgium. Methods First, the scenarios, which Belgium is facing, were identified according to the ECDC guidelines. Second, the surveillance strategy and the methods were identified based on the guidelines and adjusted to the Belgium context. Two areas colonised by IMS and 20 potential points of entry (PoE) were selected. Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus (CO2-baited) traps (23) and oviposition traps (147) were set-up, and larval sampling was performed monthly or bi-monthly from July till October 2012. Finally, the costs and workload of the surveillance activities were compared to the estimates provided by the ECDC guidelines. Results Surveillance at 20 potential PoE (complying with scenario 1) revealed that no new IMS were established in Belgium. Surveillance at two sites colonised by IMS (scenario 2) indicated that although control measures have drastically reduced the Ae. j. japonicus population this species is still present. Furthermore, Ae. koreicus is permanently established. For both scenarios, the problems encountered are discussed and recommendations are given. In addition, the actual workload was lower than the estimated workload, while the actual costs were higher than the estimated ones. Conclusions The ECDC guidelines are helpful, applicable and efficient to implement surveillance of IMS in Belgium. Recommendations were customised to the local context (political demands, salary and investment costs, and existing expertise). The workload and costs related to the preparatory phase (i.e., planning, contacts with the PoE, writing a protocol) were found to be missing in the cost evaluation suggested in the guidelines

  5. Development and validation of a PulseNet standardized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for subtyping of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Cooper, K L F; Luey, C K Y; Bird, M; Terajima, J; Nair, G B; Kam, K M; Arakawa, E; Safa, A; Cheung, D T; Law, C P; Watanabe, H; Kubota, K; Swaminathan, B; Ribot, E M

    2006-01-01

    PulseNet is a network that utilizes standardized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocols with the purpose of conducting laboratory-based surveillance of foodborne pathogens. PulseNet standardized PFGE protocols are subject to rigorous testing during the developmental phase and careful evaluation during a validation process assessing its robustness and reproducibility in different laboratories. Here we describe the development and validation of a rapid PFGE protocol for subtyping Vibrio cholerae for use in PulseNet International activities. While the protocol was derived from the existing PulseNet protocol for Escherichia coli O157, various aspects of this protocol were optimized for use with V. cholerae, most notably a change of the primary and secondary restriction enzyme to SfiI and NotI, respectively, and the use of a two-block electrophoresis program. External validation of this protocol was undertaken through a collaboration between three PulseNet Asia Pacific laboratories (Public Health Laboratory Centre, Hong Kong, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan, and International Center for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research-Bangladesh) and PulseNet USA. Comparison of PFGE patterns generated by each of the participating laboratories demonstrated that the protocol is robust and reproducible.

  6. A protocol for the in vitro micronucleus test. I. Contributions to the development of a protocol suitable for regulatory submissions from an examination of 16 chemicals with different mechanisms of action and different levels of activity.

    PubMed

    Garriott, Michael L; Phelps, J Barry; Hoffman, Wherly P

    2002-05-27

    The in vitro micronucleus (IVM) test is currently used as a screen during the early stages of pharmaceutical development to identify chemicals likely to produce positive outcomes in the in vitro chromosome aberration assay. For several reasons, the assay is being considered as an alternative to the aberration assay, but the current screening protocols are not rigorous enough to fully satisfy concerns about genotoxic safety. This manuscript describes the investigation of several protocol parameters to assist with the development of a regulatory guideline for the IVM test. The parameters investigated are: the effect of cytochalasin B on the outcome of the assay when conducted with continually growing cell lines; the need for an extended exposure in the absence of metabolic activation; and the number of cells to be counted for a valid assay. In addition, two statistical procedures for the analysis of data from the test are described. The results of the investigation indicate that cytochalasin B does not effect the outcome of the test, that the extended exposure treatment is not necessary, that counting 2000 cells is preferable to counting 1000, and that the data can be appropriately analyzed using a trend test.

  7. Groundwater surveillance plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Forstrom, J.M.; Smith, E.D.; Winters, S.L.; Haase, C.S.; King, H.L.; McMaster, W.M.

    1994-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the preparation of environmental monitoring plans and implementation of environmental monitoring programs for all DOE facilities. The order identifies two distinct components of environmental monitoring, namely effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. In general, effluent monitoring has the objectives of characterizing contaminants and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, whereas environmental surveillance has the broader objective of monitoring the effects of DOE activities on on- and off-site environmental and natural resources. The purpose of this document is to support the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) by describing the groundwater component of the environmental surveillance program for the DOE facilities on the ORR. The distinctions between groundwater effluent monitoring and groundwater surveillance have been defined in the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Surveillance Strategy. As defined in the strategy, a groundwater surveillance program consists of two parts, plant perimeter surveillance and off-site water well surveillance. This document identifies the sampling locations, parameters, and monitoring frequencies for both of these activities on and around the ORR and describes the rationale for the program design. The program was developed to meet the objectives of DOE Order 5400.1 and related requirements in DOE Order 5400.5 and to conform with DOE guidance on environmental surveillance and the Energy Systems Groundwater Surveillance Strategy.

  8. Detecting polio through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP).

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Jagdish; Ram, Madhav; Durrani, Sunita; Wenger, Jay

    2005-12-01

    Accurate surveillance for polio is essential for eradication. Surveillance systems for polio has been developed under the guidance of the global polio eradication initiative. Surveillance of cases of acute flaccid paralysis among children less than 15 years of age is a key component for a well functioning polio surveillance system. The surveillance system works through a network of surveillance medical officers, the responsibility of them lies in assisting the health services departments of all states and maintaining a network of acute flaccid paralysis reporting sites and rapidly investigating the cases. Surveillance activities begin when a child comes in contact with a healthcare provider who in turn informs the officer in charge of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance. The goal of the polio network laboratories is to provide accurate and timely results of wild poliovirus detection in stool samples of cases of acute flaccid paralysis. Strong linkages have been established between the acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system and the laboratory network. Laboratories complete poliovirus isolation and if poliovirus is isolated, these are submitted for intratypic differentiations. Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in India has demonstrated that the eradication activities implemented in India led to dramatic reduction and restriction in the number of cases and geographic spread of poliovirus transmission.

  9. One Decade of Active Avian Influenza Wild Bird Surveillance in Belgium Showed a Higher Viroprevalence in Hunter-Harvested Than in Live-Ringed Birds.

    PubMed

    Steensels, M; Vangeluwe, D; Linden, A; Houdart, Ph; van den Berg, Thierry P; Lambrecht, B

    2016-05-01

    Active monitoring of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild birds was initiated in Belgium in 2005 in response to the first highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks occurring in Europe. In Belgium, active wild bird surveillance that targeted live-ringed and hunter-harvested wild birds was developed and maintained from 2005 onward. After one decade, this program assimilated, analyzed, and reported on over 35,000 swabs. The 2009-2014 datasets were used for the current analysis because detailed information was available for this period. The overall prevalence of avian influenza (AI) in samples from live-ringed birds during this period was 0.48% whereas it was 6.12% in hunter-harvested samples. While the ringing sampling targeted a large number of bird species and was realized over the years, the hunting sampling was mainly concentrated on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) during the hunting season, from mid-August to late January. Even when using just AI prevalence for live-ringed A. platyrhynchos during the hunting season, the value remained significantly lower (2.10%) compared to that detected for hunter-harvested mallards. One explanation for this significant difference in viroprevalence in hunter-harvested mallards was the game restocking practice, which released captive-bred birds in the wild before the hunting period. Indeed, the released game restocking birds, having an AI-naïve immune status, could act as local amplifiers of AI viruses already circulating in the wild, and this could affect AI epidemiology. Also, the release into the wild of noncontrolled restocking birds might lead to the introduction of new strains in the natural environment, leading to increased AI presence in the environment. Consequently, the release of naïve or infected restocking birds may affect AI dynamics.

  10. Assessment of the In Vitro Activity of Ceftazidime-Avibactam against Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella spp. Collected in the INFORM Global Surveillance Study, 2012 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Hackel, Meredith; Hoban, Daryl J.; Biedenbach, Douglas J.; Bouchillon, Samuel K.; de Jonge, Boudewijn L. M.; Stone, Gregory G.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing resistance in Gram-negative bacilli, including Klebsiella spp., has reduced the utility of broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Avibactam, a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor, protects β-lactams from hydrolysis by Gram-negative bacteria that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and serine carbapenemases, including Ambler class A and/or class C and some class D enzymes. In this analysis, we report the in vitro activity of ceftazidime-avibactam and comparators against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella spp. from the 2012-2014 INFORM surveillance study. Isolates collected from 176 sites were sent to a central laboratory for confirmatory identification and tested for susceptibility to ceftazidime-avibactam and comparator agents, including ceftazidime alone. A total of 2,821 of 10,998 (25.7%) Klebsiella species isolates were classified as MDR, based on resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobials. Among the MDR isolates, 99.4% had an ESBL screen-positive phenotype, and 27.4% were not susceptible to meropenem as an example of a carbapenem. Ceftazidime-avibactam was highly active against MDR isolates, including ESBL-positive and serine carbapenemase-producing isolates, with MIC50/90 values of 0.5/2 μg/ml and 96.6% of all MDR isolates and ESBL-positive MDR isolates inhibited at the FDA breakpoint (MIC value of ≤8 μg/ml). Ceftazidime-avibactam did not inhibit isolates producing class B enzymes (metallo-β-lactamases) either alone or in combination with other enzymes. These in vitro results support the continued investigation of ceftazidime-avibactam for the treatment of MDR Klebsiella species infections. PMID:27216054

  11. IMPROVING WATERBORNE DISEASE SURVEILLANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health surveillance has played a key role in controlling the spread of communicable disease and identifying the need for specific publich health practices, such as the filteration and chlorination of drinking water supplies. However, the characteristics of waterborne ou...

  12. Radio spectrum surveillance station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a general and functional description of a low-cost surveillance station designed as the first phase of NASA's program to develop a radio spectrum surveillance capability for deep space stations for identifying radio frequency interference sources. The station described has identified several particular interferences and is yielding spectral signature data which, after cataloging, will serve as a library for rapid identification of frequently observed interference. Findings from the use of the station are discussed.

  13. Comparing two different superovulation protocols on ovarian activity and fecal glucocorticoid levels in the brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress is a limiting factor in assisted reproduction in wild animals maintained in captivity. However, the knowledge of assisted reproduction techniques for wild animals is useful for future in situ and ex situ conservation programs. Thus, this study evaluated the ovulation rate, presence of functional corpora lutea and fecal glucocorticoid levels following treatments promoting superovulation in captive brown brocket deer. Methods The crossover design used six hinds, allocated to two groups (n = 6): eCG Treatment, CIDR for 8 days, followed by 0.25 mg of EB on day 0, 700 IU of eCG on day 4 following device insertion and 265 mug of PGF2alfa on day 8; and FSH Treatment, CIDR for 7.5 days, followed by 0.25 mg of EB on day 0, 130 mg of FSH in 8 equal doses and 265 mug of PGF2alfa on day 7.5. Induced adrenal activity and treatment efficacy were evaluated by corpora lutea (CL) counts and fecal glucocorticoid and progestin concentration (ng/g feces) analyses for five different phases: Pre, two days before treatment; Early, first four days of treatment; Late, last four days of treatment; Total, entire treatment period; and Post, five days posttreatment. Results eCG Treatment resulted in the highest number of CL (P lower than 0.05). There was no significant difference for fecal glucocorticoid concentrations in five different time periods between the treatments; however Pre fecal glucocorticoid concentrations (90.06+/−19.64) were significantly different from Late (200.76+/−26.39) within FSH Treatment. The mean fecal progestin concentration and mean ovulation rate were higher in eCG Treatment (4293.69+/−769.47, 7.0+/−1.8) than in FSH Treatment (1571.26+/−240.28, 2.6+/−0.8) (P lower than or equal to 0.05). Conclusions Although the eCG Treatment induced a good superovulatory response, with the formation of functional corpora lutea, we cannot yet affirm that we have established a suitable protocol for induction of SOV in the species M

  14. Active post-marketing surveillance of the intralesional administration of human recombinant epidermal growth factor in diabetic foot ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background After several exploratory and confirmatory clinical trials, the intralesional administration of human recombinant epidermal growth factor (hrEGF) has been approved for the treatment of advanced diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this procedure in medical practice. Methods A prospective, post-marketing active pharmacosurveillance was conducted in 41 hospitals and 19 primary care polyclinics. Patients with DFU received hrEGF, 25 or 75 μg, intralesionally 3 times per week until complete granulation of the ulcer or 8 weeks maximum, adjuvant to standard wound care. Outcomes measured were complete granulation, amputations, and adverse events (AE) during treatment; complete lesion re-epithelization and relapses in follow-up (median: 1.2; maximum 4.2 years). Results The study included 1788 patients with 1835 DFU (81% Wagner’s grades 3 or 4; 43% ischemic) treated from May 2007 to April 2010. Complete granulation was observed in 76% of the ulcers in 5 weeks (median). Ulcer non-ischemic etiology (OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 2.8-4.7) and age (1.02; 1.01-1.03, for each younger year) were the main variables with influence on this outcome. During treatment, 220 (12%) amputations (171 major) were required in 214 patients, mostly in ischemic or Wagner’s grade 3 to 5 ulcers. Re-epithelization was documented in 61% of the 1659 followed-up cases; 5% relapsed per year. AE (4171) were reported in 47% of the subjects. Mild or moderate local pain and burning sensation, shivering and chills, were 87% of the events. Serious events, not related to treatment, occurred in 1.7% of the patients. Conclusions The favorable benefit/risk balance, confirms the beneficial clinical profile of intralesional hrEGF in the treatment of DFUs. PMID:24004460

  15. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. The Caribbean animal health network: new tools for harmonization and reinforcement of animal disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Gongora, Victor; Trotman, Mark; Thomas, Reginald; Max, Millien; Zamora, Pastor Alfonso; Lepoureau, Maria Teresa Frias; Phanord, Siméon; Quirico, Jocelyn; Douglas, Kirk; Pegram, Rupert; Martinez, Dominique; Petitclerc, Martial; Chouin, Emilie; Marchal, Céline; Chavernac, David; Doyen, David; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Molia, Sophie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Lefrançois, Thierry

    2008-12-01

    The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) is a collaboration of veterinary services, diagnostic laboratories, research institutes, universities, and regional/international organizations to improve animal health in the Caribbean. New tools were used by the network to develop regional animal health activities: (1) A steering committee, a coordination unit, and working groups on specific diseases or activities were established. The working group on avian influenza used a collaborative Web site to develop a regionally harmonized avian influenza surveillance protocol and performance indicators. (2) A specific network was implemented on West Nile virus (WNV) to describe the WNV status of the Caribbean countries, to perform a technology transfer of WNV diagnostics, and to establish a surveillance system. (3) The CaribVET Web site (http://www.caribvet.net) encompasses information on surveillance systems, diagnostic laboratories, conferences, bibliography, and diseases of major concern in the region. It is a participatory Web site allowing registered users to add or edit information, pages, or data. An online notification system of sanitary information was set up for Guadeloupe to improve knowledge on animal diseases and facilitate early alert.

  17. Effect of affordable technology on physical activity levels and mobility outcomes in rehabilitation: a protocol for the Activity and MObility UsiNg Technology (AMOUNT) rehabilitation trial

    PubMed Central

    Hassett, Leanne; van den Berg, Maayken; Lindley, Richard I; Crotty, Maria; McCluskey, Annie; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Smith, Stuart T; Schurr, Karl; Killington, Maggie; Bongers, Bert; Howard, Kirsten; Heritier, Stephane; Togher, Leanne; Hackett, Maree; Treacy, Daniel; Dorsch, Simone; Wong, Siobhan; Scrivener, Katharine; Chagpar, Sakina; Weber, Heather; Pearson, Ross; Sherrington, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction People with mobility limitations can benefit from rehabilitation programmes that provide a high dose of exercise. However, since providing a high dose of exercise is logistically challenging and resource-intensive, people in rehabilitation spend most of the day inactive. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of affordable technology to usual care on physical activity and mobility in people with mobility limitations admitted to inpatient aged and neurological rehabilitation units compared to usual care alone. Methods and analysis A pragmatic, assessor blinded, parallel-group randomised trial recruiting 300 consenting rehabilitation patients with reduced mobility will be conducted. Participants will be individually randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention group will receive technology-based exercise to target mobility and physical activity problems for 6 months. The technology will include the use of video and computer games/exercises and tablet applications as well as activity monitors. The control group will not receive any additional intervention and both groups will receive usual inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation care over the 6-month study period. The coprimary outcomes will be objectively assessed physical activity (proportion of the day spent upright) and mobility (Short Physical Performance Battery) at 6 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes will include: self-reported and objectively assessed physical activity, mobility, cognition, activity performance and participation, utility-based quality of life, balance confidence, technology self-efficacy, falls and service utilisation. Linear models will assess the effect of group allocation for each continuously scored outcome measure with baseline scores entered as a covariate. Fall rates between groups will be compared using negative binomial regression. Primary analyses will be preplanned, conducted while masked to group allocation and use an

  18. Part IV: effects of zolmitriptan orally disintegrating tablet on migraine symptoms and ability to perform normal activities: a post-marketing surveillance study in Germany.

    PubMed

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Gendolla, Astrid

    2005-01-01

    Zolmitriptan has been developed in an orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formulation that rapidly dissolves on the tongue and can be taken quickly, conveniently and discreetly without fluid intake. In this 3-month, non-comparative, observational, post-marketing surveillance (PMS) study, 5,570 physicians prescribed the zolmitriptan 2.5 mg ODT for 16,261 patients with migraine. Of the 14,543 patients who were evaluable for efficacy analysis, 94% had reduced headache intensity within 2 hours of taking zolmitriptan 2.5 mg ODT for the first attack. Improvements were reported within 30 minutes in 35% of patients and within 15 minutes in 7% of patients. Non-headache migraine symptoms and normal daily activities improved for the majority of patients within 2 hours of taking zolmitriptan ODT. Ninety-one percent of patients required only a single dose of zolmitriptan 2.5 mg ODT to treat each attack. Ninety-two percent of patients considered zolmitriptan ODT as having very good or good efficacy and 96% said that tolerability was very good or good. This study also demonstrated that 94% of patients would be willing to continue to use zolmitriptan ODT in the future and 81% of patients considered that being able to take the ODT without water was important or very import ant. In summary, zolmitriptan ODT has demonstrated high efficacy and excellent tolerability. In addition, patients found zolmitriptan ODT to be convenient and easy to use, and were willing to continue using the product. Following placebo-controlled studies, these PMS results provide insight into the use of zolmitriptan ODT in a setting more representative of real life than randomised clinical trials, further demonstrating that it provides a reliable and convenient alternative to conventional tablets.

  19. African American Men With Very Low–Risk Prostate Cancer Exhibit Adverse Oncologic Outcomes After Radical Prostatectomy: Should Active Surveillance Still Be an Option for Them?

    PubMed Central

    Sundi, Debasish; Ross, Ashley E.; Humphreys, Elizabeth B.; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment option for men with very low–risk prostate cancer (PCa); however, favorable outcomes achieved for men in AS are based on cohorts that under-represent African American (AA) men. To explore whether race-based health disparities exist among men with very low–risk PCa, we evaluated oncologic outcomes of AA men with very low–risk PCa who were candidates for AS but elected to undergo radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients and Methods We studied 1,801 men (256 AA, 1,473 white men, and 72 others) who met National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria for very low–risk PCa and underwent RP. Presenting characteristics, pathologic data, and cancer recurrence were compared among the groups. Multivariable modeling was performed to assess the association of race with upgrading and adverse pathologic features. Results AA men with very low–risk PCa had more adverse pathologic features at RP and poorer oncologic outcomes. AA men were more likely to experience disease upgrading at prostatectomy (27.3% v 14.4%; P < .001), positive surgical margins (9.8% v 5.9%; P = .02), and higher Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Post-Surgical scoring system (CAPRA-S) scores. On multivariable analysis, AA race was an independent predictor of adverse pathologic features (odds ratio, [OR], 3.23; P = .03) and pathologic upgrading (OR, 2.26; P = .03). Conclusion AA men with very low–risk PCa who meet criteria for AS but undergo immediate surgery experience significantly higher rates of upgrading and adverse pathology than do white men and men of other races. AA men with very low–risk PCa should be counseled about increased oncologic risk when deciding among their disease management options. PMID:23775960

  20. Species distribution and susceptibility profile of yeasts isolated from blood cultures: results of a multicenter active laboratory-based surveillance study in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Susana; Vivot, Walter; Bosco-Borgeat, Maria E; Taverna, Constanza; Szusz, Wanda; Murisengo, Omar; Isla, Guillermina; Davel, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    The Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas "Dr. C. Malbrán", conducted the Second National Multicenter Survey on Fungemia due to Yeasts in Argentina. The aim was to obtain updated data of the frequency of the causative species encountered and their in vitro susceptibility to seven antifungal agents. Yeast species were identified by micromorphological and biochemical studies. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the reference microdilution method E.Def 7.1 of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). A total of 461 viable yeasts were identified. The most frequent species were: Candida albicans (38.4 %), Candida parapsilosis (26 %), Candida tropicalis (15.4 %) and Candida glabrata (4.3 %). Other uncommon species, such as Candida viswanathii (0.6 %), Candida haemulonii (0.4 %), Candida inconspicua (0.2 %) and Candida fermentati (0.2 %) were also isolated. Among the Candida spp., 5.4 % and 1.6 % were resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively. Itraconazole and caspofungin were the most efficient agents against all Candida spp. tested (MIC < 1 mg/l). For anidulafungin, 21.6 % of C. parapsilosis showed a MIC value of 4 mg/l. Fluconazole was less active against 53.1 % of Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC > 8 mg/l), 75 % of Trichosporon spp., and 100 % of Rhodotorula spp., Geotrichum candidum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The global percentage of mortality was 20 %. The presence of uncommon species reinforces the need for performing continuous laboratory surveillance in order to monitor possible changes, not only in the epidemiological distribution of species, but also in the resistance to antifungal drugs.

  1. Surveillance of Space in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsam, G.

    Australia's geography and technology base got it off to a flying start in the early days of surveillance of space, starting with CSIRO's first radio telescope in the 1940's and climaxing in NASA's establishment of station 43 in the Deep Space Network at Tidbinbilla in 1965. But Britain's exit from space and the subsequent closure of the Woomera launch range and associated space tracking facilities in the early 1970's saw the start of a long draw-down of capability. Programs such as CSIRO's radio astronomy telescopes, Electro-Optic Systems' adoption of laser technology for satellite laser ranging and tracking system, and the exploration of the use of technology developed in Australia's over-the-horizon-radar program for surveillance of space, kept some interest in the problem alive, but there has been no serious national investment in the area for the last thirty years. Recently, however, increased awareness of the vulnerability of space systems and the need to include potential opponents' space capabilities in operations planning has led to a revival of interest in space situational awareness within the Australian Defence Organisation. While firm commitments to new systems must wait on the next Defence White Paper due out at the end of 2007 and the policy directions it formally endorses, discussions have already started with the US on participating in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and developing a comprehensive space situational awareness capability. In support of these initiatives the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) is drawing up an inventory of relevant Australian capabilities, technologies and activities: the paper will describe the findings of this inventory, and in particular local technologies and systems that might be deployed in Australia to contribute to the SSN. In the optical regime the available options are rather limited; they centre primarily on the satellite laser ranging technology developed by Electro-Optic Systems and

  2. Characteristics of Korean patients with suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid: Preliminary study of the Korean Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease active surveillance program

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae-Sung; Kwon, Hyung-Min; Jang, Jae-Won; Ju, Young-Ran; Kim, SuYeon; Park, Young Ho; Park, So Young; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although Korea had a national surveillance system for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), it was mainly dependent on attending physician's reports. Thus, little prospective data about the epidemiology, characteristics, and final diagnoses of suspected patients were available. We have established a nationwide network for the active surveillance of patients with suspected CJD. When the requested cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples tested positive for 14-3-3 protein, we investigated the clinical characteristics of the corresponding patients and followed them until their final diagnoses were confirmed. A total of 218 samples were requested for CSF assays from May 2010 to August 2012, and 106 (48.6%) were positive for 14-3-3 protein. In 89 patients with complete clinical data, 38 (42.7%) were diagnosed with probable CJD and the estimated annual occurrence of CJD was 16.3 persons-per-year. The most common diagnoses of the remainder were central nervous system infection and any-cause encephalopathy. Non-CJD subjects showed worse initial consciousness levels than CJD patients. This preliminary study showed that the number of reported cases of CJD and the true positivity rates of CSF 14-3-3 protein assays were both low in Korea. An active surveillance system is urgently needed to provide the latest nationwide epidemiological data of CJD. PMID:25996401

  3. Characteristics of Korean patients with suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid: Preliminary study of the Korean Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease active surveillance program.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae-Sung; Kwon, Hyung-Min; Jang, Jae-Won; Ju, Young-Ran; Kim, SuYeon; Park, Young Ho; Park, So Young; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Although Korea had a national surveillance system for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), it was mainly dependent on attending physician's reports. Thus, little prospective data about the epidemiology, characteristics, and final diagnoses of suspected patients were available. We have established a nationwide network for the active surveillance of patients with suspected CJD. When the requested cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples tested positive for 14-3-3 protein, we investigated the clinical characteristics of the corresponding patients and followed them until their final diagnoses were confirmed. A total of 218 samples were requested for CSF assays from May 2010 to August 2012, and 106 (48.6%) were positive for 14-3-3 protein. In 89 patients with complete clinical data, 38 (42.7%) were diagnosed with probable CJD and the estimated annual occurrence of CJD was 16.3 persons-per-year. The most common diagnoses of the remainder were central nervous system infection and any-cause encephalopathy. Non-CJD subjects showed worse initial consciousness levels than CJD patients. This preliminary study showed that the number of reported cases of CJD and the true positivity rates of CSF 14-3-3 protein assays were both low in Korea. An active surveillance system is urgently needed to provide the latest nationwide epidemiological data of CJD.

  4. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 2, Number 2, February 1996

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-01

    available to the Medical Surveillance Activity . Notifiable conditions are reported by date of onset (or date of notification when date of onset is...notifiable conditions ................................. 4 Notifiable sexually transmitted diseases .................. 6 Cold weather injuries, Ft. Drum...Director, Epidemiology and Disease Surveillance, USACHPPM Editor MAJ Mark V. Rubertone, MD, MPH Chief, Army Medical Surveillance Activity , USACHPPM

  5. Fifteen-minute Extravehicular Activity Prebreathe Protocol Using NASA's Exploration Atmosphere (8.2 psia/ 34% 02)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Conkin, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    A TBDM DCS probability model based on an existing biophysical model of inert gas bubble growth provides significant prediction and goodness-of-fit with 84 cases of DCS in 668 human altitude exposures. 2. Model predictions suggest that 15-minute O2 prebreathe protocols used in conjunction with suit ports and an 8.2 psi, 34% O2, 66% N2 atmosphere may enable rapid EVA capability for future exploration missions with the risk of DCS = 12%. ? EVA could begin immediately at 6.0 psi, with crewmembers decreasing suit pressure to 4.3 psi after completing the 15-minute in-suit prebreathe. 3. Model predictions suggest that intermittent recompression during exploration EVA may reduce decompression stress by 1.8% to 2.3% for 6 hours of total EVA time. Savings in gas consumables and crew time may be accumulated by abbreviating the EVA suit N2 purge to 2 minutes (20% N2) compared with 8 minutes (5% N2) at the expense of an increase in estimated decompression risk of up to 2.4% for an 8-hour EVA. ? Increased DCS risk could be offset by IR or by spending additional time at 6 psi at the beginning of the EVA. ? Savings of 0.48 lb of gas and 6 minutes per person per EVA corresponds to more than 31 hours of crew time and 1800 lb of gas and tankage under the Constellation lunar architecture. 6. Further research is needed to characterize and optimize breathing mixtures and intermittent recompression across the range of environments and operational conditions in which astronauts will live and work during future exploration missions. 7. Development of exploration prebreathe protocols will begin with definition of acceptable risk, followed by development of protocols based on models such as ours, and, ultimately, validation of protocols through ground trials before operational implementation.

  6. Surveillance for Occupational Respiratory Diseases in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Antao, Vinicius C.; Pinheiro, Germania A.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa. PMID:26024351

  7. Surveillance for occupational respiratory diseases in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Antao, Vinicius C; Pinheiro, Germania A

    2015-06-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa.

  8. CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project: background, objectives, and progress report.

    PubMed

    Eke, Paul I; Genco, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    This supplement contains papers presented at the 2006 International Association of Dental Research (IADR) symposium entitled "Development of Self-Reported Measures for Population-Based Surveillance of Periodontitis." These papers highlight activities of an independent periodontal disease surveillance workgroup convened by the Division of Oral Health (DOH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology, to examine the feasibility of using self-reported measures for population-based surveillance of periodontal disease in the United States. This workgroup was convened in 2003 as part of a CDC periodontal disease surveillance project.

  9. Offboard Active Surveillance and Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-03

    2001). [6] S. Kim, G.F. Edelmann , W.A. Kuperman, W.S. Hodgkiss, H.C. Song, and T. Akal, "Spatial resolution of time reversal arrays in shallow water...Soc. Am. 112(1): 189-197 (2002). [8] G.F. Edelmann , H.C. Song, S. Kim, T. Akal, W.S. Hodgkiss, and W.A. Kuperman, "An initial demonstration of...W.S. Hodgkiss, H.C. Song, G.F. Edelmann , and T. Akal, "Robust time reversal focusing in the ocean," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114(1): 145-157 (2003). [11] S

  10. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  11. Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

    2002-05-01

    There is strong epidemiological evidence that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of low back pain (LBP), sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. A prototype health surveillance scheme for WBV is presented in this paper. Surveillance is the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for the purpose of prevention. The aims are to assess health status and diagnose vibration-induced disorders at an early stage, to inform the workers on the potential risk associated with vibration exposure, to give preventive advice to employers and employees and to control whether preventive measures which have been taken, were successful. It is suggested that a pre-placement health examination should be offered to each worker who will be exposed to WBV so as to make the worker aware of the hazards, to obtain baseline health data, and to identify medical conditions that may increase the risk due to WBV. The case history should focus on personal history, work history, and leisure activities involving driving of vehicles. The personal medical history should detail back pain complaints, disorders in the spine, any injuries or surgery to the musculoskeletal system. A physical examination on the lower back should be performed on workers who have experienced LBP symptoms over the past 12 months. The preplacement examination should be followed by periodic health reassessment with a regular interval according to the legislation of the country. It is suggested that periodic medical examination should be made available at least every 2 years to all workers who are exposed to WBV. Any change in vibration exposure at the workplace should be reported by the employer. If an increase in vibration exposure or a change in health status have occurred, the medical re-examination should be offered at shorter intervals at the discretion of the attending physician. There should be a periodic medical

  12. [Flaccid paralysis surveillance in the Latium Region].

    PubMed

    Patti, A M; Santi, A L; Ciapetti, C; Fiore, L; Novello, F; Vellucci, L; De Stefano, F; Fara, G M

    2000-01-01

    The goal of World Health Organization is to reach the global eradication of poliomyelitis during the first decade of the third millennium. To achieve the certification of the eradication of the disease the main strategy is the Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance. In Italy the active AFP surveillance was performed at national level since 1997. In the Latium region the active surveillance was performed since January 1997 by the laboratory of virology of Institute of Hygiene G Sanarelli which established a regional hospital network. During the years of survey 7 cases were found in 1997 (0.87/100,000), 4 in 1998 (0.5/100,000), 2 in 1999 (0.25/100,000) and 2 in 2000. No wild polioviruses were detected.

  13. Neighbourhoods for Active Kids: study protocol for a cross-sectional examination of neighbourhood features and children's physical activity, active travel, independent mobility and body size

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Melody; McPhee, Julia; Carroll, Penelope; Ikeda, Erika; Mavoa, Suzanne; Mackay, Lisa; Kearns, Robin A; Kyttä, Marketta; Asiasiga, Lanuola; Garrett, Nicholas; Lin, Judy; Mackett, Roger; Zinn, Caryn; Moewaka Barnes, Helen; Egli, Victoria; Prendergast, Kate; Witten, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction New Zealand children's physical activity, including independent mobility and active travel, has declined markedly over recent decades. The Neighbourhoods for Active Kids (NfAK) study examines how neighbourhood built environments are associated with the independent mobility, active travel, physical activity and neighbourhood experiences of children aged 9–12 years in primary and intermediate schools across Auckland, New Zealand's largest city. Methods and analysis Child-specific indices of walkability, destination accessibility and traffic exposure will be constructed to measure the built environment in 8 neighbourhoods in Auckland. Interactive online-mapping software will be used to measure children's independent mobility and transport mode to destinations and to derive measures of neighbourhood use and perceptions. Physical activity will be measured using 7-day accelerometry. Height, weight and waist circumference will be objectively measured. Parent telephone interviews will collect sociodemographic information and parent neighbourhood perceptions. Interviews with school representative will capture supports and barriers for healthy activity and nutrition behaviours at the school level. Multilevel modelling approaches will be used to understand how differing built environment variables are associated with activity, neighbourhood experiences and health outcomes. Discussion We anticipate that children who reside in neighbourhoods considered highly walkable will be more physically active, accumulate more independent mobility and active travel, and be more likely to have a healthy body size. This research is timely as cities throughout New Zealand develop and implement plans to improve the liveability of intensifying urban neighbourhoods. Results will be disseminated to participants, local government agencies and through conventional academic avenues. PMID:27531740

  14. Plutonium Surveillance Destructive Examination Requirements at Savannah River National Laboratory for K-Area Interim Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Stefek, T. M.

    2005-09-29

    The DOE 3013 storage standard requires nested, welded 300 series stainless steel containers to store plutonium-bearing materials for up to 50 years. Packaged contents include stabilized plutonium-bearing residues that contain chloride salts and a low (< 0.5 weight %) water content. The DOE 3013 STD requires surveillance of the packages over the 50 year lifetime. These surveillance requirements have been further defined by the Integrated Surveillance Program to include both non-destructive examination (NDE) and destructive examination (DE) of the 3013 container. The DE portion of surveillance involves examining the 3013 nested containers, analyzing the head space gas, and evaluating the plutonium oxide chemistry. At SRS, the stored 3013 containers will undergo preparation for the DE surveillance activities in facilities located in K-Area. The actual DE surveillance will be performed in SRNL. This report provides preliminary functional requirements for the destructive examination (DE) of plutonium-bearing oxide materials and containers in support of K-Area Interim Surveillance (KIS). The KIS project will install interim facilities to prepare the samples for analysis in SRNL. This document covers the requirements for the interim period beginning in 2007, and lasting until the Container Storage and Surveillance Capability (CSSC) project provides the permanent facilities in K-Area to perform sampling and repackaging operations associated with the 3013 container storage and surveillance program. Initial requirements for the CSSC project have been previously defined in WSRC-TR-2004-00584 ''Plutonium Surveillance Destructive Examination Requirements at Savannah River National Laboratory''. As part of the Plutonium Surveillance Program of 3013 Containers at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) will receive the emptied 3013 container components, plutonium oxide samples and headspace gas samples from K-Area. The DE program scope

  15. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration is positively associated with rate of disease reclassification on subsequent active surveillance prostate biopsy in men with low PSA density

    PubMed Central

    Umbehr, Martin H.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Bhavsar, Nrupen A.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Landis, Patricia; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration at active surveillance (AS) entry and disease reclassification on subsequent AS biopsy (‘biopsy reclassification’) in men with low PSA density (PSAD). To investigate whether a clinically meaningful PSA threshold for AS eligibility/ineligibility for men with low PSAD can be identified based on risk of subsequent biopsy reclassification. Patients and Methods We included men enrolled in the Johns Hopkins AS Study (JHAS) who had a PSAD of <0.15 ng/mL/g (640 men). We estimated the incidence rates (IRs; per 100 person years) and hazard ratios (HR) of biopsy reclassification (Gleason score ≥ 7, any Gleason pattern 4 or 5, ≥3 positive cores, or ≥50% cancer involvement/biopsy core) for categories of serum PSA concentration at the time of entry into AS. We generated predicted IRs using Poisson regression to adjust for age and prostate volume, mean percentage free PSA (ratio of free to total PSA) and maximum percentage biopsy core involvement with cancer. Results The unadjusted IRs (per 100 person years) of biopsy reclassification across serum PSA concentration at entry into JHAS showed, in general, an increase; however, the pattern was not linear with higher IRs in the group ≥ 4 to <6 ng/mL (14.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 11.8–17.2%) when compared with ≥ 6 to <8 ng/mL (8.4, 95% CI 5.7–12.3%) but almost similar IRs when compared with the group ≥ 8 to <10 ng/mL (14.8, 95% CI 8.4–26.1%). The adjusted predicted IRs of reclassification showed a similar non-linear increase in IRs, whereby the rates around 4 ng/mL were similar to the rates around 10 ng/mL. Conclusion Risk for biopsy reclassification increased non-linearly across PSA concentration in men with low PSAD, whereby no obvious clinically meaningful threshold could be identified. This information could be incorporated into decision-making for AS. However, longer follow-up times are needed to

  16. Aneurysm growth and de novo aneurysms during aneurysm surveillance.

    PubMed

    Serrone, Joseph C; Tackla, Ryan D; Gozal, Yair M; Hanseman, Dennis J; Gogela, Steven L; Vuong, Shawn M; Kosty, Jennifer A; Steiner, Calen A; Krueger, Bryan M; Grossman, Aaron W; Ringer, Andrew J

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Many low-risk unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) are followed for growth with surveillance imaging. Growth of UIAs likely increases the risk of rupture. The incidence and risk factors of UIA growth or de novo aneurysm formation require further research. The authors retrospectively identify risk factors and annual risk for UIA growth or de novo aneurysm formation in an aneurysm surveillance protocol. METHODS Over an 11.5-year period, the authors recommended surveillance imaging to 192 patients with 234 UIAs. The incidence of UIA growth and de novo aneurysm formation was assessed. With logistic regression, risk factors for UIA growth or de novo aneurysm formation and patient compliance with the surveillance protocol was assessed. RESULTS During 621 patient-years of follow-up, the incidence of aneurysm growth or de novo aneurysm formation was 5.0%/patient-year. At the 6-month examination, 5.2% of patients had aneurysm growth and 4.3% of aneurysms had grown. Four de novo aneurysms formed (0.64%/patient-year). Over 793 aneurysm-years of follow-up, the annual risk of aneurysm growth was 3.7%. Only initial aneurysm size predicted aneurysm growth (UIA < 5 mm = 1.6% vs UIA ≥ 5 mm = 8.7%, p = 0.002). Patients with growing UIAs were more likely to also have de novo aneurysms (p = 0.01). Patient compliance with this protocol was 65%, with younger age predictive of better compliance (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Observation of low-risk UIAs with surveillance imaging can be implemented safely with good adherence. Aneurysm size is the only predictor of future growth. More frequent (semiannual) surveillance imaging for newly diagnosed UIAs and UIAs ≥ 5 mm is warranted.

  17. Health surveillance under adverse ergonomics conditions--validity of a screening method adapted for the occupational health service.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Dirk; Gustafsson, Ewa; Rolander, Bo; Arvidsson, Inger; Nordander, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    A new health surveillance protocol for work-related upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders has been validated by comparing the results with a reference protocol. The studied protocol, Health Surveillance in Adverse Ergonomics Conditions (HECO), is a new version of the reference protocol modified for application in the Occupational Health Service (OHS). The HECO protocol contains both a screening part and a diagnosing part. Sixty-three employees were examined. The screening in HECO did not miss any diagnosis found when using the reference protocol, but in comparison to the reference protocol considerable time savings could be achieved. Fair to good agreement between the protocols was obtained for one or more diagnoses in neck/shoulders (86%, k = 0.62) and elbow/hands (84%, k = 0.49). Therefore, the results obtained using the HECO protocol can be compared with a reference material collected with the reference protocol, and thus provide information of the magnitude of disorders in an examined work group. Practitioner Summary: The HECO protocol is a relatively simple physical examination protocol for identification of musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and upper extremities. The protocol is a reliable and cost-effective tool for the OHS to use for occupational health surveillance in order to detect workplaces at high risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders.

  18. Application of industrial hygiene techniques for work-place exposure assessment protocols related to petro-chemical exploration and production field activities

    SciTech Connect

    Koehn, J.

    1995-12-31

    Standard industrial hygiene techniques for recognition, evaluation, and control can be directly applied to development of technical protocols for workplace exposure assessment activities for a variety of field site locations. Categories of occupational hazards include chemical and physical agents. Examples of these types of hazards directly related to oil and gas exploration and production workplaces include hydrocarbons, benzene, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), asbestos-containing materials, and noise. Specific components of well process chemicals include potential hazardous chemical substances such as methanol, acrolein, chlorine dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Other types of exposure hazards may result from non-routine conduct of sandblasting and painting operations.

  19. The Past, Present, and Future of Public Health Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bernard C. K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the past, present, and future of public health surveillance—the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epidemic in 3180 B.C. in Egypt. Hippocrates (460 B.C.–370 B.C.) coined the terms endemic and epidemic, John Graunt (1620–1674) introduced systematic data analysis, Samuel Pepys (1633–1703) started epidemic field investigation, William Farr (1807–1883) founded the modern concept of surveillance, John Snow (1813–1858) linked data to intervention, and Alexander Langmuir (1910–1993) gave the first comprehensive definition of surveillance. Current theories, principles, and practice of public health surveillance are summarized. A number of surveillance dichotomies, such as epidemiologic surveillance versus public health surveillance, are described. Some future scenarios are presented, while current activities that can affect the future are summarized: exploring new frontiers; enhancing computer technology; improving epidemic investigations; improving data collection, analysis, dissemination, and use; building on lessons from the past; building capacity; enhancing global surveillance. It is concluded that learning from the past, reflecting on the present, and planning for the future can further enhance public health surveillance. PMID:24278752

  20. The dimensions of nursing surveillance: a concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Lesly; Vincent, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Aim This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of nursing surveillance. Background Nursing surveillance, a primary function of acute care nurses, is critical to patient safety and outcomes. Although it has been associated with patient outcomes and organizational context of care, little knowledge has been generated about the conceptual and operational process of surveillance. Data sources A search using the CINAHL, Medline and PubMed databases was used to compile an international data set of 18 papers and 4 book chapters published from 1985 to 2009. Review methods Rodger’s evolutionary concept analysis techniques were used to analyse surveillance in a systems framework. This method focused the search to nursing surveillance (as opposed to other medical uses of the term) and used a theoretical framework to guide the analysis. Results The examination of the literature clarifies the multifaceted nature of nursing surveillance in the acute care setting. Surveillance involves purposeful and ongoing acquisition, interpretation and synthesis of patient data for clinical decision- making. Behavioural activities and multiple cognitive processes are used in surveillance in order for the nurse to make decisions for patient safety and health maintenance. A systems approach to the analysis also demonstrates how organizational characteristics and contextual factors influence the process in the acute care environment. Conclusion This conceptual analysis describes the nature of the surveillance process and clarifies the concept for effective communication and future use in health services research. PMID:21129007

  1. The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network (GIHSN): a new platform to describe the epidemiology of severe influenza

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Barberà, Joan; Tormos, Anita; Trushakova, Svetlana; Sominina, Anna; Pisareva, Maria; Ciblak, Meral A; Badur, Selim; Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J; Burtseva, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Background Influenza is a global public health problem. However, severe influenza only recently has been addressed in routine surveillance. Objectives The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network (GIHSN) was established to study the epidemiology of severe influenza in consecutive seasons in different countries. Our objective is to describe the GIHSN approach and methods. Methods The GIHSN uses prospective active surveillance to identify consecutive influenza admissions in permanent residents of well-defined geographic areas in sites around the world. A core common protocol is followed. After consent, data are collected on patient characteristics and clinical outcomes, respiratory swabs are obtained, and the presence of influenza virus and subtype or lineage is ascertained by polymerase chain reaction. Data are collated and analyzed at the GIHSN coordination center. Results The GIHSN has run its activities for two consecutive influenza seasons, 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, and hospitals in Brazil, China, France, Russian Federation, Turkey, and Spain have been involved in one or both seasons. Consistency on the application of the protocol and heterogeneity for the first season have been addressed in two previous publications. During both seasons, 19 677 eligible admissions were recorded; 11 843 (60%) were included and tested, and 2713 (23%) were positive for influenza: 991 (37%) A(H1N1); 807 (30%) A(H3N2); 583 (21%) B/Yamagata; 56 (2%) B/Victoria and 151 (6%) influenza A; and 125 (5%) influenza B were not characterized. Conclusions The GIHSN is a platform that provides information on severe influenza worldwide, applying a common core protocol and a consistent case definition. PMID:26198771

  2. Effects of active and passive recovery on blood lactate and blood pH after a repeated sprint protocol in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Kappenstein, Jennifer; Engel, Florian; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of active (AR) and passive recovery (PR) after a high-intensive repeated sprint running protocol on physiological parameters in children and adults. Blood lactate (La) and blood pH were obtained during two sets of 5 × 5 s all-out sprints and several times during subsequent 30-min recovery in 16 children and 16 adults. End-exercise La was significantly lower and pH significantly higher in children (La: 5.21 ± 2.73 mmol·L-1; pH: 7.37 ± 0.06) compared with adults (La: 10.35 ± 5.76 mmol·L-1; pH: 7.27 ± 0.10) (p < .01). La half-life during postexercise recovery was significantly shorter in children (AR: 436 ± 371 s, PR: 830 ± 349 s) than in adults (AR: 733 ± 371 s, PR: 1361 ± 372 s), as well as in active compared with passive recovery for both age groups (p < .01). The age x recovery interaction for La half-life only approached statistical significance (p = .06). The results suggest a faster lactate disappearance and an earlier return to resting pH after a repeated sprint running protocol in children compared with adults and a less pronounced advantage of active recovery in children.

  3. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  4. Sensing Surveillance & Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-07

    Fully Adaptive Radar” Sensor Processing including MIMO Sensing for Object Identification: Analysis and Synthesis of Invariants Integrated...Operators are overwhelmed by massive volumes of high dimensional multi-sensor data • Challenges -Efficiently process data to extract inherent...Sensing & Surveillance Systems • Develop toolkit for matrix treatment of MIMO radar wave-forms • Multiple-Input/Multiple-Output • enable performance

  5. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    category of “other.” The “other” cat - egory included cancers of unspecified sites or unknown behavior (n=56), myeloma and malignant plasma cell...the completeness and accuracy of case finding. In turn, the criteria used to detect and cat - egorize cases for surveillance purposes (e.g., as

  6. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  7. Evaluation of the ECAT EXACT HR+ 3-D PET scanner in H2(15)O brain activation studies: dose fractionation strategies for rCBF and signal enhancing protocols.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Cantú, J J; Thompson, C J; Zatorre, R J

    1998-12-01

    We evaluated the performance of the ECAT EXACT HR+ 3-D whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) scanner when employed to measure brain function using H2(15)O bolus activation protocols that are completed in single same-day data acquisition sessions. Using vibrotactile and auditory stimuli as independent activation tasks, we studied the scanner performance under different imaging conditions in five healthy volunteers. Cerebral blood flow images were acquired from each volunteer using H2(15)O bolus injections of activity varying from 5-20 mCi. One-session dose-fractionation strategies were analyzed for rCBF, standard activity-concentration, switched, and cold-bolus/switched protocols. Performance characteristics. The scanner dead time grew linearly with injected dose from 10% to 25%. Random events varied from 30% to 50% of the detected events. Random and scattered events were corrected adequately at all doses. Estimated noise-effective-count curves plateau at about 10 mCi. One-session 12-injection bolus PET activation protocols. Using an acquisition protocol that accounts for the scanner performance and the practical aspects of imaging volunteers and neurological patients in a single same-day session, we assessed the correlation between the significance of activation foci and the dose/injection used. The one-session protocol employs 12 bolus injections/subject. We present evidence suggesting that when an rCBF protocol is used, image noise is reduced significantly when the activity injected increases from 5 to 10 mCi. Increasing the dose from 10 to 15 or 20 mCi yielded further but smaller reductions. Our observations also suggest that image noise will be strongly reduced if a 20-mCi dose/injection is used when data are collected using protocols that employ long acquisition times such as a switched or a cold-bolus/switched protocol.

  8. An emergency response UAV Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro A; Geckle, William J; Barton, Jeffrey D; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z; Martin, Sean R

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs.

  9. The Master Protocol Concept.

    PubMed

    Redman, Mary W; Allegra, Carmen J

    2015-10-01

    During the past decade, biomedical technologies have undergone an explosive evolution-from the publication of the first complete human genome in 2003, after more than a decade of effort and at a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars-to the present time, where a complete genomic sequence can be available in less than a day and at a small fraction of the cost of the original sequence. The widespread availability of next-generation genomic sequencing has opened the door to the development of precision oncology. The need to test multiple new targeted agents both alone and in combination with other targeted therapies, as well as classic cytotoxic agents, demands the development of novel therapeutic platforms (particularly Master Protocols) capable of efficiently and effectively testing multiple targeted agents or targeted therapeutic strategies in relatively small patient subpopulations. Here, we describe the Master Protocol concept, with a focus on the expected gains and complexities of the use of this design. An overview of Master Protocols currently active or in development is provided along with a more extensive discussion of the Lung Master Protocol (Lung-MAP study).

  10. Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities with which citizens living near the Hanford Site have been participating. Local teachers have been managing and operating three special radiological air sampling stations located in Richland, Basin City, and Franklin County, Washington. Other expansion efforts of this program are also described.

  11. [Recommendations for the surveillance of Aedes aegypti].

    PubMed

    Barrera, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Diseases caused by arboviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti, such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika, continue to rise in annual incidence and geographic expansion. A key limitation for achieving control of A. aegypti has been the lack of effective tools for monitoring its population, and thus determine what control measures actually work. Surveillance of A. aegypti has been based mainly on immature indexes, but they bear little relation to the number of mosquito females, which are the ones capable of transmitting the viruses. The recent development of sampling techniques for adults of this vector species promises to facilitate surveillance and control activities. In this review, we present the various monitoring techniques for this mosquito, along with a discussion of their usefulness, and recommendations for improved entomological surveillance.

  12. Association of physical activity with cognition, metacognition and academic performance in children and adolescents: a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Pesce, Caterina; Cavero-Redondo, Iván; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Pardo-Guijarro, María Jesús; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Schools provide a relevant context for improving children's and adolescents’ physical and mental health by increasing physical activity during school hours and/or beyond. The interest in the relationship between physical activity programmes and cognition during development has recently increased, with evidence suggesting a positive association. We present a protocol of systematic reviews and meta-analysis of intervention studies that, by determining the effects of chronic physical exercise on children's and adolescents’ cognitive and metacognitive functions, cognitive life skills, academic behaviours and achievement, aims to ensure procedural objectivity and transparency, and maximise the extraction of relevant information to inform policy development. Methods This protocol is guided by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) and by the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook. Databases to be utilised for a thorough selection of the pertinent literature are MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, PsycINFO and ERIC. Selection is proposed to encompass an international and a national publication level, with inclusion of experimental studies written in English or in Spanish, respectively. Also, relevant references included in the selected studies will be considered suitable for review as supplemental sources. We present an integrated approach to the methodological quality assessment of the selected studies, including the Jadad Scale for the assessment of the quality of randomised controlled trials and the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies for pre–post studies and non-randomised controlled trials. The pre–post interventions mean differences will be the primary indicator of the intervention outcome. Statistical analysis A subgroup analysis is proposed based on cognitive functions and their neural correlates

  13. Enterovirus spectrum from the active surveillance of hand foot and mouth disease patients under the clinical trial of inactivated Enterovirus A71 vaccine in Jiangsu, China, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin; Bian, Lian-Lian; Lu, Wei-Wei; Li, Jing-Xin; Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yi-Ping; Gao, Fan; Wu, Xing; Ye, Qiang; Xu, Miao; Li, Xiu-Ling; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Liang, Zheng-Lun

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological data from active surveillance on human enterovirus, which could cause hand, foot, and mouth disease, were limited. An active surveillance system was used to investigate the enterovirus spectrum and the incidence of different enteroviruses in infants aged 6-35 months in Jiangsu Province from 2012 to 2013. Fifty-nine infants were randomly selected from 522 non-EV-A71/CV-A16 HFMD patients. We collected 173 throat swabs and 174 rectal swabs from these infants. RT-PCR was used to amplify 5'-UTR and VP1 regions of enteroviruses and the serotypes were determined by the sequence comparison using BLAST. Twenty-one non-EV-A71/CA16 enterovirus serotypes were detected in those infants. E16, E18 were firstly reported in HFMD patients. The four top common non-EV-A71/CV-A enteroviruses among infants were CV-B3, CV-A10, CV-A6, and E9 with the HFMD incidence rates at 1.4%, 0.84%, 0.56%, and 0.47%, respectively. Over 20.8% patients were co-infected with multiple enteroviruses. Neither the course of sickness nor clinical symptoms of the co-infected patients was more severe than those infected with single enterovirus. Two patients were infected different enterovirus successively within 2 months. Several new enterovirus serotypes and multiple models of infection associated with HFMD were discovered through the active surveillance system. These data provide a better understanding of the viral etiology of HFMD.

  14. Cryptanalysis on Cheng et al. protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Tejeshwari

    2016-06-01

    Deployment of new node in any wireless sensor network is a sensitive task. This is the reason why, an Access Control Protocol is required in WSN. In this paper, we demonstrate that Access Control Protocol proposed by Cheng et al.[1] for Wireless Sensor Network is insecure. The reason is that this protocol fails to resist the active attack.

  15. An evaluation of wild bird avian influenza surveillance in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Breed, Andrew C; Irvine, Richard M; Duncan, Daisy; Rae, David; Snow, Lucy; Cook, Alasdair J C; Brown, Ian H

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a method for evaluation of surveillance for avian influenza (AI) in wild birds and compares surveillance activities before and after changes in surveillance strategy in Great Britain (GB). In October 2008 the AI Wild Bird Surveillance (AIWBS) system in GB was modified to focus on passive surveillance (birds found dead), including those found during warden patrols of wetlands and wildlife reserves, with less emphasis on public reporting of birds found dead. The number of birds sampled by active surveillance (birds live-trapped or shot) was also reduced. In the present study the impact of these changes was investigated by comparing the 12 mo prior to October 2008 with the subsequent 12 mo. Four factors were considered for each surveillance system component: 1) the number of wild birds tested; 2) whether the tested wild birds were considered "higher risk species" (HRS) for being infected with AI; 3) the location of the birds tested with respect to counties designated as a priority for surveillance; and 4) the probability that the birds tested might yield a positive AI virus result based on surveillance results in wild birds across Europe. The number of birds tested by both surveillance types was greatly reduced after the strategy change. The proportion of birds sampled in priority counties also significantly decreased in the second year for both active and passive surveillance. However, the proportion of HRS sampled by active surveillance significantly increased, while a significant decrease in these species was seen for passive surveillance in the second year. The derived probability scores for detecting AI based on European surveillance results indicated a reduction in sensitivity for H5N1 highly pathogenic AI detection by passive surveillance. The methods developed to evaluate AIWBS in GB may be applicable to other European Union countries. The results also reflect the complex issues associated with evaluation of disease surveillance in wildlife

  16. Effect on swimming start performance of two types of activation protocols: lunge and YoYo squat.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Fernández, Francisco; López-Contreras, Gracia; Arellano, Raúl

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 protocols of postactivation potentiation (PAP) on swimming start perfomance (SS). Fourteen trained swimmers (10 men and 4 women) volunteered for this study. An intragroup design of randomized repetitive measurements was applied. A previous SS trial, performed after a standard warm-up (SWU), served as a reference. Two methods of PAP, performed after 1 hour of rest, were randomly added to the SWU: (a) 3 lunges at 85% of 1 repetition maximum (LWU) and (b) 4 repetitions on the flywheel device YoYo squat (YWU). Swimmers were tested in an SS 8 minutes after the PAP warm-ups. Kinematic variables were collected using 3 underwater digital video cameras fixed poolside and operating at 25 Hz, and 1 high-speed camera focused on the block and operating at 300 Hz. Data obtained from the video analysis were processed using a repeated measures analysis of the variance. The mean horizontal velocity of the swimmer's flight improved after both PAP methods, with the greatest improvement after YWU (F2,12 = 47.042, p < 0.001; SWU = 3.63 ± 0.11; LWU = 4.15 ± 0.122; YWU = 4.89 ± 0.12 m·s). After YWU, it took the subjects less time to cover a distance of 5 m (F2,12 = 24.453, p < 0.001) and 15 m (F2,12 = 4.262, p < 0.04). Subjects also achieved a higher mean angular velocity of the knee extension (F2,12 = 23.286, p < 0.001) and a reduction of the time on the block (F2,12 = 6.595, p ≤ 0.05). These results demonstrate that muscle performance in the execution of an SS is enhanced after a warm-up with specific PAP protocols. YWU leads to the greatest improvement in the performance of the swimmer's start and, therefore, may be especially beneficial in short events.

  17. Epidemic Outbreak Surveillance (EOS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    protocol using the nucleic acid extraction protocol on normal nasal wash samples spiked with titered Influenza A vin~s from Virapur, LLC. FluMist Vaccine...determine specificity between FluMist and wild type influenza . The testing concluded that FluMist was undistinguishable from wild type influenza on the...wild type influenza in patients exhibiting influenza symptoms that had received the FluMist Vaccine. Gene Expression Automated Processing Training was

  18. Patient education interventions to improve physical activity in patients with intermittent claudication: a protocol for a systematic mixed-studies review

    PubMed Central

    Abaraogu, Ukachukwu Okoroafor; Dall, Philippa Margaret; Seenan, Christopher Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and intermittent claudication (IC) decrease an individual's capacity to engage in physical activity (PA) with potentially negative effects on PA behaviour. Strategies to improve PA among this population may provide a range of positive health benefits. We present a protocol to assess the components of patient education interventions that improve PA capacity and PA behaviour in patients with PAD and IC. Methods and analysis Published peer-reviewed studies will be searched in the following databases: CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, OVID, ProQuest, AMED, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science Core Collection and PEDro, to identify literature investigating the effect of patient education on PA of patients with PAD and IC, or studies that investigated patients' perceptions or experience with these interventions. Two authors will independently perform screening for study eligibility, result synthesis and then appraise study quality. For interventions without follow-up, primary outcome measures will include change in PA capacity, or change in free-living PA behaviour; where there was a follow-up postintervention, the primary outcome will be rate of adherence to PA behaviour improvement. A three-phase sequential explanatory synthesis of mixed studies will be employed to answer the research questions. Homogenous quantitative data will be analysed using a random-effects model of meta-analysis with results presented as relative risk for dichotomous outcomes and as weighted or standardised means for continuous outcomes. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic synthesis. This review protocol is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 guidelines. Trial registration number CRD42015027314. PMID:27207628

  19. A Methodology for Modeling Nuclear Power Plant Passive Component Aging in Probabilistic Risk Assessment under the Impact of Operating Conditions, Surveillance and Maintenance Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guler Yigitoglu, Askin

    In the context of long operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) (i.e., 60-80 years, and beyond), investigation of the aging of passive systems, structures and components (SSCs) is important to assess safety margins and to decide on reactor life extension as indicated within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. In the traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology, evaluating the potential significance of aging of passive SSCs on plant risk is challenging. Although passive SSC failure rates can be added as initiating event frequencies or basic event failure rates in the traditional event-tree/fault-tree methodology, these failure rates are generally based on generic plant failure data which means that the true state of a specific plant is not reflected in a realistic manner on aging effects. Dynamic PRA methodologies have gained attention recently due to their capability to account for the plant state and thus address the difficulties in the traditional PRA modeling of aging effects of passive components using physics-based models (and also in the modeling of digital instrumentation and control systems). Physics-based models can capture the impact of complex aging processes (e.g., fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, flow-accelerated corrosion, etc.) on SSCs and can be utilized to estimate passive SSC failure rates using realistic NPP data from reactor simulation, as well as considering effects of surveillance and maintenance activities. The objectives of this dissertation are twofold: The development of a methodology for the incorporation of aging modeling of passive SSC into a reactor simulation environment to provide a framework for evaluation of their risk contribution in both the dynamic and traditional PRA; and the demonstration of the methodology through its application to pressurizer surge line pipe weld and steam generator tubes in commercial nuclear power plants. In the proposed methodology, a

  20. Public Health Surveillance Strategies for Mass Gatherings: Super Bowl XLIX and Related Events, Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Aurimar; Berisha, Vjollca; Goodin, Kate; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Levy, Craig; McKinney, Benita; Koski, Lia; Imholte, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Super Bowl XLIX took place on February 1, 2015, in Glendale, Arizona. In preparation for this event and associated activities, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) developed methods for enhanced surveillance, situational awareness, and early detection of public health emergencies. Surveillance strategies implemented from January 22 to February 6, 2015, included enhanced surveillance alerts; animal disease surveillance; review of NFL clinic visits; syndromic surveillance for emergency room visits, urgent care facilities, and hotels; real-time onsite syndromic surveillance; all-hazards mortality surveillance; emergency medical services surveillance, review of poison control center reports; media surveillance; and aberration detection algorithms for notifiable diseases. Surveillance results included increased influenzalike illness activity reported from urgent care centers and a few influenza cases reported in the NFL clinic. A cyanide single event exposure was investigated and determined not to be a public health threat. Real-time field syndromic surveillance documented minor injuries at all events and sporadic cases of gastrointestinal and neurological (mostly headaches) disease. Animal surveillance reports included a cat suspected of carrying plague and tularemia and an investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza in a backyard chicken flock. Laboratory results in both instances were negative. Aberration detection and syndromic surveillance detected an increase in measles reports associated with a Disneyland exposure, and syndromic surveillance was used successfully during this investigation. Coordinated enhanced epidemiologic surveillance during Super Bowl XLIX increased the response capacity and preparedness of MCDPH to make informed decisions and take public health actions in a timely manner during these mass gathering events.

  1. Ocean surveillance satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  2. Protocols for distributive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

  3. Data modeling and query processing for distributed surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Yunyoung; Hong, Sangjin; Rho, Seungmin

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents data modeling and query processing for distributed surveillance systems. We define a metadata rule to search and manage information for distributed or heterogeneous surveillance systems. For human activity recognition, we propose a method that classifies these actions separately from complicated activities as a sequence of basic activities. In addition, we define the domain and range of relations based on the relationship between elements. Furthermore, we describe the state descriptors to represent an image sequence. To address the interaction of multiple objects, we classify human actions into symmetric or asymmetric actions. The prior motion model and the inference approach are applied adaptively according to environments. We define the grammar for the representation of the surveillance video and specify different query criteria for surveillance video retrieval. In the experiments, we show the prototype system that provides event detection, object identification, object tracking, face recognition, and activity recognition.

  4. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  5. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-03-31

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  6. Surveillance of vaccine safety: comparison of parental reports with routine surveillance and a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Netterlid, Eva; Månsson, Marie Edwinson; Håkansson, Anders

    2009-03-23

    One way to maintain confidence in vaccination programmes is to improve monitoring of immunisation safety. We studied active parental reporting of adverse events after a booster dose of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid (DT). 7193 children received the vaccine. Questionnaires were submitted by 84.2% of the parents, who reported reactions for 9.2% of the children. Four percent of events were classified as moderate/severe by interviews. Relative risk of redness and swelling reported was 0.24 (95% CI, 0.13-0.42) compared to a clinical trial, while it was 71.0 (44-114) compared to passive surveillance. Active surveillance by parental reports is a useful complement to passive surveillance of childhood immunisations to generate hypotheses for evaluation in controlled studies.

  7. Assessing Metacognitive Activities: The In-Depth Comparison of a Task-Specific Questionnaire with Think-Aloud Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellings, Gonny L.; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette H. A .M.; Veenman, Marcel V. J.; Meijer, Joost

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and assessing metacognitive activities are important educational objectives, and teachers are calling for efficient instruments. The advantages of questionnaires in measuring metacognitive activities are obvious, but serious validity issues appear. For example, correlations of questionnaire data with think-aloud measures are generally…

  8. Review of the United States universal varicella vaccination program: Herpes zoster incidence rates, cost-effectiveness, and vaccine efficacy based primarily on the Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project data

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, G.S.; King, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    In a cooperative agreement starting January 1995, prior to the FDA's licensure of the varicella vaccine on March 17, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded the Los Angeles Department of Health Services’ Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project (AV-VASP). Since only varicella case reports were gathered, baseline incidence data for herpes zoster (HZ) or shingles was lacking. Varicella case reports decreased 72%, from 2834 in 1995 to 836 in 2000 at which time approximately 50% of children under 10 years of age had been vaccinated. Starting in 2000, HZ surveillance was added to the project. By 2002, notable increases in HZ incidence rates were reported among both children and adults with a prior history of natural varicella. However, CDC authorities still claimed that no increase in HZ had occurred in any US surveillance site. The basic assumptions inherent to the varicella cost–benefit analysis ignored the significance of exogenous boosting caused by those shedding wild-type VZV. Also ignored was the morbidity associated with even rare serious events following varicella vaccination as well as the morbidity from increasing cases of HZ among adults. Vaccine efficacy declined below 80% in 2001. By 2006, because 20% of vaccinees were experiencing breakthrough varicella and vaccine-induced protection was waning, the CDC recommended a booster dose for children and, in 2007, a shingles vaccination was approved for adults aged 60 years and older. In the prelicensure era, 95% of adults experienced natural chickenpox (usually as children)—these cases were usually benign and resulted in long-term immunity. Varicella vaccination is less effective than the natural immunity that existed in prevaccine communities. Universal varicella vaccination has not proven to be cost-effective as increased HZ morbidity has disproportionately offset cost savings associated with reductions in varicella disease. Universal varicella vaccination has failed to

  9. Protocol of a longitudinal cohort study on physical activity behaviour in physically disabled patients participating in a rehabilitation counselling programme: ReSpAct

    PubMed Central

    Alingh, Rolinde A; Hoekstra, Femke; van der Schans, Cees P; Hettinga, Florentina J; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stimulating physical activity behaviour in persons with a physical disability is important, especially after discharge from rehabilitation. A tailored counselling programme covering both the period of the rehabilitation treatment and the first months at home seems on the average effective. However, a considerable variation in response is observed in the sense that some patients show a relevant beneficial response while others show no or only a small response on physical activity behaviour. The Rehabilitation, Sports and Active lifestyle (ReSpAct) study aims to estimate the associations of patient and programme characteristics with patients’ physical activity behaviour after their participation in a tailored counselling programme. Methods and analysis A questionnaire-based nationwide longitudinal prospective cohort study is conducted. Participants are recruited from 18 rehabilitation centres and hospitals in The Netherlands. 2000 participants with a physical disability or chronic disease will be followed during and after their participation in a tailored counselling programme. Programme outcomes on physical activity behaviour and patient as well as programme characteristics that may be associated with differences in physical activity behaviour after programme completion are being assessed. Data collection takes place at baseline and 14, 33 and 52 weeks after discharge from rehabilitation. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the University Medical Centre Groningen and at individual participating institutions. All participants give written informed consent. The study results will provide new insights into factors that may help explain the differences in physical activity behaviour of patients with a physical disability after they have participated in the same physical activity and sports stimulation programme. Thereby, it will support healthcare professionals to tailor their guidance and

  10. In vitro equine embryo production using air-dried spermatozoa, with different activation protocols and culture systems.

    PubMed

    Alonso, A; Baca Castex, C; Ferrante, A; Pinto, M; Castañeira, C; Trasorras, V; Gambarotta, M C; Losinno, L; Miragaya, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of air-dried spermatozoa for in vitro production of equine embryos and verify if sperm extract activation and in vivo culture improve in vitro embryo production. Cooled spermatozoa (control) and air-dried spermatozoa stored for 2, 14 or 28 days were used for ICSI sperm extract, or ionomycin was used for oocyte activation, and embryos were in vitro or in vivo (in mare's oviduct) cultured for 7 days. With in vitro culture, cleavage rate was higher when activating with sperm extract (P < 0.05). No differences in embryo development were seen between the two activation treatments nor between storage periods (P > 0.05). Blastocysts were obtained with cooled spermatozoa, and morulae were achieved using in vivo culture with 28-day storage spermatozoa and ionomycin-activated oocytes. When in vivo culture was performed, sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed using the sperm chromatin dispersion test and did not show statistical correlation with cleavage nor embryo recovery rates. In conclusion, equine embryos can be produced using air-dried spermatozoa stored for several weeks. Sperm extract activation increased cleavage rates but did not improve embryo development. In vivo culture allowed intrauterine stage embryos to be achieved.

  11. The Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance Study (Pak-NEDS): Introducing a pilot surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based decision making is essential for appropriate prioritization and service provision by healthcare systems. Despite higher demands, data needs for this practice are not met in many cases in low- and middle-income countries because of underdeveloped sources, among other reasons. Emergency departments (EDs) provide an important channel for such information because of their strategic position within healthcare systems. This paper describes the design and pilot test of a national ED based surveillance system suitable for the Pakistani context. Methods The Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance Study (Pak-NEDS) was pilot tested in the emergency departments of seven major tertiary healthcare centres across the country. The Aga Khan University, Karachi, served as the coordinating centre. Key stakeholders and experts from all study institutes were involved in outlining data needs, development of the study questionnaire, and identification of appropriate surveillance mechanisms such as methods for data collection, monitoring, and quality assurance procedures. The surveillance system was operational between November 2010 and March 2011. Active surveillance was done 24 hours a day by data collectors hired and trained specifically for the study. All patients presenting to the study EDs were eligible participants. Over 270,000 cases were registered in the surveillance system over a period of four months. Coverage levels in the final month ranged from 91-100% and were highest in centres with the least volume of patients. Overall the coverage for the four months was 79% and crude operational costs were less than $0.20 per patient. Conclusions Pak-NEDS is the first multi-centre ED based surveillance system successfully piloted in a sample of major EDs having some of the highest patient volumes in Pakistan. Despite the challenges identified, our pilot shows that the system is flexible and scalable, and could potentially be adapted for many other

  12. Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-27

    reconnaissance (ISR) model for coastal surveillance. The model needs to be developed in the System Toolkit (STK) software package version 10.0 (or...reconnaissance (ISR) model for coastal surveillance. The model needs to be developed in the System Toolkit (STK) software package version 10.0 (or...Catalogue STK System Toolkit TA Technical Authority DRDC CORA Task #185 Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development 27 February 2015 F-1 5758-001

  13. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  14. Analysis of Swine Movements in a Province in Northern Vietnam and Application in the Design of Surveillance Strategies for Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Baudon, E; Fournié, G; Hiep, D T; Pham, T T H; Duboz, R; Gély, M; Peiris, M; Cowling, B J; Ton, V D; Peyre, M

    2015-06-04

    While swine production is rapidly growing in South-East Asia, the structure of the swine industry and the dynamic of pig movements have not been well-studied. However, this knowledge is a prerequisite for understanding the dynamic of disease transmission in swine populations and designing cost-effective surveillance strategies for infectious diseases. In this study, we assessed the farming and trading practices in the Vietnamese swine familial farming sector, which accounts for most pigs in Vietnam, and for which disease surveillance is a major challenge. Farmers from two communes of a Red River Delta Province (northern Vietnam) were interviewed, along with traders involved in pig transactions. Major differences in the trade structure were observed between the two communes. One commune had mainly transversal trades, that is between farms of equivalent sizes, whereas the other had pyramidal trades, that is from larger to smaller farms. Companies and large familial farrow-to-finish farms were likely to act as major sources of disease spread through pig sales, demonstrating their importance for disease control. Familial fattening farms with high pig purchases were at greater risk of disease introduction and should be targeted for disease detection as part of a risk-based surveillance. In contrast, many other familial farms were isolated or weakly connected to the swine trade network limiting their relevance for surveillance activities. However, some of these farms used boar hiring for breeding, increasing the risk of disease spread. Most familial farms were slaughtering pigs at the farm or in small local slaughterhouses, making the surveillance at the slaughterhouse inefficient. In terms of spatial distribution of the trades, the results suggested that northern provinces were highly connected and showed some connection with central and southern provinces. These results are useful to develop risk-based surveillance protocols for disease detection in the swine familial

  15. A proposed 30-45 minute 4 page standard protocol to evaluate rheumatoid arthritis (SPERA) that includes measures of inflammatory activity, joint damage, and longterm outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pincus, T; Brooks, R H; Callahan, L F

    1999-02-01

    A proposed 4 page, 30-45 minute standard protocol to assess rheumatoid arthritis (SPERA) is described that includes all relevant measures of inflammatory activity such as joint swelling, measures of joint damage such as joint deformity, and outcomes such as joint replacement surgery, to monitor patients in longterm observational studies. Forms are included: (1) a patient self-report modified health assessment questionnaire (MHAQ) to assess function, pain, fatigue, psychological distress, symptoms, and drugs used; (2) assessor-completed forms: "RA clinical features" --criteria for RA, functional class, family history, extraarticular disease, comorbidities, joint surgery, radiographic score, and laboratory findings. (3) A 32 joint count with 5 variables: (a) a "shorthand" normal/abnormal so that normal joints require no further detailed assessment; (b) tenderness or pain on motion; (c) swelling; (d) limited motion or deformity; (e) previous surgeries; physical measures of function, i.e., grip strength, walk time, and button test. (4) Medication review of previous disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD), work history, and years of education. The forms allow cost effective acquisition of all relevant measures of activity, damage, and outcomes in routine clinical care, and allow recognition that measures of activity may show similar or improved values over 5-10 years, while measures of damage and outcomes indicate severe progression in the same patients. The SPERA is feasible to acquire most known relevant measures of activity, damage, and outcomes in RA in 30-45 min in usual clinical settings, to provide a complete database for analyses of longterm outcomes.

  16. Bacteriological Surveillance of Drinking Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-15

    bacteriological surveillance and evaluation of drinking water quality. A separate information paper will address microbiological contaminants of a nonbacterial nature (e.g., Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia , and viruses).

  17. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  18. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-01-06

    Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal

  19. Educator engagement and interaction and children's physical activity in early childhood education and care settings: an observational study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rachel A; Hagenbuchner, Markus; Nguyen, Tuc V; Okely, Anthony D

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of regular physical activity for children are significant. Previous research has addressed the quantity and quality of children's physical activity while in early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings, yet little research has investigated the social and physical environmental influences on physical activity in these settings. The outcomes of this study will be to measure these social and physical environmental influences on children's physical activity using a combination of a real-time location system (RTLS) (a closed system that tracks the location of movement of participants via readers and tags), accelerometry and direct observation. Methods and analysis This study is the first of its kind to combine RTLSs and accelerometer data in ECEC settings. It is a cross-sectional study involving ∼100 educators and 500 children from 11 ECEC settings in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. A RTLS and Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers will be concurrently used to measure the level and location of the children's and educators' physical activity while in outside environments. Children and educators will wear accelerometers on their hip that record triaxial acceleration data at 100 Hz. Children and educators will also wear a tag watch on their wrist that transmits a signal to anchors of the RTLS and the triangulation of signals will identify their specific location. In addition to these, up to three random periods (10–25 min in length) will be used to collect observational data each day and assessed with the classroom assessment and scoring system to measure the quality of interactions. In conjunction with the real-time location system (RTLS) and accelerometers, these observations will measure the relationship between the quality of interactions and children's physical activity. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and presentations. Ethical approval was

  20. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  1. Remote, wireless stakeout surveillance for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Mike; Klein, Allen; Smith, Stan; Jones, John Paul

    2005-05-01

    Inflation combined with the added burden of homeland security requirements, is increasing pressure on local law enforcement budgets and manpower resources. The problem is: how can law enforcement agencies fulfill all of their requirements? How can they respond to these requirements, including homeland security, with limited manpower? Civil Rights considerations also place constraints on law enforcement. One possible solution is the Remote Law Enforcement Surveillance System (RLESS) concept. RLESS makes more efficient use of existing manpower while avoiding infringement on civil liberties. RLESS provides the capability for unattended stakeout and surveillance. Many stakeout or surveillance operations are conducted by vice, homicide, organized crime or other task forces. Lasting from days to weeks. Many large drug stings last months involving many persons of interest. A single surveillance mission usually involves a minimum of two persons X 3 shifts per day conducting active observation, equating to 48 man-hours per day. Their tasks include watching, listening, and documenting with photography. Recent military developments have included new technologies and techniques that enable remote unattended observation of areas or points of interest. This capability is now available to support law enforcement stakeouts, thereby significantly minimizes the stresses on manpower.

  2. European recommendations for antimicrobial resistance surveillance.

    PubMed

    Cornaglia, G; Hryniewicz, W; Jarlier, V; Kahlmeter, G; Mittermayer, H; Stratchounski, L; Baquero, F

    2004-04-01

    The problem of antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe has been debated extensively in many excellent documents issued by national committees that often assume the value of national guidelines. However, a comprehensive document addressing the whole matter from a European perspective, as well as reviewing its present status and drafting future perspectives, has been lacking. The present recommendations have been produced by the ESCMID Study Group for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (ESGARS) through a consensus process involving all members of the Study Group. The recommendations focus on the detection of bacterial resistance and its reporting to clinicians, public health officers and a wider-and ever-increasing-audience. The leading concept is that the basis for resistance monitoring is microbiological diagnostics. The prerequisites for resistance monitoring are findings of adequate quality and quantity, which have been recorded properly and evaluated correctly. Different types of surveillance studies should fulfil different requirements with regard to data collection and reporting, the expected use of data, and the prerequisites for networking such activities. To generate relevant indicators, bacterial resistance data should be reported using adequate denominators and stratification. Reporting of antimicrobial resistance data is necessary for selection of empirical therapy at the local level, for assessing the scale of the resistance problem at the local, national or international levels, for monitoring changes in resistance rates, and for detecting the emergence and spread of new resistances types. Any type of surveillance study should conclude, where appropriate, with a proposal for intervention based on the data obtained.

  3. Synthetic Protocol for AFCS: A Biologically Active Fluorescent Castasterone Analog Conjugated to an Alexa Fluor 647 Dye.

    PubMed

    Winne, Johan M; Irani, Niloufer G; Van den Begin, Jos; Madder, Annemieke

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic derivatization of hormonally active brassinosteroids (BRs) can provide useful small molecule tools to probe BR signaling pathways, such as fluorescent analogs. However, most biologically active BRs are not suitable for direct chemical conjugation techniques because their derivatization typically requires extensive synthetic work and chemistry expertise. Here, we describe an operationally simple, two-step procedure to prepare and purify an Alexa Fluor 647-castasterone (AFCS) from commercially available materials. The reported strategy is also amenable to the introduction of various other amine-based labeling groups.

  4. Disease reporting and surveillance: where do companion animal diseases fit in?

    PubMed

    Moore, George E; Lund, Elizabeth

    2009-03-01

    Disease surveillance and reporting is a necessary and integral part of public health practice. Surveillance systems have been developed over many years for both human medicine and veterinary medicine. However, these systems are not usually interconnected. Today, with the benefits of advanced information technology, the development and integration of existing and new resources in companion-animal practice should be focused on "one medicine-one health" for the betterment and health of all species. This means more sharing of surveillance data, greater cooperation among organizations involved in surveillance, and further integration of human and animal surveillance activities.

  5. The Effects of Physical Activity Feedback on Behavior and Awareness in Employees: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoye, Karen; Boen, Filip; Lefevre, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The SenseWear Armband (SWA) is a multisensor activity monitor that can be used in daily life to assess an individual's physical activity level (PAL). The primary goal of this study was to analyze the impact of different types of feedback on the PAL of Flemish employees. Methods/Design. We recruited 320 sedentary employees (age, 41.0 ± 10.7 years; BMI, 26.2 ± 4.2 kg/m2) to participate in the 12-month study. Participants were randomized into one of four intervention groups after being measured for 7 days and nights by means of the SWA: (1) a minimal intervention group received no feedback (MIG, n = 56); (2) a pedometer group was provided only information on their daily step count (PG, n = 57); (3) a display group received feedback on calories burned, steps taken, and minutes of physical activity by means of the SWA display (DG, n = 57); (4) a coaching group also received the display and had weekly meetings with a Personal Coach (CoachG, n = 57). We hypothesize that participants receiving feedback (SG, DG, and CoachG) will have a greater increase in physical activity outcome variables compared to participants of the minimal intervention group. PMID:23056040

  6. Local collaborations: development and implementation of Boston's bioterrorism surveillance system.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Verna B; Gunn, Julia E; Auerbach, John; Brinsfield, Kathryn H; Dyer, K Sophia; Barry, M Anita

    2003-01-01

    The Boston Public Health Commission developed and implemented an active surveillance system for bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies. A bioterrorism Surveillance Task Force was formed with representatives from local emergency medicine, infection control, infectious diseases, public health, and emergency medical services. These local agencies worked together to develop a reliable, easy to use electronic surveillance system. Collaboration at the local level and building on existing relationships is a key component of this system. Effective follow-up systems and technology back-up plans are essential. Improved communication networks and increased bioterrorism education for clinicians and the general public have also been achieved.

  7. Study protocol: translating and implementing psychosocial interventions in aged home care the lifestyle engagement activity program (LEAP) for life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tailored psychosocial activity-based interventions have been shown to improve mood, behaviour and quality of life for nursing home residents. Occupational therapist delivered activity programs have shown benefits when delivered in home care settings for people with dementia. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of LEAP (Lifestyle Engagement Activity Program) for Life, a training and practice change program on the engagement of home care clients by care workers. Secondary aims are to evaluate the impact of the program on changes in client mood and behaviour. Methods/design The 12 month LEAP program has three components: 1) engaging site management and care staff in the program; 2) employing a LEAP champion one day a week to support program activities; 3) delivering an evidence-based training program to care staff. Specifically, case managers will be trained and supported to set meaningful social or recreational goals with clients and incorporate these into care plans. Care workers will be trained in and encouraged to practise good communication, promote client independence and choice, and tailor meaningful activities using Montessori principles, reminiscence, music, physical activity and play. LEAP Champions will be given information about theories of organisational change and trained in interpersonal skills required for their role. LEAP will be evaluated in five home care sites including two that service ethnic minority groups. A quasi experimental design will be used with evaluation data collected four times: 6-months prior to program commencement; at the start of the program; and then after 6 and 12 months. Mixed effect models will enable comparison of change in outcomes for the periods before and during the program. The primary outcome measure is client engagement. Secondary outcomes for clients are satisfaction with care, dysphoria/depression, loneliness, apathy and agitation; and work satisfaction for care workers. A process

  8. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  9. A systematic review of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain—protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic musculoskeletal pain is highly prevalent, affecting around one in five people across Europe. Osteoarthritis, low back pain, neck pain and other musculoskeletal disorders are leading causes of disability worldwide and the most common source of chronic pain. Exercise and/or physical activity interventions have the potential to address not only the pain and disability associated with chronic pain but also the increased risk of morbidity and mortality seen in this population. Although exercise and/or physical activity is widely recommended, there is currently a paucity of research that offers an evidence base upon which the development or optimisation of interventions can be based. This systematic review will investigate the components of interventions associated with changes in physical activity levels in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Methods/Design This systematic review will be reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidance. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain will be included. Articles will be identified through a comprehensive search of the following databases: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and AMED. Two review authors will independently screen articles retrieved from the search for eligibility, extract relevant data on methodological issues and code interventions according to the behaviour change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques. As complex healthcare interventions can be modified by a wide variety of factors, data will be summarised statistically when the data are available, are sufficiently similar and are of sufficient quality. A narrative synthesis will be completed if there is insufficient data to permit a formal meta

  10. Exploring Musical Activities and Their Relationship to Emotional Well-Being in Elderly People across Europe: A Study Protocol.

    PubMed

    Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Foley, Meabh; Hlavová, Renata; Muukkonen, Ilkka; Ojinaga-Alfageme, Olatz; Radukic, Andrijana; Spindler, Melanie; Hundevad, Bodil

    2017-01-01

    Music is a powerful, pleasurable stimulus that can induce positive feelings and can therefore be used for emotional self-regulation. Musical activities such as listening to music, playing an instrument, singing or dancing are also an important source for social contact, promoting interaction and the sense of belonging with others. Recent evidence has suggested that after retirement, other functions of music, such as self-conceptual processing related to autobiographical memories, become more salient. However, few studies have addressed the meaningfulness of music in the elderly. This study aims to investigate elderly people's habits and preferences related to music, study the role music plays in their everyday life, and explore the relationship between musical activities and emotional well-being across different countries of Europe. A survey will be administered to elderly people over the age of 65 from five different European countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Czechia, Germany, Ireland, and UK) and to a control group. Participants in both groups will be asked about basic sociodemographic information, habits and preferences in their participation in musical activities and emotional well-being. Overall, the aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the role of music in the elderly from a psychological perspective. This advanced knowledge could help to develop therapeutic applications, such as musical recreational programs for healthy older people or elderly in residential care, which are better able to meet their emotional and social needs.

  11. Exploring Musical Activities and Their Relationship to Emotional Well-Being in Elderly People across Europe: A Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Foley, Meabh; Hlavová, Renata; Muukkonen, Ilkka; Ojinaga-Alfageme, Olatz; Radukic, Andrijana; Spindler, Melanie; Hundevad, Bodil

    2017-01-01

    Music is a powerful, pleasurable stimulus that can induce positive feelings and can therefore be used for emotional self-regulation. Musical activities such as listening to music, playing an instrument, singing or dancing are also an important source for social contact, promoting interaction and the sense of belonging with others. Recent evidence has suggested that after retirement, other functions of music, such as self-conceptual processing related to autobiographical memories, become more salient. However, few studies have addressed the meaningfulness of music in the elderly. This study aims to investigate elderly people’s habits and preferences related to music, study the role music plays in their everyday life, and explore the relationship between musical activities and emotional well-being across different countries of Europe. A survey will be administered to elderly people over the age of 65 from five different European countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Czechia, Germany, Ireland, and UK) and to a control group. Participants in both groups will be asked about basic sociodemographic information, habits and preferences in their participation in musical activities and emotional well-being. Overall, the aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the role of music in the elderly from a psychological perspective. This advanced knowledge could help to develop therapeutic applications, such as musical recreational programs for healthy older people or elderly in residential care, which are better able to meet their emotional and social needs. PMID:28373851

  12. Community-based physical activity and nutrition programme for adults with metabolic syndrome in Vietnam: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Van Dinh; Lee, Andy H; Jancey, Jonine; James, Anthony P; Howat, Peter; Thi Phuong Mai, Le

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes. In Vietnam, more than one-quarter of its population aged 50–65 have MetS. This cluster-randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase levels of physical activity and improve dietary behaviours among Vietnamese adults aged 50–65 years with MetS. Method and analysis This 6-month community-based intervention includes a range of strategies to improve physical activity and nutrition for adults with MetS in Hanam, a province located in northern Vietnam. 600 participants will be recruited from 6 communes with 100 participants per commune. The 6 selected communes will be randomly allocated to either an intervention group (m=3; n=300) or a control group (m=3; n=300). The intervention comprises booklets, education sessions, resistance bands and attending local walking groups that provide information and encourage participants to improve their physical activity and healthy eating behaviours during the 6-month period. The control group participants will receive standard and 1-time advice. Social cognitive theory is the theoretical concept underpinning this study. Measurements will be taken at baseline and postintervention to evaluate programme effectiveness. Ethics and dissemination The research protocol was approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: HR139/2014). The results of the study will be disseminated through publications, reports and conference presentations. Trial registration number ACTRN12614000811606. PMID:27256094

  13. Acute Effects of Three Different Circuit Weight Training Protocols on Blood Lactate, Heart Rate, and Rating of Perceived Exertion in Recreationally Active Women

    PubMed Central

    Skidmore, Brook L.; Jones, Margaret T.; Blegen, Mark; Matthews, Tracey D.

    2012-01-01

    Interval and circuit weight training are popular training methods for maximizing time-efficiency, and are purported to deliver greater physiological benefits faster than traditional training methods. Adding interval training into a circuit weight-training workout may further enhance the benefits of circuit weight training by placing increased demands upon the cardiovascular system. Our purpose was to compare acute effects of three circuit weight training protocols 1) traditional circuit weight training, 2) aerobic circuit weight training, and 3) combined circuit weight-interval training on blood lactate (BLA), heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Eleven recreationally active women completed 7 exercise sessions. Session 1 included measurements of height, weight, estimated VO2max, and 13 repetition maximum (RM) testing of the weight exercises. Sessions 2-4 were held on non-consecutive days for familiarization with traditional circuit weight training (TRAD), aerobic circuit weight training (ACWT), and combined circuit weight-interval training (CWIT) protocols. In sessions 5-7, TRAD, ACWT, and CWIT were performed in a randomized order ≥ 72 hr apart for measures of BLA, HR, and RPE at pre-exercise and following each of three mini-circuit weight training stations. Repeated-measures ANOVAs yielded significant interactions (p < 0.05) in BLA, HR, and RPE. Combined circuit weight-interval training (CWIT) produced higher BLA (7.31 ± 0.37 vs. TRAD: 3.99 ± 0.26, ACWT: 4.54 ± 0.31 mmol.L-1), HR (83.51 ± 1.18 vs. TRAD: 70.42 ± 1.67, ACWT: 74.13 ± 1.43 beats.min-1) and RPE (8.14 ± 0.41 vs. TRAD: 5.06 ± 0.43, ACWT: 6.15 ± 0.42) at all measures. Aerobic circuit weight training (ACWT) elicited greater RPE than traditional circuit weight training (TRAD) at all measures. Including combined circuit weight-interval training (CWIT) workouts into exercise programming may enhance fitness benefits and maximize time-efficiency more so than traditional circuit

  14. Measurement properties of self-report physical activity assessment tools in stroke: a protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Júlia Caetano; Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Nadeau, Sylvie; Scianni, Aline Alvim; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi; Faria, Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Self-report physical activity assessment tools are commonly used for the evaluation of physical activity levels in individuals with stroke. A great variety of these tools have been developed and widely used in recent years, which justify the need to examine their measurement properties and clinical utility. Therefore, the main objectives of this systematic review are to examine the measurement properties and clinical utility of self-report measures of physical activity and discuss the strengths and limitations of the identified tools. Methods and analysis A systematic review of studies that investigated the measurement properties and/or clinical utility of self-report physical activity assessment tools in stroke will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in five databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), followed by hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies. Two independent reviewers will screen all retrieve titles, abstracts, and full texts, according to the inclusion criteria and will also extract the data. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreement. A descriptive summary of the included studies will contain the design, participants, as well as the characteristics, measurement properties, and clinical utility of the self-report tools. The methodological quality of the studies will be evaluated using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist and the clinical utility of the identified tools will be assessed considering predefined criteria. This systematic review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Discussion This systematic review will

  15. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient’s side. PMID:26729130

  16. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-02

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient's side.

  17. Developing integrated multistate environmental public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, Daniel; Thompson, W Douglas; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Gross, Hillary J; Condon, Suzanne K; Kim, Nancy; Goun, Barbara D; Opiekun, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Environmental exposures cause substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States. A major goal of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Environmental Public Health Tracking program is the development of a national network of health and environmental data with analytic tools for rapid evaluation of specific national or regional environmental health concerns. A six-state collaborative project in the northeast United States was established to assess the feasibility of such a system, assessing the possible association between ambient air quality and adverse birth outcomes. For this regional surveillance project, issues were discussed surrounding the design of a mutually acceptable protocol, obtaining human subjects' protection approvals, obtaining and organizing both the exposure and outcome data, analyzing the data both locally and regionally, and planning subsequent interventions to address identified public health concerns.

  18. Rotavirus epidemiology: the Asian Rotavirus Surveillance Network.

    PubMed

    Nelson, E A S; Bresee, J S; Parashar, U D; Widdowson, M-A; Glass, R I

    2008-06-19

    Availability of new rotavirus vaccines has highlighted the need to collect local disease and economic burden data to aid decision makers at global, regional and country level. The World Health Organization and the GAVI Alliance recommended that generic protocols be used and that regional surveillance networks be established to collect these data, thereby helping to fast-track the introduction of these new vaccines into developing countries. Nine countries and regions participated in the first phase of the Asian Rotavirus Surveillance Network (ARSN), which collected data over a 2-year period during 2001-2003. Overall 45% of diarrhoea admissions in the region were positive for rotavirus, which was higher than had been anticipated. Significant rotavirus strain diversity was noted during the surveillance period. Data collection for a second phase of the ARSN commenced in 2004 and included a greater proportion of poorer countries that would in future be eligible for funding support for rotavirus immunization from GAVI. Limited economic evaluations in Asia have demonstrated the potential for new rotavirus vaccines to be cost-effective but more local analyses are required. Despite the ARSN's comprehensive data from a mix of developed and developing countries, Asia has lagged the Americas in terms of the introduction of rotavirus vaccines into National Immunization Programmes (NIPs). Lack on rotavirus vaccine efficacy data in Asia, particularly in poorer populations, will have contributed to this delay. Thus ensuring that all global regions are simultaneously involved in the evaluation of new vaccines from the beginning and also encouraging more regional collaborations of Ministry of Health representatives could help to accelerate the introduction of new vaccines into NIPs.

  19. Managed Activity Graded Exercise iN Teenagers and pre-Adolescents (MAGENTA) feasibility randomised controlled trial: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brigden, Amberly; Beasant, Lucy; Hollingworth, William; Metcalfe, Chris; Gaunt, Daisy; Mills, Nicola; Jago, Russell; Crawley, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a relatively common and disabling condition, yet there is a limited evidence base for treatment. There is good evidence that graded exercise therapy is moderately effective in adults with CFS/ME, but there is little evidence for the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, acceptability or best method of delivery for paediatric CFS/ME. This study aims to investigate the acceptability and feasibility of carrying out a multicentre randomised controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of graded exercise therapy compared with activity management for children/teenagers who are mildly or moderately affected with CFS/ME. Methods and analysis 100 paediatric patients (8–17 years) with CFS/ME will be recruited from 3 specialist UK National Health Service (NHS) CFS/ME services (Bath, Cambridge and Newcastle). Patients will be randomised (1:1) to receive either graded exercise therapy or activity management. Feasibility analysis will include the number of young people eligible, approached and consented to the trial; attrition rate and treatment adherence; questionnaire and accelerometer completion rates. Integrated qualitative methods will ascertain perceptions of feasibility and acceptability of recruitment, randomisation and the interventions. All adverse events will be monitored to assess the safety of the trial. Ethics and dissemination The trial has received ethical approval from the National Research Ethics Service (South West—Frenchay 15/SW/0124). Trial registration number ISRCTN23962803; Pre-results. PMID:27377634

  20. Investigating Within-day and Longitudinal Effects of Maternal Stress on Children's Physical Activity, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition: Protocol for the MATCH Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunton, Genevieve F.; Liao, Yue; Dzubur, Eldin; Leventhal, Adam; Huh, Jimi; Gruenewald, Tara; Margolin, Gayla; Koprowski, Carol; Tate, Eleanor; Intille, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Parental stress is an understudied factor that may compromise parenting practices related to children's dietary intake, physical activity, and obesity. However, studies examining these associations have been subject to methodological limitations, including cross-sectional designs, retrospective measures, a lack of stress biomarkers, and the tendency to overlook momentary etiologic processes occurring within each day. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the MATCH (Mothers And Their Children's Health) study, a longitudinal investigation using novel real-time data capture strategies to examine within-day associations of maternal stress with children's physical activity and dietary intake, and how these effects contribute to children's obesity risk. In the MATCH study, 200 mothers and their 8 to 12 year-old children are participating in 6 semi-annual assessment waves across 3 years. At each wave, measures for mother-child dyads include: (a) real-time Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of self-reported daily psychosocial stressors (e.g., work at a job, family demands), feeling stressed, perceived stress, parenting practices, dietary intake, and physical activity with time and location stamps; (b) diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, accelerometer-monitored physical activity, and 24-hour dietary recalls; (c) retrospective questionnaires of sociodemographic, cultural, family, and neighborhood covariates; and (d) height, weight, and waist circumference. Putative within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's dietary intake, physical activity, and body composition will be tested through multilevel modeling and latent growth curve models, respectively. The results will inform interventions that help mothers reduce the negative effects of stress on weight-related parenting practices and children's obesity risk. PMID:25987483

  1. Investigating within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's physical activity, dietary intake, and body composition: Protocol for the MATCH study.

    PubMed

    Dunton, Genevieve F; Liao, Yue; Dzubur, Eldin; Leventhal, Adam M; Huh, Jimi; Gruenewald, Tara; Margolin, Gayla; Koprowski, Carol; Tate, Eleanor; Intille, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Parental stress is an understudied factor that may compromise parenting practices related to children's dietary intake, physical activity, and obesity. However, studies examining these associations have been subject to methodological limitations, including cross-sectional designs, retrospective measures, a lack of stress biomarkers, and the tendency to overlook momentary etiologic processes occurring within each day. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the MATCH (Mothers And Their Children's Health) study, a longitudinal investigation using novel real-time data capture strategies to examine within-day associations of maternal stress with children's physical activity and dietary intake, and how these effects contribute to children's obesity risk. In the MATCH study, 200 mothers and their 8 to 12 year-old children are participating in 6 semi-annual assessment waves across 3 years. At each wave, measures for mother-child dyads include: (a) real-time Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of self-reported daily psychosocial stressors (e.g., work at a job, family demands), feeling stressed, perceived stress, parenting practices, dietary intake, and physical activity with time and location stamps; (b) diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, accelerometer-monitored physical activity, and 24-hour dietary recalls; (c) retrospective questionnaires of sociodemographic, cultural, family, and neighborhood covariates; and (d) height, weight, and waist circumference. Putative within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's dietary intake, physical activity, and body composition will be tested through multilevel modeling and latent growth curve models, respectively. The results will inform interventions that help mothers reduce the negative effects of stress on weight-related parenting practices and children's obesity risk.

  2. Building laboratory capacity to support the global rotavirus surveillance network.

    PubMed

    2013-05-24

    In 2001, in anticipation of rotavirus vaccine licensure and introduction, the World Health Organization (WHO) and partners established regional laboratory surveillance networks for rotavirus detection and strain type monitoring among hospitalized children aged <5 years. In 2006, two WHO-prequalified oral rotavirus vaccines were licensed: a 2-dose, single-strain vaccine (Rotarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) and a 3-dose, multistrain vaccine (RotaTeq, Merck). Both vaccines provide protection against a range of rotavirus strain types, generally classified as G and P types based on specific viral proteins. Based on results of clinical trial data, disease burden data from surveillance networks, and findings from vaccine impact studies, WHO recommends that all countries include rotavirus vaccination in national immunization programs. Vaccination is recommended to help reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with rotavirus, a leading cause of diarrhea in children aged <5 years that was responsible for approximately 450,000 deaths in 2008. This report describes the expansion of the regional rotavirus laboratory surveillance networks to a global surveillance network, the implementation of data quality assurance measures to ensure quality laboratory data reporting to support rotavirus surveillance activities, and data reporting through the surveillance network. Timely, quality surveillance data can provide baseline estimates of rotavirus disease burden to inform decisions regarding rotavirus vaccine introduction in national immunization programs and can help monitor the impact of vaccine introduction on disease trends.

  3. 2007 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2007 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2009 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2006 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2008 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2006 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2009 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2007 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2007 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2009 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-08-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2009 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2008 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2010 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2010 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2008 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2006 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2007 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2007 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-02-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2006 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2008 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2010 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2010 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2006 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2008 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2008 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2007 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2010 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2010 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 5, Number 8, December 1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    diabetes mellitus among active duty service members, US Armed Services 1998 ...................................... 7 Completeness and timeliness of...Medical Surveillance Activity. Surveillance Trends Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus Among Active Duty Servicemembers, US Armed Forces, 1998 Diabetes mellitus is...blindness. Diabetes affects an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States.1 Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a dis- qualifying condition

  16. The surveillance error grid.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris

    2014-07-01

    Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to

  17. The impact of physical activity on fatigue and quality of life in lung cancer patients: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background People with lung cancer have substantial symptom burden and more unmet needs than the general cancer population. Physical activity (PA) has been shown to positively influence quality of life (QOL), fatigue and daily functioning in the curative treatment of people with breast and colorectal cancers and lung diseases, as well as in palliative settings. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) is needed to determine if lung cancer patients benefit from structured PA intervention. The Physical Activity in Lung Cancer (PAL) trial is designed to evaluate the impact of a 2-month PA intervention on fatigue and QOL in patients with non-resectable lung cancer. Biological mechanisms will also be studied. Methods/design A multi-centre RCT with patients randomised to usual care or a 2-month PA programme, involving supervised PA sessions including a behavioural change component and home-based PA. QOL questionnaires, disease and functional status and body composition will be assessed at baseline, 2, 4 and 6 months follow-up. The primary endpoint is comparative levels of fatigue between the 2 arms. Secondary endpoints include: QOL, functional abilities and physical function. Exploratory endpoints include: anxiety, depression, distress, dyspnoea, PA behaviour, fitness, hospitalisations, survival, cytokines and insulin-like growth factor levels. Discussion This study will provide high-level evidence of the effect of PA programmes on cancer-related fatigue and QOL in patients with advanced lung cancer. If positive, the study has the potential to change care for people with cancer using a simple, inexpensive intervention to improve their QOL and help them maintain independent function for as long as possible. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No. ACTRN12609000971235 PMID:23216897

  18. Impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions experienced in the first year following a critical illness: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Coffey Scott, Jacqueline; Hinman, Rana S; Lee, Alan Chong; Smith, James M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Critical illness requiring intensive care unit (ICU) management is a life-altering event with ∼25% of ICU survivors experiencing persistent reductions in physical functioning, impairments in mental health, cognitive dysfunction and decreased quality of life. This constellation of problems is known as ‘postintensive care syndrome’ (PICS) and may persist for months and/or years. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the scope and magnitude of physical problems associated with PICS during the first year after discharge from ICU, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework to elucidate the impairments of body functions and structures, activity limitations and participation restrictions. Methods and analysis Medline (Ovid), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Ovid), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Ovid), PubMed, CINAHL (EBSCO), Web of Science and EMBASE will be systematically searched for observational studies reporting the physical impairments of body functions and structures, activity limitations and participation restrictions associated with PICS. Two reviewers will assess the articles for eligibility according to prespecified selection criteria, after which an independent reviewer will perform data extraction which will be validated by a second independent reviewer. Quality appraisal will be performed by two independent reviewers. Outcomes of the included studies will be summarised in tables and in narrative format and meta-analyses will be conducted where appropriate. Ethics and dissemination Formal ethical approval is not required as no primary data is collected. This systematic review will identify the scope and magnitude of physical problems associated with PICS during the first year after discharge from ICU and will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and at conference meetings, to inform practice and future research on the physical problems

  19. Goal-setting intervention in patients with active asthma: protocol for a pilot cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Supporting self-management behaviours is recommended guidance for people with asthma. Preliminary work suggests that a brief, intensive, patient-centred intervention may be successful in supporting people with asthma to participate in life roles and activities they value. We seek to assess the feasibility of undertaking a cluster-randomised controlled trial (cRCT) of a brief, goal-setting intervention delivered in the context of an asthma review consultation. Methods/design A two armed, single-blinded, multi-centre, cluster-randomised controlled feasibility trial will be conducted in UK primary care. Randomisation will take place at the practice level. We aim to recruit a total of 80 primary care patients with active asthma from at least eight practices across two health boards in Scotland (10 patients per practice resulting in ~40 in each arm). Patients in the intervention arm will be asked to complete a novel goal-setting tool immediately prior to an asthma review consultation. This will be used to underpin a focussed discussion about their goals during the asthma review. A tailored management plan will then be negotiated to facilitate achieving their prioritised goals. Patients in the control arm will receive a usual care guideline-based review of asthma. Data on quality of life, asthma control and patient confidence will be collected from both arms at baseline and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Data on health services resource use will be collected from all patient records 6 months pre- and post-intervention. Semi-structured interviews will be carried out with healthcare staff and a purposive sample of patients to elicit their views and experiences of the trial. The outcomes of interest in this feasibility trial are the ability to recruit patients and healthcare staff, the optimal method of delivering the intervention within routine clinical practice, and acceptability and perceived utility of the intervention among patients and staff. Trial

  20. [Influence of a program of physical activity in children and obese adolescents with sleep apnea; study protocol].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cordero, M J; Sánchez López, A M; Mur Villar, N; Sánchez Marenco, A; Guisado Barrilao, R

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies show an alarming increase in the rate of overweight / obesity among the infant - juvenile population. Obesity in childhood is associated with a significant number of complications, such as sleep apnea syndrome, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. It is estimated that the prevalence of sleep apnea in children is 2-3% in the general population, while in obese adolescents, varies between 13% and 66%, according to various studies. It is associated with impairment of neurocognitive function, behavior, cardiovascular system, metabolic disorders and growth. Sleep apnea is a serious public health problem that increases when children and adolescents are overweight or obese. We hypothesize that aerobic endurance exercise can be an effective treatment for obesity and apnea at the same time. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of physical activity in children and adolescents with overweight / obesity in sleep apnea. An observational, descriptive, prospective, longitudinal study will be carried out in children with sleep apnea and obesity. The universe will be made up of 60 children and adolescents aged between 10 and 18 years, attending the endocrinology service for suffering of obesity in the Hospital Clinico San Cecilio of Granada during the period September 2012-September 2013. The smple will consist of children and adolescents that meet these characteristics and to whom their parents/tutors have authorized through the informed consent. Sleep apnea in children wil be measured by polysomnography and sleep quality questionnaire. There will also be a nutritional assessment by a food frequency questionnaire and an anthropometric assessment. Among the expected results are the lower overweight and obesity in children through the physical activity program. To reduce apnea and to improve sleep quality.

  1. Effectiveness of various irrigation activation protocols and the self-adjusting file system on smear layer and debris removal.

    PubMed

    Çapar, İsmail Davut; Aydinbelge, Hale Ari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate smear layer generation and residual debris after using self-adjusting file (SAF) or rotary instrumentation and to compare the debris and smear layer removal efficacy of the SAF cleaning/shaping irrigation system against final agitation techniques. One hundred and eight maxillary lateral incisor teeth were randomly divided into nine experimental groups (n = 12), and root canals were prepared using ProTaper Universal rotary files, with the exception of the SAF instrumentation group. During instrumentation, root canals were irrigated with a total of 16 mL of 5% NaOCl. For final irrigation, rotary-instrumented groups were irrigated with 10 mL of 17% EDTA and 10 mL of 5% NaOCl using different irrigation agitation regimens (syringe irrigation with needles, NaviTip FX, manual dynamic irrigation, CanalBrush, EndoActivator, EndoVac, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and SAF irrigation). In the SAF instrumentation group, root canals were instrumented for 4 min at a rate of 4 mL/min with 5% NaOCl and received a final flush with same as syringe irrigation with needles. The surface of the root dentin was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The SAF instrumentation group generated less smear layer and yielded cleaner canals compared to rotary instrumentation. The EndoActivator, EndoVac, PUI, and SAF irrigation groups increased the efficacy of irrigating solutions on the smear layer and debris removal. The SAF instrumentation yielded cleaner canal walls when compared to rotary instrumentation. None of the techniques completely removed the smear layer from the root canal walls.

  2. Restoration of blood pH between repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise: effects of various active-recovery protocols.

    PubMed

    Del Coso, Juan; Hamouti, Nassim; Aguado-Jimenez, Roberto; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2010-02-01

    To determine which active-recovery protocol would reduce faster the high blood H(+) and lactate concentrations produced by repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise (HIE). On three occasions, 11 moderately trained males performed 4 bouts (1.5 min) at 163% of their respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) interspersed with active-recovery: (1) 4.5 min pedalling at 24% RCT (S(HORT)); (2) 6 min at 18% RCT (M(EDIUM)); (3) 9 min at 12% RCT (L(ONG)). The total work completed during recovery was the same in all three trials. Respiratory gases and arterialized-blood samples were obtained during exercise. At the end of exercise, L(ONG) in comparison to S(HORT) and M(EDIUM) increased plasma pH (7.32 +/- 0.02 vs. approximately 7.22 +/- 0.03; P < 0.05), while reduced lactate concentration (8.5 +/- 0.9 vs. approximately 10.9 +/- 0.8 mM; P < 0.05). Ventilatory equivalent for CO(2) was higher in L(ONG) than S(HORT) and M(EDIUM) (31.4 +/- 0.5 vs. approximately 29.6 +/- 0.5; P < 0.05). Low-intensity prolonged recovery between repeated bouts of HIE maximized H(+) and lactate removal likely by enhancing CO(2) unloading.

  3. A new morphometric implemented video-image analysis protocol for the study of social modulation in activity rhythms of marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Menesatti, Paolo; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Costa, Corrado; García, José Antonio; Sardà, Francesc

    2009-10-30

    Video-image analysis can be an efficient tool for microcosm experiments portraying the modulation of individual behaviour based on sociality. The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus is a burrowing decapod the commercial capture of which occurs by trawling only when animals are engaged in seabed excursions. Emergence behaviour is modulated by the day-night cycle but a further modulation occurs upon social interaction in a still unknown fashion. Here, we present a novel automated protocol for the tracking of the movement of different animals at once based on a multivariate morphometric approach. Four black and white tags were customized according to a precise geometric design. Shape Matching and Complex Fourier Descriptors analyses were used to track tag displacement through consecutive frames in a 7-day experiment under monochromatic blue light (480 nm)-darkness conditions. Shape Matching errors were evaluated in relation to tag geometry. Time series of centroid coordinates in pixels were transformed in centimetres. The FD analysis was slightly less efficient than the Shape Matching, although more rapid (i.e. up to 20 times faster). Nocturnal rhythms were reported for all animals. Waveform analysis indicated marked differences in the amplitude of activity phases as proof of interindividual interaction. Total diel activity presented a decrease in the rate of out of burrow locomotion as the testing progressed. N. norvegicus is a nocturnal species and present observations sustain the efficiency and fidelity of our automated tracking system.

  4. Surveillance Through Concrete Walls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    des radars à courte impulsion et très large bande de fréquence (UWB SP) pour effectuer de la surveillance à travers des murs de ciments . Cette étude...meilleures qualités quand on y inclut le délai de l’onde électromagnétique due au mur de ciments . L’impact de différent paramètre radars ou de traitement...à l’intérieur d’un édifice en ciment . Les murs de ciments ont trois impacts sur les images radars. Les images des cibles sont de- focussées et

  5. Active surveillance scheme in three Romanian hospitals reveals a high prevalence and variety of carbapenamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria: a pilot study, December 2014 to May 2015.

    PubMed

    Timofte, Dorina; Panzaru, Carmen Valentina; Maciuca, Iuliana Elena; Dan, Maria; Mare, Anca Delia; Man, Adrian; Toma, Felicia

    2016-06-23

    We report the findings of an active surveillance scheme for detection of asymptomatic carriers with carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria (CP-GNB) in Romanian hospitals. During a pilot study from December 2014 to May 2015, faecal cultures were screened in three hospitals (two large, one medium-size) for patients newly admitted to selected wards or inpatients transferred from other wards to an intensive-care unit. The study revealed a high prevalence of CP-GNB detected in 22/27 and 28/38 of the carbapenem non-susceptible isolates from Hospitals 1 and 3, respectively. CP-GNB identified through faecal screening included NDM-1-producing Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella pneumoniae, OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae and OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter baumannii. The distribution of the CP-GNB varied between the hospitals, with NDM-1-producing S. marcescens and K. pneumoniae being prevalent in the north-central part of the country and OXA-23/24-producing A. baumannii, OXA-48-producing K.pneumoniae, Morganella morganii and VIM-2-producing Escherichia coli/Pseudomonas aeruginosa detected in the north-east of the country. Conjugation studies showed that carbapenem resistance was transferable and PCR-based replicon typing identified blaNDM-1 on IncFIIs in S. marcescens and K. pneumoniae from Hospital 1 and blaOXA-48 on IncL plasmids in all Klebsiella spp. isolates from Hospitals 1 and 3. Our findings underline the importance of active surveillance for detection of CP-GNB asymptomatic faecal carriers and suggest a likely endemic spread of CP-GNB in Romania.

  6. Drug approval and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance.

  7. Acute Diarrheal Syndromic Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Kam, H.J.; Choi, S.; Cho, J.P.; Min, Y.G.; Park, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective In an effort to identify and characterize the environmental factors that affect the number of patients with acute diarrheal (AD) syndrome, we developed and tested two regional surveillance models including holiday and weather information in addition to visitor records, at emergency medical facilities in the Seoul metropolitan area of Korea. Methods With 1,328,686 emergency department visitor records from the National Emergency Department Information system (NEDIS) and the holiday and weather information, two seasonal ARIMA models were constructed: (1) The simple model (only with total patient number), (2) the environmental factor-added model. The stationary R-squared was utilized as an in-sample model goodness-of-fit statistic for the constructed models, and the cumulative mean of the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) was used to measure post-sample forecast accuracy over the next 1 month. Results The (1,0,1)(0,1,1)7 ARIMA model resulted in an adequate model fit for the daily number of AD patient visits over 12 months for both cases. Among various features, the total number of patient visits was selected as a commonly influential independent variable. Additionally, for the environmental factor-added model, holidays and daily precipitation were selected as features that statistically significantly affected model fitting. Stationary R-squared values were changed in a range of 0.651-0.828 (simple), and 0.805-0.844 (environmental factor-added) with p<0.05. In terms of prediction, the MAPE values changed within 0.090-0.120 and 0.089-0.114, respectively. Conclusion The environmental factor-added model yielded better MAPE values. Holiday and weather information appear to be crucial for the construction of an accurate syndromic surveillance model for AD, in addition to the visitor and assessment records. PMID:23616829

  8. Global Post-Authorization Safety Surveillance Study: real-world data on prophylaxis and on-demand treatment using FEIBA (an activated prothrombin complex concentrate)

    PubMed Central

    Negrier, Claude; Voisin, Sophie; Baghaei, Fariba; Numerof, Robert; Novack, Aaron; Doralt, Jennifer E.; Romanov, Vadim; Gringeri, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This prospective, Post-Authorization Safety Surveillance (PASS) study was carried out in patients with hemophilia A or B and inhibitors treated with FEIBA for 1 year to collect real-world data on safety and effectiveness of FEIBA. The study followed a cohort design and did not make stipulations on treatment or observation schedule, as it was designed to observe routine medical practices based on physicians’ treatment decisions, including whether patients received on-demand or prophylaxis with FEIBA. The attending physician maintained documentation, including medical records, laboratory reports, adverse event reports, and so on and a subject diary was used. Eighty-one patients were treated with FEIBA at 40 sites in 10 countries over a 4-year period. Sixty-nine patients (85.2%) had hemophilia A, two had (2.5%) hemophilia B, and ten (12.3%) had acquired hemophilia A. At baseline 45 patients (55.6%) were prescribed prophylaxis and 36 (44.6%) on-demand treatment. This study was novel in following safety and effectiveness in ‘real world’ on-demand and prophylactic use of FEIBA, and was able to collect data in these rare patients under routine clinical practice. PMID:26829366

  9. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    PubMed

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening.

  10. Study protocol: using the Q-STEPS to assess and improve the quality of physical activity programmes for the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aging is one of the most important and obvious phenomenon observed in our society. In the past years, there has been a growing concern in designing physical activity (PA) programmes for elderly people, because evidence suggests that such health promotion interventions may reduce the deleterious effects of the ageing process. Accordingly, a growing body of literature points to the importance of a sound approach to planning and evaluation in order to improve the quality of PA programmes. However, while numerous PA programmes have been designed for the elderly in recent years, their evaluation has been scarce. Quality management processes and tools provide a practical way for organisations to assess, identify and shed light on the areas requiring improvement. The Quality Self-assessment Tool for Exercise Programmes for Seniors (Q-STEPS) seems to provide a framework tailored to evaluate PA programmes for the elderly. Findings The primary purpose of this study is 1) to determine feasibility, acceptability and usability of the Q-STEPS. Secondary purposes of the study are: 2) to examine the quality of the PA programmes for elderly people developed by the Portuguese Local Administration over a three-year period of self-assessments in terms of: a) Enabler domains (Leadership, Policy and Strategy, People, Partnership and Resources, Processes); b) Result domains (Customer Results, People Results, Society Results and Key Performance Results); 3) to estimate the association between the use of Q-STEPS and some indicators relating to the elderly participants, during the three self-assessments, such as: attendance rates, physical fitness, health-related quality of life and the elderly’s perceived quality of the programme. The study will be conducted in PA programmes for elderly adults from mainland Portuguese municipalities over a three-year period. The project will adopt a participative quality improvement approach that features annual learning cycles of: 1) self

  11. 25 CFR 542.43 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for a Tier C gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... surveillance system that enable surveillance personnel to observe the table games remaining open for play and... of the equipment, knowledge of the games, and house rules. (h) Each camera required by the standards...) The surveillance system shall monitor and record the game board and the activities of the...

  12. 25 CFR 542.43 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for a Tier C gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... surveillance system that enable surveillance personnel to observe the table games remaining open for play and... of the equipment, knowledge of the games, and house rules. (h) Each camera required by the standards...) The surveillance system shall monitor and record the game board and the activities of the...

  13. 25 CFR 542.43 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for a Tier C gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... surveillance system that enable surveillance personnel to observe the table games remaining open for play and... of the equipment, knowledge of the games, and house rules. (h) Each camera required by the standards...) The surveillance system shall monitor and record the game board and the activities of the...

  14. Review of Australia's polio surveillance.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2013-06-30

    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia.

  15. Patient Compliance with Surveillance Following Elective Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, Anthony D. Morbi, Abigail H. M. Nordon, Ian M.

    2015-10-15

    PurposeIntegral to maintaining good outcomes post-endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a robust surveillance protocol. A significant proportion of patients fail to comply with surveillance, exposing themselves to complications. We examine EVAR surveillance in Wessex (UK), exploring factors that may predict poor compliance.MethodsRetrospective analysis of 179 consecutive elective EVAR cases [2008–2013] was performed. 167 patients were male, with the age range of 50–95. Surveillance was conducted centrally (tertiary referral trauma centre) and at four spoke units. Surveillance compliance and predictors of non-compliance including age, gender, co-morbid status, residential location and socioeconomic status were analysed for univariate significance.ResultsFifty patients (27.9 %) were non-compliant with surveillance; 14 (8.1 %) had no imaging post-EVAR. At 1 year, 56.1 % (of 123 patients) were compliant. At years 2 and 3, 41.5 and 41.2 % (of 65 and 34 patients, respectively) were compliant. Four years post-EVAR, only one of eight attended surveillance (12.5 %). There were no statistically significant differences in age (p = 0.77), co-morbid status or gender (p = 0.64). Distance to central unit (p = 0.67) and surveillance site (p = 0.56) was non-significant. While there was a trend towards compliance in upper-middle-class socioeconomic groups (ABC1 vs. C1C2D), correlating with >50 % of non-compliant patients living within <10 mile radius of the central unit, overall predictive value was not significant (p = 0.82).ConclusionsCompliance with surveillance post-EVAR is poor. No independent predictor of non-compliance has been confirmed, but socioeconomic status appears to be relevant. There is a worrying drop-off in attendance beyond the first year. This study highlights a problem that needs to be addressed urgently, if we are to maintain good outcomes post-EVAR.

  16. Mapping AIS coverage for trusted surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapinski, Anna-Liesa S.; Isenor, Anthony W.

    2010-10-01

    Automatic Identification System (AIS) is an unattended vessel reporting system developed for collision avoidance. Shipboard AIS equipment automatically broadcasts vessel positional data at regular intervals. The real-time position and identity data from a vessel is received by other vessels in the area thereby assisting with local navigation. As well, AIS broadcasts are beneficial to those concerned with coastal and harbour security. Land-based AIS receiving stations can also collect the AIS broadcasts. However, reception at the land station is dependent upon the ship's position relative to the receiving station. For AIS to be used as a trusted surveillance system, the characteristics of the AIS coverage area in the vicinity of the station (or stations) should be understood. This paper presents some results of a method being investigated at DRDC Atlantic, Canada) to map the AIS coverage characteristics of a dynamic AIS reception network. The method is shown to clearly distinguish AIS reception edges from those edges caused by vessel traffic patterns. The method can also be used to identify temporal changes in the coverage area, an important characteristic for local maritime security surveillance activities. Future research using the coverage estimate technique is also proposed to support surveillance activities.

  17. Guidance for UMTRA project surveillance and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    1986-01-01

    The Guidance for UMTRA Project Surveillance and Maintenance describes the procedures that will be used to verify that Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal sites continue to function as designed. The approach of this guidance document is to identify surveillance requirements and maintenance procedures that will be used to comply with NRC license requirements. This document addresses five primary activities: Definition and characterization of final site conditions. Site inspections; Ground-water monitoring; Aerial photography; and Custodial maintenance and contingency repair. Final site conditions will be defined and characterized prior to the completion of remedial actions at a site. As-built drawings will be compiled, a final topographic survey will be performed, a vicinity map will be prepared, and ground and aerial photographs will be taken. Survey monuments, site markers, and signs will be established as will a network of monitoring wells.

  18. Effects of a 12-Week Physical Activity Protocol Delivered by YMCA After-School Counselors (Youth Fit for Life) on Fitness and Self-Efficacy Changes in 5-12-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Westcott, Wayne L.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Unruh, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    To address reduced physical education (PE) in elementary schools, a 12-week physical activity protocol was tested on 5-12-year-old, primarily African American, girls (n = 226) and boys (n = 344) at 14 YMCA after-school care sites. The 3 times/week, 45-min session curriculum included cardiovascular, resistance, and flexibility training, in which…

  19. Establishment of a cancer surveillance programme: the South African experience

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Elvira; Ruff, Paul; Babb, Chantal; Sengayi, Mazvita; Beery, Moira; Khoali, Lerato; Kellett, Patricia; Underwood, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is projected to become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries in the future. However, cancer incidence in South Africa is largely under-reported because of a lack of nationwide cancer surveillance networks. We describe present cancer surveillance activities in South Africa, and use the International Agency for Research on Cancer framework to propose the development of four population-based cancer registries in South Africa. These registries will represent the ethnic and geographical diversity of the country. We also provide an update on a cancer surveillance pilot programme in the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan District, and the successes and challenges in the implementation of the IARC framework in a local context. We examine the development of a comprehensive cancer surveillance system in a middle-income country, which might serve to assist other countries in establishing population-based cancer registries in a resource-constrained environment. PMID:26248849

  20. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  1. Reconciling surveillance systems with limited resources: an evaluation of passive surveillance for rabies in an endemic setting.

    PubMed

    Craighead, Laura; Gilbert, William; Subasinghe, Dynatra; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance systems for rabies in endemic regions are often subject to severe constraints in terms of resources. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) propose the use of an active surveillance system to substantiate claims of disease freedom, including rabies. However, many countries do not have the resources to establish active surveillance systems for rabies and the testing of dead dogs poses logistical challenges. This paper explores the potential of using a scenario tree model parameterised with data collected via questionnaires and interviews to estimate the sensitivity of passive surveillance, assessing its potential as a viable low-cost alternative to active surveillance systems. The results of this explorative study illustrated that given a large enough sample size, in this case the entire population of Colombo City, the sensitivity of passive surveillance can be 100% even at a low disease prevalence (0.1%), despite the low sensitivity of individual surveillance components (mean values in the range 4.077×10(-5)-1.834×10(-3) at 1% prevalence). In addition, logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with increased recognition of rabies in dogs and reporting of rabies suspect dogs. Increased recognition was observed amongst dog owners (OR 3.8 (CI, 1.3-10.8)), people previously bitten by dogs (OR 5.9 (CI, 2.2-15.9)) and people who believed they had seen suspect dogs in the past (OR 4.7 (CI, 1.8-12.9)). Increased likelihood of reporting suspect dogs was observed amongst dog owners (OR 5.3 (CI, 1.1-25)). Further work is required to validate the data collection tool and the assumptions made in the model with respect to sample size in order to develop a robust methodology for evaluating passive rabies surveillance.

  2. Surveillance of Anal Canal Cancers.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Anal squamous cell cancer is most frequently a locoregional disease that is amenable to curative therapy in a majority of fit patients. Complete response rates after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) are good, with up to 75% of patients with no evidence of relapse on surveillance. Relapse is most frequently locoregional and is often amendable to salvage surgery with curative intent. Effective surveillance attempts to improve outcomes by identifying recurrent or persistent disease early, managing both acute and late toxicities, and offering reassurance to patients. This article explores the rationale and evidence for surveillance programs after definitive CRT.

  3. Results of the surveillance of Tedizolid activity and resistance program: in vitro susceptibility of gram-positive pathogens collected in 2011 and 2012 from the United States and Europe.

    PubMed

    Sahm, Daniel F; Deane, Jennifer; Bien, Paul A; Locke, Jeffrey B; Zuill, Douglas E; Shaw, Karen J; Bartizal, Ken F

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro activity and spectrum of tedizolid and comparators were analyzed against 6884 Gram-positive clinical isolates collected from multiple US and European sites as part of the Surveillance of Tedizolid Activity and Resistance Program in 2011 and 2012. Organisms included 4499 Staphylococcus aureus, 537 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 873 enterococci, and 975 β-hemolytic streptococci. The MIC values that inhibited 90% of the isolates within each group (MIC90) were 0.25 μg/mL for Staphylococcus epidermidis and β-hemolytic streptococci and 0.5 μg/mL for S. aureus, other CoNS, and enterococci. Of 16 isolates with elevated tedizolid or linezolid MIC values (intermediate or resistant isolates), 10 had mutations in the genes encoding 23S rRNA (primarily G2576T), 5 had mutations in the genes encoding ribosomal proteins L3 or L4, and 5 carried the cfr multidrug resistance gene. Overall, tedizolid showed excellent activity against Gram-positive bacteria and was at least 4-fold more potent than linezolid against wild-type and linezolid-resistant isolates. Given the low overall frequency of isolates that would be resistant to tedizolid at the proposed break point of 0.5 μg/mL (0.19%) and potent activity against contemporary US and European isolates, tedizolid has the potential to serve as a valuable therapeutic option in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens.

  4. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Monitoring, Evaluation, and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring, evaluation, and surveillance measure how well public health programs operate over time and achieve their goals. As countries approach malaria elimination, these activities will need to shift from measuring reductions in morbidity and mortality, to detecting infections (with or without symptoms) and measuring transmission. Thus, the monitoring and evaluation and surveillance research and development agenda needs to develop the tools and strategies that will replace passive surveillance of morbidity with active and prompt detection of infection, including confirmation of interruption of transmission by detecting present and past infections, particularly in mobile populations. The capacity to assess trends and respond without delay will need to be developed, so that surveillance itself becomes an intervention. Research is also needed to develop sensitive field tests that can detect low levels of parasitaemia, together with strategies for their implementation. Other areas to explore include the rigorous evaluation of the utility of more detailed maps of disease and infection incidence and prevalence, the development of new maps to inform programmatic responses and the use of surveillance technologies based on cell phone or real-time internet Web-based reporting. Because any new strategies for monitoring and evaluation and surveillance for eradication have major implications for program implementation, research is also needed to test systems of delivery for acceptability, feasibility, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and community engagement. Finally, there is a clear need to systematically review the information from past elimination efforts for malaria and other infectious diseases. PMID:21311581

  5. Active hospital-based surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease and clinical pneumonia in infants and young children in two Polish counties

    PubMed Central

    Sluzewski, Wojciech; Gutterman, Elane; Jouve, Sylvie; Moscariello, Michele; Balter, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence, serotype distribution, and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae were estimated in children aged 28 days to < 60 months. Material and methods One-year prospective, hospital-based surveillance was conducted starting on February 15, 2008, at two children's hospitals serving the city and surrounding county of Poznań and Poznański, Poland. Eligible children had fever ≥ 39.0°C or physician-suspected IPD. Blood cultures were obtained from all children, cerebrospinal fluid in suspected meningitis cases, and chest radiographs (CXRs) in suspected pneumonia cases. Results Seven of 1,581 eligible children had confirmed IPD. Estimated IPD incidence per 100,000 children was 11.89 (95% CI: 4.78–24.50) overall and 20.1 (95% CI: 6.52–46.84) in subjects aged 28 days to < 24 months. One S. pneumoniae isolate of each of the following serotypes was obtained: 6B, 14, 23A, 23F, and 33F. Two isolates were resistant to both trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. Clinical pneumonia incidence among children aged 28 days to < 24 months and 24 months to < 60 months was 3,151.3 (95% CI: 2934.7–3379.7) and 962.7 (95% CI: 861.2–10,072.9) per 100,000 children, respectively. CXR-confirmed pneumonia rates in the same groups were 1,035.7 (95% CI: 913.2–1,170.1) and 379.8 (95% CI: 317.1–451.3) per 100,000 children, respectively. Conclusions IPD is an important cause of morbidity in Poznań and Poznański county, Poland. Among participants aged < 5 years with fever or suspected IPD, pneumonia was the most common diagnosis and was highest in children aged < 24 months. PMID:27279858

  6. FIELD SAMPLING PROTOCOLS AND ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I have been asked to speak again to the environmental science class regarding actual research scenarios related to my work at Kerr Lab. I plan to discuss sampling protocols along with various field analyses performed during sampling activities. Many of the students have never see...

  7. U.S. prebreathe protocol.

    PubMed

    McBarron JW 2nd

    1994-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes the prebreathe protocol currently used by the U.S. Space Shuttle Program to provide astronauts the capability to safely perform extravehicular activity. A comparison of planned vs actual prebreathe experience through the STS-37 Mission is also provided.

  8. A cluster-randomised, controlled trial to assess the impact of a workplace osteoporosis prevention intervention on the dietary and physical activity behaviours of working women: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease and its risk can be reduced through adequate calcium consumption and physical activity. This protocol paper describes a workplace-based intervention targeting behaviour change in premenopausal women working in sedentary occupations. Method/Design A cluster-randomised design was used, comparing the efficacy of a tailored intervention to standard care. Workplaces were the clusters and units of randomisation and intervention. Sample size calculations incorporated the cluster design. Final number of clusters was determined to be 16, based on a cluster size of 20 and calcium intake parameters (effect size 250 mg, ICC 0.5 and standard deviation 290 mg) as it required the highest number of clusters. Sixteen workplaces were recruited from a pool of 97 workplaces and randomly assigned to intervention and control arms (eight in each). Women meeting specified inclusion criteria were then recruited to participate. Workplaces in the intervention arm received three participatory workshops and organisation wide educational activities. Workplaces in the control/standard care arm received print resources. Intervention workshops were guided by self-efficacy theory and included participatory activities such as goal setting, problem solving, local food sampling, exercise trials, group discussion and behaviour feedback. Outcomes measures were calcium intake (milligrams/day) and physical activity level (duration: minutes/week), measured at baseline, four weeks and six months post intervention. Discussion This study addresses the current lack of evidence for behaviour change interventions focussing on osteoporosis prevention. It addresses missed opportunities of using workplaces as a platform to target high-risk individuals with sedentary occupations. The intervention was designed to modify behaviour levels to bring about risk reduction. It is the first to address dietary and physical activity components each with unique intervention

  9. Selection of 3013 Containers for Field Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Peppers, Elizabeth Kelly, James McClard, Gary Friday, Theodore Venetz, and Jerry Stakebade

    2007-01-01

    This report revises and combines three earlier reports dealing with the binning, statistical sampling, and sample selection of 3013 containers for field surveillance. It includes changes to the binning specification resulting from completion of the Savannah River Site packaging campaign and new information from the shelf-life program and field surveillance activities. The revised bin assignments result in changes to the random sample specification. These changes are necessary to meet the statistical requirements of the surveillance program. This report will be reviewed regularly and revised as needed. Section 1 of this report summarizes the results of an extensive effort to assign all of the current and projected 3013 containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) inventory to one of three bins (Innocuous, Pressure and Corrosion, or Pressure) based on potential failure mechanisms. Grouping containers into bins provides a framework to make a statistical selection of individual containers from the entire population for destructive and nondestructive field surveillance. The binning process consisted of three main steps. First, the packaged containers were binned using information in the Integrated Surveillance Program database and a decision tree. The second task was to assign those containers that could not be binned using the decision tree to a specific bin using container-by-container engineering review. The final task was to evaluate containers not yet packaged and assign them to bins using process knowledge. The technical basis for the decisions made during the binning process is included in Section 1. A composite decision tree and a summary table show all of the containers projected to be in the DOE inventory at the conclusion of packaging at all sites. Decision trees that provide an overview of the binning process and logic are included for each site. Section 2 of this report describes the approach to the statistical selection of containers for surveillance and

  10. Epidemiology of Pertussis Among Young Pakistani Infants: A Community-Based Prospective Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Omer, Saad B.; Kazi, A. Momin; Bednarczyk, Robert A.; Allen, Kristen E.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Aziz, Fatima; Sial, Khurram; Phadke, Varun K.; Tondella, Maria L.; Williams, Margaret M.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Ali, S. Asad

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pertussis remains a cause of morbidity and mortality among young infants. There are limited data on the pertussis disease burden in this age group from low- and lower-middle-income countries, including in South Asia. Methods. We conducted an active community-based surveillance study from February 2015 to April 2016 among 2 cohorts of young infants in 4 low-income settlements in Karachi, Pakistan. Infants were enrolled either at birth (closed cohort) or at ages up to 10 weeks (open cohort) and followed until 18 weeks of age. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens were obtained from infants who met a standardized syndromic case definition and tested for Bordetella pertussis using real-time polymerase chain reaction. We determined the incidence of pertussis using a protocol-defined case definition, as well as the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definitions for confirmed and probable pertussis. Results. Of 2021 infants enrolled into the study, 8 infants met the protocol-defined pertussis case definition, for an incidence of 3.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.84–7.50) cases per 1000 infants. Seven of the pertussis cases met the CDC pertussis case definition (5 confirmed, 2 probable), for incidences of CDC-defined confirmed pertussis of 2.47 (95% CI, .90–5.48) cases per 1000 infants, and probable pertussis of 0.99 (95% CI, .17–3.27) cases per 1000 infants. Three of the pertussis cases were severe according to the Modified Preziosi Scale score. Conclusions. In one of the first prospective surveillance studies of infant pertussis in a developing country, we identified a moderate burden of pertussis disease in early infancy in Pakistan. PMID:27838667

  11. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Annie-Claude; Zulz, Tammy; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB) Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. Objective To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Design Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national); all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Results Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon), Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic), United States (Alaska)] voluntarily completed the survey – representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7) and commercial software (n=6). Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. Conclusion This review successfully establishes baseline knowledge

  12. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Annie-Claude; Zulz, Tammy; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders; On Behalf Of The International Circumpolar Surveillance-Tuberculosis Working Group

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB) Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. Objective To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Design Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national); all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Results Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon), Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic), United States (Alaska)] voluntarily completed the survey - representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7) and commercial software (n=6). Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. Conclusion This review successfully establishes baseline knowledge on

  13. Alternative parallel ring protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, Kurt J.; Kale, V.

    1990-01-01

    Communication protocols are know to influence the utilization and performance of communication network. The effect of two token ring protocols on a gigabit network with multiple ring structure is investigated. In the first protocol, a mode sends at most one message on receiving a token. In the second protocol, a mode sends all the waiting messages when a token is received. The behavior of these protocols is shown to be highly dependent on the number of rings as well as the load in the network.

  14. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Evaluation FAQs Additional Evaluation Resources Health & Academics Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the ...

  15. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Mulford, Roberta Nancy

    2016-09-29

    This lecture discusses stockpile stewardship efforts and the role surveillance plays in the process. Performance of the RTGs is described, and the question of the absence of anticipated He is addressed.

  16. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 1, Number 6, September 1995

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    U SA C H PP M MSMR Data in the MSMR is provisional, based on reports and other sources of data available to the Medical Surveillance Activity ...2 Selected notifiable conditions ..................................... 4 Notifiable sexually transmitted diseases ................... 6 Heat...USACHPPM Editor MAJ Mark V. Rubertone, MD, MPH Chief, Army Medical Surveillance Activity , USACHPPM Managing Editor Vacant Writers / Editorial staff COL

  17. Physical activity as intervention for age-related loss of muscle mass and function: protocol for a randomised controlled trial (the LISA study)

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Christian Skou; Garde, Ellen; Reislev, Nina Linde; Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Bieler, Theresa; Ziegler, Andreas Kraag; Gylling, Anne Theil; Dideriksen, Kasper Juel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical and cognitive function decline with age, accelerating during the 6th decade. Loss of muscle power (force×velocity product) is a dominant physical determinant for loss of functional ability, especially if the lower extremities are affected. Muscle strength training is known to maintain or even improve muscle power as well as physical function in older adults, but the optimal type of training for beneficial long-term training effects over several years is unknown. Moreover, the impact of muscle strength training on cognitive function and brain structure remains speculative. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to compare the efficacy of two different 1 year strength training regimens on immediate and long-lasting improvements in muscle power in retirement-age individuals. Secondary aims are to evaluate the effect on muscle strength, muscle mass, physical and cognitive function, mental well-being, health-related quality of life and brain morphology. Methods and analysis The study includes 450 home-dwelling men and women (62–70 years). Participants are randomly allocated to (1) 1 year of supervised, centre-based heavy resistance training, (2) home-based moderate intensity resistance training or (3) habitual physical activity (control). Changes in primary (leg extensor power) and secondary outcomes are analysed according to the intention to treat principle and per protocol at 1, 2, 4, 7 and 10 years. Ethics and dissemination The study is expected to generate new insights into training-induced promotion of functional ability and independency after retirement and will help to formulate national recommendations regarding physical activity schemes for the growing population of older individuals in western societies. Results will be published in scientific peer-reviewed journals, in PhD theses and at public meetings. The study is approved by the Regional Ethical Committee (Capital Region, Copenhagen, Denmark, number H-3

  18. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    SciTech Connect

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  19. Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

  20. Military Occupational Health Surveillance Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Responses were received from 37 HSC medical treatment facilities (100%) regarding their occupational health surveillance programs. The occupational ...personnel determined to be potentially exposed to occupational or job- related hazards, medical surveillance programs are limited, if available at all. An...exposed to occupational or job-related hazards would require more adequate staffing to provide the services. Identification of personnel at risk could be

  1. Sensitivity of Bovine Tuberculosis Surveillance in Wildlife in France: A Scenario Tree Approach.

    PubMed

    Rivière, Julie; Le Strat, Yann; Dufour, Barbara; Hendrikx, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a common disease in cattle and wildlife, with an impact on animal and human health, and economic implications. Infected wild animals have been detected in some European countries, and bTB reservoirs in wildlife have been identified, potentially hindering the eradication of bTB from cattle populations. However, the surveillance of bTB in wildlife involves several practical difficulties and is not currently covered by EU legislation. We report here the first assessment of the sensitivity of the bTB surveillance system for free-ranging wildlife launched in France in 2011 (the Sylvatub system), based on scenario tree modelling. Three surveillance system components were identified: (i) passive scanning surveillance for hunted wild boar, red deer and roe deer, based on carcass examination, (ii) passive surveillance on animals found dead, moribund or with abnormal behaviour, for wild boar, red deer, roe deer and badger and (iii) active surveillance for wild boar and badger. The application of these three surveillance system components depends on the geographic risk of bTB infection in wildlife, which in turn depends on the prevalence of bTB in cattle. We estimated the effectiveness of the three components of the Sylvatub surveillance system quantitatively, for each species separately. Active surveillance and passive scanning surveillance by carcass examination were the approaches most likely to detect at least one infected animal in a population with a given design prevalence, regardless of the local risk level and species considered. The awareness of hunters, which depends on their training and the geographic risk, was found to affect surveillance sensitivity. The results obtained are relevant for hunters and veterinary authorities wishing to determine the actual efficacy of wildlife bTB surveillance as a function of geographic area and species, and could provide support for decision-making processes concerning the enhancement of surveillance

  2. Sensitivity of Bovine Tuberculosis Surveillance in Wildlife in France: A Scenario Tree Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rivière, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a common disease in cattle and wildlife, with an impact on animal and human health, and economic implications. Infected wild animals have been detected in some European countries, and bTB reservoirs in wildlife have been identified, potentially hindering the eradication of bTB from cattle populations. However, the surveillance of bTB in wildlife involves several practical difficulties and is not currently covered by EU legislation. We report here the first assessment of the sensitivity of the bTB surveillance system for free-ranging wildlife launched in France in 2011 (the Sylvatub system), based on scenario tree modelling. Three surveillance system components were identified: (i) passive scanning surveillance for hunted wild boar, red deer and roe deer, based on carcass examination, (ii) passive surveillance on animals found dead, moribund or with abnormal behaviour, for wild boar, red deer, roe deer and badger and (iii) active surveillance for wild boar and badger. The application of these three surveillance system components depends on the geographic risk of bTB infection in wildlife, which in turn depends on the prevalence of bTB in cattle. We estimated the effectiveness of the three components of the Sylvatub surveillance system quantitatively, for each species separately. Active surveillance and passive scanning surveillance by carcass examination were the approaches most likely to detect at least one infected animal in a population with a given design prevalence, regardless of the local risk level and species considered. The awareness of hunters, which depends on their training and the geographic risk, was found to affect surveillance sensitivity. The results obtained are relevant for hunters and veterinary authorities wishing to determine the actual efficacy of wildlife bTB surveillance as a function of geographic area and species, and could provide support for decision-making processes concerning the enhancement of surveillance

  3. Mathematical model of tumor-immune surveillance.

    PubMed

    Mahasa, Khaphetsi Joseph; Ouifki, Rachid; Eladdadi, Amina; Pillis, Lisette de

    2016-09-07

    We present a novel mathematical model involving various immune cell populations and tumor cell populations. The model describes how tumor cells evolve and survive the brief encounter with the immune system mediated by natural killer (NK) cells and the activated CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The model is composed of ordinary differential equations describing the interactions between these important immune lymphocytes and various tumor cell populations. Based on up-to-date knowledge of immune evasion and rational considerations, the model is designed to illustrate how tumors evade both arms of host immunity (i.e. innate and adaptive immunity). The model predicts that (a) an influx of an external source of NK cells might play a crucial role in enhancing NK-cell immune surveillance; (b) the host immune system alone is not fully effective against progression of tumor cells; (c) the development of immunoresistance by tumor cells is inevitable in tumor immune surveillance. Our model also supports the importance of infiltrating NK cells in tumor immune surveillance, which can be enhanced by NK cell-based immunotherapeutic approaches.

  4. Becoming and staying physically active in adolescents with cerebral palsy: protocol of a qualitative study of facilitators and barriers to physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) show a reduced physical activity (PA). Currently there are no interventions for adolescents with CP in this critical life phase that optimise and maintain the individuals' physical activity in the long term. To develop such a program it is important to fully understand the factors that influence physical activity behaviours in adolescents with CP. The aim of this study is to explore what makes it easy or hard for adolescents with CP to be and to become physically active. Methods/Design A qualitative research method is chosen to allow adolescents to voice their own opinion. Because we will investigate the lived experiences this study has a phenomenological approach. Thirty ambulatory and non-ambulatory adolescents (aged 10-18 years) with CP, classified as level I to IV on the Gross Motor Function Classification System and 30 parents of adolescents with CP will be invited to participate in one of the 6 focus groups or an individual interview. Therapists from all Children's Treatment Centres in Ontario, Canada, will be asked to fill in a survey. Focus groups will be audio- and videotaped and will approximately take 1.5 hours. The focus groups will be conducted by a facilitator and an assistant. In preparation of the focus groups, participants will fill in a demographic form with additional questions on physical activity. The information gathered from these questions and recent research on barriers and facilitators to physical activity will be used as a starting point for the content of the focus groups. Recordings of the focus groups will be transcribed and a content analysis approach will be used to code the transcripts. A preliminary summary of the coded data will be shared with the participants before themes will be refined. Discussion This study will help us gain insight and understanding of the participants' experiences and perspectives in PA, which can be of great importance when planning programs aimed at helping

  5. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2003 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Idaho National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 22, Number 4, April 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR),,Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center,,11800 Tech Road, Suite 220 (MCAF-CS...surveillance of the health of active and reserve component military members, especially aft er returning from overseas assignments in general and...tifi c publication of timely, reliable, authori- tative, accurate, objective, and useful public health information and recommendations.” Until the mid

  8. 2003 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for ORNL. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. Examining Incentives to Promote Physical Activity Maintenance Among Hospital Employees Not Achieving 10,000 Daily Steps: A Web-Based Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    White, Lauren; Oh, Paul; Kwan, Matthew; Gove, Peter; Leahey, Tricia; Faulkner, Guy

    2016-01-01

    the winter of 2018. Conclusions This protocol was designed to examine the impact of guaranteed rewards on physical activity maintenance in lower active hospital employees. ClinicalTrial ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02638675; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT0 2638675 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6g4pvZvhW) PMID:27956377

  10. Automated video surveillance with unattended ground sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moellman, Dennis E.

    1997-07-01

    Video sensors represent one facet of the unattended ground sensors family used to support military operations. This paper provides technical details on a modular, automated video surveillance (AVS) system concept that provides a 4D modeling and segmentation capability. This capability, combining 3D imaging and embedded information processing, enables the AVS to reliably detect and roughly classify objects and activities with a high probable certainty and minimal false alarms. The beneficial result is an elimination of the need for human monitoring and reduction in data transmission requirements by several orders of magnitude. This modular, forward observer AVS sensor package is comprised of integrated CMOS arrays and lenses (one for monoscopic view and two rigidly fixed for stereo), image processing, communication, GPS chips, and battery. This smart sensor is inexpensive, miniature, self-contained, and man-packable. Real-time video processing onboard the sensor provides: analysis and automatic target recognition algorithms enabling robust moving object detection; tracking and delimitation; and target characterization based on motion, size, form factor, texture, and specific identifying characteristics of objects. Automation of video screening tasks provides the benefits of visual surveillance without the associated burden or distraction from the mission. Because of its size and simplicity the AVS requires minimal man-in-the-field set up and lends itself to clandestine deployment.. In the future it may be possible to reliably and cost effectively air deploy the AVS. Each method offers great benefits as unmanned forward observers and sophisticated `tripwires' for battlefield awareness. While well suited for military reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition missions for peacetime and/or wartime applications, the AVS also lends itself to other clandestine applications such as drug interdiction surveillance, monitoring, and tip off.

  11. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-05-27

    Results from the 9975 shipping package Storage and Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout the extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The 10 year storage life justification was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to validate the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 10 years in storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program began. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. The primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton{reg_sign} containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex{reg_sign} fiberboard thermal insulation at bounding conditions of radiation, elevated temperatures and/or elevated humidity.

  12. What is a missing link among wireless persistent surveillance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2011-06-01

    The next generation surveillance system will equip with versatile sensor devices and information focus capable of conducting regular and irregular surveillance and security environments worldwide. The community of the persistent surveillance must invest the limited energy and money effectively into researching enabling technologies such as nanotechnology, wireless networks, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) to develop persistent surveillance applications for the future. Wireless sensor networks can be used by the military for a number of purposes such as monitoring militant activity in remote areas and force protection. Being equipped with appropriate sensors these networks can enable detection of enemy movement, identification of enemy force and analysis of their movement and progress. Among these sensor network technologies, covert communication is one of the challenging tasks in the persistent surveillance because it is highly demanded to provide secured sensor nodes and linkage for fear of deliberate sabotage. Due to the matured VLSI/DSP technologies, affordable COTS of UWB technology with noise-like direct sequence (DS) time-domain pulses is a potential solution to support low probability of intercept and low probability of detection (LPI/LPD) data communication and transmission. This paper will describe a number of technical challenges in wireless persistent surveillance development include covert communication, network control and routing, collaborating signal and information processing, and etc. The paper concludes by presenting Hermitian Wavelets to enhance SNR in support of secured communication.

  13. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].