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  1. Difference Between Latent TB Infection and Active TB Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... ray, or positive sputum smear or culture • • Has active TB bacteria in his/her body • • Usually feels sick and may have symptoms such as coughing, fever, and weight loss • • May spread TB bacteria to others • • Needs treatment to treat ...

  2. Combination of Cytokine Responses Indicative of Latent TB and Active TB in Malawian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Yun-Gyoung; Gorak-Stolinska, Patricia; Ben-Smith, Anne; Lalor, Maeve K.; Chaguluka, Steven; Dacombe, Russell; Doherty, T. Mark; Ottenhoff, Tom H.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Crampin, Amelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Background An IFN-γ response to M. tuberculosis-specific antigens is an effective biomarker for M. tuberculosis infection but it cannot discriminate between latent TB infection and active TB disease. Combining a number of cytokine/chemokine responses to M. tuberculosis antigens may enable differentiation of latent TB from active disease. Methods Asymptomatic recently-exposed individuals (spouses of TB patients) were recruited and tuberculin skin tested, bled and followed-up for two years. Culture supernatants, from a six-day culture of diluted whole blood samples stimulated with M. tuberculosis-derived PPD or ESAT-6, were measured for IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, TNF-α and CXCL10 using cytokine ELISAs. In addition, 15 patients with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB were recruited and tested. Results Spouses with positive IFN-γ responses to M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 (>62.5 pg/mL) and TB patients showed high production of IL-17, CXCL10 and TNF-α. Higher production of IL-10 and IL-17 in response to ESAT-6 was observed in the spouses compared with TB patients while the ratios of IFN-γ/IL-10 and IFN-γ/IL-17 in response to M. tuberculosis-derived PPD were significantly higher in TB patients compared with the spouses. Tuberculin skin test results did not correlate with cytokine responses. Conclusions CXCL10 and TNF-α may be used as adjunct markers alongside an IFN-γ release assay to diagnose M. tuberculosis infection, and IL-17 and IL-10 production may differentiate individuals with LTBI from active TB. PMID:24260295

  3. The effect of HIV coinfection, HAART and TB treatment on cytokine/chemokine responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens in active TB patients and latently Mtb infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Desta; de Jager, Wilco; Gebremichael, Gebremedhin; Alemayehu, Yodit; Ran, Leonie; Fransen, Justin; Wolday, Dawit; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Tegbaru, Belete; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; van Baarle, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Identification of Mtb specific induced cytokine/chemokine host biomarkers could assist in developing novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic tools for TB. Levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-17, IL-10, IP-10 and MIP-1α were measured in supernatants of whole blood stimulated with Mtb specific fusion protein ESAT-6/CFP-10 using xMAP technology. The study groups were HIV positive TB patients (HIV(+)TB(+)), HIV negative TB patients (HIV(-)TB(+)), HIV positive tuberculin skin test positive (TST+) (HIV(+)TST(+)), HIV negative TST+ (HIV(-)TST(+)), and HIV(-)TST(-) individuals. Compared to HIV(-)TST(-), latent TB infection led to increased levels of IP-10, IFN-γ and IL-17, while levels of IL-2 and IP-10 were increased with active TB. Levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, MIP-1α, and IL-10 were increased in HIV(-)TST(+) individuals compared to HIV(-)TB(+) patients. HIV coinfection decreased the level of IFN-γ, IL-17, IP-10 and IL-2. After six months (M6) of anti-TB treatment (ATT) in HIV(-)TB(+) patients, IFN-γ, IL-10, and MIP-1α levels normalized. After M6 and M18 of ATT plus HAART in HIV(+)TB(+) patients, levels of MIP-1α and IL-10 normalized, while this was not the case for IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-17, and IP-10 levels. In HIV(+)TST(+) patients on HAART, levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-10 and MIP-1α normalized, while no change in the levels of IL-2 and IP-10 were observed. In conclusion, the simultaneous measurement of IFN-γ, IL-17 and IP-10 may assist in diagnosing LTBI; IL-2 and IP-10 may assist in diagnosing active TB; while IFN-γ, IL-17, MIP-1α, and IL-10 levels could help to discriminate LTBI and active TB. In addition, IL-10 and MIP-1α levels could help to monitor responses to TB treatment and HAART. PMID:26631832

  4. T-SPOT.TB in Detection of Active Tuberculosis During Pregnancy: A Retrospective Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiaopei; Guo, Xuxiao; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Maoshui

    2016-01-01

    Background Interferon-gamma release assays have not been validated in active TB among pregnant women. Therefore, the objective of this retrospective study was to estimate the diagnostic value of T-SPOT.TB in active TB among pregnant women. Material/Methods Between May 2012 and May 2015, 26 consecutive pregnant women with suspected TB were enrolled in our study. The clinicopathological characteristics and T-SPOT.TB results were reviewed and analyzed. Results Pregnant patients were divided into a TB group (n=21) and a Non-TB group (n=5). In the TB group, 5 patients had pulmonary TB, 5 had pulmonary TB+ extrapulmonary TB, and 11 had exclusively extrapulmonary TB. The most common site of extrapulmonary TB was pleural (n=11). Statistical analysis showed that the lymphocyte count in the TB group was lower than in the Non-TB group (P<0.05). For detection of active TB during pregnancy, T-SPOT.TB had a high sensitivity of 100.0% (84.5%–100.0%) and a specificity of 80.0% (37.6–96.4%). Conclusions T-SPOT.TB shows good performance in detection of active tuberculosis during pregnancy. Interferon gamma release assay for TB screening of pregnant women is recommended in clinical practice because it may be a more appropriate diagnostic tool than the tuberculin skin test. PMID:26732770

  5. Major Challenges in Clinical Management of TB/HIV Coinfected Patients in Eastern Europe Compared with Western Europe and Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Efsen, Anne Marie W.; Schultze, Anna; Post, Frank A.; Panteleev, Alexander; Furrer, Hansjakob; Miller, Robert F.; Losso, Marcelo H.; Toibaro, Javier; Skrahin, Aliaksandr; Miro, Jose M.; Caylà, Joan A.; Girardi, Enrico; Bruyand, Mathias; Obel, Niels; Podlekareva, Daria N.; Lundgren, Jens D.; Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Rates of TB/HIV coinfection and multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE). We aimed to study clinical characteristics, factors associated with MDR-TB and predicted activity of empiric anti-TB treatment at time of TB diagnosis among TB/HIV coinfected patients in EE, Western Europe (WE) and Latin America (LA). Design and Methods Between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, 1413 TB/HIV patients (62 clinics in 19 countries in EE, WE, Southern Europe (SE), and LA) were enrolled. Results Significant differences were observed between EE (N = 844), WE (N = 152), SE (N = 164), and LA (N = 253) in the proportion of patients with a definite TB diagnosis (47%, 71%, 72% and 40%, p<0.0001), MDR-TB (40%, 5%, 3% and 15%, p<0.0001), and use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) (17%, 40%, 44% and 35%, p<0.0001). Injecting drug use (adjusted OR (aOR) = 2.03 (95% CI 1.00–4.09), prior anti-TB treatment (3.42 (1.88–6.22)), and living in EE (7.19 (3.28–15.78)) were associated with MDR-TB. Among 585 patients with drug susceptibility test (DST) results, the empiric (i.e. without knowledge of the DST results) anti-TB treatment included ≥3 active drugs in 66% of participants in EE compared with 90–96% in other regions (p<0.0001). Conclusions In EE, TB/HIV patients were less likely to receive a definite TB diagnosis, more likely to house MDR-TB and commonly received empiric anti-TB treatment with reduced activity. Improved management of TB/HIV patients in EE requires better access to TB diagnostics including DSTs, empiric anti-TB therapy directed at both susceptible and MDR-TB, and more widespread use of cART. PMID:26716686

  6. The Use of Xpert MTB/Rif for Active Case Finding among TB Contacts in North West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lebina, Limakatso; Fuller, Nigel; Osoba, Tolu; Scott, Lesley; Motlhaoleng, Katlego; Rakgokong, Modiehi; Abraham, Pattamukkil; Variava, Ebrahim; Martinson, Neil Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in high HIV burden settings. Active case finding is one strategy to potentially reduce TB disease burden. Xpert MTB/Rif has recently been recommended for diagnosis of TB. Methods. Pragmatic randomized trial to compare diagnosis rate and turnaround time for laboratory testing for Xpert MTB/Rif with TB microscopy and culture in household contacts of patients recently diagnosed with TB. Results. 2464 household contacts enrolled into the study from 768 active TB index cases. 1068 (44%) were unable to give sputum, but 24 of these were already on TB treatment. 863 (53%) participants sputum samples were tested with smear and culture and 2.7% (23/863; CI: 1.62-3.78) were diagnosed with active TB. Xpert MTB/Rif was used in 515 (21%) participants; active TB was diagnosed in 1.6% (8/515; CI: 0.52-2.68). Discussion and Conclusions. Additional 31 cases were diagnosed with contact tracing of household members. When Xpert MTB/Rif is compared with culture, there is no significant difference in diagnostic yield. PMID:27493800

  7. The Use of Xpert MTB/Rif for Active Case Finding among TB Contacts in North West Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Osoba, Tolu; Scott, Lesley; Motlhaoleng, Katlego; Rakgokong, Modiehi; Martinson, Neil Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in high HIV burden settings. Active case finding is one strategy to potentially reduce TB disease burden. Xpert MTB/Rif has recently been recommended for diagnosis of TB. Methods. Pragmatic randomized trial to compare diagnosis rate and turnaround time for laboratory testing for Xpert MTB/Rif with TB microscopy and culture in household contacts of patients recently diagnosed with TB. Results. 2464 household contacts enrolled into the study from 768 active TB index cases. 1068 (44%) were unable to give sputum, but 24 of these were already on TB treatment. 863 (53%) participants sputum samples were tested with smear and culture and 2.7% (23/863; CI: 1.62–3.78) were diagnosed with active TB. Xpert MTB/Rif was used in 515 (21%) participants; active TB was diagnosed in 1.6% (8/515; CI: 0.52–2.68). Discussion and Conclusions. Additional 31 cases were diagnosed with contact tracing of household members. When Xpert MTB/Rif is compared with culture, there is no significant difference in diagnostic yield. PMID:27493800

  8. CD4+ T cell polyfunctional profile in HIV-TB coinfection are similar between individuals with latent and active TB infection

    PubMed Central

    Canaday, David H.; Sridaran, Sankar; Van Epps, Puja; Aung, Htin; Burant, Christopher J.; Nsereko, Mary; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Betts, Michael R.; Toossi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T cell counts of HIV-infected individuals with pulmonary TB (PTB) are higher than with other opportunistic infections suggesting that progression to PTB is not merely due to T cell depletion but also dysfunction. There are limited data examining T cell functional signatures in human HIV-TB co-infection particularly in PTB which accounts for about 80% of active TB disease overall. We examined a cohort of HIV-infected anti-retroviral naïve individuals in Kampala, Uganda, a TB endemic area using multi-parametric flow cytometry analysis to determine IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-17, and TNF-α production in CD4+ memory T cell subsets. The cytokine frequency and polyfunctionality profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific CD4+ T cells in HIV-infected persons with latent TB infection (LTBI) or PTB is comparable. This similarity suggests that LTBI may represent a smoldering state of persistent MTB replication rather than dormant infection. This may be a contributory mechanism to the significantly increased risk of progression to PTB in this population. PMID:25956974

  9. A comparative study of magnetic behaviors in TbNi{sub 2}, TbMn{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}Mn

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J. L.; Md Din, M. F.; Hong, F.; Cheng, Z. X.; Dou, S. X.; Kennedy, S. J.; Studer, A. J.; Campbell, S. J.; Wu, G. H.

    2014-05-07

    All TbNi{sub 2}, TbMn{sub 2}, and TbNi{sub 2}Mn compounds exhibit the cubic Laves phase with AB{sub 2}-type structure in spite of the fact that the ratio of the Tb to transition-metal components in TbNi{sub 2}Mn is 1:3. Rietveld refinement indicates that in TbNi{sub 2}Mn the Mn atoms are distributed on both the A (8a) and B (16d) sites. The values of the lattice constants were measured to be a = 14.348 Å (space group F-43 m), 7.618 Å, and 7.158 Å (space group Fd-3 m) for TbNi{sub 2}, TbMn{sub 2}, and TbNi{sub 2}Mn, respectively. The magnetic transition temperatures T{sub C} were found to be T{sub C} = 38 K and T{sub C} = 148 K for TbNi{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}Mn, respectively, while two magnetic phase transitions are detected for TbMn{sub 2} at T{sub 1} = 20 K and T{sub 2} = 49 K. Clear magnetic history effects in a low magnetic field are observed in TbMn{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}Mn. The magnetic entropy changes have been obtained.

  10. Evaluation of the Rapid Scale-up of Collaborative TB/HIV Activities in TB Facilities in Rwanda, 2005-2009

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2005, Rwanda drafted a national TB/HIV policy and began scaling-up collaborative TB/HIV activities. Prior to the scale-up, we evaluated existing TB/HIV practices, possible barriers to policy and programmatic implementation, and patient treatment outcomes. We then used our evaluation data as a baseline for evaluating the national scale-up of collaborative TB/HIV activities from 2005 through 2009. Methods Our baseline evaluation included a cross-sectional evaluation of 23/161 TB clinics. We conducted structured interviews with patients and clinic staff and reviewed TB registers and patient records to assess HIV testing practices, provision of HIV care and treatment for people with TB that tested positive for HIV, and patients' TB treatment outcomes. Following our baseline evaluation, we used nationally representative TB/HIV surveillance data to monitor the scale-up of collaborative TB/HIV activities Results Of 207 patients interviewed, 76% were offered HIV testing, 99% accepted, and 49% reported positive test results. Of 40 staff interviewed, 68% reported offering HIV testing to >50% of patients. From 2005-2009, scaled-up TB/HIV activities resulted in increased HIV testing of patients with TB (69% to 97%) and provision of cotrimoxazole (15% to 92%) and antiretroviral therapy (13% to 49%) for patients with TB disease and HIV infection (TB/HIV). The risk of death among patients with TB/HIV relative to patients with TB not infected with HIV declined from 2005 (RR = 6.1, 95%CI 2.6, 14.0) to 2007 (RR = 1.8, 95%CI 1.68, 1.94). Conclusions Our baseline evaluation highlighted that staff and patients were receptive to HIV testing. However, expanded access to testing, care, and treatment was needed based on the proportion of patients with TB having unknown HIV status and the high rate of HIV infection and poorer TB treatment outcomes for patients with TB/HIV. Following our evaluation, scale-up of TB/HIV services resulted in almost all patients with TB knowing

  11. A comparison between passive and active case finding in TB control in the Arkhangelsk region

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir N.; Grjibovski, Andrej M.; Mariandyshev, Andrey O.; Johansson, Eva; Bjune, Gunnar A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In Russia, active case finding (ACF) for certain population groups has been practiced uninterruptedly for many decades, but no studies comparing ACF and passive case finding (PCF) approaches in Russia have been published. Objective The aim of this study was to describe the main differences in symptoms and diagnostic delay between patients who come to TB services through PCF and ACF strategies. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 453 new pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients, who met criteria of TB diagnostic delay in Arkhangelsk. Results ACF patients used self-treatment more often than PCF patients (90.1% vs. 24.6%) and 36.3% of them were alcohol abusers (as opposed to only 26.2% of PCF patients). The median patient delay (PD) in PCF was 4 weeks, IQR (1–8 weeks), and less than 1 week in ACF. Twenty-three per cent of the PCF patients were seen by a medical provider within the first week of their illness onset. Conclusion Patients diagnosed through ACF tended to under-report their TB symptoms and showed low attention to their own health. However, ACF allowed for discovering TB patients earlier than PCF, and this was also the case for alcohol abusing patients. PCF systems should be supplemented with ACF strategies. PMID:24563859

  12. Scaling up of HIV-TB collaborative activities: Achievements and challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Rajesh; Shah, Amar; Sachdeva, K S; Sreenivas, A N; Gupta, R S; Khaparde, S D

    2016-01-01

    India has been implementing HIV/TB collaborative activities since 2001 with rapid scale-up of infrastructure across the country during past decade in National AIDS Control Programme and Revised National TB Control Programme. India has shown over 50% reduction in new infections and around 35% reduction in AIDS-related deaths, thereby being one of the success stories globally. Substantial progress in the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities has occurred in India and it is marching towards target set out in the Global Plan to Stop TB and endorsed by the UN General Assembly to halve HIV associated TB deaths by 2015. While the successful approaches have led to impressive gains in HIV/TB control in India, there are emerging challenges including newer pockets with rising HIV trends in North India, increasing drug resistance, high mortality among co-infected patients, low HIV testing rates among TB patients in northern and eastern states in India, treatment delays and drop-outs, stigma and discrimination, etc. In spite of these difficulties, established HIV/TB coordination mechanisms at different levels, rapid scale-up of facilities with decentralisation of treatment services, regular joint supervision and monitoring, newer initiatives like use of rapid diagnostics for early diagnosis of TB among people living with HIV, TB notification, etc. have led to success in combating the threat of HIV/TB in India. This article highlights the steps taken by India, one of the largest HIV/TB programmes in world, in scaling up of the joint HIV-TB collaborative activities, the achievements so far and discusses the emerging challenges which could provide important lessons for other countries in scaling up their programmes. PMID:27235937

  13. Microwave synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 microcrystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Fuyang; Hua, Yingjie; Wang, Chongtai; Zhao, Xudong; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Hongdong

    2016-12-01

    Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 has been successfully synthesized by a simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal method at 140°C for 30min. The structure, morphology and optical property of the Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 products have been systematically investigated. This study indicates that the incorporation of Tb(3+) could induce the conversion of structure from monoclinic to tetragonal for BiVO4. Furthermore, the as-obtained Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 samples showed an obvious morphological change: the hollow square rod-like BiVO4 crystal gradually changed to spindle-like crystal. The Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 products exhibited extraordinary photocatalytic activity for Methylene Blue (MB) degradation under visible light irradiation. The doped BiVO4 at a molar ratio of 2at% (Tb and Bi) with a mixture of monoclinic and tetragonal phases showed and prominent photocatalytic degradation rate, which reached 99.9% in 120min. The results suggest that the differences in the photocatalytic activity of these BiVO4 crystals with different Tb(3+) doping concentrations can be attributed to the change of crystalline phases, and the coexistence of the monoclinic/tetragonal phases in BiVO4 products, which improve the efficient charge separation and transportation. PMID:27565962

  14. Equity and the Sun Quality Health Private Provider Social Franchise: comparative analysis of patient survey data and a nationally representative TB prevalence survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Since 2004, the Sun Quality Health (SQH) franchise network has provided TB care in Myanmar through a network of established private medical clinics. This study compares the wealth distribution of the TB patients to non-TB patients to determine if TB is most common among the poor, and compares the wealth of all TB patients to SQH TB patients to assess whether the franchise achieves its goal of serving the poor. Methods The study uses data from two sources: 1) Myanmar’s first nationally representative TB prevalence study conducted in 2009, and 2) client exit interviews from TB patients from SQH clinics. In total, 1,114 TB-positive individuals were included in the study, including 739 from the national sample and 375 from the SQH sample. Results TB patients at SQH clinics were poorer than TB-positive individuals in the overall population, though not at a statistically significant level (p > 0.05). After stratification we found that in urban areas, TB patients at SQH clinics were more likely to be in the poorest quartile compared to general TB positive population (16.8% vs. 8.6%, respectively; p < 0.05). In rural areas, there was no statistically significant difference between the wealth distribution of SQH clinic patients and general TB positive individuals (p > 0.05). Conclusion Franchised clinics in Myanmar are reaching poor populations of TB patients in urban areas; more efforts are needed in order to reach the most vulnerable in rural areas. PMID:23305063

  15. Review of policy and status of implementation of collaborative HIV-TB activities in 23 high-burden countries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Granich, R; Date, A; Lepere, P; Hersh, B; Gouws, E; Samb, B

    2014-10-01

    Issuance of national policy guidance is a critical step to ensure quality HIV-TB (human immunodeficiency virus-tuberculosis) coordination and programme implementation. From the database of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), we reviewed 62 national HIV and TB guidelines from 23 high-burden countries for recommendations on HIV testing for TB patients, criteria for initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the Three I's for HIV/TB (isoniazid preventive treatment [IPT], intensified TB case finding and TB infection control). We used UNAIDS country-level programme data to determine the status of implementation of existing guidance. Of the 23 countries representing 89% of the global HIV-TB burden, Brazil recommends ART irrespective of CD4 count for all people living with HIV, and four (17%) countries recommend ART at the World Health Organization (WHO) 2013 guidelines level of CD4 count ⩿500 cells/mm(3) for asymptomatic persons. Nineteen (83%) countries are consistent with WHO 2013 guidelines and recommend ART for HIV-positive TB patients irrespective of CD4 count. IPT is recommended by 16 (70%) countries, representing 67% of the HIV-TB burden; 12 recommend symptom-based screening alone for IPT initiation. Guidelines from 15 (65%) countries with 79% of the world's HIV-TB burden include recommendations on HIV testing and counselling for TB patients. Although uptake of ART, HIV testing for TB patients, TB screening for people living with HIV and IPT have increased significantly, progress is still limited in many countries. There is considerable variance in the timing and content of national policies compared with WHO guidelines. Missed opportunities to implement new scientific evidence and delayed adaptation of existing WHO guidance remains a key challenge for many countries. PMID:25216827

  16. Augmented photocatalytic activity and luminescence response of Tb³⁺ doped nanoscale titania systems

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Nibedita; Deka, Amrita; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2014-10-14

    The present work reports on the effect of Tb³⁺ doping on the luminescence and photocatalytic performance of nano-structured titania derived through a sol-gel route. X-ray diffraction patterns have revealed the existence of anatase phase with and without Tb³⁺ doping and with an improved orientation factor along (004) and (200) planes. Transmission electron microscopy and selective area electron diffraction studies, while exhibiting ample poly-crystallinity feature, have predicted an average particle size of ~9 nm and ~6 nm for the un-doped and 5% Tb³⁺ doped nano-titania samples; respectively. Apart from emissions accompanied by different types of defects, Tb³⁺ related transitions, such as, ⁵D₃ → ⁷F₅, ⁵D₃ → ⁷F₄, and ⁵D₄ → ⁷F₆ were identified in the photoluminescence spectra. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis, as carried out on a Tb³⁺ doped nano-titania system, has demonstrated a more-open hysteretic loop owing to significant difference of N₂ adsorption/desorption rates. The photocatalytic activity of nano-titania, as evaluated from the nature of degradation of methyl orange under UV illumination, exhibited the highest efficiency for a Tb³⁺ doping level of 2.5%. The augmented photocatalytic degradation has also been discussed in the light of a model based on pseudo first-order kinetics.

  17. TB Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tuberculosis Basic TB Facts How TB Spreads Latent TB ...

  18. Tuberculosis (TB)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Tuberculosis (TB) Overview In developed countries, such as the ... thought to be infected with TB bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ). TB is a chronic bacterial infection. It ...

  19. Risk of Active Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Patients in Taiwan with Free Access to HIV Care and a Positive T-Spot.TB Test

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hsin-Yun; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liu, Wen-Chun; Su, Yi-Ching; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Hung, Chien-Ching; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-01-01

    Background Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) have been used to identify individuals at risk for developing active tuberculosis (TB). However, data regarding the risk of TB development in HIV-infected patients testing positive for IGRAs remain sparse in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 608 HIV-infected patients without active TB undergoing T-Spot.TB testing were enrolled in this prospective observational study at a university hospital designated for HIV care in Taiwan with a declining TB incidence from 72 per 100,000 population in 2005 to 53 per 100,000 population in 2012. All of the subjects were followed until September 30, 2014. The national TB registry was accessed to identify any TB cases among those lost to follow-up. Results T-Spot.TB tested negative in 534 patients (87.8%), positive in 64 patients (10.5%), and indeterminate in 10 patients (1.6%). In multivariate analysis, positive T-Spot.TB was significantly associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.172 per 10-year increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.022-1.344, P=0.023), past history of TB (AOR, 13.412; 95% CI, 6.106-29.460, P<0.001), and higher CD4 counts at enrollment (AOR, per 50-cell/μl increase, 1.062; 95% CI, 1.017-1.109, P=0.007). Of the 64 patients testing positive for T-Spot.TB, none received isoniazid preventive therapy and all but 5 received combination antiretroviral therapy at the end of follow-up with the latest CD4 count and plasma HIV RNA load being 592.8 cells/μL and 1.85 log10 copies/mL, respectively. One patient (1.6%) developed active TB after 167 person-years of follow-up (PYFU), resulting in an incidence rate of 0.599 per 100 PFYU. None of the 534 patients testing negative for T-Spot.TB developed TB after 1380 PYFU, nor did the 24 patients with old TB and positive T-Spot.TB tests develop TB after 62.33 PYFU. Conclusions The risk of developing active TB in HIV-infected patients with positive T-Spot.TB receiving

  20. Hydrothermal fabrication of multi-functional Eu3+ and Tb3+ co-doped BiPO4: Photocatalytic activity and tunable luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yao; Huang, Hongwei; Quan, Chaoming; Tian, Na; Zhang, Yihe

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated for first time the tunable photoluminescence (PL) properties and photocatalytic activity of the Tb3+ and Eu3+ co-doped BiPO4 assemblies. They are fabricated via a facile hydrothermal approach. Through co-doping of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions and changing the doping ratio, the emission color of the co-doped BiPO4 phosphors can be tuned precisely from green to yellow and red. Meanwhile, a very efficient energy transfer from Tb3+ to Eu3+ can be observed. Fascinatingly, a warmwhite color has been realized in the co-doped sample by tuning the ratio of Tb3+/Eu3+ to a certain value as displayed in the CIE chromaticity diagram. The doped BiPO4 samples also exhibit significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to the pristine BiPO4 pertaining to Rhodamine (RhB) degradation under UV light. This enhancement should be attributed to the trapping electron effect induced by ion doping that endows BiPO4 with high separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, thereby greatly promoting the photocatalytic reactivity. It was corroborated by the electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). Moreover, the crystal structure, microstructure and optical properties of as-prepared samples were investigated in details.

  1. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE protein Rv1168c induces stronger B cell response than Rv0256c in active TB patients.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Philip Raj; Udgata, Atul; Latha, Gaddam Suman; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a serious global health problem and is responsible for millions of deaths every year. For effective control of this dreadful disease, it is necessary to diagnose TB cases at the initial stages of infection. The serodiagnosis of disease represents simple, rapid and inexpensive method that can be used at the primary health care levels. In this study we have compared sensitivity of two PPE proteins of M. tuberculosis, i.e., Rv0256c and Rv1168c for their use as serodiagnostic markers in active tuberculosis patients. Employing a standardized enzyme immunoassay with these PPE proteins as candidate antigens we were able to successfully discriminate the TB patients' sera from the BCG-vaccinated healthy controls. Further, we observed that Rv1168c displayed higher sensitivity in detecting extrapulmonary and smear negative pulmonary TB cases which are difficult to diagnose by available diagnostic methods. Overall the study highlights that Rv1168c can be used as a potential serodiagnostic marker for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis disease. PMID:26364913

  2. Diagnostic Utility of QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) in Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Ahmed; Hamdan, AL-Jahdali; Salim, Baharoon; Yosra, Ali; Hani, Mohamed; Abdullah, AL-Harbi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The utility of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-G) test in the diagnosis of tuberculosis disease has been validated in high and low tuberculosis-prevalent (TB) countries. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the performance of the QFT-G test in the diagnosis of tuberculosis disease among tuberculosis patients in an intermediate prevalent country. Setting and Design: A retrospective study at the King Abdulaziz Medical City-Riyadh (KAMC-R) Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all the patients with a diagnosis of pneumonia, including tuberculosis, admitted to KAMC-R between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013. We included only patients with an available result of the QFT-G test. A total of 142 tuberculosis cases and 226 pneumonia cases were studied, to assess the utility of the QFT-G test in diagnosing tuberculosis cases. Results: Among the tuberculosis (n = 142) cases, the QFT-G tested positive in 68.3%, negative in 23.2%, and indeterminate in 12 cases (8.5%). Of the 226 pneumonia cases, the QFT-G tested positive in only 20.4%, while a majority of 66.4% tested negative, with 30 cases (13.3%) being indeterminate. When we excluded 42 patients with indeterminate results, the QFT-G test achieved a sensitivity of 74.6% [95% CI: 66.09 to 81.65%] and specificity of 76.53 % [95% CI: 69.85 to 82.15%] in the diagnosis of tuberculosis cases. Conclusions: This study concludes that the QFT-G test is a useful tool for detecting tuberculosis disease when used as an adjunct tool for the diagnosis of active TB cases. It certainly cannot be used solely and indiscriminately, separate from other clinical and radiological information, in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis cases. PMID:26392718

  3. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of ZnO doped with down-conversion NaSrBO3:Tb(3+) phosphors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinjuan; Wang, Xiaojun; Li, Huili; Li, Jinliang; Pan, Likun; Zhang, Jing; Min, Guoquan; Sun, Zhuo; Sun, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    ZnO-NaSrBO3:Tb(3+) (ZNT) composites were successfully synthesized via microwave-assisted reaction of the ZnO precursor with a NaSrBO3:Tb(3+) suspension using a microwave synthesis system. The morphology, structure and photocatalytic performance in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectrophotometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that the ZNT composites exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity in the degradation of MB with a maximum degradation rate of 97% under visible light irradiation compared with pure ZnO (12%), which is ascribed to the increased light absorption and the reduction of photoelectron-hole pair recombination in ZnO with the introduction of NaSrBO3:Tb(3+), as well as the light down-converting effect of NaSrBO3:Tb(3+), which facilitates the self-sensitized degradation of MB. PMID:25366251

  4. Stereochemical Analysis of Leubethanol, an Anti-TB Active Serrulatane, from Leucophyllum frutescens

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Salinas, Gloria M.; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica M.; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Lankin, David C.; Muñoz, Marcelo A.; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro; Pauli, Guido F.; Waksman, Noemí

    2013-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the methanolic root bark extract of Leucophyllum frutescens (Berl.) I.M. Johnst. led to the identification of leubethanol (1), a new serrulatane-type diterpene with activity against both multi drug-resistant and drug-sensitive strains of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Leubethanol (1) was identified by 1D/2D NMR data, as a serrulatane closely related to erogorgiane (2), and exhibited anti-TB activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations in the range 6.25–12.50 µg/mL. Stereochemical evidence for 1 was gleaned from 1D and 2D NOE experiments, 1H-NMR full spin analysis, as well as by comparison of the experimental vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectrum to density functional theory calculated VCD spectra of two diastereomers. PMID:21859082

  5. Tuberculosis (TB)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Tuberculosis Research The New Challenge for TB Research NIAID ... HIV/AIDS Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Research Agenda (PDF) TB Research at NIAID Research ...

  6. Comparison of the Sensitivity of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB According to Patient Age.

    PubMed

    Bae, Won; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Eun Young; Kim, Se Joong; Lee, Yeon Joo; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Yoon, Ho Il; Yim, Jae-Joon; Lee, Choon-Taek; Lee, Jae Ho

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are two types of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in use for the detection of tuberculosis (TB) infection, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (GFT-GIT) and T-SPOT.TB. Owing to contradictory reports regarding whether the results of these IGRAs are affected by the age of the patient, we aimed to determine if these two tests have age-related differences in sensitivity. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of diagnosed TB patients who were tested using either QFT-GIT or T-SPOT.TB from February 2008 to December 2013. The positivity of the two tests was analyzed and compared with true TB infection, which was defined as active TB based on either a positive Mycobacterium culture or a positive TB polymerase chain reaction. The QFT-GIT group included 192 TB patients, and the T-SPOT.TB group included 212 TB patients. Of the patients with pulmonary TB, 76 (39.6%) were in the QFT-GIT group and 143 (67.5%) in the T-SPOT.TB group. The overall sensitivity was 80.2% for QFT-GIT and 91.0% for T.SPOT.TB. The sensitivities of QFT-GIT and T-SPOT.TB according to age group were as follows: <29 years, 93.3% and 96.7%; 30-49 years, 86.5% and 94.7%; 50-69 years, 76.8% and 87.5%; and >70 years, 68.3% and 85.7%, respectively. The trend of age-related changes in sensitivity was significant for both QFT-GIT (p = 0.004) and T.SPOT.TB (p = 0.039). However, only QFT-GIT was significantly related to age in the multivariate analysis. QFT-GIT, but not T-SPOT.TB, was significantly affected by patient age. PMID:27258377

  7. Comparison of the Sensitivity of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB According to Patient Age

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Won; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Eun Young; Kim, Se Joong; Lee, Yeon Joo; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Yoon, Ho Il; Yim, Jae-Joon; Lee, Choon-Taek; Lee, Jae Ho

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are two types of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in use for the detection of tuberculosis (TB) infection, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (GFT-GIT) and T-SPOT.TB. Owing to contradictory reports regarding whether the results of these IGRAs are affected by the age of the patient, we aimed to determine if these two tests have age-related differences in sensitivity. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of diagnosed TB patients who were tested using either QFT-GIT or T-SPOT.TB from February 2008 to December 2013. The positivity of the two tests was analyzed and compared with true TB infection, which was defined as active TB based on either a positive Mycobacterium culture or a positive TB polymerase chain reaction. The QFT-GIT group included 192 TB patients, and the T-SPOT.TB group included 212 TB patients. Of the patients with pulmonary TB, 76 (39.6%) were in the QFT-GIT group and 143 (67.5%) in the T-SPOT.TB group. The overall sensitivity was 80.2% for QFT-GIT and 91.0% for T.SPOT.TB. The sensitivities of QFT-GIT and T-SPOT.TB according to age group were as follows: <29 years, 93.3% and 96.7%; 30–49 years, 86.5% and 94.7%; 50–69 years, 76.8% and 87.5%; and >70 years, 68.3% and 85.7%, respectively. The trend of age-related changes in sensitivity was significant for both QFT-GIT (p = 0.004) and T.SPOT.TB (p = 0.039). However, only QFT-GIT was significantly related to age in the multivariate analysis. QFT-GIT, but not T-SPOT.TB, was significantly affected by patient age. PMID:27258377

  8. Photoluminescence of Tb 3+ and Mn 2+ activated Ca 8MgGd(PO 4) 7 under vacuum ultraviolet excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia; Wang, Yuhua; Huang, Yan

    2011-06-01

    Novel Tb 3+ and Mn 2+ activated Ca 8MgGd(PO 4) 7 phosphors were synthesized by solid-state reaction and their photoluminescence properties in vacuum ultraviolet region were investigated for the first time. It can be observed from the excitation spectra that the host-related absorption band is located around 170 nm, and it overlaps the O 2- → Tb 3+ charge transfer band of Ca 8MgGd(PO 4) 7:Tb 3+ around 161 nm and the 3d 5 → 3d 44s transition band of Ca 8MgGd(PO 4) 7:Mn 2+ near 200 nm. The 4f-4f 5d spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions of Tb 3+ are verified to be located at 170-250 and 257-271 nm, respectively. Upon 147 nm excitation, the dominant emission peak intensity of the Ca 8MgGd 0.1(PO 4) 7:0.9Tb 3+ phosphor is about 2.7 times stronger than that of the commercial Zn 2SiO 4:Mn 2+ green phosphor, and the brightness of the former with a short decay time of 2.5 ms is about 98% of the latter's. The Ca 8MgGd(PO 4):Mn 2+ phosphor excited at 147 nm exhibits a deep red emission around 650 nm, which could be attributed to the 4T 1 → 6A 1 transition of Mn 2+, with the CIE index (0.679, 0.321). In a word, the results above indicate that both Tb 3+ and Mn 2+ activated Ca 8MgGd(PO 4) 7 phosphors could be promising for PDP or Hg-free lamp applications.

  9. The Role of Activator-Activator Interactions In Reducing in Low-Voltage-Cathodoluminescence Efficiency in Eu and Tb Doped Phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    SEAGER,CARLETON H.; TALLANT,DAVID R.

    1999-12-08

    High resolution measurements of spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) decay have been made in several commercial and experimental phosphors doped with Eu and Tb at beam energies ranging from 0.8 to 4 keV. CL emission from the lowest two excited states of both rare earth activators was compared to the decay of photoluminescence (PL) after pulsed laser excitation. We find that, at long times after the cessation of electron excitation, the CL decay rates are comparable to those measured in PL, at short times, the decay process is considerably faster and has a noticeable dependence on the energy of the electron beam. These beam energy effects are largest for the higher excited states and for phosphors with larger activator concentrations. Measurements of the experimental phosphors over a range of activator fractions from 0.1 to 0.002 show that the beam energy dependence of the steady-state CL efficiency is larger for higher excited states and weakens as the activator concentration is reduced. The latter effect is strongest for Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Tb, but also quite evident in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu. We suggest that the electron beam dependence of both the decay lifetimes and the steady state CL efficiency may be due to interaction of nearby excited states which occurs as a result of the large energy deposition rate for low energy electrons. This picture-for non-radiative quenching of rare earth emission is an excited state analog of the well-known (ground state-excited state) concentration quenching mechanism.

  10. Role of QuantiFERON-TB Gold antigen-specific IL-1β in diagnosis of active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Prabhavathi, Maddineni; Kabeer, Basirudeen Syed Ahamed; Deenadayalan, Anbarasu; Raja, Alamelu

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of the study was to evaluate whether in vitro QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) assay antigen-specific IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12 (p40) production is associated with active TB. In a cohort of 77 pulmonary TB patients (PTB), 67 healthy household contacts (HHC) and 83 healthy control subjects (HCS), the antigen-specific cytokines levels were determined in supernatants generated from QFT-GIT tubes. Antigen-specific IL-1β levels were significantly higher in PTB than HHC and HCS. At a fixed cutoff point (1,108 pg/ml), IL-1β showed positivity of 62.33% in PTB, 22.38% in HHC and 22.89% in HCS. Moreover, antigen-specific IL-1β assay can differentiate PTB and HHC (believed to be latently infected) (p < 0.0001). Like IL-1β, significantly higher levels of antigen-specific TNF-α were associated with PTB and displayed 43.63% positivity in PTB. The antigen-specific IL-2 levels were associated both with PTB (54.54%) and HHC (48.14%). Other cytokines levels did not differ among the groups. Our results suggest that antigen-specific IL-1β can be used as a biomarker for active TB diagnosis as well as for differential diagnosis of PTB and LTBI. PMID:25504009

  11. Electrocatalysis of carbon black- or poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized activated carbon nanotubes-supported Pd-Tb towards methanol oxidation in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Wang, Yi; Li, An; Yang, Yunshang; Tang, Qinghu; Cao, Hongbin; Qi, Tao; Li, Changming

    2014-07-01

    The Pd-Tb/C catalysts with different Pd/Tb ratios were synthesized by a simple simultaneous reduction reaction with sodium borohydride in aqueous solution. The structure and morphology of those catalysts had been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrocatalytic performance of those catalysts for methanol oxidation in alkaline media was investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and CO stripping experiments. It is found that the 20%Pd-1%Tb/C catalyst has a higher catalytic activity than the 20%Pd/C catalyst, but the effect of Tb cannot be explained by a bi-functional mechanism. According to the X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses, it is suggested that the higher content of metallic Pd caused by the addition of Tb contributes to the better catalytic activity of 20%Pd-1%Tb/C. Based on the good electrocatalytic performance of 20%Pd-1%Tb/C, the 20%Pd-1%Tb catalyst supported on poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-functionalized activated carbon nanotubes was prepared, and it exhibits a better catalytic activity. The improvement mainly results from the further increase of metallic Pd due to the presence of PDDA.

  12. Differential cellular recognition pattern to M. tuberculosis targets defined by IFN-γ and IL-17 production in blood from TB + patients from Honduras as compared to health care workers: TB and immune responses in patients from Honduras

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the quality of cellular immune responses directed against molecularly defined targets will guide the development of TB diagnostics and identification of molecularly defined, clinically relevant M.tb vaccine candidates. Methods Recombinant proteins (n = 8) and peptide pools (n = 14) from M. tuberculosis (M.tb) targets were used to compare cellular immune responses defined by IFN-γ and IL-17 production using a Whole Blood Assay (WBA) in a cohort of 148 individuals, i.e. patients with TB + (n = 38), TB- individuals with other pulmonary diseases (n = 81) and individuals exposed to TB without evidence of clinical TB (health care workers, n = 29). Results M.tb antigens Rv2958c (glycosyltransferase), Rv2962c (mycolyltransferase), Rv1886c (Ag85B), Rv3804c (Ag85A), and the PPE family member Rv3347c were frequently recognized, defined by IFN-γ production, in blood from healthy individuals exposed to M.tb (health care workers). A different recognition pattern was found for IL-17 production in blood from M.tb exposed individuals responding to TB10.4 (Rv0288), Ag85B (Rv1886c) and the PPE family members Rv0978c and Rv1917c. Conclusions The pattern of immune target recognition is different in regard to IFN-γ and IL-17 production to defined molecular M.tb targets in PBMCs from individuals frequently exposed to M.tb. The data represent the first mapping of cellular immune responses against M.tb targets in TB patients from Honduras. PMID:23497342

  13. Influence of structural distortions upon photoluminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} activated Na{sub 3}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Gd) borates

    SciTech Connect

    Asiri Naidu, S.; Boudin, S.; Varadaraju, U.V.; Raveau, B.

    2012-06-15

    The comparative study of the structure and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} activated Na{sub 3}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}, with Ln=Y, Gd, showed the important role of the host lattice structure upon PL. Higher emission intensities of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} are observed for Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} than for Na{sub 3}Y(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}, through direct Eu{sup 3+} excitation at 395 nm for Eu{sup 3+} doped borates, and through Gd{sup 3+} excitation around 280 nm for Tb{sup 3+} doped borates. This higher performance for Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} is due to the less regular environment of Eu{sup 3+} (Tb{sup 3+}) in the Gd sites than in the Y sites and to energy transfer from Gd{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+}(Tb{sup 3+}). The smaller critical concentration in Na{sub 3}Ln{sub 1-x}Tb{sub x}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} observed for Ln=Gd, x=0.5, compared to x=0.6 for Ln=Y, is explained by shorter Ln-Ln distances (4.11 A for Gd-Gd vs. 4.59 A for Y-Y). Both Na{sub 3}Y{sub 0.4}Tb{sub 0.6}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Na{sub 3}Gd{sub 0.5}Tb{sub 0.5}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} show intense green emission under UV excitation. - Graphical abstract: The PL properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} are studied in Na{sub 3}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Gd) borates. Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}exhibits higher emission intensity in Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} compared to Na{sub 3}Y(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} due to the less regular environment of the Gd{sup 3+} ion. Energy transfer from Gd{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+} is observed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structure of Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} by X-ray powder diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoluminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} doped Na{sub 3}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Gd). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} emission for Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} due to an irregular environment of Gd{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} emission

  14. Tb3+ and Ca2+ binding to phosphatidylcholine. A study comparing data from optical, NMR, and infrared spectroscopies.

    PubMed Central

    Petersheim, M; Halladay, H N; Blodnieks, J

    1989-01-01

    The paramagnetic and luminescent lanthanides are unique probes of cation-phospholipid interactions. Their spectroscopic properties provide the means to characterize and monitor complexes formed with lipids in ways not possible with biochemically more interesting cations, such as Ca2+. In this work, Tb3+-phosphatidylcholine complexes are described using the luminescence properties of Tb3+, the effect of its paramagnetism on the 31P NMR and 13C NMR spectra of the lipid, and changes in the infrared spectrum of the lipid induced by the cation. There are two Tb3+-phosphatidylcholine complexes with very different coordination environments, as evidenced by changes in the optical excitation spectrum of the lanthanide. The NMR experiments indicate that the two complexes differ in the number of phosphate groups directly coordinating Tb3+. Tb3+ binding induces changes in the phosphodiester infrared bands that are most consistent with bidentate chelation of Tb3+ by each phosphate, whereas Ca2+-induced changes are more consistent with monodentate coordination. The significance of this discrepancy is discussed. PMID:2790138

  15. Luminescence properties of Ce3+ and Tb3+ co-activated ZnAl2O4 phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshabalala, K. G.; Cho, S.-H.; Park, J.-K.; Pitale, Shreyas S.; Nagpure, I. M.; Kroon, R. E.; Swart, H. C.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.

    2012-05-01

    In this study, a solution combustion method was used to prepare green emitting Ce3+-Tb3+ co-activated ZnAl2O4 phosphor. The samples were annealed at 700 °C in air or hydrogen atmosphere to improve their crystallinity and optical properties. X-ray diffraction study confirmed that both as-prepared and post-preparation annealed samples crystallized in the well known cubic spinel structure of ZnAl2O4. An agglomeration of irregular platelet-like particles whose surfaces were encrusted with smaller spheroidal particles was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fluorescence data collected from the annealed samples with different concentrations of Ce3+ and Tb3+ show the enhanced green emission at 543 nm associated with 5D4→7F5 transitions of Tb3+. The enhancement was attributed to energy transfer from Ce3+ to Tb3+. Possible mechanism of energy transfer via a down conversion process is discussed. Furthermore, cathodoluminescence (CL) intensity degradation of this phosphor was also investigated and the degradation data suggest that the material was chemically stable and the CL intensity was also stable after 10 h of irradiation by a beam of high energy electrons.

  16. Health system barriers to implementation of collaborative TB and HIV activities including prevention of mother to child transmission in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Uwimana, J; Jackson, D; Hausler, H; Zarowsky, C

    2012-05-01

    In South Africa, the control of TB and HIV co-infection remains a major challenge despite the availability of international and national guidelines for integration of TB and HIV services. This study was undertaken in KwaZulu-Natal, one of the provinces most affected by both TB and HIV, to identify and understand managers' and community care workers' (CCWs) perceptions of health systems barriers related to the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities, including prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). We conducted 29 in-depth interviews with health managers at provincial, district and facility level and with managers of NGOs involved in TB and HIV care, as well as six focus group discussions with CCWs. Thematic analysis of transcripts revealed a convergence of perspectives on the process and the level of the implementation of policy directives on collaborative TB and HIV activities across all categories of respondents (i.e. province-, district-, facility- and community-based organizations). The majority of participants felt that the implementation of the policy was insufficiently consultative and that leadership and political will were lacking. The predominant themes related to health systems barriers include challenges related to structure and organisational culture; management, planning and power issues; unequal financing; and human resource capacity and regulatory problems notably relating to scope of practice of nurses and CCWs. Accelerated implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities including PMTCT will require political will and leadership to address these health systems barriers. PMID:22394016

  17. Pechini synthesis of lanthanide (Eu3+/Tb3+or Dy3+) ions activated BaGd2O4 nanostructured phosphors: an approach for tunable emissions.

    PubMed

    Seeta Rama Raju, G; Pavitra, E; Yu, Jae Su

    2014-09-14

    Trivalent lanthanide (Eu(3+), Tb(3+) and Dy(3+)) ions activated tunable color emitting BaGd2O4 (BG) phosphors were synthesized by a facile Pechini-type sol-gel process. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the orthorhombic phase after annealing at 1300 °C for 5 h. Morphological studies were performed based on the analysis of transmission electron microscopy images, which showed needle type nanorods. The BG phosphor exhibited good photoluminescence (PL) properties in the respective regions when doped with Eu(3+), Tb(3+) and Dy(3+) ions. The Eu(3+) co-activated BG:Tb(3+) phosphor yielded tunable emissions including tri-band established white light emission based on the co-activator concentration and excitation wavelength. The energy transfer from Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) ions was controlled by selecting a suitable excitation wavelength and the decay measurements were carried out for analyzing the energy transfer efficiency. The cathodoluminescence properties of these phosphors were almost similar to PL properties when doped with individual Eu(3+), Tb(3+), and Dy(3+) ions, but were different when co-doped with Eu(3+)/Tb(3+) or Eu(3+)/Dy(3+) ions. In the case of Eu(3+)/Tb(3+) doped samples, the energy transfer process occurred unlike the PL channel. The calculated Commission International de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates of individual ion doped BG phosphors confirmed red, green, and white emissions and for co-doped samples they showed tunable emission. PMID:25052006

  18. Testing for TB Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tuberculosis Basic TB Facts How TB Spreads Latent TB ...

  19. TB tracer teams in South Africa: knowledge, practices and challenges of tracing TB patients to improve adherence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2008–2009 the South African National Tuberculosis (TB) Program (NTP) implemented a national pilot project, the TB Tracer Project, aiming to decrease default rates and improve patient outcomes. The current study aimed to inform the NTP by describing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of TB program personnel involved with tracing activities. Methods A self-administered written questionnaire was sent to TB staff, managers and tracer team leaders to assess basic TB knowledge, attitudes and practices. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize results and the chi-squared statistic was used to compare responses of staff at facilities that participated in the TB Tracer Project (tracer) and those that followed standard NTP care (non-tracer). Results Of 560 total questionnaires distributed, 270 were completed and returned (response rate 48%). Total TB knowledge ranged from 70.8-86.3% correct across all response groups. However, just over half (range 50–59.3%) of each respondent group was able to correctly identify the four components of a DOT encounter. A patient no longer feeling sick was cited by 72.1% of respondents as the reason patients fail to adhere to treatment. Tracer teams were viewed as an effective means to get patients to return to treatment by 96.3% of health facility level respondents. Tracer team leaders reported concerns including lack of logistical support (41.7%), insufficient physical safety precautions (41.7%), and inadequate protection from contracting TB (39.1%). Upon patients returning to treatment at the clinic, facilities included in the TB Tracer Project were significantly more likely to discuss alternate DOTS arrangements than non-tracer facilities (79.2 vs. 66.4%, p = 0.03). Conclusions This study identified key components of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding TB patient tracing activities in South Africa. Educating patients on the essential need to complete treatment irrespective of clinical symptoms may

  20. Multicolored, Tb³⁺-Based Antibody-Free Detection of Multiple Tyrosine Kinase Activities.

    PubMed

    Lipchik, Andrew M; Perez, Minervo; Cui, Wei; Parker, Laurie L

    2015-08-01

    Kinase signaling is a major mechanism driving many cancers. While many inhibitors have been developed and are employed in the clinic, resistance due to crosstalk and pathway reprogramming is an emerging problem. High-throughput assays to detect multiple pathway kinases simultaneously could better model these complex relationships and enable drug development to combat this type of resistance. We developed a strategy to take advantage of time-resolved luminescence of Tb(3+)-chelated phosphotyrosine-containing peptides, which facilitated efficient energy transfer to small molecule fluorophores conjugated to the peptides to produce orthogonally colored biosensors for two different kinases. This enabled multiplexed detection with high signal-to-noise in a high-throughput-compatible format. This proof-of-concept study provides a platform that could be applied to other lanthanide metal and fluorophore combinations to achieve even greater multiplexing without the need for phosphospecific antibodies. PMID:26207839

  1. Comparative Evaluation of GenoType MTBDRplus Line Probe Assay with Solid Culture Method in Early Diagnosis of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at a Tertiary Care Centre in India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Raj N.; Singh, Binit K.; Sharma, Surendra K.; Sharma, Rohini; Soneja, Manish; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Myneedu, Vithal P.; Hanif, Mahmud; Kumar, Ashok; Sachdeva, Kuldeep S.; Paramasivan, Chinnambedu N.; Vollepore, Balasangameshwra; Thakur, Rahul; Raizada, Neeraj; Arora, Suresh K.; Sinha, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Background The objectives of the study were to compare the performance of line probe assay (GenoType MTBDRplus) with solid culture method for an early diagnosis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and to study the mutation patterns associated with rpoB, katG and inhA genes at a tertiary care centre in north India. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 269 previously treated sputum-smear acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positive MDR-TB suspects were enrolled from January to September 2012 at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences hospital, New Delhi. Line probe assay (LPA) was performed directly on the sputum specimens and the results were compared with that of conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) on solid media [Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) method]. Results DST results by LPA and LJ methods were compared in 242 MDR-TB suspects. The LPA detected rifampicin (RIF) resistance in 70 of 71 cases, isoniazid (INH) resistance in 86 of 93 cases, and MDR-TB in 66 of 68 cases as compared to the conventional method. Overall (rifampicin, isoniazid and MDR-TB) concordance of the LPA with the conventional DST was 96%. Sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 99% respectively for detection of RIF resistance; 92% and 99% respectively for detection of INH resistance; 97% and 100% respectively for detection of MDR-TB. Frequencies of katG gene, inhA gene and combined katG and inhA gene mutations conferring all INH resistance were 72/87 (83%), 10/87 (11%) and 5/87 (6%) respectively. The turnaround time of the LPA test was 48 hours. Conclusion The LPA test provides an early diagnosis of monoresistance to isoniazid and rifampicin and is highly sensitive and specific for an early diagnosis of MDR-TB. Based on these findings, it is concluded that the LPA test can be useful in early diagnosis of drug resistant TB in high TB burden countries. PMID:24039735

  2. Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  3. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  4. Photoluminescence, energy transfer and tunable color of Ce(3+), Tb(3+) and Eu(2+) activated oxynitride phosphors with high brightness.

    PubMed

    Lü, Wei; Huo, Jiansheng; Feng, Yang; Zhao, Shuang; You, Hongpeng

    2016-06-21

    New tuneable light-emitting Ca3Al8Si4O17N4:Ce(3+)/Tb(3+)/Eu(2+) oxynitride phosphors with high brightness have been prepared. When doped with trivalent cerium or divalent europium they present blue luminescence under UV excitation. The energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Tb(3+) and Ce(3+) to Eu(2+) ions is deduced from the spectral overlap between Ce(3+) emission and Tb(3+)/Eu(2+) excitation spectra. The energy-transfer efficiencies and corresponding mechanisms are discussed in detail, and the mechanisms of energy transfer from the Ce(3+) to Tb(3+) and Ce(3+) to Eu(2+) ions are demonstrated to be a dipole-quadrupole and dipole-dipole mechanism, respectively, by the Inokuti-Hirayama model. The International Commission on Illumination value of color tuneable emission as well as luminescence quantum yield (23.8-80.6%) can be tuned by controlling the content of Ce(3+), Tb(3+) and Eu(2+). All results suggest that they are suitable for UV light-emitting diode excitation. PMID:27226201

  5. Sensitivity of C-Tb: a novel RD-1-specific skin test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Soren T; Peter, Jonathan G; Theron, Grant; Pascoe, Mellissa; Tingskov, Pernille N; Aggerbeck, Henrik; Kolbus, Daniel; Ruhwald, Morten; Andersen, Peter; Dheda, Keertan

    2016-03-01

    C-Tb, a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target/10-kDa culture filtrate protein (ESAT-6/CFP-10)-specific skin test, has high specificity in bacille Calmette-Guerin-vaccinated healthy controls. However, the sensitivity of C-Tb has hitherto not been determined. The objective was to determine the sensitivity of C-Tb in patients with active tuberculosis (TB) in comparison with the tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT).C-Tb and TST were randomly administered in a double-blinded fashion to one or the other forearm in 253 patients with active TB with or without HIV co-infection. QFT-GIT testing was performed prior to skin testing.Using a receiver operating characteristic curve-derived cut-point of 5 mm, C-Tb sensitivity was similar to QFT-GIT (73.9 (95% CI 67.8-79.3) versus 75.1 (95% CI 69.3-80.2)), and similar in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients (76.7 (95% CI 69.0-83.3) versus 69.5 (95% CI 59.2-78.5)). However, sensitivity was significantly diminished in HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts <100 cells·mm(-3). C-Tb and QFT-GIT combined had significantly higher sensitivity than C-Tb alone (p<0.0001). C-Tb was safe with no significant adverse events. The 5 mm cut-point corresponded to that found in the previously published specificity study (TESEC-04).C-Tb has similar sensitivity compared with QFT-GIT for the diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection. Sensitivity was reduced only in HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression. Further studies in different settings are required to validate the proposed 5 mm cut-point. PMID:26677940

  6. Elevated serum 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D levels are associated with risk of TB progression in Gambian adults

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Olumuyiwa; Agbla, Schadrac; Owiafe, Patrick; Donkor, Simon; Togun, Toyin; Sillah, Abdou K.; Ota, Martin O.C.; Sutherland, Jayne S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Vitamin D is essential in the host defence against tuberculosis (TB) as an immune modulator. The aim of this study was to determine the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) from adult TB index cases before and after treatment and their exposed household contacts (HHC) in The Gambia. Methods Serum from adult index TB cases and their TB-exposed household contacts (HHC) was analysed for 25(OH) D and Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) concentrations. Tuberculin skin test (TST) status was used as a measure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infectivity in the HHC. In addition, HHC who later progressed to active TB (incident cases) were assessed alongside non-progressors to determine the influence of 25 (OH) D levels on TB risk. Results Eighty-three TB cases, 46 TST+ and 52 TST− HHC were analysed. Generally levels of 25(OH) D were considered insufficient in all subjects. However, median levels of 25(OH) D and VDBP were significantly higher in TB cases compared to both TST+ and TST− HHC at recruitment and were significantly reduced after TB therapy (p < 0.0001 for all). In addition, levels of serum 25(OH) D at recruitment were significantly higher in TB progressors compared to non-progressors (median (IQR): 25.0(20.8–29.2) in progressors and 20.3 (16.3–24.6) ng/ml in non-progressors; p = 0.007). Conclusion In The Gambia, an equatorial country, 25(OH) D levels are higher in serum of TB progressors and those with active disease compared to latently infected and uninfected subjects. These results contrast to findings in non-equatorial countries. PMID:27156622

  7. Treatment: Latent TB Infection (LTBI) and TB Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tuberculosis Basic TB Facts How TB Spreads Latent TB ...

  8. Questions and Answers about TB

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tuberculosis Basic TB Facts How TB Spreads Latent TB ...

  9. Recent tuberculosis diagnosis toward the end TB strategy.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Seon Ah; Cho, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jeonghyo; Lee, Jaebeom; Kim, Hwa-Jung; Park, Tae Jung

    2016-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite global TB eradication efforts, it is still a global public health concern, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Most of the active TB infections are curable with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, but drug-resistant TB is difficult and expensive to treat in immunocompetent as well as immunocompromised individuals. Thus, rapid, economic, and accurate point-of care tools for TB diagnosis are required urgently. This review describes the history of M. tuberculosis detection methods up to date and the recent advances using nanotechnology for point-of-care testing of TB diagnosis. PMID:26853124

  10. Measurement of the MACS of {sup 159}Tb(n, γ) at kT=30 keV by Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Praena, J.; Mastinu, P.F.; Pignatari, M.; Quesada, J.M.; Capote, R.; Morilla, Y.

    2014-06-15

    The measurement of the Maxwellian-Averaged Cross-Section (MACS) of the {sup 159}Tb(n, γ) reaction at kT=30 keV by the activation technique is presented. An innovative method for the generation of Maxwellian neutron spectra at kT=30 keV is used. An experimental value of 2166±181 mb agrees well with the MACS value derived from the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation, but is higher than KADoNiS recommended value of 1580±150 mb. Astrophysical implications are studied.

  11. Predictive and prognostic properties of TB-LAM among HIV-positive patients initiating ART in Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    d'Elia, Alexander; Evans, Denise; McNamara, Lynne; Berhanu, Rebecca; Sanne, Ian; Lönnermark, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    While the diagnostic properties of the TB LAM urine assay (LAM) have been well-described, little is known about its predictive and prognostic properties at ART initiation in a routine clinic setting. We describe the predictive and prognostic properties of LAM in HIV-positive patients initiating ART at an urban hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. Retrospective study of HIV-positive adults (>18 years) who initiated standard first-line ART between February 2012 and April 2013 and had a LAM test at initiation. In HIV-positive patients with no known TB at ART initiation, we assessed the sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative likelihood ratios of LAM to predict incident TB within 6 months of ART initiation. In addition, in patients with a TB diagnosis and on TB treatment <3 months at ART initiation, we measured the CD4 response at 6 months on ART. Of the 274 patients without TB at ART initiation, 65% were female with median CD4 count of 213 cells/mm3. Among the 14 (5.1%) patients who developed active TB, none were urine LAM +ve at baseline. LAM had poor sensitivity (0.0% 95% CI 0.00-23.2) to predict incident TB within 6 months of initiation. We analyzed 22 patients with a confirmed TB diagnosis at initiation separately. Of these, LAM +ve patients (27%) showed lower CD4 gains compared to LAM negative patients (median increase 103 vs 199 cells/mm3; p = 0.08). LAM has limited value for accurately predicting incident TB in patients with higher CD4 counts after ART initiation. LAM may help identify TB/HIV co-infected patients at ART initiation who respond more slowly to treatment and require targeted interventions to improve treatment outcomes. Larger studies with longer patient follow-up are needed. PMID:26600904

  12. Design, Syntheses, and Anti-TB Activity of 1,3-Benzothiazinone Azide and Click Chemistry Products Inspired by BTZ043.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Rohit; Miller, Patricia A; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Mori, Giorgia; Šarkan, Michal; Centárová, Ivana; Cho, Sanghyun; Mikušová, Katarína; Franzblau, Scott G; Oliver, Allen G; Miller, Marvin J

    2016-03-10

    Electron deficient nitroaromatic compounds such as BTZ043 and its closest congener, PBTZ169, and related agents are a promising new class of anti-TB compounds. Herein we report the design and syntheses of 1,3-benzothiazinone azide (BTZ-N3) and related click chemistry products based on the molecular mode of activation of BTZ043. Our computational docking studies indicate that BTZ-N3 binds in the essentially same pocket as that of BTZ043. Detailed biochemical studies with cell envelope enzyme fractions of Mycobacterium smegmatis combined with our model biochemical reactivity studies with nucleophiles indicated that, in contrast to BTZ043, the azide analogue may have a different mode of activation for anti-TB activity. Subsequent enzymatic studies with recombinant DprE1 from Mtb followed by MIC determination in NTB1 strain of Mtb (harboring Cys387Ser mutation in DprE1 and is BTZ043 resistant) unequivocally indicated that BTZ-N3 is an effective reversible and noncovalent inhibitor of DprE1. PMID:26985313

  13. [Comparative immunologic activity of marine bioglycans].

    PubMed

    Zaporozhets, T S; Besednova, N N; Molchanova, V N; Zviagintseva, T N

    2001-01-01

    Immunomodulating activity of three marine bioglycanes of different structure was investigated. The following preparations were compared: mitilan--glycoprotein, containing 1,4-alpha-D-glucane, isolated from mussel Crenomytilus grayanus; translam--beta-1,3; 1,6-beta-D-glucane isolated from Laminaria cichorioides and zosterin--low-metoxylated pectine isolated from marine plant of genera Zosteraceae. It was shown that immune response modulating was due to delicate and complex interaction of immune competent cells with cytokins participation. All bioglycanes investigated when introduced into animals organism produced changes in immune system: spleen mass enlarged, lymphocytes subpopulation redistributed, nonspecific T-supressors activity enhanced, content of interferone in blood serum increased. It is considered that similarity of immune system reactions is due to polysaccharide component of investigated biopolymers and potency of the effect is determined by structural specificity and by stereochemistry of each bioglycane. PMID:11697245

  14. Comparative Antianaerobic Activity of BMS 284756

    PubMed Central

    Hoellman, Dianne B.; Kelly, Linda M.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    Agar dilution MIC methodology was used to compare the activity of BMS 284756 with those of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 357 anaerobes. Overall, the respective MICs at which 50% of the isolates tested were inhibited (MIC50s) and MIC90s (in micrograms per milliliter) were as follows: BMS 284756, 0.5 and 2.0; ciprofloxacin, 2.0 and 16.0; levofloxacin, 1.0 and 8.0; moxifloxacin, 0.5 and 4.0; trovafloxacin, 0.5 and 2.0; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 0.5 and 2.0; piperacillin-tazobactam, 0.25 and 8.0; imipenem, 0.06 and 1.0; clindamycin, 0.25 and 8.0; and metronidazole, 1.0 and >16.0. BMS 284756 is a promising new quinolone with excellent antianaerobic activity. PMID:11158759

  15. Effect of hydrogen passivation on the photoluminescence of Tb ions in silicon rich silicon oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatryb, G.; Klak, M. M.; Wojcik, J.; Misiewicz, J.; Mascher, P.; Podhorodecki, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, silicon-rich silicon oxide films containing terbium were prepared by means of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The influence of hydrogen passivation on defects-mediated non-radiative recombination of excited Tb3+ ions was investigated by photoluminescence, photoluminescence excitation, and photoluminescence decay measurements. Passivation was found to have no effect on shape and spectral position of the excitation spectra. In contrast, a gradual increase in photoluminescence intensity and photoluminescence decay time was observed upon passivation for the main 5D4-7F5 transition of Tb3+ ions. This observation was attributed to passivation of non-radiative recombination defects centers with hydrogen. It was found that the number of emitted photons increases upon passivation as a result of two effects: (1) longer Tb3+ lifetime in the 5D4 excited state and (2) optical activation of new Tb3+ emitters. The obtained results were discussed and compared with other experimental reports.

  16. Stimulus Response of Au-NPs@GMP-Tb Core-Shell Nanoparticles: Toward Colorimetric and Fluorescent Dual-Mode Sensing of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Algal Blooms of a Freshwater Lake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Deng, Jingjing; Xue, Yumeng; Shi, Guoyue; Zhou, Tianshu

    2016-01-19

    In this study, we demonstrate a colorimetric and fluorescent dual-mode method for alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) sensing in freshwater lake with stimuli-responsive gold nanoparticles@terbium-guanosine monophosphate (Au-NPs@GMP-Tb) core-shell nanoparticles. Initially, the core-shell nanoparticles were fabricated based on Au-NPs decorated with a fluorescent GMP-Tb shell. Upon being excited at 290 nm, the as-formed Au-NPs@GMP-Tb core-shell nanoparticles emit green fluorescence, and the decorated GMP-Tb shell causes the aggregation of Au-NPs. However, the addition of ALP destroys GMP-Tb shell, resulting in the release of Au-NPs from the shell into the solvent. As a consequence, the aggregated Au-NPs solubilizes with the changes in the UV-vis spectrum of the dispersion, and in the meantime, the fluorescence of GMP-Tb shell turns off, which constitutes a new mechanism for colorimetric and fluorescent dual-mode sensing of APA. With the method developed here, we could monitor the dynamic change of APA during an algal bloom of a freshwater lake, both by the naked eye and further confirmed by fluorometric determination. This study not only offers a new method for on-site visible detection of APA but also provides a strategy for dual-mode sensing mechanisms by the rational design of the excellent optical properties of Au-NPs and the adaptive inclusion properties of the luminescent infinite coordination polymers. PMID:26677868

  17. Extension of the energy range of the experimental activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 65MeV.

    PubMed

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-04-01

    Activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium were extended up to 65MeV by using stacked foil irradiation and gamma spectrometry experimental methods. Experimental cross-sections data for the formation of the radionuclides (159)Dy, (157)Dy, (155)Dy, (161)Tb, (160)Tb, (156)Tb, (155)Tb, (154m2)Tb, (154m1)Tb, (154g)Tb, (153)Tb, (152)Tb and (151)Tb are reported in the 36-65MeV energy range, and compared with an old dataset from 1964. The experimental data were also compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS nuclear reaction model code as listed in the latest on-line libraries TENDL 2013. PMID:25644082

  18. Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379

  19. Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379

  20. TB Is Back.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1992-01-01

    The reemergence of tuberculosis, particularly of new drug-resistant strains, points up the need for well-coordinated school health programs. Immigration effects, growing populations of HIV-infected persons, and relaxed screening procedures are partly responsible for TB's reemergence. Two sidebars offer advice on coping with TB at school and…

  1. Comparative study between TB-mBJ and GGA+U on magnetic and optical properties of CdFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaari, H.; El Hachimi, A. G.; Benyoussef, A.; El Kenz, A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave (FP-LAPW) based on density functional theory (DFT) is carried out to study the density of states, optical properties and XMCD properties of bulk spinel ferrite CdFe2O4. The exchange correlation potential was solved by Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) that underestimates the band gap value, therefore, the later needed to be corrected using two approaches: Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential approximation (TB-mBJ) and GGA plus the multi-orbital mean-field Hubbard potential (GGA+U). These methods provide accurate results in good agreement for the optical properties and band gap with experimental data. CdFe2O4 has a coefficient of absorption more than 104/cm in the visible range. The first critical point known as optical absorption edge calculated with GGA+U and TB-mBJ appears at 1.56 eV and 1.88 eV, respectively. The XMCD spectra show a double pic in L3 edge indicating the presence of both Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions, occupying the octahedral sites. However, using GGA+U the charge of the atoms is well localized and subsequently the double peak does not reproduce. The crystal field creates additional levels that provide radiation in the visible, having these properties; this compound promotes its use for device applications operating over a wide energy range based on CdFe2O4 in optoelectronics.

  2. Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  3. Recent activities at PTB nanometer comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flugge, Jens; Koning, Rainer; Bosse, Harald

    2003-11-01

    The PTB in cooperation with the Dr. Johannes Heidenhain GmbH built up a new length comparator with a measurement range of 610 mm for 1D length measurements on line scales, linear encoders and interferometers. The PTB nanometer comparator was retrofitted and now allows a stable operation of the interferometer. To investigate the actual measurement performance a few line scales and a linear encoder were measured and compared with results from other comparators. The results are discussed and recent developments at the nanometer comparator are described.

  4. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Departments & Divisions Home Conditions Tuberculosis Treating Tuberculosis Treating Tuberculosis Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Diagnosing Tuberculosis History of TB Our Specialists Charles L. Daley, ...

  5. TB Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... a risk that the first TST is a false-negative reaction, a second skin test is given ... species, for example Mycobacterium kansasii , will give a false-positive TST or IGRA result for TB. Positive ...

  6. Differential Levels of Alpha-2-Macroglobulin, Haptoglobin and Sero-Transferrin as Adjunct Markers for TB Diagnosis and Disease Progression in the Malnourished Tribal Population of Melghat, India.

    PubMed

    Bapat, Prachi R; Satav, Ashish R; Husain, Aliabbas A; Shekhawat, Seema D; Kawle, Anuja P; Chu, Justin J; Purohit, Hemant J; Daginawala, Hatim F; Taori, Girdhar M; Kashyap, Rajpal S

    2015-01-01

    Lack of diagnostic capacity has been a crucial barrier preventing an effective response to the challenges of malnutrition and tuberculosis (TB). Point-of-care diagnostic tests for TB in immuno-incompetent, malnourished population are thus needed to ensure rapid and accurate detection. The aim of the study was to identify potential biomarkers specific for TB infection and progression to overt disease in the malnourished population of Melghat. A prospective cohort study was conducted in the year 2009 through 2011 in six villages of the Melghat region. 275 participants consisting of malnourished cases with a) active TB (n = 32), b) latent TB infection (n = 90), c) with no clinical or bacteriological signs of active or latent TB (n = 130) and healthy control subjects (n = 23) were recruited for the study. The proteome changes of the host serum in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection were investigated using one dimensional electrophoresis in combination with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Three most differentially expressed proteins; alpha-2-macroglobulin (A-2-M), sero-transferrin and haptoglobin were identified by MALDI-TOF MS analysis, which were up-regulated in the malnourished patients with active TB and down-regulated in the malnourished patients compared with the healthy controls. Additionally, follow-up studies indicated that the expression of these proteins increased to nearly two folds in patients who developed active disease from latent state. Our preliminary results suggest that A-2-M, sero-transferrin and haptoglobin may be clinically relevant host biomarkers for TB diagnosis and disease progression in the malnourished population. This study provides preliminary framework for an in-depth analysis of the biomarkers in larger well-characterized cohorts. Evaluation of these biomarkers in follow-up cases may further aid in improving TB diagnosis. PMID:26241963

  7. Differential Levels of Alpha-2-Macroglobulin, Haptoglobin and Sero-Transferrin as Adjunct Markers for TB Diagnosis and Disease Progression in the Malnourished Tribal Population of Melghat, India

    PubMed Central

    Bapat, Prachi R.; Satav, Ashish R.; Husain, Aliabbas A.; Shekhawat, Seema D.; Kawle, Anuja P.; Chu, Justin J.; Purohit, Hemant J.; Daginawala, Hatim F.; Taori, Girdhar M.; Kashyap, Rajpal S.

    2015-01-01

    Lack of diagnostic capacity has been a crucial barrier preventing an effective response to the challenges of malnutrition and tuberculosis (TB). Point-of-care diagnostic tests for TB in immuno-incompetent, malnourished population are thus needed to ensure rapid and accurate detection. The aim of the study was to identify potential biomarkers specific for TB infection and progression to overt disease in the malnourished population of Melghat. A prospective cohort study was conducted in the year 2009 through 2011 in six villages of the Melghat region. 275 participants consisting of malnourished cases with a) active TB (n = 32), b) latent TB infection (n = 90), c) with no clinical or bacteriological signs of active or latent TB (n = 130) and healthy control subjects (n = 23) were recruited for the study. The proteome changes of the host serum in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection were investigated using one dimensional electrophoresis in combination with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Three most differentially expressed proteins; alpha-2-macroglobulin (A-2-M), sero-transferrin and haptoglobin were identified by MALDI-TOF MS analysis, which were up-regulated in the malnourished patients with active TB and down-regulated in the malnourished patients compared with the healthy controls. Additionally, follow-up studies indicated that the expression of these proteins increased to nearly two folds in patients who developed active disease from latent state. Our preliminary results suggest that A-2-M, sero-transferrin and haptoglobin may be clinically relevant host biomarkers for TB diagnosis and disease progression in the malnourished population. This study provides preliminary framework for an in-depth analysis of the biomarkers in larger well-characterized cohorts. Evaluation of these biomarkers in follow-up cases may further aid in improving TB diagnosis. PMID:26241963

  8. Decrease of U(VI) immobilization capability of the facultative anaerobic strain Paenibacillus sp. JG-TB8 under anoxic conditions due to strongly reduced phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Thomas; Rossberg, Andre; Barkleit, Astrid; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja; Merroun, Mohamed L

    2014-01-01

    Interactions of a facultative anaerobic bacterial isolate named Paenibacillus sp. JG-TB8 with U(VI) were studied under oxic and anoxic conditions in order to assess the influence of the oxygen-dependent cell metabolism on microbial uranium mobilization and immobilization. We demonstrated that aerobically and anaerobically grown cells of Paenibacillus sp. JG-TB8 accumulate uranium from aqueous solutions under acidic conditions (pH 2 to 6), under oxic and anoxic conditions. A combination of spectroscopic and microscopic methods revealed that the speciation of U(VI) associated with the cells of the strain depend on the pH as well as on the aeration conditions. At pH 2 and pH 3, uranium was exclusively bound by organic phosphate groups provided by cellular components, independently on the aeration conditions. At higher pH values, a part (pH 4.5) or the total amount (pH 6) of the dissolved uranium was precipitated under oxic conditions in a meta-autunite-like uranyl phosphate mineral phase without supplying an additional organic phosphate substrate. In contrast to that, under anoxic conditions no mineral formation was observed at pH 4.5 and pH 6, which was clearly assigned to decreased orthophosphate release by the cells. This in turn was caused by a suppression of the indigenous phosphatase activity of the strain. The results demonstrate that changes in the metabolism of facultative anaerobic microorganisms caused by the presence or absence of oxygen can decisively influence U(VI) biomineralization. PMID:25157416

  9. Decrease of U(VI) Immobilization Capability of the Facultative Anaerobic Strain Paenibacillus sp. JG-TB8 under Anoxic Conditions Due to Strongly Reduced Phosphatase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Reitz, Thomas; Rossberg, Andre; Barkleit, Astrid; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja; Merroun, Mohamed L.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions of a facultative anaerobic bacterial isolate named Paenibacillus sp. JG-TB8 with U(VI) were studied under oxic and anoxic conditions in order to assess the influence of the oxygen-dependent cell metabolism on microbial uranium mobilization and immobilization. We demonstrated that aerobically and anaerobically grown cells of Paenibacillus sp. JG-TB8 accumulate uranium from aqueous solutions under acidic conditions (pH 2 to 6), under oxic and anoxic conditions. A combination of spectroscopic and microscopic methods revealed that the speciation of U(VI) associated with the cells of the strain depend on the pH as well as on the aeration conditions. At pH 2 and pH 3, uranium was exclusively bound by organic phosphate groups provided by cellular components, independently on the aeration conditions. At higher pH values, a part (pH 4.5) or the total amount (pH 6) of the dissolved uranium was precipitated under oxic conditions in a meta-autunite-like uranyl phosphate mineral phase without supplying an additional organic phosphate substrate. In contrast to that, under anoxic conditions no mineral formation was observed at pH 4.5 and pH 6, which was clearly assigned to decreased orthophosphate release by the cells. This in turn was caused by a suppression of the indigenous phosphatase activity of the strain. The results demonstrate that changes in the metabolism of facultative anaerobic microorganisms caused by the presence or absence of oxygen can decisively influence U(VI) biomineralization. PMID:25157416

  10. Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination TB Facts: You Can Prevent TB What ...

  11. Tuberculosis Facts - TB Can Be Treated

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB Can Be Treated What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Page 1 of 2 TB Facts: TB ...

  12. Mathematical study of the thermoluminescence process in K2YF5:Tb(3+).

    PubMed

    Kadari, Ahmed; Mostefa, Rabah; Marcazzó, Julián; Kadri, Dahane

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents results of studying the simulated thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve in potassium-yttrium double fluoride doped with trivalent optically active Tb(3+) ions (K2YF5:Tb(3+)). Samples have been irradiated with different doses (0.24, 2.4 and 24 Gy) of beta particles. Four trapping states and one kind of recombination-centre model have been used in this simulation. The activation energy and order of kinetics are determined using the general-order kinetic model. The results obtained using the authors' proposed models were tested and compared with the experimental glow curve of K2YF5:Tb(3+). The comparison has shown that the proposed model can predict more accurately and easily the behaviour of the TL glow curve at three different doses. PMID:25543131

  13. Photoluminescence properties of rare earths (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}) activated NaInW{sub 2}O{sub 8} wolframite host lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Asiri Naidu, S.; Boudin, S.; Varadaraju, U.V.; Raveau, B.

    2012-01-15

    The photoluminescence (PL) studies on NaIn{sub 1-x}RE{sub x}W{sub 2}O{sub 8}, with RE=Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} phases have shown that the relative contribution of the host lattice and of the intra-f-f emission of the activators to the PL varies with the nature of the rare earth cation. In the case of Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} activators, with yellow and blue emission, respectively, the energy transfer from host to the activator plays a major role. In contrast for Eu{sup 3+}, with intense red emission, the host absorption is less pronounced and the intra-f-f transitions of the Eu{sup 3+} ions play a major role, whereas for Tb{sup 3+} intra-f-f transitions are only observed, giving rise to green emission. - Graphical abstract: NaInW{sub 2}O{sub 8} double tungstate doped with Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}and Tm{sup 3+} shows characteristic emission of intense red for Eu{sup 3+}, yellow for Dy{sup 3+}, green for Tb{sup 3+} and blue for Tm{sup 3+}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristic emissions of rare earths (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}) are observed NaInW{sub 2}O{sub 8} wolframite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy transfer from host to the activators (Eu{sup 3+} Dy{sup 3+} Tm{sup 3+} is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL properties of rare earth ions depend on minor structural variations in the host lattice.

  14. The campaign against TB: governments must commit themselves. TB in Africa.

    PubMed

    Chaulet, P

    1996-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Pierre Chaulet on the campaign against tuberculosis (TB) in Africa. Chaulet noted during the 9th IUATLD Conference of the Africa Region that the national TB control programs have taken on a new commitment in Africa since the declaration of TB as a global emergency in the 1990s. The TB control program package consists of five principal components: 1) political will of the government and its commitment to support the program; 2) case detection; 3) initiation of short course chemotherapy among detected cases; 4) ensuring the regular supply of essential anti-TB drugs; and 5) establishing a registry and reporting system for program monitoring and evaluation. Of the 40 African countries participating in the conference, 30 have efficient programs. Comparing the management of National TB Control Programs in Francophone and Anglophone Africa, it is noted that both are complementary, although generally, public health issues are more easily integrated into the medical training in the Anglophone countries than they are in the Francophone. Anglophone uses a more comprehensive approach to public health while countries in the Francophone practiced a more traditional university centralization. Finally, Chaulet gives his comment on the role of WHO in addressing concerns over the financial issues involved in TB Control Programs, particularly in the mobilization of resources from nongovernmental organizations and international institutions. PMID:12179805

  15. An Imbalanced Learning based MDR-TB Early Warning System.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Tang, Bo; He, Haibo

    2016-07-01

    As a man-made disease, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is mainly caused by improper treatment programs and poor patient supervision, most of which could be prevented. According to the daily treatment and inspection records of tuberculosis (TB) cases, this study focuses on establishing a warning system which could early evaluate the risk of TB patients converting to MDR-TB using machine learning methods. Different imbalanced sampling strategies and classification methods were compared due to the disparity between the number of TB cases and MDR-TB cases in historical data. The final results show that the relative optimal predictions results can be obtained by adopting CART-USBagg classification model in the first 90 days of half of a standardized treatment process. PMID:27209184

  16. Comparative molecular modelling of biologically active sterols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Mariusz; Mazerski, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Membrane sterols are targets for a clinically important antifungal agent - amphotericin B. The relatively specific antifungal action of the drug is based on a stronger interaction of amphotericin B with fungal ergosterol than with mammalian cholesterol. Conformational space occupied by six sterols has been defined using the molecular dynamics method to establish if the conformational features correspond to the preferential interaction of amphotericin B with ergosterol as compared with cholesterol. The compounds studied were chosen on the basis of structural features characteristic for cholesterol and ergosterol and on available experimental data on the ability to form complexes with the antibiotic. Statistical analysis of the data obtained has been performed. The results show similarity of the conformational spaces occupied by all the sterols tested. This suggests that the conformational differences of sterol molecules are not the major feature responsible for the differential sterol - drug affinity.

  17. Tracking and Treating Mobile Populations. The TB Net System. Migrant Clinicians Network Monograph Series. = El Sistema de Red para la TB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migrant Clinicians Network, Inc., Austin, TX.

    A comprehensive tracking and referral network that helps provide continuity of care for mobile populations with active tuberculosis (TB) or TB infection is considered essential for effective treatment of TB. However, the interstate referral system that exists between state health departments has been highly inefficient for serving migrant…

  18. Wavelength dependence of Verdet constant of Tb3+:Y2O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snetkov, I. L.; Permin, D. A.; Balabanov, S. S.; Palashov, O. V.

    2016-04-01

    Samples of the magneto-active material—Tb3+:Y2O3 ceramics with Tb3+ ion concentrations of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 100% (Tb2O3)—were prepared and studied. The wavelength dependence of Verdet constant in the 380 nm-1750 nm range was approximated for all investigated ceramic samples and was predicted for a pure Tb2O3 material. Tb2O3 ceramics demonstrates a more than three times higher Verdet constant in comparison with terbium gallium garnet crystal or ceramics. The linear dependence of the Verdet constant on Tb3+ ion concentration in the Tb3+:Y2O3 ceramics was demonstrated. The obtained data will be useful for fabricating magneto-optical elements of Faraday devices based on Tb3+:Y2O3 with arbitrary Tb3+ ion concentration operating at room temperature in the wavelength range of 380 nm-1750 nm.

  19. Preparation and spectroscopic properties of rare-earth (RE) (RE = Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Tm)-activated K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (Ln = Y, La, Gd and Lu) phosphate in vacuum ultraviolet region

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Lin, Xiao; Zhao, Jing-Tai; Zhang, Guo-Bin

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► We report the VUV spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions in K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. ► The O{sup 2−}-Eu{sup 3+} charge transfer bands at about 220 nm have been observed. ► The 4f–5d spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions of Tb{sup 3+} have been observed. ► There is energy transfer between the host and rare-earth activators. -- Abstract: Rare earth (RE = Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Tm)-activated K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (Ln = Y, La, Gd and Lu) have been synthesized by solid-state reaction method, and their vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation luminescent characteristics have been investigated. The band in the wavelength range of 130–157 nm and the other one range from 155 to 216 nm with the maximum at about 187 nm in the VUV excitation spectra of these compounds are attributed to the host lattice absorption and O–Zr charge transfer transition, respectively. The charge transfer bands (CTB) of O{sup 2−}-Sm{sup 3+}, O{sup 2−}-Dy{sup 3+} and O{sup 2−}-Tm{sup 3+}, in Sm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}-activated samples, have not been obviously observed probably because the 2p electrons of oxygen are tightly bound to the zirconium ion in the host lattice. For Eu{sup 3+}-activated samples, the relatively weak O{sup 2−}-Eu{sup 3+} CTB at about 220 nm is observed. And for Tb{sup 3+}-activated samples, the bands at 223 and 258 nm are related to the 4f-5d spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions of Tb{sup 3+}, respectively. It is observed that there is energy transfer between the host lattice and the luminescent activators (e.g. Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}). From the standpoint of luminescent efficiency, color purity and chemical stability, K{sub 2}GdZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} are attractive candidates for novel yellow, red, green-emitting PDP phosphors.

  20. TB/HIV pleurisy reduces Th17 lymphocyte proportion independent of the cytokine microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Korb, Vanessa C; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Lalloo, Umesh G; Chuturgoon, Anil A; Moodley, Devapregasan

    2016-07-01

    T-helper (Th) 17 cells are a pro-inflammatory subset of CD4(+) effector T-cells critical in mucosal immunity. Imbalances in Th17 cell proportion have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases; however, this has not been adequately explored in tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection. Since Th17 cells are predominantly mucosally associated, we assessed Th17 proportion and associated microenvironment in pleural effusions from patients co-infected with TB/HIV. Our results show that TB(+)HIV(+) pleurisy results in significantly reduced frequency of CD4(+)IL-17(+)RORC(+)STAT3(+) Th17 cells compared to TB(-)HIV(-)ex vivo (p = 0.0054) and was confirmed in conditioned media studies in vitro (p = 0.0001). This was not associated with alterations in Th17 polarising cytokines IL-6, IL-21 and IL-23 or changes in Th17 signature cytokines IL-17A and F. However, the mRNA expression of Th17 signalling molecules, IL-6 (p = 0.0022), IL-6R (p = 0.0247), IL-1β (p = 0.0022) and signal transducer and activator (STAT) 3 (p = 0.0022) were significantly upregulated. Notably, TB(+)HIV(+) pleural fluid contained significantly higher concentrations of IL-1β (p = 0.0008), IL-22 (p = 0.0115), IL-31 (p = 0.0210), TNF-α (p = 0.0251) and IFN-γ (p = 0.0026) than TB(-)HIV(-) pleural fluid ex vivo. Taken together, this suggests a reduced portion of Th17 lymphocytes in TB/HIV pleurisy is independent of locally mediated cytokine polarisation. PMID:27450010

  1. Cross sections of proton-induced reactions on 152Gd, 155Gd and 159Tb with emphasis on the production of selected Tb radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn, G. F.; Vermeulen, C.; Szelecsényi, F.; Kovács, Z.; Hohn, A.; van der Meulen, N. P.; Schibli, R.; van der Walt, T. N.

    2014-01-01

    Cross sections are presented for various Dy, Tb and Gd radionuclides produced in the proton bombardment of 159Tb as well as for the reactions 152Gd(p,4n)149Tb and 155Gd(p,4n)152Tb up to 66 MeV. The experimental excitation functions are compared with theoretical predictions by means of the geometry-dependent hybrid (GDH) model as implemented in the code ALICE/ASH, as well as with values from the TENDL-2012 library and previous literature experimental data, where available. Physical yields have been derived for the production of some of the medically important radioterbiums, namely 149Tb (radionuclide therapy), 152Tb (PET) and 155Tb (SPECT). The indirect production of high-purity 155Tb via the decay of its precursor 155Dy is reported. The possibility of a large-scale production facility based on a commercial 70 MeV cyclotron is also discussed.

  2. DFT calculations, spectroscopic, thermal analysis and biological activity of Sm(III) and Tb(III) complexes with 2-aminobenzoic and 2-amino-5-chloro-benzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Essawy, Amr A; Afifi, Manal A; Moustafa, H; El-Medani, S M

    2014-10-15

    The complexes of Sm(III) and Tb(III) with 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid, AA) and 2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid (5-chloroanthranilic acid, AACl) were synthesized and characterized based on elemental analysis, IR and mass spectroscopy. The data are in accordance with 1:3 [Metal]:[Ligand] ratio. On the basis of the IR analysis, it was found that the metals were coordinated to bidentate anthranilic acid via the ionised oxygen of the carboxylate group and to the nitrogen of amino group. While in 5-chloroanthranilic acid, the metals were coordinated oxidatively to the bidentate carboxylate group without bonding to amino group; accordingly, a chlorine-affected coordination and reactivity-diversity was emphasized. Thermal analyses (TGA) and biological activity of the complexes were also investigated. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p)_ level of theory have been carried out to investigate the equilibrium geometry of the ligand. The optimized geometry parameters of the complexes were evaluated using SDDALL basis set. Moreover, total energy, energy of HOMO and LUMO and Mullikan atomic charges were calculated. In addition, dipole moment and orientation have been performed and discussed. PMID:24835942

  3. Biofunctionalization of CeF3:Tb3+ nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, D. Y.; Wang, Z. L.; Lin, C. K.; Quan, Z. W.; Li, Y. Y.; Li, C. X.; Lin, J.

    2007-02-01

    CeF3:Tb3+ nanoparticles (short pillar-like morphology with an average length and width of 11 and 5 nm, respectively) were successfully prepared by a polyol process using diethyleneglycol (DEG) as solvent. After being functionalized with a SiO2-NH2 layer, these CeF3:Tb3+ nanoparticles can be conjugated with biotin molecules (activated by thionyl chloride) and further with avidin. The as-formed CeF3:Tb3+ nanoparticles, CeF3:Tb3+ nanoparticles functionalized with amino groups, biotin conjugated amino-functionalized CeF3:Tb3+ nanoparticles and biotinylated CeF3:Tb3+ nanoparticles bonded with avidin were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV/vis absorption spectra and luminescence spectra, respectively. The biofunctionalization of the CeF3:Tb3+ nanoparticles has less effect on their luminescence properties, i.e. they still show strong green emission (from Tb3+, with 5D4-7F5 at 543 nm as the most prominent group), indicative of the great potential for these CeF3:Tb3+ nanoparticles to be used as biological fluorescence probes.

  4. Biofunctionalization of CeF(3):Tb(3+) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kong, D Y; Wang, Z L; Lin, C K; Quan, Z W; Li, Y Y; Li, C X; Lin, J

    2007-02-21

    CeF(3):Tb(3+) nanoparticles (short pillar-like morphology with an average length and width of 11 and 5 nm, respectively) were successfully prepared by a polyol process using diethyleneglycol (DEG) as solvent. After being functionalized with a SiO(2)-NH(2) layer, these CeF(3):Tb(3+) nanoparticles can be conjugated with biotin molecules (activated by thionyl chloride) and further with avidin. The as-formed CeF(3):Tb(3+) nanoparticles, CeF(3):Tb(3+) nanoparticles functionalized with amino groups, biotin conjugated amino-functionalized CeF(3):Tb(3+) nanoparticles and biotinylated CeF(3):Tb(3+) nanoparticles bonded with avidin were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV/vis absorption spectra and luminescence spectra, respectively. The biofunctionalization of the CeF(3):Tb(3+) nanoparticles has less effect on their luminescence properties, i.e. they still show strong green emission (from Tb(3+), with (5)D(4)-(7)F(5) at 543 nm as the most prominent group), indicative of the great potential for these CeF(3):Tb(3+) nanoparticles to be used as biological fluorescence probes. PMID:21730503

  5. Photo- and cathodoluminescence of hydrothermally synthesized Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Tb and NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Potter, B.G. Jr.

    1995-10-01

    Cathodoluminescent (CL) phosphors with improved low-voltage characteristics are needed for use in emissive flat panel displays. Conventional high-temperature methods for phosphor synthesis yield large polycrystalline grains that must be pulverized prior to screen deposition. Grinding has been implicated in reducing phosphor efficiency by causing surface contamination and defects. Hydrothermal synthesis has been used to improve the quality of ceramic powders by producing fine, well-formed crystallites without grinding. Two green-emitting phosphors, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Tb (YAG:Tb) and NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb, were used to test the effects of hydrothermal. synthesis on grain size and morphology, and on low-voltage CL properties. YAG:Th prepared hydrothermally consisted of submicron crystallites with a typical garnet habit. The CL efficiency of hydrothermally synthesized YAG:Tb (3 lm/W at 800 V) was comparable to that of equivalent YAG:Tb compositions prepared via high-temperature solid state reaction. In comparison, CL intensities of Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub l2}:Tb were slightly better (3.5 lm/W at 800 V), while those of NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb were approximately 1/100th that of YAG:Tb. Both CL and photoluminescence data show that the difference in the cathodoluminescence of YAG and NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} can be understood in terms of differences in the mechanism of activation.

  6. Aberrant Inflammasome Activation Characterizes Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hong Yien; Yong, Yean Kong; Shankar, Esaki M; Paukovics, Geza; Ellegård, Rada; Larsson, Marie; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; French, Martyn A; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2016-05-15

    Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) complicates combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in up to 25% of patients with HIV/TB coinfection. Monocytes and IL-18, a signature cytokine of inflammasome activation, are implicated in TB-IRIS pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated inflammasome activation both pre- and post-cART in TB-IRIS patients. HIV/TB patients exhibited higher proportions of monocytes expressing activated caspase-1 (casp1) pre-cART, compared with HIV patients without TB, and patients who developed TB-IRIS exhibited the greatest increase in casp1 expression. CD64(+) monocytes were a marker of increased casp1 expression. Furthermore, IL-1β, another marker of inflammasome activation, was also elevated during TB-IRIS. TB-IRIS patients also exhibited greater upregulation of NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome mRNA, compared with controls. Analysis of plasma mitochondrial DNA levels showed that TB-IRIS patients experienced greater cell death, especially pre-cART. Plasma NO levels were lower both pre- and post-cART in TB-IRIS patients, providing evidence of inadequate inflammasome regulation. Plasma IL-18 levels pre-cART correlated inversely with NO levels but positively with monocyte casp1 expression and mitochondrial DNA levels, and expression of IL-18Rα on CD4(+) T cells and NK cells was higher in TB-IRIS patients, providing evidence that IL-18 is a marker of inflammasome activation. We propose that inflammasome activation in monocytes/macrophages of HIV/TB patients increases with ineffective T cell-dependent activation of monocytes/macrophages, priming them for an excessive inflammatory response after cART is commenced, which is greatest in patients with TB-IRIS. PMID:27076678

  7. Thermally activated processes and superparamagnetism in Bi12MnO20 nanoparticles: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, L. A. S.; Pentón-Madrigal, A.; Guimarães, A. P.; Sinnecker, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    Manganese sillenite (Bi12MnO20) nanoparticles having average particle size between 22 and 43 nm were synthesized by a low temperature soft chemical route under refluxing conditions. A careful structural and microstructural characterization by means of high resolution X-ray diffraction experiments and transmission electron microscopy is presented. The as-cast powder displayed an isotropic superparamagnetic (SPM) behavior with a blocked state for temperatures below TB ∼ 13.0 K. We used three different measurement techniques to extract and compare the Bi12MnO20 blocking temperatures. First, we extracted TB with the modified Bean-Livingstone model from the coercive field temperature dependence obtained from hysteresis curves measured as a function of temperature. Then, the blocking temperature distribution function, f(TB), was obtained by deriving the zero field-cooled/field-cooled curves difference. For each applied field, the maximum of the distribution function gave us the mean blocking temperature value. Finally, the maximum of the magnetic susceptibility imaginary part as a function of frequency was used, combined with the Néel-Brown equation, to extract the blocking temperature. All measurement techniques yield an equivalent dependence of TB with H of the Bi12MnO20 superparamagnetic nanoparticles.

  8. Synthesis, phase composition modification, and optical properties of Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} activated KGdF{sub 4} and GdF{sub 3} submicrocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Chunyan; Yang, Hyun Kyoung; Moon, Byung Kee; Choi, Byung Chun; Jeong, Jung Hyun; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2012-03-15

    Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} co-doped series of samples have been synthesized based on a citric acid assisted hydrothermal method. By controlling the hydrothermal treating time, the samples evolve from the Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} co-doped cubic phase KGdF{sub 4} with spherical morphology into the Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} co-doped orthorhombic phase GdF{sub 3} with rhombic shape finally. The X-ray diffraction data illustrate the phase composition modification process of the samples. The field emission scanning electron microscopy and the transmission electron microscopy images suggest the transformation in the morphology of final products. The spectra of the energy-dispersive spectroscopy reveal the constituents of the samples. And the selected area electronic diffraction patterns prove the crystalline phases of the samples. Based on previous studies and the experimental data, one possible phase composition modification process has been summarized. The photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra and the luminescent dynamic decay curves demonstrate the variations in optical properties of the Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} co-doped final products. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration for the phase composition modification from the Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} doped KGdF{sub 4} to the Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+}doped GdF{sub 3} with multiform morphologies and different sizes. (C presents cubic phase, H presents hexagonal phase, and O presents orthorhombic phase.) Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples evolved from the cubic phase KGdF{sub 4} into the orthorhombic phase GdF{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology evolved from the spherical shape into the rhombic shape finally. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A possible phase composition modification process was summarized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optical properties of final products were compared and studied.

  9. 1550 nm VCSEL-based 0.48 Tb/s transmission scheme employing PAM-4 and WDM for active optical cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markou, S.; Dris, S.; Kalavrouziotis, D.; Avramopoulos, H.; Pleros, N.; Tsiokos, Dimitris M.

    2014-05-01

    With this paper we investigate the system-level performance of VCSELs, parameterized with true experimental LI-VI data and dynamic characteristics of state-of-the-art VCSELs with 3 dB modulation bandwidth at 15 GHz, and propose their deployment as high-speed multi-level optical sources in a mid-range active optical cable (AOC) model for performance prediction of a rack-to-rack interconnection. The AOC architecture combines a 6-element 1550 nm VCSEL array, each directly modulated with 40 Gbaud PAM-4 data, with a wavelength division multiplexer (WDM), in order to implement a parallel link with aggregate traffic of 0.48 Tb/s. Transmission reach exceeded 300 m by deploying a two-tap feed forward equalizer filter at the electrical VCSEL driver. Bit Error Rate (BER) measurements and analysis were carried out in MATLAB. In practice, the thermal behavior and basic operational characteristics of the VCSELs fabricated by the Technische Universität München (TUM) were used to study the thermal performance and operational range of the complete AOC model. The VCSELs were initially operated at 20°C and BER measurements showed power penalties of 1.7 dB and 3.5 dB at 300 m and 500 m of transmission distance respectively for all 6 data channels. System performance was also investigated for elevated operating temperatures of the VCSEL module and the additional system degradation and BER penalties introduced by operation at 50°C and 65°C were also investigated for transmission distances of 300 m and 500 m.

  10. Lower Pre-Treatment T Cell Activation in Early- and Late-Onset Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Goovaerts, Odin; Jennes, Wim; Massinga-Loembé, Marguerite; Ondoa, Pascale; Ceulemans, Ann; Vereecken, Chris; Worodria, William; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Colebunders, Robert; Kestens, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an inflammatory complication in HIV-TB co-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). The role of disturbed T cell reconstitution in TB-IRIS is not well understood. We investigated T cell activation and maturation profiles in patients who developed TB-IRIS at different intervals during ART. Methods Twenty-two HIV-TB patients who developed early-onset TB-IRIS and 10 who developed late-onset TB-IRIS were matched for age, sex and CD4 count to equal numbers of HIV-TB patients who did not develop TB-IRIS. Flow cytometry analysis was performed on fresh blood, drawn before and after ART initiation and during TB-IRIS events. T cell activation and maturation was measured on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells using CD45RO, CD38, HLA-DR, CCR7 and CD27 antibodies. Results CD8+ T cell activation before ART was decreased in both early-onset (77% vs. 82%, p = 0.014) and late-onset (71% vs. 83%, p = 0.012) TB-IRIS patients compared to non-IRIS controls. After ART initiation, the observed differences in T cell activation disappeared. During late-onset, but not early-onset TB-IRIS, we observed a skewing from memory to terminal effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations (p≤0.028). Conclusion Our data provide evidence of reduced CD8+ T cell activation before ART as a common predisposing factor of early- and late-onset TB-IRIS. The occurrence of TB-IRIS itself was not marked by an over-activated CD8+ T cell compartment. Late- but not early-onset TB-IRIS was characterized by a more terminally differentiated T cell phenotype. PMID:26208109

  11. Risk Factors for Primary Pulmonary TB in Almaty Region, Kazakhstan: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    ZHUSSUPOV, Baurzhan; HERMOSILLA, Sabrina; TERLIKBAYEVA, Assel; AIFAH, Angela; MA, Xin; ZHUMADILOV, Zhaxybay; ABILDAYEV, Tleukhan; DARISHEVA, Meruyert; BERIKKHANOVA, Kulzhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between incident pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and social and behavioral characteristics in Almaty Oblast, Kazakhstan from 2012 to 2013. Methods: We used a matched case-control design to estimate the role of factors for acquiring pulmonary TB. Totally 324 individuals were recruited from Sep 2012 to Mar 2013. Participants included 110 TB index cases with newly detected pulmonary TB. Each case was matched with one household and one community control. A total of 107 household and 107 community controls were included to the study. Adjusted odds ratios measuring associations between TB and risk factors were calculated by using a conditional multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: TB cases were more likely to be younger, recent smokers and have diabetes, when compared to household controls. Between TB cases and community controls, TB was significantly associated with age, non-married family status, living in a rented home, recent smoker, and having diabetes. Comparing TB cases with community controls, we found that foreign birth was marginally associated with incident TB case status. Conclusion: Our findings confirm the role of modifiable risk factors for TB in Kazakhstan; highlighting the importance of developing interventions addressing social determinants and proximate risk factors for high TB burden regions. PMID:27252913

  12. Increased mortality associated with treated active tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kabali, Conrad; Mtei, Lillian; Brooks, Daniel R; Waddell, Richard; Bakari, Muhammad; Matee, Mecky; Arbeit, Robert D; Pallangyo, Kisali; von Reyn, C Fordham; Horsburgh, C Robert

    2013-07-01

    Active tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected patients, even when successfully treated, may be associated with excess mortality. We conducted a prospective cohort study nested in a randomized TB vaccine trial to compare mortality between HIV-infected patients diagnosed and treated for TB (TB, n = 77) and HIV-infected patients within the same CD4 range, who were not diagnosed with or treated for active TB (non-TB, n = 308) in the period 2001-2008. Only twenty four subjects (6%) were on antiretroviral therapy at the beginning of this study. After accounting for covariate effects including use of antiretroviral therapy, isoniazid preventive therapy, and receipt of vaccine, we found a four-fold increase in mortality in TB patients compared with non-TB patients (adjusted Hazard Ratio 4.61; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.63, 13.05). These findings suggest that treatment for TB alone is not sufficient to avert the excess mortality associated with HIV-related TB and that prevention of TB may provide a mortality benefit. PMID:23523641

  13. Increased mortality associated with treated active tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kabali, Conrad; Mtei, Lillian; Brooks, Daniel R.; Waddell, Richard; Bakari, Muhammad; Matee, Mecky; Arbeit, Robert D.; Pallangyo, Kisali; von Reyn, C. Fordham; Horsburgh, C. Robert

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Active tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected patients, even when successfully treated, may be associated with excess mortality. We conducted a prospective cohort study nested in a randomized TB vaccine trial to compare mortality between HIV-infected patients diagnosed and treated for TB (TB, n=77) and HIV-infected patients within the same CD4 range, who were not diagnosed with or treated for active TB (non-TB, n=308) in the period 2001–2008. Only twenty four subjects (6%) were on antiretroviral therapy at the beginning of this study. After accounting for covariate effects including use of antiretroviral therapy, isoniazid preventive therapy, and receipt of vaccine, we found a four-fold increase in mortality in TB patients compared with non-TB patients (adjusted Hazard Ratio 4.61; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.63, 13.05). These findings suggest that treatment for TB alone is not sufficient to avert the excess mortality associated with HIV-related TB and that prevention of TB may provide a mortality benefit. PMID:23523641

  14. Comparative in vitro activity of faropenem against staphylococci.

    PubMed

    von Eiff, Christof; Schepers, Sven; Peters, Georg

    2002-08-01

    The anti-staphylococcal activity of faropenem, a novel beta-lactam, was examined and compared with that of amoxicillin, cefuroxime, clindamycin and vancomycin using the agar dilution method. A total of 234 staphylococci, including a large number of clonally different methicillin-resistant strains and a representative number of Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants, were tested. While the activity of faropenem was independent of the staphylococcal phenotype, the novel penem was up to eight times more active against methicillin-susceptible strains compared with the other agents tested. In addition, faropenem was active against many methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:12161412

  15. TB drug development: immunology at the table

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Carl; Barry, Clifton E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Our understanding of the host-pathogen relationship in tuberculosis can help guide tuberculosis (TB) drug discovery in at least two ways. First, the recognition that host immunopathology affects lesional TB drug distribution means that pharmacokinetic evaluation of drug candidates needs to move beyond measurements of drug levels in blood, whole lungs or alveolar epithelial lining fluid to include measurements in specific types of lesions. Second, by restricting the replication of M. tuberculosis (Mtb) subpopulations in latent TB infection and in active disease, the host immune response puts Mtb into a state associated with phenotypic tolerance to TB drugs selected for their activity against replicating Mtb. This has spurred a major effort to conduct high throughput screens in vitro for compounds that can kill Mtb when it is replicating slowly if at all. Each condition used in vitro to slow Mtb’s replication and thereby model the phenotypically drug-tolerant state has advantages and disadvantages. Lead candidates emerging from such in vitro studies face daunting challenges in the design of proof-of-concept studies in animal models. Moreover, some non-replicating subpopulations of Mtb fail to resume replication when plated on agar, although their viability is demonstrable by other means. There is as yet no widely replicated assay in which to screen compounds for their ability to kill this ‘viable but non-culturable’ subpopulation. Despite these hurdles, drugs that can kill slowly replicating or non-replicating Mtb may offer our best hope for treatment-shortening combination chemotherapy of TB. PMID:25703568

  16. Energy transport in photoexcited crystals of K3[Tb(C2O4)3(H2O)].2H2O: Transfer from Tb3+ to Nd3+ and Eu3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahwa, Ishenkumba A.; Parkes, Charmaine C.; McPherson, Gary L.

    1995-10-01

    The luminescence decay dynamics of Tb3+(5D4) and Eu(5D0) in triclinic (P1¯) crystalline K3[Ln(C2O4)3(H2O)].2H2O solids was studied between 10 and 298 K in order to establish the energy-transport characteristics. The luminescence decay rate of Tb3+ (740 s-1 for Ln=Tb3+) is temperature independent for the pure terbium complex; with introduction of Ln3+ dopants (e.g., Ln=Nd, Eu) faster decay rates which are temperature dependent are obtained. For the Eu3+ dopant, excitation buildup on the Eu3+(5D0) decay curve upon Tb3+(5D4) excitation confirms that energy transfer from Tb3+(5D4) to Ln3+ is active. The temperature dependence of the energy-transfer process in the K3[Eu0.83Tb0.17(C2O4)3(H2O)].2H2O mixed complex is well described by a relatively simple empirical expression based on Boltzmann's statistical dynamics of Eu3+ electronic energy among the 7FJ (J=0,1,2) terms. The limiting Eu3+-Tb3+ transfer rates are ~5.4×103 and 5.3×104 s-1 at 77 and 298 K, respectively. Energy migration on the terbium sublattice was confirmed by comparing Huber's [Phys. Rev. B 20, 2707 (1979)] trapping functions for K3[Eu0.4Tb0.6(C2O4)3(H2O)].2H2O and K3[Eu0.4Tb0.1Gd0.5(C2O4)3(H2O)].2H2O (Gd3+ serving as a scatterer for Tb3+ excitation). Although the structure of the complexes features a one-dimensional zigzag array of Ln3+ ions, energy transport is diffusive and not one dimensional.

  17. TB-IRIS and remodelling of the T cell compartment in highly immunosuppressed HIV+ patients with TB: the CAPRI T (ANRS-12614) study

    PubMed Central

    Haridas, V.; Pean, P.; Jasenosky, L.D.; Madec, Y.; Laureillard, D.; Sok, T.; Sath, S.; Borand, L.; Marcy, O.; Chan, S.; Tsitsikov, E.; Delfraissy, J.-F.; Blanc, F.-X.; Goldfeld, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS) upon immunological recovery and the T cell compartment after initiation of TB and antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design and methods We prospectively evaluated T cell immunophenotypes by flow cytometry and cytokines by Luminex assays in a subset (n=154) of highly immunosuppressed HIV+ patients with TB from the CAMELIA randomized clinical trial. We compared findings from patients who developed TB-IRIS to findings from patients who did not develop TB-IRIS. Data were evaluated with mixed effect linear regression, Kaplan-Meier estimates, and Wilcoxon rank sum tests, and q-values were calculated to control for multiple comparisons. Results Development of TB-IRIS was associated with significantly greater pre-ART frequencies of HLA-DR+CD45RO+CD4+, CCR5+CD4+, OX40+CD4+, and Fas+ effector memory (EM) CD8+ T cells, and significantly elevated levels of plasma IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-10 and viral load. Post-ART initiation, EM CD4+ and Fas+ EM CD4+ T cell frequencies significantly expanded, and central memory (CM) CD4+ T cell frequencies significantly contracted in patients who experienced TB-IRIS. By week 34 post-TB treatment initiation, EM/CM CD4+ T cell ratios were markedly higher in TB-IRIS versus non-TB-IRIS patients. Conclusions A distinct pattern of pre-ART T cell and cytokine markers appear to poise the immune response to develop TB-IRIS. Experience of TB-IRIS is then associated with long-term remodeling of the CD4+ T cell memory compartment towards an EM-dominated phenotype. We speculate that these pre- and post-ART TB-IRIS-associated immune parameters may contribute to superior immune control of TB/HIV co-infection and better clinical outcome. PMID:25486415

  18. TB control: challenges and opportunities for India.

    PubMed

    Pai, Madhukar; Daftary, Amrita; Satyanarayana, Srinath

    2016-03-01

    India's TB control programme has treated over 19 million patients, but the incidence of TB continues to be high. TB is a major killer and drug-resistant TB is a growing threat. There are several likely reasons, including social conditions and co-morbidities that fuel the TB epidemic: under-investment by the government, weak programme implementation and management, suboptimal quality of care in the private sector, and insufficient advocacy around TB. Fortunately, India possesses the technical know-how, competence and resources to address these challenges. The End TB Strategy by WHO offers India an excellent blueprint to advance the agenda of TB control. PMID:26884494

  19. Decay properties of long-lived isomers in the odd-odd N=81 nucleus {sup 146}Tb compared to the {sup 148}Ho and {sup 150}Tm nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kownacki, J.; Kisielinski, M.; Droste, Ch.; Morek, T.; Ruchowska, E.; Grodner, E.; Lieder, R. M.; Kowalczyk, M.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Hadynska-KlePk, K.; Mierzejewski, J.; Andrzejewski, J.; Perkowski, J.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Zielinska, M.; Kordyasz, A.; Srebrny, J.; Korman, A.

    2011-02-15

    Excited states of the {sup 146}Tb nucleus have been studied using {gamma}-ray and electron spectroscopy in off-beam and in-beam modes following {sup 112}Sn({sup 40}Ar,3n3p) reaction with the use of the OSIRIS-II, HPGe detector array and the conversion electron spectrometer. The multipolarity of the 343 keV transition deexciting the (7{sup -}) level in {sup 146}Tb shows mainly an E2 nature and the first excited state above the 23 s isomer is assigned as a (5{sup -},6{sup -}) state. The log ft values have been deduced for 11 {beta}{sup +}/EC transitions populating excited states in {sup 146}Gd. The systematic behavior of spins and parities of the long-lived levels at 0+x keV and the first excited states above them in the N=81 isotones {sup 146}Tb, {sup 148}Ho, and {sup 150}Tm is discussed.

  20. Bovine Tuberculosis Risk Factors for British Herds Before and After the 2001 Foot-and-Mouth Epidemic: What have we Learned from the TB99 and CCS2005 Studies?

    PubMed

    Vial, F; Miguel, E; Johnston, W T; Mitchell, A; Donnelly, C A

    2015-10-01

    Over the last couple of decades, the UK experienced a substantial increase in the incidence and geographical spread of bovine tuberculosis (TB), in particular since the epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in 2001. The initiation of the Randomized Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) in 1998 in south-west England provided an opportunity for an in-depth collection of questionnaire data (covering farming practices, herd management and husbandry, trading and wildlife activity) from herds having experienced a TB breakdown between 1998 and early 2006 and randomly selected control herds, both within and outside the RBCT (the so-called TB99 and CCS2005 case-control studies). The data collated were split into four separate and comparable substudies related to either the pre-FMD or post-FMD period, which are brought together and discussed here for the first time. The findings suggest that the risk factors associated with TB breakdowns may have changed. Higher Mycobacterium bovis prevalence in badgers following the FMD epidemic may have contributed to the identification of the presence of badgers on a farm as a prominent TB risk factor only post-FMD. The strong emergence of contact/trading TB risk factors post-FMD suggests that the purchasing and movement of cattle, which took place to restock FMD-affected areas after 2001, may have exacerbated the TB problem. Post-FMD analyses also highlighted the potential impact of environmental factors on TB risk. Although no unique and universal solution exists to reduce the transmission of TB to and among British cattle, there is an evidence to suggest that applying the broad principles of biosecurity on farms reduces the risk of infection. However, with trading remaining as an important route of local and long-distance TB transmission, improvements in the detection of infected animals during pre- and post-movement testing should further reduce the geographical spread of the disease. PMID:24330476

  1. Multiferroicity and Magnetoelectric Coupling in TbMnO3 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ni; Lu, Chengliang; Xia, Zhengcai; Xiong, Rui; Fang, Pengfei; Shi, Jing; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we report the growth and functional characterizations of multiferroic TbMnO3 thin films grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3 (001) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. By performing detailed magnetic and ferroelectric properties measurements, we demonstrate that the multiferroicity of spin origin known in the bulk crystals can be successfully transferred to TbMnO3 thin films. Meanwhile, anomalous magnetic transition and unusual magnetoelectric coupling related to Tb moments are observed, suggesting a modified magnetic configuration of Tb in the films as compared to the bulk counterpart. In addition, it is found that the magnetoelectric coupling enabled by Tb moments can even be seen far above the Tb spin ordering temperature, which provides a larger temperature range for the magnetoelectric control involving Tb moments. PMID:26573085

  2. The magnetic texture of Tb/Fe multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappert, J.; Klose, F.; Rehm, Ch.; Kim, W. S.; Brand, R. A.; Maletta, H.; Keune, W.

    1996-05-01

    At the V6 in the Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Berlin, we have performed temperature-dependent neutron reflectometry studies with spin-analysis on a [Tb(26 Å)/Fe(50 Å)] × 10 multilayer. The effect of increasing Tb magnetization at low temperatures is shown. We compare our results with the data from Mössbauer spectroscopy, SQUID, MOKE, and X-ray reflectivity.

  3. Use of a T cell interferon gamma release assay in the investigation for suspected active tuberculosis in a low prevalence area

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In settings with low background prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) infection, interferon-γ release assays (IGRA) could be useful for diagnosing active TB. This study aims to evaluate the performance of QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT-G) in the investigation for suspected active TB, with particular attention to patients originating in high-incidence countries. Furthermore, factors associated with QFT-G results in patients with active TB were assessed. Methods From patients investigated for clinically suspected active TB, blood was obtained for QFT-G testing, in addition to routine investigations. Positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values for QFT-G were calculated, comparing patients with confirmed TB and those with other final diagnoses. QFT-G results in TB patients originating from countries with intermediate or high TB incidence were compared with QFT-G results from a control group of recently arrived asymptomatic immigrants from high-incidence countries. Factors associated with QFT-G outcome in patients with confirmed TB were assessed. Results Among 141 patients, 41/70 (58.6%) with confirmed TB had a positive QFT-G test, compared to 16/71 (22.6%) patients with other final diagnoses, resulting in overall PPV of 71.9% and NPV of 67.6%. For patients with pulmonary disease, PPV and NPV were 61.1% and 67.7%, respectively, and 90.5% and 66.7% for subjects with extrapulmonary manifestations. Comparing patients from high-incidence countries with controls yielded a PPV for active TB of 76.7%, and a NPV of 82.7%. Patients with confirmed TB and positive QFT-G results were characterized by a lower median peripheral white blood cell count (5.9 × 109/L vs. 8.8 × 109/L; P < 0.001) and a higher median body mass index (22.7 vs. 20.7; P = 0.043) as compared to QFT-G-negative TB patients. Conclusion The overall PPV and NPV of QFT-G for identifying active TB were unsatisfactory, especially for pulmonary disease. Thus, the usefulness of QFT-G for this purpose is

  4. Towards earlier inclusion of Children in Tuberculosis (TB) drugs trials: Consensus statements from an Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Nachman, Sharon; Ahmed, Amina; Amanullah, Farhana; Becerra, Mercedes C; Botgros, Radu; Brigden, Grania; Browning, Renee; Gardiner, Elizabeth; Hafner, Richard; Hesseling, Anneke; How, Cleotilde; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Lessem, Erica; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Mbelle, Nontombi; Marais, Ben; McIlleron, Helen; Mc Neeley, David F; Mendel, Carl; Murray, Stephen; Navarro, Eileen; Oramasionwu, Gloria E; Porcalla, Ariel R; Powell, Clydette; Powell, Mair; Rigaud, Mona; Rouzier, Vanessa; Samson, Pearl; Schaaf, H. Simon; Shah, Seema; Starke, Jeff; Swaminathan, Soumya; Wobudeya, Eric; Worrell, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Children represent a significant proportion of the global tuberculosis (TB) burden, and may be disproportionately more affected by its most severe clinical manifestations. Currently available treatments for pediatric drug-susceptible (DS) and drug-resistant (DR) TB, albeit generally effective, are hampered by high pill burden, long duration of treatment, coexistent toxicities, and an overall lack of suitable, child-friendly formulations. The complex and burdensome nature of administering the existing regimens to treat DS TB also contributes to the rise of DR TB strains. Despite the availability and use of these therapies for decades, a dearth of dosing evidence in children underscores the importance of sustained efforts for TB drug development to better meet the treatment needs of children with TB. Several new TB drugs and regimens with promising activity against both DS and DR TB strains have recently entered clinical development and are in various phases of clinical evaluation in adults or have received marketing authorization for adults. However, initiation of clinical trials to evaluate these drugs in children is often deferred, pending the availability of complete safety and efficacy data in adults or after drug approval. This document summarizes consensus statements from an international panel of childhood TB opinion leaders which support the initiation of evaluation of new TB drugs and regimens in children at earlier phases of the TB Drug development cycle. PMID:25957923

  5. Tricks to translating TB transcriptomics.

    PubMed

    Deffur, Armin; Wilkinson, Robert J; Coussens, Anna K

    2015-05-01

    Transcriptomics and other high-throughput methods are increasingly applied to questions relating to tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis. Whole blood transcriptomics has repeatedly been applied to define correlates of TB risk and has produced new insight into the late stage of disease pathogenesis. In a novel approach, authors of a recently published study in Science Translational Medicine applied complex data analysis of existing TB transcriptomic datasets, and in vitro models, in an attempt to identify correlates of protection in TB, which are crucially required for the development of novel TB diagnostics and therapeutics to halt this global epidemic. Utilizing latent TB infection (LTBI) as a surrogate of protection, they identified IL-32 as a mediator of interferon gamma (IFNγ)-vitamin D dependent antimicrobial immunity and a marker of LTBI. Here, we provide a review of all TB whole-blood transcriptomic studies to date in the context of identifying correlates of protection, discuss potential pitfalls of combining complex analyses originating from such studies, the importance of detailed metadata to interpret differential patient classification algorithms, the effect of differing circulating cell populations between patient groups on the interpretation of resulting biomarkers and we decipher weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), a recently developed systems biology tool which holds promise of identifying novel pathway interactions in disease pathogenesis. In conclusion, we propose the development of an integrated OMICS platform and open access to detailed metadata, in order for the TB research community to leverage the vast array of OMICS data being generated with the aim of unraveling the holy grail of TB research: correlates of protection. PMID:26046091

  6. HIV-Associated TB Syndemic: A Growing Clinical Challenge Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Montales, Maria Theresa; Chaudhury, Arun; Beebe, Alexandria; Patil, Sowmya; Patil, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    The association of tuberculosis (TB) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome over the past several years has become an emerging syndemic. Approximately 10% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) with latent TB infection will develop active TB disease each year. In this review, we highlight that this phenomenon is not limited to high endemic regions, such as Afro-Asian nations, but globalization/migration is causing increased case detection even in developed nations, such as the United States. Active screening should be performed for TB in PLHIV. A high degree of clinical suspicion for TB is warranted in PLHIV presenting with fever, cough, and unintentional weight loss. HIV-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) coinfection is often paucibacillary, precluding diagnosis by conventional diagnostics and/or smear microscopy/culture. Improved detection of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB is now possible by incorporation of the GeneXPERT MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA). The World Health Organization recommends instituting immediate therapy for MTB, in conjunction with ongoing or newly introduced anti-retroviral therapy. Vigilance is required to detect drug-induced organ injuries, and early-treatment-induced immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Collaborating MTB and HIV activities in concentrated HIV epidemic settings should become a high public health priority. PMID:26779470

  7. HIV-Associated TB Syndemic: A Growing Clinical Challenge Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Montales, Maria Theresa; Chaudhury, Arun; Beebe, Alexandria; Patil, Sowmya; Patil, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    The association of tuberculosis (TB) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome over the past several years has become an emerging syndemic. Approximately 10% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) with latent TB infection will develop active TB disease each year. In this review, we highlight that this phenomenon is not limited to high endemic regions, such as Afro-Asian nations, but globalization/migration is causing increased case detection even in developed nations, such as the United States. Active screening should be performed for TB in PLHIV. A high degree of clinical suspicion for TB is warranted in PLHIV presenting with fever, cough, and unintentional weight loss. HIV–Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) coinfection is often paucibacillary, precluding diagnosis by conventional diagnostics and/or smear microscopy/culture. Improved detection of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB is now possible by incorporation of the GeneXPERT MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA). The World Health Organization recommends instituting immediate therapy for MTB, in conjunction with ongoing or newly introduced anti-retroviral therapy. Vigilance is required to detect drug-induced organ injuries, and early-treatment-induced immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Collaborating MTB and HIV activities in concentrated HIV epidemic settings should become a high public health priority. PMID:26779470

  8. Comparing Participation in Activities among Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masse, Louise C.; Miller, Anton R.; Shen, Jane; Schiariti, Veronica; Roxborough, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Compared to typically developing peers, children with disabilities due to neurodevelopmental disorders and disabilities (NDD/D) and to chronic medical conditions (CMC) have reduced participation in activities. The extent to which these two groups of children have different levels of participation is unknown and was examined in this…

  9. Post-treatment change in Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha release in patients with active tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Ho; Yoo, Seung Soo; Lee, Shin Yup; Cha, Seung Ick; Park, Jae Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background Monitoring tuberculosis (TB) treatment response remains challenging due to lack of reliable laboratory markers. In recent years, increased efforts have been exerted toward development of new biomarkers reflecting treatment response appropriately. While performance of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) to monitor anti-TB treatment has been extensively evaluated, there is no data about post-treatment changes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) antigen-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) release in active TB patients. Herein, we explored whether the MTB antigen-stimulated TNF-α release would be useful for monitoring responses to anti-TB treatment. Methods We compared unstimulated (TNF-αNil), MTB antigen-stimulated (TNF-αAg), and MTB antigen-stimulated minus unstimulated TNF-α levels (TNF-αAg-Nil) in supernatants from QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube tests before and after treatment in 16 active TB patients, 25 latent TB infection (LTBI) subjects, and 10 healthy controls (HC). Results TNF-αAg and TNF-αAg-Nil levels decreased significantly after treatment in patients with active TB. In addition, TNF-αNil, TNF-αAg, and TNF-αAg-Nil levels were significantly higher in untreated active TB patients compared to LTBI subjects and HC. Conclusions This finding cautiously suggests that MTB Ag-stimulated TNF-α response may be a potential adjunctive marker for monitoring treatment response in active TB patients. PMID:26101647

  10. An African woman with pulmonary cavities: TB or not TB?

    PubMed

    Delsing, C E; Ruesen, C; Boeree, M J; van Damme, P A; Kuipers, S; van Crevel, R

    2014-10-01

    Cavitary lung lesions in patients from developing countries are mostly caused by tuberculosis (TB). However, when TB cannot be confirmed, a primary lung abscess caused by anaerobic bacteria from the mouth should be considered, especially in patients with poor dentition. We present a case of a Sudanese woman with a cavitary lung lesion and severe gingivitis. Bulleidia extructa was isolated as a single pathogen from the pulmonary cavity. PMID:25387555

  11. CCL2, CCL18 and sIL-4R in renal, meningeal and pulmonary TB; a 2 year study of patients and contacts.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Armando; Hernandez-Pando, Rogelio; Contreras, Salvador; Aguilar, Diana; Rook, Graham A W

    2011-03-01

    The role of Th2 cytokines and Th2-associated chemokines in tuberculosis (TB) remains controversial, though in Mexico a polymorphism causing increased production of CCL2 is a risk factor. We studied levels of the Th2-associated chemokines CCL2 and CCL18, circulating soluble IL-4 receptors (sIL-4R), IL-4 and the inhibitory splice variant of IL-4 (IL-4δ2) in a cohort of patients with pulmonary TB and their healthy contacts. These were followed for 2 years during which time 10 contacts developed pulmonary TB. Results were compared with measurements made in renal and meningeal TB, and in disease controls with bacterial pneumonias or Dengue fever that have large Th2 components. In these disease controls both chemokines were significantly raised. They were also very significantly raised in all forms of TB, irrespective of age or disease site. Levels of CCL18 were raised least in meningeal TB, and most in pulmonary patients with long histories, when levels were similar to those in disease controls. Levels of CCL2, although also raised in all three forms of TB, were negatively correlated with CCL18. We found that levels of sIL-4R were strikingly reduced in all forms of TB, particularly meningeal. Contacts who progressed could not be distinguished from contacts who remained healthy at 2 years in terms of IL-4, sIL-4R, CCL2 or CCL18. However contacts had raised expression of IL-4δ2 as previously found. These results indicate vigorous and previously unrecorded activity within the Th2 axis, and further investigation is warranted. PMID:21251883

  12. Antiferromagnetic behaviour of Tb2Al alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, D. P.; André, G.; Rodríguez Fernández, J.; Sánchez Marcos, J.; Fernández Barquín, L.; Echevarria, C.

    2011-10-01

    The structural, thermal and magnetic properties ol the Tb2Al alloy have been investigated by AC/DC magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements. DC and AC-magnetic susceptibility results are consistent with an AFM order at TN = 52 K. The specific heat data show a lambda anomaly associated to the magnetic transition with a peak at 52 K (cord = 99 J/molTbK). The analysis of thermodiffractograms of neutron diffraction patterns indicates that, below the ordering temperature, the magnetic reflections can be indexed with a commensurate lattice related to the crystallographic cell (Pmna) by a propagation vector k = (1/2, 1/2, 1/2). The results are compared with those reported for other magnetic rare earth alloys of R2Al-type (with R = Nd, Gd and Dy).

  13. Accuracy of QuantiFERON-TB Gold Test for Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sali, Michela; Buonsenso, Danilo; Goletti, Delia; D’Alfonso, Pamela; Zumbo, Antonella; Fadda, Giovanni; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Delogu, Giovanni; Valentini, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the accuracy of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold assay (QFT-IT) in children with suspected active or latent TB infection (LTBI). Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 621 children (0–14 years old) evaluated for TB infection or disease. Following clinical assessment, children were tested with the QFT-IT assay. Results Among the 140 active TB suspects, we identified 19 cases of active disease. The overall sensitivity for active TB was 87.5%, ranging from 62.5% in children 25–36 months old to 100% in children older than 49 months. The overall specificity for active TB was 93.6%. Among the 481 children tested for LTBI screening, 38 scored positive and all but 2 had at least one risk factor for TB infection. Among the 26 children with indeterminate results, bacterial, viral or fungal pneumonia were later diagnosed in 11 (42.3%) cases and non-TB related extra-pulmonary infections in 12 (46.1%). Conclusions Our results indicate that the children's response to QFT-IT associates to active TB and risk factors for LTBI. Moreover, we show that mitogen response is also found in children of 1 year of age, providing support for QFT-IT use also in young children. PMID:26439935

  14. Universal HIV screening at a major metropolitan TB clinic: HIV prevalence and high-risk behaviors among TB patients.

    PubMed Central

    Weis, S E; Foresman, B; Cook, P E; Matty, K J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the outcome of implementing a policy of universal screening of patients with tuberculosis (TB) for HIV infection at a major metropolitan public health TB clinic. METHODS: HIV serologic testing was completed on 768 (93%) of 825 eligible patients. Ninety-eight HIV-positive cases (13%) were compared with 670 HIV-negative cases. The presence of adult HIV risk factors was determined by structured interview and review of medical records. RESULTS: One or more HIV risk factors were present in 93% of HIV-positive cases and 42% of HIV-negative cases. CONCLUSIONS: The metropolitan TB clinic is well suited for HIV screening, and HIV-antibody testing and counseling should be provided to all TB patients. PMID:9987468

  15. Asymptomatic Helminth Infection in Active Tuberculosis Is Associated with Increased Regulatory and Th-2 Responses and a Lower Sputum Smear Positivity

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Ebba; Belayneh, Meseret; Idh, Jonna; Diro, Ermias; Elias, Daniel; Britton, Sven; Aseffa, Abraham; Stendahl, Olle; Schön, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of intestinal helminth infection on the clinical presentation and immune response during active tuberculosis (TB) infection is not well characterized. Our aim was to investigate whether asymptomatic intestinal helminth infection alters the clinical signs and symptoms as well as the cell mediated immune responses in patients with active TB. Methodology Consecutive, newly diagnosed TB patients and healthy community controls (CCs) were recruited in North-west Ethiopia. TB-score, body mass index and stool samples were analyzed. Cells from HIV-negative TB patients (HIV-/TB) and from CCs were analyzed for regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and cytokine responses using flow cytometry and ELISPOT, respectively. Results A significantly higher ratio of helminth co-infection was observed in TB patients without HIV (Helm+/HIV-/TB) compared to HIV negative CCs, (40% (121/306) versus 28% (85/306), p = 0.003). Helm+/HIV-/TB patients showed significantly increased IL-5 secreting cells compared to Helm-/HIV-/TB (37 SFU (IQR:13–103) versus 2 SFU (1–50); p = 0.02, n = 30). Likewise, levels of absolute Tregs (9.4 (3.2–16.7) cells/μl versus 2.4 (1.1–4.0) cells/μl; p = 0.041) and IL-10 secreting cells (65 SFU (7–196) versus 1 SFU (0–31); p = 0.014) were significantly higher in Helm+/HIV-/TB patients compared to Helm-/HIV-/TB patients. In a multivariate analysis, a lower rate of sputum smear positivity for acid fast bacilli, lower body temperature, and eosinophilia were independently associated with helminth infection in TB patients. Conclusions Asymptomatic helminth infection is associated with increased regulatory T-cell and Th2-type responses and a lower rate of sputum smear positivity. Further studies are warranted to investigate the clinical and immunological impact of helminth infection in TB patients. PMID:26248316

  16. Comparative blanching activities of proprietary diflucortolone valerate topical preparations.

    PubMed

    Coleman, G L; Kanfer, I; Haigh, J M

    1978-01-01

    The blanching activities and hence bioavailabilities of the cream, ointment and fatty ointment preparations of Nerisone and Temetex (diflucortolone valerate 0.1%) were evaluated using an occluded and unoccluded blanching assay. These products were compared to Synalar ointment and cream (fluocinolone acetonide 0.025%), established topical corticosteroid preparations. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences between similar formulations of diflucortolone valerate. Significant differences were noted between diflucortolone valerate and fluocinolone acetonide preparations. PMID:342295

  17. Comparative defect evaluation of aircraft components by active thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zauner, G.; Mayr, G.; Hendorfer, G.

    2009-02-01

    Active Thermography has become a powerful tool in the field of non-destructive testing (NDT) in recent years. This infrared thermal imaging technique is used for non-contact inspection of materials and components by visualizing thermal surface contrasts after a thermal excitation. The imaging modality combined with the possibility of detecting and characterizing flaws as well as determining material properties makes Active Thermography a fast and robust testing method even in industrial-/production environments. Nevertheless, depending on the kind of defect (thermal properties, size, depth) and sample material (CFRP carbon fiber reinforced plastics, metal, glass fiber) or sample structure (honeycomb, composite layers, foam), active thermography can sometimes produce equivocal results or completely fails in certain test situations. The aim of this paper is to present examples of results of Active Thermography methods conducted on aircraft components compared to various other (imaging) NDT techniques, namely digital shearography, industrial x-ray imaging and 3D-computed tomography. In particular we focus on detection limits of thermal methods compared to the above-mentioned NDT methods with regard to: porosity characterization in CFRP, detection of delamination, detection of inclusions and characterization of glass fiber distributions.

  18. First-Line Treatment for Tuberculosis (TB), Drug Resistant TB -- A Visual Tour

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Tuberculosis Drugs First-Line Treatment of TB for Drug- ... ago. See how these drugs work . Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) and Second-Line Treatments MDR TB ...

  19. Influence of annealing atmosphere and temperature on photoluminescence of Tb 3+ or Eu 3+-activated zinc silicate thin film phosphors via sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. Y.; Pita, K.; Ye, W.; Que, W. X.

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of Zn 2SiO 4:Tb 3+ or Eu 3+ were deposited on silicon wafers by a sol-gel method. The films exhibited prominent green or red photoluminescence, due to the sharp and strong intra-4f n-shell electronic transitions. The thermogravimetric analysis curve shows a remarkable weight loss in the temperature range 50-400 ° C, and a slow loss at higher temperature. The increases in fluorescence intensity and decay lifetimes of rare-earth ions sensitive to microstructure and chemical components are attributed to OH removal, nano-crystallite formation and the increased surface roughness by treatment of temperature. Strongly enhanced photoluminescence was observed in samples annealed at 950 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere.

  20. Changes of Tb Emission by Non-radiative Energy Transfer from Dy in Gd2O2S:Tb Phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraee, Kh. Rezaee Ebrahim; Zadeh, M. Darvish; Mostajaboddavati, M.; Kharieky, A. Aghay

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the Gd2O2S:Tb1.5Dy x=0.3,0.6,0.9 nanophosphor were synthesized by the homogenous precipitation method followed with a sulfur reaction. The fluorescence of Gd2O2S:Tb1.5,Dy nanophosphors, and the energy transfer between dysprosium (Dy) and Tb have been studied. Although, the two weak emissions of Dy were observed, the terbium (Tb) emission was increased due to energy transfer from Dy ions to Tb ions. The results illustrated that the co-activator of Dy had a significant influence on the spectral properties of the Gd2O2S:Tb1.5 nanophosphor with an optimal amount of Dy (0.3 mol%). Moreover, Gd2O2S:Tb1.5 and Gd2O2S:Tb1.5,Dy nanophosphors screens were prepared with 10 mg/cm2 coating thickness. The scintillation properties of these screens have been investigated. We found a Gd2O2S:Tb1.5,Dy0.3 scintillator can be employed in x-ray imaging applications.

  1. Temperature-dependent structure of Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Katherine P.; Russek, Stephen E. Shaw, Justin M.; Usselman, Robert J.; Evarts, Eric R.; Silva, Thomas J.; Nembach, Hans T.; Geiss, Roy H.; Arenholz, Elke; Idzerda, Yves U.

    2015-02-09

    High quality 5 nm cubic Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet-chemical method to investigate tailoring of magnetic properties for imaging and biomedical applications. We show that the Tb is incorporated into the octahedral 3+ sites. High-angle annular dark-field microscopy shows that the dopant is well-distributed throughout the particle, and x-ray diffraction measurements show a small lattice parameter shift with the inclusion of a rare-earth dopant. Magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism data indicate that the Tb spins are unpolarized and weakly coupled to the iron spin lattice at room temperature, and begin to polarize and couple to the iron oxide lattice at temperatures below 50 K. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements show no increase in magnetic damping at room temperature for Tb-doped nanoparticles relative to undoped nanoparticles, further confirming weak coupling between Fe and Tb spins at room temperature. The Gilbert damping constant, α, is remarkably low for the Tb-doped nanoparticles, with α = 0.024 ± 0.003. These nanoparticles, which have a large fixed moment, a large fluctuating moment and optically active rare-earth elements, are potential high-relaxivity T1 and T2 MRI agents with integrated optical signatures.

  2. Towards new TB vaccines: What are the challenges?

    PubMed

    Dockrell, Hazel M

    2016-06-01

    New and effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccines are urgently needed to control pulmonary TB, and in particular to prevent the spread of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These drug-resistant strains can range from those resistant to first-line drugs to those that are almost impossible to treat. To develop new and effective vaccines for HIV and malaria has been difficult and it is proving to be just as challenging for TB. TB is a complicated disease with a spectrum from apparently controlled latent infection to active clinical disease and so different types of preventive or post-exposure vaccine may be needed. Identifying the most promising vaccine candidates to move into clinical trials is difficult, as we lack biomarker signatures that can predict protective efficacy. There is a risk that the failure of the MVA-85A vaccine to show efficacy when given to previously BCG-vaccinated South African infants will impact on the resources available for the development and trials of other candidate TB vaccines. Continued support for the development of new TB vaccines should remain a priority as an effective vaccine would bring huge public health benefits. PMID:26960944

  3. Rapid diagnosis of MDR and XDR tuberculosis with the MeltPro TB assay in China

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yu; Dong, Haiyan; Tan, Yaoju; Deng, Yunfeng; Cai, Xingshan; Jing, Hui; Xia, Hui; Li, Qiang; Ou, Xichao; Su, Biyi; Li, Xuezheng; Zhang, Zhiying; Li, Junchen; Zhang, Jiankang; Huan, Shitong; Zhao, Yanlin

    2016-01-01

    New diagnostic methods have provided a promising solution for rapid and reliable detection of drug-resistant TB strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the MeltPro TB assay in identifying multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients from sputum samples. The MeltPro TB assay was evaluated using sputum samples from 2057 smear-positive TB patients. Phenotypic Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 drug susceptibility testing served as a reference standard. The sensitivity of the MeltPro TB assay was 94.2% for detecting resistance to rifampicin and 84.9% for detecting resistance to isoniazid. For second-line drugs, the assay showed a sensitivity of 83.3% for ofloxacin resistance, 75.0% for amikacin resistance, and 63.5% for kanamycin resistance. However, there was a significant difference for detecting kanamycin resistance between the two pilot sites in sensitivity, which was 53.2% in Guangdong and 81.5% in Shandong (P = 0.015). Overall, the MeltPro TB assay demonstrated good performance for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB, with a sensitivity of 86.7% and 71.4%, respectively. The MeltPro TB assay is an excellent alternative for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB cases in China, with high accuracy, short testing turn-around time, and low unit price compared with other tests. PMID:27149911

  4. Rapid diagnosis of MDR and XDR tuberculosis with the MeltPro TB assay in China.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu; Dong, Haiyan; Tan, Yaoju; Deng, Yunfeng; Cai, Xingshan; Jing, Hui; Xia, Hui; Li, Qiang; Ou, Xichao; Su, Biyi; Li, Xuezheng; Zhang, Zhiying; Li, Junchen; Zhang, Jiankang; Huan, Shitong; Zhao, Yanlin

    2016-01-01

    New diagnostic methods have provided a promising solution for rapid and reliable detection of drug-resistant TB strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the MeltPro TB assay in identifying multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients from sputum samples. The MeltPro TB assay was evaluated using sputum samples from 2057 smear-positive TB patients. Phenotypic Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 drug susceptibility testing served as a reference standard. The sensitivity of the MeltPro TB assay was 94.2% for detecting resistance to rifampicin and 84.9% for detecting resistance to isoniazid. For second-line drugs, the assay showed a sensitivity of 83.3% for ofloxacin resistance, 75.0% for amikacin resistance, and 63.5% for kanamycin resistance. However, there was a significant difference for detecting kanamycin resistance between the two pilot sites in sensitivity, which was 53.2% in Guangdong and 81.5% in Shandong (P = 0.015). Overall, the MeltPro TB assay demonstrated good performance for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB, with a sensitivity of 86.7% and 71.4%, respectively. The MeltPro TB assay is an excellent alternative for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB cases in China, with high accuracy, short testing turn-around time, and low unit price compared with other tests. PMID:27149911

  5. Fast and intense green emission of Tb3+ in borosilicate glass modified by Cu+

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Fanshu; Liu, Siyuan; Wang, Yang; Mao, Jiayi; Li, Xinxi; Wang, Yiqun; Chen, Guorong

    2015-01-01

    We present photoluminescence properties of Tb3+ doped borosilicate glasses modified by Cu+. Around 5-time enhanced emission at 541 nm due to the superposed emission of Tb3+ and Cu+ is observed under the deep UV excitation. Excitation spectra demonstrate a greatly increased absorption of Tb3+ ions in the deep UV region towards the Cu+ excitation band, while the shortened Cu+ emission lifetime of glasses in association with presence of Tb3+ ions implies an energy transfer process from Cu+ to Tb3+ ions. Meanwhile, the Tb3+ emission lifetime is significantly shortened from the conventional millisecond level (~4 ms) to the microsecond regime up to around 90 μs. This most likely starts with the role of Cu+ as a co-activator by initiating the d-f orbital hybridization process via an interaction with Tb3+, thus relaxing the spin forbidden transition of Tb3+ ions to the partially allowed one. Moreover, combination of emissions from Cu+ and Tb3+ ions generates a composite green emission with adjustable CIE (Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage) chromaticity coordinates achievable by co-doping Cu+/Tb3+ in the different ratio and/or altering the excitation wavelength from deep UV to near UV region. PMID:26487264

  6. Fast and intense green emission of Tb3+ in borosilicate glass modified by Cu+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Fanshu; Liu, Siyuan; Wang, Yang; Mao, Jiayi; Li, Xinxi; Wang, Yiqun; Chen, Guorong

    2015-10-01

    We present photoluminescence properties of Tb3+ doped borosilicate glasses modified by Cu+. Around 5-time enhanced emission at 541 nm due to the superposed emission of Tb3+ and Cu+ is observed under the deep UV excitation. Excitation spectra demonstrate a greatly increased absorption of Tb3+ ions in the deep UV region towards the Cu+ excitation band, while the shortened Cu+ emission lifetime of glasses in association with presence of Tb3+ ions implies an energy transfer process from Cu+ to Tb3+ ions. Meanwhile, the Tb3+ emission lifetime is significantly shortened from the conventional millisecond level (~4 ms) to the microsecond regime up to around 90 μs. This most likely starts with the role of Cu+ as a co-activator by initiating the d-f orbital hybridization process via an interaction with Tb3+, thus relaxing the spin forbidden transition of Tb3+ ions to the partially allowed one. Moreover, combination of emissions from Cu+ and Tb3+ ions generates a composite green emission with adjustable CIE (Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage) chromaticity coordinates achievable by co-doping Cu+/Tb3+ in the different ratio and/or altering the excitation wavelength from deep UV to near UV region.

  7. Fast and intense green emission of Tb(3+) in borosilicate glass modified by Cu(.).

    PubMed

    Xia, Fanshu; Liu, Siyuan; Wang, Yang; Mao, Jiayi; Li, Xinxi; Wang, Yiqun; Chen, Guorong

    2015-01-01

    We present photoluminescence properties of Tb(3+) doped borosilicate glasses modified by Cu(+). Around 5-time enhanced emission at 541 nm due to the superposed emission of Tb(3+) and Cu(+) is observed under the deep UV excitation. Excitation spectra demonstrate a greatly increased absorption of Tb(3+) ions in the deep UV region towards the Cu(+) excitation band, while the shortened Cu(+) emission lifetime of glasses in association with presence of Tb(3+) ions implies an energy transfer process from Cu(+) to Tb(3+) ions. Meanwhile, the Tb(3+) emission lifetime is significantly shortened from the conventional millisecond level (~4 ms) to the microsecond regime up to around 90 μs. This most likely starts with the role of Cu(+) as a co-activator by initiating the d-f orbital hybridization process via an interaction with Tb(3+), thus relaxing the spin forbidden transition of Tb(3+) ions to the partially allowed one. Moreover, combination of emissions from Cu(+) and Tb(3+) ions generates a composite green emission with adjustable CIE (Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage) chromaticity coordinates achievable by co-doping Cu(+)/Tb(3+) in the different ratio and/or altering the excitation wavelength from deep UV to near UV region. PMID:26487264

  8. Comparative Validity of Physical Activity Measures in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    COLBERT, LISA H.; MATTHEWS, CHARLES E.; HAVIGHURST, THOMAS C.; KIM, KYUNGMANN; SCHOELLER, DALE A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare the validity of various physical activity measures with doubly labeled water (DLW)–measured physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in free-living older adults. Methods Fifty-six adults aged ≥65 yr wore three activity monitors (New Lifestyles pedometer, ActiGraph accelerometer, and a SenseWear (SW) armband) during a 10-d free-living period and completed three different surveys (Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS), Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS), and a modified Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (modPASE)). Total energy expenditure was measured using DLW, resting metabolic rate was measured with indirect calorimetry, the thermic effect of food was estimated, and from these, estimates of PAEE were calculated. The degree of linear association between the various measures and PAEE was assessed, as were differences in group PAEE, when estimable by a given measure. Results All three monitors were significantly correlated with PAEE (r = 0.48–0.60, P < 0.001). Of the questionnaires, only CHAMPS was significantly correlated with PAEE (r = 0.28, P = 0.04). Statistical comparison of the correlations suggested that the monitors were superior to YPAS and modPASE. Mean squared errors for all correlations were high, and the median PAEE from the different tools was significantly different from DLW for all but the YPAS and regression-estimated PAEE from the ActiGraph. Conclusions Objective devices more appropriately rank PAEE than self-reported instruments in older adults, but absolute estimates of PAEE are not accurate. Given the cost differential and ease of use, pedometers seem most useful in this population when ranking by physical activity level is adequate. PMID:20881882

  9. PD-1 Expression and Cytokine Secretion Profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific CD4+ T-Cell Subsets; Potential Correlates of Containment in HIV-TB Co-Infection.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Katrina M; Montamat-Sicotte, Damien J; Grass, Lisa; Cooke, Graham S; Kapembwa, Moses S; Kon, Onn M; Sampson, Robert D; Taylor, Graham P; Lalvani, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    HIV co-infection is an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) providing a powerful model in which to dissect out defective, protective and dysfunctional Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific immune responses. To identify the changes induced by HIV co-infection we compared MTB-specific CD4+ responses in subjects with active TB and latent TB infection (LTBI), with and without HIV co-infection. CD4+ T-cell subsets producing interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and expressing CD279 (PD-1) were measured using polychromatic flow-cytometry. HIV-TB co-infection was consistently and independently associated with a reduced frequency of CD4+ IFN-γ and IL-2-dual secreting T-cells and the proportion correlated inversely with HIV viral load (VL). The impact of HIV co-infection on this key MTB-specific T-cell subset identifies them as a potential correlate of mycobacterial immune containment. The percentage of MTB-specific IFN-γ-secreting T-cell subsets that expressed PD-1 was increased in active TB with HIV co-infection and correlated with VL. This identifies a novel correlate of dysregulated immunity to MTB, which may in part explain the paucity of inflammatory response in the face of mycobacterial dissemination that characterizes active TB with HIV co-infection. PMID:26756579

  10. PD-1 Expression and Cytokine Secretion Profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific CD4+ T-Cell Subsets; Potential Correlates of Containment in HIV-TB Co-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Katrina M.; Montamat-Sicotte, Damien J.; Grass, Lisa; Cooke, Graham S.; Kapembwa, Moses S.; Kon, Onn M.; Sampson, Robert D.; Taylor, Graham P.; Lalvani, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    HIV co-infection is an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) providing a powerful model in which to dissect out defective, protective and dysfunctional Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific immune responses. To identify the changes induced by HIV co-infection we compared MTB-specific CD4+ responses in subjects with active TB and latent TB infection (LTBI), with and without HIV co-infection. CD4+ T-cell subsets producing interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and expressing CD279 (PD-1) were measured using polychromatic flow-cytometry. HIV-TB co-infection was consistently and independently associated with a reduced frequency of CD4+ IFN-γ and IL-2-dual secreting T-cells and the proportion correlated inversely with HIV viral load (VL). The impact of HIV co-infection on this key MTB-specific T-cell subset identifies them as a potential correlate of mycobacterial immune containment. The percentage of MTB-specific IFN-γ-secreting T-cell subsets that expressed PD-1 was increased in active TB with HIV co-infection and correlated with VL. This identifies a novel correlate of dysregulated immunity to MTB, which may in part explain the paucity of inflammatory response in the face of mycobacterial dissemination that characterizes active TB with HIV co-infection. PMID:26756579

  11. TB deaths reach historic levels. International (global).

    PubMed

    More tuberculosis (TB)-related deaths occurred in 1995 than in any other year in history (almost 3 million, vs. 2.1 million for the TB epidemic around 1990). In the next 50 years, as many as 500 million people may develop TB if current rates continue. More and more of these people will develop multidrug resistant TB. TB affects all social groups. It is the leading fatal infection in youth and adults. HIV positive people are more likely to die from TB than any other condition. More women die from TB than all causes of maternal mortality combined. Almost 50% of the world's refugees may have TB. All people are at risk of TB since TB bacteria, which enter the air via coughing or sneezing, can be suspended in the air for hours. Increased air travel and migration have brought TB back to industrialized countries. Multi-drug resistant TB has emerged in New York City, London, Milan, Paris, Atlanta, Chicago, and cities in developing countries. Governments of industrialized and developing countries have been slow to understand the effects of multi-drug resistant TB for public health. During the 1970s and 1980s, TB was greatly neglected resulting in the current multi-drug resistant TB epidemic. Policy makers have not applied the tools discovered by scientists to help eliminate TB. The World Health Organization recommends directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) to fight TB. DOTS can increase the number of cured TB patients two-fold. It can cure almost 95% of TB patients with medicines costing less than $11 in some areas of the world. Yet DOTS is being used to cure only 10% of all TB patients in the world. If it were used in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, South Africa, and Zaire, about 75% of all TB cases would be cured. In DOTS, health workers, not the TB patient, are responsible for curing the TB patient. Poor patient compliance is responsible for the current TB epidemic because TB patients remain

  12. TbRGG2 facilitates kinetoplastid RNA editing initiation and progression past intrinsic pause sites.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Michelle L; Presnyak, Vladimir; Fisk, John C; Foda, Bardees M; Read, Laurie K

    2010-11-01

    TbRGG2 is an essential kinetoplastid RNA editing accessory factor that acts specifically on pan-edited RNAs. To understand the mechanism of TbRGG2 action, we undertook an in-depth analysis of edited RNA populations in TbRGG2 knockdown cells and an in vitro examination of the biochemical activities of the protein. We demonstrate that TbRGG2 down-regulation more severely impacts editing at the 5' ends of pan-edited RNAs than at their 3' ends. The initiation of editing is reduced to some extent in TbRGG2 knockdown cells. In addition, TbRGG2 plays a post-initiation role as editing becomes stalled in TbRGG2-depleted cells, resulting in an overall decrease in the 3' to 5' progression of editing. Detailed analyses of edited RNAs from wild-type and TbRGG2-depleted cells reveal that TbRGG2 facilitates progression of editing past intrinsic pause sites that often correspond to the 3' ends of cognate guide RNAs (gRNAs). In addition, noncanonically edited junction regions are either absent or significantly shortened in TbRGG2-depleted cells, consistent with impaired gRNA transitions. Sequence analysis further suggests that TbRGG2 facilitates complete utilization of certain gRNAs. In vitro RNA annealing and in vivo RNA unwinding assays demonstrate that TbRGG2 can modulate RNA-RNA interactions. Collectively, these data are consistent with a model in which TbRGG2 facilitates initiation and 3' to 5' progression of editing through its ability to affect gRNA utilization, both during the transition between specific gRNAs and during usage of certain gRNAs. PMID:20855539

  13. TbRGG2 facilitates kinetoplastid RNA editing initiation and progression past intrinsic pause sites

    PubMed Central

    Ammerman, Michelle L.; Presnyak, Vladimir; Fisk, John C.; Foda, Bardees M.; Read, Laurie K.

    2010-01-01

    TbRGG2 is an essential kinetoplastid RNA editing accessory factor that acts specifically on pan-edited RNAs. To understand the mechanism of TbRGG2 action, we undertook an in-depth analysis of edited RNA populations in TbRGG2 knockdown cells and an in vitro examination of the biochemical activities of the protein. We demonstrate that TbRGG2 down-regulation more severely impacts editing at the 5′ ends of pan-edited RNAs than at their 3′ ends. The initiation of editing is reduced to some extent in TbRGG2 knockdown cells. In addition, TbRGG2 plays a post-initiation role as editing becomes stalled in TbRGG2-depleted cells, resulting in an overall decrease in the 3′ to 5′ progression of editing. Detailed analyses of edited RNAs from wild-type and TbRGG2-depleted cells reveal that TbRGG2 facilitates progression of editing past intrinsic pause sites that often correspond to the 3′ ends of cognate guide RNAs (gRNAs). In addition, noncanonically edited junction regions are either absent or significantly shortened in TbRGG2-depleted cells, consistent with impaired gRNA transitions. Sequence analysis further suggests that TbRGG2 facilitates complete utilization of certain gRNAs. In vitro RNA annealing and in vivo RNA unwinding assays demonstrate that TbRGG2 can modulate RNA–RNA interactions. Collectively, these data are consistent with a model in which TbRGG2 facilitates initiation and 3′ to 5′ progression of editing through its ability to affect gRNA utilization, both during the transition between specific gRNAs and during usage of certain gRNAs. PMID:20855539

  14. Activities of coordinated dietetic program directors compared by educational background.

    PubMed

    Nyland, N K; Spears, M C; Myers, E F

    1989-12-01

    This study was designed to ascertain the activities performed by coordinated program directors, compare current activities with 5-year expectations, and identify differences in importance and time spent on 14 pertinent activities by directors with master's degrees and those with doctorates. Responses were collected by a descriptive survey of 64 directors, all of whom participated. Program directors with master's degrees considered public relations with affiliations, attending faculty meetings, student advisement, and reading professional materials significantly more important (p less than .05) than did directors with doctorates, who considered faculty evaluations and research significantly more important (p less than .01). Directors with doctorates spent significantly less time in teaching (p less than .05) than those with master's degrees. Responsibilities of directors in the 22 submitted descriptions were organized into five categories: program management, curricular affairs, policies impacting on programs, student advisement and counseling, and academic activities. In the ADA Standards of Education, responsibilities of directors include program assessment, planning, and evaluation; in this study, those responsibilities were placed in the program management category. Exhibition of leadership qualities, revision of curriculum, and counseling and recruitment of students were responsibilities most frequently included in the position descriptions; however, those responsibilities were in categories other than program management. The responsibilities could serve as a guide for the development of a position description and as criteria for the role of a coordinated program director. PMID:2592717

  15. Comparative studies of brain activation with MEG and functional MRI

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.S.; Aine, C.J.; Sanders, J.A.; Lewine, J.D.; Caprihan, A.

    1993-12-31

    The past two years have witnessed the emergence of MRI as a functional imaging methodology. Initial demonstrations involved the injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent and required ultrafast echo planar imaging capability to adequately resolve the passage of the injected bolus. By measuring the local reduction in image intensity due to magnetic susceptibility, it was possible to calculate blood volume, which changes as a function of neural activation. Later developments have exploited endogenous contrast mechanisms to monitor changes in blood volume or in venous blood oxygen content. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that it is possible to make such measurements in a clinical imager, suggesting that the large installed base of such machines might be utilized for functional imaging. Although it is likely that functional MRI (fMRI) will subsume some of the clinical and basic neuroscience applications now touted for MEG, it is also clear that these techniques offer different largely complementary, capabilities. At the very least, it is useful to compare and cross-validate the activation maps produced by these techniques. Such studies will be valuable as a check on results of neuromagnetic distributed current reconstructions and will allow better characterization of the relationship between neurophysiological activation and associated hemodynamic changes. A more exciting prospect is the development of analyses that combine information from the two modalities to produce a better description of underlying neural activity than is possible with either technique in isolation. In this paper we describe some results from initial comparative studies and outline several techniques that can be used to treat MEG and fMRI data within a unified computational framework.

  16. Improved performance of P3HT:PCBM solar cells by both anode modification and short-wavelength energy utilization using Tb(aca)3phen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Zu-Liang; Wang, Yong-Sheng; He, Da-Wei; Fu, Ming

    2014-09-01

    The performance of P3HT:PCBM solar cells was improved by anode modification using spin-coated Tb(aca)3phen ultrathin films. The modification of the Tb(aca)3phen ultrathin film between the indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and the PE-DOT:PSS layer resulted in a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.99% compared to 2.66% for the reference device, which was due to the increase in the short-circuit current density (Jsc). The PCE improvement could be attributed to the short-wavelength energy utilization and the optimized morphology of the active layers. Tb(aca)3phen with its strong down-conversion luminescence properties is suitable for the P3HT:PCBM blend active layer, and the absorption region of the ternary blend films is extended into the near ultraviolet region. Furthermore, the crystallization and the surface morphology of P3HT:PCBM films were improved with the Tb(aca)3phen ultrathin film. The ultraviolent—visible absorption spectra, atomic force microscope (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the films were investigated. Both anode modification and short-wavelength energy utilization using Tb(aca)3phen in P3HT:PCBM solar cells led to about a 12% PCE increase.

  17. Blood or Urine IP-10 Cannot Discriminate between Active Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Different from Tuberculosis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, Linda; Cannas, Angela; Aloi, Francesco; Nsubuga, Martin; Sserumkuma, Joseph; Nazziwa, Ritah Angella; Jugheli, Levan; Lukindo, Tedson; Girardi, Enrico; Reither, Klaus; Goletti, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Interferon-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10), either in blood or in urine, has been proposed as a tuberculosis (TB) biomarker for adults. This study aims to evaluate the potential of IP-10 diagnostics in children from Uganda, a high TB-endemic country. Methods. IP-10 was measured in the blood and urine concomitantly taken from children who were prospectively enrolled with suspected active TB, with or without HIV infection. Clinical/microbiological parameters and commercially available TB-immune assays (tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT)) were concomitantly evaluated. Results. One hundred twenty-eight children were prospectively enrolled. The analysis was performed on 111 children: 80 (72%) of them were HIV-uninfected and 31 (27.9%) were HIV-infected. Thirty-three healthy adult donors (HAD) were included as controls. The data showed that IP-10 is detectable in the urine and blood of children with active TB, independent of HIV status and age. However, although IP-10 levels were higher in active TB children compared to HAD, the accuracy of identifying “active TB” was low and similar to the TST and QFT-IT. Conclusion. IP-10 levels are higher in children with respiratory illness compared to controls, independent of “TB status” suggesting that the evaluation of this parameter can be used as an inflammatory marker more than a TB test. PMID:26346028

  18. Optimal Control for TB disease with vaccination assuming endogeneous reactivation and exogeneous reinfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggriani, N.; Wicaksono, B. C.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the deadliest infectious disease in the world which caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease is spread through the air via the droplets from the infectious persons when they are coughing. The World Health Organization (WHO) has paid a special attention to the TB by providing some solution, for example by providing BCG vaccine that prevent an infected person from becoming an active infectious TB. In this paper we develop a mathematical model of the spread of the TB which assumes endogeneous reactivation and exogeneous reinfection factors. We also assume that some of the susceptible population are vaccinated. Furthermore we investigate the optimal vaccination level for the disease.

  19. Comparative pharmacological activity of optical isomers of phenibut.

    PubMed

    Dambrova, Maija; Zvejniece, Liga; Liepinsh, Edgars; Cirule, Helena; Zharkova, Olga; Veinberg, Grigory; Kalvinsh, Ivars

    2008-03-31

    Phenibut (3-phenyl-4-aminobutyric acid) is a GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-mimetic psychotropic drug which is clinically used in its racemic form. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of racemic phenibut and its optical isomers in pharmacological tests and GABAB receptor binding studies. In pharmacological tests of locomotor activity, antidepressant and pain effects, S-phenibut was inactive in doses up to 500 mg/kg. In contrast, R-phenibut turned out to be two times more potent than racemic phenibut in most of the tests. In the forced swimming test, at a dose of 100 mg/kg only R-phenibut significantly decreased immobility time. Both R-phenibut and racemic phenibut showed analgesic activity in the tail-flick test with R-phenibut being slightly more active. An GABAB receptor-selective antagonist (3-aminopropyl)(diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348) inhibited the antidepressant and antinociceptive effects of R-phenibut, as well as locomotor depressing activity of R-phenibut in open field test in vivo. The radioligand binding experiments using a selective GABAB receptor antagonist [3H]CGP54626 revealed that affinity constants for racemic phenibut, R-phenibut and reference GABA-mimetic baclofen were 177+/-2, 92+/-3, 6.0+/-1 microM, respectively. We conclude that the pharmacological activity of racemic phenibut relies on R-phenibut and this correlates to the binding affinity of enantiomers of phenibut to the GABAB receptor. PMID:18275958

  20. Association of BMI Category Change with TB Treatment Mortality in HIV-Positive Smear-Negative and Extrapulmonary TB Patients in Myanmar and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Benova, Lenka; Fielding, Katherine; Greig, Jane; Nyang'wa, Bern-Thomas; Casas, Esther Carrillo; da Fonseca, Marcio Silveira; du Cros, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Objective The HIV epidemic has increased the proportion of patients with smear-negative and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) diagnoses, with related higher rates of poor TB treatment outcomes. Unlike in smear-positive pulmonary TB, no interim markers of TB treatment progress are systematically used to identify individuals most at risk of mortality. The objective of this study was to assess the association of body mass index (BMI) change at 1 month (±15 days) from TB treatment start with mortality among HIV-positive individuals with smear-negative and extrapulmonary TB. Methods and Findings A retrospective cohort study of adult HIV-positive new TB patients in Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treatment programmes in Myanmar and Zimbabwe was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the association between BMI category change and mortality. A cohort of 1090 TB patients (605 smear-negative and 485 extrapulmonary) was followed during TB treatment with mortality rate of 28.9 per 100 person-years. In multivariable analyses, remaining severely underweight or moving to a lower BMI category increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 4.05, 95% confidence interval 2.77–5.91, p<0.001) compared with remaining in the same or moving to a higher BMI category. Conclusions We found a strong association between BMI category change during the first month of TB treatment and mortality. BMI category change could be used to identify individuals most at risk of mortality during TB treatment among smear-negative and extrapulmonary patients. PMID:22545150

  1. TB-HIV co-infection: a catastrophic comradeship.

    PubMed

    Narendran, G; Swaminathan, S

    2016-04-01

    The symbiotic association of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV poses a challenge to human survival. HIV complicates every aspect of TB including presentation, diagnosis and treatment. HIV-TB patients encounter unique problems like drug-drug interactions, cumulative toxicity, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), lower plasma drug levels and emergence of drug resistance during treatment despite adherence. TB may also be overdiagnosed in HIV due to a number of diseases that closely resemble TB. Notable among them are non-tuberculous mycobacteria, Pneumocystis Jirovecii and Nocardia. Even though diagnostic procedures have improved over the years, patients in developing countries usually seek health care at later stage of the disease. Research data ascertains the duration of therapy for TB to be 6 months with rifampicin and isoniazid, reinforced with ethambutol and pyrazinamide in the first 2 months. The schedule of therapy is still debatable with daily regimens being preferred in the context of HIV. Many reasons exist for persistence of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M.TB) in sputum, or delayed-clearance of TB from sputum smears in HIV, apart from emergence of drug resistance and non-compliance. Acquired rifampicin resistance (ARR) is a unique phenomenon complicating HIV-associated TB when an intermittent regimen of antituberculosis therapy (ATT) is used without timely initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), especially in patients harbouring isoniazid-resistant strains Immune restoration is often incomplete ('swiss cheese' pattern) even with effective HAART if not started early. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is the paradoxical worsening of the patient's condition often with radiological deterioration, due to an enhanced immune response with HAART. IRIS occurs despite an effective virological suppression and a favourable response to ATT. The incidence of IRIS in HIV has reached up to 54%, requiring utilization of experts

  2. Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR TB)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other federal agencies and international partners to raise awareness and enhance strategies for TB prevention worldwide by: Strengthening TB services for people living with HIV/AIDS; Guiding preparedness and outbreak investigation responses; Improving ...

  3. TB in Children in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Related Links TB in Children in the United States TB disease in children under 15 years ... BCG vaccine is not generally used in the United States, because of the low risk of infection ...

  4. Piloting Upfront Xpert MTB/RIF Testing on Various Specimens under Programmatic Conditions for Diagnosis of TB & DR-TB in Paediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Raizada, Neeraj; Sachdeva, Kuldeep Singh; Swaminathan, Soumya; Kulsange, Shubhangi; Khaparde, Sunil D.; Nair, Sreenivas Achuthan; Khanna, Ashwani; Chopra, Kamal Kishore; Hanif, Mahmud; Sethi, Gulshan Rai; Umadevi, K. R.; Keshav Chander, G.; Saha, Brojakishore; Shah, Amar; Parmar, Malik; Ghediya, Mayank; Jaju, Jyoti; Boehme, Catharina; Paramasivan, Chinnambedu Nainarappan

    2015-01-01

    Background India accounts for one-fifth of the global TB incidence. While the exact burden of childhood TB is not known, TB remains one of the leading causes of childhood mortality in India. Bacteriological confirmation of TB in children is challenging due to difficulty in obtaining quality specimens, in the absence of which diagnosis is largely based on clinical judgement. While testing multiple specimens can potentially contribute to higher proportion of laboratory confirmed paediatric TB cases, lack of high sensitivity tests adds to the diagnostic challenge. We describe here our experiences in piloting upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing, for diagnosis of TB in paediatric population in respiratory and extra pulmonary specimens, as recently recommended by WHO. Method Xpert MTB/RIF testing was offered to all paediatric (0–14 years) presumptive TB cases (both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary) seeking care at public and private health facilities in the project areas covering 4 cities of India. Results Under this pilot project, 8,370 paediatric presumptive TB & presumptive DR-TB cases were tested between April and–November 2014. Overall, 9,149 specimens were tested, of which 4,445 (48.6%) were non-sputum specimens. Xpert MTB/RIF gave 9,083 (99.2%, CI 99.0–99.4) valid results. Of the 8,143 presumptive TB cases enrolled, 517 (6.3%, CI 5.8–6.9) were bacteriologically confirmed. TB detection rates were two fold higher with Xpert MTB/RIF as compared to smear microscopy. Further, a total of 60 rifampicin resistant TB cases were detected, of which 38 were detected among 512 presumptive TB cases while 22 were detected amongst 227 presumptive DR-TB cases tested under the project. Conclusion Xpert MTB/RIF with advantages of quick turnaround testing-time, high proportion of interpretable results and feasibility of rapid rollout, substantially improved the diagnosis of bacteriologically confirmed TB in children, while simultaneously detecting rifampicin resistance. PMID:26469691

  5. Evaluation of heat shock proteins for discriminating between latent tuberculosis infection and active tuberculosis: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Seema D; Purohit, Hemant J; Taori, Girdhar M; Daginawala, Hatim F; Kashyap, Rajpal S

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is of the utmost concern. The available tests, the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the Quantiferon-TB Gold test (QFT-G) cannot discriminate between active TB and LTBI. Therefore, the aim of the study is to identify new biomarkers that can discriminate between active TB and LTBI and can also assess the risk of the individual developing active TB. In total, 55 blood samples were collected, of which 10 samples were from the active TB infection group, 10 were from the high-risk exposure group, 23 were from the low-risk exposure group, and 12 were from healthy controls living in a non-TB endemic area. A panel of heat shock proteins (Hsps), including host Hsp25, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Hsp16, were evaluated in all of the collected samples using ELISA. The levels of the host Hsp(s) (Hsp25, Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90) and MTB Hsp16 were significantly (p<0.05) elevated in the active TB group compared to the high-risk exposure group, the low-risk exposure group and the control group. Notably, the levels of the same panel of Hsp(s) were elevated in the high-risk exposure group compared to the low-risk exposure group. On follow-up, out of the 10 high-risk exposure participants, 3 converted into active TB, indicating that this group has the highest risk of developing TB. Thus, the evaluated panel of Hsp(s) can discriminate between LTBI and active TB. They can also identify individuals who are at the highest risk of developing active TB. Because they can be rapidly detected, Hsp(s) have an edge over the existing diagnostic tools for LTBI. The evaluation of these proteins will be useful in designing better diagnostic methods for LTBI. PMID:26300163

  6. Tunable blue-green-emitting Ba3LaNa(PO4)3F:Eu2+,Tb3+ phosphor with energy transfer for near-UV white LEDs.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Mengmeng; Guo, Ning; Lü, Wei; Jia, Yongchao; Lv, Wenzhen; Zhao, Qi; Shao, Baiqi; You, Hongpeng

    2013-09-16

    A series of Eu(2+) and Eu(2+)/Tb(3+) activated novel Ba3LaNa(PO4)3F phosphors have been synthesized by traditional solid state reaction. Rietveld structure refinement of the obtained phosphor indicates that the Ba3LaNa(PO4)3F host contains three kinds of Ba sites. The photoluminescence properties exhibit that the obtained phosphors can be efficiently excited in the range from 320 to 430 nm, which matches perfectly with the commercial n-UV LED chips. The critical distance of the Eu(2+) ions in Ba3LaNa(PO4)3F:Eu(2+) is calculated and the energy quenching mechanism is proven to be dipole-dipole interaction. Tunable blue-green emitting Ba3LaNa(PO4)3F:Eu(2+),Tb(3+) phosphor has been obtained by co-doping Eu(2+) and Tb(3+) ions into the host and varying their relative ratios. Compared with the Tb(3+) singly doped phosphor, the codoped phosphors have more intense absorption in the n-UV range and stronger emission of the Tb(3+) ions, which are attributed to the effective energy transfer from the Eu(2+) to Tb(3+) ions. The energy transfer from the Eu(2+) to Tb(3+) ions is demonstrated to be a dipole-quadrupole mechanism by the Inokuti-Hirayama (I-H) model. The Eu(2+) and Tb(3+) activated phosphor may be good candidates for blue-green components in n-UV white LEDs. PMID:23992135

  7. Horseradish peroxidase and chitosan: activation, immobilization and comparative results.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Kumosani, Taha A; El-Shishtawy, Reda M

    2013-09-01

    Recently, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized on activated wool and we envisioned that the use of chitosan would be interesting instead of wool owing to its simple chemical structure, abundant nature and biodegradability. In this work, HRP was immobilized on chitosan crosslinked with cyanuric chloride. FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize immobilized HRP. The number of ten reuses of immobilized HRP has been detected. The pH was shifted from 5.5 for soluble HRP to 5.0 for immobilized enzyme. The soluble HRP had an optimum temperature of 30 °C, which was shifted to 35 °C for immobilized enzyme. The soluble HRP and immobilized HRP were thermal stable up to 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The apparent kinetic constant values (K(m)) of soluble HRP and chitosan-HRP were 35 mM and 40 mM for guaiacol and 2.73 mM and 5.7 mM for H2O2, respectively. Immobilization of HRP partially protected them from metal ions compared to soluble enzyme. The chitosan-HRP was remarkably more stable against urea, Triton X-100 and organic solvents. Chitosan-HRP exhibited large number of reuses and more resistance to harmful compounds compared with wool-HRP. On the basis of results obtained in the present study, chitosan-HRP could be employed in bioremediation application. PMID:23769933

  8. Comparative activities of milk components in reversing chronic colitis.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, J R; Kanwar, R K; Stathopoulos, S; Haggarty, N W; MacGibbon, A K H; Palmano, K P; Roy, K; Rowan, A; Krissansen, G W

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a poorly understood chronic immune disorder for which there is no medical cure. Milk and colostrum are rich sources of bioactives with immunomodulatory properties. Here we compared the therapeutic effects of oral delivery of bovine milk-derived iron-saturated lactoferrin (Fe-bLF), angiogenin, osteopontin (OPN), colostrum whey protein, Modulen IBD (Nestle Healthsciences, Rhodes, Australia), and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched milk fat in a mouse model of dextran sulfate-induced colitis. The CLA-enriched milk fat significantly increased mouse body weights after 24d of treatment, reduced epithelium damage, and downregulated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and nitrous oxide. Modulen IBD most effectively decreased the clinical score at d 12, and Modulen IBD and OPN most effectively lowered the inflammatory score. Myeloperoxidase activity that denotes neutrophil infiltration was significantly lower in mice fed Modulen IBD, OPN, angiogenin, and Fe-bLF. A significant decrease in the numbers of T cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, and a significant decrease in cytokine expression were observed in mice fed the treatment diets compared with dextran sulfate administered mice. The Fe-bLF, CLA-enriched milk fat, and Modulen IBD inhibited intestinal angiogenesis. In summary, each of the milk components attenuated IBD in mice, but with differing effectiveness against specific disease parameters. PMID:26805965

  9. Thermal and optical properties of Tb(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) co-complexed silicone fluorinated acrylate copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yinfeng; Xie, Hongde; Cai, Haijun; Cai, Peiqing; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2015-07-01

    Tb(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) activated silicone fluorinated acrylate (SFA) have been successfully synthesized using the method of semi-continuous emulsion polymerization. The copolymers are characterized by flourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectroscopy. The copolymer containing Tb(III) and Eu(III) ions display green and red luminescent colors under UV light excitation, respectively. The TGA curves show the thermal decomposition temperatures of the copolymers are up to about 300 °C. The PL spectra show a strong green emission at 546 nm (5D4 → 7F5) of Tb(III) complexed copolymers, and show a prominent red emission at 615 nm (5D0 → 7F2) of Eu(III) complexed copolymers. Different concentrations of Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions are introduced into the copolymer and the energy transfer from Tb(III) to Eu(III) ions in the copolymer was found. Thus, based on the results it can be suggested that SFA:Eu(III), SFA:Tb(III) and SFA:Tb(III)/Eu(III) can be used potentially as luminescent materials.

  10. Patient Reported Delays in Seeking Treatment for Tuberculosis among Adult and Pediatric TB Patients and TB Patients Co-Infected with HIV in Lima, Peru: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Alban, Rebecca E.; Dimos Jones, Christy; Powell, Amy R.; Oberhelman, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health challenge worldwide, and particularly in Peru with one of the highest incidence rates in Latin America. TB patient behavior has a direct influence on whether a patient will receive timely diagnosis and successful treatment of their illness. Objectives: The objective was to understand the complex factors that can impact TB patient health seeking behavior. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with adult and parents of pediatric patients receiving TB treatment (n = 43), within that group a sub-group was also co-infected with HIV (n = 11). Results: Almost all of the study participants recognized delays in seeking either their child’s or their own diagnosis of their TB symptoms. The principal reasons for treatment-seeking delays were lack of knowledge and confusion of TB symptoms, fear and embarrassment of receiving a TB diagnosis, and a patient tendency to self-medicate prior to seeking formal medical attention. Conclusion: Health promotion activities that target patient delays have the potential to improve individual patient outcomes and mitigate the spread of TB at a community level. PMID:25566523

  11. A model dynamic for effect latent population to co-epidemic of HIV-TB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafaruddin, Sutimin, Ariyanto

    2014-02-01

    Threat of co-epidemic HIV-TB is a major problem that must be faced by countries around the world. In 2011, approximately about one-third of the 34 million people living with HIV worldwide is infected with latent TB. Persons co-infected with TB and HIV are 21-34 times more likely to develop active TB disease than persons without HIV. In this paper, we develop a simple co-epidemic model of HIV-TB. We calculate the basic reproduction ratio at the disease-free equilibrium, and the quasi-disease-free equilibrium, which we define as the existence of one disease along with the complete eradication of the other disease, and the co-infection equilibrium for specific conditions. Using this model, we study co-epidemic HIV-TB in Indonesia based on demography data in 2009 to explore the effects of hypothetical prevention and treatment scenarios. Our simple model of co-epidemic HIV-TB describes the importance of including the effects of HIV on TB and vice versa on the transmission and progression of the HIV and TB epidemic.

  12. Is TB in Your Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Joanne; Elwell, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Points out the importance of effective health education to fight against tuberculosis (TB) which is the number one fatal infectious disease around the world. Describes a science curriculum on tuberculosis that includes information on the facts about tuberculosis, a forum on tuberculosis, and evaluation. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  13. TB database: an integrated platform for tuberculosis research.

    PubMed

    Reddy, T B K; Riley, Robert; Wymore, Farrell; Montgomery, Phillip; DeCaprio, Dave; Engels, Reinhard; Gellesch, Marcel; Hubble, Jeremy; Jen, Dennis; Jin, Heng; Koehrsen, Michael; Larson, Lisa; Mao, Maria; Nitzberg, Michael; Sisk, Peter; Stolte, Christian; Weiner, Brian; White, Jared; Zachariah, Zachariah K; Sherlock, Gavin; Galagan, James E; Ball, Catherine A; Schoolnik, Gary K

    2009-01-01

    The effective control of tuberculosis (TB) has been thwarted by the need for prolonged, complex and potentially toxic drug regimens, by reliance on an inefficient vaccine and by the absence of biomarkers of clinical status. The promise of the genomics era for TB control is substantial, but has been hindered by the lack of a central repository that collects and integrates genomic and experimental data about this organism in a way that can be readily accessed and analyzed. The Tuberculosis Database (TBDB) is an integrated database providing access to TB genomic data and resources, relevant to the discovery and development of TB drugs, vaccines and biomarkers. The current release of TBDB houses genome sequence data and annotations for 28 different Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and related bacteria. TBDB stores pre- and post-publication gene-expression data from M. tuberculosis and its close relatives. TBDB currently hosts data for nearly 1500 public tuberculosis microarrays and 260 arrays for Streptomyces. In addition, TBDB provides access to a suite of comparative genomics and microarray analysis software. By bringing together M. tuberculosis genome annotation and gene-expression data with a suite of analysis tools, TBDB (http://www.tbdb.org/) provides a unique discovery platform for TB research. PMID:18835847

  14. staffTRAK-TB: software for surveillance of tuberculosis infection in healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Burwen, D R; Seawright, M F

    1999-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends periodic tuberculin skin testing of healthcare workers with potential exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, many healthcare facilities have neither a system to identify workers due for their skin test nor a means of analyzing aggregate data. To illustrate some of the complexities involved in tuberculin skin test (TST) tracking and analysis, and how these might be addressed, this report describes a software package called staffTRAK-TB, developed by the CDC to facilitate surveillance of tuberculosis infection in healthcare workers. staffTRAK-TB records data for each healthcare worker, including demographic information, occupation, work location, multiple TST results, and results of evaluations to determine if clinically active tuberculosis is present. Programmed reports include lists of workers due and overdue for skin tests, and skin test conversion rates by occupation or worksite. Standardization of types of occupations and locations allows data from multiple facilities to be aggregated and compared. Data transfer to the CDC can be performed via floppy diskettes. staffTRAK-TB illustrates important issues in software structure, standardization of occupation and work-location information, relevant data items, and reports and analyses that would be useful in practice. Developing software that adequately addresses the epidemiological issues is complex, and the lessons learned may serve as a model for hospital epidemiologists, infection control personnel, occupational health personnel, and computer programmers considering software development in this area or trying to optimize their facility's TST surveillance. PMID:10580631

  15. The increased risk of active tuberculosis disease in patients with dermatomyositis – a nationwide retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ping-Hsun; Lin, Yi-Ting; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Yu-Chih; Lin, Yi-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The risk of active tuberculosis (TB) in patients with dermatomyositis (DM) is poorly understood. The cohort study aimed to investigate the association between DM and the risk of active TB disease. We conducted a population based study on 4,958 patients with newly diagnosed DM and 19,832 matched controls according to age, sex, and index date between 1998 and 2008. The hazard ratios (HRs) and cumulative incidences of active TB disease between DM patients and controls were analyzed. During the study period, a total of 85 (1.7%) DM patients developed active TB disease, which was significantly higher than that of non-DM patients (0.64%). The incidence rate of active TB disease was higher among DM patients than controls (incidence rate ratio 2.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.24 to 3.88). The Cox regression model demonstrated significantly higher active TB disease rate among DM patients compared with controls (adjusted HR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.97 to 3.54; p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, and underlying medical disorders. The most significant risk factors for developing active TB included male sex, diabetes mellitus comorbidity, and use of corticosteroids and azathioprine in DM patients. In conclusion, DM patients are at a greater risk for active TB disease. PMID:26573418

  16. Stress related anisotropy studies in DC-magnetron sputtered TbCo and TbFe films

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, S.C.N.; Kryder, M.H.; Mathur, M.C.A. )

    1989-09-01

    A series of TbCo films and a series of TbFe films were prepared by de-magnetron sputtering at different deposition powers and Ar sputtering pressures. It was found that anisotropy decreased with an increase of deposition power. The authors discuss how anisotropy showed a peak within the range of 2.5 mtorr to 11.5 mtorr of Ar sputtering pressures. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of films which were still attached to their substrates and films which had been removed from their substrates were compared. The percentage change in K/sub u/, which occurred when the film was removed from its substrate, correlated with the rise and fall of perpendicular anisotropy, although changes were also typically large at 2.5 mtorr of Ar sputtering pressure. Changes in K/sub u/ after removal from the substrate were as large as 46% in TbFe films deposited at 2.5 mtorr of Ar sputtering pressure. Larger percentage changes in K/sub u/ was found in de-magnetron sputtered films than were previously reported for rf-sputtered TbFe and TbCo films. The films deposited onto thick polycarbonate substrates had the largest anisotropy and also suffered the largest percentage change in anisotropy when they were removed from the substrate.

  17. Analysis of Host Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens in a Multi-Site Study of Subjects with Different TB and HIV Infection States in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Jayne S.; Lalor, Maeve K.; Black, Gillian F.; Ambrose, Lyn R.; Loxton, Andre G.; Chegou, Novel N.; Kassa, Desta; Mihret, Adane; Howe, Rawleigh; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Gomez, Marie P.; Donkor, Simon; Franken, Kees; Hanekom, Willem; Klein, Michel R.; Parida, Shreemanta K.; Boom, W. Henry; Thiel, Bonnie A.; Crampin, Amelia C.; Ota, Martin; Walzl, Gerhard; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health threat with 9 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths per year. In order to develop a protective vaccine, we need to define the antigens expressed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which are relevant to protective immunity in high-endemic areas. Methods We analysed responses to 23 Mtb antigens in a total of 1247 subjects with different HIV and TB status across 5 geographically diverse sites in Africa (South Africa, The Gambia, Ethiopia, Malawi and Uganda). We used a 7-day whole blood assay followed by IFN-γ ELISA on the supernatants. Antigens included PPD, ESAT-6 and Ag85B (dominant antigens) together with novel resuscitation-promoting factors (rpf), reactivation proteins, latency (Mtb DosR regulon-encoded) antigens, starvation-induced antigens and secreted antigens. Results There was variation between sites in responses to the antigens, presumably due to underlying genetic and environmental differences. When results from all sites were combined, HIV- subjects with active TB showed significantly lower responses compared to both TST- and TST+ contacts to latency antigens (Rv0569, Rv1733, Rv1735, Rv1737) and the rpf Rv0867; whilst responses to ESAT-6/CFP-10 fusion protein (EC), PPD, Rv2029, TB10.3, and TB10.4 were significantly higher in TST+ contacts (LTBI) compared to TB and TST- contacts fewer differences were seen in subjects with HIV co-infection, with responses to the mitogen PHA significantly lower in subjects with active TB compared to those with LTBI and no difference with any antigen. Conclusions Our multi-site study design for testing novel Mtb antigens revealed promising antigens for future vaccine development. The IFN-γ ELISA is a cheap and useful tool for screening potential antigenicity in subjects with different ethnic backgrounds and across a spectrum of TB and HIV infection states. Analysis of cytokines other than IFN-γ is currently on-going to determine correlates of protection, which may

  18. Bovine TB and the 'singleton protocol': reward without risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ‘Singleton Protocol” was initiated in 1996 by the Irish Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Food to address the shortfall in specificity of the single intradermal comparative cervical test (SICCT) for bTB. Findings from Murray et al., demonstrate that singleton candidates (i.e., from low ris...

  19. Interleukin 17-Producing γδ T Cells Increased in Patients with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Meiyu; Wang, Zhaohua; Yao, Chunyan; Jiang, Lina; Jin, Qili; Wang, Jing; Li, Baiqing

    2008-01-01

    Although it has been known that γδ T cells may play an important role in the immune response to infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), the mechanisms by which the γδ T cells participate in the innate and/or acquired immunity to tuberculosis (TB) have not been full elucidated. In the present study, 27 patients with active pulmonary TB and 16 healthy donors (HD) were performed. We found that proportion of IL-17-producing cells among lymphocyte was similar between TB patients and HD, whereas the proportions of γδ T cells in IL-17-producing cells (59.2%) and IL-17-producing cells in γδ T cells (19.4%) in peripheral blood were markedly increased in TB patients when compared to those in HD (43.9% and 7.7%, respectively). In addition, the proportions of IFN-γ-producing γδ T cells in TB patients were obviously lower than that in HD. Upon re-stimulated with M. tb heat-treated antigen (M. tb-HAg) in vitro, fewer IL-17-producing γδ T cells were generated from HD and TB patients, whereas IFN-γ-producing γδ T cells were increased in TB patients compared to that in HD. Our findings in TB patients and healthy human were consistent with other murine investigation that the IL-17-producing γδ T cells were main source of IL-17 in mouse model of BCG infection, suggesting that γδ T cells might be involved in the formation of tubercular granuloma in pulmonary TB patients, but need further identification. PMID:18582402

  20. Neutron spectroscopic study of crystal field excitations in Tb2Ti2O7 and Tb2Sn2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Fritsch, K.; Hao, Z.; Bagheri, B. V.; Gingras, M. J. P.; Granroth, G. E.; Jiramongkolchai, P.; Cava, R. J.; Gaulin, B. D.

    2014-04-01

    We present time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering measurements at low temperature on powder samples of the magnetic pyrochlore oxides Tb2Ti2O7 and Tb2Sn2O7. These two materials possess related, but different ground states, with Tb2Sn2O7 displaying "soft" spin ice order below TN˜0.87 K, while Tb2Ti2O7 enters a hybrid, glassy spin ice state below Tg˜0.2 K. Our neutron measurements, performed at T =1.5 and 30 K, probe the crystal field states associated with the J = 6 states of Tb3+ within the appropriate Fd3¯m pyrochlore environment. These crystal field states determine the size and anisotropy of the Tb3+ magnetic moment in each material's ground state, information that is an essential starting point for any description of the low-temperature phase behavior and spin dynamics in Tb2Ti2O7 and Tb2Sn2O7. While these two materials have much in common, the cubic stanate lattice is expanded compared to the cubic titanate lattice. As our measurements show, this translates into a factor of ˜2 increase in the crystal field bandwidth of the 2J+1=13 states in Tb2Ti2O7 compared with Tb2Sn2O7. Our results are consistent with previous measurements on crystal field states in Tb2Sn2O7, wherein the ground-state doublet corresponds primarily to mJ=|±5> and the first excited state doublet to mJ=|±4>. In contrast, our results on Tb2Ti2O7 differ markedly from earlier studies, showing that the ground-state doublet corresponds to a significant mixture of mJ=|±5>, |∓4>, and |±2>, while the first excited state doublet corresponds to a mixture of mJ=|±4>, |∓5>, and |±1>. We discuss these results in the context of proposed mechanisms for the failure of Tb2Ti2O7 to develop conventional long-range order down to 50 mK.

  1. Anesthetic Activity of Alfaxalone Compared with Ketamine in Mice.

    PubMed

    Siriarchavatana, Parkpoom; Ayers, Jessica D; Kendall, Lon V

    2016-01-01

    Alfaxalone encased in hydroxypropyl-β -cyclodextrin is a neuroactive steroid compound that has recently been approved in the United States for use as an anesthetic in dogs and cats. We evaluated the use of alfaxalone compared with ketamine, both alone and in combination with xylazine, for anesthesia of C57BL/6 mice. We assessed time to onset of anesthesia, duration of action, reflex responses, respiratory rate, and clinical signs. Alfaxalone (80 mg/kg IP) induced a light surgical plane of anesthesia in all mice, with a time to onset of 2.2 ± 0.2 min and duration of 57.1 ± 3.8 min, whereas ketamine (80 mg/kg IP) provided only sedative effects (time to onset, 5.4 ± 0.4 min; duration, 6.9 ± 0.8 min). Clinically, alfaxalone caused a spectrum of activities, including popcorn-like jumping movements after injection, intense scratching of the face, hyperresponsiveness to noise or touch, and marked limb jerking during recovery. Adding xylazine to the single-agent protocols achieved deep surgical anesthesia (duration: alfaxalone + xylazine, 80.3 ± 17.8 min; ketamine + xylazine, 37.4 ± 8.2 min) and ameliorated the adverse clinical signs. Our preliminary analysis suggests that, because of its side effects, alfaxalone alone is not a viable anesthetic option for mice. Although alfaxalone combined with xylazine appeared to be a more viable option, some mice still experienced mild adverse reactions, and the long duration of action might be problematic regarding the maintenance of body temperature and monitoring of recovery. Further studies evaluating different routes of administration and drug combinations are warranted. PMID:27423149

  2. Antiretroviral Treatment Scale-Up and Tuberculosis Mortality in High TB/HIV Burden Countries: An Econometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Isabel; Bendavid, Eran; Korenromp, Eline L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality in patients with active tuberculosis (TB), but the population-level relationship between ART coverage and TB mortality is untested. We estimated the reduction in population-level TB mortality that can be attributed to increasing ART coverage across 41 high HIV-TB burden countries. Methods We compiled TB mortality trends between 1996 and 2011 from two sources: (1) national program-reported TB death notifications, adjusted for annual TB case detection rates, and (2) WHO TB mortality estimates. National coverage with ART, as proportion of HIV-infected people in need, was obtained from UNAIDS. We applied panel linear regressions controlling for HIV prevalence (5-year lagged), coverage of TB interventions (estimated by WHO and UNAIDS), gross domestic product per capita, health spending from domestic sources, urbanization, and country fixed effects. Results Models suggest that that increasing ART coverage was followed by reduced TB mortality, across multiple specifications. For death notifications at 2 to 5 years following a given ART scale-up, a 1% increase in ART coverage predicted 0.95% faster mortality rate decline (p = 0.002); resulting in 27% fewer TB deaths in 2011 alone than would have occurred without ART. Based on WHO death estimates, a 1% increase in ART predicted a 1.0% reduced TB death rate (p<0.001), and 31% fewer deaths in 2011. TB mortality was higher at higher HIV prevalence (p<0.001), but not related to coverage of isoniazid preventive therapy, cotrimoxazole preventive therapy, or other covariates. Conclusion This econometric analysis supports a substantial impact of ART on population-level TB mortality realized already within the first decade of ART scale-up, that is apparent despite variable-quality mortality data. PMID:27536864

  3. TB/HIV risk factors identified from a General Household Survey of South Africa in 2006

    PubMed Central

    Appunni, Sathiya Susuman; Blignaut, Renette; Lougue, Siaka

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The level of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB) as well as the co-infection TB/HIV in South Africa is among the highest in the world. TB is curable while HIV is not, yet the combination of both is a growing feature in the world. This study examined TB and HIV affecting people living in South Africa. Analyses have been undertaken based on data from the General Household Survey of South Africa in 2006. The study focused on respondents aged 15–49 years, corresponding to a total of 55,384 people composed of 25,859 males and 29,525 females. Among this population, 5935 people suffered from illness/injury, including 2469 (41.6%) males and 3466 (58.4%) females. Weighted multivariate logistic regression is performed on TB and/or HIV in association with the province, background characteristics of the target population, and selected socioeconomic and demographic variables included in the survey. In this study we focus on variables of health status and whether subjects suffered from TB and/or HIV. Findings of this investigation show that TB is the second most common cause of illness in the provinces of KwaZulu-Natal (KN) (9.1%), North West (5.4%) and Limpopo (4.2%). People who are married have a 50% lower risk compared to those currently not married to suffer from TB and/or HIV. Those with living spouses have a 5% lower risk to suffer from TB and/or HIV than those whose partners are not alive. This study concluded that rapid action is needed to curb the spread of TB and/or HIV to produce a healthy population. Therefore, follow-up care and special preventative measures are urgently needed in provinces with higher reported rates of TB and/or HIV such as KN. PMID:24820431

  4. Incidence of tuberculosis and immunological profile of TB/HIV co-infected patients in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Baba Maiyaki; Musa, Babashani; Muhammed, Hamza; Ibrahim, Nashabaru; Musa, Abubakar Garbati

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We obtained estimates of the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) among patients receiving HIV Treatment. We also modeled the relationship between incident TB and change in CD4 count over the follow-up period. METHODS: We analyzed the incidence of TB over 10 years from initiation of HIV treatment among 345 HIV treatment-naïve persons, who were enrolled in a cohort in Kano, Nigeria. We used Generalized Estimating Equation [GEE] to identify determinants of TB incidence and model the relationship between the occurrences of TB with change in CD4 count over the follow-up period. We created Kaplan-Meier curves stratified by anti-retroviral therapy (ART) treatment failure status to examine the effect of first line ART treatment failure on occurrence of TB. RESULT: During the 10-year period, 47(13.62%) had TB [incidence was 7.43 per (1,000) person year)]. It is associated with decreasing age (OR = 0.98), female gender (OR = 0.83), being on first line ART other than AZT (OR = 0.87), poor adherence (OR = 1.25), change in ART regimen (OR = 2.3) and ART treatment failure (OR = 1.51). Odds of TB occurrence was also associated with CD4 increment at 10 years (OR = 0.99). Those with TB/HIV co-infection tend to have statistically significant shorter time to failing first line ART regimen compared to those with HIV infection alone. CONCLUSION: There was high incidence of TB in the studied HIV cohort with a deleterious effect on the outcome of ART treatment. There is need for early TB screening and re-screening among all HIV patients. PMID:26229561

  5. TB/HIV risk factors identified from a General Household Survey of South Africa in 2006.

    PubMed

    Appunni, Sathiya Susuman; Blignaut, Renette; Lougue, Siaka

    2014-01-01

    The level of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB) as well as the co-infection TB/HIV in South Africa is among the highest in the world. TB is curable while HIV is not, yet the combination of both is a growing feature in the world. This study examined TB and HIV affecting people living in South Africa. Analyses have been undertaken based on data from the General Household Survey of South Africa in 2006. The study focused on respondents aged 15-49 years, corresponding to a total of 55,384 people composed of 25,859 males and 29,525 females. Among this population, 5935 people suffered from illness/injury, including 2469 (41.6%) males and 3466 (58.4%) females. Weighted multivariate logistic regression is performed on TB and/or HIV in association with the province, background characteristics of the target population, and selected socioeconomic and demographic variables included in the survey. In this study we focus on variables of health status and whether subjects suffered from TB and/or HIV. Findings of this investigation show that TB is the second most common cause of illness in the provinces of KwaZulu-Natal (KN) (9.1%), North West (5.4%) and Limpopo (4.2%). People who are married have a 50% lower risk compared to those currently not married to suffer from TB and/or HIV. Those with living spouses have a 5% lower risk to suffer from TB and/or HIV than those whose partners are not alive. This study concluded that rapid action is needed to curb the spread of TB and/or HIV to produce a healthy population. Therefore, follow-up care and special preventative measures are urgently needed in provinces with higher reported rates of TB and/or HIV such as KN. PMID:24820431

  6. Dramatic effect of redox pre-treatments on the CO oxidation activity of Au/Ce(0.50)Tb(0.12)Zr(0.38)O(2-x) catalysts prepared by deposition-precipitation with urea: a nano-analytical and nano-structural study.

    PubMed

    del Río, Eloy; López-Haro, Miguel; Cíes, José M; Delgado, Juan J; Calvino, José J; Trasobares, Susana; Blanco, Ginesa; Cauqui, Miguel A; Bernal, Serafín

    2013-08-01

    Nano-structural and nano-analytical studies show that the dramatic difference in CO oxidation activity observed between two Au/Ce0.50Tb0.12Zr0.38O2-x samples prepared by deposition-precipitation with urea and further activated under oxidising or reducing conditions is due to the poisoning effect of a very thin layer of carbon grown on the pre-reduced catalyst. PMID:23785711

  7. Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Structural Modification of the Anti-TB Resorcinols from Ardisia gigantifolia.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yi-Fu; Song, Xun; Qiu, Ming-Hua; Luo, Shi-Hong; Wang, Bao-Jie; Van Hung, Nguyen; Cuong, Nguyen M; Soejarto, Djaja Doel; Fong, Harry H S; Franzblau, Scott G; Li, Sheng-Hong; He, Zhen-Dan; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2016-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious disease mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 RV . Antitubercular (anti-TB) bioassay-guided isolation of the CHCl3 extract of the leaves and stems of the medicinal plant Ardisia gigantifolia led to the isolation of two anti-TB 5-alkylresorcinols, 5-(8Z-heptadecenyl) resorcinol (1) and 5-(8Z-pentadecenyl) resorcinol (2). We further synthesized 15 derivatives based on these two natural products. These compounds (natural and synthetic) were evaluated for their anti-TB activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 RV . Resorcinols 1 and 2 exhibited anti-TB activity with MIC values at 34.4 and 79.2 μm in MABA assay, respectively, and 91.7 and 168.3 μm in LORA assay, respectively. Among these derivatives, compound 8 was found to show improved anti-TB activity than its synthetic precursor (2) with MIC values at 42.0 μm in MABA assay and 100.2 μm in LORA assay. The active compounds should be regarded as new hits for further study as a novel class of anti-TB agents. The distinct structure-activity correlations of the parent compound were elucidated based on these derivatives. PMID:26992112

  8. Fusion of {sup 6}Li with {sup 159}Tb at near-barrier energies

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, M. K.; Mukherjee, A.; Basu, P.; Goswami, A.; Kshetri, R.; Roy, Subinit; Chowdhury, P. Roy; Sarkar, M. Saha; Palit, R.; Parkar, V. V.; Santra, S.; Ray, M.

    2011-06-15

    Complete and incomplete fusion cross sections for {sup 6}Li + {sup 159}Tb have been measured at energies around the Coulomb barrier by the {gamma}-ray method. The measurements show that the complete fusion cross sections at above-barrier energies are suppressed by {approx}34% compared to coupled-channel calculations. A comparison of the complete fusion cross sections at above-barrier energies with the existing data for {sup 11,10}B + {sup 159}Tb and {sup 7}Li + {sup 159}Tb shows that the extent of suppression is correlated with the {alpha} separation energies of the projectiles. It has been argued that the Dy isotopes produced in the reaction {sup 6}Li + {sup 159}Tb at below-barrier energies are primarily due to the d transfer to unbound states of {sup 159}Tb, while both transfer and incomplete fusion processes contribute at above-barrier energies.

  9. Coincident Helminth Infection Modulates Systemic Inflammation and Immune Activation in Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    George, Parakkal Jovvian; Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Sridhar, Rathinam; Hanna, Luke E.; Nair, Dina; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Background Helminth infections are known to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses in active and latent tuberculosis (TB). However, the role of helminth infections in modulating responses associated with inflammation and immune activation (reflecting disease activity and/or severity) in TB is not known. Methodology We measured markers of inflammation and immune activation in active pulmonary TB individuals (ATB) with co-incidental Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss) infection. These included systemic levels of acute phase proteins, matrix metalloproteinases and their endogenous inhibitors and immune activation markers. As a control, we measured the systemic levels of the same molecules in TB-uninfected individuals (NTB) with or without Ss infection. Principal Findings Our data confirm that ATB is associated with elevated levels of the various measured molecules when compared to those seen in NTB. Our data also reveal that co-incident Ss infection in ATB individuals is associated with significantly decreased circulating levels of acute phase proteins, matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases as well as the systemic immune activation markers, sCD14 and sCD163. These changes are specific to ATB since they are absent in NTB individuals with Ss infection. Conclusions Our data therefore reveal a profound effect of Ss infection on the markers associated with TB disease activity and severity and indicate that co-incidental helminth infections might dampen the severity of TB disease. PMID:25375117

  10. Synchrotron and laser excitation of luminescence in PbWO4:Tb crystals at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novosad, S. S.; Kostyk, L. V.; Novosad, I. S.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of temperature on the spectral luminescence characteristics of PbWO4:Tb3+ crystals with synchrotron and laser excitation is studied. If PbWO4:Tb3+ is excited by synchrotron radiation with λ = 88 nm at 300 K, a faint recombination luminescence of the impurity terbium is observed against the matrix luminescence. When the temperature is reduced to 8 K, the luminescence intensity of PbWO4:Tb3+ increases by roughly an order of magnitude and the characteristic luminescence of the unactivated crystal is observed. Excitation of PbWO4:Tb3+ by a nitrogen laser at 300 K leads to the appearance of emission from Tb3+ ions. At 90 K, a faint matrix luminescence is observed in addition to the activator emission. The formation of the luminescence excitation spectra for wavelengths of 60-320 nm is analyzed and the nature of the emission bands is discussed.

  11. Utility of the Plasma Level of suPAR in Monitoring Risk of Mortality during TB Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian; Oliveira, Ines; Gomes, Victor Francisco; Haaland, Maya Bonde; Aaby, Peter; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether changes in the plasma level of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) can be used to monitor tuberculosis (TB) treatment efficacy. Design This prospective cohort study included 278 patients diagnosed with active pulmonary TB and followed throughout the 8-month treatment period. Results Mortality during treatment was higher in the highest inclusion quartile of suPAR (23%) compared to the lowest three quartiles (7%), the risk ratio being 3.1 (95% CI 1.65–6.07). No association between early smear conversion and subsequent mortality or inclusion suPAR was observed. After 1 and 2 months of treatment, an increase in suPAR compared to at diagnosis was associated with a Mortality Rate Ratio (MRR) of 4.5 (95%CI: 1.45–14.1) and 2.1 (95%CI 0.62–6.82), respectively, for the remaining treatment period. Conclusions The present study confirmed that elevated suPAR level at time of initiation of TB treatment is associated with increased risk of mortality. Furthermore, increased suPAR levels after one month of treatment was associated with increased risk of mortality during the remaining 7-month treatment period. PMID:22937128

  12. TB vaccine development and the End TB Strategy: importance and current status

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Helen A.; Schrager, Lewis

    2016-01-01

    TB is now the leading, global cause of death due to a single infectious microbe. To achieve the End TB vision of reducing TB by 90% by 2035 we will need new interventions. The objectives of this manuscript are to summarize the status of the clinical TB vaccine pipeline; to assess the challenges facing the TB development field; and to discuss some of the key strategies being embraced by the field to overcome these challenges. Currently, 8 of the 13 vaccines in clinical development are subunit vaccines; 6 of these contain or express either Ag85A or Ag85B proteins. A major challenge to TB vaccine development is the lack of diversity in both the antigens included in TB vaccines, and the immune responses elicited by TB vaccine candidates. Both will need to be expanded to maximise the potential for developing a successful candidate by 2025. Current research efforts are focused on broadening both antigen selection and the range of vaccine-mediated immune responses. Previous and ongoing TB vaccine efficacy trials have built capacity, generated high quality data on TB incidence and prevalence, and provided insight into immune correlates of risk of TB disease. These gains will enable the design of better TB vaccines and, importantly, move these vaccines into efficacy trials more rapidly and at a lower cost than was possible for previous TB vaccine candidates. PMID:27076508

  13. TB vaccine development and the End TB Strategy: importance and current status.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Helen A; Schrager, Lewis

    2016-04-01

    TB is now the leading, global cause of death due to a single infectious microbe. To achieve the End TB vision of reducing TB by 90% by 2035 we will need new interventions. The objectives of this manuscript are to summarize the status of the clinical TB vaccine pipeline; to assess the challenges facing the TB development field; and to discuss some of the key strategies being embraced by the field to overcome these challenges. Currently, 8 of the 13 vaccines in clinical development are subunit vaccines; 6 of these contain or express either Ag85A or Ag85B proteins. A major challenge to TB vaccine development is the lack of diversity in both the antigens included in TB vaccines, and the immune responses elicited by TB vaccine candidates. Both will need to be expanded to maximise the potential for developing a successful candidate by 2025. Current research efforts are focused on broadening both antigen selection and the range of vaccine-mediated immune responses. Previous and ongoing TB vaccine efficacy trials have built capacity, generated high quality data on TB incidence and prevalence, and provided insight into immune correlates of risk of TB disease. These gains will enable the design of better TB vaccines and, importantly, move these vaccines into efficacy trials more rapidly and at a lower cost than was possible for previous TB vaccine candidates. PMID:27076508

  14. Host Protein Biomarkers Identify Active Tuberculosis in HIV Uninfected and Co-infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Achkar, Jacqueline M.; Cortes, Laetitia; Croteau, Pascal; Yanofsky, Corey; Mentinova, Marija; Rajotte, Isabelle; Schirm, Michael; Zhou, Yiyong; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula; Kasprowicz, Victoria O.; Larsen, Michelle; Allard, René; Hunter, Joanna; Paramithiotis, Eustache

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers for active tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed to improve rapid TB diagnosis. The objective of this study was to identify serum protein expression changes associated with TB but not latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI), uninfected states, or respiratory diseases other than TB (ORD). Serum samples from 209 HIV uninfected (HIV−) and co-infected (HIV+) individuals were studied. In the discovery phase samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, and in the verification phase biologically independent samples were analyzed via a multiplex multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assay. Compared to LTBI and ORD, host proteins were significantly differentially expressed in TB, and involved in the immune response, tissue repair, and lipid metabolism. Biomarker panels whose composition differed according to HIV status, and consisted of 8 host proteins in HIV− individuals (CD14, SEPP1, SELL, TNXB, LUM, PEPD, QSOX1, COMP, APOC1), or 10 host proteins in HIV+ individuals (CD14, SEPP1, PGLYRP2, PFN1, VASN, CPN2, TAGLN2, IGFBP6), respectively, distinguished TB from ORD with excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.96 for HIV− TB, 0.95 for HIV+ TB). These results warrant validation in larger studies but provide promise that host protein biomarkers could be the basis for a rapid, blood-based test for TB. PMID:26501113

  15. Host Protein Biomarkers Identify Active Tuberculosis in HIV Uninfected and Co-infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Achkar, Jacqueline M; Cortes, Laetitia; Croteau, Pascal; Yanofsky, Corey; Mentinova, Marija; Rajotte, Isabelle; Schirm, Michael; Zhou, Yiyong; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula; Kasprowicz, Victoria O; Larsen, Michelle; Allard, René; Hunter, Joanna; Paramithiotis, Eustache

    2015-09-01

    Biomarkers for active tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed to improve rapid TB diagnosis. The objective of this study was to identify serum protein expression changes associated with TB but not latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI), uninfected states, or respiratory diseases other than TB (ORD). Serum samples from 209 HIV uninfected (HIV(-)) and co-infected (HIV(+)) individuals were studied. In the discovery phase samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, and in the verification phase biologically independent samples were analyzed via a multiplex multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assay. Compared to LTBI and ORD, host proteins were significantly differentially expressed in TB, and involved in the immune response, tissue repair, and lipid metabolism. Biomarker panels whose composition differed according to HIV status, and consisted of 8 host proteins in HIV(-) individuals (CD14, SEPP1, SELL, TNXB, LUM, PEPD, QSOX1, COMP, APOC1), or 10 host proteins in HIV(+) individuals (CD14, SEPP1, PGLYRP2, PFN1, VASN, CPN2, TAGLN2, IGFBP6), respectively, distinguished TB from ORD with excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.96 for HIV(-) TB, 0.95 for HIV(+) TB). These results warrant validation in larger studies but provide promise that host protein biomarkers could be the basis for a rapid, blood-based test for TB. PMID:26501113

  16. Comparative topical anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoids and cannabivarins.

    PubMed

    Tubaro, Aurelia; Giangaspero, Anna; Sosa, Silvio; Negri, Roberto; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Casano, Salvatore; Della Loggia, Roberto; Appendino, Giovanni

    2010-10-01

    A selection of seven phytocannabinoids representative of the major structural types of classic cannabinoids and their corresponding cannabivarins was investigated for in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity in the Croton oil mouse ear dermatitis assay. Differences in the terpenoid moiety were far more important for anti-inflammatory activity than those at the C-3 alkyl residue, suggesting the involvement not only of cannabinoid receptors, but also of other inflammatory end-points targeted by phytocannabinoids. PMID:20450962

  17. A single-phase full-color phosphor based on Ba3MgSi2O8 co-activated with Eu2+, Tb3+, and Mn2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkel, Alexander; DeCino, Nicholas A.; Cozzan, Clayton; Mikhailovsky, Alexander A.; Hong, Byung-Chul; Seshadri, Ram

    2015-10-01

    We present a rapid and energy-efficient microwave-assisted approach to prepare a single-phase full-color phosphor based on Ba3MgSi2O8. The samples were prepared using a citric acid based sol-gel preparation pathway with a microwave-assisted heating step, which reduces the time required for the final heat treatment to less than 30 min. Thermogravimetric analysis was utilized to optimize the solution-based preparation prior to microwave heating. The structural properties of the obtained luminescent materials have been thoroughly investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld analyses. To study the optical behavior, the excitation and emission spectra were recorded. Full-color emission is achieved using Eu2+ (blue), Tb3+ (green), and Mn2+ (red) as the activator ions. The thermally robust emission was investigated using temperature-dependent luminescence spectroscopy. The energy-transfer processes within the samples were studied using time-dependent spectroscopy, and the quantum yield of this true color phosphor as a function of the composition was determined.

  18. Paclitaxel conjugated Fe3O4@LaF3:Ce3+,Tb3+ nanoparticles as bifunctional targeting carriers for Cancer theranostics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangaiyarkarasi, Rajendiran; Chinnathambi, Shanmugavel; Karthikeyan, Subramani; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2016-02-01

    The bi-functional Chitosan functionalized magnetite doped luminescent rare earth nanoparticles (Fe3O4@LaF3: Ce3+,Tb3+/chi NPs) as a carrier of paclitaxel (PTX) drug was designed using a co-precipitation and facile direct precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles are spherical in shape with a typical diameter of 19-37 nm respectively. They are water soluble, super paramagnetic and biocompatible, in which the amino groups on the nanoparticles surface are used for the conjugation with an anticancer drug, paclitaxel. The nature of PTX binding with Fe3O4@LaF3: Ce3+,Tb3+/chi nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer and scanning electron micrograph. The nature of interactions between PTX and Fe3O4@LaF3: Ce3+,Tb3+/chi NPs due to complex formation were conceded out by various spectroscopic methods viz., UV-visible, steady state and excited state fluorescence spectroscopy. The photo-physical characterization reveals that the adsorption and release of PTX from Fe3O4@LaF3:Tb3+/chi nanoparticles is quicker when compared with other nanoparticles and also confirms that this may be due to the hydrogen bond formation between the hydroxyl group of drug and amino group of nanoparticles respectively. The maximum loading capacity and entrapment efficiency of 83.69% and 80.51% were attained at a ratio of 5:8 of PTX and Fe3O4@LaF3: Ce3+,Tb3+/chi NPs respectively. In addition with that, antitumoral activity study of PTX conjugated Fe3O4@LaF3:Tb3+/chi nanoparticles exhibits increased cytotoxic effects on A549 lung cancer cell lines than that of unconjugated PTX.

  19. Comparative study between two different active flutter suppression systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1978-01-01

    An activated leading-edge (LE)-tailing-edge (TE) control system is applied to a drone aircraft with the objective of enabling the drone to fly subsonically at dynamic pressures which are 44% above the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure. The control synthesis approach is based on the aerodynamic energy concept and it incorporates recent developments in this area. A comparison is made between the performance of the activated LE-TE control system and the performance of a TE control system, analyzed in a previous work. The results obtained indicate that although all the control systems achieve the flutter suppression objectives, the TE control system appears to be somewhat superior to the LE-TE control system, in this specific application. This superiority is manifested through reduced values of control surface activity over a wide range of flight conditions.

  20. Adverse Drug Reaction Profile in Patients on Anti-tubercular Treatment Alone and in Combination with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sadiq, Shamiya; Khajuria, Vijay; Mahajan, Annil; Singh, Jang B.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Adverse drug reactions are very common among patients on anti-tubercular treatment alone or in combination with highly active antiretroviral therapy but comparatively studied very less. Hence, the current study was done to evalaute the adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile in patients receiving anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) and ATT with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Materials and Methods A one year prospective, cross-sectional observational study was undertaken using suspected adverse drug data collection form available under Pharmacovigilance Programme of India. Results Seventy four patients receiving ATT & 32 patients on both ATT & HAART presented with 74 and 45 adverse drug events (ADE) respectively. Males were more affected than females in both the groups. DOTS category- 1 regimen was mostly responsible for ADE in both the groups. Epigastric pain was the most common ADE in TB patients, while anaemia was the most common presentation in TB with HIV group. On comparison, ADE rate of TB with HIV co-morbid patients was more (55.8%) than TB patients (0.36%) (p < 0.001). Urban population presented more with ADR in TB/HIV group unlike rural population in TB group (p<0.0001). Whereas, illiterate were more involved in TB group unlike literate in TB/HIV group (p<0.05). Type A reactions were more common in TB group (p < 0.001). Addition of drugs for the management of ADR events was more in TB/HIV group (p < 0.001) as compared to TB group. Rest all the parameters were comparable. Conclusion The study underscores that concomitant HAART and ATT, result in more ADRs in comparison to ATT alone demanding collaboration & integration of National AIDS Control programme and PvPI to enhance drug safety in this field. PMID:26557538

  1. Why healthcare workers are sick of TB.

    PubMed

    von Delft, Arne; Dramowski, Angela; Khosa, Celso; Kotze, Koot; Lederer, Philip; Mosidi, Thato; Peters, Jurgens A; Smith, Jonathan; van der Westhuizen, Helene-Mari; von Delft, Dalene; Willems, Bart; Bates, Matthew; Craig, Gill; Maeurer, Markus; Marais, Ben J; Mwaba, Peter; Nunes, Elizabete A; Nyirenda, Thomas; Oliver, Matt; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2015-03-01

    Dr Thato Mosidi never expected to be diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB), despite widely prevalent exposure and very limited infection control measures. The life-threatening diagnosis of primary extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) came as an even greater shock. The inconvenient truth is that, rather than being protected, Dr Mosidi and thousands of her healthcare colleagues are at an increased risk of TB and especially drug-resistant TB. In this viewpoint paper we debunk the widely held false belief that healthcare workers are somehow immune to TB disease (TB-proof) and explore some of the key factors contributing to the pervasive stigmatization and subsequent non-disclosure of occupational TB. Our front-line workers are some of the first to suffer the consequences of a progressively more resistant and fatal TB epidemic, and urgent interventions are needed to ensure the safety and continued availability of these precious healthcare resources. These include the rapid development and scale-up of improved diagnostic and treatment options, strengthened infection control measures, and focused interventions to tackle stigma and discrimination in all its forms. We call our colleagues to action to protect themselves and those they care for. PMID:25809771

  2. TB an epidemic in Russia's prisons.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Over 100,000 prisoners are infected with tuberculosis (TB) in Russia, which has the highest incarceration rate in the world. Drug-resistant TB is found in thousands of inmates, and approximately 20,000 have died from it within the past 2 years. Although the country now has 50 centers for TB-infected prisoners, many are not being cured because of medicine shortages and failure to complete treatment. Up to 25 percent of TB infections found in Russian jails are multi-drug resistant, as opposed to 4 percent in Russia's general population and under 2 percent in the United States. PMID:11367347

  3. A Comparative Study of Active Play on Differently Designed Playgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luchs, Antje; Fikus, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The physical and social environment of children in cities is continuously changing. Knowledge about the positive effects of natural play experiences within the child's development is becoming widely known. Affordances of diverse landscape elements and especially loose parts for play in natural environments influence play activities. New…

  4. Identifying locations of recent TB transmission in rural Uganda: a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Chamie, Gabriel; Wandera, Bonnie; Marquez, Carina; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Kamya, Moses R.; Havlir, Diane V.; Charlebois, Edwin D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Targeting high TB transmission sites may offer a novel approach to TB prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to characterize TB transmission sites in a rural Ugandan township. Methods We recruited adults starting TB treatment in Tororo, Uganda over one year. 54 TB cases provided names of frequent contacts, sites of residence, health care, work and social activities, and two sputum samples. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) culture-positive specimens underwent spoligotyping to identify strains with shared genotypes. We visualized TB case social networks, and obtained, mapped and geo-coded global positioning system measures for every location that cases reported frequenting one month before treatment. Locations of spatial overlap among genotype-clustered cases were considered potential transmission sites. Results Six distinct genotypic clusters were identified involving 21/33(64%) MTB culture-positive, genotyped cases; none shared a home. Although 18/54(33%) TB cases shared social network ties, none of the genotype-clustered cases shared social ties. Using spatial analysis, we identified potential sites of within-cluster TB transmission for five of six genotypic clusters. All sites but one were health care and social venues, including sites of drinking, worship and marketplaces. Cases reported spending the largest proportion of pre-treatment person-time (22.4%) at drinking venues. Conclusions Using molecular epidemiology, geospatial and social network data from adult TB cases identified at clinics, we quantified person-time spent at high-risk locations across a rural Ugandan community, and determined the most likely sites of recent TB transmission to be health care and social venues. These sites may not have been identified using contact investigation alone. PMID:25583212

  5. [Spectra characteristics of LiM (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) BO3 : Tb3+ phosphor].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Jun; Li, Pan-Lai; Yang, Zhi-Ping; Guo, Qing-Lin

    2009-11-01

    LiM (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) BO3 : Tb3+ phosphors were synthesized by solid state reaction. The starting materials CaCO3, SrCO3, BaCO3, H3 BO3, Li2 CO3, Na2 CO3, K2 CO3 and Tb4 O7 (99.99% in mass) in appropriate stoichiometric ratio were mixed in the alumina crucible, then the mixed powders were calcined at 700 degrees C for 2 h, and LiCaBO3 : Tb3+, LiSrBO3 : Tb3+ and LiB-aBO3 : Tb3+ phosphors were obtained. The emission and excitation spectra were measured by a Shimadzu RF-540 ultraviolet spectrophotometer. All the photoluminescence properties of these phosphors were measured at room temperature. The emission spectra of LiM (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) BO3 : Tb3+ phosphors show several bands, and the main emission peaks correspond to the 5D4 --> 7F6(486, 486, 488 nm), 5D4 --> F5 (544, 544, 544 nm), 5D4 --> 7F4 (590, 595, 593 nm) and 5D4 --> 7F3 (620, 620, 616 nm) typical transitions of Tb3+, and the typical transitions of Tb3+ happens to split because of the effects of LiM (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) BO3 crystals field. The excitation spectra for the 544 nm green emission of LiM (M = Ca, Sr, Ba)BO3 : Tb3+ phosphors illuminate that these kinds of phosphors can be effectively excited by ultraviolet (350-410 nm) light, and emit green light, therefore, they are promising phosphors for white light emitting diodes. Effects of activation and charge compensation on the luminescence intensities of LiM (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) BO3 : Tb3+ phosphors were studied, and the results show that the intensities were obviously effected. PMID:20101952

  6. Comparing Educational Tools Using Activity Theory: Clickers and Flashcards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Edward; De Leone, Charles; Lasry, Nathaniel

    2010-10-01

    Physics educators and researchers have recently begun to distinguish between pedagogical approaches and the educational technologies that are used to implement them. For instance, peer instruction has been shown to be equally effective, in terms of student learning outcomes, when implemented with clickers or flashcards. Therefore, technological tools (clickers and flashcards) can be viewed as means to mediate pedagogical techniques (peer instruction or traditional instruction). In this paper, we use activity theory to examine peer instruction, with particular attention to the role of tools. This perspective helps clarify clickers' and flashcards' differences, similarities, impacts in the classroom, and utility to education researchers. Our analysis can suggest improvements and new uses. Finally, we propose activity theory as a useful approach in understanding and improving the use of technology in the physics classroom.

  7. Features for voice activity detection: a comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Simon; Herbig, Tobias; Buck, Markus; Schmidt, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    In many speech signal processing applications, voice activity detection (VAD) plays an essential role for separating an audio stream into time intervals that contain speech activity and time intervals where speech is absent. Many features that reflect the presence of speech were introduced in literature. However, to our knowledge, no extensive comparison has been provided yet. In this article, we therefore present a structured overview of several established VAD features that target at different properties of speech. We categorize the features with respect to properties that are exploited, such as power, harmonicity, or modulation, and evaluate the performance of some dedicated features. The importance of temporal context is discussed in relation to latency restrictions imposed by different applications. Our analyses allow for selecting promising VAD features and finding a reasonable trade-off between performance and complexity.

  8. Comparative investigation of antimutagenic activity of sterically hindered phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Pashin, Yu.V.; Bakhitova, L.M.; Bentkhen, T.I.

    1985-07-01

    Mutagenic properties of primarily inactive carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are manifested after metabolic oxidation by microsomal enzymes. It has been established that activation of carcinogens in biological systems is accompanied by intensification of free-radical processes, effective inhibition of which is achieved by sterically hindered phenols (SHP). The authors studied the effect of SHP on the mutagenic activity of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) using estimation of induced direct gene mutation at the locus for hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) in somatic Chinese hamster cells of line V-79 cultured in vitro and with estimation of the induction of micronuclei in polychromatophilic erythrocytes of mouse bone marrow in vivo. The reference mutagen was BP from Fluka and the following SHP were used: dibunol, F-800, and F-804. Genetic activity of each substance tested and their combination was studied in an in vitro system under conditions of metabolic activation by mouse liver microsomes and in vivo according to induction of micronuclei in polychromatophilic bone marrow erythrocytes in (CBA x C57B1/6J)F/sub 1/ mice 60-80 days old, which reflects gross defects of chromosomes at the erythroblast stage. In order to establish optimal time for recording the frequency of induction of micronuclei, bone marrow samples were taken from the animals, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after a single intraperitoneal injection of the agents. The BP was dissolved in sunflower oil and used in a concentration constituting 1/3 of the lowest lethal dose in mice. The SHP was then dissolved in water or dimethyl sulfoxide and administered in a ratio with BP of 1:1 or 1:0.5. The smears were then stained in methanol, washed with twice-distilled water, and stained in 7% Giemsa solution.

  9. SMOS ocean salinity performance and TB bias correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meirold-Mautner, I.; Mugerin, C.; Vergely, J.-L.; Spurgeon, P.; Rouffi, F.; Meskini, N.

    2009-04-01

    In the framework of the SMOS ocean salinity mission, a validation study has been carried out to determine the performance at Level 1 (brightness temperatures, TB) and Level 2 (sea surface salinity, SSS) products that can be expected. For this purpose a processing chain has been developed which includes the instrument simulator SEPS-GS to generate Level 0 products as well as the Level 1 and 2 prototype processors: based on geophysical input data, Level 0, 1 and 2 products are simulated and compared to the so-called perfect instrument, i.e. TB's directly obtained from forward models without passing through the Level 1 processor and thus avoiding image reconstruction. Comparisons that have been carried out at Level 1 and Level 2 products reveal systematic TB biases which in turn cause a significant bias in retrieved SSS. Depending on the position in the SMOS field of view we obtain TB biases up to 4K which translate into SSS biases near the centre of the track of up to 3 psu. Such values are too high in order to attain the required 0.1 psu (at Level 3) precision. Consequently, a characterisation of this bias as well as correction methods have been investigated. Our results show that the bias is stationary for constant scenes but varies as soon as inhomogeneous (realistic) scenes are observed. Possible techniques to reduce this bias are presented along with their consequences on the SSS retrieval.

  10. Comparative efficacy of switching to natalizumab in active multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Spelman, Timothy; Kalincik, Tomas; Zhang, Annie; Pellegrini, Fabio; Wiendl, Heinz; Kappos, Ludwig; Tsvetkova, Larisa; Belachew, Shibeshih; Hyde, Robert; Verheul, Freek; Grand-Maison, Francois; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Grammond, Pierre; Duquette, Pierre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Hupperts, Raymond; Petersen, Thor; Barnett, Michael; Trojano, Maria; Butzkueven, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare treatment efficacy and persistence in patients who switched to natalizumab versus those who switched between glatiramer acetate (GA) and interferon-beta (IFNβ) after an on-treatment relapse on IFNβ or GA using propensity score matched real-world datasets. Methods Patients included were registered in MSBase or the TYSABRI Observational Program (TOP), had relapsed on IFNβ or GA within 12 months prior to switching to another therapy, and had initiated natalizumab or IFNβ/GA treatment ≤6 months after discontinuing prior therapy. Covariates were balanced across post switch treatment groups by propensity score matching at treatment initiation. Relapse, persistence, and disability measures were compared between matched treatment arms in the total population (n = 869/group) and in subgroups defined by prior treatment history (IFNβ only [n = 578/group], GA only [n = 165/group], or both IFNβ and GA [n = 176/group]). Results Compared to switching between IFNβ and GA, switching to natalizumab reduced annualized relapse rate in year one by 65–75%, the risk of first relapse by 53–82% (mean follow-up 1.7–2.2 years) and treatment discontinuation events by 48–65% (all P ≤ 0.001). In the total population, switching to natalizumab reduced the risk of confirmed disability progression by 26% (P = 0.036) and decreased the total disability burden by 1.54 EDSS-years (P < 0.0001) over the first 24 months post switch. Interpretation Using large, real-world, propensity-matched datasets we demonstrate that after a relapse on IFNβ or GA, switching to natalizumab (rather than between IFNβ and GA) led to superior outcomes for patients in all measures assessed. Results were consistent regardless of the prior treatment identity. PMID:25909083

  11. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of 19 essential oils.

    PubMed

    Chaftar, Naouel; Girardot, Marion; Labanowski, Jérôme; Ghrairi, Tawfik; Hani, Khaled; Frère, Jacques; Imbert, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In our research on natural compounds efficient against human pathogen or opportunist microorganisms contracted by food or water, the antimicrobial activity of 19 essential oils (EOs) was investigated against 11 bacterial species (6 Gram positive, 5 Gram negative) and 7 fungal species (2 dermatophytes, 1 mould, 4 yeasts) using microdilution assays. Five essential oils were obtained from Tunisian plants (EOtun): Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Juniperus phoenicea L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta graveolens L. and Thymus vulgaris L., whereas others were commercial products (EOcom). Overall, T. vulgaris EOtun was the most efficient EO against both bacteria (Gram negative: MIC ≤ 0.34 mg/mL; Gram positive: MIC ≤ 0.70 mg/mL) and fungi (yeasts: MIC ≤ 0.55 mg/mL; mould: MIC = 0.30 mg/mL; dermatophytes: MIC ≤ 0.07 mg/mL). Two EOcom displayed both acceptable antibacterial and antifungal potency, although weaker than T. vulgaris EOtun activity: Origanum vulgare EOcom (bacteria: MIC ≤ 1.13 mg/mL, fungi: MIC ≤ 1.80 mg/mL), and Cymbopogon martinii var. motia EOcom (bacteria: MIC ≤ 1.00 mg/mL, fungi: MIC ≤ 0.80 mg/mL). Bacillus megaterium, Legionella pneumophila, Listeria monocytogenes and Trichophyton spp. were the most sensitive species to both EOcom and EOtun. This study demonstrated the noteworthy antimicrobial activity of two commercial EOs and points out the remarkable efficiency of T. vulgaris EOtun on all tested bacterial and fungal species, certainly associated with its high content in carvacrol (85 %). These three oils could thus represent promising candidates for applications in water and food protections. PMID:26566647

  12. TB in Correctional Facilities Is a Public Health Concern

    MedlinePlus

    ... component to TB elimination in the United States. Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria that ... is essential to these efforts. More Information Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2012 TB in Correctional ...

  13. Plasma Levels of Neopterin and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) in Tuberculosis (TB) with and without HIV Coinfection in Relation to CD4 Cell Count

    PubMed Central

    Skogmar, Sten; Schön, Thomas; Balcha, Taye Tolera; Sturegård, Erik; Jansson, Marianne; Björkman, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background While the risk of TB is elevated in HIV-positive subjects with low CD4 cell counts, TB may in itself be associated with CD4 lymphocytopenia. We investigated markers of immune activation (neopterin) and inflammation (CRP) in TB patients with and without HIV coinfection and their association with CD4 cell levels, and determined their predictive capacity as alternative markers of advanced immunosuppression. Methods Participants selected from a cohort of adults with TB at Ethiopian health centers (195 HIV+/TB+, 170 HIV-/TB+) and 31 controls were tested for plasma levels of neopterin and CRP. Baseline levels of neopterin and CRP were correlated to CD4 cell count before and after anti-TB treatment (ATT). The performance to predict CD4 cell strata for both markers were investigated using receiver operating curves. Results Levels of both biomarkers were elevated in TB patients (neopterin: HIV+/TB+ 54 nmol/l, HIV-/TB+ 23 nmol/l, controls 3.8 nmol/l; CRP: HIV+/TB+ 36 μg/ml, HIV-/TB+ 33 μg/ml, controls 0.5 μg/ml). Neopterin levels were inversely correlated (-0.53, p<0.001) to CD4 cell count, whereas this correlation was weaker for CRP (-0.25, p<0.001). Neither of the markers had adequate predictive value for identification of subjects with CD4 cell count <100 cells/mm3 (area under the curve [AUC] 0.64 for neopterin, AUC 0.59 for CRP). Conclusion Neopterin levels were high in adults with TB, both with and without HIV coinfection, with inverse correlation to CD4 cell count. This suggests that immune activation may be involved in TB-related CD4 lymphocytopenia. However, neither neopterin nor CRP showed promise as alternative tests for immunosuppression in patients coinfected with HIV and TB. PMID:26630153

  14. A comparative Study of Circulation Patterns at Active Lava Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Einat; Oppenheimer, Clive; Spampinato, Letizia; Hernandez, Pedro; Unglert, Kathi

    2016-04-01

    Lava lakes present a rare opportunity to study magma dynamics in a large scaled-up "crucible" and provide a unique natural laboratory to ground-truth dynamic models of magma circulation. The persistence of lava lakes allows for long-term observations of flow dynamics and of lava properties, especially compared to surface lava flows. There are currently five persistent lava lakes in the world: Halemaumau in Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Erta Ale (Ethiopia), Nyiragongo (Congo), Erebus (Antarctica), and Villarica (Chile). Marum and Benbow craters of Ambrym volcano (Vanuatu) and Masaya (Nicaragua) have often hosted lava lakes as well. We use visible-light and thermal infrared time-lapse and video footage collected at all above lakes (except Villarica, where the lake is difficult to observe), and compare the circulation patterns recorded. We calculate lake surface motion from the footage using the optical flow method (Lev et al., 2012) to produce 2D velocity fields. We mined both the surface temperature field and the surface velocity field for patterns using machine learning techniques such as "self-organizing maps (SOMs)" and "principle component analysis (PCA)". We use automatic detection technique to study the configuration of crustal plates at the lakes' surface. We find striking differences among the lakes, in flow direction, flow speed, frequency of changes in flow direction and speed, location and consistency of upwelling and downwelling, and crustal plate configuration. We relate the differences to lake size, shallow conduit geometry, lava viscosity, crystal and gas content, and crust integrity.

  15. A cloud model-radiative model combination for determining microwave TB-rain rate relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szejwach, Gerard; Adler, Robert F.; Jobard, Esabelle; Mack, Robert A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a cloud model-radiative transfer model combination for computing average brightness temperature, T(B), is discussed. The cloud model and radiative transfer model used in this study are described. The relations between rain rate, cloud and rain water, cloud and precipitation ice, and upwelling radiance are investigated. The effects of the rain rate relations on T(B) under different climatological conditions are examined. The model-derived T(B) results are compared to the 92 and 183 GHz aircraft observations of Hakkarinen and Adler (1984, 1986) and the radar-estimated rain rate of Hakkarinen and Adler (1986); good correlation between the data is detected.

  16. Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Activity of Cassia fistula Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Irshad, Md.; Zafaryab, Md.; Singh, Man; Rizvi, M. Moshahid A.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant potential of various extracts of Cassia fistula was determined by the DPPH, FRAP, Fe3+ reducing power, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Methanolic extracts of Cassia fistula showed the highest amount of phenolic and flavonoid content and reducing capacity, whereas hexane extracts exhibited the lowest level of reducing capacity. The order of antioxidant activity in Cassia fistula extracts displayed from higher to lower level as methanolic extracts of pulp, methanolic extracts of seed, hexane extracts of pulp, and hexane extracts of seed. The antioxidant potential of Cassia fistula extracts significantly correlated (P < 0.02) with the phenolic content of the methanolic extracts. Ascorbic acid taken as control showed highest antioxidant power in the present study. PMID:25374682

  17. Comparative in vitro activities of new quinolones against coryneform bacteria.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, L; Suárez, A I; Ortega, M C; Perea, E J

    1994-06-01

    The in vitro activities of eight quinolones against 115 coryneform bacteria (20 Corynebacterium jeikeium, 15 Corynebacterium minutissimum, 15 Corynebacterium striatum, 25 Corynebacterium urealyticum, 10 Corynebacterium xerosis, 10 Corynebacterium group ANF-1, 10 Corynebacterium group 12, and 10 Listeria monocytogenes) were determined. The MICs of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and sparfloxacin for 90% of C. jeikeium, C. urealyticum, and C. xerosis isolates tested were > 16 micrograms/ml. Those of BAY Y 3118 and clinafloxacin against these species were 0.5 and 1 to 2 micrograms/ml, respectively. The MICs for 90% of all 115 strains tested were 0.5 microgram/ml for BAY Y 3118, 1 microgram/ml for clinafloxacin, 2 micrograms/ml for E-5068, 4 micrograms/ml for E-5065, and > 16 micrograms/ml for ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and E-4868. PMID:8092851

  18. A Comparative Study of Antifungal Activity of Endodontic Irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Asgary, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the antifungal activity of final canal rinse with either three concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (0.5, 2.6 and 6%), two concentrations of chlorhexidine (CHX) (2% and 0.2%), MTAD, Tetraclean, Hypoclean and Chlor-Xtra on Candida albicans (C. albicans) in a human tooth model. Methods and Materials: Two hundred and thirty five extracted human maxillary central and lateral incisors were used in this study. Teeth were randomly divided into nine test groups (n=25) and positive and a negative control groups (n=5). After cleaning and shaping, teeth were contaminated with C. albicans and incubated for 72 h. The irrigation solution in nine experimental groups included: 6% NaOCl, 2.6% NaOCl, 0.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, 0.2% CHX, MTAD, Tetraclean, Hypoclean and Chlor-Xtra. After culturing on Sabouraud 4% dextrose agar, colony-forming units (CFU) were counted. Results: 6% NaOCl, 2% CHX and Chlor-Xtra were equally effective (P>0.05) and significantly superior to MTAD and Tetraclean (P<0.05). In addition, the effectiveness of Tetraclean and MTAD was significantly less than Hypoclean, NaOCl at all concentrations (6% 2.6% and 0.5%), MTAD and 0.2% CHX (P<0.05). Furthermore, Tetraclean was significantly more effective than MTAD (P<0.05). Conclusion: Antifungal activity of 6% NaOCl, Chlor-Xtra and 2% CHX was significantly greater than 2.6% NaOCl, 0.5% NaOCl, MTAD, 0.2% CHX and Tetraclean. PMID:25834602

  19. Comparison of QuantiFERON-TB gold in tube test versus tuberculin skin test for screening of latent tuberculosis infection in Saudi Arabia: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Balkhy, Hanan H.; El Beltagy, Kamel; El-Saed, Aiman; Aljasir, Badr; Althaqafi, Abdulhakeem; Alothman, Adel F.; Alshalaan, Mohammad; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare QuantiFERON-TB gold in tube (QFT-GIT) test with tuberculin skin test (TST) in detecting latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among a general population in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2010 and March 2013 among individuals randomly selected from the list of those receiving care at primary healthcare centers in three provinces of Saudi Arabia; Central, Western, and Eastern provinces. Those younger than 5 years, immunocompromised, had a current or previous history of active TB, LTBI, or who were receiving anti-TB medications were excluded. Informed consent was obtained before the study questionnaire was completed. Participants were then evaluated for LTBI using QFT-GIT test followed immediately by TST. RESULTS: Of the 1369 subjects included in the final analysis, QFT-GIT was positive in 124 (9.1%) and TST was positive in 127 (9.3%). Positive concordance was observed in 49 (3.6%) subjects while negative concordance was observed in 1167 (85.2%) subjects. The overall agreement between the two tests was 88.8% with a significant kappa (κ) test (κ = 0.332, P < 0.001). Concordance was significantly higher in younger age, female gender, single status, students, primary education, living in middle-sized families, and never smoked. CONCLUSIONS: The overall agreement of TST and QFT-GIT for the detection of LTBI among a Saudi general population was 88.8%. QFT-GIT is probably comparable to TST for detecting LTBI in an intermediate TB burden country with high at birth bacille calmette guerin vaccination coverage. Further prospective studies are needed to compare the ability of both tests to predict TB disease. PMID:27512509

  20. Estimating the cost of TB and its social impact on TB patients and their households

    PubMed Central

    Onazi, O.; Gidado, M.; Onazi, M.; Daniel, O.; Kuye, J.; Obasanya, O.; Odusote, T.; Gande, S.

    2015-01-01

    Illness often poses a significant financial burden on individuals and their households, and tuberculosis (TB) is no exception. Although TB treatment is free in Nigeria, patients are likely to incur costs due to multiple visits during treatment. The purpose of this study was 1) to examine the health-seeking behaviour of TB patients and the costs borne by TB patients in Nigeria, and 2) to assess the social impact of TB disease on TB patients and their families/households. Of 260 TB patients surveyed, the majority (74.7%) were aged between 20 and 49 years. TB patients expended an average of US$52.02 (N = 8323.58, at the rate of US$1 = N = 160) per person on all visits associated with diagnosis and receipt of diagnostic test results. Overall, households experienced a shortfall of about US$57.30 (N = 9174.72) or 24.9% of income loss due to TB illness. Further analysis revealed that 9.7% of TB patients relied on children of school age or below to finance the costs of TB illness. PMID:26400384

  1. Magnetoresistance in nanostructured Tb/Ti and Tb/Si multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Svalov, A. V.; Kurlyandskaya, G. V.; Vas'kovskiy, V. O.; Sorokin, A. N.; Diercks, D.

    2011-01-15

    Magnetic, magnetoresistive and structural properties were studied for [Tb/Ti]{sub n} and [Tb/Si]{sub n} multilayers which were prepared by rf-sputtering. The thickness of the Tb layers varied from 1.5 to 12 nm. The thickness of 2 nm nonmagnetic spacers of Ti or Si was kept constant. Both anisotropic and isotropic magnetoresistance was observed in [Tb/Ti]{sub n} and [Tb/Si]{sub n} multilayers. A decrease in the thickness of the terbium layers led to a decrease in the anisotropic contribution to the total magnetoresistance. The negative isotropic magnetoresistanse in [Tb/Ti]{sub n} and [Tb/Si]{sub n} multilayers can be attributed to the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and/or high field isotropic magnetoresistance. The structure of the samples of both types enabled the existence of the GMR effect.

  2. Predictors and Timing of ATT Initiation among HIV-TB Patients at ART Centers of Karnataka, India: Two Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Shastri, Suresh; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Rewari, Bharat Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Background In India, TB and HIV co-infection remains as a serious public health problem. From 2006 onwards, the intensified TB-HIV collaborative activities are being jointly implemented by National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) and Revised National TB Control programme (RNTCP) at high HIV burden states. Objectives To determine (a) the predictors of outcome among a cohort of HIV-TB co-infected patients after two years after initiation of ART treatment. (b) prognostic significance of time difference between the initiation of ATT and ART in HIV-TB co-infected patients. Methods Patients registered at sixteen ART centres in Karnataka, from October through December 2009 formed the study cohort and were followed till December 2011. Results A total of 604 HIV-TB patients were registered. Follow-up (a) at the end of one year had shown 63.6% (377)patients with unfavorable TB treatment outcomes (b) at the end of second year, 55.6% (336)patients were alive on ART treatment. The variables male, smear negative TB, CD4 count less than 50cells per cumm and unfavorable TB outcome were significantly associated with unfavorable ART treatment outcome. Conclusions The programmes need to review the existing strategies and strengthen HIV-TB collaborative activities for timely treatment initiation with intensive monitoring of HIV-TB patients on treatment. PMID:26394397

  3. by Use of PBE and TB-mBJ Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Saurabh; Saini, Sapan Mohan

    2014-09-01

    The electronic and optical properties of ZnCo2O4 spinel have been investigated by use of the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method based on density functional theory. Calculations were performed by use of the alternative form of the generalized gradient approximation proposed by Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof (GGA-PBE) and by use of orbital-independent Tran-Blaha-modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potentials as coupled with GGA. The optimized unit cell length, a 0, and internal parameter, u, were in agreement with experimental data. The band gap obtained by use of the TB-mBJ scheme is a significant improvement over the PBE value and is close to the experimental data. Our calculations of density of states (DOS) show that more pronounced splitting of Co- d states is responsible for the larger band gap of ZnCo2O4 calculated by use of the TB-mBJ scheme. Results for the DOS show that valence band dispersion is reduced in the TB-mBJ scheme compared with the PBE scheme. Optical properties were calculated for the energy range 0-14 eV. The calculated reflectivity stays low until 3.5 eV, which is consistent with the energy gap in ZnCo2O4. The results were analyzed on the basis of band-to-band transitions. We also report the frequency-dependent refractive index, n( ω), and the extinction coefficient, k( ω), of ZnCo2O4 obtained by use of the PBE and TB-mBJ schemes.

  4. Mortality among MDR-TB Cases: Comparison with Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chung-Delgado, Kocfa; Guillen-Bravo, Sonia; Revilla-Montag, Alejandro; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background An increase in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases is evident worldwide. Its management implies a complex treatment, high costs, more toxic anti-tuberculosis drug use, longer treatment time and increased treatment failure and mortality. The aims of this study were to compare mortality between MDR and drug-susceptible cases of tuberculosis, and to determine risk factors associated with mortality among MDR-TB cases. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort study was performed using data from clinical records of the National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in Lima, Peru. In the first objective, MDR-TB, compared to drug-susceptible cases, was the main exposure variable and time to death, censored at 180 days, the outcome of interest. For the second objective, different variables obtained from clinical records were assessed as potential risk factors for death among MDR-TB cases. Cox regression analysis was used to determine hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 1,232 patients were analyzed: mean age 30.9 ±14.0 years, 60.0% were males. 61 patients (5.0%) died during treatment, whereas the MDR-TB prevalence was 19.2%. MDR-TB increased the risk of death during treatment (HR = 7.5; IC95%: 4.1–13.4) when compared to presumed drug-susceptible cases after controlling for potential confounders. Education level (p = 0.01), previous TB episodes (p<0.001), diabetes history (p<0.001) and HIV infection (p = 0.04) were factors associated with mortality among MDR-TB cases. Conclusions MDR-TB is associated with an increased risk of death during treatment. Lower education, greater number of previous TB episodes, diabetes history, and HIV infection were independently associated with mortality among MDR-TB cases. New strategies for appropriate MDR-TB detection and management should be implemented, including drug sensitivity tests, diabetes and HIV screening, as well as guarantee for a complete adherence to

  5. Alarmin IL-33 elicits potent TB-specific cell-mediated responses

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Daniel O; Siefert, Rebekah J; Weiner, David B

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) still remains a major public health issue despite the current available vaccine for TB, Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG). An effective vaccine against TB remains a top priority in the fight against this pandemic bacterial infection. Adequate protection against TB is associated with the development of TH1-type and CD8+ T cell responses. One alarmin cytokine, interleukin 33 (IL-33), has now been implicated in the development of both CD4+ TH1 and CD8+ T cell immunity. In this study, we determined whether the administration of IL-33 as an adjuvant, encoded in a DNA plasmid, could enhance the immunogenicity of a TB DNA vaccine. We report that the co-immunization of IL-33 with a DNA vaccine expressing the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (Mtb) antigen 85B (Ag85B) induced robust Ag85B-specific IFNγ responses by ELISpot compared to Ag85B alone. Furthermore, these enhanced responses were characterized by higher frequencies of Ag85B-specific, multifunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Vaccination with IL-33 also increased the ability of the Ag85B-specific CD8+ T cells to undergo degranulation and to secrete IFNγ and TNFα cytokines. These finding highlights IL-33 as a promising adjuvant to significantly improve the immunogenicity of TB DNA vaccines and support further study of this effective vaccine strategy against TB. PMID:26091147

  6. Alarmin IL-33 elicits potent TB-specific cell-mediated responses.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Daniel O; Siefert, Rebekah J; Weiner, David B

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) still remains a major public health issue despite the current available vaccine for TB, Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG). An effective vaccine against TB remains a top priority in the fight against this pandemic bacterial infection. Adequate protection against TB is associated with the development of TH1-type and CD8(+) T cell responses. One alarmin cytokine, interleukin 33 (IL-33), has now been implicated in the development of both CD4(+) TH1 and CD8(+) T cell immunity. In this study, we determined whether the administration of IL-33 as an adjuvant, encoded in a DNA plasmid, could enhance the immunogenicity of a TB DNA vaccine. We report that the co-immunization of IL-33 with a DNA vaccine expressing the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (Mtb) antigen 85B (Ag85B) induced robust Ag85B-specific IFNγ responses by ELISpot compared to Ag85B alone. Furthermore, these enhanced responses were characterized by higher frequencies of Ag85B-specific, multifunctional CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Vaccination with IL-33 also increased the ability of the Ag85B-specific CD8(+) T cells to undergo degranulation and to secrete IFNγ and TNFα cytokines. These finding highlights IL-33 as a promising adjuvant to significantly improve the immunogenicity of TB DNA vaccines and support further study of this effective vaccine strategy against TB. PMID:26091147

  7. Guidance from WHO on the prevention and control of TB during air travel.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Lindsay; Thomas, Kathrin; Figueroa, José

    2010-03-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) is not highly transmissible, there is a risk of transmission of infection when close contact occurs between a person with active pulmonary TB and other passengers for prolonged periods during air travel. The World Health Organization first published Tuberculosis and air travel: guidelines for prevention and control in 1998, in response to several incidents involving TB in air travellers, with a second edition in 2006. A further revision was undertaken to address issues arising from the emergence of extensively resistant TB (XDR-TB), the occurrence of several international incidents involving TB and air travel, and the entry into force of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR) in 2007. This article describes the process followed in preparing the third edition, the special issues considered and the conclusions reached, with recommendations for travellers, physicians, public health authorities, and airline companies. New material includes: (i) additional guidance on the assessment of infectiousness, and on procedures, roles and responsibilities involved in the prevention of transmission of infection on board and for dealing with incidents; (ii) information on basic provisions of the IHR and measures relevant to incidents involving TB among air travellers; and (iii) a proposed procedure for carrying out contact investigations. PMID:20478515

  8. Efflux pump inhibitors: targeting mycobacterial efflux systems to enhance TB therapy.

    PubMed

    Pule, Caroline M; Sampson, Samantha L; Warren, Robin M; Black, Philippa A; van Helden, Paul D; Victor, Tommie C; Louw, Gail E

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistance continues to plague TB control, with a global increase in the prevalence of MDR-TB. This acts as a gateway to XDR-TB and thus emphasizes the urgency for drug development and optimal treatment options. Bedaquiline is the first new anti-TB drug approved by the FDA in 40 years and has been shown to be an effective treatment option for MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Bedaquiline has also recently been included in clinical trials for new regimens with the aim of improving and shortening treatment periods. Alarmingly, efflux-mediated bedaquiline resistance, as well as efflux-mediated cross-resistance to clofazimine, has been identified in treatment failures. This mechanism of resistance results in efflux of a variety of anti-TB drugs from the bacterial cell, thereby decreasing the intracellular drug concentration. In doing so, the bacillus is able to render the antibiotic treatment ineffective. Recent studies have explored strategies to reverse the resistance phenotype conferred by efflux pump activation. It was observed that the addition of efflux pump inhibitors partially restored drug susceptibility in vitro and in vivo. This has significant clinical implications, especially in MDR-TB management where treatment options are extremely limited. This review aims to highlight the current efflux pump inhibitors effective against M. tuberculosis, the effect of efflux pump inhibitors on mycobacterial growth and the clinical promise of treatment with efflux pump inhibitors and standard anti-TB therapy. PMID:26472768

  9. Drug Resistance Pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates From Patients Referred to TB Reference Laboratory in Ahvaz

    PubMed Central

    Badie, Fereshteh; Arshadi, Maniya; Mohsenpoor, Maryam; Gharibvand, Soodabeh S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Tuberculosis remains one of the top three infectious disease killers. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has increased substantially in the past 20 years. When drug resistance is not detected, MDR-TB patients cannot access life-saving treatment; this puts their communities at risk of ongoing MDR-TB transmission. We aimed to determine the patterns of resistance to antituberculosis drugs among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Khuzestan province in Iran. Methods A total of 850 clinical specimens from patients suspected of active TB were cultured in 2015. Drug susceptibility testing to the first line antiTB drugs for culture positive MTB was performed on Lowenstein–Jensen medium using the proportion method. Results Of 850 cultured specimens, 272 (32%) were culture positive for mycobacteria. Of 64 MTB isolates that were analyzed by the proportion method, 62 (96.8%) were pan-susceptible and two (3.1%) were MDR. Conclusion An important way to prevent the emergence of MDR and XDR TB, and the principles of full implementation of the strategy is directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS). The efficient diagnosis and timely treatment of MDR-TB patients can prevent disease transmission, reduce the risk of drug resistance developing, and avoid further lung damage. PMID:26981340

  10. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Project Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document SMAP L1B Radiometer Data Product: L1B_TB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Mohammed, Priscilla; De Amici, Giovanni; Kim, Edward; Peng, Jinzheng; Ruf, Christopher; Hanna, Maher; Yueh, Simon; Entekhabi, Dara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) radiometer calibration algorithm is to convert Level 0 (L0) radiometer digital counts data into calibrated estimates of brightness temperatures referenced to the Earth's surface within the main beam. The algorithm theory in most respects is similar to what has been developed and implemented for decades for other satellite radiometers; however, SMAP includes two key features heretofore absent from most satellite borne radiometers: radio frequency interference (RFI) detection and mitigation, and measurement of the third and fourth Stokes parameters using digital correlation. The purpose of this document is to describe the SMAP radiometer and forward model, explain the SMAP calibration algorithm, including approximations, errors, and biases, provide all necessary equations for implementing the calibration algorithm and detail the RFI detection and mitigation process. Section 2 provides a summary of algorithm objectives and driving requirements. Section 3 is a description of the instrument and Section 4 covers the forward models, upon which the algorithm is based. Section 5 gives the retrieval algorithm and theory. Section 6 describes the orbit simulator, which implements the forward model and is the key for deriving antenna pattern correction coefficients and testing the overall algorithm.

  11. Uptake of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy among Under-Five Children: TB Contact Investigation as an Entry Point.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Yared; Gebre, Nigussie; Daba, Shallo; Gashu, Zewdu; Habte, Dereje; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Negash, Solomon; Melkieneh, Kassahun; Jerene, Degu; K Haile, Yared; Kassie, Yewulsew; Melese, Muluken; G Suarez, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    A child's risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) can be reduced by nearly 60% with administration of 6 months course of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). However, uptake of IPT by national TB programs is low, and IPT delivery is a challenge in many resource-limited high TB-burden settings. Routinely collected program data was analyzed to determine the coverage and outcome of implementation of IPT for eligible under-five year old children in 28 health facilities in two regions of Ethiopia. A total of 504 index smear-positive pulmonary TB (SS+) cases were reported between October 2013 and June 2014 in the 28 health facilities. There were 282 under-five children registered as household contacts of these SS+ TB index cases, accounting for 17.9% of all household contacts. Of these, 237 (84%) were screened for TB symptoms, and presumptive TB was identified in 16 (6.8%) children. TB was confirmed in 5 children, producing an overall yield of 2.11% (95% confidence interval, 0.76-4.08%). Of 221 children eligible for IPT, 64.3% (142) received IPT, 80.3% (114) of whom successfully completed six months of therapy. No child developed active TB while on IPT. Contact screening is a good entry point for delivery of IPT to at risk children and should be routine practice as recommended by the WHO despite the implementation challenges. PMID:27196627

  12. Uptake of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy among Under-Five Children: TB Contact Investigation as an Entry Point

    PubMed Central

    Gebre, Nigussie; Daba, Shallo; Gashu, Zewdu; Habte, Dereje; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Negash, Solomon; Melkieneh, Kassahun; Jerene, Degu; K. Haile, Yared; Kassie, Yewulsew; Melese, Muluken; G. Suarez, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    A child’s risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) can be reduced by nearly 60% with administration of 6 months course of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). However, uptake of IPT by national TB programs is low, and IPT delivery is a challenge in many resource-limited high TB-burden settings. Routinely collected program data was analyzed to determine the coverage and outcome of implementation of IPT for eligible under-five year old children in 28 health facilities in two regions of Ethiopia. A total of 504 index smear-positive pulmonary TB (SS+) cases were reported between October 2013 and June 2014 in the 28 health facilities. There were 282 under-five children registered as household contacts of these SS+ TB index cases, accounting for 17.9% of all household contacts. Of these, 237 (84%) were screened for TB symptoms, and presumptive TB was identified in 16 (6.8%) children. TB was confirmed in 5 children, producing an overall yield of 2.11% (95% confidence interval, 0.76–4.08%). Of 221 children eligible for IPT, 64.3% (142) received IPT, 80.3% (114) of whom successfully completed six months of therapy. No child developed active TB while on IPT. Contact screening is a good entry point for delivery of IPT to at risk children and should be routine practice as recommended by the WHO despite the implementation challenges. PMID:27196627

  13. One-stop TB-HIV services evaluation in Rwanda: comparison of the 2001–2005 and 2006–2010 cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Rugigana, E.; Uwizeye, C. B.; Ntaganira, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection remains high in Rwanda. Since one-stop TB-HIV services were implemented to manage TB-HIV co-infection, their functioning and impact on TB treatment outcomes have not been assessed. Objective: To evaluate one-stop TB-HIV services in Rwanda by comparing the TB treatment outcomes before and after their implementation in Kicukiro and Rulindo districts. Methods: This descriptive retrospective study used a quantitative questionnaire to determine the functioning of Rwanda's one-stop TB-HIV services. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions with health care providers, heads of facilities and co-infected patients were held to seek their opinion about the functioning of the services. Results: The one-stop TB-HIV services at all 12 health facilities visited were functioning according to the approved criteria. However, TB treatment outcomes after the intervention were not statistically different from those before the intervention. Qualitative data showed a positive impact on the quality of service, particularly a reduction in waiting times and appointments that were better respected as a result of the efficient functioning of the services. Conclusion: One-stop TB-HIV services have improved the quality of service in Kicukiro and Rulindo districts. However, the services need to be strengthened programmatically to improve TB treatment outcomes. PMID:26767172

  14. Partners against tuberculosis: Ethiopia's "TB clubs".

    PubMed

    Getahun, H

    1998-11-01

    TB (tuberculosis) clubs were first introduced in the Estie district of South Gonder administrative zone, Amhara region of northwestern Ethiopia in January 1997, in an attempt to improve TB control in rural areas. Before the clubs were introduced, patients who were family members or close neighbors were given different treatment follow-up dates. Walking long distances alone to secure treatment, patients often grew discouraged from continuing treatment once their health began to improve. However, upon the introduction of the TB clubs, neighboring patients, or those in the same family, had their follow-up appointment dates rearranged in the same clinics. Local neighborhoods were also used to group nearby patients in the same follow-up clinic. The patients then formed their own groups (TB clubs) and elected leaders. 3-10 members usually comprise each club, with the club leaders monitoring drug intake and new developments, such as drug side effects and toxic skin reactions. The social ostracism and stigma otherwise experienced by patients have been largely overcome as a result of the TB information disseminated within the communities by the clubs, while patient attendance for treatment has increased from 68% to 98%, according to one study's findings. This intervention has taken place using the long-course treatment protocol (2STH/EH and 10TH/EH). TB clubs are improving patient adherence to treatment, passive case detection, defaulter tracing, TB reporting and recording, and community involvement in health care. PMID:12294916

  15. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of SMAP Brightness Temperatures for Use in Level 1 TB Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    1. IntroductionThe recent launch of NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission [Entekhabi, et al] has opened the door to improved brightness temperature (TB) calibration of satellite L-band microwave radiometers, through the use of SMAP's lower noise performance and better immunity to man-made interference (vs. ESA's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission [Kerr, et al]), better spatial resolution (vs. NASA's Aquarius sea surface salinity mission [Le Vine, et al]), and cleaner antenna pattern (vs. SMOS). All three radiometers use/used large homogeneous places on Earth's surface as calibration targets—parts of the ocean, Antarctica, and tropical forests. Despite the recent loss of Aquarius data, there is still hope for creating a longer-term L-band data set that spans the timeframe of all 3 missions. 2. Description of Analyses and Expected Results In this paper, we analyze SMAP brightness temperature data to quantify the spatial and temporal characteristics of external target areas in the oceans, Antarctica, forests, and other areas. Existing analyses have examined these targets in terms of averages, standard deviations, and other basic statistics (for Aquarius & SMOS as well). This paper will approach the problem from a signal processing perspective. Coupled with the use of SMAP's novel RFI-mitigated TBs, and the aforementioned lower noise and cleaner antenna pattern, it is expected that of the 3 L-band missions, SMAP should do the best job of characterizing such external targets. The resulting conclusions should be useful to extract the best possible TB calibration from all 3 missions, helping to inter-compare the TB from the 3 missions, and to eventually inter-calibrate the TBs into a single long-term dataset.

  16. Systematic Expression Profiling Analysis Identifies Specific MicroRNA-Gene Interactions that May Differentiate between Active and Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin; Huang, Kai-Yao; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the second most common cause of death from infectious diseases. About 90% of those infected are asymptomatic—the so-called latent TB infections (LTBI), with a 10% lifetime chance of progressing to active TB. To further understand the molecular pathogenesis of TB, several molecular studies have attempted to compare the expression profiles between healthy controls and active TB or LTBI patients. However, the results vary due to diverse genetic backgrounds and study designs and the inherent complexity of the disease process. Thus, developing a sensitive and efficient method for the detection of LTBI is both crucial and challenging. For the present study, we performed a systematic analysis of the gene and microRNA profiles of healthy individuals versus those affected with TB or LTBI. Combined with a series of in silico analysis utilizing publicly available microRNA knowledge bases and published literature data, we have uncovered several microRNA-gene interactions that specifically target both the blood and lungs. Some of these molecular interactions are novel and may serve as potential biomarkers of TB and LTBI, facilitating the development for a more sensitive, efficient, and cost-effective diagnostic assay for TB and LTBI for the Taiwanese population. PMID:25276827

  17. Micro-Raman and infrared studies of multiferroic TbMn₂O₅.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, S; Jandl, S; Roberge, B; Balli, M; Dimitrov, D Z; Orlita, M; Faugeras, C

    2016-02-10

    We have studied the Raman and infrared spectral response of TbMn2O5 under an applied magnetic field parallel to the easy magnetic a-axis at 4.2 K. Strong spin-lattice coupling in TbMn2O5 is evidenced by a frequency shift of Raman and infrared phonons as a function of magnetic field compared to the phonon response of BiMn2O5 that remains unaffected. The magnetic field behavior of the highest frequency phonons retraces the polarization switching in TbMn2O5 and shows an important frequency softening below 3 T that is modulated by the J 3 and J 4 exchange parameters. The role of the Tb(3+) spin alignment with H is interpreted in terms of a local lattice striction and the contribution of the charge transfer mechanism to the magnetoelectric process is evaluated. PMID:26790102

  18. Micro-Raman and infrared studies of multiferroic TbMn2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, S.; Jandl, S.; Roberge, B.; Balli, M.; Dimitrov, D. Z.; Orlita, M.; Faugeras, C.

    2016-02-01

    We have studied the Raman and infrared spectral response of TbMn2O5 under an applied magnetic field parallel to the easy magnetic a-axis at 4.2 K. Strong spin-lattice coupling in TbMn2O5 is evidenced by a frequency shift of Raman and infrared phonons as a function of magnetic field compared to the phonon response of BiMn2O5 that remains unaffected. The magnetic field behavior of the highest frequency phonons retraces the polarization switching in TbMn2O5 and shows an important frequency softening below 3 T that is modulated by the J 3 and J 4 exchange parameters. The role of the Tb3+ spin alignment with H is interpreted in terms of a local lattice striction and the contribution of the charge transfer mechanism to the magnetoelectric process is evaluated.

  19. Too Busy for TB: Managing a Case of Tuberculosis Disease in the School Setting.

    PubMed

    Galemore, Cynthia A

    2016-03-01

    School nurses actively monitor the school population for signs of communicable disease on a daily basis. State regulations outline reportable diseases and provide guidance to control disease outbreak, including management of disease outbreak in the school setting. The purpose of this article is to review strategies recently used in managing a tuberculosis (TB) outbreak at a large high school in Kansas. A timeline of events is presented along with a discussion of the differences between latent TB infection and TB disease. Partnering across agencies and departments enabled the timely testing of over 400 individuals and subsequent management of individuals testing positive for latent TB infection. Public information officers provided necessary guidance to communicate to audiences both internally and externally. PMID:26822133

  20. Analysis of 161Tb by radiochemical separation and liquid scintillation counting

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jiang, J.; Davies, A.; Arrigo, L.; Friese, J.; Seiner, B. N.; Greenwood, L.; Finch, Z.

    2015-12-05

    The determination of 161Tb activity is problematic due to its very low fission yield, short half-life, and the complication of its gamma spectrum. At AWE, radiochemically purified 161Tb solution was measured on a PerkinElmer 1220 QuantulusTM Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer. Since there was no 161Tb certified standard solution available commercially, the counting efficiency was determined by the CIEMAT/NIST Efficiency Tracing method. The method was validated during a recent inter-laboratory comparison exercise involving the analysis of a uranium sample irradiated with thermal neutrons. Lastly, the measured 161Tb result was in excellent agreement with the result using gamma spectrometry and the result obtainedmore » by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.« less

  1. Analysis of 161Tb by radiochemical separation and liquid scintillation counting

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.; Davies, A.; Arrigo, L.; Friese, J.; Seiner, B. N.; Greenwood, L.; Finch, Z.

    2015-12-05

    The determination of 161Tb activity is problematic due to its very low fission yield, short half-life, and the complication of its gamma spectrum. At AWE, radiochemically purified 161Tb solution was measured on a PerkinElmer 1220 QuantulusTM Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer. Since there was no 161Tb certified standard solution available commercially, the counting efficiency was determined by the CIEMAT/NIST Efficiency Tracing method. The method was validated during a recent inter-laboratory comparison exercise involving the analysis of a uranium sample irradiated with thermal neutrons. Lastly, the measured 161Tb result was in excellent agreement with the result using gamma spectrometry and the result obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  2. Nitroimidazoles for the treatment of TB: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Tathagata; Boshoff, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a leading cause of death resulting from an infectious agent, and the spread of multi- and extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis poses a threat to management of global health. New drugs that effectively shorten the duration of treatment and are active against drug-resistant strains of this pathogen are urgently required to develop effective chemotherapies to combat this disease. Two nitroimidazoles, PA-824 and OPC-67683, are currently in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of TB and the outcome of these may determine the future directions of drug development for anti-tubercular nitroimidazoles. In this review we summarize the development of these nitroimidazoles and alternative analogs in these series that may offer attractive alternatives to PA-824 and OPC-67683 for further development in the drug-discovery pipeline. Lastly, the potential pitfalls in the development of nitroimidazoles as drugs for TB are discussed. PMID:21879846

  3. A Selective Na(+) Aptamer Dissected by Sensitized Tb(3+) Luminescence.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenhu; Ding, Jinsong; Liu, Juewen

    2016-08-17

    A previous study of two RNA-cleaving DNAzymes, NaA43 and Ce13d, revealed the possibility of a common Na(+) aptamer motif. Because Na(+) binding to DNA is a fundamental biochemical problem, the interaction between Ce13d and Na(+) was studied in detail by using sensitized Tb(3+) luminescence spectroscopy. Na(+) displaces Tb(3+) from the DNAzyme, and thus quenches the emission from Tb(3+) . The overall requirement for Na(+) binding includes the hairpin and the highly conserved 16-nucleotide loop in the enzyme strand, along with a few unpaired nucleotides in the substrate. Mutation studies indicate good correlation between Na(+) binding and cleavage activity, thus suggesting a critical role of Na(+) binding for the enzyme activity. Ce13d displayed a Kd of ∼20 mm with Na(+) (other monovalent cations: 40-60 mm). The Kd values for other metal ions are mainly due to non-specific competition. With a single nucleotide mutation, the specific Na(+) binding was lost. Another mutant improved Kd to 8 mm with Na(+) . This study has demonstrated a Na(+) aptamer with important biological implications and analytical applications. It has also defined the structural requirements for Na(+) binding and produced an improved mutant. PMID:27238890

  4. FOXO3 rs12212067: T > G Association with Active Tuberculosis in Han Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanjun; Zhu, Yaowu; Wang, Xiong; Wang, Feng; Peng, Jing; Hou, Hongyan; Sun, Ziyong

    2016-02-01

    It is well known that the human innate immune and adaptive immune response play important role in tuberculosis (TB) infection and progress. Emerging evidence shows that FOXO3 plays an important role in the human immune system. Recent research has shown that the FOXO3 genetic variants are associated malaria infection. In this study, 268 confirmed TB patients, 321 patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and 475 TB-free controls were recruited; the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs12212067: T > G in FOXO3 was genotyped using predesigned TaqMan® allelic discrimination assays. The results showed that the G allele of rs12212067 in FOXO3 was more common in health control and the latent TB group compared with the active TB group (p = 0.048, odds ratio (OR) 95 % confidence intervals (CI) = 1.37 (1.00-1.89); p = 0.042, OR 95 % CI = 1.42 (1.01-1.99), respectively); furthermore, within active TB patients, the G allele of rs12212067 in FOXO3 was more frequent in extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) group compared to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) group (p = 0.035, OR 95 % CI = 0.57 (0.33-0.97). In conclusion, this study found that rs12212067 in FOXO3 was associated with increased risk of active TB. The minor G allele might be a protection factor which was found more common in latent TB patients and healthy controls than active TB patients. PMID:26223437

  5. Immunomodulation by vitamin D: implications for TB

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Rene F; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin

    2011-01-01

    TB remains a major cause of mortality throughout the world. Low vitamin D status has been linked to increased risk of TB and other immune disorders. These observations suggest a role for vitamin D as a modulator of normal human immune function. This article will detail the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which vitamin D regulates the immune system and how vitamin D insufficiency may lead to immune dysregulation. The importance of vitamin D bioavailability as a mechanism for defining the immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D and its impact on TB will also be discussed. The overall aim will be to provide a fresh perspective on the potential benefits of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention and treatment of TB. PMID:22046197

  6. HIV/STD/TB PREVENTION NEWS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CDC National Prevention Information Network (NPIN) is the U.S. reference, referral, and distribution service for information on HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and tuberculosis (TB). NPIN produces, collects, catalogs, processes, stocks, and disseminates materi...

  7. HIV-Associated TB: Facts 2013

    MedlinePlus

    ... Intensified case finding for TB, Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), and Infection control) will reduce the burden of ... the 42 countries that reported data for 2012, IPT was provided to 520,000 people living with ...

  8. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB)

    MedlinePlus

    ... prisons, or homeless shelters. If you work in hospitals or health-care settings where TB patients are likely to be seen, you should consult infection control or occupational health experts. Ask about administrative and ...

  9. Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Actions of Vitamin D in Combating TB/HIV

    PubMed Central

    Coussens, Anna K.; Martineau, Adrian R.; Wilkinson, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) disease activation is now believed to arise due to a lack of inflammatory homeostatic control at either end of the spectrum of inflammation: either due to immunosuppression (decreased antimicrobial activity) or due to immune activation (excess/aberrant inflammation). Vitamin D metabolites can increase antimicrobial activity in innate immune cells, which, in the context of HIV-1 coinfection, have insufficient T cell-mediated help to combat Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. Moreover, maintaining vitamin D sufficiency prior to MTB infection enhances the innate antimicrobial response to T cell-mediated interferon-γ. Conversely, vitamin D can act to inhibit expression and secretion of a broad range of inflammatory mediators and matrix degrading enzymes driving immunopathology during active TB and antiretroviral- (ARV-) mediated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Adjunct vitamin D therapy during treatment of active TB may therefore reduce lung pathology and TB morbidity, accelerate resolution of cavitation and thereby decrease the chance of transmission, improve lung function following therapy, prevent relapse, and prevent IRIS in those initiating ARVs. Future clinical trials of vitamin D for TB prevention and treatment must be designed to detect the most appropriate primary endpoint, which in some cases should be anti-inflammatory and not antimicrobial. PMID:25101194

  10. Contrasting behaviour of the co-activators in the luminescence spectra of Y2O2S:Tb3+,Er3+ nanometre sized particles under UV and red light excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiao; Fern, George R.; Withnall, Robert; Silver, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Nanometre sized particles of terbium and erbium co-doped yttrium oxysulfide up-converting phosphors were prepared by a urea homogeneous-precipitation method. Results from X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy studies on the microstructure and luminescent properties of the materials are reported. Upconversion emission was observed from the Er3+ cations when particles were excited with laser light of 632.8 nm wavelength. Under these conditions no interactions between the Er3+ cations and the Tb3+ cations were observed. In contrast there was evidence from the Stokes emission of the Er3+ cations under 254 nm excitation for an interaction between the Er3+ and Tb3+ cations reducing intensity of the latter's blue and green emission bands by cross relaxation processes.

  11. Contrasting behaviour of the co-activators in the luminescence spectra of Y2O2S:Tb3+,Er3+ nanometre sized particles under UV and red light excitation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao; Fern, George R; Withnall, Robert; Silver, Jack

    2013-02-01

    Nanometre sized particles of terbium and erbium co-doped yttrium oxysulfide up-converting phosphors were prepared by a urea homogeneous-precipitation method. Results from X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy studies on the microstructure and luminescent properties of the materials are reported. Upconversion emission was observed from the Er(3+) cations when particles were excited with laser light of 632.8 nm wavelength. Under these conditions no interactions between the Er(3+) cations and the Tb(3+) cations were observed. In contrast there was evidence from the Stokes emission of the Er(3+) cations under 254 nm excitation for an interaction between the Er(3+) and Tb(3+) cations reducing intensity of the latter's blue and green emission bands by cross relaxation processes. PMID:23263157

  12. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of YPO{sub 4} activated with Tb{sup 3+} and effect of Bi{sup 3+} co-doping on the luminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Angiuli, Fabio; Cavalli, Enrico; Belletti, Alessandro

    2012-08-15

    Single crystals of YPO{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+}(1%) have been grown from Pb{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} flux and their emission dynamics have been characterized by steady state and time resolved optical spectroscopy. The investigation has then been extended to green emitting phosphors with composition Y{sub 0.95-x}Tb{sub 0.05}Bi{sub x}PO{sub 4} (x=0, 0.0025, 0.005, 0.01, 0.025), synthesized by the Pechini sol-gel method and by solid state reaction. The former procedure has yielded higher quality materials in terms of size and morphology of the particles and of emission performance. The effect of the Bi{sup 3+} co-doping on the emission properties has been related to the Bi{sup 3+}{yields}Tb{sup 3+} energy transfer process as well as to the influence of the bismuth ions on the optical properties of the host lattice. - Graphical abstract: The intensity of the 370 nm excited luminescence increases with the Bi{sup 3+} content. A possible mechanism accounting for this behavior is proposed and discussed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Green emitting YPO{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+} phosphors were synthesized by different methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The emission dynamics have been investigated under different experimental conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The co-doping with Bi{sup 3+} ions increases the emission performance of the phosphors.

  13. Cross sections for fast-neutron interaction with Lu, Tb, and Ta isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Dzysiuk, N.; Kadenko, I.; Yermolenko, R.; Koning, A. J.

    2010-01-15

    The cross sections for (n,x) reactions with Lu, Tb, and Ta isotopes were measured at (d,t) neutron energies around 14 MeV with the activation technique using metal foils of natural composition. Additionally, tantalum samples were irradiated with (d,d) neutrons and filtered neutron beams. To ensure an acceptable precision of the results all major sources of uncertainties were taken into account. Calculations of efficiency and correction factors were performed with the Monte Carlo technique. The cross section results obtained for the {sup 175}Lu(n,{alpha}){sup 172}Tm reaction at (d,t) neutron energies are reported for the first time. {sup 181}Ta(n,{gamma}){sup 182}Ta{sup m2} reaction cross sections were also measured for the first time at 1.9, 58.7, and 144.3 keV and at 2.85 MeV. The earlier evaluated cross section upper estimate for the nuclear reaction {sup 159}Tb(n,n{sup '}{alpha}){sup 155}Eu is reported in this article to be one order lower. Some other cross sections were obtained with higher precision. Theoretical calculations of excitation functions were performed with the TALYS-1.0 code and compared with the experimental cross section values.

  14. Spectroscopic and energy transfer properties of Dy3+-doped, Tb3+/Dy3+-codoped dense oxyfluoride borogermanate scintillating glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xin-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Guang; Jiang, Da-Guo; Wang, Wen-Feng; Li, Yu-Nong; Chen, Zhi-Quan; Zhou, Yun-Zhi; Yang, Qing-Mei; Kang, Zhitao

    2016-06-01

    Dy3+-, Tb3+-activated, and Tb3+/Dy3+-coactivated oxyfluoride borogermanate scintillating glasses with the density of about 6.50 g/cm3 were successfully synthesized by a melt-quenching method. The structure and optical properties including transmittance, photoluminescence (excitation and emission spectra), photoluminescence decay, and X-ray excited luminescence (XEL) behaviors were studied in detail. Our results reveal that the energy transfer efficiency from Dy3+ to Tb3+ ions increases with an increase of Tb3+ concentration. The energy transfer mechanism is determined to be electric dipole-dipole interaction. However, the XEL intensity of Tb3+ decreases with the incorporation of sensitizer Dy3+ into borogermanate scintillating glass, which may result from the different mechanisms under ultraviolet light and X-ray excitation.

  15. Structure Analysis and Fluorescence of Mg-Al-Tb Ternary Layered Double Hydroxides and Their Calcined Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junfei; Lei, Zhigao; Wang, Anqi; Liu, Jie; Wu, Xiuling; Chang, Tianci; Zhang, Yang; Li, Muqing

    2015-02-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) doped with Tb3+ ions in the brucite-like layers were prepared successfully by the co-precipitation method. The structure and fluorescence properties of Mg-Al-Tb ternary LDHs and their products calcined at different temperatures were studied for the first time. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that as-synthesized LDH samples maintained a hexagonal crystal structure, and Tb(OH)3 was detected as Tb3+ dopant content increasing to 5 at.%. In the fluorescent spectra, the green emission intensity arising from 5D4 → 7F5 transition became stronger with the increasing ratio of Tb3+ dopant. When the annealing temperature rose above 500°C, the layer structure collapsed and phases of MgO and MgAl2O4 formed. Meanwhile, compared with MgAlTb-LDHs, the Tb-doped calcined LDHs (CLDHs) showed stronger luminescent intensity of 5D4 → 7F5 transition. These results revealed that the calcined Mg-Al-Tb ternary LDHs may become a series of novel materials with potential applications in fluorescent devices.

  16. Lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay for detecting active tuberculosis in Hiv-positive adults

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Maunank; Hanrahan, Colleen; Wang, Zhuo Yu; Dendukuri, Nandini; Lawn, Stephen D; Denkinger, Claudia M; Steingart, Karen R

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a global health priority. HIV-associated TB may have different clinical presentations and is challenging to diagnose. Conventional sputum tests have reduced sensitivity in HIV-positive individuals, who have higher rates of extrapulmonary TB compared with HIV-negative individuals. The lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM) is a new, commercially available point-of-care test that detects lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a lipopolysaccharide present in mycobacterial cell walls, in people with active TB disease. Objectives To assess the accuracy of LF-LAM for the diagnosis of active TB disease in HIV-positive adults who have signs and symptoms suggestive of TB (TB diagnosis).To assess the accuracy of LF-LAM as a screening test for active TB disease in HIV-positive adults irrespective of signs and symptoms suggestive of TB (TB screening). Search methods We searched the following databases without language restriction on 5 February 2015: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; MEDLINE (PubMed,1966); EMBASE (OVID, from 1980); Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED, from 1900), Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S, from 1900), and BIOSIS Previews (from 1926) (all three using the Web of Science platform; MEDION; LILACS (BIREME, from 1982); SCOPUS (from 1995); the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT); the search portal of the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP); and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&l (from 1861). Selection criteria Eligible study types included randomized controlled trials, cross-sectional studies, and cohort studies that determined LF-LAM accuracy for TB against a microbiological reference standard (culture or nucleic acid amplification test from any body site). A higher quality reference standard was one in which two or more specimen types were

  17. A Mutation in IL4RA Is Associated with the Degree of Pathology in Human TB Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hölscher, Christoph; Heitmann, Lisa; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Horstmann, Rolf D.; Meyer, Christian G.; Ehlers, Stefan; Thye, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of interleukin- (IL-) 4 receptor-alpha- (Rα-) dependent events in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB) is controversial. We have recently shown IL-13 overexpression in mice to cause recrudescent Mtb replication and centrally necrotizing granulomas strongly resembling pathology of human TB. A deletion of IL-4Rα completely abrogates TB tissue pathology in these mice. To validate our results in human TB patients, we here determined the association of distinct variants of the IL4, IL13, IL4RA, IL13RA1, and IL13RA2 genes with cavity formation in a large Ghanaian cohort of HIV-negative individuals with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB. In fact, the structural variant of the IL4RA I50V, previously shown to result in enhanced signal transduction, was significantly associated with greater cavity size, and a variant of IL13RA2 was associated with disease in females. To evaluate whether the human-like TB pathology in IL-13-overexpressing mice is specifically mediated through the IL-4Rα subunit, we analyzed IL-13 transgenic mice with a genetic ablation of the IL-4Rα. In these mice, the IL-13-mediated increased susceptibility, human-like pathology of collagen deposition around centrally necrotizing granulomas, and alternative macrophage activation were abolished. Together, our genetic association study in human TB patients further supports the assumption that IL-13/IL-4Rα-dependent mechanisms are involved in mediating tissue pathology of human TB. PMID:26977119

  18. Tunable luminescence properties and energy transfer in LaAl11 O18 :Eu,Tb phosphor.

    PubMed

    Mendhe, M S; Puppalwar, S P; Dhoble, S J

    2016-05-01

    Eu(2+) and Tb(3+) singly doped and co-doped LaAl11 O18 phosphors were prepared by a combustion method using urea as a fuel. The phase structure and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the prepared phosphors were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra. When the content of Eu(2+) was fixed at 0.01, the emission chromaticity coordinates could be adjusted from blue to green region by tuning the contents of Tb(3+) ions from 0.01 to 0.03 through an energy transfer (ET) process. The fluorescence data collected from the samples with different contents of Tb(3+) into LaAl11 O18 : Eu, show the enhanced green emission at 545 nm associated with (5) D4 -(7) F5 transitions of Tb(3+) . The enhancement was attributed to ET from Eu(2+) to Tb(3+) , and therefore Eu(2+) ion acts as a sensitizer (an energy donor) while Tb(3+) ion as an activator. The ET from Eu(2+) to Tb(3+) is performed through dipole-dipole interaction. The ET efficiency and critical distance were also calculated. The present Eu(2+) -Tb(3+) co-doped LaAl11 O18 phosphor will have potential application for UV convertible white light-emitting diodes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26592806

  19. Spectroscopic investigations on Tb3+ doped lead fluoroborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Azeem, P.; Kalidasan, M.; Reddy, R. R.; Ramagopal, K.

    2012-08-01

    This article presents the optical properties of Tb3+ in lead fluoroborate glasses of the type X PbF2·(89-X)B2O3·10 Al2O3·1Tb2O3 (where X=8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 34 and 36). The standard Judd-Ofelt model was applied to the room temperature absorption intensities of Tb3+ (4 f8) to determine the phenomenological intensity parameters Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6. These parameters have been used to calculate radiative transition probabilities (Arad), lifetimes (τR) and branching ratios (βR) for the excited level 5D4. The predicted values of τR are compared with the measured values for 5D4 level for eight glass compositions (Glass (A-H)). Among the eight-terbium glasses Glass A with 8 mol% of PbF2 (as the optimum content) has revealed an intense green emission with maximum life time and higher quantum efficiency. The stimulated emission cross section σ(λP) is also evaluated for the 5D4→7FJ (J=6, 5, 4 and 3) transitions.

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lipolytic Enzymes as Potential Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Active Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Brust, Belinda; Lecoufle, Mélanie; Tuaillon, Edouard; Dedieu, Luc; Canaan, Stéphane; Valverde, Viviane; Kremer, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Background New diagnosis tests are urgently needed to address the global tuberculosis (TB) burden and to improve control programs especially in resource-limited settings. An effective in vitro diagnostic of TB based on serological methods would be regarded as an attractive progress because immunoassays are simple, rapid, inexpensive, and may offer the possibility to detect cases missed by standard sputum smear microscopy. However, currently available serology tests for TB are highly variable in sensitivity and specificity. Lipolytic enzymes have recently emerged as key factors in lipid metabolization during dormancy and/or exit of the non-replicating growth phase, a prerequisite step of TB reactivation. The focus of this study was to analyze and compare the potential of four Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipolytic enzymes (LipY, Rv0183, Rv1984c and Rv3452) as new markers in the serodiagnosis of active TB. Methods Recombinant proteins were produced and used in optimized ELISA aimed to detect IgG and IgM serum antibodies against the four lipolytic enzymes. The capacity of the assays to identify infection was evaluated in patients with either active TB or latent TB and compared with two distinct control groups consisting of BCG-vaccinated blood donors and hospitalized non-TB individuals. Results A robust humoral response was detected in patients with active TB whereas antibodies against lipolytic enzymes were infrequently detected in either uninfected groups or in subjects with latent infection. High specifity levels, ranging from 93.9% to 97.5%, were obtained for all four antigens with sensitivity values ranging from 73.4% to 90.5%, with Rv3452 displaying the highest performances. Patients with active TB usually exhibited strong IgG responses but poor IgM responses. Conclusion These results clearly indicate that the lipolytic enzymes tested are strongly immunogenic allowing to distinguish active from latent TB infections. They appear as potent biomarkers providing high

  1. Luminescence properties and optical absorption of X ray-irradiated KBr: Ce3(+), Tb(3+) crystals.

    PubMed

    Bangaru, S; Saradha, K; Muralidharan, G

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports that KBr doubly doped with Tb(3+) and Ce(3+) were prepared by Bridgman-Stockbarger method and characterized by Optical absorption, Photoluminescence (PL), Thermoluminescence (TL), Photo stimulated emission (PSL) and TL emission, after X-ray irradiation have been observed. The optical absorption measurement indicates that F and Z3 centers are formed in the crystal during X-ray irradiation process. It was attempted to incorporate a broad band of Ce(3+) sensitizer into the narrow band emission of Tb(3+) in the KBr host without reduction of emission intensity. Co-doping of Ce(3+) ions in KBr:Tb(3+) crystal showed a broad band emission due to the d-f transition of Ce(3+) and a reduction in the intensity of emission peaks due to (5)days → (7)F6 transition of Tb(3+) when they were excited at 250 nm. These results supported that an effective energy transfer occurs from Ce(3+) to Tb(3+) in the KBr host. Co-doping Ce(3+) ions greatly intensified the excitation peak at 260 nm for the emission at 390 nm of Tb(3+) which means that more lattice defects, involved in the energy absorption and transfer to Tb(3+), are formed by the Ce(3+) co-doping. The integrated light intensity is two orders of magnitude higher as compared to the undoped samples for similar doses of irradiation and heating rate. Thermoluminescence process has been identified due to thermal mobilization of F-electrons and this causes peaks at 371 K and at 427 K, 457 K in KBr: Ce(3+), Tb(3+) crystals. The defects generated by irradiation were monitored by optical absorption and trap parameters for the TL process were calculated and presented. PMID:25585645

  2. Investigation of multiferroic behaviour of TbMnO{sub 3} nanoplates

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, S.A. Khule, S.M.; Gaikwad, V.M.

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of TbMnO{sub 3} nanoplate. • Morphology induced defects detected by Raman spectroscopy. • Magnetic and dielectric anomalies confirmed multiferroic behavior is retained in TbMnO{sub 3} nanoplates. - Abstract: In the present study, hydrothermally prepared TbMnO{sub 3} in plates-like morphology at nanoscale are investigated in multiferroic view point. X-ray diffraction study confirms the orthorhombic phase of as-synthesized TbMnO{sub 3}. Microstructural features studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy show the plates-like morphology of as-synthesized TbMnO{sub 3} at nanoscale. Local distortions investigated by FT-Raman exhibits redshift in T mode by about 20 cm{sup −1} as compared to that of the single crystal. The redshift in T mode is mainly due to defect by tilting of octahedra and respective changes in bond angle of Mn–O(1)–Mn. This is assigned to the size-morphology induced defects. The temperature dependent zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetization are measured at H = 50 Oe and in the temperature range 2–300 K. The anomalies in magnetization are obtained at 8 and 42 K. Bifurcation of the ZFC and FC curves are observed very close to magnetic transition temperature 42 K. The 42 K anomaly is related to the sine wave ordering of Mn{sup 3+} moment; and 8 K anomaly is associated with magnetic ordering of the Tb{sup 3+}-sublattice propagation vector. The anomalies in the electric properties, ϵ′ (T), tan δ (T), which are noticed within the 28 K range, coincide with the temperature of incommensurate–commensurate (or lock-in) magnetic transition of TbMnO{sub 3.} This study confirms that multiferroic behavior is retained in TbMnO{sub 3} nanoplates.

  3. Dopant-mediated structural and magnetic properties of TbMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vinit; McDannald, A.; Staruch, M.; Ramprasad, R.; Jain, M.

    2015-07-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of the doped terbium manganites (Tb,A)MnO3 (A = Gd, Dy, and Ho) have been investigated using first-principles calculations and further confirmed by subsequent experimental studies. Both computational and experimental studies suggest that compared to the parent material, namely, TbMnO3 (with a magnetic moment of 9.7 μ B for Tb3+) Dy- and Ho-ion substituted TbMnO3 results in an increase in the magnetic susceptibility at low fields ( ≤ 10.6 μ B for Dy3+ and Ho3+). The observed spiral-spin AFM order in TbMnO3 is stable with respect to the dopant substitutions, which modify the Mn-O-Mn bond angles and lead to stronger the ferromagnetic component of the magnetic moment. Given the fact that magnetic ordering in TbMnO3 causes the ferroelectricity, this is an important step in the field of the magnetically driven ferroelectricity in the class of magnetoelectric multiferroics, which traditionally have low magnetic moments due to the predominantly antiferromagnetic order. In addition, the present study reveals important insights on the phenomenological coupling mechanism in detail, which is essential in order to design new materials with enhanced magneto-electric effects at higher temperatures.

  4. NIMA-related kinase TbNRKC is involved in basal body separation in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Pradel, Lydie C; Bonhivers, Mélanie; Landrein, Nicolas; Robinson, Derrick R

    2006-05-01

    The NIMA-related kinase 2 (NEK 2) has important cell cycle functions related to centriole integrity and splitting. Trypanosoma brucei does not possess centrioles, however, cytokinesis is coupled to basal body separation events. Here we report the first functional characterisation of a T. brucei basal body-cytoskeletal NIMA-related kinase (NRK) protein, TbNRKC. The TbNRKC kinase domain has high amino acid identity with the human NEK1 kinase domain (50%) but also shares 42% identity with human NEK2. TbNRKC is expressed in bloodstream and procyclic cells and functions as a bona fide kinase in vitro. Remarkably, RNAi knockdown of TbNRKC and overexpression of kinase-dead TbNRKC in procyclic forms induces the accumulation of cells with four basal bodies, whereas overexpression of active protein produces supernumary basal bodies and blocks cytokinesis. TbNRKC is located on mature and immature basal bodies and is the first T. brucei NRK to be found associated with the basal body cytokinesis pathway. PMID:16608878

  5. Generation and application of ssDNA aptamers against glycolipid antigen ManLAM of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for TB diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Shi-Min; Xie, Yan; Song, Neng; Guan, Qing; Yuan, Chunhui; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Lian

    2016-05-01

    The development of effective Mycobacterial antigen diagnostic reagents remains a high priority. Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) is a lipoglycan serving as a major cell wall component. ManLAM is also an early released antigen in the blood circulation system during Mycobacteria tuberculosis (M.tb) infection and is a perfect target antigen for TB diagnosis. In this study, ssDNA aptamers "antibodies" against ManLAM of the predominant clinical epidemic M.tb Beijing genotype strains were generated by the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) technique. The selected single aptamer T9 demonstrated the highest specificity and binding affinity, with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 668 ± 159 nmol/L. We further detected ManLAM antigens in serum and sputum samples from active pulmonary tuberculosis (aPTB) patients, extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) patients and healthy donors by using a T9 based enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay (ELONA). The results showed that the specificity and sensitivity were 95.31% and 83.00% (for 100 aPTB serum samples), 98.70% and 92.71% (for 96 aPTB sputum samples), and 94.44% and 88.71% (for 62 EPTB serum samples), respectively. A good correlation was observed between the T9 aptamer-based ELONA and the clinical T-SPOT.TB. Thus, T9 based ELONA has potentials for diagnosis of TB, including inactive TB, smear-negative TB, EPTB, and TB with immunodeficiency, and assist the diagnosis of LTBI albeit it could not distinguish LTBI and active TB. PMID:26850356

  6. Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in Cattle in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lemma, Fitsum A.; Mekonnen, Daniel A.; Alemu, Zelalem E.; Kelkay, Tessema Z.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection is generally correlated with individual cattle’s age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife—including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the correlation between those factors and the prevalence of bTB, which is endemic in Ethiopia’s highland cattle, in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. A total of 2550 cattle from 102 herds were tested for bTB presence using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT). Data on herd structure, herd movement, management and production system, livestock transfer, and contact with wildlife were collected using semi-structured interviews with cattle herders and herd owners. The individual overall prevalence of cattle bTB was 5.5%, with a herd prevalence of 46%. Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a random herd-effect were used to analyse risk factors of cattle reactors within each herd. The older the age of the cattle and the lower the body condition the higher the chance of a positive bTB test result, but sex, lactation status and reproductive status were not correlated with bTB status. At herd level, General Linear Models showed that pastoral production systems with transhumant herds had a higher bTB prevalence than sedentary herds. A model averaging analysis identified herd size, contact with wildlife, and the interaction of herd size and contact with wildlife as significant risk factors for bTB prevalence in cattle. A subsequent Structural Equation Model showed that the probability of contact with wildlife was influenced by herd size, through herd movement. Larger herds moved more and grazed in larger areas, hence the probability of grazing in an area with wildlife and contact with either infected cattle or infected wildlife hosts increased, enhancing the chances for bTB infection. Therefore, future bTB control strategies in cattle in

  7. Participating in Political Activities: Political Systems, Unit Three. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Patrick, John J.

    The third unit to the first-semester course, "Comparing Political Experiences," provides 16 activities to help 12th-grade students acquire in-depth knowledge of various kinds of political activities, such as decision making, leadership, communication, and participation. The activities and readings are divided into six sections which stress the…

  8. Comparing the validity of 2 physical activity questionnaire formats in African-American and Hispanic women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of 2 physical activity questionnaire formats—one that lists activities (Checklist questionnaire) and one that assesses overall activities (Global questionnaire) by domain. Two questionnaire formats were validated among 260 African-American and Hi...

  9. A Toolbox for Tuberculosis (TB) Diagnosis: An Indian Multi-Centric Study (2006-2008); Evaluation of Serological Assays Based on PGL-Tb1 and ESAT-6/CFP10 Antigens for TB Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lagrange, Philippe H.; Thangaraj, Satheesh K.; Dayal, Rajeshwar; Deshpande, Alaka; Ganguly, Nirmal K.; Girardi, Enrico; Joshi, Beenu; Katoch, Kiran; Katoch, Vishwa M.; Kumar, Manoj; Lakshmi, Vemu; Leportier, Marc; Longuet, Christophe; Malladi, Subbalaxmi V. S.; Mukerjee, Deepali; Nair, Deepthi; Raja, Alamelu; Raman, Balambal; Rodrigues, Camilla; Sharma, Pratibha; Singh, Amit; Singh, Sarman; Sodha, Archana; Kabeer, Basirudeen Syed Ahamed; Vernet, Guy; Goletti, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this multi-centric prospective study in India was to assess the accuracy of a serological test as an additional tool for diagnosing active tuberculosis (ATB). In particular, an assay based on ELISA using a phenolic glycolipid (PGL-Tb1) or a fusion protein (ESAT-6/CFP10) was compared to the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the microbiological results according to HIV status. Methods Individuals with and without ATB and HIV infection were enrolled. Serology and TST results were analyzed per se and in combination with the microbiological data. Results Among the 778 ATB patients, 102 were HIV-infected, 316 HIV-uninfected and 360 had an HIV-unknown status. Of the 945 non-ATB subjects, 559 were at low risk (community adults) and 386 at high risk of M. tuberculosis exposure. Among those with ATB, the sensitivity of ELISA-PGL-Tb1 for ATB was higher than that of ELISA-ESAT-6/CFP10, both in HIV-infected (72.3% versus 63.7%, p = 0.29) and HIV-uninfected/HIV-unknown groups (40.5% versus 28.6%; p<0.0001), whereas the specificity was around 91% for both tests. Sensitivity for ATB increased when the results of the two ELISA were combined, reaching 75.5% in the HIV-infected and 50.9% in the group of HIV-uninfected/HIV-unknown ATB, with a significant decrease of the global specificity (83.9%). Analyzing the ELISA results with the microbiological results, we observed that the sensitivity of both serology tests was independent of the ATB patients' smear microscopy (SM) status and grade. Combining the results of SM with both ELISA, the detection of ATB patients significantly increased (p<0.0001), particularly in those with extrapulmonary TB (up to 45.1%) or HIV infection (up to 83.3%). No significant association was observed between TST and serology results. Conclusions In this prospective multi-centric study, the combination of two rapid tests, such as SM and serology, might be useful in detecting ATB, especially in HIV-infected patients. PMID:24797271

  10. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection among TB patients in Port Harcourt Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Erhabor, O; Jeremiah, Z A; Adias, T C; Okere, CE

    2010-01-01

    The joint statement by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends that all patients with tuberculosis (TB) undergo testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection after counseling. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of HIV infection among 120 patients diagnosed with microbiologically proven TB aged 18 to 54 years with a mean age of 39.5 years (standard deviation 6.75). The subjects studied were 36 male (30%) and 84 females (70%). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods were used to screen for HIV infection among the subjects. Of the 120 TB patients tested 30 (25%) were positive for HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV was higher in females 24 (80%) compared to males 6 (20%) and among singles (66.7%) compared to married subjects (33.3%) (χ2 = 83.5 and χ2 = 126.2, respectively P = 0.001). HIV-1 was the predominant viral subtype. HIV prevalence was significantly higher in subjects in the 38–47 year and 28–37 year age groups (both 40%) followed by the 18–28 year age group (20%) (χ2 = 42.6, P = 0.05). The mean CD4 lymphocyte count of the HIV-infected TB subjects was significantly lower (195 ± 40.5 cells/μL) compared to the non-HIV infected (288 ± 35.25 cells/μL P = 0.01). This study has shown a high prevalence of HIV among TB patients. Reactivation of TB among people living with HIV can be reduced by TB preventive therapy and by universal access to antiretroviral therapy. PMID:22096379

  11. Socio Economic Position in TB Prevalence and Access to Services: Results from a Population Prevalence Survey and a Facility-Based Survey in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Shahed; Quaiyum, Mohammad Abdul; Zaman, Khalequ; Banu, Sayera; Husain, Mohammad Ashaque; Islam, Mohammad Akramul; Cooreman, Erwin; Borgdorff, Martien; Lönnroth, Knut; Salim, Abdul Hamid; van Leth, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh DOTS has been provided free of charge since 1993, yet information on access to TB services by different population group is not well documented. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the socio economic position (SEP) of actively detected cases from the community and the cases being routinely detected under National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP) in Bangladesh. Methods and Findings SEP was assessed by validated asset item for each of the 21,427 households included in the national tuberculosis prevalence survey 2007–2009. A principal component analysis generated household scores and categorized in quartiles. The distribution of 33 actively identified cases was compared with the 240 NTP cases over the identical SEP quartiles to evaluate access to TB services by different groups of the population. The population prevalence of tuberculosis was 5 times higher in the lowest quartiles of population (95.4, 95% CI: 48.0–189.7) to highest quartile population (19.5, 95% CI: 6.9–55.0). Among the 33 cases detected during survey, 25 (75.8%) were from lower two quartiles, and the rest 8 (24.3%) were from upper two quartiles. Among TB cases detected passively under NTP, more than half of them 137 (57.1%) were from uppermost two quartiles, 98 (41%) from the second quartile, and 5 (2%) in the lowest quartile of the population. This distribution is not affected when adjusted for other factors or interactions among them. Conclusions The findings indicate that despite availability free of charge, DOTS is not equally accessed by the poorer sections of the population. However, these figures should be interpreted with caution since there is a need for additional studies that assess in-depth poverty indicators and its determinants in relation to access of the TB services provided in Bangladesh. PMID:23028718

  12. Spectroscopic investigation on tunable luminescence by energy transfer in Tb2-xSmx(MoO4)3 nanophosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, P. Mani; Vimal, G.; Biju, P. R.; Joseph, Cyriac; Unnikrishnan, N. V.; Ittyachen, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    New Sm3+ activated Tb2-xSmx(MoO4)3 nanophosphors were synthesized through sol-gel method. The structural and luminescence properties have been studied by XRD, TEM and photoluminescence measurements. The XRD pattern confirms that the Tb2-xSmx(MoO4)3 crystallizes in the same orthorhombic structure of Tb2(MoO4)3. The spectroscopic and laser parameters of Sm3+ ion in Tb2-x(MoO4)3 matrix were evaluated for the first time using Judd-Ofelt theoretical analysis. The higher value of stimulated emission cross-section of 4G5/2 → 6H7/2 transition of Sm3+ is favorable for low threshold and high gain to obtain continuous wave laser action. The photoluminescence excitation spectra suggest that this novel phosphor can be excited over a broad range from nUV to blue light (300-490 nm). Under the excitation of UV, Tb2-xSmx(MoO4)3 nanophosphor exhibits the characteristic emissions of Tb3+ and Sm3+. By varying the doping concentration of Sm3+, the emission color of the phosphors can be tuned and white emission in a single composition can be obtained under host excitation, in which an energy transfer from MoO42- → Sm3+/ Tb3+ and Tb3+ → Sm3+ was observed. The investigation of the luminescence decay curves and lifetime values implies the energy transfer between Tb3+ → Sm3+ and confirms the absence of Sm3+ → Tb3+ energy transfer. These phosphors might be a promising material for use in nUV LEDs and can exhibit tricolor luminescence under single excitation wavelength.

  13. Comparative Study of Surface-Active Properties and Antimicrobial Activities of Disaccharide Monoesters

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Song, Fei; Taxipalati, Maierhaba; Wei, Wei; Feng, Fengqin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of sugar or fatty acid in sugar ester compounds on the surface-active properties and antimicrobial activities of these compounds. Disaccharides of medium-chain fatty acid monoesters were synthesized through transesterifications by immobilized lipase (Lipozyme TLIM) to yield nine monoesters for subsequent study. Their antimicrobial activities were investigated using three pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Candida albicans. Their surface-active properties including air–water surface tension, critical micelle concentration, and foaming and emulsion power and stability were also studied. The results showed that all of the tested monoesters were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium) than against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Gram-negative bacterium). The results demonstrated that the carbon chain length was the most important factor influencing the surface properties, whereas degree of esterification and hydrophilic groups showed little effect. PMID:25531369

  14. Comparative study of surface-active properties and antimicrobial activities of disaccharide monoesters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Song, Fei; Taxipalati, Maierhaba; Wei, Wei; Feng, Fengqin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of sugar or fatty acid in sugar ester compounds on the surface-active properties and antimicrobial activities of these compounds. Disaccharides of medium-chain fatty acid monoesters were synthesized through transesterifications by immobilized lipase (Lipozyme TLIM) to yield nine monoesters for subsequent study. Their antimicrobial activities were investigated using three pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Candida albicans. Their surface-active properties including air-water surface tension, critical micelle concentration, and foaming and emulsion power and stability were also studied. The results showed that all of the tested monoesters were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium) than against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Gram-negative bacterium). The results demonstrated that the carbon chain length was the most important factor influencing the surface properties, whereas degree of esterification and hydrophilic groups showed little effect. PMID:25531369

  15. Targeted screening and treatment for latent tuberculosis infection using QuantiFERON®-TB Gold is cost-effective in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Burgos, J. L.; Kahn, J. G.; Strathdee, S. A.; Valencia-Mendoza, A.; Bautista-Arredondo, S.; Laniado-Laborin, R.; Castañeda, R.; Deiss, R.; Garfein, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To assess the cost-effectiveness of screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) using a commercially available detection test and treating individuals at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a middle-income country. DESIGN We developed a Markov model to evaluate the cost per LTBI case detected, TB case averted and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained for a cohort of 1000 individuals at high risk for HIV infection over 20 years. Baseline model inputs for LTBI prevalence were obtained from published literature and cross-sectional data from tuberculosis (TB) screening using QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) testing among sex workers and illicit drug users at high risk for HIV recruited through street outreach in Tijuana, Mexico. Costs are reported in 2007 US dollars. Future costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% per year. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate model robustness. RESULTS Over 20 years, we estimate the program would prevent 78 cases of active TB and 55 TB-related deaths. The incremental cost per case of LTBI detected was US$730, cost per active TB averted was US$529 and cost per QALY gained was US$108. CONCLUSIONS In settings of endemic TB and escalating HIV incidence, targeting LTBI screening and treatment among high-risk groups may be highly cost-effective. PMID:19723375

  16. Magnetomechanical damping in cryogenic TbDy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dooley, J.; Good, N.; White, C.; Leland, S.; Fultz, B.

    2002-01-01

    Vibration damping in polycrystalline TbDy alloys was studied at cryogenic temperatures. The material was prepared by cold-rolling to induce crystallographic texture, and was then heat-treated to relieve internal stress. Mechanical hysteretic losses were measured at various strains, frequencies, and loading configurations at 77 K. Some textured TbDy materials demonstrated 22.6% energy dissipation in mechanical measurements at low frequency (0.01 Hz) and a mean logarithmic decrement of 0.23 at a higher frequency (25 kHz). Ultrasonic velocities of longitudinal and shear elastic waves were measured on single and polycrystalline TbDy; little variation in ultrasonic velocities was found evenfor samples with large variation in crystallographic texture and magnetomechanical properties.

  17. Cell Death and Autophagy in TB

    PubMed Central

    Moraco, Andrew H.; Kornfeld, Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has succeeded in infecting one third of the human race though inhibition or evasion of innate and adaptive immunity. The pathogen is a facultative intracellular parasite that uses the niche provided by mononuclear phagocytes for its advantage. Complex interactions determine whether the bacillus will or will not be delivered to acidified lysosomes, whether the host phagocyte will survive infection or die, and whether the timing and mode of cell death works to the advantage of the host or the pathogen. Here we discuss cell death and autophagy in TB. These fundamental processes of cell biology feature in all aspects of TB pathogenesis and may be exploited to the treatment or prevention of TB disease. PMID:25453227

  18. Magnetic Order in TbCo2Zn20 and TbFe2Zn20

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, W.; Christianson, Andrew D; Zarestky, J. L.; Jia, S.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Piccoli, P. M. B.; Schultz, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    We report neutron di raction studies of TbCo2Zn20 and TbFe2Zn20, two isostructural compounds which exhibit dramatically di erent magnetic behavior. In the case of TbCo2Zn20, magnetic Bragg peaks corresponding to antiferromagnetic order are observed below TN 2.5 K with a propagation vector of (0.5 0.5 0.5). On the other hand, TbFe2Zn20 undergoes a ferromagnetic transition at temperatures as high as 66 K which shows a high sensitivity to sample-to-sample variations. Two samples of TbFe2Zn20 with the same nominal compositions but with substantially di erent mag- netic ordering temperatures (Tc 51 and 66 K) were measured by single crystal neutron di raction. Structural re nements of the neutron di raction data nd no direct signature of atomic site disorder between the two TbFe2Zn20 samples except for subtle di erences in the anisotropic thermal param- eters. The di erences in the anisotropic thermal parameters between the two samples is likely due to very small amounts of disorder. This provides further evidence for the extreme sensitivity of the magnetic properties of TbFe2Zn20 to small sample variations, even small amounts of disorder.

  19. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROTEINASE ACTIVITIES OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS-RESISTANT AND -SUSCEPTIBLE OSTRINIA NUBILALIS (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteinase activities were compared in soluble and membrane fractions of gut tissues of Bacillus thuringiensis-resistant and -susceptible Ostrinia nubilalis larvae. The soluble trypsin-like proteinase activity of the resistant strain was reduced 56%, significantly lower than that of the susceptibl...

  20. Comparing Primary Student Teachers' Attitudes, Subject Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Needs in a Physics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Jane; Ahtee, Maija

    2006-01-01

    This research explores and compares primary student teachers' attitudes, subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in physics in two institutions in England and Finland, using a practical physics activity and questionnaire. Teaching of physics activities was rated unpopular both in Finland and England, although English students…

  1. Comparing Role-Playing Activities in Second Life and Face-to-Face Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fei; Noh, Jeongmin J.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared student performances in role-playing activities in both a face-to-face (FTF) environment and a virtual 3D environment, Second Life (SL). We found that students produced a similar amount of communication in the two environments, but the communication styles were different. In SL role-playing activities, students took more…

  2. Comparing Two Forms of Concept Map Critique Activities to Facilitate Knowledge Integration Processes in Evolution Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwendimann, Beat A.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept map activities often lack a subsequent revision step that facilitates knowledge integration. This study compares two collaborative critique activities using a Knowledge Integration Map (KIM), a form of concept map. Four classes of high school biology students (n?=?81) using an online inquiry-based learning unit on evolution were assigned…

  3. Comparing Activity Patterns, Biological, and Family Factors in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutum, Monique Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Bundy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The association between motor proficiency and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) suggests children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be susceptible to inactivity-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare children with and without DCD on physical activity patterns, activity…

  4. Eu/Tb codoped spindle-shaped fluorinated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for dual-color cell imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Baojin; Zhang, Shan; Qiu, Jichuan; Li, Jianhua; Sang, Yuanhua; Xia, Haibing; Jiang, Huaidong; Claverie, Jerome; Liu, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Lanthanide doped fluorinated hydroxyapatite (FAp) nanoparticles are promising cell imaging nanomaterials but they are excited at wavelengths which do not match the light sources usually found in a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). In this work, we have successfully prepared spindle-shaped Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles by a hydrothermal method. Compared with single Eu doped FAp, Eu/Tb codoped FAp can be excited by a 488 nm laser, and exhibit both green and red light emission. By changing the amounts of Eu and Tb peaks, the emission in the green region (500-580 nm) can be decreased to the benefit of the emission in the red region (580-720 nm), thus reaching a balanced dual color emission. Using MC3T3-E1 cells co-cultured with Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles, it is observed that the nanoparticles are cytocompatible even at a concentration as high as 800 μg ml-1. The Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles are located in the cytoplasm and can be monitored by dual color--green and red imaging with a single excitation light at 488 nm. At a concentration of 200 μg ml-1, the cytoplasm is saturated in 8 hours, and Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles retain their fluorescence for at least 3 days. The cytocompatible Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles with unique dual color emission will be of great use for cell and tissue imaging.Lanthanide doped fluorinated hydroxyapatite (FAp) nanoparticles are promising cell imaging nanomaterials but they are excited at wavelengths which do not match the light sources usually found in a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). In this work, we have successfully prepared spindle-shaped Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles by a hydrothermal method. Compared with single Eu doped FAp, Eu/Tb codoped FAp can be excited by a 488 nm laser, and exhibit both green and red light emission. By changing the amounts of Eu and Tb peaks, the emission in the green region (500-580 nm) can be decreased to the benefit of the emission in the

  5. Extreme ultraviolet emission spectra of Gd and Tb ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, D.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2010-11-15

    Theoretical extreme ultraviolet emission spectra of gadolinium and terbium ions calculated with the Cowan suite of codes and the flexible atomic code (FAC) relativistic code are presented. 4d-4f and 4p-4d transitions give rise to unresolved transition arrays in a range of ions. The effects of configuration interaction are investigated for transitions between singly excited configurations. Optimization of emission at 6.775 nm and 6.515 nm is achieved for Gd and Tb ions, respectively, by consideration of plasma effects. The resulting synthetic spectra are compared with experimental spectra recorded using the laser produced plasma technique.

  6. Magnetic and magneto-optical properties of (Tb,Dy)Nd/FeCo multilayers (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X. Y.; Fujiwara, Y.; Watabe, H.; Iwata, S.; Tsunashima, S.; Uchiyama, S.

    1994-05-01

    Nd-Co and Nd-FeCo amorphous films are known to have larger Kerr rotation θk at shorter wavelength and ultraviolet light compared with other RE-TM (rare earth-transition) amorphous films. This property is desirable for MO (magneto-optical) media for the next generation. In order to satisfy the perpendicular magnetization condition, we replaced a part of Nd by Gd to decrease the saturation magnetization Ms and applied the multilayer (ML) structure to enhance the perpendicular anisotropy Ku. Then we succeeded in getting a new ML medium of Nd0.34Gd0.66/Fe0.9Co0.1 with a bilayer period of 1 nm. However, the substitution of 66% Gd resulted in undesirable decreases of Kerr rotation and coercivity. In this experiment, a part of Nd is replaced by either Tb or Dy instead of Gd with an expectation that the amount of replacement to get the perpendicular magnetization configuration may be smaller since Tb and Dy have large one ion anisotropy compared with Gd. The magnetic and MO properties of Nd(Tb,Dy)/FeCo MLs will be reported. In the case of Tb, for example, a square Kerr hysteresis loop is obtained by the substitution of about 40%. However, θK at 400 nm is about 0.30°, which is larger than that of Tb-FeCo but smaller than NdGd/FeCo MLs.

  7. Tuberculosis: Learn the Signs and Symptoms of TB Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Tuberculosis (TB) Disease: Symptoms & Risk Factors Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria that ...

  8. One health/veterinary links associated with TB vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: participants will understand the current status of veterinary tuberculosis (TB) vaccine research for cattle and wildlife and their potential applications for development of human TB vaccines. Vaccines are lacking for many chronic intracellular pathogens requiring cell-mediated immunity ...

  9. Tuberculosis: The Connection between TB and HIV (the AIDS Virus)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force Tuberculosis: The Connection between TB and HIV Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Order this ... if I am infected with both TB and HIV? If you have HIV, it is important to ...

  10. HIV-1 and the immune response to TB

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Naomi F; Meintjes, Graeme; Wilkinson, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    TB causes 1.4 million deaths annually. HIV-1 infection is the strongest risk factor for TB. The characteristic immunological effect of HIV is on CD4 cell count. However, the risk of TB is elevated in HIV-1 infected individuals even in the first few years after HIV acquisition and also after CD4 cell counts are restored with antiretroviral therapy. In this review, we examine features of the immune response to TB and how this is affected by HIV-1 infection and vice versa. We discuss how the immunology of HIV–TB coinfection impacts on the clinical presentation and diagnosis of TB, and how antiretroviral therapy affects the immune response to TB, including the development of TB immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. We highlight important areas of uncertainty and future research needs. PMID:23653664

  11. Comparative study of two structures of shunt active filter suppressing particular harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benchaita, L.; Salem Nia, A.; Saadate, S.

    1998-07-01

    This paper deals with the study of shunt active filters used for suppressing particular harmonics generated by nonlinear loads in utility distribution power systems. Both structures of shunt active filter, voltage source active filter (VSAF) and current source active filter (CSAF), are considered. The analytical study of specific harmonics identification in a given spectrum is first presented. For simulation as well as experimentation the nonlinear load is a conventional three phase thyristor rectifier and harmonics 5 and 7 are selected to be eliminated by active filter. The whole system consisting of the ac power supply network, the SCR rectifier and the shunt active filter (VSAF/CSAF) is then simulated. The simulation results are discussed and the efficiency of the two kinds of active filter are compared. Finally, for the first structure, VSAF, the simulation results are confirmed by experimental test realized by means of a fully digital control active power filter developed in our laboratory.

  12. Comparative antimicrobial activity of ceftibuten against multiply-resistant microorganisms from Belgium.

    PubMed

    Verbist, L; Jacobs, J; Hens, K

    1991-01-01

    To study the activity of ceftibuten, we obtained multiply-resistant isolates from approximately 20 hospitals in Belgium. Against Enterobacteriaceae, all of the tested comparative compounds were more active than cefaclor, and ceftibuten and tigemonam were the most active of the agents tested. Ceftibuten MIC50s were less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml for most enteric bacilli species and 85% of strains were susceptible (less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml). This level of activity compared favorably to that recorded for cefaclor (less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml), cefetamet (less than or equal to 4 micrograms/ml), and cefteram (less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml), that is, 37%, 69%, and 59%, respectively. Ceftibuten, cefetamet, cefteram, and tigemonam were highly active against isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. None of the comparative agents were as active as cefaclor against staphylococcal isolates. Against streptococci, cefteram was the most active, and tigemonam the least active of the agents. The MIC90s of ceftibuten for strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes were 2 micrograms/ml and 0.5 microgram/ml, respectively. Strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were resistant to both ceftibuten and tigemonam; cefaclor and cefteram inhibited 100% of isolates of this species. Strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were consistently resistant to all of the compounds. Overall, ceftibuten exhibited potent activity against many multiply-resistant clinical isolates. PMID:1901535

  13. A comparative study of oxidant-antioxidant status in stable and active vitiligo patients.

    PubMed

    Ines, Dammak; Sonia, Boudaya; Riadh, Ben Mansour; Amel, El Gaied; Slaheddine, Marrekchi; Hamida, Turki; Hamadi, Attia; Basma, Hentati

    2006-09-01

    The pathogenetic mechanisms in vitiligo have not been completely clarified. One of the major hypotheses in the pathogenesis of vitiligo is the oxidative stress hypothesis. The active or stable phase of vitiligo is defined on the basis of the progression or appearance of new lesions in the last 3 months and the absence of new lesions or their progression in the last 6 months, respectively. Eighteen patients with active vitiligo, 18 patients with stable vitiligo, and 40 controls were included in this study. We examined serum levels of malondialdehyde, selenium, vitamin E and A, and the erythrocyte activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Our results revealed a significantly higher level of serum malondialdehyde, selenium in patients with active disease compared with the controls. Significant higher increase in erythrocytes superoxide dismutase activities was observed in active vitiligo group, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased significantly in active disease, whereas erythrocyte catalase activity and plasma vitamin E and A levels were not different in vitiligo patients as compared with controls. Our study shows that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of both active and stable vitiligo but increased imbalance of antioxidants was observed in the blood of active vitiligo patients. PMID:16897080

  14. Suppressed Type 1, Type 2, and Type 17 Cytokine Responses in Active Tuberculosis in Children ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N. Pavan; Anuradha, R.; Suresh, R.; Ganesh, R.; Shankar, Janani; Kumaraswami, V.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2011-01-01

    Type 1 cytokine responses are known to play an important role in immunity to tuberculosis (TB) in children, although little is known about other factors that might be important. In addition, children are more prone to developing extrapulmonary manifestations of TB than adults. To identify the immune responses important both in control of infection and in extrapulmonary dissemination, we examined mycobacterium-specific cytokine responses of children with pulmonary TB (PTB) and extrapulmonary TB (ETB) and compared them with those of healthy control children (HC). No significant differences were found in the cytokine responses either with no stimulation or following mycobacterial-antigen (Ag) stimulation between children with PTB and ETB. On the other hand, children with active TB compared with HC showed markedly diminished production of type 1 (gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]), 2 (interleukin 4 [IL-4] and IL-13), and 17 (IL-17A, IL-21, and IL-23)-associated cytokines with no stimulation and in response to mycobacterial antigens. This was not associated with significantly altered production of IL-10 or transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). Among children with ETB, those with neurologic involvement exhibited more significantly diminished Ag-driven IFN-γ and IL-17 production. Pediatric TB is characterized by diminished type 1, 2, and 17 cytokine responses, with the most profound diminution favoring development of neurologic TB, suggesting a crucial role for these cytokines in protection against pediatric tuberculosis. PMID:21955625

  15. Rapid synthesis of single-crystalline TbF{sub 3} with novel nanostructure via ultrasound irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Ling; Liu, Yangjia; Fan, Xizhi; Yang, Daowu; Cao, Xueqiang

    2011-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Terbium fluoride (TbF{sub 3}) nanopeanut has been successfully synthesized via a mild sonochemical route from an aqueous solution of terbium nitrate and fluoroborate without any template or organic additive. Research highlights: {yields} Research highlights {yields} TbF3 nanopeanut was prepared via sonochemical method. {yields} The morphologies of TbF3 can be tuned by ultrasound irradiation and fluoride source. {yields} The TbF3 nanopeanut shows high photoluminescence intensity. -- Abstract: Terbium fluoride (TbF{sub 3}) nanopeanut has been successfully synthesized via a mild sonochemical route from an aqueous solution of terbium nitrate and fluoroborate without any template or organic additive. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were utilized to characterize the synthesized samples. The morphologies and optical properties of the obtained TbF{sub 3} nanopeanut can be tuned by ultrasound irradiation as well as the fluoride source. The prepared TbF{sub 3} nanopeanut shows extraordinarily high room temperature photoluminescence intensity comparing to the products prepared by stirring. The possible formation mechanism is proposed in this paper.

  16. Inhibitory effect of Xenorhabdus nematophila TB on plant pathogens Phytophthora capsici and Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in planta

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiangling; Zhang, Manrang; Tang, Qian; Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Entomopathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus spp. produce secondary metabolites with potential antimicrobial activity for use in agricultural productions. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of X. nematophila TB culture on plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora capsici. The cell-free filtrate of TB culture showed strong inhibitory effects (>90%) on mycelial growth of both pathogens. The methanol-extracted bioactive compounds (methanol extract) of TB culture also had strong inhibitory effects on mycelial growth and spore germinations of both pathogens. The methanol extract (1000 μg/mL) and cell-free filtrate both showed strong therapeutic and protective effects (>70%) on grey mold both in detached tomato fruits and plants, and leaf scorch in pepper plants. This study demonstrates X. nematophila TB produces antimicrobial metabolites of strong activity on plant pathogens, with great potential for controlling tomato grey mold and pepper leaf scorch and being used in integrated disease control to reduce chemical application. PMID:24599183

  17. Inhibitory effect of Xenorhabdus nematophila TB on plant pathogens Phytophthora capsici and Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangling; Zhang, Manrang; Tang, Qian; Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Entomopathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus spp. produce secondary metabolites with potential antimicrobial activity for use in agricultural productions. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of X. nematophila TB culture on plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora capsici. The cell-free filtrate of TB culture showed strong inhibitory effects (>90%) on mycelial growth of both pathogens. The methanol-extracted bioactive compounds (methanol extract) of TB culture also had strong inhibitory effects on mycelial growth and spore germinations of both pathogens. The methanol extract (1000 μg/mL) and cell-free filtrate both showed strong therapeutic and protective effects (>70%) on grey mold both in detached tomato fruits and plants, and leaf scorch in pepper plants. This study demonstrates X. nematophila TB produces antimicrobial metabolites of strong activity on plant pathogens, with great potential for controlling tomato grey mold and pepper leaf scorch and being used in integrated disease control to reduce chemical application. PMID:24599183

  18. Investigations on photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of Ca3La6(SiO4)6:Tb3 +, Mn2 +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhou, Beibei; Wang, Xichen

    2016-08-01

    Tb3 +/Mn2 + activated Ca3La6(SiO4)6 (CLS) phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction method, and their photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence (CL) properties were investigated. The CLS:Tb3 + sample shows a yellowish green emission under 377 nm excitation, and the excitation spectrum reveals the excitation peaks between 340 and 390 nm can match with the near-ultraviolet LED chip. Excellent thermal stability has been obtained in the CLS:Tb3 + phosphor by studying the temperature dependence of the Tb3 + emission intensity. By introducing Mn2 + into CLS:Tb3 +, tunable emissions are generated due to the efficient energy transfer from Tb3 + to Mn2 +. The CL spectrum of CLS:Tb3 + displays that the characteristic 5D4-7FJ (J = 6 - 3) transitions of Tb3 + are found under electron beam excitation. The above investigation results imply that the CLS:Tb3 +, Mn2 + phosphors could have potential applications on LEDs and FEDs.

  19. Investigations on photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of Ca3La6(SiO4)6:Tb(3+), Mn(2.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia; Zhou, Beibei; Wang, Xichen

    2016-08-01

    Tb(3+)/Mn(2+) activated Ca3La6(SiO4)6 (CLS) phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction method, and their photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence (CL) properties were investigated. The CLS:Tb(3+) sample shows a yellowish green emission under 377nm excitation, and the excitation spectrum reveals the excitation peaks between 340 and 390nm can match with the near-ultraviolet LED chip. Excellent thermal stability has been obtained in the CLS:Tb(3+) phosphor by studying the temperature dependence of the Tb(3+) emission intensity. By introducing Mn(2+) into CLS:Tb(3+), tunable emissions are generated due to the efficient energy transfer from Tb(3+) to Mn(2+). The CL spectrum of CLS:Tb(3+) displays that the characteristic (5)D4-(7)FJ (J=6-3) transitions of Tb(3+) are found under electron beam excitation. The above investigation results imply that the CLS:Tb(3+), Mn(2+) phosphors could have potential applications on LEDs and FEDs. PMID:27111156

  20. A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of commonly used South asian herbs.

    PubMed

    Waisundara, Viduranga; Yian Hoon, Lee

    2013-10-01

    The antioxidant activities of curry leaves, fenugreek seeds, Indian malabar leaves, red silk cotton tree leaves, cowitch leaves, holyfruit tree leaves, and black mustard seeds were compared. Their effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were investigated. The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay determined the antioxidant potential of the extracts, while the ROS scavenging ability was explored in hyperglycemia-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The SOD assay determined if the extracts stimulated the enzyme activity in the HUVECs. Curry leaf and fenugreek extracts had high ORAC values and superior free radical scavenging abilities compared with the rest of the extracts. The curry leaf extract had also increased the SOD activity. Fenugreek extract had not increased the SOD activity of the HUVECs. Thus, the two herbs displayed two distinct pathways of action for scavenging of ROS. PMID:24716187

  1. Boeing TB-29 Superfortress (B-29)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    Boeing TB-29 Superfortress (B-29): Arriving for use with the NACA right at the end of World War II, this Boeing B-29 Superfortress was used for research into hydraulically boosting flight controls. After just over five years of study at Langley, the B-29 was returned to the Air Force.

  2. Erratum: The magnetic texture of Tb/Fe multilayers (Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (1995) 157/158 (317))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappert, J.; Klose, F.; Rehm, Ch.; Kim, W. S.; Brand, R. A.; Maletta, H.; Keune, W.

    1996-11-01

    At the V6 in the Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Berlin, we have performed temperature-dependent neutron reflectometry studies with spin-analysis on a [Tb(26 Å)/Fe(50 Å)] × 10 multilayer. The effect of increasing Tb magnetization at low temperatures is shown. We compare our results with the data from Mössbauer spectroscopy, SQUID, MOKE, and X-ray reflectivity.

  3. Timing of antiretroviral therapy and TB treatment outcomes in patients with TB-HIV in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Shewade, H. D.; Kyaw, N. T. T.; Oo, M. M.; Aung, T. K.; Aung, S. T.; Oo, H. N.; Win, T.; Harries, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Integrated HIV Care programme, Mandalay, Myanmar. Objectives: To determine time to starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in relation to anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) and its association with TB treatment outcomes in patients co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enrolled from 2011 to 2014. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Results: Of 1708 TB-HIV patients, 1565 (92%) started ATT first and 143 (8%) started ART first. Treatment outcomes were missing for 226 patients and were thus not included. In those starting ATT first, the median time to starting ART was 8.6 weeks. ART was initiated after 8 weeks in 830 (53%) patients. Unsuccessful outcome was found in 7%, with anaemia being an independent predictor. In patients starting ART first, the median time to starting ATT was 21.6 weeks. ATT was initiated within 3 months in 56 (39%) patients. Unsuccessful outcome was found in 12%, and in 20% of those starting ATT within 3 months. Patients with CD4 count <100/mm3 had a four times higher risk of an unsuccessful outcome. Conclusions: Timing of ART in relation to ATT was not an independent risk factor for unsuccessful outcome. Extensive screening for TB with rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests in HIV-infected persons and close monitoring of anaemia and immunosuppression are recommended to further improve TB treatment outcomes among patients with TB-HIV. PMID:27358804

  4. Effect of tuberculosis on the survival of HIV-infected men in a country with low TB incidence

    PubMed Central

    López-Gatell, H; Cole, SR; Margolick, JB; Witt, MD; Martinson, J; Phair, JP; Jacobson, LP

    2010-01-01

    Evidence regarding the effect of tuberculosis disease (TB) on HIV disease progression at the population level remains inconclusive. We estimated the effect of incident TB on time to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related death, using a marginal structural Cox model. Between 1984 and 2005, 2,882 HIV-infected men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study contributed 21,914 person-years while followed for a median of 5.4 years. At study entry, the median CD4 cell count and HIV-1 RNA viral load were 533 cells/mm3 (interquartile range [IQR], 365 – 737) and 12,953 copies/ml (IQR, 2,453 – 48,540), respectively. This study was performed in a setting with a modest exposure to HAART; 8,295 of 23,801 (35%) person-years were followed during the HAART era. Fifteen men incurred incident TB, yielding a TB incidence of 7 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4, 14) per 10,000 person-years, and 1,072 died of AIDS-related causes. Accounting for potential confounders, including CD4 cell count and viral load, the hazard of AIDS-related death was 2.4 times larger for the person-time with TB, compared to the person-time without TB (95% CI: 1.2, 4.7). Results underscore the importance of avoiding TB by using preventive interventions, such as treatment of latent TB infection, particularly in populations with a large prevalence of HIV/TB co-infected individuals. PMID:18753866

  5. Disclosure of HIV status: Experiences of Patients Enrolled in an Integrated TB and HAART Pilot Programme in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gebrekristos, Hirut T; Lurie, Mark N; Mthethwa, Nkosinathi; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool

    2010-01-01

    The convergence between the tuberculosis (TB) and HIV epidemics has led to studies investigating strategies for integrated HIV and TB care. We present the experiences of a cohort of 17 patients enrolled in the first integrated TB and HIV treatment pilot programme, conducted in Durban, South Africa, as a precursor to a pivotal trial to answer the question of when to start antiretroviral treatment (ART) in patients co-infected with HIV and TB. Patients’ experiences with integrated TB and HIV care can provide insight about the problems or benefits of introducing HIV treatment into existing TB care in resource-constrained settings, where stigma and discrimination are often pervasive and determining factors influencing treatment uptake and coverage. Individual interviews, focus group discussions, and observations were used to understand patients’ experiences with integrated TB and HIV treatment. The patients described incorporating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) into their daily routine as ‘easy’; however, the patients experienced difficulties with disclosing their HIV status. Non-disclosure to sexual partners may jeopardise safer-sex practices and enhance HIV transmission. Being on TB treatment created a safe space for all patients to conceal their HIV status from those to whom they did not wish to disclose. The data suggest that the context of directly observed therapy (DOT) for TB may have the added benefit of creating a safe space for introducing ART to patients who would benefit most from treatment initiation but who are not ready or prepared to disclose their HIV status to others. PMID:20411037

  6. Magnetooptics of the luminescent transitions in Tb3+:Gd3Ga5O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiev, Uygun V.; Gruber, John B.; Ivanov, Igor'A.; Burdick, Gary W.; Liang, Hongbin; Zhou, Lei; Fu, Dejun; Pelenovich, Oleg V.; Pelenovich, Vasiliy O.; Lin, Zhou

    2015-08-01

    The spectra of the luminescence and magnetic circular polarization of luminescence in terbium-gadolinium gallium garnet Tb3+:Gd3Ga5O12 (Tb3+:GGG) were studied within the visible spectral range at temperatures T = 90 and 300 K in an external magnetic field of 0.45 T. The Zeeman effect in the luminescence "green" band associated with 4f → 4f transition 5D4 → 7F5 of Tb3+:GGG was also studied at T = 90 K in an external field of 0.55 T. Measurement of the Zeeman effect in Tb3+:GGG carried out for some doublet lines of the luminescence band 5D4 → 7F5 at T = 90 K shows that a magnetooptical effect of the intensity change of the emitted light is observed on these lines, in contrast to pure Zeeman splitting of the emission lines measured in the luminescence band 5D4 → 7F6. For the systems we have studied, the maximal value of the magnetooptical effect of the intensity change of the luminescence line at low temperatures has been achieved in paramagnetic garnet Tb0.2Y2.8Al5O12 at comparatively low magnetic fields.

  7. Comparative study of antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of selected edible wild mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Lee, Mee Yee; Matanjun, Patricia; How, Siew Eng; Ho, Chun Wai

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the antioxidant activities (AOA) and total phenolic content (TPC) of water extracts of selected edible wild mushrooms: Pleurotus porrigens, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe conica, and Lentinus ciliatus. The AOA were evaluated against DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation scavenging ability, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching (beta-CB) assays, and the Folin-Ciocalteu method for TPC. BHA was used as reference. P. porrigens showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) DPPH* scavenging ability (90.78 +/- 0.30%) and FRAP (6.37 +/- 0.22 mM FE/100g), while Sch. commune showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) ABTS*+ inhibition activity (94.96 +/- 0.70%) and beta-CB inhibition activity (94.18 +/- 0.17%), respectively. TPC was found in a descending order of P. poriggens > L. ciliatus = Pleurotus ostreatus (cultivated) > H. conica = Sch. commune. Positive correlation was observed between the AOA and TPC. When compared to BHA (2 mM), P. porrigens showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) DPPH* scavenging ability and reducing power, while Sch. commune showed comparable DPPH* scavenging ability and ABTS*+ inhibition activity. All the mushrooms have better ABTS*+ inhibition activity than BHA (1 mM). The beta-CB inhibition activity of BHA was significantly higher than those of edible wild mushrooms. The water extracts of edible wild mushrooms showed potent antioxidant activities compared to BHA to a certain extent. PMID:22135876

  8. Cytokine and chemokine expression profiles in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulation are altered in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected subjects with active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Waruk, Jillian L M; Machuki, Zipporah; Mesa, Christine; Juno, Jennifer A; Anzala, Omu; Sharma, Meenu; Ball, T Blake; Oyugi, Julius; Kiazyk, Sandra

    2015-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infects nearly 2 million people annually and is the most common cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. Tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics cater to HIV-uninfected individuals in non-endemic countries, are expensive, slow, and lack sensitivity for those most affected. Patterns of soluble immune markers from Mtb-stimulated immune cells are not well defined in HIV co-infection. We assessed immune differences between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals with active TB utilizing IFNγ-based QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) testing in Nairobi, Kenya. Excess QFT supernatants were used to measure cytokine and chemokine responses by a 17-plex bead array. Mtb/HIV co-infected participants were significantly less likely to be QFT+ (47.2% versus 84.2% in the HIV-uninfected group), and demonstrated lower expression of all cytokines except for IFNα2. Receiver operator characteristic analyses identified IL-1α as a potential marker of co-infection. Among HIV-infected individuals, CD4+ T cell count correlated weakly with the expression of several analytes. Co-expression analysis highlighted differences in immune profiles between the groups. These data suggest that there is a unique and detectable Mtb-specific immune response in co-infection. A better understanding of Mtb immunology can translate into much needed immunodiagnostics with enhanced sensitivity in HIV-infected individuals, facilitating their opportunity to obtain live-saving treatment. PMID:26073895

  9. A world of cities and the end of TB

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Amit; Ross, Alex; Rosenberg, Paul; Dye, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The WHO's End TB Strategy aims to reduce TB deaths by 95% and incidence by 90% between 2015 and 2035. As the world rapidly urbanizes, more people could have access to better infrastructure and services to help combat poverty and infectious diseases, including TB. And yet large numbers of people now live in overcrowded slums, with poor access to urban health services, amplifying the burden of TB. An alignment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for health and for urban development provides an opportunity to accelerate the overall decline in infection and disease, and to create cities free of TB. PMID:26884491

  10. A world of cities and the end of TB.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Amit; Ross, Alex; Rosenberg, Paul; Dye, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    The WHO's End TB Strategy aims to reduce TB deaths by 95% and incidence by 90% between 2015 and 2035. As the world rapidly urbanizes, more people could have access to better infrastructure and services to help combat poverty and infectious diseases, including TB. And yet large numbers of people now live in overcrowded slums, with poor access to urban health services, amplifying the burden of TB. An alignment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for health and for urban development provides an opportunity to accelerate the overall decline in infection and disease, and to create cities free of TB. PMID:26884491

  11. The Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase TbGAT is Dispensable for Viability and the Synthesis of Glycerolipids in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nipul; Pirani, Karim A; Zhu, Tongtong; Cheung-See-Kit, Melanie; Lee, Sungsu; Chen, Daniel G; Zufferey, Rachel

    2016-09-01

    Glycerolipids are the main constituents of biological membranes in Trypanosoma brucei, which causes sleeping sickness in humans. Importantly, they occur as a structural component of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol lipid anchor of the abundant cell surface glycoproteins procyclin in procyclic forms and variant surface glycoprotein in bloodstream form, that play crucial roles for the development of the parasite in the insect vector and the mammalian host, respectively. The present work reports the characterization of the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase TbGAT that initiates the biosynthesis of ester glycerolipids. TbGAT restored glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity when expressed in a Leishmania major deletion strain lacking this activity and exhibited preference for medium length, unsaturated fatty acyl-CoAs. TbGAT localized to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane with its N-terminal domain facing the cytosol. Despite that a TbGAT null mutant in T. brucei procyclic forms lacked glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity, it remained viable and exhibited similar growth rate as the wild type. TbGAT was dispensable for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, and GPI-anchored protein procyclin. However, the null mutant exhibited a slight decrease in phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis that was compensated with a modest increase in production of ether phosphatidylcholine. Our data suggest that an alternative initial acyltransferase takes over TbGAT's function in its absence. PMID:26909872

  12. Modified TB rapid test by proteinase K for rapid diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Yari, Shamsi; Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Alireza; Ghanei, Mostafa; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Fateh, Abolfazl; Yari, Fatemeh; Bahrmand, Ahmadreza

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis continues to be a challenge due to the low sensitivity of traditional diagnostic methods. Better and more rapid tests are needed for diagnosis of pleural TB. In this study, pleural fluids were tested with rapid test to determine Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB antigen). Affinity chromatography was used to purify specific polyclonal antibodies against MTB antigen. Pleural samples after decontamination were treated with proteinase K. Rapid test for pleural fluids was prepared by specific antibody. Rapid test was performed on 85 pleural fluid patients. The patients had a mean age of 46.55 ± 15.96 years and 38 were men. The performance of rapid test, using proteinase K, was found to be the most impressive: sensitivity 93%, specificity 94%, PPV 90%, and NPV 96% compared with adenosine deaminase test (ADA), PCR, smear, and culture. The present study did demonstrate that modified TB rapid test can substantially improve the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB. PMID:26693840

  13. TIME Impact - a new user-friendly tuberculosis (TB) model to inform TB policy decisions.

    PubMed

    Houben, R M G J; Lalli, M; Sumner, T; Hamilton, M; Pedrazzoli, D; Bonsu, F; Hippner, P; Pillay, Y; Kimerling, M; Ahmedov, S; Pretorius, C; White, R G

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, predominantly affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where resources are limited. As such, countries need to be able to choose the most efficient interventions for their respective setting. Mathematical models can be valuable tools to inform rational policy decisions and improve resource allocation, but are often unavailable or inaccessible for LMICs, particularly in TB. We developed TIME Impact, a user-friendly TB model that enables local capacity building and strengthens country-specific policy discussions to inform support funding applications at the (sub-)national level (e.g. Ministry of Finance) or to international donors (e.g. the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria).TIME Impact is an epidemiological transmission model nested in TIME, a set of TB modelling tools available for free download within the widely-used Spectrum software. The TIME Impact model reflects key aspects of the natural history of TB, with additional structure for HIV/ART, drug resistance, treatment history and age. TIME Impact enables national TB programmes (NTPs) and other TB policymakers to better understand their own TB epidemic, plan their response, apply for funding and evaluate the implementation of the response.The explicit aim of TIME Impact's user-friendly interface is to enable training of local and international TB experts towards independent use. During application of TIME Impact, close involvement of the NTPs and other local partners also builds critical understanding of the modelling methods, assumptions and limitations inherent to modelling. This is essential to generate broad country-level ownership of the modelling data inputs and results. In turn, it stimulates discussions and a review of the current evidence and assumptions, strengthening the decision-making process in general.TIME Impact has been effectively applied in a variety of settings. In South Africa, it

  14. Impact of awareness drives and community-based active tuberculosis case finding in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Parija, D; Patra, T K; Kumar, A M V; Swain, B K; Satyanarayana, S; Sreenivas, A; Chadha, V K; Moonan, P K; Oeltmann, J E

    2014-09-01

    India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control programme employs passive case detection. The new sputum smear-positive case detection rate is less than 70% in Odisha State. During April-June 2012, active case finding (ACF) was conducted through awareness drives and field-based tuberculosis (TB) screening in select communities with the lowest case detection rates. During the campaign, 240 sputum smear-positive TB cases were detected. The number of smear-positive cases detected increased by 11% relative to April-June 2011 in intervention communities compared to an 0.8% increase in non-intervention communities. ACF brought TB services closer to the community and increased TB case detection. PMID:25189560

  15. Preoperative mapping of the sensorimotor cortex: comparative assessment of task-based and resting-state FMRI.

    PubMed

    Rosazza, Cristina; Aquino, Domenico; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Cordella, Roberto; Andronache, Adrian; Zacà, Domenico; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Tringali, Giovanni; Minati, Ludovico

    2014-01-01

    Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has recently been considered as a possible complement or alternative to task-based fMRI (tb-fMRI) for presurgical mapping. However, evidence of its usefulness remains scant, because existing studies have investigated relatively small samples and focused primarily on qualitative evaluation. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical usefulness of rs-fMRI in the context of presurgical mapping of motor functions, and in particular to determine the degree of correspondence with tb-fMRI which, while not a gold-standard, is commonly used in preoperative setting. A group of 13 patients with lesions close to the sensorimotor cortex underwent rs-fMRI and tb-fMRI to localize the hand, foot and mouth motor areas. We assessed quantitatively the degree of correspondence between multiple rs-fMRI analyses (independent-component and seed-based analyses) and tb-fMRI, with reference to sensitivity and specificity of rs-fMRI with respect to tb-fMRI, and centre-of-mass distances. Agreement with electro-cortical stimulation (ECS) was also investigated, and a traditional map thresholding approach based on agreement between two experienced operators was compared to an automatic threshold determination method. Rs-fMRI can localize the sensorimotor cortex successfully, providing anatomical specificity for hand, foot and mouth motor subregions, in particular with seed-based analyses. Agreement with tb-fMRI was only partial and rs-fMRI tended to provide larger patterns of correlated activity. With respect to the ECS data available, rs-fMRI and tb-fMRI performed comparably, even though the shortest distance to stimulation points was observed for the latter. Notably, the results of both were on the whole robust to thresholding procedure. Localization performed by rs-fMRI is not equivalent to tb-fMRI, hence rs-fMRI cannot be considered as an outright replacement for tb-fMRI. Nevertheless, since there is significant agreement between the two techniques, rs

  16. Comparative analysis of cholinesterase activities in food animals using modified Ellman and Michel assays

    PubMed Central

    Askar, Kasim Abass; Kudi, A. Caleb; Moody, A. John

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated correlations between modified Ellman and Michel assay methods for measuring cholinesterase (ChE) activities. It also established a foundation for the applicability of measuring ChE activities in food animal species as biochemical biomarkers for evaluating exposure to and effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Measuring ChE activities in blood and tissue is currently the most important method of confirming the diagnosis of such exposure. The study also characterized the level of ChE activity in the selected organs/tissues of these animals and determined the best organ/tissue in which to measure ChE activity. The ChE activities were found to be higher in cattle than in sheep and higher in erythrocytes than in plasma and serum. The anticoagulant heparin significantly affects AChE activity in plasma compared with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). Of the different tissues tested, the mean of ChE activities was found to be highest in tissue from liver, followed by lung, muscle, kidney, and heart for sheep and cattle. In pigs, the ChE activities tested higher in kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and heart. The highest activities of ChE were found in pigs, followed by cattle and sheep. There was no significant difference between the modified Ellman and Michel method, but the percentage coefficient of variance (%CV) values were higher when the Michel method was used. PMID:22468023

  17. Blood Transcriptional Biomarkers for Active Tuberculosis among Patients in the United States: a Case-Control Study with Systematic Cross-Classifier Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mikaela A.; Vasquez, Joshua; Weiner, Marc; Chapman, Adam; Engle, Melissa; Higgins, Michael; Quinones, Amy M.; Rosselli, Vanessa; Canono, Elizabeth; Yoon, Christina; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Davis, J. Lucian; Phang, Tzu; Stearman, Robert S.; Datta, Gargi; Garcia, Benjamin J.; Daley, Charles L.; Strong, Michael; Kechris, Katerina; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Reves, Randall; Geraci, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Blood transcriptional signatures are promising for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis but have not been evaluated among U.S. patients. To be used clinically, transcriptional classifiers need reproducible accuracy in diverse populations that vary in genetic composition, disease spectrum and severity, and comorbidities. In a prospective case-control study, we identified novel transcriptional classifiers for active TB among U.S. patients and systematically compared their accuracy to classifiers from published studies. Blood samples from HIV-uninfected U.S. adults with active TB, pneumonia, or latent TB infection underwent whole-transcriptome microarray. We used support vector machines to classify disease state based on transcriptional patterns. We externally validated our classifiers using data from sub-Saharan African cohorts and evaluated previously published transcriptional classifiers in our population. Our classifier distinguishing active TB from pneumonia had an area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 96.5% (95.4% to 97.6%) among U.S. patients, but the AUC was lower (90.6% [89.6% to 91.7%]) in HIV-uninfected Sub-Saharan Africans. Previously published comparable classifiers had AUC values of 90.0% (87.7% to 92.3%) and 82.9% (80.8% to 85.1%) when tested in U.S. patients. Our classifier distinguishing active TB from latent TB had AUC values of 95.9% (95.2% to 96.6%) among U.S. patients and 95.3% (94.7% to 96.0%) among Sub-Saharan Africans. Previously published comparable classifiers had AUC values of 98.0% (97.4% to 98.7%) and 94.8% (92.9% to 96.8%) when tested in U.S. patients. Blood transcriptional classifiers accurately detected active TB among U.S. adults. The accuracy of classifiers for active TB versus that of other diseases decreased when tested in new populations with different disease controls, suggesting additional studies are required to enhance generalizability. Classifiers that distinguish active TB from latent TB are accurate and generalizable

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Community Active Case Finding and Household Contact Investigation for Tuberculosis Case Detection in Urban Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sekandi, Juliet N.; Dobbin, Kevin; Oloya, James; Okwera, Alphonse; Whalen, Christopher C.; Corso, Phaedra S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Case detection by passive case finding (PCF) strategy alone is inadequate for detecting all tuberculosis (TB) cases in high burden settings especially Sub-Saharan Africa. Alternative case detection strategies such as community Active Case Finding (ACF) and Household Contact Investigations (HCI) are effective but empirical evidence of their cost-effectiveness is sparse. The objective of this study was to determine whether adding ACF or HCI compared with standard PCF alone represent cost-effective alternative TB case detection strategies in urban Africa. Methods A static decision modeling framework was used to examine the costs and effectiveness of three TB case detection strategies: PCF alone, PCF+ACF, and PCF+HCI. Probability and cost estimates were obtained from National TB program data, primary studies conducted in Uganda, published literature and expert opinions. The analysis was performed from the societal and provider perspectives over a 1.5 year time-frame. The main effectiveness measure was the number of true TB cases detected and the outcome was incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) expressed as cost in 2013 US$ per additional true TB case detected. Results Compared to PCF alone, the PCF+HCI strategy was cost-effective at US$443.62 per additional TB case detected. However, PCF+ACF was not cost-effective at US$1492.95 per additional TB case detected. Sensitivity analyses showed that PCF+ACF would be cost-effective if the prevalence of chronic cough in the population screened by ACF increased 10-fold from 4% to 40% and if the program costs for ACF were reduced by 50%. Conclusions Under our baseline assumptions, the addition of HCI to an existing PCF program presented a more cost-effective strategy than the addition of ACF in the context of an African city. Therefore, implementation of household contact investigations as a part of the recommended TB control strategy should be prioritized. PMID:25658592

  19. Anti-biofilm properties of the antimicrobial peptide temporin 1Tb and its ability, in combination with EDTA, to eradicate Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms on silicone catheters.

    PubMed

    Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Grassi, Lucia; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Bombardelli, Silvia; Medici, Chiara; Brancatisano, Franca Lisa; Esin, Semih; Batoni, Giovanna

    2016-08-01

    In search of new antimicrobials with anti-biofilm potential, in the present study activity of the frog-skin derived antimicrobial peptide temporin 1Tb (TB) against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms was investigated. A striking ability of TB to kill both forming and mature S. epidermidis biofilms was observed, especially when the peptide was combined with cysteine or EDTA, respectively. Kinetics studies demonstrated that the combination TB/EDTA was active against mature biofilms already after 2-4-h exposure. A double 4-h exposure of biofilms to TB/EDTA further increased the therapeutic potential of the same combination. Of note, TB/EDTA was able to eradicate S. epidermidis biofilms formed in vitro on silicone catheters. At eradicating concentrations, TB/EDTA did not cause hemolysis of human erythrocytes. The results shed light on the anti-biofilm properties of TB and suggest a possible application of the peptide in the lock therapy of catheters infected with S. epidermidis. PMID:27351824

  20. Comparing Research Activities of Women and Men Faculty in Departments of Internal Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study compared research activities of men and women from data obtained in a 1982-83 survey of 7,947 medical school faculty in departments of internal medicine. Among findings were that women researchers had significantly fewer National Institutes of Health grants as well as reduced laboratory space. (Author/DB)

  1. [The comparative study of bioelectronic brain activity at the drug and Internet-addiction].

    PubMed

    Rabadanova, A I; Abacharova, Z S

    2014-01-01

    The comparative estimation of the bioelectric brain activities at different drug (heroin, opium, toxic organic join, home chemistry) and internet addiction are studied. These data can be interest for problem of general and specific mechanism of the influence of different factors, causing the addiction, on neirofisiological and neirochemical processes. PMID:25702456

  2. Is Breast Pain Greater in Active Females Compared to the General Population in the UK?

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicola; Burnett, Emma; Scurr, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic and noncyclic breast pain effect up to 60% of women, decreasing the quality of life. In addition, exercise-induced breast pain (thought to be caused by tension on breast skin and fascia during breast motion) is reported in up to 72% of exercising females. These forms of breast pain may be experienced concurrently; therefore, it is hypothesized that this compound effect may cause higher breast pain prevalence and severity in active populations. This study investigated the prevalence and severity of breast pain in an active cohort, compared to a random cohort. A random sample of 234 UK females completed a self-administered survey reporting physical activity history, prevalence, severity and frequency of breast pain, breast support habits, bra satisfaction, occurrence of bra-related issues, and demographics. This sample was age-matched to a sample of active females (n = 234) from a cross-sectional survey of 1,285 female marathon runners who completed a similar survey. Breast pain prevalence was significantly lower in the active cohort (32.1%) compared to the random cohort (43.6%), however, the severity and frequency of breast pain was similar in both cohorts. Females in the active cohort undertook significantly more physical activity, were lighter, had greater nulliparous rates, greater adherence to sports bra use, but less adherence to professional bra fitting. With lower breast pain rates in the active cohort the hypothesis of a compound effect of multiple forms of breast pain causing an increase in prevalence and severity is rejected. The lower prevalence may be related to increased physical activity, reduced body mass, and increased sports bra use. Sports bra use is already recommended in the literature for symptomatic women, however, this is the first study to report that increased physical activity and weight loss may be an appropriate life style choice to reduce the prevalence of breast pain. PMID:26661830

  3. Comparative gene identification 58/α/β hydrolase domain 5 lacks lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase activity

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Derek; Dinh, Anna; Kurz, Daniel; Shah, Dharika; Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M.; Brasaemle, Dawn L.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58)/α/β hydrolase domain 5 (ABHD5) cause Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, characterized by excessive triacylglycerol storage in cells and tissues. CGI-58 has been identified as a coactivator of adipose TG lipase (ATGL) and a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT). We developed a molecular model of CGI-58 structure and then mutated predicted active site residues and performed LPAAT activity assays of recombinant WT and mutated CGI-58. When mutations of predicted catalytic residues failed to reduce LPAAT activity, we determined that LPAAT activity was due to a bacterial contaminant of affinity purification procedures, plsC, the sole LPAAT in Escherichia coli. Purification protocols were optimized to reduce plsC contamination, in turn reducing LPAAT activity. When CGI-58 was expressed in SM2-1(DE3) cells that lack plsC, lysates lacked LPAAT activity. Additionally, mouse CGI-58 expressed in bacteria as a glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein and human CGI-58 expressed in yeast lacked LPAAT activity. Previously reported lipid binding activity of CGI-58 was revisited using protein-lipid overlays. Recombinant CGI-58 failed to bind lysophosphatidic acid, but interestingly, bound phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] and phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate [PI(5)P]. Prebinding CGI-58 with PI(3)P or PI(5)P did not alter its coactivation of ATGL in vitro. In summary, purified recombinant CGI-58 that is functional as an ATGL coactivator lacks LPAAT activity. PMID:24879803

  4. Tuberculin Skin Testing Compared with T-Cell Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific and Nonspecific Antigens for Detection of Latent Infection in Persons with Recent Tuberculosis Contact

    PubMed Central

    Arend, Sandra M.; Engelhard, Anrik C. F.; Groot, Gertjan; de Boer, Kirsten; Andersen, Peter; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; van Dissel, Jaap T.

    2001-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) is used for the identification of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) but lacks specificity in Mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated individuals, who constitute an increasing proportion of TB patients and their contacts from regions where TB is endemic. In previous studies, T-cell responses to ESAT-6 and CFP-10, M. tuberculosis-specific antigens that are absent from BCG, were sensitive and specific for detection of active TB. We studied 44 close contacts of a patient with smear-positive pulmonary TB and compared the standard screening procedure for LTBI by TST or chest radiographs with T-cell responses to M. tuberculosis-specific and nonspecific antigens. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cocultured with ESAT-6, CFP-10, TB10.4 (each as recombinant antigen and as a mixture of overlapping synthetic peptides), M. tuberculosis sonicate, purified protein derivative (PPD), and short-term culture filtrate, using gamma interferon production as the response measure. LTBI screening was by TST in 36 participants and by chest radiographs in 8 persons. Nineteen contacts were categorized as TST negative, 12 were categorized as TST positive, and 5 had indeterminate TST results. Recombinant antigens and peptide mixtures gave similar results. Responses to TB10.4 were neither sensitive nor specific for LTBI. T-cell responses to ESAT-6 and CFP-10 were less sensitive for detection of LTBI than those to PPD (67 versus 100%) but considerably more specific (100 versus 72%). The specificity of the TST or in vitro responses to PPD will be even less when the proportion of BCG-vaccinated persons among TB contacts evaluated for LTBI increases. PMID:11687445

  5. Potential Role of M. tuberculosis Specific IFN-γ and IL-2 ELISPOT Assays in Discriminating Children with Active or Latent Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Chiappini, Elena; Della Bella, Chiara; Bonsignori, Francesca; Sollai, Sara; Amedei, Amedeo; Galli, Luisa; Niccolai, Elena; Singh, Mahavir; D'Elios, Mario M.; de Martino, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Background Although currently available IGRA have been reported to be promising markers for TB infection, they cannot distinguish active tuberculosis (TB) from latent infection (LTBI). Objective Children with LTBI, active TB disease or uninfected were prospectively evaluated by an in-house ELISPOT assay in order to investigate possible immunological markers for a differential diagnosis between LTBI and active TB. Methods Children at risk for TB infection prospectively enrolled in our infectious disease unit were evaluated by in-house IFN-γ and IL-2 based ELISPOT assays using a panel of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens. Results Twenty-nine children were classified as uninfected, 21 as LTBI and 25 as active TB cases (including 5 definite and 20 probable cases). Significantly higher IFN-γ ELISPOT responses were observed in infected vs. uninfected children for ESAT-6 (p<0.0001), CFP-10 (p<0.0001), TB 10.3 (p = 0.003), and AlaDH (p = 0.001), while differences were not significant considering Ag85B (p = 0.063), PstS1 (p = 0.512), and HspX (16 kDa) (p = 0.139). IL-2 ELISPOT assay responses were different for ESAT-6 (p<0.0001), CFP-10 (p<0.0001), TB 10.3 (p<0.0001), HspX (16 kDa) (p<0.0001), PstS1 (p<0.0001) and AlaDH (p = 0.001); but not for Ag85B (p = 0.063). Comparing results between children with LTBI and those with TB disease differences were significant for IFN-γ ELISPOT only for AlaDH antigen (p = 0.021) and for IL-2 ELISPOT assay for AlaDH (p<0.0001) and TB 10.3 antigen (p = 0.043). ROC analyses demonstrated sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 81% of AlaDH-IL-2 ELISPOT assay in discriminating between latent and active TB using a cut off of 12.5 SCF per million PBMCs. Conclusion Our data suggest that IL-2 based ELISPOT with AlaDH antigen may be of help in discriminating children with active from those with latent TB. PMID:23029377

  6. Comparing the effect of immobilization methods on the activity of lipase biocatalysts in ester hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Costa, L; Brissos, V; Lemos, F; Ribeiro, F Ramôa; Cabral, J M S

    2008-06-01

    The activity of various lipases was compared, in both free and immobilized forms, using the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction of p-nitrophenyl butyrate, which was followed with in situ UV/Vis diode array spectrophotometry. Several enzymes were used to catalyze the reaction, namely Candida antarctica lipase B and Fusarium solani pisi cutinase wildtype and three single-mutation variants. The enzymes were tested in three different forms: free, immobilized as cross-linked aggregates and supported on zeolite NaY. A simple kinetic model was used to allow a quantitative comparison of the behavior of the different catalysts. It was concluded that although immobilization reduces the activity of the enzyme, the zeolite offers a much higher specific activity when compared to the cross-linked aggregates, thus supplying a heterogeneous catalyst with promising catalytic properties. PMID:17940805

  7. Comparative evaluation of antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and aspirin in children with pyrexia of varied aetiology.

    PubMed

    Kandoth, P W; Joshi, M K; Joshi, V R; Satoskar, R S

    1984-01-01

    The antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and aspirin was compared in sixteen children with pyrexia due to upper respiratory tract infection and in twelve with fever due to other causes. All 28 children received ibuprofen (7 mg/kg of body-weight) and aspirin (15 mg/kg of body-weight) in a single dose on 2 consecutive days in a crossover manner. Rectal temperature was recorded prior to and at regular intervals up to 8 hours after drug administration. Analysis of the results indicate that ibuprofen and aspirin effectively lower temperature and the two drugs are comparable in their antipyretic activity. In conclusion, significant antipyretic activity, good tolerance profile and availability in syrup form make ibuprofen a useful substitute for aspirin in children with fever. PMID:6500169

  8. Phase transitions and crystal-field and exchange interactions in TbFe3(BO3)4 as seen via optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, M. N.; Stanislavchuk, T. N.; Malkin, B. Z.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.

    2012-05-01

    High-resolution polarized broadband (1800-23 000 cm-1) optical absorption spectra of Tb3+ in TbFe3(BO3)4 single crystals are studied between room temperature and 4.2 K. The spectral signatures of the structural (R32-P3121, TS = 192 K) and magnetic (TN = 41 K) phase transitions are found and analyzed. Energies and symmetries of the Tb3+ crystal-field (CF) levels were determined for both the high-temperature R32 and the low-temperature P3121 structures of TbFe3(BO3)4 and compared with the calculated ones. It follows unambiguously from the spectral data that the ground state is the Γ1 + Γ2 quasi-doublet of the local D3 point symmetry group for Tb3+ in the R32 high-temperature structure. The CF calculations revealed the CF parameters and wavefunctions for Tb3+ in TbFe3(BO3)4. The value of the Tb-Fe exchange integral and of the effective magnetic field created by the ordered Fe subsystem were estimated as Jfd = 0.26 K and Beff = 3.92 T, using the observed splitting Δ = 32 cm-1 of the Tb3+ ground quasi-doublet at the temperature 5 K. The reliability of the obtained parameters was proven by modeling the literature data on the magnetic susceptibility of TbFe3(BO3)4. Lattice distortions below TS were evidenced by the observed changes of probabilities of the forced electric dipole transitions of Tb3+.

  9. Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) with Abdominal Tuberculosis (TB).

    PubMed

    Bhatty, Shaheen A; Lal, Hari; Talib, Abu; Mahmood, Khalid; Naqvi, Iftekhar; Zaidi, Syeda Shaheera

    2015-10-01

    Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO), previously regarded as a form of multiple sclerosis, is defined by Gault and Devic, as a retrobulbar neuritis or papillitis accompanied by acute myelitis and occasionally other neurological symptom or signs not restricted to the spinal cord or optic nerves. With the diagnosis of specific antibodies, probable role of humoral immunity supports its pathogenesis. Only a few cases of NMO have been reported in association with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Here we report a case of young girl with acute onset paraplegia diagnosed to have NMO, who later on during hospital stay developed ascites which cultured positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This association of abdominal TB with NMO is under-reported in literature. PMID:26522188

  10. X-ray excited photoluminescence near the giant resonance in solid-solution Gd(1-x)Tb(x)OCl nanocrystals and their retention upon solvothermal topotactic transformation to Gd(1-x)Tb(x)F3.

    PubMed

    Waetzig, Gregory R; Horrocks, Gregory A; Jude, Joshua W; Zuin, Lucia; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2016-01-14

    Design rules for X-ray phosphors are much less established as compared to their optically stimulated counterparts owing to the absence of a detailed understanding of sensitization mechanisms, activation pathways and recombination channels upon high-energy excitation. Here, we demonstrate a pronounced modulation of the X-ray excited photoluminescence of Tb(3+) centers upon excitation in proximity to the giant resonance of the host Gd(3+) ions in solid-solution Gd1-xTbxOCl nanocrystals prepared by a non-hydrolytic cross-coupling method. The strong suppression of X-ray excited optical luminescence at the giant resonance suggests a change in mechanism from multiple exciton generation to single thermal exciton formation and Auger decay processes. The solid-solution Gd1-xTbxOCl nanocrystals are further topotactically transformed with retention of a nine-coordinated cation environment to solid-solution Gd1-xTbxF3 nanocrystals upon solvothermal treatment with XeF2. The metastable hexagonal phase of GdF3 can be stabilized at room temperature through this topotactic approach and is transformed subsequently to the orthorhombic phase. The fluoride nanocrystals indicate an analogous but blue-shifted modulation of the X-ray excited optical luminescence of the Tb(3+) centers upon X-ray excitation near the giant resonance of the host Gd(3+) ions. PMID:26661920

  11. Physical Activity Level and Physical Functionality in Nonagenarians Compared to Individuals Aged 60–74 Years

    PubMed Central

    Frisard, Madlyn I.; Fabre, Jennifer M.; Russell, Ryan D.; King, Christina M.; DeLany, James P.; Wood, Robert H.; Ravussin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background Functional dependence and the risks of disability increase with age. The loss of independence is thought to be partially due to a decrease in physical activity. However, in populations, accurate measurement of physical activity is challenging and may not provide information on functional impairment. Methods This study therefore assessed physical functionality and physical activity level in a group of nonagenarians (11 men/11 women; 93 ± 1 years, 66.6 ± 2.4 kg, body mass index [BMI] = 24 ± 1 kg/m2) and a group of participants aged 60–74 years (17 men/15 women; 70 ± 1 years, 83.3 ± 3.0 kg, BMI = 29 ± 1 kg/m2) from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study. Physical activity level was calculated from total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR). Physical functionality was assessed using the Reduced Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP10). Results Nonagenarians had lower absolute ( p < .001) and adjusted ( p < .007) TEE compared to participants aged 60–74 years which was attributed to a reduction in both RMR and physical activity level. Nonagenarians also had reduced functional performance ( p < .001) which was correlated with activity level (r = 0.68, p < .001). Conclusions When compared to individuals aged 60–74 years, 73% of the reduction in TEE in nonagenarians can be attributed to a reduction in physical activity level, the remaining being accounted for by a reduction in RMR. The reduced physical activity in nonagenarians is associated with less physical functionality. This study provides the first objective comparison of physical functionality and actual levels of physical activity in older individuals. PMID:17634327

  12. Human genes in TB infection: their role in immune response.

    PubMed

    Lykouras, D; Sampsonas, F; Kaparianos, A; Karkoulias, K; Tsoukalas, G; Spiropoulos, K

    2008-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality caused by infectious agents worldwide. Recently, there has been an ongoing concern about the clarification of the role of specific human genes and their polymorphisms involved in TB infection. In the vast majority of individuals, innate immune pathways and T-helper 1 (Th1) cell mediated immunity are activated resulting in the lysis of the bacterium. Firstly, PTPN22 R620W polymorphism is involved in the response to cases of infection. The Arg753Gln polymorphism in TLR-2 leads to a weaker response against the M. tuberculosis. The gene of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) has a few polymorphisms (BsmI, ApaI, Taq1, FokI) whose mixed genotypes alter the immune response. Solute carrier family 11 member (SLC11A1) is a proton/divalent cation antiporter that is more familiar by its former name NRAMP1 (natural resistance associated macrophage protein 1) and can affect M. tuberculosis growth. Polymorphisms of cytokines such as IL-10, IL-6, IFN-g, TNF-a, TGF-b1 can affect the immune response in various ways. Finally, a major role is played by M. tuberculosis antigens and the Ras-associated small GTP-ase 33A. As far as we know this is the first review that collates all these polymorphisms in order to give a comprehensive image of the field, which is currently evolving. PMID:18507196

  13. Diagnostic Usefulness of IFN-Gamma Releasing Assays Compared With Conventional Tests in Patients With Disseminated Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shi Nae; Jung, Jiwon; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Lee, Ju Young; Kim, Sun-Mi; Park, Su Jin; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Sung-Han

    2015-01-01

    Abstract IFN-gamma releasing assays (IGRAs) such as T-SPOT.TB assay and QuantiFERON-TB In-Tube (QFT-GIT) have yielded promising results for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). However, little is known about the usefulness of these assays for diagnosing disseminated TB. We therefore compared their usefulness with traditional tests in patients with disseminated TB. All adult patients with suspected disseminated TB were prospectively enrolled at a tertiary hospital in an intermediate TB-burden country during a 6-year period. Disseminated TB was defined as involvement of the bone marrow or ≥2 noncontiguous organs, or presence of miliary lung lesions. A total of 101 patients with confirmed and probable disseminated TB were finally analyzed. Of these 101 patients, 52 (52%) had miliary TB and the remaining 49 (48%) had nonmiliary disseminated TB. In addition, 63 (62%) had no underlying disease. Chronic granuloma with/without necrosis, acid-fast bacillus staining, Mycobacterium tuberculosis PCR, and culture for M tuberculosis were positive in 77% (41/53), 43% (43/101), 70% (67/96), and 72% (73/101), of the patients, respectively. The T-SPOT.TB assay was positive in 90% (91/101) of them. The sensitivity of the T-SPOT.TB assay in patients with miliary TB (90%) was similar to that in patients with nonmiliary TB (90%) (P > 0.99). In a subgroup analysis of the 58 patients in whom both QFT-GIT and the T-SPOT.TB results were available, the sensitivity of QFT-GIT (67%) was lower than that of T-SPOT.TB (95%) (P < 0.001). In conclusion, T-SPOT.TB assay may be a helpful adjunct test for disseminated TB. PMID:26181542

  14. In Vitro Activity of Netilmicin Compared with Gentamicin, Tobramycin, Amikacin, and Kanamycin

    PubMed Central

    Eickhoff, Theodore C.; Ehret, Josephine M.

    1977-01-01

    The in vitro activity of netilmicin was compared with that of gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and kanamycin against 636 strains of bacteria recently isolated from clinical sources. Gentamicin was the most active antibiotic, but netilmicin and tobramycin closely paralleled it. Netilmicin was generally four-to eightfold less active than gentamicin against Serratia and group A streptococci, and was twofold less active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. When effects of inoculum size and concentration of divalent cations in the media were evaluated, netilmicin was shown to be similar to gentamicin in vitro. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for P. aeruginosa were increased as much as 18-fold when the Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentrations were increased to physiological levels in Mueller-Hinton broth. PMID:879733

  15. Comparative evaluation of passive, active, and passive-active distraction techniques on pain perception during local anesthesia administration in children

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmoniem, Soad A.; Mahmoud, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Local anesthesia forms the backbone of pain control techniques and is necessary for a painless dental procedure. Nevertheless, administering a local anesthetic injection is among the most anxiety-provoking procedures to children. This study was performed to compare the efficacy of different distraction techniques (passive, active, and passive-active) on children’s pain perception during local anesthesia administration. A total of 90 children aged four to nine years, requiring inferior alveolar nerve block for primary molar extraction, were included in this study and randomly divided into three groups according to the distraction technique employed during local anesthesia administration. Passive distraction group: the children were instructed to listen to a song on headphones; Active distraction group: the children were instructed to move their legs up and down alternatively; and Passive-active distraction group: this was a combination between both techniques. Pain perception during local anesthesia administration was evaluated by the Sounds, Eyes, and Motor (SEM) scale and Wong Baker FACES® Pain Rating Scale. There was an insignificant difference between the three groups for SEM scale and Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale at P = 0.743 and P = 0.112 respectively. The examined distraction techniques showed comparable results in reducing pain perception during local anesthesia administration. PMID:27222759

  16. Comparative Ex Vivo Activity of Novel Endoperoxides in Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax

    PubMed Central

    Chalfein, Ferryanto; Prayoga, Pak; Wabiser, Frans; Wirjanata, Grennady; Sebayang, Boni; Piera, Kim A.; Wittlin, Sergio; Haynes, Richard K.; Möhrle, Jörg J.; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Kenangalem, Enny; Price, Ric N.

    2012-01-01

    The declining efficacy of artemisinin derivatives against Plasmodium falciparum highlights the urgent need to identify alternative highly potent compounds for the treatment of malaria. In Papua Indonesia, where multidrug resistance has been documented against both P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria, comparative ex vivo antimalarial activity against Plasmodium isolates was assessed for the artemisinin derivatives artesunate (AS) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439, the semisynthetic 10-alkylaminoartemisinin derivatives artemisone and artemiside, and the conventional antimalarial drugs chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ), and piperaquine (PIP). Ex vivo drug susceptibility was assessed in 46 field isolates (25 P. falciparum and 21 P. vivax). The novel endoperoxide compounds exhibited potent ex vivo activity against both species, but significant differences in intrinsic activity were observed. Compared to AS and its active metabolite DHA, all the novel compounds showed lower or equal 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) in both species (median IC50s between 1.9 and 3.6 nM in P. falciparum and 0.7 and 4.6 nM in P. vivax). The antiplasmodial activity of novel endoperoxides showed different cross-susceptibility patterns in the two Plasmodium species: whereas their ex vivo activity correlated positively with CQ, PIP, AS, and DHA in P. falciparum, the same was not apparent in P. vivax. The current study demonstrates for the first time potent activity of novel endoperoxides against drug-resistant P. vivax. The high activity against drug-resistant strains of both Plasmodium species confirms these compounds to be promising candidates for future artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) regimens in regions of coendemicity. PMID:22850522

  17. A Trypanosoma brucei Kinesin Heavy Chain Promotes Parasite Growth by Triggering Host Arginase Activity

    PubMed Central

    De Muylder, Géraldine; Daulouède, Sylvie; Lecordier, Laurence; Uzureau, Pierrick; Morias, Yannick; Van Den Abbeele, Jan; Caljon, Guy; Hérin, Michel; Holzmuller, Philippe; Semballa, Silla; Courtois, Pierrette; Vanhamme, Luc; Stijlemans, Benoît; De Baetselier, Patrick; Barrett, Michael P.; Barlow, Jillian L.; McKenzie, Andrew N. J.; Barron, Luke; Wynn, Thomas A.; Beschin, Alain; Vincendeau, Philippe; Pays, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to promote infection, the blood-borne parasite Trypanosoma brucei releases factors that upregulate arginase expression and activity in myeloid cells. Methodology/Principal findings By screening a cDNA library of T. brucei with an antibody neutralizing the arginase-inducing activity of parasite released factors, we identified a Kinesin Heavy Chain isoform, termed TbKHC1, as responsible for this effect. Following interaction with mouse myeloid cells, natural or recombinant TbKHC1 triggered SIGN-R1 receptor-dependent induction of IL-10 production, resulting in arginase-1 activation concomitant with reduction of nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity. This TbKHC1 activity was IL-4Rα-independent and did not mirror M2 activation of myeloid cells. As compared to wild-type T. brucei, infection by TbKHC1 KO parasites was characterized by strongly reduced parasitaemia and prolonged host survival time. By treating infected mice with ornithine or with NO synthase inhibitor, we observed that during the first wave of parasitaemia the parasite growth-promoting effect of TbKHC1-mediated arginase activation resulted more from increased polyamine production than from reduction of NO synthesis. In late stage infection, TbKHC1-mediated reduction of NO synthesis appeared to contribute to liver damage linked to shortening of host survival time. Conclusion A kinesin heavy chain released by T. brucei induces IL-10 and arginase-1 through SIGN-R1 signaling in myeloid cells, which promotes early trypanosome growth and favors parasite settlement in the host. Moreover, in the late stage of infection, the inhibition of NO synthesis by TbKHC1 contributes to liver pathogenicity. PMID:24204274

  18. Increased Risk of Active Tuberculosis following Acute Kidney Injury: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Hsui; Huang, Hui-Yu; Huang, Tao-Min; Lai, Chun-Fu; Lin, Meng-Chun; Ko, Wen-Je; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Yu, Chong-Jen; Shu, Chin-Chung; Lee, Chih-Hsin; Wang, Jann-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Background Profound alterations in immune responses associated with uremia and exacerbated by dialysis increase the risk of active tuberculosis (TB). Evidence of the long-term risk and outcome of active TB after acute kidney injury (AKI) is limited. Methods This population-based-cohort study used claim records retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. We retrieved records of all hospitalized patients, more than 18 years, who underwent dialysis for acute kidney injury (AKI) during 1999–2008 and validated using the NSARF data. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model to adjust for the ongoing effect of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was conducted to predict long-term de novo active TB after discharge from index hospitalization. Results Out of 2,909 AKI dialysis patients surviving 90 days after index discharge, 686 did not require dialysis after hospital discharge. The control group included 11,636 hospital patients without AKI, dialysis, or history of TB. The relative risk of active TB in AKI dialysis patients, relative to the general population, after a mean follow-up period of 3.6 years was 7.71. Patients who did (hazard ratio [HR], 3.84; p<0.001) and did not (HR, 6.39; p<0.001) recover from AKI requiring dialysis had significantly higher incidence of TB than patients without AKI. The external validated data also showed nonrecovery subgroup (HR = 4.37; p = 0.049) had high risk of developing active TB compared with non-AKI. Additionally, active TB was associated with long-term all-cause mortality after AKI requiring dialysis (HR, 1.34; p = 0.032). Conclusions AKI requiring dialysis seems to independently increase the long-term risk of active TB, even among those who weaned from dialysis at discharge. These results raise concerns that the increasing global burden of AKI will in turn increase the incidence of active TB. PMID:23936044

  19. In vitro activity of sparfloxacin compared with those of five other quinolones.

    PubMed

    Cantón, E; Pemán, J; Jimenez, M T; Ramón, M S; Gobernado, M

    1992-03-01

    The in vitro activity of sparfloxacin, a new difluorinated quinolone, was evaluated against 857 gram-positive and gram-negative clinical isolates and compared with those of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, fleroxacin, and lomefloxacin. The MIC of sparfloxacin for 90% of the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae tested was 0.5 microgram/ml (range, 0.06 to 4.0 micrograms/ml); only for members of the genera Serratia, Citrobacter, and Providencia were MICs above 1 microgram/ml. Some 90% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were inhibited by 8 micrograms of the drug per ml. The MICs for 90% of Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus faecalis were 0.12 and 2 micrograms/ml, respectively. All (100%) Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were inhibited by 0.5 microgram/ml. The inoculum size had little effect on either the MIC or the MBC of sparfloxacin. An increase in the magnesium concentration from 1.1 to 8.4 mM increased the MIC between 2 and 10 times, depending on the genus tested. Sparfloxacin was less active at pH 5. The antibacterial activity of sparfloxacin against gram-positive bacteria was generally higher than those of the quinolones with which it was compared; against Streptococcus pneumoniae, sparfloxacin was four- and eightfold more active than ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. The activity of sparfloxacin against gram-negative rods was generally comparable to that of ciprofloxacin except against Enterobacter and Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas cepacia, Xanthomonas maltophilia, and Alcaligenes and Flavobacterium spp., against which sparfloxacin was the most active quinolone. PMID:1320362

  20. Comparative Study of Anti-Pseudomonas Activity of Azlocillin, Mezlocillin, and Ticarcillin

    PubMed Central

    Coppens, L.; Klastersky, J.

    1979-01-01

    The anti-pseudomonas activities of azlocillin and mezlocillin were compared with that of ticarcillin. We measured the minimal inhibitory and minimal bactericidal concentrations of the three drugs against 20 different strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and found significantly lower values for azlocillin than for the other two drugs. We then infused 5 g of each drug into 10 volunteers on three consecutive days and determined the serum levels of the three antibiotics at 1-h intervals from 1 to 6 h after injection. The levels of azlocillin were significantly higher than those of mezlocillin and ticarcillin (at 1 h: 236.55 μg/ml ± 12.9 for azlocillin, 192.45 μg/ml ± 28.8 for mezlocillin, and 131.5 μg/ml ± 10.9 for ticarcillin). The inhibitory and bactericidal activities of the sera obtained 1 and 6 h after the injection against the same 20 strains of P. aeruginosa demonstrated a significantly greater anti-pseudomonas activity of azlocillin when compared with mezlocillin and ticarcillin; mezlocillin and ticarcillin had approximately the same activity. The mean values for bactericidal activity against the strains tested were 1/32 for azlocillin, 1/8 for mezlocillin, and 1/8 for ticarcillin. Azlocillin thus appears to be a promising anti-pseudomonas drug and should be tested in clinical trials. PMID:111610

  1. Hippocampal Activation during Episodic and Semantic Memory Retrieval: Comparing Category Production and Category Cued Recall

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lee; Cox, Christine; Hayes, Scott M.; Nadel, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not the hippocampus participates in semantic memory retrieval has been the focus of much debate in the literature. However, few neuroimaging studies have directly compared hippocampal activation during semantic and episodic retrieval tasks that are well matched in all respects other than the source of the retrieved information. In Experiment 1, we compared hippocampal fMRI activation during a classic semantic memory task, category production, and an episodic version of the same task, category cued recall. Left hippocampal activation was observed in both episodic and semantic conditions, although other regions of the brain clearly distinguished the two tasks. Interestingly, participants reported using retrieval strategies during the semantic retrieval task that relied on autobiographical and spatial information; for example, visualizing themselves in their kitchen while producing items for the category kitchen utensils. In Experiment 2, we considered whether the use of these spatial and autobiographical retrieval strategies could have accounted for the hippocampal activation observed in Experiment 1. Categories were presented that elicited one of three retrieval strategy types, autobiographical and spatial, autobiographical and nonspatial, and neither autobiographical nor spatial. Once again, similar hippocampal activation was observed for all three category types, regardless of the inclusion of spatial or autobiographical content. We conclude that the distinction between semantic and episodic memory is more complex than classic memory models suggest. PMID:18420234

  2. [Bactericide activity of cefadroxil comparated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefaclor and josamycin].

    PubMed

    Etesse-Carsenti, H; Caillon, J; Mondain, V; Durant, J; Bernard, E; Dellamonica, P; Drugeon, H B

    1991-09-01

    Betalactamase-producing organisms are responsible for an increasing number of ENT and lower respiratory tract infections. Or cephalosporins and the combination of amoxicillin with the beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid are alternatives to ampicillin therapy. The killing activity of cefadroxil on the organisms most often responsible for ENT and respiratory infections was evaluated in vitro using a viable bacteria count method, comparatively with cefaclor, josamycin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Killing activity was found to be time-dependent for all the antimicrobial agents studied. Cefadroxil exhibited the same bactericidal effect on Streptococcus pyogenes and S. pneumoniae than the other agents. Haemophilus influenzae and an increasing number of Pneumococcus strains were resistant to josamycin which is therefore not appropriate for first-line therapy. As compared with amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefadroxil was less active on H. influenzae and more active on Staphylococcus aureus. Production of beta-lactamase failed to influence the killing activity of cefadroxil. These bacteriologic data, together with results of pharmacologic studies (long half-life and good penetration within tissues) can explain the clinical successes obtained with cefadroxil in ENT and lower respiratory tract infections. PMID:1758716

  3. A Note on Derivatives of Isoniazid, Rifampicin, and Pyrazinamide Showing Activity Against Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Nusrath Unissa, Ameeruddin; Hanna, Luke Elizabeth; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2016-04-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a serious problem that impedes the success of the TB control program. Of note, multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB have certainly complicated the scenario. One of the possible strategies to overcome drug resistance in an economic and simple manner would involve modification of existing anti-TB drugs to obtain derivatives that can work on resistant TB bacilli. These may have improved half-life and increased bioavailability, be more efficacious, and serve as cost-effective alternatives, as compared to new drugs identified through conventional methods of drug discovery and development. Although extensive literature is available on the activity of various derivatives of first-line drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide) on drug-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), reports on the activity of derivatives on resistant MTB are very limited, to our knowledge. In light of this, the present review aims to provide a concise report on the derivatives of first-line drugs that have the potential to overcome the resistance to the parental drug and could thus serve as effective alternatives. PMID:26613382

  4. In vitro antimicrobial activity of gatifloxacin compared with other quinolones against clinical isolates from cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rolston, Kenneth V I; Vaziri, Irfan; Frisbee-Hume, Susan; Streeter, Harriet; LeBlanc, Barbara

    2004-11-01

    Owing to the predominance of gram-positive pathogens in neutropenic cancer patients, newer generation quinolones with an expanded gram-positive spectrum and enhanced potency, may have a role to play for prophylaxis and/or empiric therapy in such patients. The in vitro activity of gatifloxacin was compared with that of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and trovafloxacin against 848 recent clinical isolates from cancer patients. Against gram-positive organisms, gatifloxacin was the most active agent tested inhibiting all Aerococcus, Listeria monocytogens, Micrococcus, Stomatococcus mucilaginous, Bacillus, and Rhodococcus equi strains at < or =2 mg/l, its designated susceptibility breakpoint. It was also very active against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and Streptococcus spp. (including penicillin nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae and viridans streptococci). It had moderate activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococci and Enterococcus faecalis, inhibiting 68-80% of these strains at < or =2 mg/l. Gatifloxacin also had good activity against the Enterobacteriaceae (although ciprofloxacin was more potent) inhibiting >95% of isolates at < or =1 mg/l. Nonfermentative gram-negative organisms were less susceptible to all 4 agents. Gatifloxacin was very active against Acinetobacter lwoffi (MIC100 0.12 mg/l) and had moderate activity against Acinetobacter baumanii, Chryseobacterium spp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Pseudomonas species. Alcaligenes xylosoxidans strains were relatively resistant to all 4 agents. PMID:15523180

  5. Comparative preclinical activity of the folate-targeted Vinca alkaloid conjugates EC140 and EC145.

    PubMed

    Leamon, Christopher P; Reddy, Joseph A; Vlahov, Iontcho R; Westrick, Elaine; Parker, Nikki; Nicoson, Jeffrey S; Vetzel, Marilynn

    2007-10-01

    EC140 is a water soluble folate conjugate of desacetylvinblastine monohydrazide (DAVLBH), which is constructed with an endosome-cleavable acyl hydrazone bond. This agent has proven to be active and specific against well established, subcutaneous folate receptor (FR)-positive tumors in multiple animal models. Recent structure-activity and optimization studies have yielded a disulfide bond-containing counterpart to EC140, herein referred to as EC145. This new conjugate was found to retain high affinity for FR-positive cells, and it produced specific, dose-responsive activity in vitro. Comparative in vivo efficacy tests confirmed that, like EC140, EC145 displays activity against both syngeneic and xenograft tumor models. However, EC145 was found to be more active and better tolerated than EC140; hence, more durable complete responses were consistently observed in EC145-treated tumor-bearing animals. Furthermore, EC145 was not found to be active against a FR-negative tumor model. Additional preclinical studies are therefore warranted to better understand EC145's breadth of activity against FR-positive tumors. PMID:17551919

  6. Comparing the Effects of Light- or Sonic-Activated Drug Delivery: Photochemical/Sonochemical Internalization.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Steen J; Gonzales, Jonathan; Zamora, Genesis; Berg, Kristian; Nair, Rohit Kumar; Hirschberg, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a technique that uses the photochemical properties of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the enhanced delivery of endolysosomal-trapped macromolecules into the cell cytoplasm. The released agent can therefore exert its full biological activity, in contrast to being degraded by lysosomal hydrolases. Activation of photosensitizers via ultrasound (US), called sonodynamic therapy (SDT), has been proposed as an alternative to light-activated PDT for the treatment of cancerous tumors. The use of focused US (FUS) to activate photosensitizers allows treatment at tumor sites buried deep within tissues, overcoming one of the main limitations of PDT/PCI. We have examined ultrasonic activation of photosensitizers together with the anticancer agent bleomycin (BLM) using sonochemical internalization (SCI), as an alternative to light-activated PCI. Our results indicate that, compared to drug or US treatment alone, US activation of the photosensitizer AlPcS2a together with BLM significantly inhibits the ability of treated glioma cells to form clonogenic colonies. PMID:27279586

  7. Comparative studies on polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Schisandra chinensis leaves and fruits.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Andrei; Crișan, Gianina; Vlase, Laurian; Crișan, Ovidiu; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Raita, Oana; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Toiu, Anca; Oprean, Radu; Tilea, Ioan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the polyphenolic content of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. leaves and fruits. The leaves are an important source of flavonoids (35.10 ± 1.23 mg RE/g plant material). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the polyphenolic compounds were achieved using a HPLC-UV-MS method. The main flavonoid from the leaves was isoquercitrin (2486.18 ± 5.72 μg/g plant material), followed by quercitrin (1645.14 ± 2.12 μg/g plant material). Regarding the fruit composition, the dominant compound there was rutin (13.02 ± 0.21 μg/g plant material), but comparing with the leaves, fruits can be considered a poor source of phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX), inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c and EPR spectroscopic assays, revealing a better antioxidant activity for the S. chinensis leaves extract. In the antimicrobial assay, S. chinensis leaves extract showed efficient activities against the targeted bacteria, being more active than the fruits extract. The results suggest the leaves of S. chinensis as a valuable source of antioxidant compounds with significant antioxidant activity. PMID:25247685

  8. [Study on spectroscopic properties of Eu and Tb mixed solid complexes with a diamide ligand].

    PubMed

    Cui, Hai-xia; Chen, Jian-min; Zhou, Hui-di

    2008-08-01

    In the present work, Eu(NO3)3 and Tb(NO3)3 complexes with a diamide ligand 1,6-bis[(2'-benzylaminoformyl)phenoxyl]hexane (L) were prepared in the solution of chloroform and ethyl acetate. Their mixed complexes with different molar ratio also synthesized by coprecipitation. Eu and Tb complexes were mixed with different molar ratio, mechanically ground, and a series of mixed solid complexes were obtained. These mixed complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Vis, IR and XPS spectra. The analytical data were obtained by a Vario EL CHN and indicated that Eu and Tb complexes formed a 2:3 metal-to-ligand stoichiometries 2RE(NO3)3 x 3L x 4H2O. Their IR spectra were recorded on a Bruke FTS66V/S spectrophotometer. The results indicate that all complexes have similar IR spectra, of which the characteristic bands have similar shifts, suggesting that they have a similar coordination structure. UV-Vis spectra were recorded on a Hitachi U-3010 spectrophotometer and showed that under the influence of the mixed ions, the absorbance of the mixed complexes is not identical with that of the pure complexes. XPS spectra were analyzed on a PHI-5702 X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) operating with monochromatic Mg K alpha irradiation at pass energy of 29.4 eV. The binding energies of O (1s), Eu (3d) and Tb (4d) in the two kinds of mixed complexes were changed compared with Eu-L and Tb-L complexes. This indicates that these two synthetic methods were not a simple physical mixing process, but there was some chemical effect between the mixed Eu-L and Tb-L complexes. The fluorescence spectra of the mixed complexes were obtained on a Hitachi F-4500 spectrophotometer at room temperature. The excitation and emission slit widths was 1.0 nm. It was concluded from the excitation spectra that the best excitation wavelengths for Eu and Tb complexes are 396 and 320 nm respectively. For the convenience of comparing the fluorescence intensities with each other, the excitation

  9. Size-dependent emission efficiency and luminescence characteristics of YBO3:Tb3+ nanocrystals under vacuum ultraviolet excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prashant K.; Dutta, Ranu K.; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2012-09-01

    The luminous efficiency and lifetime of plasma display panels (PDPs) are directly related to the performance of phosphors used in PDPs, thus higher efficiency, higher stability against high temperature processes, and a long lifetime along with good color chromaticity against vacuum-ultraviolet radiation are major concerns in selecting suitable phosphors for PDPs. In the same pursuit, well crystallized pure hexagonal phase YBO3:Tb3+ nanocrystals were prepared using co-precipitation method. The prepared YBO3:Tb3+ nanocrystals showed bright green luminescence, color chromaticity (0.21, 0.61), and could be assigned to 5D4→7Fj transitions (j = 2-6) due to electric dipole-dipole interaction of Tb3+ ions. The vacuum ultraviolet photoluminescence spectroscopy of the prepared YBO3:Tb3+ nanocrystals showed size dependent nonlinear luminescence enhancement with relatively shorter life time as compared to the commercial bulk YBO3:Tb3+ phosphor. The quenching concentration of Tb3+ doping for (5D4→7F5) transition was found significantly enhanced with the decrease in particle size suggesting it an ideal green phosphor for plasma display panels. The possible explanation for size-dependent emission efficiency and observed luminescence characteristics were proposed via charge transfer process and lowering of the structural symmetry.

  10. Comparing droplet activation parameterisations against adiabatic parcel models using a novel inverse modelling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, Daniel; Morales, Ricardo; Stier, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Many previous studies have compared droplet activation parameterisations against adiabatic parcel models (e.g. Ghan et al., 2001). However, these have often involved comparisons for a limited number of parameter combinations based upon certain aerosol regimes. Recent studies (Morales et al., 2014) have used wider ranges when evaluating their parameterisations, however, no study has explored the full possible multi-dimensional parameter space that would be experienced by droplet activations within a global climate model (GCM). It is important to be able to efficiently highlight regions of the entire multi-dimensional parameter space in which we can expect the largest discrepancy between parameterisation and cloud parcel models in order to ascertain which regions simulated by a GCM can be expected to be a less accurate representation of the process of cloud droplet activation. This study provides a new, efficient, inverse modelling framework for comparing droplet activation parameterisations to more complex cloud parcel models. To achieve this we couple a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm (Partridge et al., 2012) to two independent adiabatic cloud parcel models and four droplet activation parameterisations. This framework is computationally faster than employing a brute force Monte Carlo simulation, and allows us to transparently highlight which parameterisation provides the closest representation across all aerosol physiochemical and meteorological environments. The parameterisations are demonstrated to perform well for a large proportion of possible parameter combinations, however, for certain key parameters; most notably the vertical velocity and accumulation mode aerosol concentration, large discrepancies are highlighted. These discrepancies correspond for parameter combinations that result in very high/low simulated values of maximum supersaturation. By identifying parameter interactions or regimes within the multi-dimensional parameter space we hope to guide

  11. Fixed-Dose Combination Drug Approvals, Patents and Market Exclusivities Compared to Single Active Ingredient Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jing; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fixed-dose combinations (FDC) contain two or more active ingredients. The effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC compared to single active ingredient has not been assessed. Objectives Trends in FDA approved FDC in the period 1980–2012 and time lag between approval of FDC and single active ingredients in the combination were assessed, and the effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC was compared with their single active ingredients. Materials and Methods New molecular entities (NMEs), new therapeutic biologics license applications (BLAs) and FDC data were collected from the FDA Orange Book and Drugs@FDA. Analysis included FDC containing one or more NMEs or BLAs at first FDA approval (NMEs-FDC) and only already marketed drugs (Non-NMEs-FDC). Descriptive, Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon Rank Sum analyses were performed. Results During the study period, the FDA approved 28 NMEs-FDC (3.5% of NMEs) and 117 non-NMEs-FDC. FDC approvals increased from 12 in the 1980s to 59 in the 2000s. Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 5.43 years (interquartile range 1.74, 10.31) after first FDA approval of single active ingredients in the combination. The Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 2.33 years (-7.55, 2.39) before approval of generic single active ingredient. Non-NME-FDC added a median of 9.70 (2.75, 16.24) years to the patent and exclusivity life of the single active ingredients in the combination. Conclusion FDC approvals significantly increased over the last twenty years. Pharmaceutical companies market FDC drugs shortly before the generic versions of the single ingredients enter the market extending the patent and exclusivity life of drugs included in the combination. PMID:26469277

  12. The influence comparing of activated biochar and conventional biochar on the soil biological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořáčková, Helena; Mykajlo, Irina; Záhora, Jaroslav

    2016-04-01

    In our experiment we have used biochar. This material is the product of the pyrolysis that has shown a positive effect on numerous physical and chemical soil properties. However, its influence on the biological component of the soil is very variable. A number of toxic substances that inhibit the soil productivity may be produced during pyrolysis process. The experiment dealt with the hypothesis concerning biochar toxicity reduction by simulating natural processes in the soil. Biochar has been exposed to aeration in the aquatic environment, enriched with nutrients and a source of native soil microflora. It has been created 6 variants in total, each with four replications. The soils samples have been placed in a phytotron for 90 days. Variants consisted of the soil with fertilizers adding (compost, biochar, activated biochar) and have been prepared as well as variants containing compost and biochar and activated biochar optionally. The highest aboveground biomass production has been estimated in variants containing compost, while the lowest production - in the variants containing conventional biochar. During production comparing of the variants with the conventional biochar, activated biochar and control samples it has been evident that activated biochar promotes plant growth, and in contradiction conventional biochar inhibits it. We will approach to the same conclusions when comparing variants with a combination of conventional biochar + compost and activated biochar + compost. Mineral nitrogen leaching has been another investigated parameter. The highest leaching has occurred in the control variant, while the lowest - in the variant with activated biochar (the leaching of nitrate nitrogen has been negligeable). Our results suggest that activated biochar has the potential; however, it is necessary to carry out similar experiments in the field conditions.

  13. Temporal trends in TB notification rates during ART scale-up in Cape Town: an ecological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hermans, Sabine; Boulle, Andrew; Caldwell, Judy; Pienaar, David; Wood, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces individual tuberculosis (TB) risk by two-thirds, the population-level impact remains uncertain. Cape Town reports high TB notification rates associated with endemic HIV. We examined population trends in TB notification rates during a 10-year period of expanding ART. Methods Annual Cape Town TB notifications were used as numerators and mid-year Cape Town populations as denominators. HIV-stratified population was calculated using overall HIV prevalence estimates from the Actuarial Society of South Africa AIDS and Demographic model. ART provision numbers from Western Cape government reports were used to calculate overall ART coverage. We calculated rates per 100,000 population over time, overall and stratified by HIV status. Rates per 100,000 total population were also calculated by ART use at treatment initiation. Absolute numbers of notifications were compared by age and sub-district. Changes over time were described related to ART provision in the city as a whole (ART coverage) and by sub-district (numbers on ART). Results From 2003 to 2013, Cape Town's population grew from 3.1 to 3.7 million inhabitants, and estimated HIV prevalence increased from 3.6 to 5.2%. ART coverage increased from 0 to 63% in 2013. TB notification rates declined by 16% (95% confidence interval (CI), 14–17%) from a 2008 peak (851/100,000) to a 2013 nadir (713/100,000). Decreases were higher among the HIV-positive (21% (95% CI, 19–23%)) than the HIV-negative (9% (95% CI, 7–11%)) population. The number of HIV-positive TB notifications decreased mainly among 0- to 4- and 20- to 34-year-olds. Total population rates on ART at TB treatment initiation increased over time but levelled off in 2013. Overall median CD4 counts increased from 146 cells/µl (interquartile range (IQR), 66, 264) to 178 cells/µl (IQR 75, 330; p<0.001). Sub-district antenatal HIV seroprevalence differed (10–33%) as did numbers on ART (9–29 thousand). Across

  14. Comparative study of two chitin-active and two cellulose-active AA10-type lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Zarah; Røhr, Asmund Kjendseth; Mekasha, Sophanit; Andersson, K Kristoffer; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Sørlie, Morten

    2014-03-18

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs), found in family 9 (previously GH61), family 10 (previously CBM33), and the newly discovered family 11 of auxiliary activities (AA) in the carbohydrate-active enzyme classification system, are copper-dependent enzymes that oxidize sp(3)-carbons in recalcitrant polysaccharides such as chitin and cellulose in the presence of an external electron donor. In this study, we describe the activity of two AA10-type LPMOs whose activities have not been described before and we compare in total four different AA10-type LPMOs with the aim of finding possible correlations between their substrate specificities, sequences, and EPR signals. EPR spectra indicate that the electronic environment of the copper varies within the AA10 family even though amino acids directly interacting with the copper atom are identical in all four enzymes. This variation seems to be correlated to substrate specificity and is likely caused by sequence variation in areas that affect substrate binding geometry and/or by variation in a cluster of conserved aromatic residues likely involved in electron transfer. Interestingly, EPR signals for cellulose-active AA10 enzymes were similar to those previously observed for cellulose-active AA9 enzymes. Mutation of the conserved phenylalanine positioned in close proximity to the copper center in AA10-type LPMOs to Tyr (the corresponding residue in most AA9-type LPMOs) or Ala, led to complete or partial inactivation, respectively, while in both cases the ability to bind copper was maintained. Moreover, substrate binding affinity and degradation ability seemed hardly correlated, further emphasizing the crucial role of the active site configuration in determining LPMO functionality. PMID:24559135

  15. Rod Visual Pigment Optimizes Active State to Achieve Efficient G Protein Activation as Compared with Cone Visual Pigments*

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Keiichi; Imamoto, Yasushi; Maeda, Ryo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Shichida, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Most vertebrate retinas contain two types of photoreceptor cells, rods and cones, which show different photoresponses to mediate scotopic and photopic vision, respectively. These cells contain different types of visual pigments, rhodopsin and cone visual pigments, respectively, but little is known about the molecular properties of cone visual pigments under physiological conditions, making it difficult to link the molecular properties of rhodopsin and cone visual pigments with the differences in photoresponse between rods and cones. Here we prepared bovine and mouse rhodopsin (bvRh and mRh) and chicken and mouse green-sensitive cone visual pigments (cG and mG) embedded in nanodiscs and applied time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy to compare their Gt activation efficiencies. Rhodopsin exhibited greater Gt activation efficiencies than cone visual pigments. Especially, the Gt activation efficiency of mRh was about 2.5-fold greater than that of mG at 37 °C, which is consistent with our previous electrophysiological data of knock-in mice. Although the active state (Meta-II) was in equilibrium with inactive states (Meta-I and Meta-III), quantitative determination of Meta-II in the equilibrium showed that the Gt activation efficiency per Meta-II of bvRh was also greater than those of cG and mG. These results indicated that efficient Gt activation by rhodopsin, resulting from an optimized active state of rhodopsin, is one of the causes of the high amplification efficiency of rods. PMID:24375403

  16. Dipstick urinalysis for diabetes screening in TB patients

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Blanca I.; Pino, Paula A.; Zarate, Izelda; Mora-Guzman, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes knowledge among TB patients can contribute to improved TB treatment outcomes, but lack of diabetes diagnosis awareness is a limitation in developing countries. Given its low cost, the sensitivity of urine glucose dipsticks for diabetes screening in TB patients was assessed. Methods Glycosuria was assessed in 90 newly diagnosed TB patients (38 with diabetes) in south Texas, USA (n = 20) and northeast Mexico (n = 70) during January 2009–December 2010. Results Glycosuria was detected in 65% of the diabetic patients with chronic hyperglycemia (positive predictive value 91%, negative predictive value 84%). Conclusion We propose that TB clinics with limited budgets where portable glucometers may not be available conduct universal screening for diabetes with urine dipsticks. This could be followed by blood glucose or HbA1c testing in the subset of patients requiring confirmation or higher sensitivity assessment, to improve the comanagement of TB and diabetes. PMID:24030116

  17. Isoniazid toxicity and TB development during biological therapy of patients with psoriasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cataño, Juan; Morales, Milena

    2016-10-01

    Background The use of biological therapy has been linked with an increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation. Objective The aim of this study was to present the follow-up results for Isoniazid (INH) chemoprophylaxis in patients with psoriasis receiving different biological therapies. Methods In this prospective observational study, patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) were given INH chemoprophylaxis between two and nine months prior to the beginning of biological therapy. All patients were followed up monthly for any signs or symptoms of active TB or INH toxicity. Results A total of 101 patients, 44.5% females, with a mean age of 46.9 ± 11.5 years (20-73) were enrolled. LTBI was identified in 100 patients (99%), of whom 81.2% completed nine months of chemoprophylaxis. Three patients (2.9%) developed active TB and 17 patients (16.8%) developed intolerance or toxicity related to INH. Conclusions Chemoprophylaxis with INH seems to be effective and safe for the prevention of most TB reactivations in individuals with LTBI receiving biological therapy, but toxicity must be monitored during follow-up. PMID:27003177

  18. Quality of life among tuberculosis (TB), TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health care patients in three districts in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction TB and HIV co-morbidity amount to a massive burden on healthcare systems in many countries. This study investigates health related quality of life among tuberculosis (TB), TB retreatment and TB-HIV co-infected public primary health care patients in three districts in South Africa. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 4900 TB patients who were in the first month of anti-TB treatment in primary public health care clinics in three districts in South Africa. Quality of life was assessed using the social functioning (SF)-12 Health Survey through face to face interviews. Associations of physical health (Physical health Component Summary = PCS) and mental health (Mental health Component Summary = MCS) were identified using logistic regression analyses. Results The overall physical and mental health scores were 42.5 and 40.7, respectively. Emotional role, general health and bodily pain had the lowest sub-scale scores, while energy and fatigue and mental health had the highest domain scores. Independent Kruskal–Wallis tests found significant positive effects of being TB-HIV co-infected on the domains of mental health functioning, emotional role, energy and fatigue, social function and physical role, while significant negative effects were observed on general health, bodily pain and physical function. In multivariable analysis higher educational, lower psychological distress, having fewer chronic conditions and being HIV negative were significantly positively associated with PCS, and low poverty, low psychological distress and being HIV positive were positively significantly associated with MCS. Conclusion TB and HIV weaken patients’ physical functioning and impair their quality of life. It is imperative that TB control programmes at public health clinics design strategies to improve the quality of health of TB and HIV co-infected patients. PMID:22742511

  19. Redefining Neighborhoods Using Common Destinations: Social Characteristics of Activity Spaces and Home Census Tracts Compared

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Malia; Pebley, Anne R.

    2014-01-01

    Research on neighborhood effects has focused largely on residential neighborhoods, but people are exposed to many other places in the course of their daily lives—at school, at work, when shopping, and so on. Thus, studies of residential neighborhoods consider only a subset of the social-spatial environment affecting individuals. In this article, we examine the characteristics of adults’ “activity spaces”—spaces defined by locations that individuals visit regularly, in Los Angeles County, California. Using geographic information system (GIS) methods, we define activity spaces in two ways and estimate their socioeconomic characteristics. Our research has two goals. First, we determine whether residential neighborhoods represent the social conditions to which adults are exposed in the course of their regular activities. Second, we evaluate whether particular groups are exposed to a broader or narrower range of social contexts in the course of their daily activities. We find that activity spaces are substantially more heterogeneous in terms of key social characteristics, compared to residential neighborhoods. However, the characteristics of both home neighborhoods and activity spaces are closely associated with individual characteristics. Our results suggest that most people experience substantial segregation across the range of spaces in their daily lives, not just at home. PMID:24719273

  20. [Comparative urinary bactericidal activity of oral antibiotics against gram-positive pathogens].

    PubMed

    Bedenić, Branka; Budimir, Ana; Gverić, Ana; Plecko, Vanda; Vranes, Jasmina; Bubonja-Sonje, Marina; Kalenić, Smilja

    2012-01-01

    In routine bacteriological laboratories the antibacterial activity of antibiotics is determined by in vitro testing, usually by disk-diffusion test. However, in vitro testing does not always reflect antibacterial efficiency of antibiotics in vivo. In this investigation, the urine samples obtained in a single oral dose pharmacokinetic study were examined for their bactericidal activity against a range of relevant Gram-positive urinary tract pathogens. Urinary bactericidal activity of linezolid had been previously compared with ciprofloxacin but not with other oral antibiotics such as beta-lactams. Linezolid showed satisfactory urinary bactericidal titres throughout the whole testing period against all Gram-positive cocci. Fluoroquinolones displayed high and persisting levels of urinary bactericidal activity against staphylococci, but their activity against enterococci was weaker. According to the results of ex-vivo testing amoxycillin could be recommended only for infections caused by E. faecalis. Amoxycillin combined with clavulanic acid can be considered as a therapeutic option for infections caused by S. saprophyticus and E. faecalis. Older cephalosporins had high titres only against S. saprophyticus. Their drawback is a short elimination half-time in urine resulting in rapid decrease of urinary bactericidal titers during dosing interval. Furthermore, they do not show activity against enterococci due to their intrinsic resistance to cephalosporins. PMID:22930932

  1. Redefining neighborhoods using common destinations: social characteristics of activity spaces and home census tracts compared.

    PubMed

    Jones, Malia; Pebley, Anne R

    2014-06-01

    Research on neighborhood effects has focused largely on residential neighborhoods, but people are exposed to many other places in the course of their daily lives-at school, at work, when shopping, and so on. Thus, studies of residential neighborhoods consider only a subset of the social-spatial environment affecting individuals. In this article, we examine the characteristics of adults' "activity spaces"-spaces defined by locations that individuals visit regularly-in Los Angeles County, California. Using geographic information system (GIS) methods, we define activity spaces in two ways and estimate their socioeconomic characteristics. Our research has two goals. First, we determine whether residential neighborhoods represent the social conditions to which adults are exposed in the course of their regular activities. Second, we evaluate whether particular groups are exposed to a broader or narrower range of social contexts in the course of their daily activities. We find that activity spaces are substantially more heterogeneous in terms of key social characteristics, compared to residential neighborhoods. However, the characteristics of both home neighborhoods and activity spaces are closely associated with individual characteristics. Our results suggest that most people experience substantial segregation across the range of spaces in their daily lives, not just at home. PMID:24719273

  2. Neural activation in cognitive motor processes: comparing motor imagery and observation of gymnastic movements.

    PubMed

    Munzert, Jörn; Zentgraf, Karen; Stark, Rudolf; Vaitl, Dieter

    2008-07-01

    The simulation concept suggested by Jeannerod (Neuroimage 14:S103-S109, 2001) defines the S-states of action observation and mental simulation of action as action-related mental states lacking overt execution. Within this framework, similarities and neural overlap between S-states and overt execution are interpreted as providing the common basis for the motor representations implemented within the motor system. The present brain imaging study compared activation overlap and differential activation during mental simulation (motor imagery) with that while observing gymnastic movements. The fMRI conjunction analysis revealed overlapping activation for both S-states in primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, and the supplementary motor area as well as in the intraparietal sulcus, cerebellar hemispheres, and parts of the basal ganglia. A direct contrast between the motor imagery and observation conditions revealed stronger activation for imagery in the posterior insula and the anterior cingulate gyrus. The hippocampus, the superior parietal lobe, and the cerebellar areas were differentially activated in the observation condition. In general, these data corroborate the concept of action-related S-states because of the high overlap in core motor as well as in motor-related areas. We argue that differential activity between S-states relates to task-specific and modal information processing. PMID:18425505

  3. [Comparative in vitro study of the antimicrobial activity of ceftazidime against clinical isolates].

    PubMed

    Klietmann, W; Focht, J; Nösner, K

    1987-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of ceftazidime was tested against 1482 gram-negative and 1216 gram-positive strains isolated from fresh clinical specimens and compared with generally used antibiotics including other third generation cephalosporins and broad spectrum penicillins. Minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined in a broth dilution test on microtiter plates. In the group of the gram-negative bacteria ceftazidime was the most active of the antimicrobial agents tested with an MIC of 0.5 mg/l (MIC90) for most of the isolates. Ceftazidime exhibited a broad spectrum of activity against gram-negative pathogenic bacteria including Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp. Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Serratia spp.) including frequently resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Alcaligenes faecalis. The activity against P. aeruginosa is the most remarkable property of the agent. Ceftazidime is less effective against gram-positive compared to gram-negative bacteria. No inhibitory action can be observed against Streptococcus faecalis. PMID:3312026

  4. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing 1H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated. PMID:27525023

  5. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares; Torres, Yohandra Reyes

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing (1)H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated. PMID:27525023

  6. Speech recognition in noise with active and passive hearing protectors: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bockstael, Annelies; De Coensel, Bert; Botteldooren, Dick; D'Haenens, Wendy; Keppler, Hannah; Maes, Leen; Philips, Birgit; Swinnen, Freya; Bart, Vinck

    2011-06-01

    The perceived negative influence of standard hearing protectors on communication is a common argument for not wearing them. Thus, "augmented" protectors have been developed to improve speech intelligibility. Nevertheless, their actual benefit remains a point of concern. In this paper, speech perception with active earplugs is compared to standard passive custom-made earplugs. The two types of active protectors included amplify the incoming sound with a fixed level or to a user selected fraction of the maximum safe level. For the latter type, minimal and maximal amplification are selected. To compare speech intelligibility, 20 different speech-in-noise fragments are presented to 60 normal-hearing subjects and speech recognition is scored. The background noise is selected from realistic industrial noise samples with different intensity, frequency, and temporal characteristics. Statistical analyses suggest that the protectors' performance strongly depends on the noise condition. The active protectors with minimal amplification outclass the others for the most difficult and the easiest situations, but they also limit binaural listening. In other conditions, the passive protectors clearly surpass their active counterparts. Subsequently, test fragments are analyzed acoustically to clarify the results. This provides useful information for developing prototypes, but also indicates that tests with human subjects remain essential. PMID:21682395

  7. Pain Sensitisation in Women with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Vladimirova, Nora; Jespersen, Anders; Bartels, Else Marie; Christensen, Anton W.; Bliddal, Henning; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In some rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, joint pain persists without signs of inflammation. This indicates that central pain sensitisation may play a role in the generation of chronic pain in a subgroup of RA. Our aim was to assess the degree of peripheral and central pain sensitisation in women with active RA compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods. 38 women with active RA (DAS28 > 2.6) and 38 female HC were included in, and completed, the study. Exclusion criteria were polyneuropathy, pregnancy, and no Danish language. Cuff Pressure Algometry measurements were carried out on the dominant lower leg. Pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain sensitivity during tonic painful stimulation were recorded. Results. Women with active RA had significantly lower pain threshold (p < 0.01) and pain tolerance (p < 0.01) than HC. The mean temporal summation- (TS-) index in RA patients was 0.98 (SEM: 0.09) and 0.71 (SEM: 0.04) in HC (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Patients with active RA showed decreased pressure-pain threshold compared to HC. In addition, temporal summation of pressure-pain was increased, indicating central pain sensitization, at least in some patients. Defining this subgroup of patients may be of importance when considering treatment strategies. PMID:26266046

  8. Pain Sensitisation in Women with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, Nora; Jespersen, Anders; Bartels, Else Marie; Christensen, Anton W; Bliddal, Henning; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In some rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, joint pain persists without signs of inflammation. This indicates that central pain sensitisation may play a role in the generation of chronic pain in a subgroup of RA. Our aim was to assess the degree of peripheral and central pain sensitisation in women with active RA compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods. 38 women with active RA (DAS28 > 2.6) and 38 female HC were included in, and completed, the study. Exclusion criteria were polyneuropathy, pregnancy, and no Danish language. Cuff Pressure Algometry measurements were carried out on the dominant lower leg. Pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain sensitivity during tonic painful stimulation were recorded. Results. Women with active RA had significantly lower pain threshold (p < 0.01) and pain tolerance (p < 0.01) than HC. The mean temporal summation- (TS-) index in RA patients was 0.98 (SEM: 0.09) and 0.71 (SEM: 0.04) in HC (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Patients with active RA showed decreased pressure-pain threshold compared to HC. In addition, temporal summation of pressure-pain was increased, indicating central pain sensitization, at least in some patients. Defining this subgroup of patients may be of importance when considering treatment strategies. PMID:26266046

  9. Comparative hepatic cytochrome P450 activities and contaminant concentrations in caged carp and juvenile ducks

    SciTech Connect

    O`Keefe, P.; Gierthy, J.; Connor, S.; Bush, B.; Hong, C.S.; Wood, L.; Clayton, W.; Storm, R.

    1995-12-31

    Juvenile carp (Cyprinius carpio) weighing approx. 60 g were placed in cages located on the surface of sediments near an aluminum plant and an automobile parts plant in the Massena area of the St. Lawrence River. Fish were removed at weekly intervals over a 35 day exposure period and composited samples of liver tissue, cranial lipid, and fillet tissue were prepared for analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Liver tissue was also stored at {minus}80 C for determination of microsomal Cytochrome P450 activity using the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) assay. A control exposure was carried out upstream at an uncontaminated site. Juvenile pre-flight ducks (mallards, gadwalls, wood ducks and common mergansers) were collected in the contaminated areas on the St. Lawrence and on the Hudson River two to three months after hatching. Control pre-flight mallards, wood ducks and common mergansers were collected from remote lakes in the Addirondack State Park. Samples of subcutaneous fat and liver tissue were removed for analysis as described above for the carp. There was a three fold increase in AHH activity in the carp liver tissue at the end of the 35 day exposure period and there was a similar increase it activity for the mallards, common mergansers and wood ducks compared to controls. For each species the enzyme activity increases will be compared to the contaminant concentrations.

  10. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Spanish and Virginia groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mahatma, M K; Thawait, L K; Bishi, S K; Khatediya, N; Rathnakumar, A L; Lalwani, H B; Misra, J B

    2016-05-01

    Kernels of sixty groundnut genotypes comprising thirty each of Spanish and Virginia groups were characterized and compared for the content of oil, protein, phenols and antioxidant activity along with their fatty acid and sugars profiles. The antioxidant activity for Virginia genotypes was ranged from 12.5 to 16.5 μM Trolox equivalent activity for Spanish genotypes ranged from 6.8-15.2 μM. Amongst Virginia types, the highest oleic acid/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio of 2.38 was observed for NRCG 12312 while from Spanish group the highest O/L ratio of 1.24 was observed for NRCG 12731. The sucrose content for Virginia genotypes ranged from 38.5 to 69.0 mg/g while it was 27.9 to 53.3 mg/g for Spanish genotypes. Average myo-inositol content was higher for Spanish genotypes (0.8-2.1 mg/g) compared to Virginia (0.4-1.8 mg/g) while the reverse was true for stachayose content (Spanish: 3.5-7.9 mg/g; Virginia: 4.6-10.3 mg/g). Thus, Virginia genotypes could be preferred to Spanish genotypes for better oil stability and antioxidant activity. PMID:27407194

  11. A comparative discussion on scientific information activities between Japan and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cun

    In this article the disparity in the development of information activities between Japan and China is discovered by comparing its developing process and present conditions. The question why the development of information activities of China has far lagged behind Japan in spite of they started it almost at the same time is put forward and that causes are explained in terms of politics, economics, science and technology. And last, it is considered that the development of information activities of Japan will march at the head of others in the world because the first model of the fifth generation of computer has been created in this country and China must spare no efforts to run after Japan.

  12. Neuron-specific enolase as a novel biomarker reflecting tuberculosis activity and treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sung-Jin; Jeong, Jee-Yeong; Jang, Tae-Won; Jung, Mann-Hong; Chun, Bong-Kwon; Cha, Hee-Jae; Oak, Chul-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: It is not clear which tests are indicative of the activity and severity of tuberculosis (TB). This study aimed to investigate the predictive value of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and to determine the origin of NSE in TB patients. Methods: A single-center retrospective analysis was conducted on newly diagnosed TB patients between January and December 2010. Patients were categorized into one of two disease groups (focal segmental or extensive) based on chest X-ray. Pre- and post-treatment NSE concentrations were evaluated. To determine the origin of serum NSE concentration, NSE staining was compared with macrophage-specific CD68 staining in lung tissues and with a tissue microarray using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Results: A total of 60 newly diagnosed TB patients were analyzed. In TB patients, NSE serum concentration was significantly increased and NSE level decreased after treatment (p < 0.001). In proportion to serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration, the mean serum concentration of NSE in the extensive group (25.12 ng/mL) was significantly higher than that in the focal segmental group (20.23 ng/mL, p = 0.04). Immunohistochemical staining revealed a large number of macrophages that stained positively for both NSE and CD68 in TB tissues. In addition, NSE signals mostly co-localized with CD68 signals in the tissue microarray of TB patients. Conclusions: Our results suggest that NSE may be a practical parameter that can be used to monitor TB activity and treatment response. Elevated serum NSE level originates, at least in part, from macrophages in granulomatous lesions. PMID:27271274

  13. Evaluation of QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Lina; Sasaki, Yuka; Nagai, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Satoru; Takamori, Mikio; Sakashita, Kentaro; Saito, Takefumi; Fukushima, Kiyoyasu; Igarashi, Yuriko; Aono, Akio; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Takaki, Akiko; Mori, Toru; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Performance of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release assays still needs to be improved. The data on the performance of QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus), a new-generation of QFT assay are limited. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of QFT-Plus, and compared to that of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT). Blood samples were collected from 162 bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (TB) patients and 212 Mycobacterium tuberculosis-uninfected volunteers; these samples were then tested with QFT-GIT and QFT-Plus. The IFN-γ concentration of QFT-Plus was lower than that of QFT-GIT in TB patients (p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curves were compared between QFT-GIT and QFT-Plus. Both assays showed area under the curve values over 0.99 without significant difference. Using the conventional cut-off (0.35 IU/mL) for QFT-GIT, QFT-Plus had a lower sensitivity of 91.1% compared to 96.2% (p = 0.008) at its optimum cut-off (0.168 IU/mL) with the same specificity. Moreover, IFN-γ values were significantly reduced with age in QFT-GIT (p = 0.035) but not in QFT-Plus. The diagnostic performance of QFT-Plus was as accurate as that of QFT-GIT despite a lack of TB7.7 antigen and despite the decrease in quantitative values. However, the cut-off value for QFT-Plus should be considered independently from that of QFT-GIT to obtain the best sensitivity without compromising specificity. PMID:27470684

  14. Evaluation of QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lina; Sasaki, Yuka; Nagai, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Satoru; Takamori, Mikio; Sakashita, Kentaro; Saito, Takefumi; Fukushima, Kiyoyasu; Igarashi, Yuriko; Aono, Akio; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Takaki, Akiko; Mori, Toru; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Performance of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release assays still needs to be improved. The data on the performance of QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus), a new-generation of QFT assay are limited. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of QFT-Plus, and compared to that of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT). Blood samples were collected from 162 bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (TB) patients and 212 Mycobacterium tuberculosis-uninfected volunteers; these samples were then tested with QFT-GIT and QFT-Plus. The IFN-γ concentration of QFT-Plus was lower than that of QFT-GIT in TB patients (p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curves were compared between QFT-GIT and QFT-Plus. Both assays showed area under the curve values over 0.99 without significant difference. Using the conventional cut-off (0.35 IU/mL) for QFT-GIT, QFT-Plus had a lower sensitivity of 91.1% compared to 96.2% (p = 0.008) at its optimum cut-off (0.168 IU/mL) with the same specificity. Moreover, IFN-γ values were significantly reduced with age in QFT-GIT (p = 0.035) but not in QFT-Plus. The diagnostic performance of QFT-Plus was as accurate as that of QFT-GIT despite a lack of TB7.7 antigen and despite the decrease in quantitative values. However, the cut-off value for QFT-Plus should be considered independently from that of QFT-GIT to obtain the best sensitivity without compromising specificity. PMID:27470684

  15. Magnetostriction of growth textured Tb-Zn alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, D. W.; Lograsso, T. A.

    1999-11-01

    The magnetostrictive performance of aligned microstructural composites of Tb-Zn alloys were experimentally tested at 77 K under compressive loads ranging from approximately 0-50 MPa and applied magnetic field up to 2000 Oe. Tb-8a/oZn, Tb-42a/oZn and the eutectic composition of Tb-27.8a/oZn were all directionally solidified to prepare aligned, textured microstructures. The eutectic sample grew with lamellar plates with the magnetically hard axes for each phase parallel with the rod axis and exhibited a strain of less than 100 ppm. The Tb-42a/oZn alloy solidified with TbZn dendrites in the magnetically hard [1 1 1] direction and exhibited a strain of 375 ppm. The Tb-8a/oZn alloy solidified pure Tb dendrites in the magnetically easy direction, the b-axis, yet it only displayed a 350-ppm magnetostriction at a maximum field of 2000 Oe due to the high anisotropy of the Tb dendrites.

  16. Spinal Motion and Muscle Activity during Active Trunk Movements – Comparing Sheep and Humans Adopting Upright and Quadrupedal Postures

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, Stephanie; Licka, Theresia F.

    2016-01-01

    Sheep are used as models for the human spine, yet comparative in vivo data necessary for validation is limited. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare spinal motion and trunk muscle activity during active trunk movements in sheep and humans. Three-dimensional kinematic data as well as surface electromyography (sEMG) of spinal flexion and extension was compared in twenty-four humans in upright (UR) and 4-point kneeling (KN) postures and in 17 Austrian mountain sheep. Kinematic markers were attached over the sacrum, posterior iliac spines, and spinous and transverse processes of T5, T8, T11, L2 and L5 in humans and over the sacrum, tuber sacrale, T5, T8, T12, L3 and L7 in sheep. The activity of erector spinae (ES), rectus abdominis (RA), obliquus externus (OE), and obliquus internus (OI) were collected. Maximum sEMG (MOE) was identified for each muscle and trial, and reported as a percentage (MOE%) of the overall maximally observed sEMG from all trials. Spinal range of motion was significantly smaller in sheep compared to humans (UR / KN) during flexion (sheep: 6–11°; humans 12–34°) and extension (sheep: 4°; humans: 11–17°). During extension, MOE% of ES was greater in sheep (median: 77.37%) than UR humans (24.89%), and MOE% of OE and OI was greater in sheep (OE 76.20%; OI 67.31%) than KN humans (OE 21.45%; OI 19.34%), while MOE% of RA was lower in sheep (21.71%) than UR humans (82.69%). During flexion, MOE% of RA was greater in sheep (83.09%) than humans (KN 47.42%; UR 41.38%), and MOE% of ES in sheep (45.73%) was greater than KN humans (14.45%), but smaller than UR humans (72.36%). The differences in human and sheep spinal motion and muscle activity suggest that caution is warranted when ovine data are used to infer human spine biomechanics. PMID:26741136

  17. Comparing mirror neuron system activity between sporadic and familial cases of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sayantanava; Nizamie, S Haque; Goyal, Nishant; Tikka, Sai Krishna; Kavoor, Anjana Rao

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogenous disorder, and has often been subtyped on the basis of family history of psychotic disorders. Compared to those without, a positive family history is associated with an earlier age of onset, greater structural brain abnormalities and poorer clinical course. Given recent emphasis on mirror neuron system (MNS) in attempting to explain psychopathology in schizophrenia; present analysis tried to tease out differences in MNS functioning between these two groups. With ethical approval, 10 consenting right-handed patients with schizophrenia (ICD-10-DCR; M=8; Drug-naïve=2) were recruited and divided into two groups of five each (M=4, F=1): those with (age 29.40±5.85 years, duration of illness 50.80±30.84 months) and without (age 29.60±5.77 years, duration of illness 43.20±43.76 months) family history of schizophrenic illness (group difference p>0.05). MNS activity was assessed using event-related desynchronization of EEG Mu waves in response to biological motion on 192-channel EEG Neurofax EEG-1100K. On comparison, while patients had significantly lower mu suppression compared to controls (p<0.001); two schizophrenia groups did not differ between themselves, neither on MNS activity nor on psychopathology (p>0.05). Present study replicates finding of a dysfunctional MNS in schizophrenia patients, and represents a preliminary attempt at comparing two groups of symptomatic schizophrenia patients. In both these groups, MNS dysfunctions were comparable, and commensurate with respect to psychopathology. Thus, MNS dysfunction in schizophrenia might either be inherited or acquired. However, this abnormality forms a common base, and ultimate vulnerability marker, for development of psychopathology during active disease states. PMID:27208448

  18. Successful Tuberculosis Treatment Outcomes among HIV/TB Coinfected Patients Down-Referred from a District Hospital to Primary Health Clinics in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Karen B.; Moll, Anthony P.; Friedland, Gerald H.; Shenoi, Sheela V.

    2015-01-01

    patient education, active communication between hospitals and PHCs, and tracing of patients lost to follow up. Decentralized and integrated care is successful for carefully selected TB/HIV coinfected patients and should be expanded. PMID:25993636

  19. Cost-comparison of different management policies for tuberculosis patients in Italy. AIPO TB Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Migliori, G. B.; Ambrosetti, M.; Besozzi, G.; Farris, B.; Nutini, S.; Saini, L.; Casali, L.; Nardini, S.; Bugiani, M.; Neri, M.; Raviglione, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Although in developing countries the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) cases is among the most cost-effective health interventions, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of TB control in low-prevalence countries. The aim of the present study was to carry out an economic analysis in Italy that takes into account both the perspective of the resource-allocating authority (i.e. the Ministry of Health) and the broader social perspective, including a cost description based on current outcomes applied to a representative sample of TB patients nationwide (admission and directly observed treatment (DOT) during the initial intensive phase of treatment); a cost-comparison analysis of two alternative programmes: current policy based on available data (scenario 1) and an hypothetical policy oriented more towards outpatient care (scenario 2) (both scenarios included the option of including or not including DOT outside hospital admission, and incentives) were compared in terms of cost per case treated successfully. Indirect costs (such as loss of productivity) were included in considerations of the broader social perspective. The study was designed as a prospective monitoring activity based on the supervised collection of forms from a representative sample of Italian TB units. Individual data were collected and analysed to obtain a complete economic profile of the patients enrolled and to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. A separate analysis was done for each scenario to determine the end-point at different levels of cure rate (50-90%). The mean length of treatment was 6.6 months (i.e. patients hospitalized during the intensive phase; length of stay was significantly higher in smear-positive patients and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients). Roughly six direct smear and culture examinations were performed during hospital admission and three during ambulatory treatment. The cost of a single bed day was US$186.90, whereas that of a

  20. A comparative structure-function analysis of active-site inhibitors of Vibrio cholerae cholix toxin.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Miguel R; Merrill, A Rod

    2015-09-01

    Cholix toxin from Vibrio cholerae is a novel mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase (mART) toxin that shares structural and functional properties with Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A and Corynebacterium diphtheriae diphtheria toxin. Herein, we have used the high-resolution X-ray structure of full-length cholix toxin in the apo form, NAD(+) bound, and 10 structures of the cholix catalytic domain (C-domain) complexed with several strong inhibitors of toxin enzyme activity (NAP, PJ34, and the P-series) to study the binding mode of the ligands. A pharmacophore model based on the active pose of NAD(+) was compared with the active conformation of the inhibitors, which revealed a cationic feature in the side chain of the inhibitors that may determine the active pose. Moreover, a conformational search was conducted for the missing coordinates of one of the main active-site loops (R-loop). The resulting structural models were used to evaluate the interaction energies and for 3D-QSAR modeling. Implications for a rational drug design approach for mART toxins were derived. PMID:25756608

  1. Comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among fruits and vegetable resources.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Qiao-Juan; Jiang, Zheng-Qiang

    2016-12-15

    In this study, a comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among 90 plant resources, including fruits and vegetables, has been performed. Protease activities of plant extracts were assayed at different pH values (pH 3.0, pH 7.5 and pH 10.5) using casein as a substrate. Ten fruits and thirteen vegetables show protease activities above 10U/g. Pineapple, fig and papaya, which are used for commercial protease production, exhibited high protease activities. Additionally, high protease activities were detected in kiwifruit (28.8U/g), broccoli (16.9U/g), ginger (16.6U/g), leek (32.7U/g) and red pepper (15.8U/g) at different pH values. SDS-PAGE and zymograms confirmed that various types of proteases existed in the five plant extracts and might be explored. Furthermore, five plant extracts were treated by different protease inhibitors. These results show that there are still many plant resources unexplored, which may be promising candidates for plant-derived protease production. PMID:27451238

  2. Defining torpor in free-ranging bats: experimental evaluation of external temperature-sensitive radiotransmitters and the concept of active temperature.

    PubMed

    Willis, C K R; Brigham, R M

    2003-07-01

    A variety of definitions involving body temperature (Tb), metabolic rate and behavior have been used to define torpor in mammals and birds. This problem is confounded in some studies of free-ranging animals that employ only skin temperature (Tsk), a measure that approximates but may not precisely reflect Tb. We assess the accuracy of Tsk in the context of a recent definition for torpor called active temperature. We compared the active temperatures of individual big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), which aggregate in cavities, with solitary, foliage-roosting hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus). In captive big brown bats, we compared Tsk and core Tb at a range of ambient temperatures for clustered and solitary roosting animals, compared Tsk and Tb during arousal from torpor, and quantified the effect of flight on warming from torpor. Hoary bats had significantly lower active temperatures than big brown bats despite having the same normothermic Tsk. Tsk was significantly lower than Tb during normothermia but often greater than Tb during torpor. Flight increased the rate of warming from torpor. This effect was more pronounced for Tsk than Tb. This suggests that bats could rely on heat generated by flight muscles to complete the final stages of arousal. Using active temperature to define torpor may underestimate torpor due to ambient cooling of external transmitters or animals leaving roosts while still torpid. Conversely, active temperature may also overestimate shallow torpor use if it is recorded during active arousal when shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis warm external transmitters. Our findings illuminate the need for laboratory studies that quantify the relationship between metabolic rate and Tsk over a range of ambient temperatures. PMID:12764630

  3. Comparing effects of active and passive restoration on the Middle Fork John Day River, NE Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, P. F.; Goslin, M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2000, cattle grazing has been eliminated on over 14 km of the upper Middle Fork John Day. Starting in 2008, active restoration (log structures with dug pools, woody vegetation planting, and modifications to increase channel-floodplain hydrologic connectivity) was implemented on nearly 6 km within the cattle exclosure length. Implementation of active and passive restoration strategies in the same and adjacent reaches allows comparison of these two approaches. We have been monitoring these reaches since 2008. Unexpectedly in response to grazing exclosure, a native sedge, Carex nudata (torrent sedge), has exploded in population. C. nudata grows in the active channel, anchoring itself tightly to the gravel-cobble river bed with a dense root network. As a result, C. nudata has changed erosion and sedimentation patterns including bank erosion, channel bed scour, and island formation. We present data on fish cover increases due to C. nudata and log structures, and on channel complexity before and after restoration. Both active and passive restorations are increasing channel complexity and juvenile fish cover, although in different ways. Fish cover provided by active and passive restoration are similar in area but different in depth and position, with C. nudata fish cover generally shallower and partly mid-channel. Residual pool depth is larger in log structure pools than in C. nudata scour pools, but C. nudata pools are more numerous in some reaches. By producing frequent, small scour features and small islands, it can be argued that C. nudata is increasing hydraulic complexity more than the large, meander-bend pools at log structures, but this is hard to quantify. C. nudata has also stabilized active bars, perhaps changing the bedload sediment budget. Positive habitat benefits of active restoration appear to be greater in the short term, but over the long term (20 years or more) effects of C. nudata may be comparable or greater.

  4. Comparative analysis of immunoglobulin A1 protease activity among bacteria representing different genera, species, and strains.

    PubMed Central

    Reinholdt, J; Kilian, M

    1997-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases cleaving human IgA1 in the hinge region are produced constitutively by a number of pathogens, including Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as by some members of the resident oropharyngeal flora. Whereas IgA1 proteases have been shown to interfere with the functions of IgA antibodies in vitro, the exact role of these enzymes in the relationship of bacteria to a human host capable of responding with enzyme-neutralizing antibodies is not clear. Conceivably, the role of IgA1 proteases may depend on the quantity of IgA1 protease generated as well as on the balance between secreted and cell-associated forms of the enzyme. Therefore, we have compared levels of IgA1 protease activity in cultures of 38 bacterial strains representing different genera and species as well as strains of different pathogenic potential. Wide variation in activity generation rate was found overall and within some species. High activity was not an exclusive property of bacteria with documented pathogenicity. Almost all activity of H. influenzae, N. meningitidis, and N. gonorrhoeae strains was present in the supernatant. In contrast, large proportions of the activity in Streptococcus, Prevotella, and Capnocytophaga species was cell associated at early stationary phase, suggesting that the enzyme may play the role of a surface antigen. Partial release of cell-associated activity occurred during stationary phase. Within some taxa, the degree of activity variation correlated with degree of antigenic diversity of the enzyme as determined previously. This finding may indicate that the variation observed is of biological significance. PMID:9353019

  5. Comparative biochemical responses and antioxidant activities of the rabbit urinary bladder to whole grapes versus resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Francis, Johdi-Ann; Leggett, Robert E; Schuler, Catherine; Levin, Robert M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the antioxidant activity of a whole-grape suspension with the antioxidant activity or pure resveratrol on the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on malondialdehyde (MDA) generation, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, calcium ATPase activity, and sarcoendoplasmic reticular ATPase (SERCA) of the male rabbit urinary bladder. MDA was used as a model for the effect of H2O2 on lipid peroxidation. ChAT, SERCA, and calcium ATPase were evaluated based on their importance in urinary bladder physiology and pathology. Four male rabbit bladders were used. Each bladder was separated into muscle and mucosa, frozen under liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C for biochemical evaluation. The effect of H2O2 on the enzymes listed above was determined in the presence and absence of either resveratrol or a whole-grape suspension. (1) Resveratrol was significantly more effective than the grape suspension at protecting the bladder muscle and mucosa against peroxidation as quantitated by MDA formation. (2) The grape suspension was significantly more effective at protecting ChAT activity against oxidative stress of the muscle than resveratrol. (3) Neither the grape suspension nor resveratrol were particularly effective at protecting the bladder muscle or mucosa calcium ATPase or SERCA against oxidative stress. (4) ChAT was significantly more sensitive to oxidative stress than either calcium ATPase or SERCA. These data support the idea that the grape suspension protects the mitochondria and nerve terminals to a significantly greater degree than resveratrol which suggests that the activities of the grape suspension are due to the combination of active components found in the grape suspension and not just resveratrol alone. PMID:26354548

  6. Food reward in active compared to inactive men: Roles for gastric emptying and body fat.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Finlayson, Graham; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis. We investigated hedonic processes of food reward in active and inactive men and characterised relationships with gastric emptying and body fat. Forty-four men (active: n=22; inactive: n=22, BMI range 21-36kg/m(2); percent fat mass range 9-42%) were studied. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast and an ad libitum lunch meal 5h later. Explicit liking, implicit wanting and preference among high-fat, low-fat, sweet and savoury food items were assessed immediately post-breakfast (fed state) and again pre-lunch (hungry state) using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Gastric emptying was assessed by (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. Active individuals exhibited a lower liking for foods overall and a greater implicit wanting for low-fat savoury foods in the fed state, compared to inactive men. Differences in the fed state remained significant after adjusting for percent fat mass. Active men also had a greater increase in liking for savoury foods in the interval between breakfast and lunch. Faster gastric emptying was associated with liking for savoury foods and with an increase in liking for savoury foods in the postprandial interval. In contrast, greater implicit wanting for high-fat foods was associated with slower gastric emptying. These associations were independent of each other, activity status and body fat. In conclusion, active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward. The rate of gastric emptying may play a role in the association between physical activity status and food reward, via the gut-brain axis. PMID:27072508

  7. Preparation and characterization of thermoluminescent aluminium oxide doped with Tb3+ and Tb3+-Mg2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, V. S. M.; Azevedo, W. M.; Khoury, H. J.; Linhares Filho, P.

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents the preparation method and the thermoluminescence analysis of aluminium oxide doped with Tb3+ and Tb3+-Mg2+ obtained by Combustion Synthesis (CS). An aqueous solution containing stoichiometric amounts of aluminium, terbium, magnesium nitrates and urea were mixed and introduced in a muffle furnace pre-heated to 500°C. After combustion, the samples were thermally treated at 1300°C and irradiated with a Co-60 gamma radiation source. The TL glow curves of the annealed Al2O3:Tb and Al2O3:Tb,Mg samples presented a well defined TL peak at approximately 200 °C, whereas the samples without heat-treatment presented a large number of TL peaks in the range from 150 to 500°C. These peaks were attributed to amorphous and phase impurities (γ-Al2O3 mixed with the α-phase) still present in the sample. Dose response analysis showed a linear response in the dose range from 0.5 to 5 Gy. These results strongly suggest that CS is a suitable technique to prepare doped aluminium oxide for TL dosimetric applications.

  8. Highly uniform YF{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln = Ce{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}) walnut-like microcrystals: Hydrothermal synthesis and luminescent properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaojie; Sheng, Tianqi; Fu, Zuoling; Li, Wenhao; Jeong, Jung Hyun

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: The emission spectra of Y{sub 0.98−x}F{sub 3}:0.02Ce{sup 3+}, xTb{sup 3+} microcrystals with different Tb{sup 3+} concentrations demonstrated that energy transfer from the Ce{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} ions is highly efficient. The concentration quenching phenomenon occurs when the x = 0.13. We have discussed it in detail based on experiments and quantitative calculations. Highlights: ► YF{sub 3}:Ce{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} walnut-like microcrystals were prepared by a hydrothermal synthesis. ► The optical properties of YF{sub 3}:Ce{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} phosphors have been investigated in detail. ► The energy transfer distance and efficiency from Ce{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+} ions were calculated. ► The dipole–dipole interaction should be the dominant mechanism for energy transfer. - Abstract: Uniform and well-crystallized YF{sub 3} walnut-like microcrystals were prepared by a facile one-step hydrothermal synthesis. The crystalline phase, size, morphology, and luminescence properties were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescent excitation spectra (PLE). The results revealed that the existence of Ce{sup 3+} (sensitizer) can dramatically enhance green emission centered at 545 nm of Tb{sup 3+} (activator) in codoped samples due to an efficient energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+}. The critical energy transfer distance between Ce{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} was also calculated by methods of concentration quenching and spectral overlapping. Experimental analysis and theoretical calculations indicated that the dipole–dipole interaction should be the dominant mechanism for the Ce{sup 3+}–Tb{sup 3+} energy transfer.

  9. Antibacterial activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized with gum ghatti and gum olibanum: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kora, Aruna Jyothi; Sashidhar, Rao Beedu

    2015-02-01

    Presently, silver nanoparticles produced by biological methods have received considerable significance owing to the natural abundance of renewable, cost-effective and biodegradable materials, thus implementing the green chemistry principles. Compared with the nanoparticles synthesized using chemical methods, most biogenic silver nanoparticles are protein capped, which imparts stability and biocompatibility, and enhanced antibacterial activity. In this study, we compared the antibacterial effect of two biogenic silver nanoparticles produced with natural plant gums: gum ghatti and gum olibanum against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Bacterial interaction with nanoparticles was probed both in planktonic and biofilm modes of growth; employing solid agar and liquid broth assays for inhibition zone, antibiofilm activity, inhibition of growth kinetics, leakage of intracellular contents, membrane permeabilization and reactive oxygen species production. In addition, cytotoxicity of the biogenic nanoparticles was evaluated in HeLa cells, a human carcinoma cell line. Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of the silver nanoparticles synthesized with gum ghatti (Ag NP-GT) was greater than that produced with gum olibanum (Ag NP-OB). This could be attributed to the smaller size (5.7 nm), monodispersity and zeta potential of the Ag NP-GT. The study suggests that Ag NP-GT can be employed as a cytotoxic bactericidal agent, whereas Ag NP-OB (7.5 nm) as a biocompatible bactericidal agent. PMID:25138141

  10. Comparative study of antioxidant, metal chelating and antiglycation activities of Momordica charantia flesh and pulp fractions.

    PubMed

    Ghous, Tahseen; Aziz, Nouman; Mehmood, Zahid; Andleeb, Saiqa

    2015-07-01

    Momordica charantia is commonly used as a vegetable and folk medicine in most parts of South Asia. This study aims to determine and compare the antioxidant, metal chelating and antiglycation activities of aqueous extracts of M. charantia fruit flesh (MCF) and fruit pulp (MCP) fractions. Our results show that MCP has pronounced DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging potential compared to MCF. In the antiglycation assay both fractions illustrated considerable inhibitory activities against the formation of AGEs induced by glucose with an efficacy of 75 and 67% with 150 μl of MCP and MCF extracts respectively, almost equal to 0.3mM amino guanidine. Results for metal catalysed protein fragmentation and autoxidative and glycoxidation assays demonstrate that MCF and MCP inhibited metal catalysed protein fragmentation. The percentage of relative standard deviation for three replicate measurements of 150 μl of MCF and MCP was < 3.0% for antiglycation. The antioxidant assays with regression values of MCP (0.981 and 0.991) and MCF (0.967 and 0.999) were also recorded. We conclude that both extracts possess high antioxidant and antiglycation activities and are equally good sources of antioxidant and antiglycating agents. PMID:26142512

  11. Comparative Antimicrobial Activities of Aerosolized Sodium Hypochlorite, Chlorine Dioxide, and Electrochemically Activated Solutions Evaluated Using a Novel Standardized Assay

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, R. M. S.; Robinson, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a standardized experimental assay to enable differential antimicrobial comparisons of test biocidal aerosols. This study represents the first chlorine-matched comparative assessment of the antimicrobial activities of aerosolized sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and electrochemically activated solution (ECAS) to determine their relative abilities to decontaminate various surface-associated health care-relevant microbial challenges. Standard microbiological challenges were developed by surface-associating typed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis spores, or a clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain on stainless steel, polypropylene, or fabric. All test coupons were subjected to 20-min biocidal aerosols of chlorine-matched (100 ppm) sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, or ECAS within a standard aerosolization chamber using a commercial humidifier under defined conditions. Biocidal treatment type and material surface had a significant effect on the number of microorganisms recovered from various material surfaces following treatment exposure. Under the conditions of the assay, the order of antimicrobial efficacy of biocidal aerosol treatment was as follows: ECAS > chlorine dioxide > sodium hypochlorite. For all biocides, greater antimicrobial reductions were seen when treating stainless steel and fabric than when treating plastic-associated microorganisms. The experimental fogging system and assay protocol designed within this study were shown capable of differentiating the comparative efficacies of multiple chlorine-matched biocidal aerosols against a spectrum of target organisms on a range of test surface materials and would be appropriate for testing other biocidal aerosol treatments or material surfaces. PMID:23459480

  12. The Role of Adherence and Retreatment in De Novo Emergence of MDR-TB.

    PubMed

    Cadosch, Dominique; Abel Zur Wiesch, Pia; Kouyos, Roger; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Treatment failure after therapy of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) infections is an important challenge, especially when it coincides with de novo emergence of multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). We seek to explore possible causes why MDR-TB has been found to occur much more often in patients with a history of previous treatment. We develop a mathematical model of the replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within a patient reflecting the compartments of macrophages, granulomas, and open cavities as well as parameterizing the effects of drugs on the pathogen dynamics in these compartments. We use this model to study the influence of patient adherence to therapy and of common retreatment regimens on treatment outcome. As expected, the simulations show that treatment success increases with increasing adherence. However, treatment occasionally fails even under perfect adherence due to interpatient variability in pharmacological parameters. The risk of generating MDR de novo is highest between 40% and 80% adherence. Importantly, our simulations highlight the double-edged effect of retreatment: On the one hand, the recommended retreatment regimen increases the overall success rate compared to re-treating with the initial regimen. On the other hand, it increases the probability to accumulate more resistant genotypes. We conclude that treatment adherence is a key factor for a positive outcome, and that screening for resistant strains is advisable after treatment failure or relapse. PMID:26967493

  13. The Role of Adherence and Retreatment in De Novo Emergence of MDR-TB

    PubMed Central

    Cadosch, Dominique; Abel zur Wiesch, Pia; Kouyos, Roger; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Treatment failure after therapy of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) infections is an important challenge, especially when it coincides with de novo emergence of multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). We seek to explore possible causes why MDR-TB has been found to occur much more often in patients with a history of previous treatment. We develop a mathematical model of the replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within a patient reflecting the compartments of macrophages, granulomas, and open cavities as well as parameterizing the effects of drugs on the pathogen dynamics in these compartments. We use this model to study the influence of patient adherence to therapy and of common retreatment regimens on treatment outcome. As expected, the simulations show that treatment success increases with increasing adherence. However, treatment occasionally fails even under perfect adherence due to interpatient variability in pharmacological parameters. The risk of generating MDR de novo is highest between 40% and 80% adherence. Importantly, our simulations highlight the double-edged effect of retreatment: On the one hand, the recommended retreatment regimen increases the overall success rate compared to re-treating with the initial regimen. On the other hand, it increases the probability to accumulate more resistant genotypes. We conclude that treatment adherence is a key factor for a positive outcome, and that screening for resistant strains is advisable after treatment failure or relapse. PMID:26967493

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure and photoluminescence property of Eu/Tb MOFs with mixed polycarboxylate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lu; Zhang, Sheng; Qu, Xiaoni; Yang, Qi; Liu, Xiangyu; Wei, Qing; Xie, Gang; Chen, Sanping

    2015-11-01

    Lanthanide MOFs, [Eu(TCA)(NDC)·H2O]n (1) and [Tb(TCA)(NDC)·H2O]n (2), have been prepared with the mixed aromatic carboxylate ligands, namely, 4,4‧,4″-tricarboxytriphenylamine (H3TCA) and 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate (H2NDC). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that isomorphic 1 and 2 present pillar-layered 3D framework that Eu/Tb(III) bond with carboxylate in various coordination fashions. Optical investigation indicates that the as-prepared compounds feature characteristic luminescence emission bands of Eu/Tb ions in the visible regions at room temperature. Moreover, compound 2 shows a relatively longer luminescence lifetime (τ=0.342 ms) and significantly enhanced quantum yield (Φoverall=11%) comparing with those of 1 (τ=0.335 ms, Φoverall=0.06%). Two Ln-MOFs (Ln=EuIII, TbIII) with mixed polycarboxylate ligands present different luminescent properties.

  15. Common mental disorders in TB/HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background- The relationship between TB/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD) has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. Methods- We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assessed through face to face interviews by trained clinical nurses using the Kessler 10 scale. Several risk factors for CMD were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results- TB/HIV co-infected patients had significantly (p = 0.001) greater risk of CMD (63.7%) than the non-co-infected patients (46.7%). When adjusted for the effect of potential confounding variables, the odds of having CMD for TB/HIV co-infected individuals was 1.7 times the odds for non-co-infected patients [OR = 1.7, (95%CI: 1.0, 2.9)]. Individuals who had no source of income [OR = 1.7, (95%CI: 1.1, 2.8)], and day labourers [OR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.2, 5.1)] were more likely to have CMD as compared to individuals who had a source of income and government employees respectively. Patients who perceived stigma [OR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.5, 3.2)] and who rate their general health as "poor" [OR = 10.0, 95%CI: 2.8, 35.1)] had significantly greater risk of CMD than individual who did not perceive stigma or who perceived their general health to be "good". Conclusion- TB/HIV control programs should develop guidelines to screen and treat CMD among TB/HIV co-infected patients. Screening programs should focus on individuals with no source of income, jobless people and day labourers. PMID:20618942

  16. Bio-mediated route for the synthesis of shape tunable Y₂O₃: Tb³⁺ nanoparticles: Photoluminescence and antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Prasannakumar, J B; Vidya, Y S; Anantharaju, K S; Ramgopal, G; Nagabhushana, H; Sharma, S C; Daruka Prasad, B; Prashantha, S C; Basavaraj, R B; Rajanaik, H; Lingaraju, K; Prabhakara, K R; Nagaswarupa, H P

    2015-12-01

    The study reports green mediated combustion route for the synthesis of Tb(3+) ion activated Y2O3 nanophosphors using Aloe Vera gel as fuel. The concentration of Tb(3+) plays a key role in controlling the morphology of Y2O3 nanostructures. The formation of different morphologies of Y2O3: Tb(3+) nanophosphors were characterized by PXRD, SEM, TEM and HRTEM. PXRD data and Rietveld analysis evident the formation of single phase Y2O3 with cubic crystal structure. The influence of Tb(3+) ion concentration on structural morphology, UV-visible absorption and PL emission were investigated systematically. The PL emission of Y2O3: Tb(3+) (1-11 mol%) nanophosphors were studied in detail under 271 and 304nm excitation wavelengths. The CIE coordinates lies well within green region and correlated color temperature values were found to be 6221 and 5562K under different excitations. Thus, the present phosphor can serve as an excellent candidate for LEDs. Further, prismatic Y2O3: Tb(3+) (3 mol%) nanophosphor showed significant antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas desmolyticum and Staphylococcus aureus. The present study successfully demonstrates Y2O3: Tb(3+) nanophosphors can be used for display applications as well as in medical applications for controlling pathogenic bacteria. PMID:26125993

  17. Comparative Proteomics Identifies Host Immune System Proteins Affected by Infection with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    López, Vladimir; Villar, Margarita; Queirós, João; Vicente, Joaquín; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Alves, Paulo C; Alberdi, Pilar; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly impact human and animal health worldwide. The mycobacterial life cycle is complex, and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) are natural reservoir hosts for MTBC and a model for mycobacterial infection and tuberculosis (TB). In the wild boar TB model, mycobacterial infection affects the expression of innate and adaptive immune response genes in mandibular lymph nodes and oropharyngeal tonsils, and biomarkers have been proposed as correlates with resistance to natural infection. However, the mechanisms used by mycobacteria to manipulate host immune response are not fully characterized. Our hypothesis is that the immune system proteins under-represented in infected animals, when compared to uninfected controls, are used by mycobacteria to guarantee pathogen infection and transmission. To address this hypothesis, a comparative proteomics approach was used to compare host response between uninfected (TB-) and M. bovis-infected young (TB+) and adult animals with different infection status [TB lesions localized in the head (TB+) or affecting multiple organs (TB++)]. The results identified host immune system proteins that play an important role in host response to mycobacteria. Calcium binding protein A9, Heme peroxidase, Lactotransferrin, Cathelicidin and Peptidoglycan-recognition protein were under-represented in TB+ animals when compared to uninfected TB- controls, but protein levels were higher as infection progressed in TB++ animals when compared to TB- and/or TB+ adult wild boar. MHCI was the only protein over-represented in TB+ adult wild boar when compared to uninfected TB- controls. The results reported here suggest that M. bovis manipulates host immune response by reducing the production of immune system proteins. However, as infection progresses, wild boar immune response recovers to limit pathogen

  18. Comparative Proteomics Identifies Host Immune System Proteins Affected by Infection with Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    López, Vladimir; Villar, Margarita; Queirós, João; Vicente, Joaquín; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Alves, Paulo C.; Alberdi, Pilar; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly impact human and animal health worldwide. The mycobacterial life cycle is complex, and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) are natural reservoir hosts for MTBC and a model for mycobacterial infection and tuberculosis (TB). In the wild boar TB model, mycobacterial infection affects the expression of innate and adaptive immune response genes in mandibular lymph nodes and oropharyngeal tonsils, and biomarkers have been proposed as correlates with resistance to natural infection. However, the mechanisms used by mycobacteria to manipulate host immune response are not fully characterized. Our hypothesis is that the immune system proteins under-represented in infected animals, when compared to uninfected controls, are used by mycobacteria to guarantee pathogen infection and transmission. To address this hypothesis, a comparative proteomics approach was used to compare host response between uninfected (TB-) and M. bovis-infected young (TB+) and adult animals with different infection status [TB lesions localized in the head (TB+) or affecting multiple organs (TB++)]. The results identified host immune system proteins that play an important role in host response to mycobacteria. Calcium binding protein A9, Heme peroxidase, Lactotransferrin, Cathelicidin and Peptidoglycan-recognition protein were under-represented in TB+ animals when compared to uninfected TB- controls, but protein levels were higher as infection progressed in TB++ animals when compared to TB- and/or TB+ adult wild boar. MHCI was the only protein over-represented in TB+ adult wild boar when compared to uninfected TB- controls. The results reported here suggest that M. bovis manipulates host immune response by reducing the production of immune system proteins. However, as infection progresses, wild boar immune response recovers to limit pathogen

  19. Nanoscale charge transport in cytochrome c3/DNA network: Comparative studies between redox-active molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Harumasa; Che, Dock-Chil; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Masayuki; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2015-09-01

    The redox-active molecule of a cytochrome c3/DNA network exhibits nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristics with a threshold bias voltage at low temperature and zero-bias conductance at room temperature. I-V curves for the cytochrome c3/DNA network are well matched with the Coulomb blockade network model. Comparative studies of the Mn12 cluster, cytochrome c, and cytochrome c3, which have a wide variety of redox potentials, indicate no difference in charge transport, which suggests that the conduction mechanism is not directly related to the redox states. The charge transport mechanism has been discussed in terms of the newly-formed electronic energy states near the Fermi level, induced by the ionic interaction between redox-active molecules with the DNA network.

  20. The comparative activity of pefloxacin, enoxacin, ciprofloxacin and 13 other antimicrobial agents against enteropathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Vanhoof, R; Hubrechts, J M; Roebben, E; Nyssen, H J; Nulens, E; Leger, J; De Schepper, N

    1986-01-01

    In this study, we compared the activity of pefloxacin, enoxacin and ciprofloxacin against 269 enteropathogenic strains (Campylobacter jejuni, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella spp., Vibrio cholerae and Yersinia enterocolitica) with that of rosoxacin, flumequin, nifuroxazide, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, amikacin, netilmicin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and co-trimoxazole. Pefloxacin, enoxacin and ciprofloxacin were always among the most active compounds. Furthermore, resistant strains or strains with elevated MIC values were not found. The MIC90 value for these three compounds was less than or equal to 0.25 mg/l, except for C. jejuni where it was 0.3 mg/l and 1.4 mg/l for pefloxacin and enoxacin, respectively. PMID:3546145

  1. Comparative genetic activity of samples collected from two different urban waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Vellosi, R.; Galli, A.; Rossi, F.; Morichetti, E.; Bronzetti, G.

    1988-09-01

    Incineration of industrial and urban waste materials is an important problem for the environmental contamination and therefore for human health. Environmental contaminants spread by urban incinerators can contain a complex mixture of toxic compounds such as dioxin, benzofurans, alogenate acids. It is important to evaluate the genetic damage induced by complex mixtures widespread in the environment. In the present work, the genotoxic activity of samples obtained from the urban incinerator of Florence was analyzed. The results were compared with those obtained with samples drawn from the urban Snamprogetti incinerator of Schio (Vicenza), where halogenated acids contained in the smoke are neutralized with the lime wash in a salification column. Samples were tested using prokaryotic (Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains) and eukaryotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, D7 strain) microorganisms. These systems permit one to obtain rapid, reproducible and reliable results in order to evaluate the genotoxic activity of substances present in the environment.

  2. Comparative in-vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against non-fermenters.

    PubMed

    Husson, M O; Izard, D; Bouillet, L; Leclerc, H

    1985-04-01

    The in-vitro activity of ciprofloxacin, a quinolone-carboxylic acid derivative, was compared with those of carbenicillin, azlocillin, cefsulodin, ceftazidime, tobramycin and amikacin against 187 non-fermenters. Only one of the 131 strains of Pseudomonas spp. was not inhibited by 1 mg/l of ciprofloxacin, while these isolates appeared highly resistant to carbenicillin, azlocillin and cefsulodin. Ciprofloxacin was also the best agent against Flavobacterium, Alcaligenes faecalis and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus with MIC90's respectively of 0.5, 4 and 8 mg/l. This new compound appeared bactericidal, and we found a small or no inoculum effect with ciprofloxacin. PMID:3159710

  3. Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity: a comparative study on three testing methods.

    PubMed

    Koleva, Irina I; van Beek, Teris A; Linssen, Jozef P H; de Groot, Aede; Evstatieva, Lyuba N

    2002-01-01

    Three methods widely employed in the evaluation of antioxidant activity, namely 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) and beta-carotene bleaching test (BCBT), have been compared with regard to their application in the screening of plant extracts. The strengths and limitations of each method have been illustrated by testing a number of extracts, of differing polarity, from plants of the genus Sideritis, and two known antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene and rosmarinic acid). The sample polarity was important for the exhibited activity in the BCBT and HS-GC methods but not for the DPPH method. The complex composition of the extracts and partition phenomena affected their activity in each assay. The value of the BCBT method appears to be limited to less polar samples. Although slow, the HS-GC method is preferable for assessing the antioxidant inhibitory properties on the formation of unwanted secondary volatile products. Being rapid, simple and independent of sample polarity, the DPPH method is very convenient for the quick screening of many samples for radical scavenging activity. PMID:11899609

  4. Comparing Team-Based and Mixed Active-Learning Methods in an Ambulatory Care Elective Course

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Andrea S.; Guirguis, Alexander B.; George, Christa M.; Howard-Thompson, Amanda; Heidel, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess students' performance and perceptions of team-based and mixed active-learning methods in 2 ambulatory care elective courses, and to describe faculty members' perceptions of team-based learning. Methods Using the 2 teaching methods, students' grades were compared. Students' perceptions were assessed through 2 anonymous course evaluation instruments. Faculty members who taught courses using the team-based learning method were surveyed regarding their impressions of team-based learning. Results The ambulatory care course was offered to 64 students using team-based learning (n = 37) and mixed active learning (n = 27) formats. The mean quality points earned were 3.7 (team-based learning) and 3.3 (mixed active learning), p < 0.001. Course evaluations for both courses were favorable. All faculty members who used the team-based learning method reported that they would consider using team-based learning in another course. Conclusions Students were satisfied with both teaching methods; however, student grades were significantly higher in the team-based learning course. Faculty members recognized team-based learning as an effective teaching strategy for small-group active learning. PMID:21301594

  5. A comparative study of parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization of in vitro matured caprine oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kouamo, J; Kharche, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of in vitro matured caprine oocytes. A total of 881 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC’s) were collected from 243 ovaries. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 medium containing eCG (20 IU/ml), hCG (20 IUµg/ml), oestradiol-17β (1 µg/ml), BSA embryo tested (3 mg/ml) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in an incubator under humidified air for 27 h. Based on cumulus expansion, the maturation rate was 86.86%. Morphological matured oocytes (n=749) were selected, denuded and randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n=223) in vitro matured oocytes activated with 5 µm calcium ionophore for 5 min and cultured in mCR2aa medium containing 5 mM DMAP for 4 h. After 4 h of DMAP treatment, the presumptive zygotes were washed and cultured in the embryo culture medium. Group 2 (n=526) in vitro matured oocytes processed for IVF in mTALP using fresh semen of a fertile pure bred adult Sirohi buck and in vitro culture in mCR2aa medium. Development of putative zygotes was observed every 24 h till day 9 post activation or fertilization under inverted phase contrast microscope. The cleavage rate, morula and blastocyst percentage in groups 1 and 2 were 67.36%, 23.07% and 9.23%, and 30.99%, 19.63% and 9.82%, respectively. The results indicated that the cleavage rate was comparatively higher following parthenogenetic activation with ionomycin/6-DMAP than IVF. PMID:27175145

  6. A comparative study of parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization of in vitro matured caprine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kouamo, J; Kharche, S D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of in vitro matured caprine oocytes. A total of 881 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC's) were collected from 243 ovaries. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 medium containing eCG (20 IU/ml), hCG (20 IUµg/ml), oestradiol-17β (1 µg/ml), BSA embryo tested (3 mg/ml) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in an incubator under humidified air for 27 h. Based on cumulus expansion, the maturation rate was 86.86%. Morphological matured oocytes (n=749) were selected, denuded and randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n=223) in vitro matured oocytes activated with 5 µm calcium ionophore for 5 min and cultured in mCR2aa medium containing 5 mM DMAP for 4 h. After 4 h of DMAP treatment, the presumptive zygotes were washed and cultured in the embryo culture medium. Group 2 (n=526) in vitro matured oocytes processed for IVF in mTALP using fresh semen of a fertile pure bred adult Sirohi buck and in vitro culture in mCR2aa medium. Development of putative zygotes was observed every 24 h till day 9 post activation or fertilization under inverted phase contrast microscope. The cleavage rate, morula and blastocyst percentage in groups 1 and 2 were 67.36%, 23.07% and 9.23%, and 30.99%, 19.63% and 9.82%, respectively. The results indicated that the cleavage rate was comparatively higher following parthenogenetic activation with ionomycin/6-DMAP than IVF. PMID:27175145

  7. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Different Antimicrobial Peptides against a Range of Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ebbensgaard, Anna; Mordhorst, Hanne; Overgaard, Michael Toft; Nielsen, Claus Gyrup; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hansen, Egon Bech

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of a Selected Set of Antimicrobial Peptides The rapid emergence of resistance to classical antibiotics has increased the interest in novel antimicrobial compounds. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent an attractive alternative to classical antibiotics and a number of different studies have reported antimicrobial activity data of various AMPs, but there is only limited comparative data available. The mode of action for many AMPs is largely unknown even though several models have suggested that the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play a crucial role in the attraction and attachment of the AMP to the bacterial membrane in Gram-negative bacteria. We compared the potency of Cap18, Cap11, Cap11-1-18m2, Cecropin P1, Cecropin B, Bac2A, Bac2A-NH2, Sub5-NH2, Indolicidin, Melittin, Myxinidin, Myxinidin-NH2, Pyrrhocoricin, Apidaecin and Metalnikowin I towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas salmonicida, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Salmonella typhimurium and Yersinia ruckeri by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations. Additional characteristics such as cytotoxicity, thermo and protease stability were measured and compared among the different peptides. Further, the antimicrobial activity of a selection of cationic AMPs was investigated in various E. coli LPS mutants. Cap18 Shows a High Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity Of all the tested AMPs, Cap18 showed the most efficient antimicrobial activity, in particular against Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, Cap18 is highly thermostable and showed no cytotoxic effect in a hemolytic assay, measured at the concentration used. However, Cap18 is, as most of the tested AMPs, sensitive to proteolytic digestion in vitro. Thus, Cap18 is an excellent candidate for further development into practical use; however, modifications that should reduce the protease sensitivity would be needed. In addition, our

  8. Adverse Events in Healthy Individuals and MDR-TB Contacts Treated with Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs Potentially Effective for Preventing Development of MDR-TB: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Langendam, Miranda W.; Tiemersma, Edine W.; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Sandgren, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A recent systematic review concluded that there is insufficient evidence on the effectiveness to support or reject preventive therapy for treatment of contacts of patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Whether preventive therapy is favorable depends both on the effectiveness and the adverse events of the drugs used. We performed a systematic review to assess adverse events in healthy individuals and MDR-TB contacts treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs potentially effective for preventing development of MDR-TB. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other databases (August 2011). Record selection, data extraction, and study quality assessment were done in duplicate. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Of 6,901 identified references, 20 studies were eligible. Among the 16 studies in healthy volunteers (a total of 87 persons on either levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, or rifabutin, mostly for 1 week), serious adverse events and treatment discontinuation due to adverse events were rare (<1 and <5%, respectively), but mild adverse events frequently occurred. Due to small sample sizes of the levofloxacin and ofloxacin studies an increased frequency of mild adverse events compared to placebo could not be demonstrated or excluded. For moxifloxacin the comparative results were inconsistent. In four studies describing preventive therapy of MDR-TB contacts, therapy was stopped for 58–100% of the included persons because of the occurrence of adverse events ranging from mild adverse events such as nausea and dizziness to serious events requiring treatment. The quality of the evidence was very low. Although the number of publications and quality of evidence are low, the available evidence suggests that shortly after starting treatment the occurrence of serious adverse events is rare. Mild adverse events occur more frequently and may be of importance because these may provoke treatment interruption. PMID:23326464

  9. A Clinical Algorithm to Identify HIV Patients at High Risk for Incident Active Tuberculosis: A Prospective 5-Year Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Tsai, Hung-Chin; Su, Ih-Jen; Yang, Chin-Hui; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Hung, Chien-Chin; Sy, Cheng-Len; Wu, Kuan-Sheng; Chen, Jui-Kuang; Chen, Yao-Shen; Fang, Chi-Tai

    2015-01-01

    Background Predicting the risk of tuberculosis (TB) in people living with HIV (PLHIV) using a single test is currently not possible. We aimed to develop and validate a clinical algorithm, using baseline CD4 cell counts, HIV viral load (pVL), and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), to identify PLHIV who are at high risk for incident active TB in low-to-moderate TB burden settings where highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is routinely provided. Materials and Methods A prospective, 5-year, cohort study of adult PLHIV was conducted from 2006 to 2012 in two hospitals in Taiwan. HAART was initiated based on contemporary guidelines (CD4 count < = 350/μL). Cox regression was used to identify the predictors of active TB and to construct the algorithm. The validation cohorts included 1455 HIV-infected individuals from previous published studies. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated. Results Seventeen of 772 participants developed active TB during a median follow-up period of 5.21 years. Baseline CD4 < 350/μL or pVL ≥ 100,000/mL was a predictor of active TB (adjusted HR 4.87, 95% CI 1.49–15.90, P = 0.009). A positive baseline IGRA predicted TB in patients with baseline CD4 ≥ 350/μL and pVL < 100,000/mL (adjusted HR 6.09, 95% CI 1.52–24.40, P = 0.01). Compared with an IGRA-alone strategy, the algorithm improved the sensitivity from 37.5% to 76.5%, the negative predictive value from 98.5% to 99.2%. Compared with an untargeted strategy, the algorithm spared 468 (60.6%) from unnecessary TB preventive treatment. Area under the ROC curve was 0.692 (95% CI: 0.587–0.798) for the study cohort and 0.792 (95% CI: 0.776–0.808) and 0.766 in the 2 validation cohorts. Conclusions A validated algorithm incorporating the baseline CD4 cell count, HIV viral load, and IGRA status can be used to guide targeted TB preventive treatment in PLHIV in low-to-moderate TB burden settings where HAART is routinely provided to all PLHIV. The

  10. Missed Opportunities for TB Investigation in Primary Care Clinics in South Africa: Experience from the XTEND Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chihota, Violet N.; Ginindza, Sibuse; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Grant, Alison D.; Churchyard, Gavin; Fielding, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    reporting TB symptoms did not get tested. Implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF did not substantially change the probability of testing for TB. Better systems are needed to ensure that opportunities to identify active TB among PHC attendees are not missed. PMID:26383102

  11. 46 CFR 34.30-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.30-1 Section 34.30-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems, Details § 34.30-1 Application—TB/ALL. Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with NFPA 13-1996....

  12. 46 CFR 34.50-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.50-1 Section 34.50-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this subpart, with the...

  13. 46 CFR 34.50-10 - Location-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location-TB/ALL. 34.50-10 Section 34.50-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-10 Location—TB/ALL. (a) Approved portable and semiportable...

  14. 46 CFR 34.10-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.10-1 Section 34.10-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) On all tankships the provisions of this subpart, with...

  15. 46 CFR 34.50-10 - Location-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location-TB/ALL. 34.50-10 Section 34.50-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-10 Location—TB/ALL. (a) Approved portable and semiportable...

  16. 46 CFR 34.50-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.50-1 Section 34.50-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this subpart, with the...

  17. 46 CFR 34.01-1 - Applicability-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability-TB/ALL. 34.01-1 Section 34.01-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT General § 34.01-1 Applicability—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this part shall apply to all tank vessels except as otherwise...

  18. 46 CFR 34.30-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.30-1 Section 34.30-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems, Details § 34.30-1 Application—TB/ALL. Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with NFPA 13-1996....

  19. 46 CFR 34.10-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.10-1 Section 34.10-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) On all tankships the provisions of this subpart, with...

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-61 - Rivers-TB/R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rivers-TB/R. 30.10-61 Section 30.10-61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-61 Rivers—TB/R. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels whose navigation is restricted...

  1. 46 CFR 30.10-61 - Rivers-TB/R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rivers-TB/R. 30.10-61 Section 30.10-61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-61 Rivers—TB/R. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels whose navigation is restricted...

  2. 46 CFR 30.10-61 - Rivers-TB/R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rivers-TB/R. 30.10-61 Section 30.10-61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-61 Rivers—TB/R. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels whose navigation is restricted...

  3. 46 CFR 30.10-61 - Rivers-TB/R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rivers-TB/R. 30.10-61 Section 30.10-61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-61 Rivers—TB/R. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels whose navigation is restricted...

  4. 46 CFR 30.10-61 - Rivers-TB/R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rivers-TB/R. 30.10-61 Section 30.10-61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-61 Rivers—TB/R. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels whose navigation is restricted...

  5. 46 CFR 30.10-38 - Lightweight-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lightweight-TB/ALL. 30.10-38 Section 30.10-38 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-38 Lightweight—TB/ALL. The term lightweight means the displacement of a vessel in metric tons without cargo,...

  6. 46 CFR 38.05-20 - Insulation-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insulation-TB/ALL. 38.05-20 Section 38.05-20 Shipping... Installation § 38.05-20 Insulation—TB/ALL. (a) Where used, tank insulation shall satisfy the following requirements for combustibility, installation, and arrangement: (1) Insulation in a location exposed...

  7. 46 CFR 38.05-20 - Insulation-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insulation-TB/ALL. 38.05-20 Section 38.05-20 Shipping... Installation § 38.05-20 Insulation—TB/ALL. (a) Where used, tank insulation shall satisfy the following requirements for combustibility, installation, and arrangement: (1) Insulation in a location exposed...

  8. 46 CFR 38.05-20 - Insulation-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insulation-TB/ALL. 38.05-20 Section 38.05-20 Shipping... Installation § 38.05-20 Insulation—TB/ALL. (a) Where used, tank insulation shall satisfy the following requirements for combustibility, installation, and arrangement: (1) Insulation in a location exposed...

  9. 46 CFR 38.05-20 - Insulation-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insulation-TB/ALL. 38.05-20 Section 38.05-20 Shipping... Installation § 38.05-20 Insulation—TB/ALL. (a) Where used, tank insulation shall satisfy the following requirements for combustibility, installation, and arrangement: (1) Insulation in a location exposed...

  10. 46 CFR 38.05-20 - Insulation-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insulation-TB/ALL. 38.05-20 Section 38.05-20 Shipping... Installation § 38.05-20 Insulation—TB/ALL. (a) Where used, tank insulation shall satisfy the following requirements for combustibility, installation, and arrangement: (1) Insulation in a location exposed...

  11. 46 CFR 35.35-75 - Emergencies-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergencies-TB/ALL. 35.35-75 Section 35.35-75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Cargo Handling § 35.35-75 Emergencies—TB/ALL. In case of emergencies nothing in the regulations in this subchapter shall be construed...

  12. 46 CFR 35.35-75 - Emergencies-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergencies-TB/ALL. 35.35-75 Section 35.35-75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Cargo Handling § 35.35-75 Emergencies—TB/ALL. In case of emergencies nothing in the regulations in this subchapter shall be construed...

  13. 46 CFR 30.10-45 - Ocean-TB/O.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean-TB/O. 30.10-45 Section 30.10-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-45 Ocean—TB/O. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean...

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-45 - Ocean-TB/O.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean-TB/O. 30.10-45 Section 30.10-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-45 Ocean—TB/O. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean...

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-45 - Ocean-TB/O.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean-TB/O. 30.10-45 Section 30.10-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-45 Ocean—TB/O. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean...

  16. 46 CFR 30.10-45 - Ocean-TB/O.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean-TB/O. 30.10-45 Section 30.10-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-45 Ocean—TB/O. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean...

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-45 - Ocean-TB/O.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean-TB/O. 30.10-45 Section 30.10-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-45 Ocean—TB/O. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean...

  18. 46 CFR 30.10-5 - Cargo-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo-TB/ALL. 30.10-5 Section 30.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5 Cargo—TB/ALL. The term cargo means combustible liquid, flammable liquid, or liquefied flammable gas...

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-5 - Cargo-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo-TB/ALL. 30.10-5 Section 30.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5 Cargo—TB/ALL. The term cargo means combustible liquid, flammable liquid, or liquefied flammable gas...

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-5 - Cargo-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo-TB/ALL. 30.10-5 Section 30.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5 Cargo—TB/ALL. The term cargo means combustible liquid, flammable liquid, or liquefied flammable gas...

  1. 46 CFR 35.07-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 35.07-1 Section 35.07-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 35.07-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) Except as specifically noted, the provisions of this subpart shall apply to all...

  2. 46 CFR 32.75-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.75-1 Section 32.75-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Application—TB/ALL. All wood hull tank vessels, the construction or conversion of which was started prior...

  3. 46 CFR 30.10-7 - Certificated-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Certificated-TB/ALL. 30.10-7 Section 30.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-7 Certificated—TB/ALL. The term certificated when applied to tank vessels refers to a vessel covered by...

  4. 46 CFR 32.65-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.65-1 Section 32.65-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL..., 1951 § 32.65-1 Application—TB/ALL. The requirements in this subpart apply to all tank vessels,...

  5. 46 CFR 30.10-5 - Cargo-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo-TB/ALL. 30.10-5 Section 30.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5 Cargo—TB/ALL. The term cargo means combustible liquid, flammable liquid, or liquefied flammable gas...

  6. 46 CFR 39.10-1 - Applicability-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., or benzene, to a facility covered by 33 CFR part 154 must meet the requirements prescribed by the... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability-TB/ALL. 39.10-1 Section 39.10-1 Shipping... Applicability—TB/ALL. (a) Except as specified by paragraph (c) of this section, this part applies to each...

  7. 46 CFR 30.10-71 - Tankerman-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tankerman-TB/ALL. 30.10-71 Section 30.10-71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-71 Tankerman—TB/ALL. The following ratings are established in part 13 of this chapter. The terms for...

  8. 46 CFR 30.10-5 - Cargo-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo-TB/ALL. 30.10-5 Section 30.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5 Cargo—TB/ALL. The term cargo means combustible liquid, flammable liquid, or liquefied flammable gas...

  9. 46 CFR 30.10-27 - Flashpoint-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flashpoint-TB/ALL. 30.10-27 Section 30.10-27 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-27 Flashpoint—TB/ALL. The term flashpoint indicates the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit at which a...

  10. 46 CFR 32.57-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.57-1 Section 32.57-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this subpart shall apply to all tank vessels contracted for on...

  11. 46 CFR 32.57-5 - Definitions-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions-TB/ALL. 32.57-5 Section 32.57-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Definitions—TB/ALL. (a) Standard fire test. A “standard fire test” is one which develops in the test furnace...

  12. 46 CFR 30.10-3 - Approved-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approved-TB/ALL. 30.10-3 Section 30.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-3 Approved—TB/ALL. The term approved means approved by the Commandant unless otherwise stated....

  13. 46 CFR 30.10-11 - Coastwise-TB/C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coastwise-TB/C. 30.10-11 Section 30.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-11 Coastwise—TB/C. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of...

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-13 - Cofferdam-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cofferdam-TB/ALL. 30.10-13 Section 30.10-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-13 Cofferdam—TB/ALL. The term cofferdam means a void or empty space separating two or more compartments for...

  15. 46 CFR 32.40-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.40-1 Section 32.40-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 32.40-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of...

  16. 46 CFR 39.10-3 - Definitions-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions-TB/ALL. 39.10-3 Section 39.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS VAPOR CONTROL SYSTEMS General § 39.10-3 Definitions—TB/ALL. As used in this part: Cargo deck area means that part of the weather deck that is...

  17. 46 CFR 32.70-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.70-1 Section 32.70-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Application—TB/ALL. All steel hull tank vessels, the construction or conversion of which was started prior...

  18. 46 CFR 30.10-49 - Permit-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit-TB/ALL. 30.10-49 Section 30.10-49 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-49 Permit—TB/ALL. The term permit refers to endorsement on the certificate of inspection, authorizing the...

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-3 - Approved-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approved-TB/ALL. 30.10-3 Section 30.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-3 Approved—TB/ALL. The term approved means approved by the Commandant unless otherwise stated....

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-13 - Cofferdam-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cofferdam-TB/ALL. 30.10-13 Section 30.10-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-13 Cofferdam—TB/ALL. The term cofferdam means a void or empty space separating two or more compartments for...

  1. 46 CFR 38.05-5 - Markings-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Markings-TB/ALL. 38.05-5 Section 38.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Design and Installation § 38.05-5 Markings—TB/ALL. (a)(1) Upon satisfactory completion of tests and inspection, pressure...

  2. 46 CFR 32.70-10 - Cofferdams-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cofferdams-TB/ALL. 32.70-10 Section 32.70-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Cofferdams—TB/ALL. Tank vessels carrying Grade A, B, or C liquids shall be required to conform to...

  3. 46 CFR 30.10-38 - Lightweight-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lightweight-TB/ALL. 30.10-38 Section 30.10-38 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-38 Lightweight—TB/ALL. The term lightweight means the displacement of a vessel in metric tons without cargo,...

  4. 46 CFR 30.10-7 - Certificated-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certificated-TB/ALL. 30.10-7 Section 30.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-7 Certificated—TB/ALL. The term certificated when applied to tank vessels refers to a vessel covered by...

  5. 46 CFR 35.03-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 35.03-1 Section 35.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vests § 35.03-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) Provisions of this subpart shall apply to all tank vessels....

  6. 46 CFR 32.65-15 - Cofferdams-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cofferdams-TB/ALL. 32.65-15 Section 32.65-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL..., 1951 § 32.65-15 Cofferdams—TB/ALL. Tank vessels equipped to carry Grade A, B, C, or D liquids...

  7. 46 CFR 35.03-10 - Use-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use-TB/ALL. 35.03-10 Section 35.03-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vests § 35.03-10 Use—TB/ALL. (a) Approved buoyant work vests are considered to be items of safety apparel and may be carried aboard...

  8. 46 CFR 32.57-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.57-1 Section 32.57-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this subpart shall apply to all tank vessels contracted for on...

  9. 46 CFR 32.70-15 - Pumprooms-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pumprooms-TB/ALL. 32.70-15 Section 32.70-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Pumprooms—TB/ALL. Tank vessels handling Grade A, B, C or D liquid cargo shall meet the requirements for...

  10. 46 CFR 35.07-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 35.07-1 Section 35.07-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 35.07-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) Except as specifically noted, the provisions of this subpart shall apply to all...

  11. 46 CFR 30.10-49 - Permit-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permit-TB/ALL. 30.10-49 Section 30.10-49 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-49 Permit—TB/ALL. The term permit refers to endorsement on the certificate of inspection, authorizing the...

  12. 46 CFR 30.10-35 - Headquarters-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Headquarters-TB/ALL. 30.10-35 Section 30.10-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-35 Headquarters—TB/ALL. The term Headquarters means the Office of the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington,...

  13. 46 CFR 32.65-15 - Cofferdams-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cofferdams-TB/ALL. 32.65-15 Section 32.65-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL..., 1951 § 32.65-15 Cofferdams—TB/ALL. Tank vessels equipped to carry Grade A, B, C, or D liquids...

  14. 46 CFR 31.20-1 - Waters-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Waters-TB/ALL. 31.20-1 Section 31.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Waters Operated Over § 31.20-1 Waters—TB/ALL. The certificate of inspection shall show the waters over which the tank...

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-17 - Commandant-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commandant-TB/ALL. 30.10-17 Section 30.10-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-17 Commandant—TB/ALL. The term Commandant means the Commandant of the Coast Guard....

  16. 46 CFR 30.10-17 - Commandant-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commandant-TB/ALL. 30.10-17 Section 30.10-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-17 Commandant—TB/ALL. The term Commandant means the Commandant of the Coast Guard....

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-71 - Tankerman-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tankerman-TB/ALL. 30.10-71 Section 30.10-71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-71 Tankerman—TB/ALL. The following ratings are established in part 13 of this chapter. The terms for...

  18. 46 CFR 35.03-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 35.03-1 Section 35.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vests § 35.03-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) Provisions of this subpart shall apply to all tank vessels....

  19. 46 CFR 32.75-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.75-1 Section 32.75-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Application—TB/ALL. All wood hull tank vessels, the construction or conversion of which was started prior...

  20. 46 CFR 35.35-75 - Emergencies-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergencies-TB/ALL. 35.35-75 Section 35.35-75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Cargo Handling § 35.35-75 Emergencies—TB/ALL. In case of emergencies nothing in the regulations in this subchapter shall be construed...

  1. 46 CFR 35.35-75 - Emergencies-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergencies-TB/ALL. 35.35-75 Section 35.35-75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Cargo Handling § 35.35-75 Emergencies—TB/ALL. In case of emergencies nothing in the regulations in this subchapter shall be construed...

  2. 46 CFR 30.10-35 - Headquarters-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Headquarters-TB/ALL. 30.10-35 Section 30.10-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-35 Headquarters—TB/ALL. The term Headquarters means the Office of the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington,...

  3. 46 CFR 32.65-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.65-1 Section 32.65-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL..., 1951 § 32.65-1 Application—TB/ALL. The requirements in this subpart apply to all tank vessels,...

  4. 46 CFR 32.70-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.70-1 Section 32.70-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Application—TB/ALL. All steel hull tank vessels, the construction or conversion of which was started prior...

  5. 46 CFR 32.70-10 - Cofferdams-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cofferdams-TB/ALL. 32.70-10 Section 32.70-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Cofferdams—TB/ALL. Tank vessels carrying Grade A, B, or C liquids shall be required to conform to...

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-27 - Flashpoint-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flashpoint-TB/ALL. 30.10-27 Section 30.10-27 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-27 Flashpoint—TB/ALL. The term flashpoint indicates the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit at which a...

  7. 46 CFR 32.70-15 - Pumprooms-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumprooms-TB/ALL. 32.70-15 Section 32.70-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Pumprooms—TB/ALL. Tank vessels handling Grade A, B, C or D liquid cargo shall meet the requirements for...

  8. 46 CFR 32.40-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.40-1 Section 32.40-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 32.40-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of...

  9. 46 CFR 30.10-38 - Lightweight-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lightweight-TB/ALL. 30.10-38 Section 30.10-38 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-38 Lightweight—TB/ALL. The term lightweight means the displacement of a vessel in metric tons without cargo,...

  10. 46 CFR 30.10-38 - Lightweight-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lightweight-TB/ALL. 30.10-38 Section 30.10-38 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-38 Lightweight—TB/ALL. The term lightweight means the displacement of a vessel in metric tons without cargo,...

  11. 46 CFR 30.10-38 - Lightweight-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lightweight-TB/ALL. 30.10-38 Section 30.10-38 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-38 Lightweight—TB/ALL. The term lightweight means the displacement of a vessel in metric tons without cargo,...

  12. 46 CFR 35.30-25 - Explosives-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Explosives-TB/ALL. 35.30-25 Section 35.30-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS General Safety Rules § 35.30-25 Explosives—TB/ALL. Fulminates or other detonating compounds in bulk in dry condition; explosive compositions that ignite spontaneously or...

  13. 46 CFR 34.01-1 - Applicability-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability-TB/ALL. 34.01-1 Section 34.01-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT General § 34.01-1 Applicability—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this part shall apply to all tank vessels except as otherwise...

  14. Comparative Study of the Biological Activity of Allantoin and Aqueous Extract of the Comfrey Root.

    PubMed

    Savić, Vesna Lj; Nikolić, Vesna D; Arsić, Ivana A; Stanojević, Ljiljana P; Najman, Stevo J; Stojanović, Sanja; Mladenović-Ranisavljević, Ivana I

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the biological activity of pure allantoin (PA) and aqueous extract of the comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root (AECR) standardized to the allantoin content. Cell viability and proliferation of epithelial (MDCK) and fibroblastic (L929) cell line were studied by using MTT test. Anti-irritant potential was determined by measuring electrical capacitance, erythema index (EI) and transepidermal water loss of artificially irritated skin of young healthy volunteers, 3 and 7 days after application of creams and gels with PA or AECR. Pure allantoin showed mild inhibitory effect on proliferation of both cell lines at concentrations 40 and 100 µg/ml, but more pronounced on MDCK cells. Aqueous extract of the comfrey root effect on cell proliferation in concentrations higher than 40 µg/ml was significantly stimulatory for L929 but inhibitory for MDCK cells. Pharmaceutical preparations that contained AECR showed better anti-irritant potential compared with PA. Creams showed better effect on hydration and EI compared with the gels that contained the same components. Our results indicate that the biological activity of the comfrey root extract cannot be attributed only to allantoin but is also likely the result of the interaction of different compounds present in AECR. Topical preparations that contain comfrey extract may have a great application in the treatment of skin irritation. PMID:25880800

  15. Comparative study of torque expression among active and passive self-ligating and conventional brackets

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Érika Mendonça Fernandes; Valarelli, Fabrício Pinelli; Fernandes, João Batista; Cançado, Rodrigo Hermont; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to compare torque expression in active and passive self-ligating and conventional brackets. Methods: A total of 300 segments of stainless steel wire 0.019 x 0.025-in and six different brands of brackets (Damon 3MX, Portia, In-Ovation R, Bioquick, Roth SLI and Roth Max) were used. Torque moments were measured at 12°, 24°, 36° and 48°, using a wire torsion device associated with a universal testing machine. The data obtained were compared by analysis of variance followed by Tukey test for multiple comparisons. Regression analysis was performed by the least-squares method to generate the mathematical equation of the optimal curve for each brand of bracket. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in the expression of torque among all evaluated bracket brands in all evaluated torsions (p < 0.05). It was found that Bioquick presented the lowest torque expression in all tested torsions; in contrast, Damon 3MX bracket presented the highest torque expression up to 36° torsion. Conclusions: The connection system between wire/bracket (active, passive self-ligating or conventional with elastic ligature) seems not to interfere in the final torque expression, the latter being probably dependent on the interaction between the wire and the bracket chosen for orthodontic mechanics. PMID:26691972

  16. Photoluminescence and Energy Transfer Properties with Y+SiO4 Substituting Ba+PO4 in Ba3Y(PO4)3:Ce(3+)/Tb(3+), Tb(3+)/Eu(3+) Phosphors for w-LEDs.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Liang, Sisi; Shang, Mengmeng; Lian, Hongzhou; Lin, Jun

    2016-08-01

    A series of Ce(3+), Tb(3+), Eu(3+) doped Ba2Y2(PO4)2(SiO4) (BYSPO) phosphors were synthesized via the high-temperature solid-state reaction route. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, solid-state NMR, photoluminescence (PL) including temperature-dependent PL, and fluorescent decay measurements were conducted to characterize and analyze as-prepared samples. BYSPO was obtained by the substitution of Y+SiO4 for Ba+PO4 in Ba3Y(PO4)3 (BYPO). The red shift of PL emission from 375 to 401 nm occurs by comparing BYSPO:0.14Ce(3+) with BYPO:0.14Ce(3+) under 323 nm UV excitation. More importantly, the excitation edge can be extended from 350 to 400 nm, which makes it be excited by UV/n-UV chips (330-410 nm). Tunable emission color from blue to green can be observed under 365 nm UV excitation based on the energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Tb(3+) ions after codoping Tb(3+) into BYSPO:0.14Ce(3+). Moreover, energy transfer from Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) ions also can be found in BYSPO:Tb(3+),Eu(3+) phosphors, resulting in the tunable color from green to orange red upon 377 nm UV excitation. Energy transfer properties were demonstrated by overlap of excitation spectra, variations of emission spectra, and decay times. In addition, energy transfer mechanisms from Ce(3+) to Tb(3+) and Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) in BYSPO were also discussed in detail. Quantum yields and CIE chromatic coordinates were also presented. Generally, the results suggest their potential applications in UV/n-UV pumped LEDs. PMID:27415966

  17. A comparative study of the activation of protein kinase C alpha by different diacylglycerol isomers.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Piñera, P; Micol, V; Corbalán-García, S; Gómez-Fernández, J C

    1999-02-01

    The lipid activation of protein kinase C alpha (PKC alpha) has been studied by comparing the activation capacity of different 1, 2-diacylglycerols and 1,3-diacylglycerols incorporated into mixed micelles or vesicles. Unsaturated 1,2-diacylglycerols were, in general, more potent activators than saturated ones when 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (POPS)/Triton X-100 mixed micelles and pure POPS vesicles were used. In contrast, these differences were not observed when 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/POPS (4:1, molar ratio) vesicles were used. Diacylglycerols bearing short fatty acyl chains showed a very high activation capacity, however, the capacity was less in mixed micelles. Furthermore, 1, 2-diacylglycerols had a considerably higher activating capacity than 1,3-diacylglycerols in POPS/Triton X-100 mixed micelles and in POPC/POPS vesicles. However, the differences between the two types of diacylglycerols were smaller when pure POPS vesicles were used. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that POPC/POPS membrane samples containing diacylglycerols had endothermic transitions in the presence of 200 microM Ca2+ and 5 mM Mg2+. Transitions were not detected when using pure POPS vesicles due to the formation of dehydrated phases as demonstrated by FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) spectroscopy. PKC alpha binding studies, performed by differential centrifugation in the presence of 200 microM Ca2+ and 5 mM Mg2+, showed that 1,2-sn-dioleoylglycerol (1, 2-DOG) was more effective than 1,3-dioleoylglycerol (1,3-DOG) in promoting binding to POPC/POPS vesicles. However, when pure POPS vesicles were used, PKC alpha was able to bind to membranes containing either 1,2-DOG or 1,3-DOG to the same extent. PMID:9895281

  18. Isophosphoramide mustard, a metabolite of ifosfamide with activity against murine tumours comparable to cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed Central

    Struck, R. F.; Dykes, D. J.; Corbett, T. H.; Suling, W. J.; Trader, M. W.

    1983-01-01

    Isophosphoramide mustard was synthesized and was found to demonstrate activity essentially comparable to cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide against L1210 and P388 leukaemia. Lewis lung carcinoma, mammary adenocarcinoma 16/C, ovarian sarcoma M5076, and colon tumour 6A, in mice and Yoshida ascitic sarcoma in rats. At doses less than, or equivalent to, the LD10, isophosphoramide mustard retained high activity against cyclophosphamide-resistant L1210 and P388 leukaemias, but was less active against intracerebrally-implanted P388 leukaemia while cyclophosphamide produced a 4 log10 tumour cell reduction. It was also less active (one log10 lower cell kill) than cyclophosphamide against the B16 melonoma. Metabolism studies on ifosfamide in mice identified isophosphoramide mustard in blood. In addition, unchanged drug, carboxyifosfamide, 4-ketoifosfamide, dechloroethyl cyclophosphamide, dechloroethylifosfamide, and alcoifosfamide were identified. The latter 4 metabolites were also identified in urine from an ifosfamide-treated dog. In a simulated in vitro pharmacokinetic experiment against L1210 leukaemia in which drugs were incubated at various concentrations for various times, both 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide and isophosphoramide mustard exhibited significant cytoxicity at concentration times time values of 100-1000 micrograms X min ml-1, while acrolein was significantly cytotoxic at 10 micrograms X min ml-1. Treatment of mice with drug followed by L1210 cells demonstrated a shorter duration of effective levels of cytotoxic activity for isophosphoramide mustard and phosphoramide mustard in comparison with cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. Isophosphoramide mustard and 2-chloroethylamine, a potential hydrolysis product of isophosphoramide mustard and carboxyifosfamide, were less mutagenic in the standard Ames test than the 2 corresponding metabolites of cyclophosphamide [phosphoramide mustard and bis(2-chloroethyl)amine]. PMID:6821629

  19. Energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} in Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}:(Eu{sup 2+}, Tb{sup 3+}) crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Tagiev, O. B. Ganbarova, Kh. B.

    2015-04-15

    The photoluminescence of Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} crystals activated with Eu{sup 2+} and Tb{sup 3+} ions separately and with ions of both types is studied in the temperature range 77–300 K. It is established that, in the range 77–300 K, the observed broadband photoluminescence in (Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub 0.95}:(Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.05} crystals with a peak at 545 nm is defined by 4f{sup 6}5d-4f{sup 7}({sup 8}S{sub 7/2}) intracenter transitions in Eu{sup 2+} ions and the photoluminescence with peaks at 492, 544, 584, 625, and 680 nm in (Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub 0.99}(Tb{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.01} crystals is due to the 5d → {sup 2}F{sub j} (j = 6−2) intracenter transitions in Tb{sup 3+} ions. It is shown that the photoluminescence bands of Tb{sup 3+} ions in the (Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub 0.94}(Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.05}(Tb{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.01} crystals disappears because of excitation energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} ions to Eu{sup 2+} ions; i.e., the Tb{sup 3+} ion is a sensitizer of the photoluminescence of the Eu{sup 2+} ion.

  20. Predictive value of the tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-tuberculosis Gold In-Tube test for development of active tuberculosis in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Seyhan, Ekrem Cengiz; Gunluoglu, Gulşah; Gunluoglu, Mehmet Zeki; Tural, Seda; Sökücü, Sinem

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at increased risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) compared with the general population. QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) for LTBI detection is more promising than tuberculin skin test (TST) in HD patients. AIM: In our study, we evaluated the value of the TST and QFT-G In-Tube (QFG-IT) test in the development of active tuberculosis (TB), in the HD patients, and in healthy controls. METHODS: The study enrolled 95 HD patients and ninety age-matched, healthy controls. The TST and QFG-IT were performed. All the subjects were followed up 5 years for active TB disease. RESULTS: Compared to the healthy controls, a high prevalence of LTBI was found in the HD patients by QFG-IT (41% vs. 25%). However, no significant difference was detected by TST (32% vs. 31%). Four HD patients and one healthy control progressed to active TB disease within the 5-year follow-up. For active TB discovered subjects, QFG-IT was positive in all, but TST was positive in two (one patient and one healthy control). In HD patients; sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of QFG-IT, and TST for active TB was 100% and 25%, 62% and 67%, 10%, and 3%, and 100% and 95%, respectively. Receiver operating curve analysis revealed that the results are significantly different (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: QFG-IT test is a more useful diagnostic method than TST for detecting those who will progress to active TB in HD patients. PMID:27168859

  1. Cell-specific activity of neprilysin 2 isoforms and enzymic specificity compared with neprilysin.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Christiane; Voisin, Stéphanie; Gros, Claude; Schwartz, Jean-Charles; Ouimet, Tanja

    2002-01-01

    Neprilysin (NEP) 2 is a recently cloned glycoprotein displaying a high degree of sequence identity with neprilysin (EC 3.4.24.11), the prototypical member of the M13 subfamily of metalloproteases. Whereas NEP is involved in the metabolism of several bioactive peptides by plasma membranes of various cells, the enzymic properties and physiological functions of NEP2 are unknown. Here we characterize the cell-expression modalities and enzymic specificity of two alternatively spliced isoforms of NEP2 in Chinese hamster ovary and AtT20 cells. In the two cell lines, both isoforms are type II glycoproteins inserted in the endoplasmic reticulum as inactive precursors. Maturation detected by Western-blot analysis of glycosidase digests was cell-specific and more efficient in the endocrine cell line. The enzymic activity of both isoforms semi-purified from AtT20 cells reveals comparable specificities in terms of model substrates, pH optima and inhibitory patterns. NEP2 activity was compared with that of NEP regarding potencies of transition-state inhibitors, modes of hydrolysis, maximal hydrolysis rates and apparent affinities of bioactive peptides. Although all transition-state inhibitors of NEP inhibited NEP2 activity, albeit with different potencies, and many peptides were cleaved at the same amide bond by both peptidases, differences could be observed, i.e. in the hydrolysis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and cholecystokinin, which occurred at different sites and more efficiently in the case of NEP2. Differences in cleavage of bioactive peptides, in cell-trafficking patterns and in tissue distribution indicate that NEP and NEP2 play distinct physiological roles in spite of their high degree of sequence identity. PMID:11964170

  2. The cost-utility of open prostatectomy compared with active surveillance in early localised prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an on-going debate about whether to perform surgery on early stage localised prostate cancer and risk the common long term side effects such as urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Alternatively these patients could be closely monitored and treated only in case of disease progression (active surveillance). The aim of this paper is to develop a decision-analytic model comparing the cost-utility of active surveillance (AS) and radical prostatectomy (PE) for a cohort of 65 year old men with newly diagnosed low risk prostate cancer. Methods A Markov model comparing PE and AS over a lifetime horizon was programmed in TreeAge from a German societal perspective. Comparative disease specific mortality was obtained from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group trial. Direct costs were identified via national treatment guidelines and expert interviews covering in-patient, out-patient, medication, aids and remedies as well as out of pocket payments. Utility values were used as factor weights for age specific quality of life values of the German population. Uncertainty was assessed deterministically and probabilistically. Results With quality adjustment, AS was the dominant strategy compared with initial treatment. In the base case, it was associated with an additional 0.04 quality adjusted life years (7.60 QALYs vs. 7.56 QALYs) and a cost reduction of €6,883 per patient (2011 prices). Considering only life-years gained, PE was more effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €96,420/life year gained. Sensitivity analysis showed that the probability of developing metastases under AS and utility weights under AS are a major sources of uncertainty. A Monte Carlo simulation revealed that AS was more likely to be cost-effective even under very high willingness to pay thresholds. Conclusion AS is likely to be a cost-saving treatment strategy for some patients with early stage localised prostate cancer. However, cost-effectiveness is

  3. Support of vulnerable patients throughout TB treatment in the UK.

    PubMed

    Potter, J L; Inamdar, L; Okereke, E; Collinson, S; Dukes, R; Mandelbaum, M

    2016-06-01

    Despite well-established treatment regimens, tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health burden; it disproportionately affects poor and marginalized populations who may not have access to social support, including migrants, homeless people and those dependent on drugs or alcohol. There is a clearly demonstrated need for housing and other appropriate social support, as part of a package of integrated clinical and social care. However, TB prevention and control efforts in the UK often do not address the specific vulnerabilities of these groups and it can be a challenge to support the continued TB treatment of these underserved populations. This challenge is exacerbated by complex issues concerning funding, immigration and the law. In this paper, we have reviewed current UK guidance and legislation, discussed several case studies and highlighted examples of existing models of community support for TB patients. Finally, we lay out our recommendations for ensuring a co-ordinated, whole system approach to successful TB treatment. PMID:25889386

  4. Comparative study of carbon nanotubes and granular activated carbon: Physicochemical properties and adsorption capacities.

    PubMed

    Gangupomu, Roja Haritha; Sattler, Melanie L; Ramirez, David

    2016-01-25

    The overall goal was to determine an optimum pre-treatment condition for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to facilitate air pollutant adsorption. Various combinations of heat and chemical pre-treatment were explored, and toluene was tested as an example hazardous air pollutant adsorbate. Specific objectives were (1) to characterize raw and pre-treated single-wall (SW) and multi-wall (MW) CNTs and compare their physical/chemical properties to commercially available granular activated carbon (GAC), (2) to determine the adsorption capacities for toluene onto pre-treated CNTs vs. GAC. CNTs were purified via heat-treatment at 400 °C in steam, followed by nitric acid treatment (3N, 5N, 11N, 16N) for 3-12 h to create openings to facilitate adsorption onto interior CNT sites. For SWNT, Raman spectroscopy showed that acid treatment removed impurities up to a point, but amorphous carbon reformed with 10h-6N acid treatment. Surface area of SWNTs with 3 h-3N acid treatment (1347 m(2)/g) was higher than the raw sample (1136 m(2)/g), and their toluene maximum adsorption capacity was comparable to GAC. When bed effluent reached 10% of inlet concentration (breakthrough indicating time for bed cleaning), SWNTs had adsorbed 240 mg/g of toluene, compared to 150 mg/g for GAC. Physical/chemical analyses showed no substantial difference for pre-treated vs. raw MWNTs. PMID:26476807

  5. Comparative in vitro activities of fluconazole, voriconazole, and MXP-4509 against Romanian blood yeast isolates.

    PubMed

    Mareş, Mihai; Năstasă, Valentin; Ramona, Florina Moraru; Doroftei, Bogdan; Stefanache, Alina

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of a new triazole formulation against 182 clinical isolates of yeasts recovered from blood cultures in three tertiary hospitals in Romania and to compare its activity with those of fluconazole and voriconazole. In vitro susceptibility was assessed by following the guidelines of AFST-EUCAST E. Def. 7.1. The distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of MXP-4509 was very similar to that of voriconazole (MIC(50): 0.0312 mg/l vs. 0.0156 mg/l; MIC(90): 0.25 mg/l vs. 0.25 mg/l), but significantly different from that of fluconazole (MIC(50): 0.0312 mg/l vs. 0.5 mg/l; MIC(90): 0.25 mg/l vs. 32 mg/l). The new triazole MXP-4509 proved to have a good in vitro antifungal activity raising the interest for further pharmacological and microbiological investigations in order to assess its potential advantages for therapy. PMID:21805354

  6. Detection of (In)activity Periods in Human Body Motion Using Inertial Sensors: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Alberto; Ramírez, Javier; Górriz, Juan M.; Olivares, Gonzalo; Damas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Determination of (in)activity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (in)activity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT) of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved. PMID:22778613

  7. Comparative Analysis of Gravity Wave Activity at Wallops Island and San Juan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrea, Catalin; Zabotin, Nikolay; Bullett, Terrence

    2014-05-01

    There are numerous gravity wave detection schemes currently in use, based on various data acquisition schemes and instrumentation types. We developed one such method based on dynasonde data, which include both electron density and electron density gradients. The results described in this work extend a range of 150-250 km in altitude, while being essentially continuous in time. In addition to this, we can fully diagnose the gravity wave field, simultaneously determining spatial and temporal characteristics. This paper describes a comparative analysis of wave activity at two locations: Wallops Island, Virginia, U.S.A. and San Juan, Puerto Rico. At both locations, we show cases of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TID's) clearly caused by gravity wave activity. The dominant frequency is sometimes obvious, but generally we have a superposition of several waves, each with an associated bandwidth. We extract the frequency, amplitude, wavelength and direction of propagation for each mode detected, independent of all other modes present. The wave spectra can drastically change with altitude, time, season, geographical location, etc. The same is true for the other wave characteristics listed above, and this becomes even more complex when we consider waves propagating along the two horizontal axes separately. All these aspects are discussed in our work, separating effects due to these various factors. Finally, we describe how our work will be extended be adding several other stations to provide a global characterization of wave activity in the thermosphere-ionosphere system.

  8. Opsonic activity of a new intravenous immunoglobulin preparation: Pentaglobin compared with sandoglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Garbett, N D; Munro, C S; Cole, P J

    1989-01-01

    Standard preparations of immunoglobulin for intravenous use consist predominantly of IgG (greater than 95%). We have compared the ability of a standard preparation (Sandoglobulin) with that of a new preparation (Pentaglobin, containing 12% IgM and 12% IgA) to improve the opsonic activity of antibody-deficient human sera in vitro. Panhypogammaglobulinaemic sera were poorly opsonic for five of six organisms tested, particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae, but opsonized Staphylococcus aureus almost normally. Both immunoglobulin preparations significantly improved the opsonic activity of the antibody-deficient sera for most organisms. The major difference between the two preparations was the ability of Pentaglobin to supply opsonins for P. aeruginosa, E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, while Sandogloblin was significantly more potent in opsonins for Haemophilus influenzae. Pentaglobin demonstrates significant in vitro opsonic activity, particularly for enterobacteria (coliforms) and P. aeruginosa. Its content of IgM antibodies appears to confer special properties on Pentaglobin not seen with standard preparations of immunoglobulin for intravenous use. Its place in clinical practice remains to be determined but it may have a possible role in augmenting host defence mechanisms in Gram-negative septicaemia. PMID:2500275

  9. Comparing the antibacterial activity of gaseous ozone and chlorhexidine solution on a tooth cavity model

    PubMed Central

    Öztaş, Nurhan; Sümer, Zeynep

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of gaseous ozone and chlorhexidine solution on a tooth cavity model. Study Design: Twenty-one human molars were divided into 3 groups. Cavities were then cut into the teeth (4 per tooth, 28 cavities per group). After sterilization, the teeth were left in broth cultures of 106 colony-forming units (CFU) ml-1 of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) at 36°C for 48 h. The appropriate treatment followed (group A, control; group B, 2% chlorhexidine solution; and group C, 80s of treatment with ozone, and the cavities were then filled with composite resin. After 72h, the restorations were removed, dentin chips were collected with an excavator, and the total number of microorganisms was determined. Results: Both of the treatments significantly reduced the number of S. mutans present compared with the control group and there was a significant difference between the all groups in terms of the amount of the microorganisms grown (p < 0.05). Group B was beter than group C; and group C was better than group A. Moreover, it was found that the amount of the growth in the group of chlorhexidine was significantly less than that of the ozone group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Chlorhexidine solution was the antibacterial treatment most efficacious on S. mutans; however, ozone application could be an anlternative cavity disinfection method because of ozone’s cavity disinfection activity. Key words:Antibacterial activity, chlorhexidine, ozone, streptococcus mutans, tooth cavity. PMID:24455068

  10. Comparing passive and active hearing: spectral analysis of transient sounds in bats.

    PubMed

    Goerlitz, Holger R; Hübner, Mathias; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2008-06-01

    In vision, colour constancy allows the evaluation of the colour of objects independent of the spectral composition of a light source. In the auditory system, comparable mechanisms have been described that allows the evaluation of the spectral shape of sounds independent of the spectral composition of ambient background sounds. For echolocating bats, the evaluation of spectral shape is vitally important both for the analysis of external sounds and the analysis of the echoes of self-generated sonar emissions. Here, we investigated how the echolocating bat Phyllostomus discolor evaluates the spectral shape of transient sounds both in passive hearing and in echolocation as a specialized mode of active hearing. Bats were trained to classify transients of different spectral shape as low- or highpass. We then assessed how the spectral shape of an ambient background noise influenced the spontaneous classification of the transients. In the passive-hearing condition, the bats spontaneously changed their classification boundary depending on the spectral shape of the background. In the echo-acoustic condition, the classification boundary did not change although the background- and spectral-shape manipulations were identical in the two conditions. These data show that auditory processing differs between passive and active hearing: echolocation represents an independent mode of active hearing with its own rules of auditory spectral analysis. PMID:18515714

  11. Latent TB Infection Diagnosis in Population Exposed to TB Subjects in Close and Poor Ventilated High TB Endemic Zone in India

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Rajpal S.; Nayak, Amit R.; Gaherwar, Hari M.; Husain, Aliabbas A.; Shekhawat, Seema D.; Jain, Ruchika K.; Panchbhai, Milind S.; Raje, Dhananjay V.; Purohit, Hemant J.; Taori, Girdhar M.; Daginawala, Hatim F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to investigate the utility of Quantiferon TB gold (QFT-G) and Tuberculin skin test (TST) for diagnosis of latent TB infection (LTBI) in high crowding TB endemic zone of Nagpur, India and their comparison with associated risk factors. Methods Out of 342 eligible participants, QFT-G and TST were performed in 162 participants. Results The prevalence of LTBI observed according to QFT-G and TST was 48% and 42% respectively, with an agreement of 52.47%. QFT-G positivity was associated with age while TST positivity was associated with body mass index (BMI). Duration of exposure emerged as a key risk factor significantly associated with both the tests. Conclusion The prevalence of LTBI was quite high in the studied zone as detected by both the evaluated tests and thus, the combination of both the tests will be best predictive for LTBI in such high TB endemic regions. PMID:24614179

  12. Critical magnetic transition in TbNi2Mn--magnetization and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, J L; Campbell, S J; Kennedy, S J; Zeng, R; Dou, S X; Wu, G H

    2011-06-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of the TbNi(2)Mn(x) series (0.9 ≤ x ≤ 1.10) have been investigated using x-ray diffraction, field- and temperature-dependent AC magnetic susceptibility, DC magnetization (5-340 K; 0-5 T) and (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy (5-300 K). TbNi(2)Mn(x) crystallizes in the MgCu(2)-type structure (space group Fd3m). The additional contributions to the magnetic energy terms from transition-metal-transition-metal interactions (T-T) and rare-earth-transition-metal interactions (R-T) in RNi(2)Mn compounds contribute to their increased magnetic ordering temperatures compared with RNi(2) and RMn(2). Both the lattice constant a and the Curie temperature T(C) exhibit maximal values at the x = 1 composition indicating strong magnetostructural coupling. Analyses of the AC magnetic susceptibility and DC magnetization data of TbNi(2)Mn around the Curie temperature T(C) = 147 K confirm that the magnetic transition is second order with critical exponents β = 0.77 ± 0.12, γ = 1.09 ± 0.07 and δ = 2.51 ± 0.06. These exponents establish that the magnetic interactions in TbNi(2)Mn are long range despite mixed occupancies of Tb and Mn atoms at the 8a site and vacancies. The magnetic entropy - ΔS(M) around T(C) is proportional to (μ(0)H/T(C))(2/3) in agreement with the critical magnetic analyses. The Mössbauer spectra above T(C) are fitted by two sub-spectra in agreement with refinement of the x-ray data while below T(C) three sub-spectra are required to represent the three inequivalent local magnetic environments. PMID:21555840

  13. Critical magnetic transition in TbNi2Mn—magnetization and Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. L.; Campbell, S. J.; Kennedy, S. J.; Zeng, R.; Dou, S. X.; Wu, G. H.

    2011-06-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of the TbNi2Mnx series (0.9 <= x <= 1.10) have been investigated using x-ray diffraction, field- and temperature-dependent AC magnetic susceptibility, DC magnetization (5-340 K 0-5 T) and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy (5-300 K). TbNi2Mnx crystallizes in the MgCu2-type structure (space group Fd\\bar {3}m ). The additional contributions to the magnetic energy terms from transition-metal-transition-metal interactions (T-T) and rare-earth-transition-metal interactions (R-T) in RNi2Mn compounds contribute to their increased magnetic ordering temperatures compared with RNi2 and RMn2. Both the lattice constant a and the Curie temperature TC exhibit maximal values at the x = 1 composition indicating strong magnetostructural coupling. Analyses of the AC magnetic susceptibility and DC magnetization data of TbNi2Mn around the Curie temperature TC = 147 K confirm that the magnetic transition is second order with critical exponents β = 0.77 ± 0.12, γ = 1.09 ± 0.07 and δ = 2.51 ± 0.06. These exponents establish that the magnetic interactions in TbNi2Mn are long range despite mixed occupancies of Tb and Mn atoms at the 8a site and vacancies. The magnetic entropy - ΔSM around TC is proportional to (μ0H/TC)2/3 in agreement with the critical magnetic analyses. The Mössbauer spectra above TC are fitted by two sub-spectra in agreement with refinement of the x-ray data while below TC three sub-spectra are required to represent the three inequivalent local magnetic environments.

  14. Combined Analysis of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IL-1RA and MCP-1 in QFT Supernatant Is Useful for Distinguishing Active Tuberculosis from Latent Infection.

    PubMed

    Suzukawa, Maho; Akashi, Shunsuke; Nagai, Hideaki; Nagase, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Hebisawa, Akira; Ohta, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT), an interferon-γ release assay, is used to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but its inaccuracy in distinguishing active tuberculosis from latent infection is a major concern. There is thus a need for an easy and accurate tool for achieving that goal in daily clinical settings. This study aimed to identify candidate cytokines for specifically differentiating active tuberculosis from latent infection. Our study population consisted of 31 active TB (tuberculosis) patients, 29 LTBI (latent tuberculosis infection) patients and 10 healthy control subjects. We assayed for 27 cytokines in QFT supernatants of both specific antigen-stimulated blood samples (TBAg) and negative-control samples (Nil). We analyzed their specificities and sensitivities by creating receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and measuring the area under those curves (AUCs). In TBAg-Nil supernatants, IL-10, IFN-γ, MCP-1 and IL-1RA showed high AUCs of 0.8120, 0.7842, 0.7419 and 0.7375, respectively. Compared with each cytokine alone, combined assay for these top four cytokines showed positive rates in diagnosing active TB, and GDA analysis revealed that MCP-1 and IL-5 are potent in distinguishing active TB from LTBI, with Wilk's lambda = 0.718 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, utilizing the unique characteristic of IL-2 that its TBAg-Nil supernatant levels are higher in LTBI compared to active TB, the difference between IFN-γ and IL-2 showed a large AUC of 0.8910. In summary, besides IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IL-1RA and MCP-1 in QFT supernatants may be useful for distinguishing active TB from LTBI. Those cytokines may also help us understand the difference in pathogenesis between active TB and LTBI. PMID:27035669

  15. Combined Analysis of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IL-1RA and MCP-1 in QFT Supernatant Is Useful for Distinguishing Active Tuberculosis from Latent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Suzukawa, Maho; Akashi, Shunsuke; Nagai, Hideaki; Nagase, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Hebisawa, Akira; Ohta, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT), an interferon-γ release assay, is used to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but its inaccuracy in distinguishing active tuberculosis from latent infection is a major concern. There is thus a need for an easy and accurate tool for achieving that goal in daily clinical settings. This study aimed to identify candidate cytokines for specifically differentiating active tuberculosis from latent infection. Our study population consisted of 31 active TB (tuberculosis) patients, 29 LTBI (latent tuberculosis infection) patients and 10 healthy control subjects. We assayed for 27 cytokines in QFT supernatants of both specific antigen-stimulated blood samples (TBAg) and negative-control samples (Nil). We analyzed their specificities and sensitivities by creating receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and measuring the area under those curves (AUCs). In TBAg–Nil supernatants, IL-10, IFN-γ, MCP-1 and IL-1RA showed high AUCs of 0.8120, 0.7842, 0.7419 and 0.7375, respectively. Compared with each cytokine alone, combined assay for these top four cytokines showed positive rates in diagnosing active TB, and GDA analysis revealed that MCP-1 and IL-5 are potent in distinguishing active TB from LTBI, with Wilk’s lambda = 0.718 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, utilizing the unique characteristic of IL-2 that its TBAg–Nil supernatant levels are higher in LTBI compared to active TB, the difference between IFN-γ and IL-2 showed a large AUC of 0.8910. In summary, besides IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IL-1RA and MCP-1 in QFT supernatants may be useful for distinguishing active TB from LTBI. Those cytokines may also help us understand the difference in pathogenesis between active TB and LTBI. PMID:27035669

  16. TM dependence of the magneto-optic signal in GdTb-TM thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Hairston, D.K.; Kryder, M.H.

    1988-04-15

    The magneto-optic polar Kerr rotation for various GdTb-TM thin films was measured at room temperature as a function of TM composition and was found to correlate with the Slater--Pauling curve. In spite of the fact that the temperature dependence of magnetization is a complicating factor, the data clearly establish the above-mentioned correlation. The TM compositions ranged from Mn through Fe and Co to Ni. The Fe-based films had Curie temperatures covering a range from 100 to 300 /sup 0/C in contrast to the Co-based films whose Curie temperatures were clearly much greater than 300 /sup 0/C. Neither the Mn- nor the Ni-based films exhibited desirable magneto-optic activity when fabricated under the same conditions as the Fe- and/or Co-based films. When the Fe constituent of the GdTbFe films was gradually substituted with Mn or Co the room-temperature magneto-optic signal was found to decrease and increase, respectively. In a similar manner, when the Co constituent of GdTbCo films was gradually substituted with Fe or Ni the room-temperature magneto-optic effect was found to increase and decrease, respectively. However, when the Co constituent of GdTbCo films was gradually substituted with Mn the room-temperature magneto-optic effect also decreased, clearly establishing the correlation to the Slater--Pauling curve. These results are further evidence that the magneto-optic effect of traditional RE-TM thin films is dominated by the TM composition and explain the fact that the magneto-optic signal is largest in GdTbFeCo thin films. New data supporting the correlation between magneto-optic effect and perpendicular anisotropy was also obtained.

  17. Antianaerobic activity of the ketolide RU 64004 compared to activities of four macrolides, five beta-lactams, clindamycin, and metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Ednie, L M; Spangler, S K; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    1997-05-01

    Agar dilution methodology (with added Oxyrase in the case of the macrolide group to allow incubation without added CO2) was used to compare the activity of RU 64004, a new ketolide, with the activities of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, amoxicillin with and without clavulanate, piperacillin with and without tazobactam, metronidazole, and imipenem against 379 anaerobes. Overall, RU 64004 yielded an MIC at which 50% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC50) of 1.0 microg/ml and an MIC90 of 16.0 microg/ml. In comparison, MIC50s and MIC90s of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin were 2.0 to 8.0 and >64.0 microg/ml, respectively. MICs of macrolides, including RU 64004, were higher for Bacteroides ovatus, Fusobacterium varium, Fusobacterium mortiferum, and Clostridium difficile than for the other species. RU 64004 was more active against gram-positive rods and cocci, Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp., and fusobacteria other than F. mortiferum and F. varium than against the Bacteroides fragilis group. Overall MIC50s and MIC90s (in micrograms per milliliter), respectively, of other compounds were as follows: clindamycin, 1.0 and 16.0; amoxicillin, 4.0 and 64.0; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 0.5 and 4.0; piperacillin, 8.0 and >64.0; piperacillin-tazobactam, 1.0 and 16.0; metronidazole, 1.0 and 4.0; and imipenem, 0.25 and 1.0. PMID:9145865

  18. Effectiveness and safety of meropenem/clavulanate-containing regimens in the treatment of MDR- and XDR-TB.

    PubMed

    Tiberi, Simon; Payen, Marie-Christine; Sotgiu, Giovanni; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Alarcon Guizado, Valentina; Alffenaar, Jan Willem; Abdo Arbex, Marcos; Caminero, Jose A; Centis, Rosella; De Lorenzo, Saverio; Gaga, Mina; Gualano, Gina; Roby Arias, Aurora Jazmín; Scardigli, Anna; Skrahina, Alena; Solovic, Ivan; Sulis, Giorgia; Tadolini, Marina; Akkerman, Onno W; Alarcon Arrascue, Edith; Aleska, Alena; Avchinko, Vera; Bonini, Eduardo Henrique; Chong Marín, Félix Antonio; Collahuazo López, Lorena; de Vries, Gerard; Dore, Simone; Kunst, Heinke; Matteelli, Alberto; Moschos, Charalampos; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Papavasileiou, Apostolos; Spanevello, Antonio; Vargas Vasquez, Dante; Viggiani, Pietro; White, Veronica; Zumla, Alimuddin; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2016-04-01

    No large study has ever evaluated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of meropenem/clavulanate to treat multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR- and XDR-TB). The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the therapeutic contribution, effectiveness, safety and tolerability profile of meropenem/clavulanate added to a background regimen when treating MDR- and XDR-TB cases.Patients treated with a meropenem/clavulanate-containing regimen (n=96) showed a greater drug resistance profile than those exposed to a meropenem/clavulanate-sparing regimen (n=168): in the former group XDR-TB was more frequent (49%versus6.0%, p<0.0001) and the median (interquartile range (IQR)) number of antibiotic resistances was higher (8 (6-9)versus5 (4-6)). Patients were treated with a meropenem/clavulanate-containing regimen for a median (IQR) of 85 (49-156) days.No statistically significant differences were observed in the overall MDR-TB cohort and in the subgroups with and without the XDR-TB patients; in particular, sputum smear and culture conversion rates were similar in XDR-TB patients exposed to meropenem/clavulanate-containing regimens (88.0%versus100.0%, p=1.00 and 88.0%versus100.0%, p=1.00, respectively). Only six cases reported adverse events attributable to meropenem/clavulanate (four of them then restarting treatment).The nondifferent outcomes and bacteriological conversion rate observed in cases who were more severe than controls might imply that meropenem/clavulanate could be active in treating MDR- and XDR-TB cases. PMID:26965290

  19. Granular biochar compared with activated carbon for wastewater treatment and resource recovery.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Tyler M; Haeger, Alexander; Biffinger, Justin C; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-05-01

    Granular wood-derived biochar (BC) was compared to granular activated carbon (GAC) for the treatment and nutrient recovery of real wastewater in both batch and column studies. Batch adsorption studies showed that BC material had a greater adsorption capacity at the high initial concentrations of total chemical oxygen demand (COD-T) (1200 mg L(-1)), PO4 (18 mg L(-1)), and NH4 (50 mg L(-1)) compared to GAC. Conversely the BC material showed a lower adsorption capacity for all concentrations of dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD-D) and the lower concentrations of PO4 (5 mg L(-1)) and NH4 (10 mg L(-1)). Packed bed column studies showed similar average COD-T removal rate for BC with 0.27 ± 0.01 kg m(-3) d(-1) and GAC with 0.24 ± 0.01 kg m(-3) d(-1), but BC had nearly twice the average removal rate (0.41 ± 0.08 kg m(-3) d(-3)) compared to GAC during high COD-T concentrations (>500 mg L(-1)). Elemental analysis showed that both materials accumulated phosphorous during wastewater treatment (2.6 ± 0.4 g kg(-1) and 1.9 ± 0.1 g kg(-1) for BC and GAC respectively). They also contained high concentrations of other macronutrients (K, Ca, and Mg) and low concentrations of metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cu). The good performance of BC is attributed to its macroporous structure compared with the microporous GAC. These favorable treatment data for high strength wastewater, coupled with additional life-cycle benefits, helps support the use of BC in packed bed column filters for enhanced wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery. PMID:26954576

  20. Comparative Study of the Activity of Brain Behavioral Systems in Methamphetamine and Opiate Dependents

    PubMed Central

    Alemikhah, Marjan; Faridhosseini, Farhad; Kordi, Hassan; Rasouli-Azad, Morad; Shahini, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Substance dependency is a major problem for the general health of a society. Different approaches have investigated the substance dependency in order to explain it. Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) is an advanced and important neuropsychological theory in this area. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare three systems of the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory the behavioral activation system (r-BAS), the revised behavioral inhibition system (r-BIS), and the revised fight/flight/freezing system (r-FFFS) between patients dependent on methamphetamine and opiates, and a group of controls. Patients and Methods: This research was a causal-comparative study that was conducted in the first six months of 2012. The population of the study was males of Mashhad city, who were dependent on methamphetamine or opiates, and ruling out psychotic disorders and prominent Axis II. Twenty-five people were selected by the convenient sampling method. Also, 25 non-dependent people from the patients’ relatives were selected and matched for the variables of age, gender, and education to participate in this study. Participants were evaluated using a structured clinical interview (SCID) for DSM-IV, demographic questionnaire information, and a Jackson-5 questionnaire (2009). Data were analyzed by Chi-square, K-S, and independent t-test. Results: The methamphetamine dependent group had a higher sensitivity in the r-BAS, r-BIS, and the r-Fight and r-Freezing systems compared to the control group (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in r-Flight between the two groups (P > 0.05). “The scores of r-BIS were also significantly higher in the methamphetamine-dependent group than the opioid-dependent and control groups. For the r-Fight variable, the methamphetamine-dependent group was higher than the opioid-dependent group”. Conclusions: The personality patterns of patients dependent on methamphetamines were different from the controls