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Sample records for active tb compared

  1. Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR- TB) Compared with Non-MDR-TB Infections in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Elmi, Omar Salad; Hasan, Habsah; Abdullah, Sarimah; Mat Jeab, Mat Zuki; Ba, Zilfalil; Naing, Nyi Nyi

    2016-01-01

    Background Treating patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains is more complicated, complex, toxic, expensive, than treating patients with susceptible TB strains. This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes and potential factors associated between patients with MDR-TB and non MDR TB infections in peninsular Malaysia. Methods This study was a retrospective cohort study. Data were collected from the medical records of all registered MDR-TB patients and Non-MDR-TB patients at five TB hospitals in peninsular Malaysia from January 2010 to January 2014. Results A total of 314 subjects were studied, including 105 MDR-TB cases and 209 non-MDR-TB. After TB treatment, 24.8% of the MDR-TB patients and 17.7% of non MDR TB relapsed; 17.1% of the MDR-TB patients and 16.3% of non MDR TB defaulted from TB treatment. A significant difference seen in treatment success rate 17.1% for MDR-TB; 63.1% for non MDR TB (P < 0.001)). Mortality rate were 8.9% for MDR-TB; 13.2% for non MDR TB. Multivariable analysis showed the potential factors associated with poor treatment outcomes were presence of HIV infection (AOR, 1.09; 95%CI: 1.05, 1.75; P = 0.001) and previous TB treatment (AOR, 4.87; 95%CI: 2.84, 8.38; P = 0.001). Conclusion This study revealed that the treatment success rate in patients with non MDR TB infection was higher than MDR-TB. Unsuccessful treatment was seen in MDR-TB associated with potential factors such as history of TB treatment, and presence of HIV infection. PMID:27660541

  2. Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR- TB) Compared with Non-MDR-TB Infections in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Elmi, Omar Salad; Hasan, Habsah; Abdullah, Sarimah; Mat Jeab, Mat Zuki; Ba, Zilfalil; Naing, Nyi Nyi

    2016-01-01

    Background Treating patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains is more complicated, complex, toxic, expensive, than treating patients with susceptible TB strains. This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes and potential factors associated between patients with MDR-TB and non MDR TB infections in peninsular Malaysia. Methods This study was a retrospective cohort study. Data were collected from the medical records of all registered MDR-TB patients and Non-MDR-TB patients at five TB hospitals in peninsular Malaysia from January 2010 to January 2014. Results A total of 314 subjects were studied, including 105 MDR-TB cases and 209 non-MDR-TB. After TB treatment, 24.8% of the MDR-TB patients and 17.7% of non MDR TB relapsed; 17.1% of the MDR-TB patients and 16.3% of non MDR TB defaulted from TB treatment. A significant difference seen in treatment success rate 17.1% for MDR-TB; 63.1% for non MDR TB (P < 0.001)). Mortality rate were 8.9% for MDR-TB; 13.2% for non MDR TB. Multivariable analysis showed the potential factors associated with poor treatment outcomes were presence of HIV infection (AOR, 1.09; 95%CI: 1.05, 1.75; P = 0.001) and previous TB treatment (AOR, 4.87; 95%CI: 2.84, 8.38; P = 0.001). Conclusion This study revealed that the treatment success rate in patients with non MDR TB infection was higher than MDR-TB. Unsuccessful treatment was seen in MDR-TB associated with potential factors such as history of TB treatment, and presence of HIV infection.

  3. The effect of HIV coinfection, HAART and TB treatment on cytokine/chemokine responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens in active TB patients and latently Mtb infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Desta; de Jager, Wilco; Gebremichael, Gebremedhin; Alemayehu, Yodit; Ran, Leonie; Fransen, Justin; Wolday, Dawit; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Tegbaru, Belete; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; van Baarle, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Identification of Mtb specific induced cytokine/chemokine host biomarkers could assist in developing novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic tools for TB. Levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-17, IL-10, IP-10 and MIP-1α were measured in supernatants of whole blood stimulated with Mtb specific fusion protein ESAT-6/CFP-10 using xMAP technology. The study groups were HIV positive TB patients (HIV(+)TB(+)), HIV negative TB patients (HIV(-)TB(+)), HIV positive tuberculin skin test positive (TST+) (HIV(+)TST(+)), HIV negative TST+ (HIV(-)TST(+)), and HIV(-)TST(-) individuals. Compared to HIV(-)TST(-), latent TB infection led to increased levels of IP-10, IFN-γ and IL-17, while levels of IL-2 and IP-10 were increased with active TB. Levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, MIP-1α, and IL-10 were increased in HIV(-)TST(+) individuals compared to HIV(-)TB(+) patients. HIV coinfection decreased the level of IFN-γ, IL-17, IP-10 and IL-2. After six months (M6) of anti-TB treatment (ATT) in HIV(-)TB(+) patients, IFN-γ, IL-10, and MIP-1α levels normalized. After M6 and M18 of ATT plus HAART in HIV(+)TB(+) patients, levels of MIP-1α and IL-10 normalized, while this was not the case for IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-17, and IP-10 levels. In HIV(+)TST(+) patients on HAART, levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-10 and MIP-1α normalized, while no change in the levels of IL-2 and IP-10 were observed. In conclusion, the simultaneous measurement of IFN-γ, IL-17 and IP-10 may assist in diagnosing LTBI; IL-2 and IP-10 may assist in diagnosing active TB; while IFN-γ, IL-17, MIP-1α, and IL-10 levels could help to discriminate LTBI and active TB. In addition, IL-10 and MIP-1α levels could help to monitor responses to TB treatment and HAART.

  4. Major Challenges in Clinical Management of TB/HIV Coinfected Patients in Eastern Europe Compared with Western Europe and Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Efsen, Anne Marie W.; Schultze, Anna; Post, Frank A.; Panteleev, Alexander; Furrer, Hansjakob; Miller, Robert F.; Losso, Marcelo H.; Toibaro, Javier; Skrahin, Aliaksandr; Miro, Jose M.; Caylà, Joan A.; Girardi, Enrico; Bruyand, Mathias; Obel, Niels; Podlekareva, Daria N.; Lundgren, Jens D.; Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Rates of TB/HIV coinfection and multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE). We aimed to study clinical characteristics, factors associated with MDR-TB and predicted activity of empiric anti-TB treatment at time of TB diagnosis among TB/HIV coinfected patients in EE, Western Europe (WE) and Latin America (LA). Design and Methods Between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, 1413 TB/HIV patients (62 clinics in 19 countries in EE, WE, Southern Europe (SE), and LA) were enrolled. Results Significant differences were observed between EE (N = 844), WE (N = 152), SE (N = 164), and LA (N = 253) in the proportion of patients with a definite TB diagnosis (47%, 71%, 72% and 40%, p<0.0001), MDR-TB (40%, 5%, 3% and 15%, p<0.0001), and use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) (17%, 40%, 44% and 35%, p<0.0001). Injecting drug use (adjusted OR (aOR) = 2.03 (95% CI 1.00–4.09), prior anti-TB treatment (3.42 (1.88–6.22)), and living in EE (7.19 (3.28–15.78)) were associated with MDR-TB. Among 585 patients with drug susceptibility test (DST) results, the empiric (i.e. without knowledge of the DST results) anti-TB treatment included ≥3 active drugs in 66% of participants in EE compared with 90–96% in other regions (p<0.0001). Conclusions In EE, TB/HIV patients were less likely to receive a definite TB diagnosis, more likely to house MDR-TB and commonly received empiric anti-TB treatment with reduced activity. Improved management of TB/HIV patients in EE requires better access to TB diagnostics including DSTs, empiric anti-TB therapy directed at both susceptible and MDR-TB, and more widespread use of cART. PMID:26716686

  5. Comparing patient care seeking pathways in three models of hospital and TB programme collaboration in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public hospitals in China play an important role in tuberculosis (TB) control. Three models of hospital and TB control exist in China. The dispensary model is the most common one in which a TB dispensary provides both clinical and public health care. The specialist model is similar to the former except that a specialist TB hospital is located in the same area. The specialist hospital should treat only complicated TB cases but it also treats simple cases in practice. The integrated model is a new development to integrate TB service in public hospitals. Patients were diagnosed, treated and followed up in this public hospital in this model while the TB dispensary provides public health service as case reporting and mass education. This study aims to compare patient care seeking pathways under the three models, and to provide policy recommendation for the TB control system reform in China. Methods Six sites, two in each model, were selected across four provinces, with 293 newly treated uncomplicated TB patients being randomly selected. Results The majority (68%) of TB patients were diagnosed in hospitals. Patients in the integrated model presented the simplest care seeking pathways, with the least number of providers visited (2.2), shortest treatment delays (2 days) and the least medical expenditure (2729RMB/401USD). On the contrary, patients in the specialist model had the highest number of provider visits (4), longest treatment delays (23 days) and the highest medical expenditure (11626RMB/1710USD). Logistic regression suggested that patients who were hospitalised tended to have longer treatment delays and higher medical expenditure. Conclusion Specialist hospital treating uncomplicated cases not using the standard regimens posed a threat to TB control. The integrated model has shortened patient treatment pathways, and reduced patient costs; therefore, it could be considered as the direction for future reform of China’s TB control system. PMID

  6. The Use of Xpert MTB/Rif for Active Case Finding among TB Contacts in North West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lebina, Limakatso; Fuller, Nigel; Osoba, Tolu; Scott, Lesley; Motlhaoleng, Katlego; Rakgokong, Modiehi; Abraham, Pattamukkil; Variava, Ebrahim; Martinson, Neil Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in high HIV burden settings. Active case finding is one strategy to potentially reduce TB disease burden. Xpert MTB/Rif has recently been recommended for diagnosis of TB. Methods. Pragmatic randomized trial to compare diagnosis rate and turnaround time for laboratory testing for Xpert MTB/Rif with TB microscopy and culture in household contacts of patients recently diagnosed with TB. Results. 2464 household contacts enrolled into the study from 768 active TB index cases. 1068 (44%) were unable to give sputum, but 24 of these were already on TB treatment. 863 (53%) participants sputum samples were tested with smear and culture and 2.7% (23/863; CI: 1.62-3.78) were diagnosed with active TB. Xpert MTB/Rif was used in 515 (21%) participants; active TB was diagnosed in 1.6% (8/515; CI: 0.52-2.68). Discussion and Conclusions. Additional 31 cases were diagnosed with contact tracing of household members. When Xpert MTB/Rif is compared with culture, there is no significant difference in diagnostic yield. PMID:27493800

  7. The Use of Xpert MTB/Rif for Active Case Finding among TB Contacts in North West Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Osoba, Tolu; Scott, Lesley; Motlhaoleng, Katlego; Rakgokong, Modiehi; Martinson, Neil Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in high HIV burden settings. Active case finding is one strategy to potentially reduce TB disease burden. Xpert MTB/Rif has recently been recommended for diagnosis of TB. Methods. Pragmatic randomized trial to compare diagnosis rate and turnaround time for laboratory testing for Xpert MTB/Rif with TB microscopy and culture in household contacts of patients recently diagnosed with TB. Results. 2464 household contacts enrolled into the study from 768 active TB index cases. 1068 (44%) were unable to give sputum, but 24 of these were already on TB treatment. 863 (53%) participants sputum samples were tested with smear and culture and 2.7% (23/863; CI: 1.62–3.78) were diagnosed with active TB. Xpert MTB/Rif was used in 515 (21%) participants; active TB was diagnosed in 1.6% (8/515; CI: 0.52–2.68). Discussion and Conclusions. Additional 31 cases were diagnosed with contact tracing of household members. When Xpert MTB/Rif is compared with culture, there is no significant difference in diagnostic yield. PMID:27493800

  8. The Use of Xpert MTB/Rif for Active Case Finding among TB Contacts in North West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lebina, Limakatso; Fuller, Nigel; Osoba, Tolu; Scott, Lesley; Motlhaoleng, Katlego; Rakgokong, Modiehi; Abraham, Pattamukkil; Variava, Ebrahim; Martinson, Neil Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in high HIV burden settings. Active case finding is one strategy to potentially reduce TB disease burden. Xpert MTB/Rif has recently been recommended for diagnosis of TB. Methods. Pragmatic randomized trial to compare diagnosis rate and turnaround time for laboratory testing for Xpert MTB/Rif with TB microscopy and culture in household contacts of patients recently diagnosed with TB. Results. 2464 household contacts enrolled into the study from 768 active TB index cases. 1068 (44%) were unable to give sputum, but 24 of these were already on TB treatment. 863 (53%) participants sputum samples were tested with smear and culture and 2.7% (23/863; CI: 1.62-3.78) were diagnosed with active TB. Xpert MTB/Rif was used in 515 (21%) participants; active TB was diagnosed in 1.6% (8/515; CI: 0.52-2.68). Discussion and Conclusions. Additional 31 cases were diagnosed with contact tracing of household members. When Xpert MTB/Rif is compared with culture, there is no significant difference in diagnostic yield.

  9. Active Case Finding of Tuberculosis (TB) in an Emergency Room in a Region with High Prevalence of TB in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise Rossato; Müller, Alice Mânica; Tomasini, Karina da Silva; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth; Golub, Jonathan E.; Conde, Marcus Barreto

    2014-01-01

    Setting Public hospital emergency room (ER) in Porto Alegre, Brazil, a setting with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Objective To determine the prevalence of PTB, using a symptom based active case finding (ACF) strategy in the ER of a public hospital in an area with high prevalence of TB and HIV, as well as variables associated with pulmonary TB diagnosis. Methods Cross sectional study. All patients ≥18 years seeking care at the ER were screened for respiratory symptoms and those with cough ≥2 weeks were invited to provide a chest radiograph and two unsupervised samples of sputum for acid-fast bacilli smear and culture. Results Among 31,267 admissions, 6,273 (20.1%) reported respiratory symptoms; 197 reported cough ≥2 weeks, of which pulmonary TB was diagnosed in 30. In multivariate analysis, the variables associated with a pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis were: age (OR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.92–0.97; p<0.0001), sputum production (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.06–0.56; p = 0.003), and radiographic findings typical of TB (OR 12.11, 95% CI 4.45–32.93; p<0.0001). Conclusions This study identified a high prevalence of pulmonary TB among patients who sought care at the emergency department of a tertiary hospital, emphasizing the importance of regular screening of all comers for active TB in this setting. PMID:25211158

  10. A comparative study of magnetic behaviors in TbNi{sub 2}, TbMn{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}Mn

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J. L.; Md Din, M. F.; Hong, F.; Cheng, Z. X.; Dou, S. X.; Kennedy, S. J.; Studer, A. J.; Campbell, S. J.; Wu, G. H.

    2014-05-07

    All TbNi{sub 2}, TbMn{sub 2}, and TbNi{sub 2}Mn compounds exhibit the cubic Laves phase with AB{sub 2}-type structure in spite of the fact that the ratio of the Tb to transition-metal components in TbNi{sub 2}Mn is 1:3. Rietveld refinement indicates that in TbNi{sub 2}Mn the Mn atoms are distributed on both the A (8a) and B (16d) sites. The values of the lattice constants were measured to be a = 14.348 Å (space group F-43 m), 7.618 Å, and 7.158 Å (space group Fd-3 m) for TbNi{sub 2}, TbMn{sub 2}, and TbNi{sub 2}Mn, respectively. The magnetic transition temperatures T{sub C} were found to be T{sub C} = 38 K and T{sub C} = 148 K for TbNi{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}Mn, respectively, while two magnetic phase transitions are detected for TbMn{sub 2} at T{sub 1} = 20 K and T{sub 2} = 49 K. Clear magnetic history effects in a low magnetic field are observed in TbMn{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}Mn. The magnetic entropy changes have been obtained.

  11. PEPFAR support for the scaling up of collaborative TB/HIV activities.

    PubMed

    Howard, Andrea A; Gasana, Michel; Getahun, Haileyesus; Harries, Anthony; Lawn, Stephen D; Miller, Bess; Nelson, Lisa; Sitienei, Joseph; Coggin, William L

    2012-08-15

    The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has supported a comprehensive package of care in which interventions to address HIV-related tuberculosis (TB) have received increased funding and support in recent years. PEPFAR's TB/HIV programming is based on the World Health Organization's 12-point policy for collaborative TB/HIV activities, which are integrated into PEPFAR annual guidance. PEPFAR implementing partners have provided crucial support to TB/HIV collaboration, and as a result, PEPFAR-supported countries in sub-Saharan Africa have made significant gains in HIV testing and counseling of TB patients and linkages to HIV care and treatment, intensified TB case finding, and TB infection control. PEPFAR's support of TB/HIV integration has also included significant investment in health systems, including improved laboratory services and educating and enlarging the workforce. The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy along with support of programs to increase HIV counseling and testing and improve linkage and retention in HIV care may have considerable impact on TB morbidity and mortality, if used synergistically with isoniazid preventive therapy, intensified case finding, and infection control. Issues to be addressed by future programming include accelerating implementation of isoniazid preventive therapy, increasing access and ensuring appropriate use of new TB diagnostics, supporting early initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected TB patients, and strengthening systems to monitor and evaluate program implementation.

  12. Scaling up of HIV-TB collaborative activities: Achievements and challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Rajesh; Shah, Amar; Sachdeva, K S; Sreenivas, A N; Gupta, R S; Khaparde, S D

    2016-01-01

    India has been implementing HIV/TB collaborative activities since 2001 with rapid scale-up of infrastructure across the country during past decade in National AIDS Control Programme and Revised National TB Control Programme. India has shown over 50% reduction in new infections and around 35% reduction in AIDS-related deaths, thereby being one of the success stories globally. Substantial progress in the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities has occurred in India and it is marching towards target set out in the Global Plan to Stop TB and endorsed by the UN General Assembly to halve HIV associated TB deaths by 2015. While the successful approaches have led to impressive gains in HIV/TB control in India, there are emerging challenges including newer pockets with rising HIV trends in North India, increasing drug resistance, high mortality among co-infected patients, low HIV testing rates among TB patients in northern and eastern states in India, treatment delays and drop-outs, stigma and discrimination, etc. In spite of these difficulties, established HIV/TB coordination mechanisms at different levels, rapid scale-up of facilities with decentralisation of treatment services, regular joint supervision and monitoring, newer initiatives like use of rapid diagnostics for early diagnosis of TB among people living with HIV, TB notification, etc. have led to success in combating the threat of HIV/TB in India. This article highlights the steps taken by India, one of the largest HIV/TB programmes in world, in scaling up of the joint HIV-TB collaborative activities, the achievements so far and discusses the emerging challenges which could provide important lessons for other countries in scaling up their programmes. PMID:27235937

  13. Scaling up of HIV-TB collaborative activities: Achievements and challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Rajesh; Shah, Amar; Sachdeva, K S; Sreenivas, A N; Gupta, R S; Khaparde, S D

    2016-01-01

    India has been implementing HIV/TB collaborative activities since 2001 with rapid scale-up of infrastructure across the country during past decade in National AIDS Control Programme and Revised National TB Control Programme. India has shown over 50% reduction in new infections and around 35% reduction in AIDS-related deaths, thereby being one of the success stories globally. Substantial progress in the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities has occurred in India and it is marching towards target set out in the Global Plan to Stop TB and endorsed by the UN General Assembly to halve HIV associated TB deaths by 2015. While the successful approaches have led to impressive gains in HIV/TB control in India, there are emerging challenges including newer pockets with rising HIV trends in North India, increasing drug resistance, high mortality among co-infected patients, low HIV testing rates among TB patients in northern and eastern states in India, treatment delays and drop-outs, stigma and discrimination, etc. In spite of these difficulties, established HIV/TB coordination mechanisms at different levels, rapid scale-up of facilities with decentralisation of treatment services, regular joint supervision and monitoring, newer initiatives like use of rapid diagnostics for early diagnosis of TB among people living with HIV, TB notification, etc. have led to success in combating the threat of HIV/TB in India. This article highlights the steps taken by India, one of the largest HIV/TB programmes in world, in scaling up of the joint HIV-TB collaborative activities, the achievements so far and discusses the emerging challenges which could provide important lessons for other countries in scaling up their programmes.

  14. Outcomes among HIV-1 Infected Individuals First Starting Antiretroviral Therapy with Concurrent Active TB or Other AIDS-Defining Disease

    PubMed Central

    Périssé, André R. S.; Smeaton, Laura; Chen, Yun; La Rosa, Alberto; Walawander, Ann; Nair, Apsara; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Santos, Breno; Kanyama, Cecilia; Hakim, James; Nyirenda, Mulinda; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Lalloo, Umesh G.; Flanigan, Timothy; Campbell, Thomas B.; Hughes, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is common among HIV-infected individuals in many resource-limited countries and has been associated with poor survival. We evaluated morbidity and mortality among individuals first starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) with concurrent active TB or other AIDS-defining disease using data from the “Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource-Limited Settings” (PEARLS) study. Methods Participants were categorized retrospectively into three groups according to presence of active confirmed or presumptive disease at ART initiation: those with pulmonary and/or extrapulmonary TB (“TB” group), those with other non-TB AIDS-defining disease (“other disease”), or those without concurrent TB or other AIDS-defining disease (“no disease”). Primary outcome was time to the first of virologic failure, HIV disease progression or death. Since the groups differed in characteristics, proportional hazard models were used to compare the hazard of the primary outcome among study groups, adjusting for age, sex, country, screening CD4 count, baseline viral load and ART regimen. Results 31 of 102 participants (30%) in the “TB” group, 11 of 56 (20%) in the “other disease” group, and 287 of 1413 (20%) in the “no disease” group experienced a primary outcome event (p = 0.042). This difference reflected higher mortality in the TB group: 15 (15%), 0 (0%) and 41 (3%) participants died, respectively (p<0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio comparing the “TB” and “no disease” groups was 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 0.93–2.10; p = 0.11) for the primary outcome and 3.41 (1.72–6.75; p<0.001) for death. Conclusions Active TB at ART initiation was associated with increased risk of mortality in HIV-1 infected patients. PMID:24391801

  15. Microwave synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 microcrystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Fuyang; Hua, Yingjie; Wang, Chongtai; Zhao, Xudong; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Hongdong

    2016-12-01

    Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 has been successfully synthesized by a simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal method at 140°C for 30min. The structure, morphology and optical property of the Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 products have been systematically investigated. This study indicates that the incorporation of Tb(3+) could induce the conversion of structure from monoclinic to tetragonal for BiVO4. Furthermore, the as-obtained Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 samples showed an obvious morphological change: the hollow square rod-like BiVO4 crystal gradually changed to spindle-like crystal. The Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 products exhibited extraordinary photocatalytic activity for Methylene Blue (MB) degradation under visible light irradiation. The doped BiVO4 at a molar ratio of 2at% (Tb and Bi) with a mixture of monoclinic and tetragonal phases showed and prominent photocatalytic degradation rate, which reached 99.9% in 120min. The results suggest that the differences in the photocatalytic activity of these BiVO4 crystals with different Tb(3+) doping concentrations can be attributed to the change of crystalline phases, and the coexistence of the monoclinic/tetragonal phases in BiVO4 products, which improve the efficient charge separation and transportation. PMID:27565962

  16. Equity and the Sun Quality Health Private Provider Social Franchise: comparative analysis of patient survey data and a nationally representative TB prevalence survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Since 2004, the Sun Quality Health (SQH) franchise network has provided TB care in Myanmar through a network of established private medical clinics. This study compares the wealth distribution of the TB patients to non-TB patients to determine if TB is most common among the poor, and compares the wealth of all TB patients to SQH TB patients to assess whether the franchise achieves its goal of serving the poor. Methods The study uses data from two sources: 1) Myanmar’s first nationally representative TB prevalence study conducted in 2009, and 2) client exit interviews from TB patients from SQH clinics. In total, 1,114 TB-positive individuals were included in the study, including 739 from the national sample and 375 from the SQH sample. Results TB patients at SQH clinics were poorer than TB-positive individuals in the overall population, though not at a statistically significant level (p > 0.05). After stratification we found that in urban areas, TB patients at SQH clinics were more likely to be in the poorest quartile compared to general TB positive population (16.8% vs. 8.6%, respectively; p < 0.05). In rural areas, there was no statistically significant difference between the wealth distribution of SQH clinic patients and general TB positive individuals (p > 0.05). Conclusion Franchised clinics in Myanmar are reaching poor populations of TB patients in urban areas; more efforts are needed in order to reach the most vulnerable in rural areas. PMID:23305063

  17. Tuberculosis specific responses following therapy for TB: Impact of HIV co-infection.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, S; Sarro, Y; Diarra, B; Diallo, H; Guindo, O; Dabitao, D; Tall, M; Hammond, A; Kassambara, H; Goita, D; Dembele, P; Traore, B; Hengel, R; Nason, M; Warfield, J; Washington, J; Polis, M; Diallo, S; Dao, S; Koita, O; Lane, H C; Catalfamo, M; Tounkara, A

    2015-07-01

    Characterizing perturbations in the immune response to tuberculosis in HIV can develop insights into the pathogenesis of coinfection. HIV+ TB+ and TB monoinfected (TB+) subjects recruited from clinics in Bamako prior to initiation of TB treatment were evaluated at time-points following initiation of therapy. Flow cytometry assessed CD4+/CD8+ T cell subsets and activation markers CD38/HLA-DR. Antigen specific responses to TB proteins were assessed by intracellular cytokine detection and proliferation. HIV+ TB+ subjects had significantly higher markers of immune activation in the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells compared to TB+ subjects. HIV+ TB+ had lower numbers of TB-specific CD4+ T cells at baseline. Plasma IFNγ levels were similar between HIV+ TB+ and TB+ subjects. No differences were observed in in-vitro proliferative capacity to TB antigens between HIV+ TB+ and TB+ subjects. Subjects with HIV+ TB+ coinfection demonstrate in vivo expansion of TB-specific CD4+ T cells. Immunodeficiency associated with CD4+ T cell depletion may be less significant compared to immunosuppression associated with HIV viremia or untreated TB infection.

  18. Augmented photocatalytic activity and luminescence response of Tb³⁺ doped nanoscale titania systems

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Nibedita; Deka, Amrita; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2014-10-14

    The present work reports on the effect of Tb³⁺ doping on the luminescence and photocatalytic performance of nano-structured titania derived through a sol-gel route. X-ray diffraction patterns have revealed the existence of anatase phase with and without Tb³⁺ doping and with an improved orientation factor along (004) and (200) planes. Transmission electron microscopy and selective area electron diffraction studies, while exhibiting ample poly-crystallinity feature, have predicted an average particle size of ~9 nm and ~6 nm for the un-doped and 5% Tb³⁺ doped nano-titania samples; respectively. Apart from emissions accompanied by different types of defects, Tb³⁺ related transitions, such as, ⁵D₃ → ⁷F₅, ⁵D₃ → ⁷F₄, and ⁵D₄ → ⁷F₆ were identified in the photoluminescence spectra. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis, as carried out on a Tb³⁺ doped nano-titania system, has demonstrated a more-open hysteretic loop owing to significant difference of N₂ adsorption/desorption rates. The photocatalytic activity of nano-titania, as evaluated from the nature of degradation of methyl orange under UV illumination, exhibited the highest efficiency for a Tb³⁺ doping level of 2.5%. The augmented photocatalytic degradation has also been discussed in the light of a model based on pseudo first-order kinetics.

  19. TB Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tuberculosis Basic TB Facts How TB Spreads Latent TB ...

  20. Affordable TB treatments. South.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    This short article reports the proceedings of a session of the World Health Organization (WHO) on tuberculosis (TB) prevention and management. 15 million persons are infected with both TB and HIV; 11 million of these people are in sub-Saharan Africa. Current TB management relies on finding cases and treating them. According to Paul Nunn of WHO, the role of preventive therapy is unclear. Jensa Bell, of Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York, reported on the cost effectiveness of prevention with isoniazid (INH) in sub-Saharan Africa. Direct medical costs of the drug for 6 months are CHF171/year of life saved. When social costs of TB and prevention of secondary cases are included, INH prophylaxis saves money; initial investment is CHF34.50/person treated, while cost averted is CHF36.24/person treated. Mary Mulindwa, of the Joint Clinical Research Centre in Kampala, Uganda, studied reasons for nonadherence to TB preventive regimens in a clinical trial. Major reasons included the following: 1) transport difficulties; 2) caring for a sick family member; 3) change of address without informing the home visitor; and 4) stigma of being seen with a health worker. Richard Chaisson, of the CP-CRA004/ACTG177 study group, reported results from a trial comparing prevention with INH for 12 months to rifampin plus pyrazinamide (R/P) for 2 months in 1600 tuberculin-positive, HIV-positive people without active disease in the US, Mexico, Brazil, and Haiti. "Effective therapy" with INH was equal to at least 6 months of continuous adherence; 67% of patients met this standard. 80% of R/P patients were adherent. Over 3 years, there were 26 confirmed cases of TB in the INH group and 19 in the R/P group; these results are equivalent. However, Chaisson noted that the cost and feasibility of R/P treatment in resource-poor settings should be considered.

  1. Affordable TB treatments. South.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    This short article reports the proceedings of a session of the World Health Organization (WHO) on tuberculosis (TB) prevention and management. 15 million persons are infected with both TB and HIV; 11 million of these people are in sub-Saharan Africa. Current TB management relies on finding cases and treating them. According to Paul Nunn of WHO, the role of preventive therapy is unclear. Jensa Bell, of Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York, reported on the cost effectiveness of prevention with isoniazid (INH) in sub-Saharan Africa. Direct medical costs of the drug for 6 months are CHF171/year of life saved. When social costs of TB and prevention of secondary cases are included, INH prophylaxis saves money; initial investment is CHF34.50/person treated, while cost averted is CHF36.24/person treated. Mary Mulindwa, of the Joint Clinical Research Centre in Kampala, Uganda, studied reasons for nonadherence to TB preventive regimens in a clinical trial. Major reasons included the following: 1) transport difficulties; 2) caring for a sick family member; 3) change of address without informing the home visitor; and 4) stigma of being seen with a health worker. Richard Chaisson, of the CP-CRA004/ACTG177 study group, reported results from a trial comparing prevention with INH for 12 months to rifampin plus pyrazinamide (R/P) for 2 months in 1600 tuberculin-positive, HIV-positive people without active disease in the US, Mexico, Brazil, and Haiti. "Effective therapy" with INH was equal to at least 6 months of continuous adherence; 67% of patients met this standard. 80% of R/P patients were adherent. Over 3 years, there were 26 confirmed cases of TB in the INH group and 19 in the R/P group; these results are equivalent. However, Chaisson noted that the cost and feasibility of R/P treatment in resource-poor settings should be considered. PMID:12222196

  2. Dotting the Three I's for collaborative TB-HIV activities: evaluation of a pilot programme in Kathmandu, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, S. K.; Lamichhane, B.; Bhatta, G. K.; Bhandari, K. B.; Owiti, P.; Majumdar, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: The three government tertiary care hospitals providing care for people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in Kathmandu, Nepal. Objectives: To assess 1) the screening cascades for intensified case finding for tuberculosis (TB), 2) isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), including demographic and clinical factors associated with treatment interruption, and 3) TB infection control (IC) in the health facilities. Design: A cross-sectional study of new PLHIV enrolled from January 2012 to December 2014. Results: Among 572 registered PLHIV, 91% were on antiretroviral therapy. Of those registered, 561 (98%) were screened for TB and 73 (13%) were diagnosed with TB (17 [25%] sputum smear-positive, 17 [25%] smear-negative and 35 [51%] extra-pulmonary). Among the 488 (87%) PLHIV without active TB, 157 (32%) were initiated on IPT, of whom 136 (87%) completed treatment and 17 (11%) interrupted treatment. Those who experienced adverse events were 12 times more likely to interrupt IPT. TB IC showed gaps in personal control measures and supporting structures and policies. Conclusion: The implementation of the Three I's for collaborative TB-HIV activities in pilot sites in Nepal was successful and should be scaled up. PMID:27695679

  3. Dotting the Three I's for collaborative TB-HIV activities: evaluation of a pilot programme in Kathmandu, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, S. K.; Lamichhane, B.; Bhatta, G. K.; Bhandari, K. B.; Owiti, P.; Majumdar, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: The three government tertiary care hospitals providing care for people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in Kathmandu, Nepal. Objectives: To assess 1) the screening cascades for intensified case finding for tuberculosis (TB), 2) isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), including demographic and clinical factors associated with treatment interruption, and 3) TB infection control (IC) in the health facilities. Design: A cross-sectional study of new PLHIV enrolled from January 2012 to December 2014. Results: Among 572 registered PLHIV, 91% were on antiretroviral therapy. Of those registered, 561 (98%) were screened for TB and 73 (13%) were diagnosed with TB (17 [25%] sputum smear-positive, 17 [25%] smear-negative and 35 [51%] extra-pulmonary). Among the 488 (87%) PLHIV without active TB, 157 (32%) were initiated on IPT, of whom 136 (87%) completed treatment and 17 (11%) interrupted treatment. Those who experienced adverse events were 12 times more likely to interrupt IPT. TB IC showed gaps in personal control measures and supporting structures and policies. Conclusion: The implementation of the Three I's for collaborative TB-HIV activities in pilot sites in Nepal was successful and should be scaled up.

  4. Tuberculosis (TB)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Tuberculosis (TB) Overview In developed countries, such as the ... thought to be infected with TB bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ). TB is a chronic bacterial infection. It ...

  5. Functional profile of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in latently infected individuals and patients with active TB.

    PubMed

    Marín, Nancy D; París, Sara C; Rojas, Mauricio; García, Luis F

    2013-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important infectious diseases around the world. Several studies have focused on the identification of correlates of protection against TB. Most of them have concentrated on the study of IFN-γ due to its robust association with protection against TB. However, given the complexity of the immune response elicited after Mtb infection, other cytokines should also be considered. In the present study, we evaluated Th1 and Th17 responses and their association with the protection or development of active disease. Therefore, non infected individuals (nonTBi), latently infected individuals (LTBi) and patients with active TB (ATB) were studied. The evaluation of the number of cytokine producing cells by ELISPOT showed a higher number of IFN-γ-producing cells in ATB patients, but no differences were found regarding the number of IL-17 producing cells among studied groups. The evaluation of IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α and IL-17 producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at 1 day and 6 days of stimulation with mycobacterial antigens suggests the presence of functional signatures associated with latency or active TB. The results presented herein suggest the possible use of the evaluation of Th1-type cytokines, such as IFN-γ and/or TNF-α, as a correlate of protection against TB; however, these results need to be validated for other groups.

  6. Childhood TB: can the End TB Strategy deliver?

    PubMed

    Seddon, James A; Graham, Stephen M

    2016-03-01

    The accelerated reductions in global TB incidence required to achieve the End TB Strategy goal will result in reductions in the burden of childhood TB. Contact screening and preventive therapy have emerged as important components of TB burden reduction, and family-centered approaches could be an effective route in delivering these activities. Lack of accurate diagnostics for children remains a critical barrier and a need remains for better collaborative and supportive links between the child health and TB control sectors. Irrespective of whether the ambitious targets can be achieved, the unprecedented opportunities provided by the End TB Strategy must be embraced.

  7. Tuberculosis (TB)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Tuberculosis Research The New Challenge for TB Research NIAID ... HIV/AIDS Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Research Agenda (PDF) TB Research at NIAID Research ...

  8. Differential cellular recognition pattern to M. tuberculosis targets defined by IFN-γ and IL-17 production in blood from TB + patients from Honduras as compared to health care workers: TB and immune responses in patients from Honduras

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the quality of cellular immune responses directed against molecularly defined targets will guide the development of TB diagnostics and identification of molecularly defined, clinically relevant M.tb vaccine candidates. Methods Recombinant proteins (n = 8) and peptide pools (n = 14) from M. tuberculosis (M.tb) targets were used to compare cellular immune responses defined by IFN-γ and IL-17 production using a Whole Blood Assay (WBA) in a cohort of 148 individuals, i.e. patients with TB + (n = 38), TB- individuals with other pulmonary diseases (n = 81) and individuals exposed to TB without evidence of clinical TB (health care workers, n = 29). Results M.tb antigens Rv2958c (glycosyltransferase), Rv2962c (mycolyltransferase), Rv1886c (Ag85B), Rv3804c (Ag85A), and the PPE family member Rv3347c were frequently recognized, defined by IFN-γ production, in blood from healthy individuals exposed to M.tb (health care workers). A different recognition pattern was found for IL-17 production in blood from M.tb exposed individuals responding to TB10.4 (Rv0288), Ag85B (Rv1886c) and the PPE family members Rv0978c and Rv1917c. Conclusions The pattern of immune target recognition is different in regard to IFN-γ and IL-17 production to defined molecular M.tb targets in PBMCs from individuals frequently exposed to M.tb. The data represent the first mapping of cellular immune responses against M.tb targets in TB patients from Honduras. PMID:23497342

  9. Influence of structural distortions upon photoluminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} activated Na{sub 3}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Gd) borates

    SciTech Connect

    Asiri Naidu, S.; Boudin, S.; Varadaraju, U.V.; Raveau, B.

    2012-06-15

    The comparative study of the structure and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} activated Na{sub 3}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}, with Ln=Y, Gd, showed the important role of the host lattice structure upon PL. Higher emission intensities of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} are observed for Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} than for Na{sub 3}Y(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}, through direct Eu{sup 3+} excitation at 395 nm for Eu{sup 3+} doped borates, and through Gd{sup 3+} excitation around 280 nm for Tb{sup 3+} doped borates. This higher performance for Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} is due to the less regular environment of Eu{sup 3+} (Tb{sup 3+}) in the Gd sites than in the Y sites and to energy transfer from Gd{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+}(Tb{sup 3+}). The smaller critical concentration in Na{sub 3}Ln{sub 1-x}Tb{sub x}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} observed for Ln=Gd, x=0.5, compared to x=0.6 for Ln=Y, is explained by shorter Ln-Ln distances (4.11 A for Gd-Gd vs. 4.59 A for Y-Y). Both Na{sub 3}Y{sub 0.4}Tb{sub 0.6}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Na{sub 3}Gd{sub 0.5}Tb{sub 0.5}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} show intense green emission under UV excitation. - Graphical abstract: The PL properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} are studied in Na{sub 3}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Gd) borates. Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}exhibits higher emission intensity in Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} compared to Na{sub 3}Y(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} due to the less regular environment of the Gd{sup 3+} ion. Energy transfer from Gd{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+} is observed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structure of Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} by X-ray powder diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoluminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} doped Na{sub 3}Ln(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Ln=Y, Gd). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} emission for Na{sub 3}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} due to an irregular environment of Gd{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} emission

  10. MDR-TB Antibody Response (Western Blot) to Fractions of Isoniazid and Rifampicin Resistant Antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Alireza; Yari, Shamsi; Ghanei, Mostafa; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Bahrmand, Ahmadreza

    2015-12-01

    Drug-resistant TB poses a major threat to control of TB worldwide. Despite progress in the detection of Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases, a major diagnostic gap remains: 55% of reported TB patients estimated to have MDR-TB were not detected in 2013. MDR-TB antigens were conjugated to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. Specific polyclonal antibodies against MDR-TB Ags were prepared in rabbits using two boosted injections of the MDR-TB antigen. The antibodies were purified and treated with susceptible TB to remove any non-specific and cross-reactive antibodies. In the present study, comparative analysis of electrophoretic pattern of different antigens of INH/RIF-resistant TB were studied for identifying protein profiles. A RIF-resistant TB antigen was shown here to have different protein profiles from INH-resistant TB isolate. The results of Western blotting analysis showed that in the RIF- and INH-resistant antigenic fractions some bands of 14.4 and 45 kDa as immunogenic were common. Moreover, four bands of RIF-resistant TB antigen fractions (16, 19, 21, and 45 KDa) and one band of INH-resistant TB (about 26 KDa) were detected as diagnostic antigens. This study suggests that the Western blot is an accurate test to survey INH- and RIF-resistant TB antigens of M. tuberculosis infection. These findings indicate that MDR-TB diagnosis (based on Ag detection) could be useful in the identification of disease stages that precede symptomatic and microbiologically positive TB, such as subclinical and incipient TB.

  11. Active tuberculosis case finding and detection of drug resistance among HIV-infected patients: A cross-sectional study in a TB endemic area, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Alemayehu, Martha; Gelaw, Baye; Abate, Ebba; Wassie, Liya; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Bekele, Shiferaw; Kempker, Russell R.; Blumberg, Henry M.; Aseffa, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often lack the classic symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis, making the diagnosis difficult. Current practices in resource-limited settings often indicate that these co-infected patients are diagnosed when they clinically manifest disease symptoms, resulting in a delayed diagnosis and despite continued transmission. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis cases through active case finding and including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) among HIV-infected patients. Materials and methods A total of 250 HIV-infected patients, aged 18 years and above were evaluated in a cross-sectional design between February 2012 and November 2012. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Sputum samples were collected from all participants for acid fast bacilli (AFB) direct smear microscopy and Mycobacteria culture. A PCR-based RD9 deletion and genus typing, as well as first-line anti-TB drug susceptibility testing, was performed for all culture-positive isolates. Results Following active TB case finding, a total of 15/250 (6%) cases were diagnosed as TB cases, of whom 9/250 (3.6%) were detected by both smear microscopy and culture and the remaining 6/250 (2.4%) only by culture. All the 15 isolates were typed through RD9 typing of which 10 were Mycobacterium tuberculosis species; 1 belonged to Mycobacterium genus and 4 isolates were non-tuberculous mycobacteria. The prevalence of undiagnosed pulmonary TB disease among the study participants was 4.4%, which implies the possibility of identifying even more undiagnosed cases through active case finding. A multivariate logistic regression showed a statistically significant association between the presence of pneumonia infection and the occurrence of TB (OR = 4.81, 95% CI (1.08–21.43), p = 0.04). In addition, all the isolates were sensitive to all first

  12. NMR structures and interactions of temporin-1Tl and temporin-1Tb with lipopolysaccharide micelles: mechanistic insights into outer membrane permeabilization and synergistic activity.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Anirban; Saravanan, Rathi; Mohanram, Harini; Mangoni, Maria L; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2011-07-01

    Temporins are a group of closely related short antimicrobial peptides from frog skin. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major constituent of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, plays important roles in the activity of temporins. Earlier studies have found that LPS induces oligomerization of temporin-1Tb (TB) thus preventing its translocation across the outer membrane and, as a result, reduces its activity on gram-negative bacteria. On the other hand, temporin-1Tl (TL) exhibits higher activity, presumably because of lack of such oligomerization. A synergistic mechanism was proposed, involving TL and TB in overcoming the LPS-mediated barrier. Here, to gain insights into interactions of TL and TB within LPS, we investigated the structures and interactions of TL, TB, and TL+TB in LPS micelles, using NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. In the context of LPS, TL assumes a novel antiparallel dimeric helical structure sustained by intimate packing between aromatic-aromatic and aromatic-aliphatic residues. By contrast, independent TB has populations of helical and aggregated conformations in LPS. The LPS-induced aggregated states of TB are largely destabilized in the presence of TL. Saturation transfer difference NMR studies have delineated residues of TL and TB in close contact with LPS and enhanced interactions of these two peptides with LPS, when combined together. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer and (31)P NMR have pointed out the proximity of TL and TB in LPS and conformational changes of LPS, respectively. Importantly, these results provide the first structural insights into the mode of action and synergism of antimicrobial peptides at the level of the LPS-outer membrane. PMID:21586570

  13. Effect of thermal annealing treatments on the optical activation of Tb3+ -doped amorphous SiC:H thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, J. A.; De Zela, F.; Tucto, K.; Montañez, L.; Töfflinger, J. A.; Winnacker, A.; Weingärtner, R.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the annealing temperature on the light emission intensity of Tb-doped a-SiC:H thin films was investigated for different Tb concentrations under sub-bandgap photon excitation. We present a detailed discussion of rare-earth thermal activation in order to determine the optimal Tb concentration and annealing temperature for the highest Tb-related light emission intensity. Two independent processes that enhance the emission intensity are identified and incorporated in a rate equation. These are the thermally-induced increase of luminescence centers and the inhibition of host-mediated non-radiative recombinations. Finally, the presented analysis revealed a suppression of the self-quenching effect when increasing the annealing temperature.

  14. Testing for TB Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tuberculosis Basic TB Facts How TB Spreads Latent TB ...

  15. Tuberculosis preventive therapy: an underutilised strategy to reduce individual risk of TB and contribute to TB control.

    PubMed

    Churchyard, Gavin J; Chaisson, Richard E; Maartens, Gary; Getahun, Haileyesus

    2014-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem, and South Africa (SA) has one of the world's worst TB epidemics. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated in 1999 that one-third of the world's population was latently infected with TB. In SA up to 88% of HIV-uninfected young adults (31 - 35 years) are latently infected with TB. In the most recent meta-analysis, 6 - 12 months of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) was associated with a lower incidence of active TB than placebo (relative risk (RR) 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54 - 0.85), with the greatest benefit among individuals with a positive tuberculin skin test (TST) (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.25 - 0.57). A clinical trial of IPT given with antiretroviral therapy (ART) for 12 months reduced TB incidence by 37% compared with ART alone (hazard ratio (HR) 0.63; 95% CI 0.41 - 0.94). The effect of IPT is limited in high-burden countries. IPT for 36 months v. 6 months reduced TB incidence among HIV-positive, TST-positive participants by 74% (HR 0.26; 95% CI 0.09 - 0.80). A study of more than 24 000 goldminers confirmed that IPT is safe, with only 0.5% experiencing adverse events. A meta-analysis of studies of IPT since 1951 did not show an increased risk of developing resistance. Alternative TB preventive therapy regimens, including high-dose isoniazid and rifapentine given weekly for 3 months, have been shown to have similar efficacy to IPT. Mathematical modelling suggests that scaling up continuous IPT targeted to HIV-positive persons, when used in combination with other treatment and prevention strategies, may substantially improve TB control. PMID:25212199

  16. Local level epidemiological analysis of TB in people from a high incidence country of birth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The setting for this analysis is the low tuberculosis (TB) incidence state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Local level analysis of TB epidemiology in people from high incidence countries-of-birth (HIC) in a low incidence setting has not been conducted in Australia and has not been widely reported. Local level analysis could inform measures such as active case finding and targeted earlier diagnosis. The aim of this study was to use a novel approach to identify local areas in an Australian state that have higher TB rates given the local areas’ country of birth profiles. Methods TB notification data for the three year period 2006–2008 were analysed by grouping the population into those from a high-incidence country-of-birth and the remainder. Results During the study period there were 1401 notified TB cases in the state of NSW. Of these TB cases 76.5% were born in a high-incidence country. The annualised TB notification rate for the high-incidence country-of-birth group was 61.2/100,000 population and for the remainder of the population was 1.8/100,000. Of the 152 Local Government Areas (LGA) in NSW, nine had higher and four had lower TB notification rates in their high-incidence country-of-birth populations when compared with the high-incidence country-of-birth population for the rest of NSW. The nine areas had a higher proportion of the population with a country of birth where TB notification rates are >100/100,000. Those notified with TB in the nine areas also had a shorter length of stay in Australia than the rest of the state. The areas with higher TB notification rates were all in the capital city, Sydney. Among LGAs with higher TB notification rates, four had higher rates in both people with a high-incidence country of birth and people not born in a high-incidence country. The age distribution of the HIC population was similar across all areas, and the highest differential in TB rates across areas was in the 5–19 years age group

  17. Two doses of candidate TB vaccine MVA85A in antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve subjects gives comparable immunogenicity to one dose in ART+ subjects.

    PubMed

    Dieye, Tandakha N; Ndiaye, Birahim P; Dieng, Alle B; Fall, Marema; Brittain, Nathaniel; Britain, Nathaniel; Vermaak, Samantha; Camara, Makhtar; Diop-Ndiaye, Halimatou; Ngom-Gueye, Ndeye Fatou; Diaw, Papa A; Toure-Kane, Coumba; Sow, Papa S; Mboup, Souleymane; McShane, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem exacerbated by the HIV epidemic. Here we evaluate a candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A, in a Phase I study in HIV-infected adults in Senegal. 24 patients were enrolled: Group 1∶12, antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve, adults, with CD4 counts >300 and HIV RNA load <100,000 copies/ml. Group 2∶12 adults, stable on ART, with CD4 counts >300, and an undetectable HIV RNA load. Safety was evaluated by occurrence of local and systemic adverse events (AEs) and by monitoring of CD4 count, HIV RNA load, haematology and biochemistry. Immunogenicity was evaluated by ex-vivo interferon-gamma ELISpot assay. 87.7% of AEs were mild; 11.6% were moderate; and 0.7% were severe. 29.2% of AEs were systemic; 70.8% were expected local AEs. There were no vaccine-related Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) or clinically significant effects on HIV RNA load or CD4 count. In ART naive subjects, the first MVA85A immunisation induced a significant immune response at 1 and 4 weeks post-immunisation, which contracted to baseline by 12 weeks. Durability of immunogenicity in subjects on ART persisted out to 24 weeks post-vaccination. A second dose of MVA85A at 12 months enhanced immunogenicity in ART naïve subjects. Subjects on ART had higher responses after the first vaccination compared with ART naïve subjects; responses were comparable after 2 immunisations. In conclusion, MVA85A is well-tolerated and immunogenic in HIV-infected subjects in Senegal. A two dose regimen in ART naïve subjects is comparable in immunogenicity to a single dose in subjects on ART. Clinicaltrials.gov trial identifier NCT00731471.

  18. Synthesis and photoluminescence of Tb{sup 3+} Activated NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaohua; Xiang, Wendou; Chen, Fengming; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Zhengfa

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The phosphor powders of NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} were prepared by solid state reaction. The dependence of luminescence intensity on the Tb{sup 3+} concentration was investigated. Highlights: ► We synthesize NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} phosphors by the solid-state reaction technique. ► We observe and explain the blue shifting of excitation peak positions of CTBs. ► The PL from {sup 5}D{sub 3} level become less probable with increasing the Tb{sup 3+} content. ► The PL intensity increases with Tb{sup 3+} content without concentration quenching. ► NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} has potential application as a green emitting phosphor in lamps. -- Abstract: The novel yellowish green phosphor powders of NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} doped with Tb{sup 3+} were prepared by solid-state reaction. The powder samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the phosphors sintered at 900 °C for 6 h were a pure NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} phase for all the Tb{sup 3+} doping concentrations. The room temperature excitation spectra vary with the Tb{sup 3+} concentration and consist of an intense charge transfer band of WO{sub 4}{sup 2−} group and weak intra-4f{sup 8} transition absorption peaks of Tb{sup 3+} ions. The photoluminescence spectra, excited at the peak wavelengths of charge transfer bands, consist of the characteristic Tb{sup 3+} emission transitions from {sup 5}D{sub 3} and {sup 5}D{sub 4} excited levels to {sup 7}F{sub J} (J = 3–6) levels. The dependence of luminescence intensity on the Tb{sup 3+} concentration in NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb phosphors was investigated.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of GenoType MTBDRplus Line Probe Assay with Solid Culture Method in Early Diagnosis of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at a Tertiary Care Centre in India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Raj N.; Singh, Binit K.; Sharma, Surendra K.; Sharma, Rohini; Soneja, Manish; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Myneedu, Vithal P.; Hanif, Mahmud; Kumar, Ashok; Sachdeva, Kuldeep S.; Paramasivan, Chinnambedu N.; Vollepore, Balasangameshwra; Thakur, Rahul; Raizada, Neeraj; Arora, Suresh K.; Sinha, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Background The objectives of the study were to compare the performance of line probe assay (GenoType MTBDRplus) with solid culture method for an early diagnosis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and to study the mutation patterns associated with rpoB, katG and inhA genes at a tertiary care centre in north India. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 269 previously treated sputum-smear acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positive MDR-TB suspects were enrolled from January to September 2012 at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences hospital, New Delhi. Line probe assay (LPA) was performed directly on the sputum specimens and the results were compared with that of conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) on solid media [Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) method]. Results DST results by LPA and LJ methods were compared in 242 MDR-TB suspects. The LPA detected rifampicin (RIF) resistance in 70 of 71 cases, isoniazid (INH) resistance in 86 of 93 cases, and MDR-TB in 66 of 68 cases as compared to the conventional method. Overall (rifampicin, isoniazid and MDR-TB) concordance of the LPA with the conventional DST was 96%. Sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 99% respectively for detection of RIF resistance; 92% and 99% respectively for detection of INH resistance; 97% and 100% respectively for detection of MDR-TB. Frequencies of katG gene, inhA gene and combined katG and inhA gene mutations conferring all INH resistance were 72/87 (83%), 10/87 (11%) and 5/87 (6%) respectively. The turnaround time of the LPA test was 48 hours. Conclusion The LPA test provides an early diagnosis of monoresistance to isoniazid and rifampicin and is highly sensitive and specific for an early diagnosis of MDR-TB. Based on these findings, it is concluded that the LPA test can be useful in early diagnosis of drug resistant TB in high TB burden countries. PMID:24039735

  20. Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  1. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  2. Immunity to TB and targets for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes

    2012-02-01

    For centuries the treatment of TB has presented an enormous challenge to global health. In the 20th century, the treatment of TB patients with long-term multidrug therapy gave hope that TB could be controlled and cured; however, contrary to these expectations and coinciding with the emergence of AIDS, the world has witnessed a rampant increase in hard-to-treat cases of TB, along with the emergence of highly virulent and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Unfortunately, these bacteria are now circulating around the world, and there are few effective drugs to treat them. As a result, the prospects for improved treatment and control of TB in the 21st century have worsened and we urgently need to identify new therapies that deal with this problem. The potential use of immunotherapy for TB is now of greater consideration than ever before, as immunotherapy could potentially overcome the problem of drug resistance. TB immunotherapy targets the already existing host anti-TB immune response and aims to enhance killing of the bacilli. For this purpose, several approaches have been used: the use of anti-Mycobacteria antibodies; enhancing the Th1 protective responses by using mycobacterial antigens or increasing Th1 cytokines; interfering with the inflammatory process and targeting of immunosuppressive pathways and targeting the cell activation/proliferation pathways. This article reviews our current understanding of TB immunity and targets for immunotherapy that could be used in combination with current TB chemotherapy.

  3. Photoluminescence, energy transfer and tunable color of Ce(3+), Tb(3+) and Eu(2+) activated oxynitride phosphors with high brightness.

    PubMed

    Lü, Wei; Huo, Jiansheng; Feng, Yang; Zhao, Shuang; You, Hongpeng

    2016-06-21

    New tuneable light-emitting Ca3Al8Si4O17N4:Ce(3+)/Tb(3+)/Eu(2+) oxynitride phosphors with high brightness have been prepared. When doped with trivalent cerium or divalent europium they present blue luminescence under UV excitation. The energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Tb(3+) and Ce(3+) to Eu(2+) ions is deduced from the spectral overlap between Ce(3+) emission and Tb(3+)/Eu(2+) excitation spectra. The energy-transfer efficiencies and corresponding mechanisms are discussed in detail, and the mechanisms of energy transfer from the Ce(3+) to Tb(3+) and Ce(3+) to Eu(2+) ions are demonstrated to be a dipole-quadrupole and dipole-dipole mechanism, respectively, by the Inokuti-Hirayama model. The International Commission on Illumination value of color tuneable emission as well as luminescence quantum yield (23.8-80.6%) can be tuned by controlling the content of Ce(3+), Tb(3+) and Eu(2+). All results suggest that they are suitable for UV light-emitting diode excitation. PMID:27226201

  4. Treatment: Latent TB Infection (LTBI) and TB Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tuberculosis Basic TB Facts How TB Spreads Latent TB ...

  5. Elevated serum 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D levels are associated with risk of TB progression in Gambian adults

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Olumuyiwa; Agbla, Schadrac; Owiafe, Patrick; Donkor, Simon; Togun, Toyin; Sillah, Abdou K.; Ota, Martin O.C.; Sutherland, Jayne S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Vitamin D is essential in the host defence against tuberculosis (TB) as an immune modulator. The aim of this study was to determine the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) from adult TB index cases before and after treatment and their exposed household contacts (HHC) in The Gambia. Methods Serum from adult index TB cases and their TB-exposed household contacts (HHC) was analysed for 25(OH) D and Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) concentrations. Tuberculin skin test (TST) status was used as a measure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infectivity in the HHC. In addition, HHC who later progressed to active TB (incident cases) were assessed alongside non-progressors to determine the influence of 25 (OH) D levels on TB risk. Results Eighty-three TB cases, 46 TST+ and 52 TST− HHC were analysed. Generally levels of 25(OH) D were considered insufficient in all subjects. However, median levels of 25(OH) D and VDBP were significantly higher in TB cases compared to both TST+ and TST− HHC at recruitment and were significantly reduced after TB therapy (p < 0.0001 for all). In addition, levels of serum 25(OH) D at recruitment were significantly higher in TB progressors compared to non-progressors (median (IQR): 25.0(20.8–29.2) in progressors and 20.3 (16.3–24.6) ng/ml in non-progressors; p = 0.007). Conclusion In The Gambia, an equatorial country, 25(OH) D levels are higher in serum of TB progressors and those with active disease compared to latently infected and uninfected subjects. These results contrast to findings in non-equatorial countries. PMID:27156622

  6. Luminescent properties of Tb-activated rare-earth oxyapatite silicate MLn4Si3O13 (M = Ca, Sr, Ln = La, Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, A.; Kunimoto, T.; Ohmi, K.; Honma, T.; Kobayashi, H.

    2006-09-01

    Rare-earth oxyapatites MLn4Si3O13 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba Ln = La, Gd) have been proposed as a new plasma display panel (PDP) host material to overcome the problems of Zn2SiO4:Mn commercial green phosphor, such as luminance degradation and poor surface charge. Tb-doped MLn4Si3O13 phosphor powders show a green luminescence with the CIE color coordinate (x, y) = (0.337, 0.562). The PL excitation band lies continuously in the wavelength region from 130 to 260 nm. The photoluminescence (PL) peak intensity of SrGd4Si3O13:Tb is comparable with that of Zn2SiO4:Mn. The phosphor is a candidate for a green PDP phosphor for Xe2 excitation.

  7. Questions and Answers about TB

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tuberculosis Basic TB Facts How TB Spreads Latent TB ...

  8. Measurement of the MACS of {sup 159}Tb(n, γ) at kT=30 keV by Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Praena, J.; Mastinu, P.F.; Pignatari, M.; Quesada, J.M.; Capote, R.; Morilla, Y.

    2014-06-15

    The measurement of the Maxwellian-Averaged Cross-Section (MACS) of the {sup 159}Tb(n, γ) reaction at kT=30 keV by the activation technique is presented. An innovative method for the generation of Maxwellian neutron spectra at kT=30 keV is used. An experimental value of 2166±181 mb agrees well with the MACS value derived from the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation, but is higher than KADoNiS recommended value of 1580±150 mb. Astrophysical implications are studied.

  9. Snapshot of Quantiferon TB gold testing in Northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Salazar, F; Vargas-Villarreal, J; Garcialuna-Martínez, F J; Rivera, G; Moreno-Treviño, M G; Montfort-Gardeazabal, J M; Garcialuna-Martínez, E

    2011-12-01

    Most people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis have an asymptomatic condition named latent tuberculosis. These people do not have bacilli in the corporal secretions and are hard to diagnose by conventional laboratory tests. Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in México is based on the tuberculin skin test (TST). This test has disadvantages, principally because the vaccine containing the Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is applied to 99% of this population and causes false positive TST outcomes. Recently, interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) have been demonstrated to be a good test to detect latent tuberculosis with equal or better sensitivity to TST and without interference from BCG. However, in México the IGRA are an uncommon test due to the higher cost compared to TST. The main objective of this work was demonstrate the potential utility of the Quantiferon TB(®) gold in tube (QTB(®)-GIT) test to detect latent TB in a population from northern México. Samples from 106 subjects with close contact, or without contact, with actively infected TB patients were tested to detect LTBI. Our results show a significant difference between individuals in close contact with active TB patients (39.7%) compared to those without contact (3.2%), p < 0.01. The concordance between TST and QTB(®)-GIT was poor (κ = 0.31). Our preliminary results show that the QTB(®)-GIT has better capacity than TST to detect latent tuberculosis infection.

  10. Diagnostic value of blood gene expression signatures in active tuberculosis in Thais: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Satproedprai, N; Wichukchinda, N; Suphankong, S; Inunchot, W; Kuntima, T; Kumpeerasart, S; Wattanapokayakit, S; Nedsuwan, S; Yanai, H; Higuchi, K; Harada, N; Mahasirimongkol, S

    2015-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem. Routine laboratory tests or newly developed molecular detection are limited to the quality of sputum sample. Here we selected genes specific to TB by a minimum redundancy-maximum relevancy package using publicly available microarray data and determine level of selected genes in blood collected from a Thai TB cohort of 40 active TB patients, 38 healthy controls and 18 previous TB patients using quantitative real-time PCR. FCGR1A, FCGR1B variant 1, FCGR1B variant 2, APOL1, GBP5, PSTPIP2, STAT1, KCNJ15, MAFB and KAZN had significantly higher expression level in active TB individuals as compared with healthy controls and previous TB cases (P<0.01). A mathematical method was applied to calculate TB predictive score, which contains the level of expression of seven genes and this score can identify active TB cases with 82.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity as compared with conventional culture confirmation. In addition, TB predictive scores in active TB patients were reduced to normal after completion of standard short-course therapy, which was mostly in concordant with the disease outcome. These finding suggested that blood gene expression measurement and TB Sick Score could have potential value in terms of diagnosis of TB and anti-TB treatment monitoring.

  11. Predictive and prognostic properties of TB-LAM among HIV-positive patients initiating ART in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    d'Elia, Alexander; Evans, Denise; McNamara, Lynne; Berhanu, Rebecca; Sanne, Ian; Lönnermark, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    While the diagnostic properties of the TB LAM urine assay (LAM) have been well-described, little is known about its predictive and prognostic properties at ART initiation in a routine clinic setting. We describe the predictive and prognostic properties of LAM in HIV-positive patients initiating ART at an urban hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. Retrospective study of HIV-positive adults (>18 years) who initiated standard first-line ART between February 2012 and April 2013 and had a LAM test at initiation. In HIV-positive patients with no known TB at ART initiation, we assessed the sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative likelihood ratios of LAM to predict incident TB within 6 months of ART initiation. In addition, in patients with a TB diagnosis and on TB treatment <3 months at ART initiation, we measured the CD4 response at 6 months on ART. Of the 274 patients without TB at ART initiation, 65% were female with median CD4 count of 213 cells/mm(3). Among the 14 (5.1%) patients who developed active TB, none were urine LAM +ve at baseline. LAM had poor sensitivity (0.0% 95% CI 0.00-23.2) to predict incident TB within 6 months of initiation. We analyzed 22 patients with a confirmed TB diagnosis at initiation separately. Of these, LAM +ve patients (27%) showed lower CD4 gains compared to LAM negative patients (median increase 103 vs 199 cells/mm(3); p = 0.08). LAM has limited value for accurately predicting incident TB in patients with higher CD4 counts after ART initiation. LAM may help identify TB/HIV co-infected patients at ART initiation who respond more slowly to treatment and require targeted interventions to improve treatment outcomes. Larger studies with longer patient follow-up are needed.

  12. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Using a Computer Aided Diagnosis Program for Automatically Scoring Chest X-Rays of Presumptive TB Patients Compared with Xpert MTB/RIF in Lusaka Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Muyoyeta, Monde; Maduskar, Pragnya; Moyo, Maureen; Kasese, Nkatya; Milimo, Deborah; Spooner, Rosanna; Kapata, Nathan; Hogeweg, Laurens; van Ginneken, Bram; Ayles, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the sensitivity and specificity of a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) program for scoring chest x-rays (CXRs) of presumptive tuberculosis (TB) patients compared to Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert). Method Consecutive presumptive TB patients with a cough of any duration were offered digital CXR, and opt out HIV testing. CXRs were electronically scored as normal (CAD score ≤60) or abnormal (CAD score>60) using a CAD program. All patients regardless of CAD score were requested to submit a spot sputum sample for testing with Xpert and a spot and morning sample for testing with LED Fluorescence Microscopy-(FM). Results Of 350 patients with evaluable data, 291 (83.1%) had an abnormal CXR score by CAD. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of CXR compared to Xpert were 100% (95%CI 96.2–100), 23.2% (95%CI 18.2–28.9), 33.0% (95%CI 27.6–38.7) and 100% (95% 93.9–100), respectively. The area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) for CAD was 0.71 (95%CI 0.66–0.77). CXR abnormality correlated with smear grade (r = 0.30, p<0.0001) and with Xpert CT(r = 0.37, p<0.0001). Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first time that a CAD program for TB has been successfully tested in a real world setting. The study shows that the CAD program had high sensitivity but low specificity and PPV. The use of CAD with digital CXR has the potential to increase the use and availability of chest radiography in screening for TB where trained human resources are scarce. PMID:24705629

  13. Effect of hydrogen passivation on the photoluminescence of Tb ions in silicon rich silicon oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatryb, G.; Klak, M. M.; Wojcik, J.; Misiewicz, J.; Mascher, P.; Podhorodecki, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, silicon-rich silicon oxide films containing terbium were prepared by means of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The influence of hydrogen passivation on defects-mediated non-radiative recombination of excited Tb3+ ions was investigated by photoluminescence, photoluminescence excitation, and photoluminescence decay measurements. Passivation was found to have no effect on shape and spectral position of the excitation spectra. In contrast, a gradual increase in photoluminescence intensity and photoluminescence decay time was observed upon passivation for the main 5D4-7F5 transition of Tb3+ ions. This observation was attributed to passivation of non-radiative recombination defects centers with hydrogen. It was found that the number of emitted photons increases upon passivation as a result of two effects: (1) longer Tb3+ lifetime in the 5D4 excited state and (2) optical activation of new Tb3+ emitters. The obtained results were discussed and compared with other experimental reports.

  14. Virulence Factors and Anti Fungal Sensitivity Pattern of Candida Sp. Isolated from HIV and TB Patients.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Nachimuthu; Priyadharsini, Maruthupandian; Sumathi, Chettipalayam Samiappan; Balasubramanian, Velramar; Hemapriya, Janarthanam; Kannan, Rajesh

    2011-07-01

    The study comprised of 60 Candida spp., 50 isolates from HIV and TB positive individuals (immunocompromised) and 10 isolates from non-HIV and -TB patients (immunocompetent). Among the 60 Candidal isolates, 83.3% were identified as C. albicans, 11.6% as C. glabrata and rest 5% as C. krusei. There is no study in production pattern of extracellular enzymes of Candida spp. isolated from HIV and TB patients in comparison with non-HIV and -TB patients in India. The comparison of phospholipase activities showed that there was a significant difference between the groups at (P = 0.001). The non-HIV and -TB groups of C. glabrata and C. krusei did not show detectable phospholipase activity when compared to the HIV and TB groups. The mean difference in the phospholipase activities of these two groups was significant (P = <0.001). Candida spp. of both the groups do not possess the ability to hydrolyze gelatin. All the strains possessed the ability to show alpha haemolysis. Even though it had shown alpha haemolysis, the significant difference in haemolytic activity was observed only in C. albicans (P = <0.001). None of the isolates from the two groups possessed the ability to hydrolyze gelatin. In the resistance profile of Candida spp., C. albicans of HIV and TB groups had shown resistance to fluconazole, Itraconazole, ketaconazole, nystatin but showed 100% sensitivity towards amphotericin-B. The isolates of C. krusei and C. glabrata showed no resistance to any of the drugs tested. In the case of, non-HIV and -TB patients the resistance pattern was low.

  15. Stimulus Response of Au-NPs@GMP-Tb Core-Shell Nanoparticles: Toward Colorimetric and Fluorescent Dual-Mode Sensing of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Algal Blooms of a Freshwater Lake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Deng, Jingjing; Xue, Yumeng; Shi, Guoyue; Zhou, Tianshu

    2016-01-19

    In this study, we demonstrate a colorimetric and fluorescent dual-mode method for alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) sensing in freshwater lake with stimuli-responsive gold nanoparticles@terbium-guanosine monophosphate (Au-NPs@GMP-Tb) core-shell nanoparticles. Initially, the core-shell nanoparticles were fabricated based on Au-NPs decorated with a fluorescent GMP-Tb shell. Upon being excited at 290 nm, the as-formed Au-NPs@GMP-Tb core-shell nanoparticles emit green fluorescence, and the decorated GMP-Tb shell causes the aggregation of Au-NPs. However, the addition of ALP destroys GMP-Tb shell, resulting in the release of Au-NPs from the shell into the solvent. As a consequence, the aggregated Au-NPs solubilizes with the changes in the UV-vis spectrum of the dispersion, and in the meantime, the fluorescence of GMP-Tb shell turns off, which constitutes a new mechanism for colorimetric and fluorescent dual-mode sensing of APA. With the method developed here, we could monitor the dynamic change of APA during an algal bloom of a freshwater lake, both by the naked eye and further confirmed by fluorometric determination. This study not only offers a new method for on-site visible detection of APA but also provides a strategy for dual-mode sensing mechanisms by the rational design of the excellent optical properties of Au-NPs and the adaptive inclusion properties of the luminescent infinite coordination polymers.

  16. Extension of the energy range of the experimental activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 65MeV.

    PubMed

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-04-01

    Activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium were extended up to 65MeV by using stacked foil irradiation and gamma spectrometry experimental methods. Experimental cross-sections data for the formation of the radionuclides (159)Dy, (157)Dy, (155)Dy, (161)Tb, (160)Tb, (156)Tb, (155)Tb, (154m2)Tb, (154m1)Tb, (154g)Tb, (153)Tb, (152)Tb and (151)Tb are reported in the 36-65MeV energy range, and compared with an old dataset from 1964. The experimental data were also compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS nuclear reaction model code as listed in the latest on-line libraries TENDL 2013.

  17. TAIMA (Stop) TB: The Impact of a Multifaceted TB Awareness and Door-to-Door Campaign in Residential Areas of High Risk for TB in Iqaluit, Nunavut

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Gonzalo G.; VanDyk, Deborah D.; Aaron, Shawn D.; Cameron, D. William; Davies, Naomi; Stephen, Natasha; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Momoli, Franco; Moreau, Katherine; Obed, Natan; Baikie, Maureen; Osborne, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence rate of active tuberculosis (TB) disease in the Canadian Territory of Nunavut has shown a rising trend over the past 10 years. In 2010 it was 60 times greater than the national incidence rate. The objective of the Taima (translates to “stop” in Inuktitut) TB study was to implement and evaluate a public health campaign to enhance existing TB prevention efforts in Nunavut. Methods A TB awareness campaign followed by a door-to-door screening campaign was carried out in Iqaluit, Nunavut. The aim of the campaign was to raise awareness about TB, and to provide in-home screening and treatment for people living in residential areas at high risk for TB. Screening was based on geographic location rather than on individual risk factors. Results During the general awareness campaign an increase in the number of people who requested TB testing at the local public health clinic was observed. However, this increase was not sustained following cessation of the awareness campaign. Targeted TB screening in high risk residential areas in Iqaluit resulted in 224 individuals having TSTs read, and detection of 42 previously unidentified cases of latent TB, (overall yield of 18.8% or number needed to screen = 5.3). These cases of latent TB infection (LTBI) were extra cases that had not been picked up by traditional screening practices (34% relative increase within the community). This resulted in a 33% relative increase in the completion of LTBI treatment within the community. The program directly and indirectly identified 5/17 new cases of active TB disease in Iqaluit during the study period (29.5% of all incident cases). Conclusions While contact tracing investigations remain a cornerstone of TB prevention, additional awareness, screening, and treatment programs like Taima TB may contribute to the successful control of TB in Aboriginal communities. PMID:25033320

  18. Characteristics and TB treatment outcomes in TB patients with viral hepatitis, New York City, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, G; Stennis, N L; Drobnik, A M; Proops, D C; Ahuja, S D; Bornschlegel, K; Fuld, J

    2015-07-01

    Literature surrounding the burden of and factors associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in persons with tuberculosis (TB) disease remains limited and focused on populations outside the USA. Cross-matched New York City (NYC) TB and viral hepatitis surveillance data were used to estimate the proportion of NYC adults diagnosed with TB from 2000 to 2010 with a report of viral hepatitis infection and to describe the impact of viral hepatitis infection on TB treatment completion and death. For 9512 TB patients, HCV infection was reported in 4.2% and HBV infection in 3.7%; <1% of TB patients had both HCV and HBV infection. The proportion of TB patients with HCV infection to die before TB treatment completion was larger than in TB patients without a viral hepatitis report (21% vs. 9%); this association remained when stratified by HIV status. There was no significant difference in death before treatment completion for TB patients with HBV infection compared to TB patients without a viral hepatitis report when stratified by HIV status. These findings reinforce the importance of hepatitis testing and providing additional support to TB patients with viral hepatitis infection.

  19. TB Is Back.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1992-01-01

    The reemergence of tuberculosis, particularly of new drug-resistant strains, points up the need for well-coordinated school health programs. Immigration effects, growing populations of HIV-infected persons, and relaxed screening procedures are partly responsible for TB's reemergence. Two sidebars offer advice on coping with TB at school and…

  20. Cross-matching TB and AIDS registries: TB patients with HIV co-infection, United States, 1993-1994.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, M; McCray, E; Onorato, I M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Because of limited reporting of HIV status in case reports to the national tuberculosis (TB) surveillance system, the authors conducted this study to estimate the proportion of US TB cases with HIV co-infection and to describe demographic and clinical characteristics of co-infected patients. METHODS: The 50 states, New York City, and Puerto Rico submitted the results of cross-matches of TB registries and HIV-AIDS registries. The authors determined the number of TB cases reported for 1993-1994 that were listed in HIV-AIDS registries and analyzed data on demographic and clinical characteristics by match status. RESULTS: Of 49,938 TB cases reported for 1993-1994, 6863 (14%) were listed in AIDS or HIV registries. The proportions of TB-AIDS cases among TB cases varied by reporting area, from 0% to 31%. Anti-TB drug resistance was higher among TB-AIDS cases, particularly resistance to isoniazid and rifampin (multidrug resistance) and rifampin alone, In some areas with low proportions of multidrug-resistant TB cases, however, the difference in multidrug resistance between TB-AIDS patients and non-AIDS TB patients was not found. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of TB cases with HIV co-infection, particularly in some areas, underscores the importance of the HIV-AIDS epidemic for the epidemiology of TB. Efforts to improve HIV testing as well as reporting of HIV status for TB patients should continue to ensure optimum management of coinfected patients, enhance surveillance activities, and promote judicious resource allocation and targeted prevention and control activities. PMID:10476997

  1. A comparative examination of tuberculosis immigration medical screening programs from selected countries with high immigration and low tuberculosis incidence rates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) in migrants is an ongoing challenge in several low TB incidence countries since a large proportion of TB in these countries occurs in migrants from high incidence countries. To meet these challenges, several countries utilize TB screening programs. The programs attempt to identify and treat those with active and/or infectious stages of the disease. In addition, screening is used to identify and manage those with latent or inactive disease after arrival. Between nations, considerable variation exists in the methods used in migration-associated TB screening. The present study aimed to compare the TB immigration medical examination requirements in selected countries of high immigration and low TB incidence rates. Methods Descriptive study of immigration TB screening programs Results 16 out of 18 eligible countries responded to the written standardized survey and phone interview. Comparisons in specific areas of TB immigration screening programs included authorities responsible for TB screening, the primary objectives of the TB screening program, the yield of detection of active TB disease, screening details and aspects of follow up for inactive pulmonary TB. No two countries had the same approach to TB screening among migrants. Important differences, common practices, common problems, evidence or lack of evidence for program specifics were noted. Conclusions In spite of common goals, there is great diversity in the processes and practices designed to mitigate the impact of migration-associated TB among nations that screen migrants for the disease. The long-term goal in decreasing migration-related introduction of TB from high to low incidence countries remains diminishing the prevalence of the disease in those high incidence locations. In the meantime, existing or planned migration screening programs for TB can be made more efficient and evidenced based. Cooperation among countries doing research in the areas outlined in this study should

  2. Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379

  3. A model to predict anti-tuberculosis activity: value proposition for marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miaomiao; Grkovic, Tanja; Zhang, Lixin; Liu, Xueting; Quinn, Ronald J

    2016-08-01

    The development of new antibiotics effective against all strains of tuberculosis (TB) is needed. To evaluate the potential of marine microbe-derived natural products as anti-TB leads, we analyzed and compared the physico-chemical properties of 39 current TB drugs and candidates against 60 confirmed mycobacteria-active natural products. We showed that anti-TB natural products sourced from marine microbes have a large overlap with TB drug-like space. A model to predict potential anti-TB drugs is proposed. PMID:27406906

  4. Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  5. Mass incarceration can explain population increases in TB and multidrug-resistant TB in European and central Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence

    2008-09-01

    Several microlevel studies have pinpointed prisons as an important site for tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant TB in European and central Asian countries. To date, no comparative analyses have examined whether rises in incarceration rates can account for puzzling differences in TB trends among overall populations. Using longitudinal TB and cross-sectional multidrug-resistant TB data for 26 eastern European and central Asian countries, we examined whether and to what degree increases in incarceration account for differences in population TB and multidrug-resistant TB burdens. We find that each percentage point increase in incarceration rates relates to an increased TB incidence of 0.34% (population attributable risk, 95% C.I.: 0.10-0.58%, P < 0.01), after controlling for TB infrastructure; HIV prevalence; and several surveillance, economic, demographic, and political indicators. Net increases in incarceration account for a 20.5% increase in TB incidence or nearly three-fifths of the average total increase in TB incidence in the countries studied from 1991 to 2002. Although the number of prisoners is a significant determinant of differences in TB incidence and multidrug-resistant TB prevalence among countries, the rate of prison growth is a larger determinant of these outcomes, and its effect is exacerbated but not confounded by HIV. Differences in incarceration rates are a major determinant of differences in population TB outcomes among eastern European and central Asian countries, and treatment expansion alone does not appear to resolve the effect of mass incarceration on TB incidence.

  6. TB Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... a risk that the first TST is a false-negative reaction, a second skin test is given ... species, for example Mycobacterium kansasii , will give a false-positive TST or IGRA result for TB. Positive ...

  7. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Departments & Divisions Home Conditions Tuberculosis Treating Tuberculosis Treating Tuberculosis Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Diagnosing Tuberculosis History of TB Our Specialists Charles L. Daley, ...

  8. Equal sensitivity of the new generation QuantiFERON-TB Gold plus in direct comparison with the previous test version QuantiFERON-TB Gold IT.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, H; Avsar, K; Göres, R; Mavi, S-C; Hofmann-Thiel, S

    2016-08-01

    QuantiFERON-TB Gold IT analyses interferon-γ release from CD4(+) T cells after stimulation with specific tuberculosis (TB) antigens. Its sensitivity is approximately 80% for active TB. A new test generation (QFTGplus) also analyses the response of CD8(+) T cells. We investigated both test generations in a direct head-to-head comparison in a German pulmonary hospital. Sensitivity rates for active TB were identical, no matter whether diagnosis was bacteriologically confirmed or not.

  9. Decrease of U(VI) Immobilization Capability of the Facultative Anaerobic Strain Paenibacillus sp. JG-TB8 under Anoxic Conditions Due to Strongly Reduced Phosphatase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Reitz, Thomas; Rossberg, Andre; Barkleit, Astrid; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja; Merroun, Mohamed L.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions of a facultative anaerobic bacterial isolate named Paenibacillus sp. JG-TB8 with U(VI) were studied under oxic and anoxic conditions in order to assess the influence of the oxygen-dependent cell metabolism on microbial uranium mobilization and immobilization. We demonstrated that aerobically and anaerobically grown cells of Paenibacillus sp. JG-TB8 accumulate uranium from aqueous solutions under acidic conditions (pH 2 to 6), under oxic and anoxic conditions. A combination of spectroscopic and microscopic methods revealed that the speciation of U(VI) associated with the cells of the strain depend on the pH as well as on the aeration conditions. At pH 2 and pH 3, uranium was exclusively bound by organic phosphate groups provided by cellular components, independently on the aeration conditions. At higher pH values, a part (pH 4.5) or the total amount (pH 6) of the dissolved uranium was precipitated under oxic conditions in a meta-autunite-like uranyl phosphate mineral phase without supplying an additional organic phosphate substrate. In contrast to that, under anoxic conditions no mineral formation was observed at pH 4.5 and pH 6, which was clearly assigned to decreased orthophosphate release by the cells. This in turn was caused by a suppression of the indigenous phosphatase activity of the strain. The results demonstrate that changes in the metabolism of facultative anaerobic microorganisms caused by the presence or absence of oxygen can decisively influence U(VI) biomineralization. PMID:25157416

  10. Evaluation of optoelectronic response and Raman active modes in Tb3+ and Eu3+-doped gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Nibedita; Mohanta, D.

    2016-09-01

    Rare earth oxide (Tb3 + :Gd2O3 and Eu3 + :Gd2O3) nanophosphors are exploited through spectroscopic and microscopic tools with special emphasis on D- F mediated radiative emission and Raman active vibrational modes. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements have revealed cubic crystal structure of the nanosystems and with an average crystallite size varying between ~3.2 and 4.8 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Tb3+ doped systems signify intense blue-green (~490 nm) and green (~544 nm) emissions mediated by 5 D 4 → 7 F 6 and 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 transitional events; respectively. In the PL responses of Eu3+ doped nanoparticle systems, we also identify magnetically-driven 5 D 0 → 7 F 1 (~591 nm) and electrically driven 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 (~619 nm) radiative features which seem to improve with increasing doping level. However, the magnitude of Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters ( Ω 2, 4), is significantly lowered for the high doping cases. Raman spectra of the undoped and RE doped systems exhibited several Ag and Fg modes in the range of Raman shift ~100-600 cm-1. In the Raman spectra, the peaks located at ~355 cm-1 are assigned to the mixed mode of F g + A g, the line width of which was found to increase with RE doping. Moreover, owing to the enhanced defect concentration in the doped systems than its undoped counterpart, we anticipate a faster phonon relaxation and consequently, a suppression of phonon lifetime in the former case.

  11. Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination TB Facts: You Can Prevent TB What ...

  12. Tuberculosis Facts - TB Can Be Treated

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB Can Be Treated What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Page 1 of 2 TB Facts: TB ...

  13. Mathematical study of the thermoluminescence process in K2YF5:Tb(3+).

    PubMed

    Kadari, Ahmed; Mostefa, Rabah; Marcazzó, Julián; Kadri, Dahane

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents results of studying the simulated thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve in potassium-yttrium double fluoride doped with trivalent optically active Tb(3+) ions (K2YF5:Tb(3+)). Samples have been irradiated with different doses (0.24, 2.4 and 24 Gy) of beta particles. Four trapping states and one kind of recombination-centre model have been used in this simulation. The activation energy and order of kinetics are determined using the general-order kinetic model. The results obtained using the authors' proposed models were tested and compared with the experimental glow curve of K2YF5:Tb(3+). The comparison has shown that the proposed model can predict more accurately and easily the behaviour of the TL glow curve at three different doses. PMID:25543131

  14. Mathematical study of the thermoluminescence process in K2YF5:Tb(3+).

    PubMed

    Kadari, Ahmed; Mostefa, Rabah; Marcazzó, Julián; Kadri, Dahane

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents results of studying the simulated thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve in potassium-yttrium double fluoride doped with trivalent optically active Tb(3+) ions (K2YF5:Tb(3+)). Samples have been irradiated with different doses (0.24, 2.4 and 24 Gy) of beta particles. Four trapping states and one kind of recombination-centre model have been used in this simulation. The activation energy and order of kinetics are determined using the general-order kinetic model. The results obtained using the authors' proposed models were tested and compared with the experimental glow curve of K2YF5:Tb(3+). The comparison has shown that the proposed model can predict more accurately and easily the behaviour of the TL glow curve at three different doses.

  15. Photoluminescence properties of rare earths (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}) activated NaInW{sub 2}O{sub 8} wolframite host lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Asiri Naidu, S.; Boudin, S.; Varadaraju, U.V.; Raveau, B.

    2012-01-15

    The photoluminescence (PL) studies on NaIn{sub 1-x}RE{sub x}W{sub 2}O{sub 8}, with RE=Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} phases have shown that the relative contribution of the host lattice and of the intra-f-f emission of the activators to the PL varies with the nature of the rare earth cation. In the case of Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} activators, with yellow and blue emission, respectively, the energy transfer from host to the activator plays a major role. In contrast for Eu{sup 3+}, with intense red emission, the host absorption is less pronounced and the intra-f-f transitions of the Eu{sup 3+} ions play a major role, whereas for Tb{sup 3+} intra-f-f transitions are only observed, giving rise to green emission. - Graphical abstract: NaInW{sub 2}O{sub 8} double tungstate doped with Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}and Tm{sup 3+} shows characteristic emission of intense red for Eu{sup 3+}, yellow for Dy{sup 3+}, green for Tb{sup 3+} and blue for Tm{sup 3+}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristic emissions of rare earths (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}) are observed NaInW{sub 2}O{sub 8} wolframite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy transfer from host to the activators (Eu{sup 3+} Dy{sup 3+} Tm{sup 3+} is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL properties of rare earth ions depend on minor structural variations in the host lattice.

  16. An Imbalanced Learning based MDR-TB Early Warning System.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Tang, Bo; He, Haibo

    2016-07-01

    As a man-made disease, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is mainly caused by improper treatment programs and poor patient supervision, most of which could be prevented. According to the daily treatment and inspection records of tuberculosis (TB) cases, this study focuses on establishing a warning system which could early evaluate the risk of TB patients converting to MDR-TB using machine learning methods. Different imbalanced sampling strategies and classification methods were compared due to the disparity between the number of TB cases and MDR-TB cases in historical data. The final results show that the relative optimal predictions results can be obtained by adopting CART-USBagg classification model in the first 90 days of half of a standardized treatment process. PMID:27209184

  17. Risk factors for TB and HIV coinfection in Scotland, 2001 to 2010.

    PubMed

    McDonald, E; Smith-Palmer, A; Wallace, L A; Blatchford, O

    2015-03-19

    The number of patients with tuberculosis (TB) increased steadily in Scotland between 2005 and 2010. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been a contributory factor to increases in TB in a number of comparable industrialised countries. This study investigated the extent of, and risk factors for, TB and HIV coinfection in Scotland from 2001 to 2010. Patients with TB in the national TB database were linked to those in the national HIV database using probabilistic data linkage. Patient records were anonymised to maintain confidentiality. From 2001 to 2010, 106/4, 097 (2.6%, 95% CI: 2.1 to 3.1) TB patients matched with HIV patients, equating to a 10-year incidence of 2.1 cases per million population. Patients with both TB and HIV were more often born outside the United Kingdom,were of black African ethnicity, had refugee status and had extra-thoracic lymph node involvement or cryptic/disseminated TB disease. Individuals with TB and HIV coinfection were younger and symptomatic for a shorter time before their diagnosis of TB, compared with TB patients without HIV. TB and HIV coinfection was relatively uncommon in Scotland in the study period. Clinicians should recognise the potential for HIV infection among TB patients and the importance of offering an HIV test to all TB patients.

  18. Tracking and Treating Mobile Populations. The TB Net System. Migrant Clinicians Network Monograph Series. = El Sistema de Red para la TB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migrant Clinicians Network, Inc., Austin, TX.

    A comprehensive tracking and referral network that helps provide continuity of care for mobile populations with active tuberculosis (TB) or TB infection is considered essential for effective treatment of TB. However, the interstate referral system that exists between state health departments has been highly inefficient for serving migrant…

  19. TB in Vulnerable Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ugarte-Gil, César; Caro, Godofredo; Aylas, Rula; Castro, César; Lema, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article analyzes the factors associated with vulnerability of the Ashaninka, the most populous indigenous Peruvian Amazonian people, to tuberculosis (TB). By applying a human rights-based analytical framework that assesses public policy against human rights standards and principles, and by offering a step-by-step framework for a full assessment of compliance, it provides evidence of the relationship between the incidence of TB among the Ashaninka and Peru’s poor level of compliance with its human rights obligations. The article argues that one of the main reasons for the historical vulnerability of the Ashaninka to diseases such as TB is a lack of political will on the part of the national government to increase public health spending, ensure that resources reach the most vulnerable population, and adopt and invest in a culturally appropriate health system. PMID:27780999

  20. Possible observation of the dineutron in the 159Tb (n, 2n) 158gTb nuclear reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadenko, Igor

    2016-05-01

    Experimental observation of the 159\\text{Tb}(n, 2n) reaction product was performed with application of the activation technique. Tb specimen of natural composition was irradiated with (d, d) neutrons of 5.39 and 7 MeV energies. Instrumental spectra of Tb specimen were measured with HPGe spectrometer. An unexpected 944.2 keV γ-ray peak was observed. Other γ-ray lines due to 158gTb decay were identified as well. A bonded dineutron emission with the binding energy (Bdn) within limitations 1.3 \\text{MeV}dn<2.8 \\text{MeV} is evidenced by the energy of incident neutrons and by the 158gTb presence in the output channel. The specific nuclear properties of 158Tb as deformed nucleus were discussed to explain a bonded dineutron formation based on theoretical assumptions and calculations, using standard parameters for this mass region.

  1. Wavelength dependence of Verdet constant of Tb3+:Y2O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snetkov, I. L.; Permin, D. A.; Balabanov, S. S.; Palashov, O. V.

    2016-04-01

    Samples of the magneto-active material—Tb3+:Y2O3 ceramics with Tb3+ ion concentrations of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 100% (Tb2O3)—were prepared and studied. The wavelength dependence of Verdet constant in the 380 nm-1750 nm range was approximated for all investigated ceramic samples and was predicted for a pure Tb2O3 material. Tb2O3 ceramics demonstrates a more than three times higher Verdet constant in comparison with terbium gallium garnet crystal or ceramics. The linear dependence of the Verdet constant on Tb3+ ion concentration in the Tb3+:Y2O3 ceramics was demonstrated. The obtained data will be useful for fabricating magneto-optical elements of Faraday devices based on Tb3+:Y2O3 with arbitrary Tb3+ ion concentration operating at room temperature in the wavelength range of 380 nm-1750 nm.

  2. Preparation and spectroscopic properties of rare-earth (RE) (RE = Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Tm)-activated K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (Ln = Y, La, Gd and Lu) phosphate in vacuum ultraviolet region

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Lin, Xiao; Zhao, Jing-Tai; Zhang, Guo-Bin

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► We report the VUV spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions in K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. ► The O{sup 2−}-Eu{sup 3+} charge transfer bands at about 220 nm have been observed. ► The 4f–5d spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions of Tb{sup 3+} have been observed. ► There is energy transfer between the host and rare-earth activators. -- Abstract: Rare earth (RE = Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Tm)-activated K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (Ln = Y, La, Gd and Lu) have been synthesized by solid-state reaction method, and their vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation luminescent characteristics have been investigated. The band in the wavelength range of 130–157 nm and the other one range from 155 to 216 nm with the maximum at about 187 nm in the VUV excitation spectra of these compounds are attributed to the host lattice absorption and O–Zr charge transfer transition, respectively. The charge transfer bands (CTB) of O{sup 2−}-Sm{sup 3+}, O{sup 2−}-Dy{sup 3+} and O{sup 2−}-Tm{sup 3+}, in Sm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}-activated samples, have not been obviously observed probably because the 2p electrons of oxygen are tightly bound to the zirconium ion in the host lattice. For Eu{sup 3+}-activated samples, the relatively weak O{sup 2−}-Eu{sup 3+} CTB at about 220 nm is observed. And for Tb{sup 3+}-activated samples, the bands at 223 and 258 nm are related to the 4f-5d spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions of Tb{sup 3+}, respectively. It is observed that there is energy transfer between the host lattice and the luminescent activators (e.g. Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}). From the standpoint of luminescent efficiency, color purity and chemical stability, K{sub 2}GdZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} are attractive candidates for novel yellow, red, green-emitting PDP phosphors.

  3. Monocyte Signal Transduction Receptors in Active and Latent Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Druszczynska, Magdalena; Wlodarczyk, Marcin; Janiszewska-Drobinska, Beata; Kielnierowski, Grzegorz; Zawadzka, Joanna; Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Fol, Marek; Szpakowski, Piotr; Rudnicka, Karolina; Chmiela, Magdalena; Rudnicka, Wieslawa

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms that promote either resistance or susceptibility to TB disease remain insufficiently understood. Our aim was to compare the expression of cell signaling transduction receptors, CD14, TLR2, CD206, and β2 integrin LFA-1 on monocytes from patients with active TB or nonmycobacterial lung disease and healthy individuals with M.tb latency and uninfected controls to explain the background of the differences between clinical and subclinical forms of M.tb infection. A simultaneous increase in the expression of the membrane bound mCD14 receptor and LFA-1 integrin in patients with active TB may be considered a prodrome of breaking immune control by M.tb bacilli in subjects with the latent TB and absence of clinical symptoms. PMID:23401703

  4. Immunotherapy for TB.

    PubMed

    Doherty, T Mark

    2012-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis was one of the first human pathogens to be identified as the cause of a specific disease--TB. TB was also one of the first specific diseases for which immunotherapy was attempted. In more than a century since, multiple different immunotherapies have been attempted, alongside vaccination and antibiotic treatment, with varying degrees of success. Despite this, TB remains a major worldwide health problem that causes nearly 2 million deaths annually and has infected an estimated 2 billion people. A major reason for this is that M. tuberculosis is an ancient human pathogen that has evolved complex strategies for persistence in the human host. It has thus been long understood that, to effectively control TB, we will need to address the ability of the pathogen to establish a persistent, latent infection in most infected individuals. This review discusses what is presently known about the interaction of M. tuberculosis with the immune system, and how this knowledge has been used to design immunotherapeutic strategies.

  5. Multidrug-Resistant TB

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Helen; Coomans, Fons

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress (REBSP) is a little-known but potentially valuable right that can contribute to rights-based approaches to addressing multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). We argue that better understanding of the REBSP may help to advance legal and civil society action for health rights. While the REBSP does not provide an individual entitlement to have a new drug developed for MDR-TB, it sets up entitlements to expect a state to establish a legislative and policy framework aimed at developing scientific capacity to address the most important health issues and at disseminating the outcomes of scientific research. By making scientific findings available and accessible, people can be enabled to claim the use of science for social benefits. Inasmuch as the market fails to address neglected diseases such as MDR-TB, the REBSP provides a potential counterbalance to frame a positive obligation on states to both marshal their own resources and to coordinate the actions of multiple other actors towards this goal, including non-state actors. While the latter do not hold the same level of accountability as states, the REBSP can still enable the recognition of obligations at a level of “soft law” responsibilities. PMID:27780997

  6. First Outcome of MDR-TB among Co-Infected HIV/TB Patients from South-West Iran

    PubMed Central

    Motamedifar, Mohammad; Abadi, Ali Reza Hassan; Moghadam, Mahboube Nakhzari

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients and the majority of them occur in developing countries. The aims of the present study were to determine the frequency of HIV/TB co-infection and other probable associated factors. Methods This 10 year retrospective study was conducted on 824 HIV patients in the south-west of Iran. HIV infection was diagnosed by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by Western blot. TB diagnosis was based on consistency of the clinical manifestations, chest X-ray, and microscopic examination. Drug susceptibility testing was done by the proportional method on Löwenstein-Jensen media. Results Of 824 HIV patients, 59 (7.2%) were identified as TB co-infected and the majority (86.4%) of them were male. Of the overall TB infected patients, 6 cases (10.2%) showed multidrug-resistant with the mean CD4+ lymphocyte count of 163±166 cells/mm3. The main clinical forms of TB were pulmonary (73%). There was a significant (p<0.05) correlation between TB infection and CD4+ lymphocyte counts ≤200 cells/mm3, gender, prison history, addiction history, and highly active anti-retroviral therapy. Conclusion We reported novel information on frequency of HIV/TB co-infection and multidrug resistant-TB outcome among co-infected patients that could facilitate better management of such infections on a global scale. PMID:26175780

  7. Use of lateral flow assays to determine IP-10 and CCL4 levels in pleural effusions and whole blood for TB diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Jayne S; Mendy, Joseph; Gindeh, Awa; Walzl, Gerhard; Togun, Toyin; Owolabi, Olumuyiwa; Donkor, Simon; Ota, Martin O; Kon Fat, Elisa Tjon; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Geluk, Annemieke; Corstjens, Paul L A M

    2016-01-01

    One of the key problems in combating TB is the lack of fast and accurate diagnostic tests that are affordable and easy to use in resource-limited settings. We have used a field-friendly up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter technology in a lateral flow (LF) based test for the diagnosis of respiratory infections. In this study we analysed samples obtained from patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of TB but prior to confirmation by microbiology in The Gambia. Following clinical and microbiological evaluation they were classified as either having TB or other respiratory disorder (ORD). Analysis of blood was performed for those with pulmonary TB and pleural fluid for those with pleural TB. UCP-LF test for detection and quantitation of IP-10 and CCL4 were used being the two chemokine markers that have been shown to increase in active TB disease. UCP-LF test accurately determined concentrations of both markers as compared to ELISA and multiplex cytokine array. However, only IP-10 could discriminate between TB and ORD, and this was significantly enhanced by analysing the site of infection (pleural fluid), which showed 92% correct classification. Future work will assess the use of multiple markers to increase diagnostic accuracy.

  8. The Transcriptional Signature of Active Tuberculosis Reflects Symptom Status in Extra-Pulmonary and Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Blankley, Simon; Graham, Christine M.; Turner, Jacob; Berry, Matthew P. R.; Bloom, Chloe I.; Xu, Zhaohui; Pascual, Virginia; Banchereau, Jacques; Chaussabel, Damien; Breen, Ronan; Santis, George; Blankenship, Derek M.; Lipman, Marc; O’Garra, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is a leading cause of infectious death worldwide. Gene-expression microarray studies profiling the blood transcriptional response of tuberculosis (TB) patients have been undertaken in order to better understand the host immune response as well as to identify potential biomarkers of disease. To date most of these studies have focused on pulmonary TB patients with gene-expression profiles of extra-pulmonary TB patients yet to be compared to those of patients with pulmonary TB or sarcoidosis. Methods A novel cohort of patients with extra-pulmonary TB and sarcoidosis was recruited and the transcriptional response of these patients compared to those with pulmonary TB using a variety of transcriptomic approaches including testing a previously defined 380 gene meta-signature of active TB. Results The 380 meta-signature broadly differentiated active TB from healthy controls in this new dataset consisting of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB. The top 15 genes from this meta-signature had a lower sensitivity for differentiating extra-pulmonary TB from healthy controls as compared to pulmonary TB. We found the blood transcriptional responses in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB to be heterogeneous and to reflect the extent of symptoms of disease. Conclusions The transcriptional signature in extra-pulmonary TB demonstrated heterogeneity of gene expression reflective of symptom status, while the signature of pulmonary TB was distinct, based on a higher proportion of symptomatic individuals. These findings are of importance for the rational design and implementation of mRNA based TB diagnostics. PMID:27706152

  9. Exploring anti-TB leads from natural products library originated from marine microbes and medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueting; Chen, Caixia; He, Wenni; Huang, Pei; Liu, Miaomiao; Wang, Qian; Guo, Hui; Bolla, Krishna; Lu, Yan; Song, Fuhang; Dai, Huanqin; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Lixin

    2012-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and TB-HIV co-infection have become a great threat to global health. However, the last truly novel drug that was approved for the treatment of TB was discovered 40 years ago. The search for new effective drugs against TB has never been more intensive. Natural products derived from microbes and medicinal plants have been an important source of TB therapeutics. Recent advances have been made to accelerate the discovery rate of novel TB drugs including diversifying strategies for environmental strains, high-throughput screening (HTS) assays, and chemical diversity. This review will discuss the challenges of finding novel natural products with anti-TB activity from marine microbes and plant medicines, including biodiversity- and taxonomy-guided microbial natural products library construction, target- and cell-based HTS, and bioassay-directed isolation of anti-TB substances from traditional medicines.

  10. Synthesis, phase composition modification, and optical properties of Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} activated KGdF{sub 4} and GdF{sub 3} submicrocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Chunyan; Yang, Hyun Kyoung; Moon, Byung Kee; Choi, Byung Chun; Jeong, Jung Hyun; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2012-03-15

    Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} co-doped series of samples have been synthesized based on a citric acid assisted hydrothermal method. By controlling the hydrothermal treating time, the samples evolve from the Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} co-doped cubic phase KGdF{sub 4} with spherical morphology into the Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} co-doped orthorhombic phase GdF{sub 3} with rhombic shape finally. The X-ray diffraction data illustrate the phase composition modification process of the samples. The field emission scanning electron microscopy and the transmission electron microscopy images suggest the transformation in the morphology of final products. The spectra of the energy-dispersive spectroscopy reveal the constituents of the samples. And the selected area electronic diffraction patterns prove the crystalline phases of the samples. Based on previous studies and the experimental data, one possible phase composition modification process has been summarized. The photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra and the luminescent dynamic decay curves demonstrate the variations in optical properties of the Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} co-doped final products. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration for the phase composition modification from the Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} doped KGdF{sub 4} to the Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+}doped GdF{sub 3} with multiform morphologies and different sizes. (C presents cubic phase, H presents hexagonal phase, and O presents orthorhombic phase.) Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples evolved from the cubic phase KGdF{sub 4} into the orthorhombic phase GdF{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology evolved from the spherical shape into the rhombic shape finally. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A possible phase composition modification process was summarized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optical properties of final products were compared and studied.

  11. 1550 nm VCSEL-based 0.48 Tb/s transmission scheme employing PAM-4 and WDM for active optical cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markou, S.; Dris, S.; Kalavrouziotis, D.; Avramopoulos, H.; Pleros, N.; Tsiokos, Dimitris M.

    2014-05-01

    With this paper we investigate the system-level performance of VCSELs, parameterized with true experimental LI-VI data and dynamic characteristics of state-of-the-art VCSELs with 3 dB modulation bandwidth at 15 GHz, and propose their deployment as high-speed multi-level optical sources in a mid-range active optical cable (AOC) model for performance prediction of a rack-to-rack interconnection. The AOC architecture combines a 6-element 1550 nm VCSEL array, each directly modulated with 40 Gbaud PAM-4 data, with a wavelength division multiplexer (WDM), in order to implement a parallel link with aggregate traffic of 0.48 Tb/s. Transmission reach exceeded 300 m by deploying a two-tap feed forward equalizer filter at the electrical VCSEL driver. Bit Error Rate (BER) measurements and analysis were carried out in MATLAB. In practice, the thermal behavior and basic operational characteristics of the VCSELs fabricated by the Technische Universität München (TUM) were used to study the thermal performance and operational range of the complete AOC model. The VCSELs were initially operated at 20°C and BER measurements showed power penalties of 1.7 dB and 3.5 dB at 300 m and 500 m of transmission distance respectively for all 6 data channels. System performance was also investigated for elevated operating temperatures of the VCSEL module and the additional system degradation and BER penalties introduced by operation at 50°C and 65°C were also investigated for transmission distances of 300 m and 500 m.

  12. Thermally activated processes and superparamagnetism in Bi12MnO20 nanoparticles: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, L. A. S.; Pentón-Madrigal, A.; Guimarães, A. P.; Sinnecker, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    Manganese sillenite (Bi12MnO20) nanoparticles having average particle size between 22 and 43 nm were synthesized by a low temperature soft chemical route under refluxing conditions. A careful structural and microstructural characterization by means of high resolution X-ray diffraction experiments and transmission electron microscopy is presented. The as-cast powder displayed an isotropic superparamagnetic (SPM) behavior with a blocked state for temperatures below TB ∼ 13.0 K. We used three different measurement techniques to extract and compare the Bi12MnO20 blocking temperatures. First, we extracted TB with the modified Bean-Livingstone model from the coercive field temperature dependence obtained from hysteresis curves measured as a function of temperature. Then, the blocking temperature distribution function, f(TB), was obtained by deriving the zero field-cooled/field-cooled curves difference. For each applied field, the maximum of the distribution function gave us the mean blocking temperature value. Finally, the maximum of the magnetic susceptibility imaginary part as a function of frequency was used, combined with the Néel-Brown equation, to extract the blocking temperature. All measurement techniques yield an equivalent dependence of TB with H of the Bi12MnO20 superparamagnetic nanoparticles.

  13. HIV-Associated TB in An Giang Province, Vietnam, 2001–2004: Epidemiology and TB Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Thuy, Trinh Thanh; Shah, N. Sarita; Anh, Mai Hoang; Nghia, Do Trong; Thom, Duong; Linh, Truong; Sy, Dinh Ngoc; Duong, Bui Duc; Chau, Luu Thi Minh; Mai, Phung Thi Phuong; Wells, Charles D.; Laserson, Kayla F.; Varma, Jay K.

    2007-01-01

    Background Mortality is high in HIV-infected TB patients, but few studies from Southeast Asia have documented the benefits of interventions, such as co-trimoxazole (CTX), in reducing mortality during TB treatment. To help guide policy in Vietnam, we studied the epidemiology of HIV-associated TB in one province and examined factors associated with outcomes, including the impact of CTX use. Methodology/Principal Findings We retrospectively abstracted data for all HIV-infected persons diagnosed with TB from 2001–2004 in An Giang, a province in southern Vietnam in which TB patients receive HIV counseling and testing. We used standard WHO definitions to classify TB treatment outcomes. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for the composite outcome of death, default, or treatment failure during TB treatment. From 2001–2004, 637 HIV-infected TB patients were diagnosed in An Giang. Of these, 501 (79%) were male, 321 (50%) were aged 25–34 years, and the most common self-reported HIV risk factor was sex with a commercial sex worker in 221 (35%). TB was classified as smear-positive in 531 (83%). During TB treatment, 167 (26%) patients died, 9 (1%) defaulted, and 6 (1%) failed treatment. Of 454 patients who took CTX, 116 (26%) had an unsuccessful outcome compared with 33 (70%) of 47 patients who did not take CTX (relative risk, 0.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3–0.5). Adjusting for male sex, rural residence, TB smear status and disease location, and the occurrence of adverse events during TB treatment in multivariate analysis, the benefit of CTX persisted (adjusted odds ratio for unsuccessful outcome 0.1; CI, 0.1–0.3). Conclusions/Significance In An Giang, Vietnam, HIV-associated TB was associated with poor TB treatment outcomes. Outcomes were significantly better in those taking CTX. This finding suggests that Vietnam should consider applying WHO recommendations to prescribe CTX to all HIV-infected TB patients. PMID:17551587

  14. Risk Factors for Primary Pulmonary TB in Almaty Region, Kazakhstan: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    ZHUSSUPOV, Baurzhan; HERMOSILLA, Sabrina; TERLIKBAYEVA, Assel; AIFAH, Angela; MA, Xin; ZHUMADILOV, Zhaxybay; ABILDAYEV, Tleukhan; DARISHEVA, Meruyert; BERIKKHANOVA, Kulzhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between incident pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and social and behavioral characteristics in Almaty Oblast, Kazakhstan from 2012 to 2013. Methods: We used a matched case-control design to estimate the role of factors for acquiring pulmonary TB. Totally 324 individuals were recruited from Sep 2012 to Mar 2013. Participants included 110 TB index cases with newly detected pulmonary TB. Each case was matched with one household and one community control. A total of 107 household and 107 community controls were included to the study. Adjusted odds ratios measuring associations between TB and risk factors were calculated by using a conditional multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: TB cases were more likely to be younger, recent smokers and have diabetes, when compared to household controls. Between TB cases and community controls, TB was significantly associated with age, non-married family status, living in a rented home, recent smoker, and having diabetes. Comparing TB cases with community controls, we found that foreign birth was marginally associated with incident TB case status. Conclusion: Our findings confirm the role of modifiable risk factors for TB in Kazakhstan; highlighting the importance of developing interventions addressing social determinants and proximate risk factors for high TB burden regions. PMID:27252913

  15. Engaging informal providers in TB control: what is the potential in the implementation of the WHO Stop TB Strategy? A discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Kaboru, Berthollet Bwira; Uplekar, Mukund; Lönnroth, Knut

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Stop TB Strategy calls for involvement of all healthcare providers in tuberculosis (TB) control. There is evidence that many people with TB seek care from informal providers before or after diagnosis, but very little has been done to engage these informal providers. Their involvement is often discussed with regard to DOTS (directly observed treatment - short course), rather than to the implementation of the comprehensive Stop TB Strategy. This paper discusses the potential contribution of informal providers to all components of the WHO Stop TB Strategy, including DOTS, programmatic management of multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), TB/HIV collaborative activities, health systems strengthening, engaging people with TB and their communities, and enabling research.The conclusion is that with increased stewardship by the national TB program (NTP), informal providers might contribute to implementation of the Stop TB Strategy. NTPs need practical guidelines to set up and scale up initiatives, including tools to assess the implications of these initiatives on complex dimensions like health systems strengthening.

  16. TB drug development: immunology at the table

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Carl; Barry, Clifton E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Our understanding of the host-pathogen relationship in tuberculosis can help guide tuberculosis (TB) drug discovery in at least two ways. First, the recognition that host immunopathology affects lesional TB drug distribution means that pharmacokinetic evaluation of drug candidates needs to move beyond measurements of drug levels in blood, whole lungs or alveolar epithelial lining fluid to include measurements in specific types of lesions. Second, by restricting the replication of M. tuberculosis (Mtb) subpopulations in latent TB infection and in active disease, the host immune response puts Mtb into a state associated with phenotypic tolerance to TB drugs selected for their activity against replicating Mtb. This has spurred a major effort to conduct high throughput screens in vitro for compounds that can kill Mtb when it is replicating slowly if at all. Each condition used in vitro to slow Mtb’s replication and thereby model the phenotypically drug-tolerant state has advantages and disadvantages. Lead candidates emerging from such in vitro studies face daunting challenges in the design of proof-of-concept studies in animal models. Moreover, some non-replicating subpopulations of Mtb fail to resume replication when plated on agar, although their viability is demonstrable by other means. There is as yet no widely replicated assay in which to screen compounds for their ability to kill this ‘viable but non-culturable’ subpopulation. Despite these hurdles, drugs that can kill slowly replicating or non-replicating Mtb may offer our best hope for treatment-shortening combination chemotherapy of TB. PMID:25703568

  17. Comparative in vitro activity of faropenem against staphylococci.

    PubMed

    von Eiff, Christof; Schepers, Sven; Peters, Georg

    2002-08-01

    The anti-staphylococcal activity of faropenem, a novel beta-lactam, was examined and compared with that of amoxicillin, cefuroxime, clindamycin and vancomycin using the agar dilution method. A total of 234 staphylococci, including a large number of clonally different methicillin-resistant strains and a representative number of Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants, were tested. While the activity of faropenem was independent of the staphylococcal phenotype, the novel penem was up to eight times more active against methicillin-susceptible strains compared with the other agents tested. In addition, faropenem was active against many methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:12161412

  18. Raman spectroscopy of multiferroic TbMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. R.; Hight Walker, A. R.; Valdés Aguilar, R.; Sushkov, A. B.; Drew, H. D.; Park, S.; Choi, Y. J.; Zhang, C.; Cheong, S.-W.

    2008-03-01

    Coupling between the lattice and magnetic degrees of freedom in TbMnO3 has been observed to produce magnetic excitations with electric dipole activity, or electromagnons. Recent reports of electromagnons in other multiferroic (113)-orthomanganitesootnotetextR. Vald'es Aguilar et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 060404 (2007). and related (125)-manganitesootnotetextA. B. Sushkov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 027202 (2007). indicate a complementary Raman study may provide additional insight into the importance of spin-lattice coupling. We present Raman spectra of single-crystal and polycrystalline TbMnO3 using a triple-grating spectrometer in a collinear backscattering configuration as a function of temperature (4-300,K) and polarization along various crystallographic axes. The absence of any observable low-frequency modes (intensity <1000 times that of prominent Raman-active phonons) suggests a weak scattering cross-section for the electromagnon. Additionally, we discuss the temperature dependence of Raman-active phonons and compare with results from infrared measurements.

  19. TB control: challenges and opportunities for India.

    PubMed

    Pai, Madhukar; Daftary, Amrita; Satyanarayana, Srinath

    2016-03-01

    India's TB control programme has treated over 19 million patients, but the incidence of TB continues to be high. TB is a major killer and drug-resistant TB is a growing threat. There are several likely reasons, including social conditions and co-morbidities that fuel the TB epidemic: under-investment by the government, weak programme implementation and management, suboptimal quality of care in the private sector, and insufficient advocacy around TB. Fortunately, India possesses the technical know-how, competence and resources to address these challenges. The End TB Strategy by WHO offers India an excellent blueprint to advance the agenda of TB control.

  20. Decay properties of long-lived isomers in the odd-odd N=81 nucleus {sup 146}Tb compared to the {sup 148}Ho and {sup 150}Tm nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kownacki, J.; Kisielinski, M.; Droste, Ch.; Morek, T.; Ruchowska, E.; Grodner, E.; Lieder, R. M.; Kowalczyk, M.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Hadynska-KlePk, K.; Mierzejewski, J.; Andrzejewski, J.; Perkowski, J.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Zielinska, M.; Kordyasz, A.; Srebrny, J.; Korman, A.

    2011-02-15

    Excited states of the {sup 146}Tb nucleus have been studied using {gamma}-ray and electron spectroscopy in off-beam and in-beam modes following {sup 112}Sn({sup 40}Ar,3n3p) reaction with the use of the OSIRIS-II, HPGe detector array and the conversion electron spectrometer. The multipolarity of the 343 keV transition deexciting the (7{sup -}) level in {sup 146}Tb shows mainly an E2 nature and the first excited state above the 23 s isomer is assigned as a (5{sup -},6{sup -}) state. The log ft values have been deduced for 11 {beta}{sup +}/EC transitions populating excited states in {sup 146}Gd. The systematic behavior of spins and parities of the long-lived levels at 0+x keV and the first excited states above them in the N=81 isotones {sup 146}Tb, {sup 148}Ho, and {sup 150}Tm is discussed.

  1. Physical activity changes during pregnancy in a comparative impact trail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delta Healthy Sprouts was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, physical activity, and other health behaviors of rural, Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to physical activity outcomes in the gestat...

  2. Bovine Tuberculosis Risk Factors for British Herds Before and After the 2001 Foot-and-Mouth Epidemic: What have we Learned from the TB99 and CCS2005 Studies?

    PubMed

    Vial, F; Miguel, E; Johnston, W T; Mitchell, A; Donnelly, C A

    2015-10-01

    Over the last couple of decades, the UK experienced a substantial increase in the incidence and geographical spread of bovine tuberculosis (TB), in particular since the epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in 2001. The initiation of the Randomized Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) in 1998 in south-west England provided an opportunity for an in-depth collection of questionnaire data (covering farming practices, herd management and husbandry, trading and wildlife activity) from herds having experienced a TB breakdown between 1998 and early 2006 and randomly selected control herds, both within and outside the RBCT (the so-called TB99 and CCS2005 case-control studies). The data collated were split into four separate and comparable substudies related to either the pre-FMD or post-FMD period, which are brought together and discussed here for the first time. The findings suggest that the risk factors associated with TB breakdowns may have changed. Higher Mycobacterium bovis prevalence in badgers following the FMD epidemic may have contributed to the identification of the presence of badgers on a farm as a prominent TB risk factor only post-FMD. The strong emergence of contact/trading TB risk factors post-FMD suggests that the purchasing and movement of cattle, which took place to restock FMD-affected areas after 2001, may have exacerbated the TB problem. Post-FMD analyses also highlighted the potential impact of environmental factors on TB risk. Although no unique and universal solution exists to reduce the transmission of TB to and among British cattle, there is an evidence to suggest that applying the broad principles of biosecurity on farms reduces the risk of infection. However, with trading remaining as an important route of local and long-distance TB transmission, improvements in the detection of infected animals during pre- and post-movement testing should further reduce the geographical spread of the disease.

  3. Observation of thermomagnetically written domains by Lorentz electron microscopy in Tb-Co and Tb-Fe-Co disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Katsutarou; Mizusawa, Yumi; Yasuda, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Takao

    1988-05-01

    For better understanding of the read/write properties of magneto-optical disks, thermomagnetically written domains were observed by Lorentz electron microscopy. The domains were written in the quadrilayered medium with 25-nm-thick Tb-Co film and in the trilayered medium with 50-nm-thick Tb-Fe-Co film, which were sputtered on pregrooved resinous substrates. Recording power and frequency were varied at intervals of 3.5 mm in a radial direction of the disk, and each recording position was observed individually. Qualitative understanding of the read/write properties, such as carrier-to-noise ratio (C/N) and jitter, were well achieved from Lorentz images of the domains. It is found that the C/N value of the Tb-Fe-Co film with a higher figure of merit (Rθk ) is lower than that of the Tb-Co film with a lower value of Rθk . The reason for this is believed to be due to a larger variation in domain shape in the Tb-Fe-Co film compared to the Tb-Co film. A careful observation based upon the image processing of domain bits reveals that the jitter is mainly caused by the irregularity of the domain shape near the edge in the Tb-Fe-Co film.

  4. Towards earlier inclusion of Children in Tuberculosis (TB) drugs trials: Consensus statements from an Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Nachman, Sharon; Ahmed, Amina; Amanullah, Farhana; Becerra, Mercedes C; Botgros, Radu; Brigden, Grania; Browning, Renee; Gardiner, Elizabeth; Hafner, Richard; Hesseling, Anneke; How, Cleotilde; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Lessem, Erica; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Mbelle, Nontombi; Marais, Ben; McIlleron, Helen; Mc Neeley, David F; Mendel, Carl; Murray, Stephen; Navarro, Eileen; Oramasionwu, Gloria E; Porcalla, Ariel R; Powell, Clydette; Powell, Mair; Rigaud, Mona; Rouzier, Vanessa; Samson, Pearl; Schaaf, H. Simon; Shah, Seema; Starke, Jeff; Swaminathan, Soumya; Wobudeya, Eric; Worrell, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Children represent a significant proportion of the global tuberculosis (TB) burden, and may be disproportionately more affected by its most severe clinical manifestations. Currently available treatments for pediatric drug-susceptible (DS) and drug-resistant (DR) TB, albeit generally effective, are hampered by high pill burden, long duration of treatment, coexistent toxicities, and an overall lack of suitable, child-friendly formulations. The complex and burdensome nature of administering the existing regimens to treat DS TB also contributes to the rise of DR TB strains. Despite the availability and use of these therapies for decades, a dearth of dosing evidence in children underscores the importance of sustained efforts for TB drug development to better meet the treatment needs of children with TB. Several new TB drugs and regimens with promising activity against both DS and DR TB strains have recently entered clinical development and are in various phases of clinical evaluation in adults or have received marketing authorization for adults. However, initiation of clinical trials to evaluate these drugs in children is often deferred, pending the availability of complete safety and efficacy data in adults or after drug approval. This document summarizes consensus statements from an international panel of childhood TB opinion leaders which support the initiation of evaluation of new TB drugs and regimens in children at earlier phases of the TB Drug development cycle. PMID:25957923

  5. Gene expression profiles of bronchoalveolar cells in Pulmonary TB

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Bindu; Hoshino, Yoshihiko; Belitskaya-Lévy, Ilana; Dawson, Rod; Ress, Stanley; Gold, Jeffrey A.; Condos, Rany; Pine, Richard; Brown, Stuart; Nolan, Anna; Rom, William N.; Weiden, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis includes macrophage activation, inflammation with increased immune effector cells, tissue necrosis and cavity formation, and fibrosis, distortion, and bronchiectasis. To evaluate the molecular basis of the immune response in the lungs of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), we used bronchoalveolar lavage to obtain cells at the site of infection. Affymetrix Genechip micro-arrays and cDNA nylon filter microarrays interrogated gene expression in BAL cells from 11 healthy controls and 17 patients with active pulmonary TB. We found altered gene expression for 69 genes in TB versus normal controls that included cell surface markers, cytokines, chemokines, receptors, transcription factors, and complement components. In addition, TB BAL cell gene expression patternssegregated into 2 groups: one suggestive of a T helper type 1 (Th1) cellular immune response with increased STAT-4, IFN-γ receptor, and MIG expression with increased IFN-γ protein levels in BAL fluid; the other group displayed characteristics of Th2 immunity with increased STAT-6, CD81, and IL-10 receptor expression. We were able to demonstrate that a Th2 presentation could change to a Th1 pattern after anti-tuberculous treatment in one TB patient studied serially. These gene expression data support the conclusion that pulmonary TB produces a global change in the BAL cell transcriptome with manifestations of either Th1 or Th2 immunity. PMID:17921069

  6. HIV-Associated TB Syndemic: A Growing Clinical Challenge Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Montales, Maria Theresa; Chaudhury, Arun; Beebe, Alexandria; Patil, Sowmya; Patil, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    The association of tuberculosis (TB) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome over the past several years has become an emerging syndemic. Approximately 10% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) with latent TB infection will develop active TB disease each year. In this review, we highlight that this phenomenon is not limited to high endemic regions, such as Afro-Asian nations, but globalization/migration is causing increased case detection even in developed nations, such as the United States. Active screening should be performed for TB in PLHIV. A high degree of clinical suspicion for TB is warranted in PLHIV presenting with fever, cough, and unintentional weight loss. HIV-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) coinfection is often paucibacillary, precluding diagnosis by conventional diagnostics and/or smear microscopy/culture. Improved detection of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB is now possible by incorporation of the GeneXPERT MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA). The World Health Organization recommends instituting immediate therapy for MTB, in conjunction with ongoing or newly introduced anti-retroviral therapy. Vigilance is required to detect drug-induced organ injuries, and early-treatment-induced immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Collaborating MTB and HIV activities in concentrated HIV epidemic settings should become a high public health priority. PMID:26779470

  7. HIV-Associated TB Syndemic: A Growing Clinical Challenge Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Montales, Maria Theresa; Chaudhury, Arun; Beebe, Alexandria; Patil, Sowmya; Patil, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    The association of tuberculosis (TB) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome over the past several years has become an emerging syndemic. Approximately 10% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) with latent TB infection will develop active TB disease each year. In this review, we highlight that this phenomenon is not limited to high endemic regions, such as Afro-Asian nations, but globalization/migration is causing increased case detection even in developed nations, such as the United States. Active screening should be performed for TB in PLHIV. A high degree of clinical suspicion for TB is warranted in PLHIV presenting with fever, cough, and unintentional weight loss. HIV–Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) coinfection is often paucibacillary, precluding diagnosis by conventional diagnostics and/or smear microscopy/culture. Improved detection of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB is now possible by incorporation of the GeneXPERT MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA). The World Health Organization recommends instituting immediate therapy for MTB, in conjunction with ongoing or newly introduced anti-retroviral therapy. Vigilance is required to detect drug-induced organ injuries, and early-treatment-induced immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Collaborating MTB and HIV activities in concentrated HIV epidemic settings should become a high public health priority. PMID:26779470

  8. Cytokine Patterns in Tuberculosis Infection; IL-1ra, IL-2 and IP-10 Differentiate Borderline QuantiFERON-TB Samples from Uninfected Controls

    PubMed Central

    Wergeland, Ida; Assmus, Jörg; Dyrhol-Riise, Anne Ma

    2016-01-01

    Background Interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) do not discriminate between active tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection (LTBI), which limit their use in TB endemic areas. Subjects with QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) results around the diagnostic cut-off more likely show inconsistent results on serial testing which makes the interpretation of the assay difficult. We have studied potential biomarkers in patients with various stages of TB infection and with borderline QFT tests compared to those with higher values. Methods 27 soluble biomarkers were analysed in QFT supernatants from patients with active TB (n = 18), individuals with LTBI (n = 48) and from QFT negative controls (n = 16) by the Multiplex bead assay. The LTBI group was classified into two groups according to QFT IFN-γ levels; QFT borderline (0.35–0.70 IU/mL, n = 11) or QFT high (>0.70 IU/mL, n = 36). Results The levels of IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-13, IL-15, IFN-γ, IP-10 and MCP-1 in background corrected TB antigen stimulated supernatants (TBAg-Nil) significantly distinguished both active TB and LTBI QFT high groups from the QFT negative controls (p≤0.004). In addition, IL-1ra, IL-2 and IP-10 significantly differentiated the QFT borderline group from the controls (p≤0.001). Still, in the QFT borderline group the IL-1ra and IP-10 levels were not significant different from neither the QFT high nor the active TB group, whereas the IL-2 levels were lower (p≤0.003). The level of IP-10 showed the best separation between the QFT borderline group and the QFT negative controls (AUC 0.92) and offered 100% sensitivity for active TB. Conclusion IL-1ra, IL-2 and IP-10 differentiate QFT borderline samples from uninfected controls and the majority of QFT borderline subjects were classified as LTBI by these markers. Still, inconsistency was seen, and further studies are needed to examine the performance of alternative markers before concluded if they could be used as diagnostics tools. PMID:27685462

  9. An African woman with pulmonary cavities: TB or not TB?

    PubMed

    Delsing, C E; Ruesen, C; Boeree, M J; van Damme, P A; Kuipers, S; van Crevel, R

    2014-10-01

    Cavitary lung lesions in patients from developing countries are mostly caused by tuberculosis (TB). However, when TB cannot be confirmed, a primary lung abscess caused by anaerobic bacteria from the mouth should be considered, especially in patients with poor dentition. We present a case of a Sudanese woman with a cavitary lung lesion and severe gingivitis. Bulleidia extructa was isolated as a single pathogen from the pulmonary cavity. PMID:25387555

  10. Accuracy of QuantiFERON-TB Gold Test for Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sali, Michela; Buonsenso, Danilo; Goletti, Delia; D’Alfonso, Pamela; Zumbo, Antonella; Fadda, Giovanni; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Delogu, Giovanni; Valentini, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the accuracy of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold assay (QFT-IT) in children with suspected active or latent TB infection (LTBI). Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 621 children (0–14 years old) evaluated for TB infection or disease. Following clinical assessment, children were tested with the QFT-IT assay. Results Among the 140 active TB suspects, we identified 19 cases of active disease. The overall sensitivity for active TB was 87.5%, ranging from 62.5% in children 25–36 months old to 100% in children older than 49 months. The overall specificity for active TB was 93.6%. Among the 481 children tested for LTBI screening, 38 scored positive and all but 2 had at least one risk factor for TB infection. Among the 26 children with indeterminate results, bacterial, viral or fungal pneumonia were later diagnosed in 11 (42.3%) cases and non-TB related extra-pulmonary infections in 12 (46.1%). Conclusions Our results indicate that the children's response to QFT-IT associates to active TB and risk factors for LTBI. Moreover, we show that mitogen response is also found in children of 1 year of age, providing support for QFT-IT use also in young children. PMID:26439935

  11. An Evaluation of Passive and Active Approaches to Improve Tuberculosis Notifications in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Sanaie, A.; Nasrat, A.; Seddiq, M. K.; Mahmoodi, S. D.; Stevens, R. H.; Creswell, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Afghanistan, improving TB case detection remains challenging. In 2014, only half of the estimated incident TB cases were notified, and notifications have decreased since peaking in 2007. Active case finding has been increasingly considered to improve TB case notifications. While access to health services has improved in Afghanistan, it remains poor and many people seeking health services won’t receive proper care. Methods From October 2011 through December 2012 we conducted three separate case finding strategies in six provinces of Afghanistan and measured impact on TB case notification. Systematically screening cough among attendees at 47 health facilities, active household contact investigation of smear-positive index TB patients, and active screening at 15 camps for internally displaced people were conducted. We collected both intervention yield and official quarterly notification data. Additional TB notifications were calculated by comparing numbers of cases notified during the intervention with those notified before the intervention, then adjusting for secular trends in notification. Results We screened 2,022,127 people for TB symptoms during the intervention, tested 59,838 with smear microscopy and detected 5,046 people with smear-positive TB. Most cases (81.7%, 4,125) were identified in health facilities while nearly 20% were found through active case finding. A 56% increase in smear-positive TB notifications was observed between the baseline and intervention periods among the 47 health facilities, where cases detected by all three strategies were notified. Discussion While most people with TB are likely to be identified through health facility screening, there are many people who remain without a proper diagnosis if outreach is not attempted. This is especially true in places like Afghanistan where access to general services is poor. Targeted active case finding can improve the number of people who are detected and treated for TB and can

  12. Ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of core-shell structure CePO4:Tb/GdPO4 and GdPO4/CePO4:Tb nanophosphors and their photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yao-yao; Hu, Zong-chao; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Chao; Zhu, Ling

    2013-02-01

    CePO4:Tb, CePO4:Tb/GdPO4, GdPO4/CePO4:Tb and (Ce, Tb, Gd)PO4 (4-8) nm × (35-73) nm sized nanobars with the hexagonal crystal system have been obtained by ultrasonic-assisted synthesis and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectrum, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL). The shell thickness of CePO4:Tb/GdPO4 and GdPO4/CePO4:Tb core/shell structure is 1.04 nm and 1.10 nm respectively. Under ultraviolet excitation, these nanophosphors show Tb3+ characteristic emission, 5D4-7FJ (J = {6, 5, 4, 3}) and the fluorescence of CePO4:Tb/GdPO4 and GdPO4/CePO4:Tb increases superficially compared with CePO4:Tb and the co-precipitated (Ce, Tb, Gd)PO4. The photoluminescence intensity of CePO4:Tb/GdPO4 is 33 times, 7 times, 2 times as high as that of CePO4:Tb, GdPO4/CePO4:Tb and (Ce, Tb, Gd)PO4, respectively. It is worth mentioning that the increasing amount of intensity of CePO4:Tb/GdPO4 is double than that of GdPO4/CePO4:Tb. A possible formation mechanism for the fluorescent efficiency enhancement has been proposed. The results are helpful in developing effective phosphors and have potential applications in field emission display (FED) and plasma display panels (PDP).

  13. Building trust on bovine TB.

    PubMed

    Woodroffe, Rosie

    2014-03-01

    Opinion on how best to control bovine TB remains divided, particularly with regard to badgers. Rosie Woodroffe believes that vets have a constructive role to play in the debate and helping farmers locally. PMID:24736823

  14. New target prediction and visualization tools incorporating open source molecular fingerprints for TB Mobile 2.0

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We recently developed a freely available mobile app (TB Mobile) for both iOS and Android platforms that displays Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) active molecule structures and their targets with links to associated data. The app was developed to make target information available to as large an audience as possible. Results We now report a major update of the iOS version of the app. This includes enhancements that use an implementation of ECFP_6 fingerprints that we have made open source. Using these fingerprints, the user can propose compounds with possible anti-TB activity, and view the compounds within a cluster landscape. Proposed compounds can also be compared to existing target data, using a näive Bayesian scoring system to rank probable targets. We have curated an additional 60 new compounds and their targets for Mtb and added these to the original set of 745 compounds. We have also curated 20 further compounds (many without targets in TB Mobile) to evaluate this version of the app with 805 compounds and associated targets. Conclusions TB Mobile can now manage a small collection of compounds that can be imported from external sources, or exported by various means such as email or app-to-app inter-process communication. This means that TB Mobile can be used as a node within a growing ecosystem of mobile apps for cheminformatics. It can also cluster compounds and use internal algorithms to help identify potential targets based on molecular similarity. TB Mobile represents a valuable dataset, data-visualization aid and target prediction tool. PMID:25302078

  15. Human macrophage polarization in vitro: maturation and activation methods compared.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Daphne Y S; Glim, Judith E; Stavenuiter, Andrea W D; Breur, Marjolein; Heijnen, Priscilla; Amor, Sandra; Dijkstra, Christine D; Beelen, Robert H J

    2014-09-01

    Macrophages form a heterogeneous cell population displaying multiple functions, and can be polarized into pro- (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages, by environmental factors. Their activation status reflects a beneficial or detrimental role in various diseases. Currently several in vitro maturation and activation protocols are used to induce an M1 or M2 phenotype. Here, the impact of different maturation factors (NHS, M-CSF, or GM-CSF) and activation methods (IFN-γ/LPS, IL-4, dexamethason, IL-10) on the macrophage phenotype was determined. Regarding macrophage morphology, pro-inflammatory (M1) activation stimulated cell elongation, and anti-inflammatory (M2) activation induced a circular appearance. Activation with pro-inflammatory mediators led to increased CD40 and CD64 expression, whereas activation with anti-inflammatory factors resulted in increased levels of MR and CD163. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was induced by activation with IFN-γ/LPS, and TGF-β production was enhanced by the maturation factors M-CSF and GM-CSF. Our data demonstrate that macrophage marker expression and cytokine production in vitro is highly dependent on both maturation and activation methods. In vivo macrophage activation is far more complex, since a plethora of stimuli are present. Hence, defining the macrophage activation status ex vivo on a limited number of markers could be indecisive. From this study we conclude that maturation with M-CSF or GM-CSF induces a moderate anti- or pro-inflammatory state respectively, compared to maturation with NHS. CD40 and CD64 are the most distinctive makers for human M1 and CD163 and MR for M2 macrophage activation and therefore can be helpful in determining the activation status of human macrophages ex vivo.

  16. Comparing Theoretical Perspectives in Describing Mathematics Departments: Complexity and Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beswick, Kim; Watson, Anne; De Geest, Els

    2010-01-01

    We draw on two studies of mathematics departments in 11-18 comprehensive maintained schools in England to compare and contrast the insights provided by differing theoretical perspectives. In one study, activity theory was used to describe common features of the work of three departments. In the other, a mathematics department was viewed and…

  17. Comparing Participation in Activities among Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masse, Louise C.; Miller, Anton R.; Shen, Jane; Schiariti, Veronica; Roxborough, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Compared to typically developing peers, children with disabilities due to neurodevelopmental disorders and disabilities (NDD/D) and to chronic medical conditions (CMC) have reduced participation in activities. The extent to which these two groups of children have different levels of participation is unknown and was examined in this…

  18. First-Line Treatment for Tuberculosis (TB), Drug Resistant TB -- A Visual Tour

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Tuberculosis Drugs First-Line Treatment of TB for Drug- ... ago. See how these drugs work . Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) and Second-Line Treatments MDR TB ...

  19. Comparison of the dynamic magnetomechanical properties of Tb0.27Dy0.73Fe2 and Tb0.30Dy0.70Fe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, D.; Piercy, A. R.

    1994-11-01

    Comparison is made between the magnetomechanical properties of Tb0.27Dy0.73Fe2 (27 Tb) and Tb0.30Dy0.70Fe2 (30 Tb), two commercially available composition of the giant magnetostrictive alloy Terfenol-D. The quasi-static magnetostriction (as a function of bias field) and the dynamic strain coefficient (as a function of bias field and frequency) are shown for the two composition at room temperature, using stress bias values of 0 and 9 MPa. The energy loss per cycle as a function of frequency is also given. The data for the static magnetostriction versus bias field shows 30 Tb to exhibit a significantly greater increase in initial slope and saturation strain when stress bias is applied compared to that seen for 27 Tb, which possesses superior magnetostriction at zero stress bias. A similar trend is observed in the data for the dynamic strain coefficient with 30 Tb again performing better under stress bias. The widening of the static strain hysteresis loop observed for stressed 30 Tb is seen to manifest itself in the low frequency energy loss per cycle; however 27 Tb is observed to possess the higher eddy current loss at 1 kHz. Data for the ratio d/chi, a quantity which is dependent only on magnetization processes and material constants, are shown which suggests that the application of a stress bias affects the magnetization processes, but differently for the two compositions.

  20. Changes of Tb Emission by Non-radiative Energy Transfer from Dy in Gd2O2S:Tb Phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraee, Kh. Rezaee Ebrahim; Zadeh, M. Darvish; Mostajaboddavati, M.; Kharieky, A. Aghay

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the Gd2O2S:Tb1.5Dy x=0.3,0.6,0.9 nanophosphor were synthesized by the homogenous precipitation method followed with a sulfur reaction. The fluorescence of Gd2O2S:Tb1.5,Dy nanophosphors, and the energy transfer between dysprosium (Dy) and Tb have been studied. Although, the two weak emissions of Dy were observed, the terbium (Tb) emission was increased due to energy transfer from Dy ions to Tb ions. The results illustrated that the co-activator of Dy had a significant influence on the spectral properties of the Gd2O2S:Tb1.5 nanophosphor with an optimal amount of Dy (0.3 mol%). Moreover, Gd2O2S:Tb1.5 and Gd2O2S:Tb1.5,Dy nanophosphors screens were prepared with 10 mg/cm2 coating thickness. The scintillation properties of these screens have been investigated. We found a Gd2O2S:Tb1.5,Dy0.3 scintillator can be employed in x-ray imaging applications.

  1. Temperature-dependent structure of Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Katherine P.; Russek, Stephen E.; Geiss, Roy H.; Shaw, Justin M.; Usselman, Robert J.; Evarts, Eric R.; Silva, Thomas J.; Nembach, Hans T.; Arenholz, Elke; Idzerda, Yves U.

    2015-02-01

    High quality 5 nm cubic Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet-chemical method to investigate tailoring of magnetic properties for imaging and biomedical applications. We show that the Tb is incorporated into the octahedral 3+ sites. High-angle annular dark-field microscopy shows that the dopant is well-distributed throughout the particle, and x-ray diffraction measurements show a small lattice parameter shift with the inclusion of a rare-earth dopant. Magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism data indicate that the Tb spins are unpolarized and weakly coupled to the iron spin lattice at room temperature, and begin to polarize and couple to the iron oxide lattice at temperatures below 50 K. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements show no increase in magnetic damping at room temperature for Tb-doped nanoparticles relative to undoped nanoparticles, further confirming weak coupling between Fe and Tb spins at room temperature. The Gilbert damping constant, α, is remarkably low for the Tb-doped nanoparticles, with α = 0.024 ± 0.003. These nanoparticles, which have a large fixed moment, a large fluctuating moment and optically active rare-earth elements, are potential high-relaxivity T1 and T2 MRI agents with integrated optical signatures.

  2. Temperature-dependent structure of Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Katherine P.; Russek, Stephen E. Shaw, Justin M.; Usselman, Robert J.; Evarts, Eric R.; Silva, Thomas J.; Nembach, Hans T.; Geiss, Roy H.; Arenholz, Elke; Idzerda, Yves U.

    2015-02-09

    High quality 5 nm cubic Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet-chemical method to investigate tailoring of magnetic properties for imaging and biomedical applications. We show that the Tb is incorporated into the octahedral 3+ sites. High-angle annular dark-field microscopy shows that the dopant is well-distributed throughout the particle, and x-ray diffraction measurements show a small lattice parameter shift with the inclusion of a rare-earth dopant. Magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism data indicate that the Tb spins are unpolarized and weakly coupled to the iron spin lattice at room temperature, and begin to polarize and couple to the iron oxide lattice at temperatures below 50 K. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements show no increase in magnetic damping at room temperature for Tb-doped nanoparticles relative to undoped nanoparticles, further confirming weak coupling between Fe and Tb spins at room temperature. The Gilbert damping constant, α, is remarkably low for the Tb-doped nanoparticles, with α = 0.024 ± 0.003. These nanoparticles, which have a large fixed moment, a large fluctuating moment and optically active rare-earth elements, are potential high-relaxivity T1 and T2 MRI agents with integrated optical signatures.

  3. Megazol and its bioisostere 4H-1,2,4-triazole: comparing the trypanocidal, cytotoxic and genotoxic activities and their in vitro and in silico interactions with the Trypanosoma brucei nitroreductase enzyme

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Alcione Silva; Salomão, Kelly; de Castro, Solange Lisboa; Conde, Taline Ramos; Zamith, Helena Pereira da Silva; Caffarena, Ernesto Raúl; Hall, Belinda Suzette; Wilkinson, Shane Robert; Boechat, Núbia

    2014-01-01

    Megazol (7) is a 5-nitroimidazole that is highly active against Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei, as well as drug-resistant forms of trypanosomiasis. Compound 7 is not used clinically due to its mutagenic and genotoxic properties, but has been largely used as a lead compound. Here, we compared the activity of 7 with its 4H-1,2,4-triazole bioisostere (8) in bloodstream forms of T. brucei and T. cruzi and evaluated their activation by T. brucei type I nitroreductase (TbNTR) enzyme. We also analysed the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of these compounds in whole human blood using Comet and fluorescein diacetate/ethidium bromide assays. Although the only difference between 7 and 8 is the substitution of sulphur (in the thiadiazole in 7) for nitrogen (in the triazole in 8), the results indicated that 8 had poorer antiparasitic activity than 7 and was not genotoxic, whereas 7 presented this effect. The determination of Vmax indicated that although 8 was metabolised more rapidly than 7, it bounds to the TbNTR with better affinity, resulting in equivalent kcat/KM values. Docking assays of 7 and 8 performed within the active site of a homology model of the TbNTR indicating that 8 had greater affinity than 7. PMID:24676659

  4. Rapid diagnosis of MDR and XDR tuberculosis with the MeltPro TB assay in China.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu; Dong, Haiyan; Tan, Yaoju; Deng, Yunfeng; Cai, Xingshan; Jing, Hui; Xia, Hui; Li, Qiang; Ou, Xichao; Su, Biyi; Li, Xuezheng; Zhang, Zhiying; Li, Junchen; Zhang, Jiankang; Huan, Shitong; Zhao, Yanlin

    2016-01-01

    New diagnostic methods have provided a promising solution for rapid and reliable detection of drug-resistant TB strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the MeltPro TB assay in identifying multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients from sputum samples. The MeltPro TB assay was evaluated using sputum samples from 2057 smear-positive TB patients. Phenotypic Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 drug susceptibility testing served as a reference standard. The sensitivity of the MeltPro TB assay was 94.2% for detecting resistance to rifampicin and 84.9% for detecting resistance to isoniazid. For second-line drugs, the assay showed a sensitivity of 83.3% for ofloxacin resistance, 75.0% for amikacin resistance, and 63.5% for kanamycin resistance. However, there was a significant difference for detecting kanamycin resistance between the two pilot sites in sensitivity, which was 53.2% in Guangdong and 81.5% in Shandong (P = 0.015). Overall, the MeltPro TB assay demonstrated good performance for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB, with a sensitivity of 86.7% and 71.4%, respectively. The MeltPro TB assay is an excellent alternative for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB cases in China, with high accuracy, short testing turn-around time, and low unit price compared with other tests. PMID:27149911

  5. Rapid diagnosis of MDR and XDR tuberculosis with the MeltPro TB assay in China

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yu; Dong, Haiyan; Tan, Yaoju; Deng, Yunfeng; Cai, Xingshan; Jing, Hui; Xia, Hui; Li, Qiang; Ou, Xichao; Su, Biyi; Li, Xuezheng; Zhang, Zhiying; Li, Junchen; Zhang, Jiankang; Huan, Shitong; Zhao, Yanlin

    2016-01-01

    New diagnostic methods have provided a promising solution for rapid and reliable detection of drug-resistant TB strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the MeltPro TB assay in identifying multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients from sputum samples. The MeltPro TB assay was evaluated using sputum samples from 2057 smear-positive TB patients. Phenotypic Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 drug susceptibility testing served as a reference standard. The sensitivity of the MeltPro TB assay was 94.2% for detecting resistance to rifampicin and 84.9% for detecting resistance to isoniazid. For second-line drugs, the assay showed a sensitivity of 83.3% for ofloxacin resistance, 75.0% for amikacin resistance, and 63.5% for kanamycin resistance. However, there was a significant difference for detecting kanamycin resistance between the two pilot sites in sensitivity, which was 53.2% in Guangdong and 81.5% in Shandong (P = 0.015). Overall, the MeltPro TB assay demonstrated good performance for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB, with a sensitivity of 86.7% and 71.4%, respectively. The MeltPro TB assay is an excellent alternative for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB cases in China, with high accuracy, short testing turn-around time, and low unit price compared with other tests. PMID:27149911

  6. Fast and intense green emission of Tb3+ in borosilicate glass modified by Cu+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Fanshu; Liu, Siyuan; Wang, Yang; Mao, Jiayi; Li, Xinxi; Wang, Yiqun; Chen, Guorong

    2015-10-01

    We present photoluminescence properties of Tb3+ doped borosilicate glasses modified by Cu+. Around 5-time enhanced emission at 541 nm due to the superposed emission of Tb3+ and Cu+ is observed under the deep UV excitation. Excitation spectra demonstrate a greatly increased absorption of Tb3+ ions in the deep UV region towards the Cu+ excitation band, while the shortened Cu+ emission lifetime of glasses in association with presence of Tb3+ ions implies an energy transfer process from Cu+ to Tb3+ ions. Meanwhile, the Tb3+ emission lifetime is significantly shortened from the conventional millisecond level (~4 ms) to the microsecond regime up to around 90 μs. This most likely starts with the role of Cu+ as a co-activator by initiating the d-f orbital hybridization process via an interaction with Tb3+, thus relaxing the spin forbidden transition of Tb3+ ions to the partially allowed one. Moreover, combination of emissions from Cu+ and Tb3+ ions generates a composite green emission with adjustable CIE (Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage) chromaticity coordinates achievable by co-doping Cu+/Tb3+ in the different ratio and/or altering the excitation wavelength from deep UV to near UV region.

  7. TB deaths reach historic levels. International (global).

    PubMed

    More tuberculosis (TB)-related deaths occurred in 1995 than in any other year in history (almost 3 million, vs. 2.1 million for the TB epidemic around 1990). In the next 50 years, as many as 500 million people may develop TB if current rates continue. More and more of these people will develop multidrug resistant TB. TB affects all social groups. It is the leading fatal infection in youth and adults. HIV positive people are more likely to die from TB than any other condition. More women die from TB than all causes of maternal mortality combined. Almost 50% of the world's refugees may have TB. All people are at risk of TB since TB bacteria, which enter the air via coughing or sneezing, can be suspended in the air for hours. Increased air travel and migration have brought TB back to industrialized countries. Multi-drug resistant TB has emerged in New York City, London, Milan, Paris, Atlanta, Chicago, and cities in developing countries. Governments of industrialized and developing countries have been slow to understand the effects of multi-drug resistant TB for public health. During the 1970s and 1980s, TB was greatly neglected resulting in the current multi-drug resistant TB epidemic. Policy makers have not applied the tools discovered by scientists to help eliminate TB. The World Health Organization recommends directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) to fight TB. DOTS can increase the number of cured TB patients two-fold. It can cure almost 95% of TB patients with medicines costing less than $11 in some areas of the world. Yet DOTS is being used to cure only 10% of all TB patients in the world. If it were used in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, South Africa, and Zaire, about 75% of all TB cases would be cured. In DOTS, health workers, not the TB patient, are responsible for curing the TB patient. Poor patient compliance is responsible for the current TB epidemic because TB patients remain

  8. TB deaths reach historic levels. International (global).

    PubMed

    More tuberculosis (TB)-related deaths occurred in 1995 than in any other year in history (almost 3 million, vs. 2.1 million for the TB epidemic around 1990). In the next 50 years, as many as 500 million people may develop TB if current rates continue. More and more of these people will develop multidrug resistant TB. TB affects all social groups. It is the leading fatal infection in youth and adults. HIV positive people are more likely to die from TB than any other condition. More women die from TB than all causes of maternal mortality combined. Almost 50% of the world's refugees may have TB. All people are at risk of TB since TB bacteria, which enter the air via coughing or sneezing, can be suspended in the air for hours. Increased air travel and migration have brought TB back to industrialized countries. Multi-drug resistant TB has emerged in New York City, London, Milan, Paris, Atlanta, Chicago, and cities in developing countries. Governments of industrialized and developing countries have been slow to understand the effects of multi-drug resistant TB for public health. During the 1970s and 1980s, TB was greatly neglected resulting in the current multi-drug resistant TB epidemic. Policy makers have not applied the tools discovered by scientists to help eliminate TB. The World Health Organization recommends directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) to fight TB. DOTS can increase the number of cured TB patients two-fold. It can cure almost 95% of TB patients with medicines costing less than $11 in some areas of the world. Yet DOTS is being used to cure only 10% of all TB patients in the world. If it were used in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, South Africa, and Zaire, about 75% of all TB cases would be cured. In DOTS, health workers, not the TB patient, are responsible for curing the TB patient. Poor patient compliance is responsible for the current TB epidemic because TB patients remain

  9. WHO's End TB Strategy: From stopping to ending the global TB epidemic.

    PubMed

    Uplekar, Mukund; Raviglione, Mario

    2015-10-01

    The 67th World Health Assembly of 2014 adopted the "End TB Strategy" with a vision of making the world free of tuberculosis (TB) and with the goal of ending the global TB epidemic by the year 2035. World Health Organization's "End TB Strategy" captures this holistic response in its four principles and three pillars. The three high-level indicators of the "End TB Strategy" - reductions in TB deaths, reductions in the TB incidence rate and the percentage of TB patients and their households experiencing catastrophic costs - are relevant to all countries.

  10. PD-1 Expression and Cytokine Secretion Profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific CD4+ T-Cell Subsets; Potential Correlates of Containment in HIV-TB Co-Infection.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Katrina M; Montamat-Sicotte, Damien J; Grass, Lisa; Cooke, Graham S; Kapembwa, Moses S; Kon, Onn M; Sampson, Robert D; Taylor, Graham P; Lalvani, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    HIV co-infection is an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) providing a powerful model in which to dissect out defective, protective and dysfunctional Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific immune responses. To identify the changes induced by HIV co-infection we compared MTB-specific CD4+ responses in subjects with active TB and latent TB infection (LTBI), with and without HIV co-infection. CD4+ T-cell subsets producing interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and expressing CD279 (PD-1) were measured using polychromatic flow-cytometry. HIV-TB co-infection was consistently and independently associated with a reduced frequency of CD4+ IFN-γ and IL-2-dual secreting T-cells and the proportion correlated inversely with HIV viral load (VL). The impact of HIV co-infection on this key MTB-specific T-cell subset identifies them as a potential correlate of mycobacterial immune containment. The percentage of MTB-specific IFN-γ-secreting T-cell subsets that expressed PD-1 was increased in active TB with HIV co-infection and correlated with VL. This identifies a novel correlate of dysregulated immunity to MTB, which may in part explain the paucity of inflammatory response in the face of mycobacterial dissemination that characterizes active TB with HIV co-infection.

  11. Comparative blanching activities of proprietary diflucortolone valerate topical preparations.

    PubMed

    Coleman, G L; Kanfer, I; Haigh, J M

    1978-01-01

    The blanching activities and hence bioavailabilities of the cream, ointment and fatty ointment preparations of Nerisone and Temetex (diflucortolone valerate 0.1%) were evaluated using an occluded and unoccluded blanching assay. These products were compared to Synalar ointment and cream (fluocinolone acetonide 0.025%), established topical corticosteroid preparations. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences between similar formulations of diflucortolone valerate. Significant differences were noted between diflucortolone valerate and fluocinolone acetonide preparations. PMID:342295

  12. Litigation as TB Rights Advocacy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract One thousand people die every day in India as a result of TB, a preventable and treatable disease, even though the Constitution of India, government schemes, and international law guarantee available, accessible, acceptable, quality health care. Failure to address the spread of TB and to provide quality treatment to all affected populations constitutes a public health and human rights emergency that demands action and accountability. As part of a broader strategy, health activists in India employ Public Interest Litigation (PIL) to hold the state accountable for rights violations and to demand new legislation, standards for patient care, accountability for under-spending, improvements in services at individual facilities, and access to government entitlements in marginalized communities. Taking inspiration from right to health PIL cases (PILs), lawyers in a New Delhi-based rights organization used desk research, fact-findings, and the Right To Information Act to build a TB PIL for the Delhi High Court, Sanjai Sharma v. NCT of Delhi and Others (2015). The case argues that inadequate implementation of government TB schemes violates the Constitutional rights to life, health, food, and equality. Although PILs face substantial challenges, this paper concludes that litigation can be a crucial advocacy and accountability tool for people living with TB and their allies. PMID:27781000

  13. Improved performance of P3HT:PCBM solar cells by both anode modification and short-wavelength energy utilization using Tb(aca)3phen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Zu-Liang; Wang, Yong-Sheng; He, Da-Wei; Fu, Ming

    2014-09-01

    The performance of P3HT:PCBM solar cells was improved by anode modification using spin-coated Tb(aca)3phen ultrathin films. The modification of the Tb(aca)3phen ultrathin film between the indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and the PE-DOT:PSS layer resulted in a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.99% compared to 2.66% for the reference device, which was due to the increase in the short-circuit current density (Jsc). The PCE improvement could be attributed to the short-wavelength energy utilization and the optimized morphology of the active layers. Tb(aca)3phen with its strong down-conversion luminescence properties is suitable for the P3HT:PCBM blend active layer, and the absorption region of the ternary blend films is extended into the near ultraviolet region. Furthermore, the crystallization and the surface morphology of P3HT:PCBM films were improved with the Tb(aca)3phen ultrathin film. The ultraviolent—visible absorption spectra, atomic force microscope (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the films were investigated. Both anode modification and short-wavelength energy utilization using Tb(aca)3phen in P3HT:PCBM solar cells led to about a 12% PCE increase.

  14. Optimal Control for TB disease with vaccination assuming endogeneous reactivation and exogeneous reinfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggriani, N.; Wicaksono, B. C.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the deadliest infectious disease in the world which caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease is spread through the air via the droplets from the infectious persons when they are coughing. The World Health Organization (WHO) has paid a special attention to the TB by providing some solution, for example by providing BCG vaccine that prevent an infected person from becoming an active infectious TB. In this paper we develop a mathematical model of the spread of the TB which assumes endogeneous reactivation and exogeneous reinfection factors. We also assume that some of the susceptible population are vaccinated. Furthermore we investigate the optimal vaccination level for the disease.

  15. Declining tuberculosis notification trend associated with strengthened TB and expanded HIV care in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Haumba, S; Dlamini, T; Calnan, M; Ghazaryan, V; Smith-Arthur, A E; Preko, P; Ehrenkranz, P

    2015-06-21

    This retrospective observational review documents the efforts of the Swaziland National Tuberculosis (TB) Control Programme between 2004 and 2014. The objective is to describe the disparity between actual declines in case notification and increases in estimated incidence. The review of policies and practices shows the most influential factors associated with the decrease in TB case notification to be an increase in access to antiretroviral therapy for co-infected TB patients, the general success of TB and human immunodeficiency virus service integration in the country and improvements in implementation of all components of directly observed treatment, active case finding, and rapid diagnosis using new technologies.

  16. The frequency distribution of vitamin D Receptor fok I gene polymorphism among Ugandan pulmonary TB patients

    PubMed Central

    Acen, Ester L.; Worodria, William; Mulamba, Peter; Kambugu, Andrew; Erume, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is still a major problem globally and especially in Africa. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to TB in the past and studies have found vitamin D deficiency to be common among Ugandan TB patients. The functional activity of vitamin D is dependent on the genotype of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphic genes. Recent findings have indicated that VDR polymorphisms may cause increased resistance or susceptibility to TB. The vitamin D ligand and its receptor play a pivotal role in innate immunity by eliciting antimicrobial activity, which is important in prevention of TB. The fok I vitamin D receptor gene has extensively been examined in TB patients but findings so far have been inconclusive. Objectives: This study sought to investigate the frequency distribution of the VDR fok I gene polymorphisms in pulmonary TB patients and controls. Methods: A pilot case control study of 41 newly diagnosed TB patients and 41 healthy workers was set up. Vitamin D receptor fok I gene was genotyped. Results: The frequency distribution of fok I genotype in Ugandan TB patients was 87.8% homozygous-dominant (FF), 7.3% (Ff) heterozygous and 4.8% (ff) homozygous recessive. For normal healthy subjects the frequencies were (FF) 92.6%, (Ff) 2.4% and (ff) 4.8%. No significant difference was observed in the FF and ff genotypes among TB patients and controls. The Ff heterozygous genotype distribution appeared more in TB patients than in controls. A significant difference was observed in the fok I genotype among gender p value 0.02. No significant difference was observed in ethnicity, p value 0.30. Conclusions: The heterozygous Ff fok I genotype may be associated with TB in the Ugandan population.

  17. Blood or Urine IP-10 Cannot Discriminate between Active Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Different from Tuberculosis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, Linda; Cannas, Angela; Aloi, Francesco; Nsubuga, Martin; Sserumkuma, Joseph; Nazziwa, Ritah Angella; Jugheli, Levan; Lukindo, Tedson; Girardi, Enrico; Reither, Klaus; Goletti, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Interferon-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10), either in blood or in urine, has been proposed as a tuberculosis (TB) biomarker for adults. This study aims to evaluate the potential of IP-10 diagnostics in children from Uganda, a high TB-endemic country. Methods. IP-10 was measured in the blood and urine concomitantly taken from children who were prospectively enrolled with suspected active TB, with or without HIV infection. Clinical/microbiological parameters and commercially available TB-immune assays (tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT)) were concomitantly evaluated. Results. One hundred twenty-eight children were prospectively enrolled. The analysis was performed on 111 children: 80 (72%) of them were HIV-uninfected and 31 (27.9%) were HIV-infected. Thirty-three healthy adult donors (HAD) were included as controls. The data showed that IP-10 is detectable in the urine and blood of children with active TB, independent of HIV status and age. However, although IP-10 levels were higher in active TB children compared to HAD, the accuracy of identifying “active TB” was low and similar to the TST and QFT-IT. Conclusion. IP-10 levels are higher in children with respiratory illness compared to controls, independent of “TB status” suggesting that the evaluation of this parameter can be used as an inflammatory marker more than a TB test. PMID:26346028

  18. Impact of awareness drives and community-based active tuberculosis case finding in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Parija, D; Patra, T K; Kumar, A M V; Swain, B K; Satyanarayana, S; Sreenivas, A; Chadha, V K; Moonan, P K; Oeltmann, J E

    2014-09-01

    India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control programme employs passive case detection. The new sputum smear-positive case detection rate is less than 70% in Odisha State. During April-June 2012, active case finding (ACF) was conducted through awareness drives and field-based tuberculosis (TB) screening in select communities with the lowest case detection rates. During the campaign, 240 sputum smear-positive TB cases were detected. The number of smear-positive cases detected increased by 11% relative to April-June 2011 in intervention communities compared to an 0.8% increase in non-intervention communities. ACF brought TB services closer to the community and increased TB case detection.

  19. TB-HIV co-infection: a catastrophic comradeship.

    PubMed

    Narendran, G; Swaminathan, S

    2016-04-01

    The symbiotic association of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV poses a challenge to human survival. HIV complicates every aspect of TB including presentation, diagnosis and treatment. HIV-TB patients encounter unique problems like drug-drug interactions, cumulative toxicity, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), lower plasma drug levels and emergence of drug resistance during treatment despite adherence. TB may also be overdiagnosed in HIV due to a number of diseases that closely resemble TB. Notable among them are non-tuberculous mycobacteria, Pneumocystis Jirovecii and Nocardia. Even though diagnostic procedures have improved over the years, patients in developing countries usually seek health care at later stage of the disease. Research data ascertains the duration of therapy for TB to be 6 months with rifampicin and isoniazid, reinforced with ethambutol and pyrazinamide in the first 2 months. The schedule of therapy is still debatable with daily regimens being preferred in the context of HIV. Many reasons exist for persistence of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M.TB) in sputum, or delayed-clearance of TB from sputum smears in HIV, apart from emergence of drug resistance and non-compliance. Acquired rifampicin resistance (ARR) is a unique phenomenon complicating HIV-associated TB when an intermittent regimen of antituberculosis therapy (ATT) is used without timely initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), especially in patients harbouring isoniazid-resistant strains Immune restoration is often incomplete ('swiss cheese' pattern) even with effective HAART if not started early. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is the paradoxical worsening of the patient's condition often with radiological deterioration, due to an enhanced immune response with HAART. IRIS occurs despite an effective virological suppression and a favourable response to ATT. The incidence of IRIS in HIV has reached up to 54%, requiring utilization of experts

  20. TB-HIV co-infection: a catastrophic comradeship.

    PubMed

    Narendran, G; Swaminathan, S

    2016-04-01

    The symbiotic association of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV poses a challenge to human survival. HIV complicates every aspect of TB including presentation, diagnosis and treatment. HIV-TB patients encounter unique problems like drug-drug interactions, cumulative toxicity, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), lower plasma drug levels and emergence of drug resistance during treatment despite adherence. TB may also be overdiagnosed in HIV due to a number of diseases that closely resemble TB. Notable among them are non-tuberculous mycobacteria, Pneumocystis Jirovecii and Nocardia. Even though diagnostic procedures have improved over the years, patients in developing countries usually seek health care at later stage of the disease. Research data ascertains the duration of therapy for TB to be 6 months with rifampicin and isoniazid, reinforced with ethambutol and pyrazinamide in the first 2 months. The schedule of therapy is still debatable with daily regimens being preferred in the context of HIV. Many reasons exist for persistence of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M.TB) in sputum, or delayed-clearance of TB from sputum smears in HIV, apart from emergence of drug resistance and non-compliance. Acquired rifampicin resistance (ARR) is a unique phenomenon complicating HIV-associated TB when an intermittent regimen of antituberculosis therapy (ATT) is used without timely initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), especially in patients harbouring isoniazid-resistant strains Immune restoration is often incomplete ('swiss cheese' pattern) even with effective HAART if not started early. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is the paradoxical worsening of the patient's condition often with radiological deterioration, due to an enhanced immune response with HAART. IRIS occurs despite an effective virological suppression and a favourable response to ATT. The incidence of IRIS in HIV has reached up to 54%, requiring utilization of experts

  1. Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR TB)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other federal agencies and international partners to raise awareness and enhance strategies for TB prevention worldwide by: Strengthening TB services for people living with HIV/AIDS; Guiding preparedness and outbreak investigation responses; Improving ...

  2. TB in Children in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Related Links TB in Children in the United States TB disease in children under 15 years ... BCG vaccine is not generally used in the United States, because of the low risk of infection ...

  3. Piloting Upfront Xpert MTB/RIF Testing on Various Specimens under Programmatic Conditions for Diagnosis of TB & DR-TB in Paediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Raizada, Neeraj; Sachdeva, Kuldeep Singh; Swaminathan, Soumya; Kulsange, Shubhangi; Khaparde, Sunil D.; Nair, Sreenivas Achuthan; Khanna, Ashwani; Chopra, Kamal Kishore; Hanif, Mahmud; Sethi, Gulshan Rai; Umadevi, K. R.; Keshav Chander, G.; Saha, Brojakishore; Shah, Amar; Parmar, Malik; Ghediya, Mayank; Jaju, Jyoti; Boehme, Catharina; Paramasivan, Chinnambedu Nainarappan

    2015-01-01

    Background India accounts for one-fifth of the global TB incidence. While the exact burden of childhood TB is not known, TB remains one of the leading causes of childhood mortality in India. Bacteriological confirmation of TB in children is challenging due to difficulty in obtaining quality specimens, in the absence of which diagnosis is largely based on clinical judgement. While testing multiple specimens can potentially contribute to higher proportion of laboratory confirmed paediatric TB cases, lack of high sensitivity tests adds to the diagnostic challenge. We describe here our experiences in piloting upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing, for diagnosis of TB in paediatric population in respiratory and extra pulmonary specimens, as recently recommended by WHO. Method Xpert MTB/RIF testing was offered to all paediatric (0–14 years) presumptive TB cases (both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary) seeking care at public and private health facilities in the project areas covering 4 cities of India. Results Under this pilot project, 8,370 paediatric presumptive TB & presumptive DR-TB cases were tested between April and–November 2014. Overall, 9,149 specimens were tested, of which 4,445 (48.6%) were non-sputum specimens. Xpert MTB/RIF gave 9,083 (99.2%, CI 99.0–99.4) valid results. Of the 8,143 presumptive TB cases enrolled, 517 (6.3%, CI 5.8–6.9) were bacteriologically confirmed. TB detection rates were two fold higher with Xpert MTB/RIF as compared to smear microscopy. Further, a total of 60 rifampicin resistant TB cases were detected, of which 38 were detected among 512 presumptive TB cases while 22 were detected amongst 227 presumptive DR-TB cases tested under the project. Conclusion Xpert MTB/RIF with advantages of quick turnaround testing-time, high proportion of interpretable results and feasibility of rapid rollout, substantially improved the diagnosis of bacteriologically confirmed TB in children, while simultaneously detecting rifampicin resistance. PMID:26469691

  4. Comparative studies of brain activation with MEG and functional MRI

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.S.; Aine, C.J.; Sanders, J.A.; Lewine, J.D.; Caprihan, A.

    1993-12-31

    The past two years have witnessed the emergence of MRI as a functional imaging methodology. Initial demonstrations involved the injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent and required ultrafast echo planar imaging capability to adequately resolve the passage of the injected bolus. By measuring the local reduction in image intensity due to magnetic susceptibility, it was possible to calculate blood volume, which changes as a function of neural activation. Later developments have exploited endogenous contrast mechanisms to monitor changes in blood volume or in venous blood oxygen content. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that it is possible to make such measurements in a clinical imager, suggesting that the large installed base of such machines might be utilized for functional imaging. Although it is likely that functional MRI (fMRI) will subsume some of the clinical and basic neuroscience applications now touted for MEG, it is also clear that these techniques offer different largely complementary, capabilities. At the very least, it is useful to compare and cross-validate the activation maps produced by these techniques. Such studies will be valuable as a check on results of neuromagnetic distributed current reconstructions and will allow better characterization of the relationship between neurophysiological activation and associated hemodynamic changes. A more exciting prospect is the development of analyses that combine information from the two modalities to produce a better description of underlying neural activity than is possible with either technique in isolation. In this paper we describe some results from initial comparative studies and outline several techniques that can be used to treat MEG and fMRI data within a unified computational framework.

  5. Tunable blue-green-emitting Ba3LaNa(PO4)3F:Eu2+,Tb3+ phosphor with energy transfer for near-UV white LEDs.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Mengmeng; Guo, Ning; Lü, Wei; Jia, Yongchao; Lv, Wenzhen; Zhao, Qi; Shao, Baiqi; You, Hongpeng

    2013-09-16

    A series of Eu(2+) and Eu(2+)/Tb(3+) activated novel Ba3LaNa(PO4)3F phosphors have been synthesized by traditional solid state reaction. Rietveld structure refinement of the obtained phosphor indicates that the Ba3LaNa(PO4)3F host contains three kinds of Ba sites. The photoluminescence properties exhibit that the obtained phosphors can be efficiently excited in the range from 320 to 430 nm, which matches perfectly with the commercial n-UV LED chips. The critical distance of the Eu(2+) ions in Ba3LaNa(PO4)3F:Eu(2+) is calculated and the energy quenching mechanism is proven to be dipole-dipole interaction. Tunable blue-green emitting Ba3LaNa(PO4)3F:Eu(2+),Tb(3+) phosphor has been obtained by co-doping Eu(2+) and Tb(3+) ions into the host and varying their relative ratios. Compared with the Tb(3+) singly doped phosphor, the codoped phosphors have more intense absorption in the n-UV range and stronger emission of the Tb(3+) ions, which are attributed to the effective energy transfer from the Eu(2+) to Tb(3+) ions. The energy transfer from the Eu(2+) to Tb(3+) ions is demonstrated to be a dipole-quadrupole mechanism by the Inokuti-Hirayama (I-H) model. The Eu(2+) and Tb(3+) activated phosphor may be good candidates for blue-green components in n-UV white LEDs.

  6. Luminescence properties of Tb(3+)-doped borosilicate scintillating glass under UV excitation.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Chenggang; Zhou, Zhihua; Zhu, Ligang; Xiao, Anguo; Chen, Yuandao; Zhang, Xiangyang; Zhuang, Yongbing; Li, Xiaoyang; Ge, Qizhi

    2015-08-01

    Transparent Li₂O-BaO-La₂O₃-Al₂O₃-B₂O₃-SiO₂ glasses doped with Tb(3+) ion were prepared by high temperature melting method. Luminescence properties of Tb(3+)-doped borosilicate glasses have been investigated by transmission, excitation, emission and luminescence decay measurements. The transmission spectrum shows the glass has good transmittance in the visible region. Under the 236 nm UV excitation the intense green emission from (5)D₄ level is observed in Tb(3+)-doped borosilicate glass, comparable in intensity to the violet-blue emission starting from the (5)D₃ level. The green emission intensity of Tb(3+) ion firstly increases and then decreases with the decreasing B₂O₃/SiO₂ ratio in glass matrix. (5)D₄→(7)FJ (J=6, 5, 4 and 3) transitions of Tb(3+) ion in borosilicate glass are greatly enhanced with increasing concentration of Tb(3+) through the cross relaxation [Tb(3+) ((5)D₃)+Tb(3+) ((7)F6)→Tb(3+) ((5)D₄)+Tb(3+) ((7)F₀)] between two Tb(3+) ions. Luminescence decay time of 2.13 ms is obtained for the emission transitions starting from (5)D₄ level in 2.5Li₂O-20BaO-20La₂O₃-2.5Al₂O₃-20B₂O₃-35SiO₂-0.5Tb₄O₇ glass. The results show that Tb(3+)-doped borosilicate glasses would be potential candidates for scintillating material for static X-ray imaging.

  7. Patient Reported Delays in Seeking Treatment for Tuberculosis among Adult and Pediatric TB Patients and TB Patients Co-Infected with HIV in Lima, Peru: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Alban, Rebecca E.; Dimos Jones, Christy; Powell, Amy R.; Oberhelman, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health challenge worldwide, and particularly in Peru with one of the highest incidence rates in Latin America. TB patient behavior has a direct influence on whether a patient will receive timely diagnosis and successful treatment of their illness. Objectives: The objective was to understand the complex factors that can impact TB patient health seeking behavior. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with adult and parents of pediatric patients receiving TB treatment (n = 43), within that group a sub-group was also co-infected with HIV (n = 11). Results: Almost all of the study participants recognized delays in seeking either their child’s or their own diagnosis of their TB symptoms. The principal reasons for treatment-seeking delays were lack of knowledge and confusion of TB symptoms, fear and embarrassment of receiving a TB diagnosis, and a patient tendency to self-medicate prior to seeking formal medical attention. Conclusion: Health promotion activities that target patient delays have the potential to improve individual patient outcomes and mitigate the spread of TB at a community level. PMID:25566523

  8. A model dynamic for effect latent population to co-epidemic of HIV-TB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafaruddin, Sutimin, Ariyanto

    2014-02-01

    Threat of co-epidemic HIV-TB is a major problem that must be faced by countries around the world. In 2011, approximately about one-third of the 34 million people living with HIV worldwide is infected with latent TB. Persons co-infected with TB and HIV are 21-34 times more likely to develop active TB disease than persons without HIV. In this paper, we develop a simple co-epidemic model of HIV-TB. We calculate the basic reproduction ratio at the disease-free equilibrium, and the quasi-disease-free equilibrium, which we define as the existence of one disease along with the complete eradication of the other disease, and the co-infection equilibrium for specific conditions. Using this model, we study co-epidemic HIV-TB in Indonesia based on demography data in 2009 to explore the effects of hypothetical prevention and treatment scenarios. Our simple model of co-epidemic HIV-TB describes the importance of including the effects of HIV on TB and vice versa on the transmission and progression of the HIV and TB epidemic.

  9. Is TB in Your Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Joanne; Elwell, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Points out the importance of effective health education to fight against tuberculosis (TB) which is the number one fatal infectious disease around the world. Describes a science curriculum on tuberculosis that includes information on the facts about tuberculosis, a forum on tuberculosis, and evaluation. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  10. Anti-biofilm properties of the antimicrobial peptide temporin 1Tb and its ability, in combination with EDTA, to eradicate Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms on silicone catheters.

    PubMed

    Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Grassi, Lucia; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Bombardelli, Silvia; Medici, Chiara; Brancatisano, Franca Lisa; Esin, Semih; Batoni, Giovanna

    2016-08-01

    In search of new antimicrobials with anti-biofilm potential, in the present study activity of the frog-skin derived antimicrobial peptide temporin 1Tb (TB) against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms was investigated. A striking ability of TB to kill both forming and mature S. epidermidis biofilms was observed, especially when the peptide was combined with cysteine or EDTA, respectively. Kinetics studies demonstrated that the combination TB/EDTA was active against mature biofilms already after 2-4-h exposure. A double 4-h exposure of biofilms to TB/EDTA further increased the therapeutic potential of the same combination. Of note, TB/EDTA was able to eradicate S. epidermidis biofilms formed in vitro on silicone catheters. At eradicating concentrations, TB/EDTA did not cause hemolysis of human erythrocytes. The results shed light on the anti-biofilm properties of TB and suggest a possible application of the peptide in the lock therapy of catheters infected with S. epidermidis.

  11. Comparative activities of milk components in reversing chronic colitis.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, J R; Kanwar, R K; Stathopoulos, S; Haggarty, N W; MacGibbon, A K H; Palmano, K P; Roy, K; Rowan, A; Krissansen, G W

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a poorly understood chronic immune disorder for which there is no medical cure. Milk and colostrum are rich sources of bioactives with immunomodulatory properties. Here we compared the therapeutic effects of oral delivery of bovine milk-derived iron-saturated lactoferrin (Fe-bLF), angiogenin, osteopontin (OPN), colostrum whey protein, Modulen IBD (Nestle Healthsciences, Rhodes, Australia), and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched milk fat in a mouse model of dextran sulfate-induced colitis. The CLA-enriched milk fat significantly increased mouse body weights after 24d of treatment, reduced epithelium damage, and downregulated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and nitrous oxide. Modulen IBD most effectively decreased the clinical score at d 12, and Modulen IBD and OPN most effectively lowered the inflammatory score. Myeloperoxidase activity that denotes neutrophil infiltration was significantly lower in mice fed Modulen IBD, OPN, angiogenin, and Fe-bLF. A significant decrease in the numbers of T cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, and a significant decrease in cytokine expression were observed in mice fed the treatment diets compared with dextran sulfate administered mice. The Fe-bLF, CLA-enriched milk fat, and Modulen IBD inhibited intestinal angiogenesis. In summary, each of the milk components attenuated IBD in mice, but with differing effectiveness against specific disease parameters. PMID:26805965

  12. Comparative antioxidant activities and synergism of resveratrol and oxyresveratrol.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Nan; Likhitwitayawuid, Kittisak; Vieira, Amandio

    2010-11-01

    Resveratrol (1) and oxyresveratrol (2) are phytoalexins with antioxidant activities (AAs) and proposed effects against several pathological processes. The main objective of this study was to provide a novel, comparative assessment of their AAs, and to test for potential synergism in their combined activities, or in combination with another phytochemical antioxidant, curcumin (3). The phytochemicals were tested at 10 µM total concentrations in a heme-based assay that involved, as the final step, quantification of tetramethyl-phenylene-diamine oxidation. Significant AAs were observed for both 1 and 2, 27-33% inhibition of oxidation (p < 0.05 relative to non-phytochemical control). The combination of 1 and 2 in the same assay (5 µM each) suggested a moderate synergistic effect of about 10% (41% inhibition of oxidation by 1/2 under the same conditions as for 1 and 2 separately). Combinations of 1/3 and 2/3 were also synergistic, but 1/3 had a two-fold greater AA (p < 0.05) than 2/3 (or 1/2). Our results indicate that (i) 1 and 2 are effective antioxidants in the assay, (ii) in combination, their AAs can synergise, and (iii) in relation to 2, 1 has a much greater synergistic potential with 3. The latter suggests different synergy mechanisms of the curcuminoid with each of the two stilbene phytoalexins.

  13. The increased risk of active tuberculosis disease in patients with dermatomyositis – a nationwide retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ping-Hsun; Lin, Yi-Ting; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Yu-Chih; Lin, Yi-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The risk of active tuberculosis (TB) in patients with dermatomyositis (DM) is poorly understood. The cohort study aimed to investigate the association between DM and the risk of active TB disease. We conducted a population based study on 4,958 patients with newly diagnosed DM and 19,832 matched controls according to age, sex, and index date between 1998 and 2008. The hazard ratios (HRs) and cumulative incidences of active TB disease between DM patients and controls were analyzed. During the study period, a total of 85 (1.7%) DM patients developed active TB disease, which was significantly higher than that of non-DM patients (0.64%). The incidence rate of active TB disease was higher among DM patients than controls (incidence rate ratio 2.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.24 to 3.88). The Cox regression model demonstrated significantly higher active TB disease rate among DM patients compared with controls (adjusted HR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.97 to 3.54; p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, and underlying medical disorders. The most significant risk factors for developing active TB included male sex, diabetes mellitus comorbidity, and use of corticosteroids and azathioprine in DM patients. In conclusion, DM patients are at a greater risk for active TB disease. PMID:26573418

  14. Bovine TB and the 'singleton protocol': reward without risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ‘Singleton Protocol” was initiated in 1996 by the Irish Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Food to address the shortfall in specificity of the single intradermal comparative cervical test (SICCT) for bTB. Findings from Murray et al., demonstrate that singleton candidates (i.e., from low ris...

  15. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Tuberculosis (TB) in Gastric Cancer Patients in an Area Endemic for TB

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wen-Liang; Hung, Yi-Ping; Liu, Chia-Jen; Lan, Yuan-Tzu; Huang, Kuo-Hung; Chen, Ming-Huang; Lo, Su-Shun; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Wu, Chew-Wun; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chao, Yee

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To date, there have been few reports investigating the relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and gastric cancer. We conducted a nationwide population-based matched cohort study using data retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database to determine the incidence of and risk factors for TB in patients diagnosed with gastric cancer. From 2000 to 2011, we identified 36,972 gastric cancer patients and normal subjects from the general population matched for age, sex, and comorbidities at a 1:1 ratio. The data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. Compared with the matched cohort, gastric cancer patients exhibited a higher risk for TB (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.65–3.05, P < 0.001), and those with TB exhibited higher mortality (adjusted HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.41–1.79, P < 0.001). Old age (adjusted HR 2.40, 95% CI 1.92–2.99, P < 0.001), male sex (adjusted HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.76–2.57, P < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (adjusted HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05–1.56, P = 0.013), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (adjusted HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19–1.75, P < 0.001) were identified as independent risk factors for TB in gastric cancer patients. Dyslipidemia was an independent protective factor for both TB (adjusted HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.73–2.62, P < 0.001) and mortality (adjusted HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.08–1.15, P < 0.001) in gastric cancer patients. Old age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, and COPD were independent risk factors for TB in gastric cancer. High-risk gastric cancer patients, especially those in TB-endemic areas, should be regularly screened for TB. PMID:26632751

  16. Antiretroviral Treatment Scale-Up and Tuberculosis Mortality in High TB/HIV Burden Countries: An Econometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Isabel; Bendavid, Eran; Korenromp, Eline L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality in patients with active tuberculosis (TB), but the population-level relationship between ART coverage and TB mortality is untested. We estimated the reduction in population-level TB mortality that can be attributed to increasing ART coverage across 41 high HIV-TB burden countries. Methods We compiled TB mortality trends between 1996 and 2011 from two sources: (1) national program-reported TB death notifications, adjusted for annual TB case detection rates, and (2) WHO TB mortality estimates. National coverage with ART, as proportion of HIV-infected people in need, was obtained from UNAIDS. We applied panel linear regressions controlling for HIV prevalence (5-year lagged), coverage of TB interventions (estimated by WHO and UNAIDS), gross domestic product per capita, health spending from domestic sources, urbanization, and country fixed effects. Results Models suggest that that increasing ART coverage was followed by reduced TB mortality, across multiple specifications. For death notifications at 2 to 5 years following a given ART scale-up, a 1% increase in ART coverage predicted 0.95% faster mortality rate decline (p = 0.002); resulting in 27% fewer TB deaths in 2011 alone than would have occurred without ART. Based on WHO death estimates, a 1% increase in ART predicted a 1.0% reduced TB death rate (p<0.001), and 31% fewer deaths in 2011. TB mortality was higher at higher HIV prevalence (p<0.001), but not related to coverage of isoniazid preventive therapy, cotrimoxazole preventive therapy, or other covariates. Conclusion This econometric analysis supports a substantial impact of ART on population-level TB mortality realized already within the first decade of ART scale-up, that is apparent despite variable-quality mortality data. PMID:27536864

  17. TB/HIV risk factors identified from a General Household Survey of South Africa in 2006.

    PubMed

    Appunni, Sathiya Susuman; Blignaut, Renette; Lougue, Siaka

    2014-01-01

    The level of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB) as well as the co-infection TB/HIV in South Africa is among the highest in the world. TB is curable while HIV is not, yet the combination of both is a growing feature in the world. This study examined TB and HIV affecting people living in South Africa. Analyses have been undertaken based on data from the General Household Survey of South Africa in 2006. The study focused on respondents aged 15-49 years, corresponding to a total of 55,384 people composed of 25,859 males and 29,525 females. Among this population, 5935 people suffered from illness/injury, including 2469 (41.6%) males and 3466 (58.4%) females. Weighted multivariate logistic regression is performed on TB and/or HIV in association with the province, background characteristics of the target population, and selected socioeconomic and demographic variables included in the survey. In this study we focus on variables of health status and whether subjects suffered from TB and/or HIV. Findings of this investigation show that TB is the second most common cause of illness in the provinces of KwaZulu-Natal (KN) (9.1%), North West (5.4%) and Limpopo (4.2%). People who are married have a 50% lower risk compared to those currently not married to suffer from TB and/or HIV. Those with living spouses have a 5% lower risk to suffer from TB and/or HIV than those whose partners are not alive. This study concluded that rapid action is needed to curb the spread of TB and/or HIV to produce a healthy population. Therefore, follow-up care and special preventative measures are urgently needed in provinces with higher reported rates of TB and/or HIV such as KN.

  18. Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Structural Modification of the Anti-TB Resorcinols from Ardisia gigantifolia.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yi-Fu; Song, Xun; Qiu, Ming-Hua; Luo, Shi-Hong; Wang, Bao-Jie; Van Hung, Nguyen; Cuong, Nguyen M; Soejarto, Djaja Doel; Fong, Harry H S; Franzblau, Scott G; Li, Sheng-Hong; He, Zhen-Dan; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2016-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious disease mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 RV . Antitubercular (anti-TB) bioassay-guided isolation of the CHCl3 extract of the leaves and stems of the medicinal plant Ardisia gigantifolia led to the isolation of two anti-TB 5-alkylresorcinols, 5-(8Z-heptadecenyl) resorcinol (1) and 5-(8Z-pentadecenyl) resorcinol (2). We further synthesized 15 derivatives based on these two natural products. These compounds (natural and synthetic) were evaluated for their anti-TB activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 RV . Resorcinols 1 and 2 exhibited anti-TB activity with MIC values at 34.4 and 79.2 μm in MABA assay, respectively, and 91.7 and 168.3 μm in LORA assay, respectively. Among these derivatives, compound 8 was found to show improved anti-TB activity than its synthetic precursor (2) with MIC values at 42.0 μm in MABA assay and 100.2 μm in LORA assay. The active compounds should be regarded as new hits for further study as a novel class of anti-TB agents. The distinct structure-activity correlations of the parent compound were elucidated based on these derivatives.

  19. [Study on the Hydrothermal Synthesis and Fluorescence of LaF3 : Tb3+, Ce3+ Nanocrystals].

    PubMed

    Xu, Shi-hua; Huang, Zhong-jing; Liu, Guo-cong; Wei, Qing-min

    2016-03-01

    LaF3 : Tba3+, Ce3+ nanocrystals were prepared with hydrothermal method with the help of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The effects of pH values of the solution, Ce3+/Tb+ ratio value and reaction time on the luminescent properties were investigated. XRD analysis shows that the as-prepared samples possess hexagonal phase and their main diffraction peaks of samples are similar to the standard card (JCPDS 32-0483). Compared with pure LaF3, the main diffraction peaks of the doped samples have a slight shift, showing existing isomorphous substitution between La3+ and the doped rare earth ions in parent lattice of LaF3. It is found from TEM results that the as-prepared samples have good crystallinity and their average grain sizes change in the range of 20-50 nm. The excitation spectra indicate that the stronger excitation spectrum peaks exist at 250 nm, which is assigned to the transition of 4f --> 5d from Ce3+. When activated at 250 nm, all LaF3 : Tb3+, Ce3+ nanocrystals possess weak blue emission at 490 nm (electric dipole transition, 5D4 --> 7F6) and good green emission at 543 nm (magnetic dipole transition, 5D4 -->7F5). As the Ce3+/Tb+ ratio increases, the fluorescence intensities increase at first and then weaken, and reach the strongest green emission at n(Ce)3+ /n(Tb)3+ = 4. The pH values have some influence on the colors and intensities of the LaF3 : Tb3+, Ce3+ nanocrystals. The sample prepared at pH 9 presents the best color, while the one at pH 7 exhibits the strongest green emission. Besides, increasing reaction time is helpful to improve color purity of sample and enhance its green emission. PMID:27400520

  20. Dramatic effect of redox pre-treatments on the CO oxidation activity of Au/Ce(0.50)Tb(0.12)Zr(0.38)O(2-x) catalysts prepared by deposition-precipitation with urea: a nano-analytical and nano-structural study.

    PubMed

    del Río, Eloy; López-Haro, Miguel; Cíes, José M; Delgado, Juan J; Calvino, José J; Trasobares, Susana; Blanco, Ginesa; Cauqui, Miguel A; Bernal, Serafín

    2013-08-01

    Nano-structural and nano-analytical studies show that the dramatic difference in CO oxidation activity observed between two Au/Ce0.50Tb0.12Zr0.38O2-x samples prepared by deposition-precipitation with urea and further activated under oxidising or reducing conditions is due to the poisoning effect of a very thin layer of carbon grown on the pre-reduced catalyst.

  1. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms and associated factors in tuberculosis (TB), TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Naidoo, Pamela; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia; McHunu, Gugu; Tutshana, Bomkazi

    2013-01-01

    High rates of tuberculosis (TB) and TB/HIV co-infection is often linked with mental health issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which is further associated with poor health outcomes. In a country such as South Africa where rates of these infectious diseases are high, it is concerning that there is limited/no data on prevalence rates of mental disorders such as PTSD and its associated factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of PTSD symptoms and associated factors in TB, TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa. Brief screening self-report tools were used to measure: PTSD symptoms, psychological distress (anxiety and depression) and alcohol misuse. Other relevant measures, such as adherence to medication, stressful life events and sexual risk-taking behaviours, were obtained through structured questions. A total of 4900 public primary care adult patients from clinics in high TB burden districts from three provinces in South Africa participated. All the patients screened positive for TB (either new or retreatment cases). The prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 29.6%. Patients who screened positive for PTSD symptoms and psychological distress were more likely to be on antidepressant medication. Factors that predicted PTSD symptoms were poverty, residing in an urban area, psychological distress, suicide attempt, alcohol and/or drug use before sex, unprotected sex, TB-HIV co-infected and the number of other chronic conditions. Health-care systems should be strengthened to improve delivery of mental health care, by focusing on existing programmes and activities, such as those which address the prevention and treatment of TB and HIV.

  2. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms and associated factors in tuberculosis (TB), TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Naidoo, Pamela; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia; McHunu, Gugu; Tutshana, Bomkazi

    2013-01-01

    High rates of tuberculosis (TB) and TB/HIV co-infection is often linked with mental health issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which is further associated with poor health outcomes. In a country such as South Africa where rates of these infectious diseases are high, it is concerning that there is limited/no data on prevalence rates of mental disorders such as PTSD and its associated factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of PTSD symptoms and associated factors in TB, TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa. Brief screening self-report tools were used to measure: PTSD symptoms, psychological distress (anxiety and depression) and alcohol misuse. Other relevant measures, such as adherence to medication, stressful life events and sexual risk-taking behaviours, were obtained through structured questions. A total of 4900 public primary care adult patients from clinics in high TB burden districts from three provinces in South Africa participated. All the patients screened positive for TB (either new or retreatment cases). The prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 29.6%. Patients who screened positive for PTSD symptoms and psychological distress were more likely to be on antidepressant medication. Factors that predicted PTSD symptoms were poverty, residing in an urban area, psychological distress, suicide attempt, alcohol and/or drug use before sex, unprotected sex, TB-HIV co-infected and the number of other chronic conditions. Health-care systems should be strengthened to improve delivery of mental health care, by focusing on existing programmes and activities, such as those which address the prevention and treatment of TB and HIV. PMID:23061988

  3. Tunable luminescence properties and energy transfer in LaAl₁₁O₁₈:Eu,Tb phosphor.

    PubMed

    Mendhe, M S; Puppalwar, S P; Dhoble, S J

    2016-05-01

    Eu(2+) and Tb(3+) singly doped and co-doped LaAl11O18 phosphors were prepared by a combustion method using urea as a fuel. The phase structure and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the prepared phosphors were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra. When the content of Eu(2+) was fixed at 0.01, the emission chromaticity coordinates could be adjusted from blue to green region by tuning the contents of Tb(3+) ions from 0.01 to 0.03 through an energy transfer (ET) process. The fluorescence data collected from the samples with different contents of Tb(3+) into LaAl11O18: Eu, show the enhanced green emission at 545 nm associated with (5)D(4)-(7)F(5) transitions of Tb(3+). The enhancement was attributed to ET from Eu(2+) to Tb(3+), and therefore Eu(2+) ion acts as a sensitizer (an energy donor) while Tb(3+) ion as an activator. The ET from Eu(2+) to Tb(3+) is performed through dipole-dipole interaction. The ET efficiency and critical distance were also calculated. The present Eu(2+)-Tb(3+) co-doped LaAl11O18 phosphor will have potential application for UV convertible white light-emitting diodes. PMID:26592806

  4. TB vaccine development and the End TB Strategy: importance and current status

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Helen A.; Schrager, Lewis

    2016-01-01

    TB is now the leading, global cause of death due to a single infectious microbe. To achieve the End TB vision of reducing TB by 90% by 2035 we will need new interventions. The objectives of this manuscript are to summarize the status of the clinical TB vaccine pipeline; to assess the challenges facing the TB development field; and to discuss some of the key strategies being embraced by the field to overcome these challenges. Currently, 8 of the 13 vaccines in clinical development are subunit vaccines; 6 of these contain or express either Ag85A or Ag85B proteins. A major challenge to TB vaccine development is the lack of diversity in both the antigens included in TB vaccines, and the immune responses elicited by TB vaccine candidates. Both will need to be expanded to maximise the potential for developing a successful candidate by 2025. Current research efforts are focused on broadening both antigen selection and the range of vaccine-mediated immune responses. Previous and ongoing TB vaccine efficacy trials have built capacity, generated high quality data on TB incidence and prevalence, and provided insight into immune correlates of risk of TB disease. These gains will enable the design of better TB vaccines and, importantly, move these vaccines into efficacy trials more rapidly and at a lower cost than was possible for previous TB vaccine candidates. PMID:27076508

  5. Anesthetic Activity of Alfaxalone Compared with Ketamine in Mice.

    PubMed

    Siriarchavatana, Parkpoom; Ayers, Jessica D; Kendall, Lon V

    2016-01-01

    Alfaxalone encased in hydroxypropyl-β -cyclodextrin is a neuroactive steroid compound that has recently been approved in the United States for use as an anesthetic in dogs and cats. We evaluated the use of alfaxalone compared with ketamine, both alone and in combination with xylazine, for anesthesia of C57BL/6 mice. We assessed time to onset of anesthesia, duration of action, reflex responses, respiratory rate, and clinical signs. Alfaxalone (80 mg/kg IP) induced a light surgical plane of anesthesia in all mice, with a time to onset of 2.2 ± 0.2 min and duration of 57.1 ± 3.8 min, whereas ketamine (80 mg/kg IP) provided only sedative effects (time to onset, 5.4 ± 0.4 min; duration, 6.9 ± 0.8 min). Clinically, alfaxalone caused a spectrum of activities, including popcorn-like jumping movements after injection, intense scratching of the face, hyperresponsiveness to noise or touch, and marked limb jerking during recovery. Adding xylazine to the single-agent protocols achieved deep surgical anesthesia (duration: alfaxalone + xylazine, 80.3 ± 17.8 min; ketamine + xylazine, 37.4 ± 8.2 min) and ameliorated the adverse clinical signs. Our preliminary analysis suggests that, because of its side effects, alfaxalone alone is not a viable anesthetic option for mice. Although alfaxalone combined with xylazine appeared to be a more viable option, some mice still experienced mild adverse reactions, and the long duration of action might be problematic regarding the maintenance of body temperature and monitoring of recovery. Further studies evaluating different routes of administration and drug combinations are warranted. PMID:27423149

  6. Employee physical activity: how does it compare to the nation?

    PubMed

    Aldana, S G; Stone, W J

    1992-04-01

    1. Working adults exercise as much as the rest of society. 2. The amount of physical activity declines with age until 55, at which point increases were observed. 3. Marriage appears to have the largest effect on reducing the amount of physical activity a person gets. 4. Males are 1 1/2 times more likely than females to be vigorously active.

  7. Host Protein Biomarkers Identify Active Tuberculosis in HIV Uninfected and Co-infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Achkar, Jacqueline M.; Cortes, Laetitia; Croteau, Pascal; Yanofsky, Corey; Mentinova, Marija; Rajotte, Isabelle; Schirm, Michael; Zhou, Yiyong; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula; Kasprowicz, Victoria O.; Larsen, Michelle; Allard, René; Hunter, Joanna; Paramithiotis, Eustache

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers for active tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed to improve rapid TB diagnosis. The objective of this study was to identify serum protein expression changes associated with TB but not latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI), uninfected states, or respiratory diseases other than TB (ORD). Serum samples from 209 HIV uninfected (HIV−) and co-infected (HIV+) individuals were studied. In the discovery phase samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, and in the verification phase biologically independent samples were analyzed via a multiplex multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assay. Compared to LTBI and ORD, host proteins were significantly differentially expressed in TB, and involved in the immune response, tissue repair, and lipid metabolism. Biomarker panels whose composition differed according to HIV status, and consisted of 8 host proteins in HIV− individuals (CD14, SEPP1, SELL, TNXB, LUM, PEPD, QSOX1, COMP, APOC1), or 10 host proteins in HIV+ individuals (CD14, SEPP1, PGLYRP2, PFN1, VASN, CPN2, TAGLN2, IGFBP6), respectively, distinguished TB from ORD with excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.96 for HIV− TB, 0.95 for HIV+ TB). These results warrant validation in larger studies but provide promise that host protein biomarkers could be the basis for a rapid, blood-based test for TB. PMID:26501113

  8. Host Protein Biomarkers Identify Active Tuberculosis in HIV Uninfected and Co-infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Achkar, Jacqueline M; Cortes, Laetitia; Croteau, Pascal; Yanofsky, Corey; Mentinova, Marija; Rajotte, Isabelle; Schirm, Michael; Zhou, Yiyong; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula; Kasprowicz, Victoria O; Larsen, Michelle; Allard, René; Hunter, Joanna; Paramithiotis, Eustache

    2015-09-01

    Biomarkers for active tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed to improve rapid TB diagnosis. The objective of this study was to identify serum protein expression changes associated with TB but not latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI), uninfected states, or respiratory diseases other than TB (ORD). Serum samples from 209 HIV uninfected (HIV(-)) and co-infected (HIV(+)) individuals were studied. In the discovery phase samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, and in the verification phase biologically independent samples were analyzed via a multiplex multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assay. Compared to LTBI and ORD, host proteins were significantly differentially expressed in TB, and involved in the immune response, tissue repair, and lipid metabolism. Biomarker panels whose composition differed according to HIV status, and consisted of 8 host proteins in HIV(-) individuals (CD14, SEPP1, SELL, TNXB, LUM, PEPD, QSOX1, COMP, APOC1), or 10 host proteins in HIV(+) individuals (CD14, SEPP1, PGLYRP2, PFN1, VASN, CPN2, TAGLN2, IGFBP6), respectively, distinguished TB from ORD with excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.96 for HIV(-) TB, 0.95 for HIV(+) TB). These results warrant validation in larger studies but provide promise that host protein biomarkers could be the basis for a rapid, blood-based test for TB. PMID:26501113

  9. A single-phase full-color phosphor based on Ba3MgSi2O8 co-activated with Eu2+, Tb3+, and Mn2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkel, Alexander; DeCino, Nicholas A.; Cozzan, Clayton; Mikhailovsky, Alexander A.; Hong, Byung-Chul; Seshadri, Ram

    2015-10-01

    We present a rapid and energy-efficient microwave-assisted approach to prepare a single-phase full-color phosphor based on Ba3MgSi2O8. The samples were prepared using a citric acid based sol-gel preparation pathway with a microwave-assisted heating step, which reduces the time required for the final heat treatment to less than 30 min. Thermogravimetric analysis was utilized to optimize the solution-based preparation prior to microwave heating. The structural properties of the obtained luminescent materials have been thoroughly investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld analyses. To study the optical behavior, the excitation and emission spectra were recorded. Full-color emission is achieved using Eu2+ (blue), Tb3+ (green), and Mn2+ (red) as the activator ions. The thermally robust emission was investigated using temperature-dependent luminescence spectroscopy. The energy-transfer processes within the samples were studied using time-dependent spectroscopy, and the quantum yield of this true color phosphor as a function of the composition was determined.

  10. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Tuberculosis (TB) in Gastric Cancer Patients in an Area Endemic for TB: A Nationwide Population-based Matched Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen-Liang; Hung, Yi-Ping; Liu, Chia-Jen; Lan, Yuan-Tzu; Huang, Kuo-Hung; Chen, Ming-Huang; Lo, Su-Shun; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Wu, Chew-Wun; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chao, Yee

    2015-11-01

    To date, there have been few reports investigating the relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and gastric cancer.We conducted a nationwide population-based matched cohort study using data retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database to determine the incidence of and risk factors for TB in patients diagnosed with gastric cancer. From 2000 to 2011, we identified 36,972 gastric cancer patients and normal subjects from the general population matched for age, sex, and comorbidities at a 1:1 ratio. The data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models.Compared with the matched cohort, gastric cancer patients exhibited a higher risk for TB (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.65-3.05, P < 0.001), and those with TB exhibited higher mortality (adjusted HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.41-1.79, P < 0.001). Old age (adjusted HR 2.40, 95% CI 1.92-2.99, P < 0.001), male sex (adjusted HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.76-2.57, P < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (adjusted HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.56, P = 0.013), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (adjusted HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19-1.75, P < 0.001) were identified as independent risk factors for TB in gastric cancer patients. Dyslipidemia was an independent protective factor for both TB (adjusted HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.73-2.62, P < 0.001) and mortality (adjusted HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.08-1.15, P < 0.001) in gastric cancer patients.Old age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, and COPD were independent risk factors for TB in gastric cancer. High-risk gastric cancer patients, especially those in TB-endemic areas, should be regularly screened for TB.

  11. Paclitaxel conjugated Fe3O4@LaF3:Ce3+,Tb3+ nanoparticles as bifunctional targeting carriers for Cancer theranostics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangaiyarkarasi, Rajendiran; Chinnathambi, Shanmugavel; Karthikeyan, Subramani; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2016-02-01

    The bi-functional Chitosan functionalized magnetite doped luminescent rare earth nanoparticles (Fe3O4@LaF3: Ce3+,Tb3+/chi NPs) as a carrier of paclitaxel (PTX) drug was designed using a co-precipitation and facile direct precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles are spherical in shape with a typical diameter of 19-37 nm respectively. They are water soluble, super paramagnetic and biocompatible, in which the amino groups on the nanoparticles surface are used for the conjugation with an anticancer drug, paclitaxel. The nature of PTX binding with Fe3O4@LaF3: Ce3+,Tb3+/chi nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer and scanning electron micrograph. The nature of interactions between PTX and Fe3O4@LaF3: Ce3+,Tb3+/chi NPs due to complex formation were conceded out by various spectroscopic methods viz., UV-visible, steady state and excited state fluorescence spectroscopy. The photo-physical characterization reveals that the adsorption and release of PTX from Fe3O4@LaF3:Tb3+/chi nanoparticles is quicker when compared with other nanoparticles and also confirms that this may be due to the hydrogen bond formation between the hydroxyl group of drug and amino group of nanoparticles respectively. The maximum loading capacity and entrapment efficiency of 83.69% and 80.51% were attained at a ratio of 5:8 of PTX and Fe3O4@LaF3: Ce3+,Tb3+/chi NPs respectively. In addition with that, antitumoral activity study of PTX conjugated Fe3O4@LaF3:Tb3+/chi nanoparticles exhibits increased cytotoxic effects on A549 lung cancer cell lines than that of unconjugated PTX.

  12. TB an epidemic in Russia's prisons.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Over 100,000 prisoners are infected with tuberculosis (TB) in Russia, which has the highest incarceration rate in the world. Drug-resistant TB is found in thousands of inmates, and approximately 20,000 have died from it within the past 2 years. Although the country now has 50 centers for TB-infected prisoners, many are not being cured because of medicine shortages and failure to complete treatment. Up to 25 percent of TB infections found in Russian jails are multi-drug resistant, as opposed to 4 percent in Russia's general population and under 2 percent in the United States. PMID:11367347

  13. Why healthcare workers are sick of TB.

    PubMed

    von Delft, Arne; Dramowski, Angela; Khosa, Celso; Kotze, Koot; Lederer, Philip; Mosidi, Thato; Peters, Jurgens A; Smith, Jonathan; van der Westhuizen, Helene-Mari; von Delft, Dalene; Willems, Bart; Bates, Matthew; Craig, Gill; Maeurer, Markus; Marais, Ben J; Mwaba, Peter; Nunes, Elizabete A; Nyirenda, Thomas; Oliver, Matt; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2015-03-01

    Dr Thato Mosidi never expected to be diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB), despite widely prevalent exposure and very limited infection control measures. The life-threatening diagnosis of primary extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) came as an even greater shock. The inconvenient truth is that, rather than being protected, Dr Mosidi and thousands of her healthcare colleagues are at an increased risk of TB and especially drug-resistant TB. In this viewpoint paper we debunk the widely held false belief that healthcare workers are somehow immune to TB disease (TB-proof) and explore some of the key factors contributing to the pervasive stigmatization and subsequent non-disclosure of occupational TB. Our front-line workers are some of the first to suffer the consequences of a progressively more resistant and fatal TB epidemic, and urgent interventions are needed to ensure the safety and continued availability of these precious healthcare resources. These include the rapid development and scale-up of improved diagnostic and treatment options, strengthened infection control measures, and focused interventions to tackle stigma and discrimination in all its forms. We call our colleagues to action to protect themselves and those they care for.

  14. Association of two novel proteins, TbMP52 and TbMP48, with the Trypanosoma brucei RNA editing complex.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, A K; Gygi, S P; Ernst, N L; Igo, R P; Palazzo, S S; Schnaufer, A; Weston, D S; Carmean, N; Salavati, R; Aebersold, R; Stuart, K D

    2001-01-01

    RNA editing in kinetoplastid mitochondria inserts and deletes uridylates at multiple sites in pre-mRNAs as directed by guide RNAs. This occurs by a series of steps that are catalyzed by endoribonuclease, 3'-terminal uridylyl transferase, 3'-exouridylylase, and RNA ligase activities. A multiprotein complex that contains these activities and catalyzes deletion editing in vitro was enriched from Trypanosoma brucei mitochondria by sequential ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography, followed by glycerol gradient sedimentation. The complex size is approximately 1,600 kDa, and the purified fraction contains 20 major polypeptides. A monoclonal antibody that was generated against the enriched complex reacts with an approximately 49-kDa protein and specifically immunoprecipitates in vitro deletion RNA editing activity. The protein recognized by the antibody was identified by mass spectrometry, and the corresponding gene, designated TbMP52, was cloned. Recombinant TbMP52 reacts with the monoclonal antibody. Another novel protein, TbMP48, which is similar to TbMP52, and its gene were also identified in the enriched complex. These results suggest that TbMP52 and TbMP48 are components of the RNA editing complex.

  15. Adverse Drug Reaction Profile in Patients on Anti-tubercular Treatment Alone and in Combination with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sadiq, Shamiya; Khajuria, Vijay; Mahajan, Annil; Singh, Jang B.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Adverse drug reactions are very common among patients on anti-tubercular treatment alone or in combination with highly active antiretroviral therapy but comparatively studied very less. Hence, the current study was done to evalaute the adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile in patients receiving anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) and ATT with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Materials and Methods A one year prospective, cross-sectional observational study was undertaken using suspected adverse drug data collection form available under Pharmacovigilance Programme of India. Results Seventy four patients receiving ATT & 32 patients on both ATT & HAART presented with 74 and 45 adverse drug events (ADE) respectively. Males were more affected than females in both the groups. DOTS category- 1 regimen was mostly responsible for ADE in both the groups. Epigastric pain was the most common ADE in TB patients, while anaemia was the most common presentation in TB with HIV group. On comparison, ADE rate of TB with HIV co-morbid patients was more (55.8%) than TB patients (0.36%) (p < 0.001). Urban population presented more with ADR in TB/HIV group unlike rural population in TB group (p<0.0001). Whereas, illiterate were more involved in TB group unlike literate in TB/HIV group (p<0.05). Type A reactions were more common in TB group (p < 0.001). Addition of drugs for the management of ADR events was more in TB/HIV group (p < 0.001) as compared to TB group. Rest all the parameters were comparable. Conclusion The study underscores that concomitant HAART and ATT, result in more ADRs in comparison to ATT alone demanding collaboration & integration of National AIDS Control programme and PvPI to enhance drug safety in this field. PMID:26557538

  16. Decreased physical activity in Pima Indian compared with Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Fontvieille, A M; Kriska, A; Ravussin, E

    1993-08-01

    Since reduced physical activity might be a risk factor for body weight gain, we studied the relationship between physical activity and body composition in 43 Pima Indian children (22 male/21 female, mean +/- s.d.: 9.9 +/- 1.1 years) and 42 Caucasian children (21 male/21 female, 9.7 +/- 1.2 years). A list of usual sport leisure activities was established (e.g. bicycling, swimming, basketball) and the subjects were asked how much time they had devoted to each activity over the past week and the last year. Data on time spent playing outside (excluding sport leisure activities for the estimation of physical activity) and watching television/videos were also collected. Pima Indians were taller (143 +/- 9 vs. 137 +/- 8 cm, P < 0.001), heavier (48.6 +/- 15.8 vs. 32.9 +/- 7.8 kg, P < 0.0001) and fatter (39 +/- 16 vs. 24 +/- 7% fat, P < 0.001) than Caucasians. Pima Indian girls showed significantly lower past year and past week sport leisure activity than Caucasian girls (P < 0.01) and spent significantly more time watching television/videos (P < 0.05). Pima boys also showed significantly lower past week sport leisure activity than Caucasian boys (P < 0.05). In Pima Indian boys, past year sport leisure activity correlated negatively (P < 0.05) with body mass index (r = -0.49) and percentage body fat (r = -0.56). However, such correlations were not found in Pima Indian girls, possibly due their very low levels of activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. The 10-year Trend of TB Rate in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran from 2001 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    RAHIMI FOROUSHANI, Abbas; FARZIANPOUR, Fereshteh; TAVANA, Afshin; RASOULI, Javad; HOSSEINI, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The present study aimed to explore some risk factors affected the mean of the number of tuberculosis (TB) in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran between 2001 and 2010. Methods Our time series study analyzed the data of 2,560 TB patients as registered with TB Patients Care System in West Azerbaijan Province from early 2001 to 2010. A checklist was prepared for collecting the data and they were then analyzed in SPSS V.16 software. Results The percentage of male and percentage of female were close to each other (52.2% against 47.8%, respectively). A significant increasing trend of TB rate was found over the years of 2001and 2010 with a pick at 2008 (P<0.001). A Poisson log-linear analysis showed that the most important risk factor of the trend of rate was the level of education so that people with primary level or with illiterate level had a statistically significant TB rate of 5.21 (4.66-5.81), adjusted for years. The next risk factor was type of TB and place of residency, i.e., pulmonary TB cases had higher rate than External pulmonary TB cases (RR=1.67; (1.54-1.80). The last factor with the lowest risk was BCG with RR=1.29 (1.20-1.40) for people who received BCG compared to the people who had not received it. Conclusion Although the co morbidity of AIDS and TB was not a major problem, it is necessary that special attention be paid to the way of implementing the TB control program based on the demographic risk factors of the study population. PMID:26110148

  18. SMOS ocean salinity performance and TB bias correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meirold-Mautner, I.; Mugerin, C.; Vergely, J.-L.; Spurgeon, P.; Rouffi, F.; Meskini, N.

    2009-04-01

    In the framework of the SMOS ocean salinity mission, a validation study has been carried out to determine the performance at Level 1 (brightness temperatures, TB) and Level 2 (sea surface salinity, SSS) products that can be expected. For this purpose a processing chain has been developed which includes the instrument simulator SEPS-GS to generate Level 0 products as well as the Level 1 and 2 prototype processors: based on geophysical input data, Level 0, 1 and 2 products are simulated and compared to the so-called perfect instrument, i.e. TB's directly obtained from forward models without passing through the Level 1 processor and thus avoiding image reconstruction. Comparisons that have been carried out at Level 1 and Level 2 products reveal systematic TB biases which in turn cause a significant bias in retrieved SSS. Depending on the position in the SMOS field of view we obtain TB biases up to 4K which translate into SSS biases near the centre of the track of up to 3 psu. Such values are too high in order to attain the required 0.1 psu (at Level 3) precision. Consequently, a characterisation of this bias as well as correction methods have been investigated. Our results show that the bias is stationary for constant scenes but varies as soon as inhomogeneous (realistic) scenes are observed. Possible techniques to reduce this bias are presented along with their consequences on the SSS retrieval.

  19. TB in Correctional Facilities Is a Public Health Concern

    MedlinePlus

    ... component to TB elimination in the United States. Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria that ... is essential to these efforts. More Information Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2012 TB in Correctional ...

  20. Comparative Analysis of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases Regulating Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gyun Jee; Kim, Jaehong; Kim, Jong-Heon; Song, Seungeun; Park, Hana; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulatory factors in inflammatory signaling pathways. Although PTPs have been extensively studied, little is known about their role in neuroinflammation. In the present study, we examined the expression of 6 different PTPs (PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, MEG2, LYP, and RPTPβ) and their role in glial activation and neuroinflammation. All PTPs were expressed in brain and glia. The expression of PTP1B, SHP2, and LYP was enhanced in the inflamed brain. The expression of PTP1B, TC-PTP, and LYP was increased after treating microglia cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To examine the role of PTPs in microglial activation and neuroinflammation, we used specific pharmacological inhibitors of PTPs. Inhibition of PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, LYP, and RPTPβ suppressed nitric oxide production in LPS-treated microglial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, and RPTPβ inhibitors downregulated microglial activation in an LPS-induced neuroinflammation model. Our results indicate that multiple PTPs are involved in regulating microglial activation and neuroinflammation, with different expression patterns and specific functions. Thus, PTP inhibitors can be exploited for therapeutic modulation of microglial activation in neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:27790059

  1. Quantum efficiency of double activated Tb{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, Mihail Young Noh, Do; Sohn, Jongrak; Yoon, Chulsoo

    2007-09-15

    The quantum efficiency and luminescence properties of double activated terbium aluminum garnet samples were investigated in the present study. A mathematical procedure and PL measurement system are developed for express analysis of quantum efficiency of luminescent materials. The energy-level diagram was proposed to explain the luminescence mechanism. Application of TAG:Ce,Eu with improved CIE and CRI in LED device is demonstrated. - Graphical abstract: Emission spectra of the blue LED including TAG:Ce, Eu.

  2. Comparative study between two different active flutter suppression systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1978-01-01

    An activated leading-edge (LE)-tailing-edge (TE) control system is applied to a drone aircraft with the objective of enabling the drone to fly subsonically at dynamic pressures which are 44% above the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure. The control synthesis approach is based on the aerodynamic energy concept and it incorporates recent developments in this area. A comparison is made between the performance of the activated LE-TE control system and the performance of a TE control system, analyzed in a previous work. The results obtained indicate that although all the control systems achieve the flutter suppression objectives, the TE control system appears to be somewhat superior to the LE-TE control system, in this specific application. This superiority is manifested through reduced values of control surface activity over a wide range of flight conditions.

  3. Comparative study of antral gastrin activity in some mammals.

    PubMed

    Amure, B O; Omole, A

    1971-04-01

    1. The amounts of crude gastrin extract and the gastrin activities of extracts from antral mucosa of several mammalian species have been determined.2. The yield of crude gastrin powder per gramme wet weight of antral mucosa was greater in goats and rabbits than in cat, dog, man or pig.3. Statistical differences do not appear to exist between the potencies of gastrin from the various species. The potencies of the powders were within the ranges 1.2-1.8 mug porcine gastrin II/mg with the exception of the extract from frozen dog antra (0.8 mug/mg).4. During prolonged freezing of animal antra and consequent thawing before extraction, significant losses in gastrin activity occurred in the dog.5. The amounts of gastrin activity per gramme wet weight of antral mucosa from herbivores (goat, rabbit and cattle) were greater than those from non-herbivores (cat, dog, man and pig).

  4. A cloud model-radiative model combination for determining microwave TB-rain rate relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szejwach, Gerard; Adler, Robert F.; Jobard, Esabelle; Mack, Robert A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a cloud model-radiative transfer model combination for computing average brightness temperature, T(B), is discussed. The cloud model and radiative transfer model used in this study are described. The relations between rain rate, cloud and rain water, cloud and precipitation ice, and upwelling radiance are investigated. The effects of the rain rate relations on T(B) under different climatological conditions are examined. The model-derived T(B) results are compared to the 92 and 183 GHz aircraft observations of Hakkarinen and Adler (1984, 1986) and the radar-estimated rain rate of Hakkarinen and Adler (1986); good correlation between the data is detected.

  5. Estimating the cost of TB and its social impact on TB patients and their households

    PubMed Central

    Onazi, O.; Gidado, M.; Onazi, M.; Daniel, O.; Kuye, J.; Obasanya, O.; Odusote, T.; Gande, S.

    2015-01-01

    Illness often poses a significant financial burden on individuals and their households, and tuberculosis (TB) is no exception. Although TB treatment is free in Nigeria, patients are likely to incur costs due to multiple visits during treatment. The purpose of this study was 1) to examine the health-seeking behaviour of TB patients and the costs borne by TB patients in Nigeria, and 2) to assess the social impact of TB disease on TB patients and their families/households. Of 260 TB patients surveyed, the majority (74.7%) were aged between 20 and 49 years. TB patients expended an average of US$52.02 (N = 8323.58, at the rate of US$1 = N = 160) per person on all visits associated with diagnosis and receipt of diagnostic test results. Overall, households experienced a shortfall of about US$57.30 (N = 9174.72) or 24.9% of income loss due to TB illness. Further analysis revealed that 9.7% of TB patients relied on children of school age or below to finance the costs of TB illness. PMID:26400384

  6. Estimating the cost of TB and its social impact on TB patients and their households.

    PubMed

    Onazi, O; Gidado, M; Onazi, M; Daniel, O; Kuye, J; Obasanya, O; Odusote, T; Gande, S

    2015-06-21

    Illness often poses a significant financial burden on individuals and their households, and tuberculosis (TB) is no exception. Although TB treatment is free in Nigeria, patients are likely to incur costs due to multiple visits during treatment. The purpose of this study was 1) to examine the health-seeking behaviour of TB patients and the costs borne by TB patients in Nigeria, and 2) to assess the social impact of TB disease on TB patients and their families/households. Of 260 TB patients surveyed, the majority (74.7%) were aged between 20 and 49 years. TB patients expended an average of US$52.02 (N = 8323.58, at the rate of US$1 = N = 160) per person on all visits associated with diagnosis and receipt of diagnostic test results. Overall, households experienced a shortfall of about US$57.30 (N = 9174.72) or 24.9% of income loss due to TB illness. Further analysis revealed that 9.7% of TB patients relied on children of school age or below to finance the costs of TB illness.

  7. Estimating the cost of TB and its social impact on TB patients and their households.

    PubMed

    Onazi, O; Gidado, M; Onazi, M; Daniel, O; Kuye, J; Obasanya, O; Odusote, T; Gande, S

    2015-06-21

    Illness often poses a significant financial burden on individuals and their households, and tuberculosis (TB) is no exception. Although TB treatment is free in Nigeria, patients are likely to incur costs due to multiple visits during treatment. The purpose of this study was 1) to examine the health-seeking behaviour of TB patients and the costs borne by TB patients in Nigeria, and 2) to assess the social impact of TB disease on TB patients and their families/households. Of 260 TB patients surveyed, the majority (74.7%) were aged between 20 and 49 years. TB patients expended an average of US$52.02 (N = 8323.58, at the rate of US$1 = N = 160) per person on all visits associated with diagnosis and receipt of diagnostic test results. Overall, households experienced a shortfall of about US$57.30 (N = 9174.72) or 24.9% of income loss due to TB illness. Further analysis revealed that 9.7% of TB patients relied on children of school age or below to finance the costs of TB illness. PMID:26400384

  8. A Comparative Study of Active Play on Differently Designed Playgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luchs, Antje; Fikus, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The physical and social environment of children in cities is continuously changing. Knowledge about the positive effects of natural play experiences within the child's development is becoming widely known. Affordances of diverse landscape elements and especially loose parts for play in natural environments influence play activities. New…

  9. Magnetoresistance in nanostructured Tb/Ti and Tb/Si multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Svalov, A. V.; Kurlyandskaya, G. V.; Vas'kovskiy, V. O.; Sorokin, A. N.; Diercks, D.

    2011-01-15

    Magnetic, magnetoresistive and structural properties were studied for [Tb/Ti]{sub n} and [Tb/Si]{sub n} multilayers which were prepared by rf-sputtering. The thickness of the Tb layers varied from 1.5 to 12 nm. The thickness of 2 nm nonmagnetic spacers of Ti or Si was kept constant. Both anisotropic and isotropic magnetoresistance was observed in [Tb/Ti]{sub n} and [Tb/Si]{sub n} multilayers. A decrease in the thickness of the terbium layers led to a decrease in the anisotropic contribution to the total magnetoresistance. The negative isotropic magnetoresistanse in [Tb/Ti]{sub n} and [Tb/Si]{sub n} multilayers can be attributed to the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and/or high field isotropic magnetoresistance. The structure of the samples of both types enabled the existence of the GMR effect.

  10. Comparison of QuantiFERON-TB gold in tube test versus tuberculin skin test for screening of latent tuberculosis infection in Saudi Arabia: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Balkhy, Hanan H.; El Beltagy, Kamel; El-Saed, Aiman; Aljasir, Badr; Althaqafi, Abdulhakeem; Alothman, Adel F.; Alshalaan, Mohammad; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare QuantiFERON-TB gold in tube (QFT-GIT) test with tuberculin skin test (TST) in detecting latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among a general population in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2010 and March 2013 among individuals randomly selected from the list of those receiving care at primary healthcare centers in three provinces of Saudi Arabia; Central, Western, and Eastern provinces. Those younger than 5 years, immunocompromised, had a current or previous history of active TB, LTBI, or who were receiving anti-TB medications were excluded. Informed consent was obtained before the study questionnaire was completed. Participants were then evaluated for LTBI using QFT-GIT test followed immediately by TST. RESULTS: Of the 1369 subjects included in the final analysis, QFT-GIT was positive in 124 (9.1%) and TST was positive in 127 (9.3%). Positive concordance was observed in 49 (3.6%) subjects while negative concordance was observed in 1167 (85.2%) subjects. The overall agreement between the two tests was 88.8% with a significant kappa (κ) test (κ = 0.332, P < 0.001). Concordance was significantly higher in younger age, female gender, single status, students, primary education, living in middle-sized families, and never smoked. CONCLUSIONS: The overall agreement of TST and QFT-GIT for the detection of LTBI among a Saudi general population was 88.8%. QFT-GIT is probably comparable to TST for detecting LTBI in an intermediate TB burden country with high at birth bacille calmette guerin vaccination coverage. Further prospective studies are needed to compare the ability of both tests to predict TB disease. PMID:27512509

  11. Verbal autopsy-assigned causes of death among adults being investigated for TB in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Maraba, Noriah; Karat, Aaron S; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Churchyard, Gavin J; Charalambous, Salome; Kahn, Kathleen; Grant, Alison D; Chihota, Violet

    2016-01-01

    Background Adults being investigated for TB in South Africa experience high mortality, yet causes of death (CoD) are not well defined. We determined CoD in this population using verbal autopsy (VA), and compared HIV- and TB-associated CoD using physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA) and InterVA-4 software. Methods All contactable consenting caregivers of participants who died during a trial comparing Xpert MTB/RIF to smear microscopy were interviewed using the WHO VA tool. CoD were assigned using PCVA and InterVA-4. Kappa statistic (K) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) were calculated for comparison. Results Among 231 deaths, relatives of 137 deceased were interviewed. Of the 137 deceased 76 (55.4%) were males, median age 41 years (IQR 33–50). PCVA assigned 70 (51.1%) TB immediate CoD (44 [62.8%] pulmonary TB; 26 [37.1%] extra-pulmonary TB); 21 (15.3%) HIV/AIDS-related; and 46 (33.5%) other CoD. InterVA-4 assigned 48 (35.0%) TB deaths; 49 (35.7%) HIV/AIDS-related deaths; and 40 (29.1%) other CoD. Agreement between PCVA and InterVA-4 CoD was slight at individual level (K=0.20; 95% CI 0.10–0.30) and poor at population level (CCC 0.67; 95% CI 0.38–0.99). Conclusions TB and HIV are leading CoD among adults being investigated for TB. PCVA and InterVA agreement at individual level was slight and poor at population level. VA methodology needs further development where TB and HIV are common. PMID:27794093

  12. Predictors and Timing of ATT Initiation among HIV-TB Patients at ART Centers of Karnataka, India: Two Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Shastri, Suresh; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Rewari, Bharat Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Background In India, TB and HIV co-infection remains as a serious public health problem. From 2006 onwards, the intensified TB-HIV collaborative activities are being jointly implemented by National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) and Revised National TB Control programme (RNTCP) at high HIV burden states. Objectives To determine (a) the predictors of outcome among a cohort of HIV-TB co-infected patients after two years after initiation of ART treatment. (b) prognostic significance of time difference between the initiation of ATT and ART in HIV-TB co-infected patients. Methods Patients registered at sixteen ART centres in Karnataka, from October through December 2009 formed the study cohort and were followed till December 2011. Results A total of 604 HIV-TB patients were registered. Follow-up (a) at the end of one year had shown 63.6% (377)patients with unfavorable TB treatment outcomes (b) at the end of second year, 55.6% (336)patients were alive on ART treatment. The variables male, smear negative TB, CD4 count less than 50cells per cumm and unfavorable TB outcome were significantly associated with unfavorable ART treatment outcome. Conclusions The programmes need to review the existing strategies and strengthen HIV-TB collaborative activities for timely treatment initiation with intensive monitoring of HIV-TB patients on treatment. PMID:26394397

  13. Design and comparative anticonvulsant activity assessment of CNS-active alkyl-carbamoyl imidazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mawasi, Hafiz; Bibi, David; Bialer, Meir

    2016-09-15

    A novel series of carbamoyl derivatives of alkylimidazole has been designed and their anticonvulsant activity was comparatively evaluated in the mice- and rats-maximal-electroshock (MES), subcutaneous-metrazol (scMet) seizure tests and the mice-6Hz psychomotor (6Hz) models. The ten new designed molecules contain in their chemical structure imidazole, alkyl side-chain and carbamate as three potential active moieties. In spite of the close structural features of the carbamoyl imidazole derivatives only compounds 7, 8, 13 and 16 were active at the MES test with ED50 values ranging from 12 to 20mg/kg coupled with high protective index (PI=TD50/ED50) values of 4.1-7.3 after ip administration to rats. A similar phenomenon was observed in mice where compounds 7, 8, 9, 12 had MES-ED50 values of 14-26mg/kg. Compounds 7 and 13 also demonstrated anticonvulsant activity in the 6Hz model with ED50 values of 32 and 44mg/kg, respectively. As the most active entities, compounds 7, 8 followed by 13 and 16, thus offer an optimal efficacy-safety profile and consequently, might be promising candidates for development as new antiepileptics. PMID:27469980

  14. Piezoelectric ceramic fibers for active fiber composites: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornmann, Xavier; Huber, Christian; Elsener, Hans-Rudolf

    2003-08-01

    The morphology and the free strain performances of three different piezoelectric ceramic fibers used for the manufacture of active fiber composites (AFCs) have been investigated. The morphology of the fibers has a direct influence on the manufacture of the AFCs. Fibers with non-uniform diameters are more difficult to contact with the interdigitated electrodes and can be the cause of irreparable damages in AFCs. An indirect method requiring the use of a simple analytical model is proposed to evaluate the free strain of active fiber composites. This indirect method presents a relatively good agreement with direct free strain measurements performed with strain gages glued on both sides of an AFC. The results show a systematic difference of ca. 20 % between the indirect and the direct methods. However, the indirect method did not permit to see differences of piezoelectric performance between the types of fibers.

  15. Mortality among MDR-TB Cases: Comparison with Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chung-Delgado, Kocfa; Guillen-Bravo, Sonia; Revilla-Montag, Alejandro; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background An increase in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases is evident worldwide. Its management implies a complex treatment, high costs, more toxic anti-tuberculosis drug use, longer treatment time and increased treatment failure and mortality. The aims of this study were to compare mortality between MDR and drug-susceptible cases of tuberculosis, and to determine risk factors associated with mortality among MDR-TB cases. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort study was performed using data from clinical records of the National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in Lima, Peru. In the first objective, MDR-TB, compared to drug-susceptible cases, was the main exposure variable and time to death, censored at 180 days, the outcome of interest. For the second objective, different variables obtained from clinical records were assessed as potential risk factors for death among MDR-TB cases. Cox regression analysis was used to determine hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 1,232 patients were analyzed: mean age 30.9 ±14.0 years, 60.0% were males. 61 patients (5.0%) died during treatment, whereas the MDR-TB prevalence was 19.2%. MDR-TB increased the risk of death during treatment (HR = 7.5; IC95%: 4.1–13.4) when compared to presumed drug-susceptible cases after controlling for potential confounders. Education level (p = 0.01), previous TB episodes (p<0.001), diabetes history (p<0.001) and HIV infection (p = 0.04) were factors associated with mortality among MDR-TB cases. Conclusions MDR-TB is associated with an increased risk of death during treatment. Lower education, greater number of previous TB episodes, diabetes history, and HIV infection were independently associated with mortality among MDR-TB cases. New strategies for appropriate MDR-TB detection and management should be implemented, including drug sensitivity tests, diabetes and HIV screening, as well as guarantee for a complete adherence to

  16. Comparative study of SoxR activation by redox-active compounds

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Atul K.; Shin, Jung-Ho; Lee, Kang-Lok; Imlay, James A.; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2013-01-01

    Summary SoxR from E. coli and related enterobacteria is activated by a broad range of redox-active compounds through oxidation or nitrosylation of its [2Fe-2S] cluster. Activated SoxR then induces SoxS, which subsequently activates more than 100 genes in response. In contrast, non-enteric SoxRs directly activate their target genes in response to redox-active compounds that include endogenously produced metabolites. We compared the responsiveness of SoxRs from Streptomyces coelicolor (ScSoxR), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PaSoxR) and E. coli (EcSoxR), all expressed in S. coelicolor, toward natural or synthetic redox-active compounds. EcSoxR responded to all compounds examined, whereas ScSoxR was insensitive to oxidants such as paraquat (Eh −440 mV) and menadione sodium bisulfite (Eh −45 mV) and to NO generators. PaSoxR was insensitive only to some NO generators. Whole cell EPR analysis of SoxRs expressed in E. coli revealed that the [2Fe-2S]1+ of ScSoxR was not oxidizable by paraquat, differing from EcSoxR and PaSoxR. The mid-point redox potential of purified ScSoxR was determined to be −185 ± 10 mV, higher by ~100 mV than those of EcSoxR and PaSoxR, supporting its limited response to paraquat. The overall sensitivity profile indicates that both redox potential and kinetic reactivity determine the differential responses of SoxRs toward various oxidants. PMID:24112649

  17. Drug Resistance Pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates From Patients Referred to TB Reference Laboratory in Ahvaz

    PubMed Central

    Badie, Fereshteh; Arshadi, Maniya; Mohsenpoor, Maryam; Gharibvand, Soodabeh S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Tuberculosis remains one of the top three infectious disease killers. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has increased substantially in the past 20 years. When drug resistance is not detected, MDR-TB patients cannot access life-saving treatment; this puts their communities at risk of ongoing MDR-TB transmission. We aimed to determine the patterns of resistance to antituberculosis drugs among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Khuzestan province in Iran. Methods A total of 850 clinical specimens from patients suspected of active TB were cultured in 2015. Drug susceptibility testing to the first line antiTB drugs for culture positive MTB was performed on Lowenstein–Jensen medium using the proportion method. Results Of 850 cultured specimens, 272 (32%) were culture positive for mycobacteria. Of 64 MTB isolates that were analyzed by the proportion method, 62 (96.8%) were pan-susceptible and two (3.1%) were MDR. Conclusion An important way to prevent the emergence of MDR and XDR TB, and the principles of full implementation of the strategy is directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS). The efficient diagnosis and timely treatment of MDR-TB patients can prevent disease transmission, reduce the risk of drug resistance developing, and avoid further lung damage. PMID:26981340

  18. Comparative efficacy of switching to natalizumab in active multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Spelman, Timothy; Kalincik, Tomas; Zhang, Annie; Pellegrini, Fabio; Wiendl, Heinz; Kappos, Ludwig; Tsvetkova, Larisa; Belachew, Shibeshih; Hyde, Robert; Verheul, Freek; Grand-Maison, Francois; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Grammond, Pierre; Duquette, Pierre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Hupperts, Raymond; Petersen, Thor; Barnett, Michael; Trojano, Maria; Butzkueven, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare treatment efficacy and persistence in patients who switched to natalizumab versus those who switched between glatiramer acetate (GA) and interferon-beta (IFNβ) after an on-treatment relapse on IFNβ or GA using propensity score matched real-world datasets. Methods Patients included were registered in MSBase or the TYSABRI Observational Program (TOP), had relapsed on IFNβ or GA within 12 months prior to switching to another therapy, and had initiated natalizumab or IFNβ/GA treatment ≤6 months after discontinuing prior therapy. Covariates were balanced across post switch treatment groups by propensity score matching at treatment initiation. Relapse, persistence, and disability measures were compared between matched treatment arms in the total population (n = 869/group) and in subgroups defined by prior treatment history (IFNβ only [n = 578/group], GA only [n = 165/group], or both IFNβ and GA [n = 176/group]). Results Compared to switching between IFNβ and GA, switching to natalizumab reduced annualized relapse rate in year one by 65–75%, the risk of first relapse by 53–82% (mean follow-up 1.7–2.2 years) and treatment discontinuation events by 48–65% (all P ≤ 0.001). In the total population, switching to natalizumab reduced the risk of confirmed disability progression by 26% (P = 0.036) and decreased the total disability burden by 1.54 EDSS-years (P < 0.0001) over the first 24 months post switch. Interpretation Using large, real-world, propensity-matched datasets we demonstrate that after a relapse on IFNβ or GA, switching to natalizumab (rather than between IFNβ and GA) led to superior outcomes for patients in all measures assessed. Results were consistent regardless of the prior treatment identity. PMID:25909083

  19. Uptake of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy among Under-Five Children: TB Contact Investigation as an Entry Point.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Yared; Gebre, Nigussie; Daba, Shallo; Gashu, Zewdu; Habte, Dereje; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Negash, Solomon; Melkieneh, Kassahun; Jerene, Degu; K Haile, Yared; Kassie, Yewulsew; Melese, Muluken; G Suarez, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    A child's risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) can be reduced by nearly 60% with administration of 6 months course of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). However, uptake of IPT by national TB programs is low, and IPT delivery is a challenge in many resource-limited high TB-burden settings. Routinely collected program data was analyzed to determine the coverage and outcome of implementation of IPT for eligible under-five year old children in 28 health facilities in two regions of Ethiopia. A total of 504 index smear-positive pulmonary TB (SS+) cases were reported between October 2013 and June 2014 in the 28 health facilities. There were 282 under-five children registered as household contacts of these SS+ TB index cases, accounting for 17.9% of all household contacts. Of these, 237 (84%) were screened for TB symptoms, and presumptive TB was identified in 16 (6.8%) children. TB was confirmed in 5 children, producing an overall yield of 2.11% (95% confidence interval, 0.76-4.08%). Of 221 children eligible for IPT, 64.3% (142) received IPT, 80.3% (114) of whom successfully completed six months of therapy. No child developed active TB while on IPT. Contact screening is a good entry point for delivery of IPT to at risk children and should be routine practice as recommended by the WHO despite the implementation challenges. PMID:27196627

  20. Uptake of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy among Under-Five Children: TB Contact Investigation as an Entry Point

    PubMed Central

    Gebre, Nigussie; Daba, Shallo; Gashu, Zewdu; Habte, Dereje; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Negash, Solomon; Melkieneh, Kassahun; Jerene, Degu; K. Haile, Yared; Kassie, Yewulsew; Melese, Muluken; G. Suarez, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    A child’s risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) can be reduced by nearly 60% with administration of 6 months course of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). However, uptake of IPT by national TB programs is low, and IPT delivery is a challenge in many resource-limited high TB-burden settings. Routinely collected program data was analyzed to determine the coverage and outcome of implementation of IPT for eligible under-five year old children in 28 health facilities in two regions of Ethiopia. A total of 504 index smear-positive pulmonary TB (SS+) cases were reported between October 2013 and June 2014 in the 28 health facilities. There were 282 under-five children registered as household contacts of these SS+ TB index cases, accounting for 17.9% of all household contacts. Of these, 237 (84%) were screened for TB symptoms, and presumptive TB was identified in 16 (6.8%) children. TB was confirmed in 5 children, producing an overall yield of 2.11% (95% confidence interval, 0.76–4.08%). Of 221 children eligible for IPT, 64.3% (142) received IPT, 80.3% (114) of whom successfully completed six months of therapy. No child developed active TB while on IPT. Contact screening is a good entry point for delivery of IPT to at risk children and should be routine practice as recommended by the WHO despite the implementation challenges. PMID:27196627

  1. Uptake of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy among Under-Five Children: TB Contact Investigation as an Entry Point.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Yared; Gebre, Nigussie; Daba, Shallo; Gashu, Zewdu; Habte, Dereje; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Negash, Solomon; Melkieneh, Kassahun; Jerene, Degu; K Haile, Yared; Kassie, Yewulsew; Melese, Muluken; G Suarez, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    A child's risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) can be reduced by nearly 60% with administration of 6 months course of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). However, uptake of IPT by national TB programs is low, and IPT delivery is a challenge in many resource-limited high TB-burden settings. Routinely collected program data was analyzed to determine the coverage and outcome of implementation of IPT for eligible under-five year old children in 28 health facilities in two regions of Ethiopia. A total of 504 index smear-positive pulmonary TB (SS+) cases were reported between October 2013 and June 2014 in the 28 health facilities. There were 282 under-five children registered as household contacts of these SS+ TB index cases, accounting for 17.9% of all household contacts. Of these, 237 (84%) were screened for TB symptoms, and presumptive TB was identified in 16 (6.8%) children. TB was confirmed in 5 children, producing an overall yield of 2.11% (95% confidence interval, 0.76-4.08%). Of 221 children eligible for IPT, 64.3% (142) received IPT, 80.3% (114) of whom successfully completed six months of therapy. No child developed active TB while on IPT. Contact screening is a good entry point for delivery of IPT to at risk children and should be routine practice as recommended by the WHO despite the implementation challenges.

  2. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of 19 essential oils.

    PubMed

    Chaftar, Naouel; Girardot, Marion; Labanowski, Jérôme; Ghrairi, Tawfik; Hani, Khaled; Frère, Jacques; Imbert, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In our research on natural compounds efficient against human pathogen or opportunist microorganisms contracted by food or water, the antimicrobial activity of 19 essential oils (EOs) was investigated against 11 bacterial species (6 Gram positive, 5 Gram negative) and 7 fungal species (2 dermatophytes, 1 mould, 4 yeasts) using microdilution assays. Five essential oils were obtained from Tunisian plants (EOtun): Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Juniperus phoenicea L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta graveolens L. and Thymus vulgaris L., whereas others were commercial products (EOcom). Overall, T. vulgaris EOtun was the most efficient EO against both bacteria (Gram negative: MIC ≤ 0.34 mg/mL; Gram positive: MIC ≤ 0.70 mg/mL) and fungi (yeasts: MIC ≤ 0.55 mg/mL; mould: MIC = 0.30 mg/mL; dermatophytes: MIC ≤ 0.07 mg/mL). Two EOcom displayed both acceptable antibacterial and antifungal potency, although weaker than T. vulgaris EOtun activity: Origanum vulgare EOcom (bacteria: MIC ≤ 1.13 mg/mL, fungi: MIC ≤ 1.80 mg/mL), and Cymbopogon martinii var. motia EOcom (bacteria: MIC ≤ 1.00 mg/mL, fungi: MIC ≤ 0.80 mg/mL). Bacillus megaterium, Legionella pneumophila, Listeria monocytogenes and Trichophyton spp. were the most sensitive species to both EOcom and EOtun. This study demonstrated the noteworthy antimicrobial activity of two commercial EOs and points out the remarkable efficiency of T. vulgaris EOtun on all tested bacterial and fungal species, certainly associated with its high content in carvacrol (85 %). These three oils could thus represent promising candidates for applications in water and food protections. PMID:26566647

  3. A comparative Study of Circulation Patterns at Active Lava Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Einat; Oppenheimer, Clive; Spampinato, Letizia; Hernandez, Pedro; Unglert, Kathi

    2016-04-01

    Lava lakes present a rare opportunity to study magma dynamics in a large scaled-up "crucible" and provide a unique natural laboratory to ground-truth dynamic models of magma circulation. The persistence of lava lakes allows for long-term observations of flow dynamics and of lava properties, especially compared to surface lava flows. There are currently five persistent lava lakes in the world: Halemaumau in Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Erta Ale (Ethiopia), Nyiragongo (Congo), Erebus (Antarctica), and Villarica (Chile). Marum and Benbow craters of Ambrym volcano (Vanuatu) and Masaya (Nicaragua) have often hosted lava lakes as well. We use visible-light and thermal infrared time-lapse and video footage collected at all above lakes (except Villarica, where the lake is difficult to observe), and compare the circulation patterns recorded. We calculate lake surface motion from the footage using the optical flow method (Lev et al., 2012) to produce 2D velocity fields. We mined both the surface temperature field and the surface velocity field for patterns using machine learning techniques such as "self-organizing maps (SOMs)" and "principle component analysis (PCA)". We use automatic detection technique to study the configuration of crustal plates at the lakes' surface. We find striking differences among the lakes, in flow direction, flow speed, frequency of changes in flow direction and speed, location and consistency of upwelling and downwelling, and crustal plate configuration. We relate the differences to lake size, shallow conduit geometry, lava viscosity, crystal and gas content, and crust integrity.

  4. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Project Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document SMAP L1B Radiometer Data Product: L1B_TB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Mohammed, Priscilla; De Amici, Giovanni; Kim, Edward; Peng, Jinzheng; Ruf, Christopher; Hanna, Maher; Yueh, Simon; Entekhabi, Dara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) radiometer calibration algorithm is to convert Level 0 (L0) radiometer digital counts data into calibrated estimates of brightness temperatures referenced to the Earth's surface within the main beam. The algorithm theory in most respects is similar to what has been developed and implemented for decades for other satellite radiometers; however, SMAP includes two key features heretofore absent from most satellite borne radiometers: radio frequency interference (RFI) detection and mitigation, and measurement of the third and fourth Stokes parameters using digital correlation. The purpose of this document is to describe the SMAP radiometer and forward model, explain the SMAP calibration algorithm, including approximations, errors, and biases, provide all necessary equations for implementing the calibration algorithm and detail the RFI detection and mitigation process. Section 2 provides a summary of algorithm objectives and driving requirements. Section 3 is a description of the instrument and Section 4 covers the forward models, upon which the algorithm is based. Section 5 gives the retrieval algorithm and theory. Section 6 describes the orbit simulator, which implements the forward model and is the key for deriving antenna pattern correction coefficients and testing the overall algorithm.

  5. Multidrug and extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB): problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajendra

    2010-10-01

    Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and Extensively Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are posing a threat to the control of tuberculosis. The first WHO-IUATLD antituberculosis drug resistance surveillance carried out in 1994 in 35 countries reported the median prevalence of primary and acquired multi drug resistance as 1.4% and 13% respectively. Subsequently, second, third and fourth WHO-IUATLD global drug resistance surveillances were carried out in 1996-99, 1999-2002 and 2002-2007 respectively. Based on drug resistance information from 114 countries, the proportion of MDR-TB among all cases was estimated for countries with no survey information. It was estimated that 4,89,139 cases of MDR-TB emerged in 2006. China and India carry approximately 50% of the global burden. 35 countries and two Special Administrative Regions (SARs) reported data on XDR-TB for the first time in 2006. Multidrug and extensively drug-resistant TB 2010 Global report on Surveillance and response estimated that 4,40,000 cases of MDR-TB emerged globally in 2008 and caused an estimated 1,50,000 deaths. 5.4% of MDR-TB cases were found to have XDR-TB. To date, a cumulative total of 58 countries have confirmed at least one case of XDR-TB. M/XDR-TB is a man-made problem and its emergence can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and effective use of first line drugs in every new patient. The DOTS Plus proposed by WHO highlights the comprehensive management strategy to control MDR-TB. Laboratory services for adequate and timely diagnosis of M/XDR-TB must be strengthened and programmatic management of M/XDR-TB must be scaled up as per target set by global plan. Proper use of second-line drugs must be ensured to cure existing MDR-TB, to reduce its transmission and to prevent XDR-TB. Sound infection control measures to avoid further transmission of M/XDR-TB and research towards development of new diagnostics, drugs and vaccines should be promoted to control M/XDR-TB.

  6. Comparative activity profiles of Thielavia terrestris and Trichoderma reesei cellulases

    SciTech Connect

    Tuse, D.; Mason, B.J.; Skinner, W.A.

    1980-10-01

    The successful utilization of cellulosic materials depends on the development of economically feasible processes for the literation of low molecular weight soluble products from the polymers. These soluble products, such as hexoses and pentoses, can then be utilized as substrates for the microbial or chemical product of fuels, food, and chemical feedstocks. In the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose, one of the major roadblocks to the development of commercially attractive processes has been the instability of the cellulase complex. It is desirable, for example, to operate the conversion systems at elevated temperatures, but environments with high thermal energy can significantly shorten enzyme half life. The authors have isolated a strain of the fungus Thielavia terrestris that possesses a complete cellulase system, and its enzymes were found to have remarkable thermal stability. The author presents a comparison of the activities of the T. terrestris enzymes with those of Trichoderma reesei.

  7. Seasonal Variations in Notification of Active Tuberculosis Cases in China, 2005–2012

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Zhang, Hui; Du, Xin; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Shen, Tao; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Zeng, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Background Although seasonal variation in tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been described in many countries, it remains unknown in China. Methods A time series decomposition analysis (X-12-ARIMA) was performed to examine the seasonal variation in active TB cases nationwide from 2005 through 2012 in China. Seasonal amplitude was calculated for the evaluation of TB seasonal variation. Results A total of 7.78 million active TB cases were reported over a period of 8 years. A spring peak (April) was observed with seasonal amplitude of 46.3%, compared with the winter trough (February). Most cases in provinces with subtropical and tropical monsoon climate showed lower amplitudes than those in temperate continental, plateau and mountain climate regions. The magnitude of seasonality varied inversely with annual average temperature, r (95% CI) = -0.71 (-0.79, -0.61). The seasonal amplitudes were 56.7, 60.5, 40.6, 46.4 and 50.9% for patients aged ≤14, 15–24, 25–44, 45–64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Students demonstrated greater seasonal amplitude than peasants, migrant workers and workers (115.3% vs. 43.5, 41.6 and 48.1%). Patients with pulmonary TB had lower amplitude compared to patients with pleural and other extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) (45.9% vs. 52.0 and 56.3%). Relapse cases with sputum smear positive TB (SS+ TB) had significantly higher seasonal amplitude compared to new cases with sputum smear positive TB (52.2% vs. 41.6%). Conclusions TB is a seasonal disease in China. The peak and trough of TB transmission actually are in winter and in autumn respectively after factors of delay are removed. Higher amplitudes of TB seasonality are more likely to happen in temperate continental, plateau and mountain climate regions and regions with lower annual average temperature, and young person, students, patients with EPTB and relapse cases with SS+ TB are more likely to be affected by TB seasonality. PMID:23874512

  8. The role of ancestry in TB susceptibility of an admixed South African population.

    PubMed

    Daya, Michelle; van der Merwe, Lize; van Helden, Paul D; Möller, Marlo; Hoal, Eileen G

    2014-07-01

    Genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) has been well established and this, taken together with variation in susceptibility observed between different geographic and ethnic populations, implies that susceptibility to TB may in part be affected by ethnicity. In a previous genome-wide TB case-control study (642 cases and 91 controls) of the admixed South African Coloured (SAC) population, we found a positive correlation between African San ancestry and TB susceptibility, and negative correlations with European and Asian ancestries. Since genome-wide data was available for only a small number of controls in the previous study, we endeavored to validate this finding by genotyping a panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) in additional individuals, yielding a data set of 918 cases and 507 controls. Ancestry proportions were estimated using the AIMs for each of the source populations of the SAC (African San, African non-San, European, South Asian and East Asian). Using logistic regression models to test for association between TB and ancestry, we confirmed the substantial effect of ancestry on TB susceptibility. We also investigated the effect of adjusting for ancestry in candidate gene TB association studies of the SAC. We report a polymorphism that is no longer significantly associated with TB after adjustment for ancestry, a polymorphism that is significantly associated with TB only after adjustment for ancestry, and a polymorphism where the association significance remains unchanged. By comparing the allele frequencies of these polymorphisms in the source populations of the SAC, we demonstrate that association results are likely to be affected by adjustment for ancestry if allele frequencies differ markedly in the source populations of the SAC.

  9. The impact of IFN-γ receptor on SLPI expression in active tuberculosis: association with disease severity.

    PubMed

    Tateosian, Nancy L; Pasquinelli, Virginia; Hernández Del Pino, Rodrigo E; Ambrosi, Nella; Guerrieri, Diego; Pedraza-Sánchez, Sigifredo; Santucci, Natalia; D'Attilio, Luciano; Pellegrini, Joaquín; Araujo-Solis, María A; Musella, Rosa M; Palmero, Domingo J; Hernandez-Pando, Rogelio; Garcia, Verónica E; Chuluyan, H Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ displays a critical role in tuberculosis (TB), modulating the innate and adaptive immune responses. Previously, we reported that secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is a pattern recognition receptor with anti-mycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Herein, we determined whether IFN-γ modulated the levels of SLPI in TB patients. Plasma levels of SLPI and IFN-γ were studied in healthy donors (HDs) and TB patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HDs and patients with TB or defective IFN-γ receptor 1* were stimulated with Mtb antigen and SLPI, and IFN-γR expression levels were measured. Both SLPI and IFN-γ were significantly enhanced in plasma from those with TB compared with HDs. A direct association between SLPI levels and the severity of TB was detected. In addition, Mtb antigen stimulation decreased the SLPI produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HDs, but not from TB or IFN-γR patients. Neutralization of IFN-γ reversed the inhibition of SLPI induced by Mtb antigen in HDs, but not in TB patients. Furthermore, recombinant IFN-γ was unable to modify the expression of SLPI in TB patients. Finally, IFN-γR expression was lower in TB compared with HD peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results show that Mtb-induced IFN-γ down-modulated SLPI levels by signaling through the IFN-γR in HDs. This inhibitory mechanism was not observed in TB, probably because of the low expression of IFN-γR detected in these individuals.

  10. Multicenter evaluation of Seegene Anyplex TB PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jinsook; Kim, Jimyung; Kim, Jong Wan; Ihm, Chunhwa; Sohn, Yong-Hak; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jayoung; Koo, Sun Hoe

    2014-07-01

    Culture is the gold standard for diagnosis of tuberculosis, but it takes 6 to 8 weeks to confirm the result. This issue is complemented by the detection method using polymerase chain reaction, which is now widely used in a routine microbiology laboratory. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Seegene Anyplex TB PCR to assess its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, and compared its results with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB PCR, one of the most widely used assays in the world. Five university hospitals located in the Chungcheong area in South Korea participated in the study. A total of 1,167 respiratory specimens ordered for acid-fast bacilli staining and culture were collected for four months, analyzed via the Seegene Anyplex TB PCR, and its results were compared with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB PCR. For detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the Anyplex TB PCR were 87.5% and 98.2% respectively, whereas those of the Cobas TaqMan were 92.0% and 98.0% respectively (p value > 0.05). For smear-positive specimens, the sensitivity of the Anyplex TB PCR was 95.2%, which was exactly the same as that of the Cobas TaqMan. For smear-negative specimens, the sensitivity of the Anyplex TB PCR was 69.2%, whereas that of the Cobas TaqMan TB PCR was 84.6%. For detection of MTB, the Seegene Anyplex TB PCR showed excellent diagnostic performance, and high sensitivity and specificity, which were comparable to the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB PCR. In conclusion, the Anyplex TB PCR can be a useful diagnostic tool for the early detection of tuberculosis in clinical laboratories.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of SMAP Brightness Temperatures for Use in Level 1 TB Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    1. IntroductionThe recent launch of NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission [Entekhabi, et al] has opened the door to improved brightness temperature (TB) calibration of satellite L-band microwave radiometers, through the use of SMAP's lower noise performance and better immunity to man-made interference (vs. ESA's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission [Kerr, et al]), better spatial resolution (vs. NASA's Aquarius sea surface salinity mission [Le Vine, et al]), and cleaner antenna pattern (vs. SMOS). All three radiometers use/used large homogeneous places on Earth's surface as calibration targets—parts of the ocean, Antarctica, and tropical forests. Despite the recent loss of Aquarius data, there is still hope for creating a longer-term L-band data set that spans the timeframe of all 3 missions. 2. Description of Analyses and Expected Results In this paper, we analyze SMAP brightness temperature data to quantify the spatial and temporal characteristics of external target areas in the oceans, Antarctica, forests, and other areas. Existing analyses have examined these targets in terms of averages, standard deviations, and other basic statistics (for Aquarius & SMOS as well). This paper will approach the problem from a signal processing perspective. Coupled with the use of SMAP's novel RFI-mitigated TBs, and the aforementioned lower noise and cleaner antenna pattern, it is expected that of the 3 L-band missions, SMAP should do the best job of characterizing such external targets. The resulting conclusions should be useful to extract the best possible TB calibration from all 3 missions, helping to inter-compare the TB from the 3 missions, and to eventually inter-calibrate the TBs into a single long-term dataset.

  12. Healing of complement activating Ti implants compared with non-activating Ti in rat tibia.

    PubMed

    Harmankaya, N; Igawa, K; Stenlund, P; Palmquist, A; Tengvall, P

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed that ozone ultraviolet (UVO) illumination of titanium (Ti) implants improves bone-implant anchorage by altering the physico-chemical and immune activating properties of the titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) layer. In the present rat tibia model, the authors compared the early events of inflammation and bone formation around UVO-treated Ti and complement activating immunoglobin g (IgG)-coated Ti. Machined Ti and machined Ti coated with a physical vapour-deposited Ti layer were used as references. Screw-shaped test and reference implants were implanted into rat tibia and harvested after 1, 7 and 28 days. Messenger RNA expression of implant adhered cells and peri-implant tissue ~250 μm from the surface were subsequently analysed with regard to IL-1β, TNF-α, osteocalcin, cathepsin K, BMP-2 and PDGF. Separate implants were retrieved after 7 and 28 days for removal torque measurements, and histological staining and histomorphometric analysis of bone area and bone-to-implant contact. While enhanced expression of inflammatory markers, TNF-α and IL-1β, was observed on IgG-coated surfaces throughout the observation time, UVO-treated surfaces indicated a significantly lower early inflammatory response. In the early phases (1 and 7 days), the UVO-treated surfaces displayed a significantly higher expression of osteoblast markers BMP-2 and osteocalcin. In summary, complement activating Ti implants elicited a stronger inflammatory response than UVO-treated Ti, with low complement activation during the first week of healing. In spite of this, the UVO-treated Ti induced only marginally more bone growth outside the implants.

  13. Analysis of 161Tb by radiochemical separation and liquid scintillation counting

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.; Davies, A.; Arrigo, L.; Friese, J.; Seiner, B. N.; Greenwood, L.; Finch, Z.

    2015-12-05

    The determination of 161Tb activity is problematic due to its very low fission yield, short half-life, and the complication of its gamma spectrum. At AWE, radiochemically purified 161Tb solution was measured on a PerkinElmer 1220 QuantulusTM Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer. Since there was no 161Tb certified standard solution available commercially, the counting efficiency was determined by the CIEMAT/NIST Efficiency Tracing method. The method was validated during a recent inter-laboratory comparison exercise involving the analysis of a uranium sample irradiated with thermal neutrons. Lastly, the measured 161Tb result was in excellent agreement with the result using gamma spectrometry and the result obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  14. Analysis of 161Tb by radiochemical separation and liquid scintillation counting

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, J.; Davies, A.; Arrigo, L.; Friese, J.; Seiner, B. N.; Greenwood, L.; Finch, Z.

    2015-12-05

    The determination of 161Tb activity is problematic due to its very low fission yield, short half-life, and the complication of its gamma spectrum. At AWE, radiochemically purified 161Tb solution was measured on a PerkinElmer 1220 QuantulusTM Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer. Since there was no 161Tb certified standard solution available commercially, the counting efficiency was determined by the CIEMAT/NIST Efficiency Tracing method. The method was validated during a recent inter-laboratory comparison exercise involving the analysis of a uranium sample irradiated with thermal neutrons. Lastly, the measured 161Tb result was in excellent agreement with the result using gamma spectrometry and the result obtainedmore » by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.« less

  15. Too Busy for TB: Managing a Case of Tuberculosis Disease in the School Setting.

    PubMed

    Galemore, Cynthia A

    2016-03-01

    School nurses actively monitor the school population for signs of communicable disease on a daily basis. State regulations outline reportable diseases and provide guidance to control disease outbreak, including management of disease outbreak in the school setting. The purpose of this article is to review strategies recently used in managing a tuberculosis (TB) outbreak at a large high school in Kansas. A timeline of events is presented along with a discussion of the differences between latent TB infection and TB disease. Partnering across agencies and departments enabled the timely testing of over 400 individuals and subsequent management of individuals testing positive for latent TB infection. Public information officers provided necessary guidance to communicate to audiences both internally and externally. PMID:26822133

  16. Dosimetric investigations of Tb3+-doped strontium silicate phosphor.

    PubMed

    Barve, R A; Suriyamurthy, N; Panigrahi, B S; Venkatraman, B

    2015-03-01

    Tb(3+)-doped SrSiO(3) phosphor synthesised by co-precipitation technique exhibits intense green emission due to cross-relaxation phenomena between Tb(3+) ions. Dosimetric properties of this phosphor have been investigated using thermoluminescence (TL) technique. A dosimetrically useful glow peak observed was at 581 K along with a linear dose response over the wide dose range (100 mGy-4 Gy). TL parameters such as trap depth (E), frequency factor (s) and the order of kinetics (b) are determined by different methods such as Chen's peak shape, initial rise, isothermal decay and variable heating rate methods. Results of these methods are compared and reported in this study.

  17. Nitroimidazoles for the treatment of TB: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Tathagata; Boshoff, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a leading cause of death resulting from an infectious agent, and the spread of multi- and extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis poses a threat to management of global health. New drugs that effectively shorten the duration of treatment and are active against drug-resistant strains of this pathogen are urgently required to develop effective chemotherapies to combat this disease. Two nitroimidazoles, PA-824 and OPC-67683, are currently in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of TB and the outcome of these may determine the future directions of drug development for anti-tubercular nitroimidazoles. In this review we summarize the development of these nitroimidazoles and alternative analogs in these series that may offer attractive alternatives to PA-824 and OPC-67683 for further development in the drug-discovery pipeline. Lastly, the potential pitfalls in the development of nitroimidazoles as drugs for TB are discussed. PMID:21879846

  18. A Selective Na(+) Aptamer Dissected by Sensitized Tb(3+) Luminescence.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenhu; Ding, Jinsong; Liu, Juewen

    2016-08-17

    A previous study of two RNA-cleaving DNAzymes, NaA43 and Ce13d, revealed the possibility of a common Na(+) aptamer motif. Because Na(+) binding to DNA is a fundamental biochemical problem, the interaction between Ce13d and Na(+) was studied in detail by using sensitized Tb(3+) luminescence spectroscopy. Na(+) displaces Tb(3+) from the DNAzyme, and thus quenches the emission from Tb(3+) . The overall requirement for Na(+) binding includes the hairpin and the highly conserved 16-nucleotide loop in the enzyme strand, along with a few unpaired nucleotides in the substrate. Mutation studies indicate good correlation between Na(+) binding and cleavage activity, thus suggesting a critical role of Na(+) binding for the enzyme activity. Ce13d displayed a Kd of ∼20 mm with Na(+) (other monovalent cations: 40-60 mm). The Kd values for other metal ions are mainly due to non-specific competition. With a single nucleotide mutation, the specific Na(+) binding was lost. Another mutant improved Kd to 8 mm with Na(+) . This study has demonstrated a Na(+) aptamer with important biological implications and analytical applications. It has also defined the structural requirements for Na(+) binding and produced an improved mutant. PMID:27238890

  19. Loss to follow-up and mortality among HIV-infected people co-infected with TB at ART initiation in Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Ingrid V.; Chetty, Senica; Wang, Bingxia; Mazibuko, Matilda; Giddy, Janet; Lu, Zhigang; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Losina, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Objective To quantify the impact of TB co-infection on death and loss to follow-up (LTFU) 12 months after entry into an ART program. Design Prospective intervention study Methods From May 2007-2008, patients undergoing pre-ART training in Durban, South Africa were screened for pulmonary TB using mycobacterial culture. Subjects missing appointments for >3 months were phoned. Patients who could not be reached were considered LTFU. Deaths were ascertained by report from family members. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate time to LTFU or death for 3 groups at enrollment: 1) newly-diagnosed with TB by sputum culture; 2) on TB treatment (i.e. previously-diagnosed); and 3) TB free. We evaluated the role of TB on mortality and LTFU using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Nine-hundred fifty-one HIV-infected subjects were enrolled; 59% were female and median baseline CD4 count was 90/μl (IQR 41-148/μl). One hundred forty-four (15%) were newly-diagnosed with TB by sputum culture; an additional 199 (21%) were already on TB treatment. By 12 months, 26% newly-diagnosed with TB at enrollment died or were LTFU, compared to 19% already on TB treatment, and 14% who were TB free (p=0.001). Controlling for age, sex, smoking, CD4, and opportunistic infection history, subjects newly-diagnosed with pulmonary TB were 76% more likely to die or be LTFU (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.20-2.60) than those without TB. Conclusions HIV/TB co-infected individuals are more likely to die or be LTFU within 12 months of ART clinic entry in South Africa. These patients require intensive follow-up during ART initiation. PMID:22027877

  20. SAR analysis of new anti-TB drugs currently in pre-clinical and clinical development.

    PubMed

    Poce, Giovanna; Cocozza, Martina; Consalvi, Sara; Biava, Mariangela

    2014-10-30

    Despite enormous efforts have been made in the hunt for new drugs, tuberculosis (TB) still remains the first bacterial cause of mortality worldwide, causing an estimated 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths in 2012. Multi-drug resistant-TB strains no longer respond to first-line drugs and are inexorably spreading with an estimated 650,000 cases as well as extensively-drug resistant-TB strains, which are resistant to any fluoroquinolone and at least one of the second-line drugs, with 60,000 cases. Thus the discovery and development of new medicines is a major keystone for tuberculosis treatment and control. After decades of dormancy in the field of TB drug development, recent efforts from various groups have generated a promising TB drug pipeline. Several new therapeutic agents are concurrently studied in clinical trials together with much activity in the hittolead and lead optimization stages. In this article we will review the recent advances in TB drug discovery with a special focus on structure activity relationship studies of the most advanced compound classes. PMID:25173852

  1. Immunomodulation by vitamin D: implications for TB

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Rene F; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin

    2011-01-01

    TB remains a major cause of mortality throughout the world. Low vitamin D status has been linked to increased risk of TB and other immune disorders. These observations suggest a role for vitamin D as a modulator of normal human immune function. This article will detail the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which vitamin D regulates the immune system and how vitamin D insufficiency may lead to immune dysregulation. The importance of vitamin D bioavailability as a mechanism for defining the immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D and its impact on TB will also be discussed. The overall aim will be to provide a fresh perspective on the potential benefits of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention and treatment of TB. PMID:22046197

  2. HIV-Associated TB: Facts 2013

    MedlinePlus

    ... Intensified case finding for TB, Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), and Infection control) will reduce the burden of ... the 42 countries that reported data for 2012, IPT was provided to 520,000 people living with ...

  3. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB)

    MedlinePlus

    ... prisons, or homeless shelters. If you work in hospitals or health-care settings where TB patients are likely to be seen, you should consult infection control or occupational health experts. Ask about administrative and ...

  4. Formulation, characterization and comparative evaluation of Trivanga bhasma: a herbo-mineral Indian traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Arun; Naik, Madhu; Mohammed-Haneefa, Kotappadath Pillanayil; Arun-Kumar, Raveendran Pillai; Azeem, Abdul Kharim

    2014-07-01

    Bhasmas are unique Ayurvedic-metallic preparations with herbal juices/fruits, widely recommended to treat variety of chronic ailments. Trivanga bhasma, a calcinated preparation, is used to treat Diabetes mellitus and as Diuretic. In the present research an attempt has been made to carry out a comparative standardization of formulated Trivanga bhasma (TB1) prepared as per Ayurvedic formulary and marketed Trivanga bhasma (TB2) integrating conventional and modern analytical tools. The formulations were evaluated for physical properties, chemical characterization using FTIR, AAS, SEM, TGA, XRD and AFM along with anti-diabetic, diuretic and toxicology studies. The X-ray Diffraction analysis of both formulations exhibited crystalline nature and nano-sized particles by Scherrer's equation. In SEM studies, Lead, zinc and tin oxides show well-defined plate like structures while TB1 showed spongy, relatively compact microcrystalline aggregates with loss of grain boundaries. AFM analysis confirmed the spherical morphology of TB1 and TB2 with an average particle size of 500 nm. The present study is the first report of fingerprinting of Trivanga bhasma using sophisticated analytical techniques. In vivo pharmacological screening revealed that both TB1 and TBK2 possess anti-diabetic and diuretic activity and less toxicity, thereby facilitating standardization of Trivanga bhasma. PMID:25015442

  5. The global situation of MDR-TB.

    PubMed

    Espinal, Marcos A

    2003-01-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis has been reported since the early days of the introduction of chemotherapy. However, most of the evidence was limited to developed countries. In 1992, the Third World Congress on Tuberculosis concluded that there was little recent information on the global magnitude of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), defined as resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. Through the WHO/IUATLD Global Project on Drug-Resistance Surveillance launched in 1994, a large number of reliable and accurate data have allowed us to understand the magnitude of the problem of MDR-TB. The data available suggest that globally MDR-TB is not a problem (median = 1% in 64 countries/geographical sites surveyed) of the same magnitude as that of drug-susceptible tuberculosis. However, MDR-TB is at critical levels in specific regions of the world. Hot spots for MDR-TB include Estonia, Latvia, the Oblasts of Ivanovo and Tomsk in Russia, and the provinces of Henan and Zhejiang Provinces in China. Trends confirm that MDR-TB is limited to local epidemics but the evidence is not yet irrefutable, as many countries have only provided short-term data. Two-thirds of the world's countries and, more importantly, half of the 22 tuberculosis high-burden countries, have not yet provided data. Mathematical modelling suggests that 3.2% (or 273,000) of the world's estimated new tuberculosis cases (95% confidence intervals: 185,000 and 414,000) were MDR-TB in 2000. Adoption of DOTS to prevent the generation of resistant strains and careful introduction of second-line drugs to treat patients with MDR are the top priorities for proper control/containment of MDR-TB. PMID:12758188

  6. The chemopreventive activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor tributyrin in colon carcinogenesis involves the induction of apoptosis and reduction of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Heidor, Renato; Furtado, Kelly Silva; Ortega, Juliana Festa; de Oliveira, Tiago Franco; Tavares, Paulo Eduardo Latorre Martins; Vieira, Alessandra; Miranda, Mayara Lilian Paulino; Purgatto, Eduardo; Moreno, Fernando Salvador

    2014-04-15

    The chemopreventive activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) tributyrin (TB), a prodrug of butyric acid (BA), was evaluated in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis. The animals were treated with TB (TB group: 200mg/100g of body weight, b.w.) or maltodextrin (MD isocaloric control group: 300 mg/100g b.w.) daily for 9 consecutive weeks. In the 3rd and 4th weeks of treatment, the rats in the TB and MD groups were given DMH (40 mg/kg b.w.) twice a week. After 9 weeks, the animals were euthanized, and the distal colon was examined. Compared with the control group (MD group), TB treatment reduced the total number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF; p<0.05) as well as the ACF with ≥4 crypts (p<0.05), which are considered more aggressive, but not inhibited the formation of DMH-induced O6-methyldeoxyguanosine DNA adducts. The TB group also showed a higher apoptotic index (p<0.05) and reduced DNA damage (p<0.05) compared with MD group. TB acted as a HDACi, as rats treated with the prodrug of BA had higher levels of histone H3K9 acetylation compared with the MD group (p<0.05). TB administration resulted in increased colonic tissue concentrations of BA (p<0.05) compared with the control animals. These results suggest that TB can be considered a promising chemopreventive agent for colon carcinogenesis because it reduced the number of ACF, including those that were more aggressive. Induction of apoptosis and reduction of DNA damage are cellular mechanisms that appear to be involved in the chemopreventive activity of TB.

  7. Raman and crystal field studies of Tb-O bonds in TbM n2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, S.; Jandl, S.; Balli, M.; Laverdière, J.; Fournier, P.; Dimitrov, D. Z.

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the temperature dependence of TbM n2O5 Raman-active phonons and its T b3 + crystal field (CF) excitations. Interestingly, the Raman intensities of some phonons are significantly reduced below ˜180 K . Such behaviors are also observed in HoM n2O5 and YM n2O5 systems. A connection between the Raman intensities and the nearest-neighbor mean-square relative displacement σ2 is established. Also, some of the T b3 + and H o3 + CF excitations become broader below ˜180 K . These results are discussed in terms of the disorder induced by the Tb-O bond splitting.

  8. Resistant TB: Newer Drugs and Community Approach.

    PubMed

    Gothi, Dipti; Joshi, Jyotsna M

    2011-01-01

    Drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB) is a serious problem compromising both the treatment and control programs. Poor usage of the available anti TB drugs has led to progressive drug resistance-multi drug resistance (MDR), extensively drug-resistance (XDR) and even total drug resistance (TDR). While drug sensitive TB is completely curable, MDR-TB is difficult to treat, XDR and TDR are often fatal. Non availability of new drugs to treat drug resistant cases further complicates the problem. The Global Alliance for Tuberculosis Drug Developments, a non-profit organization with the World Health Organization (WHO) as a partner was formed in February 2000 for the development of new drugs. In the last decade this venture has resulted in several promising new antituberculosis drugs like TMC207 (diaryquinoline), PA-824 (nitroimidazo-oxazine), OPC-67683 (nitroimidazo-oxazole) and SQ 109 (diamine compound). Drug resistance in TB is a man made problem. Therefore, while global efforts towards new drug development must continue it is equally important to have a well defined community approach to prevent the emergence of drug resistance to the existing and newer drugs. The present review article discusses some recent drug patents for the treatment of tuberculosis and the appropriate community approach to prevent and treat drug resistant TB.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of chest radiography for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and its role in the detection of latent TB infection: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Piccazzo, Riccardo; Paparo, Francesco; Garlaschi, Giacomo

    2014-05-01

    In this systematic review we evaluate the role of chest radiography (CXR) in the diagnostic flow chart for tuberculosis (TB) infection, focusing on latent TB infection (LTBI) in patients requiring medical treatment with biological drugs. In recent findings, patients scheduled for immunomodulatory therapy with biologic drugs are a group at risk of TB reactivation and, in such patients, detection of LTBI is of great importance. CXR for diagnosis of pulmonary TB has good sensitivity, but poor specificity. Radiographic diagnosis of active disease can only be reliably made on the basis of temporal evolution of pulmonary lesions. In vivo tuberculin skin test and ex vivo interferon-γ release assays are designed to identify development of an adaptive immune response, but not necessarily LTBI. Computed tomography (CT) is able to distinguish active from inactive disease. CT is considered a complementary imaging modality to CXR in the screening procedure to detect past and LTBI infection in specific subgroups of patients who have increased risk for TB reactivation, including those scheduled for medical treatment with biological drugs.

  10. TB Incidence in an Adolescent Cohort in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mahomed, Hassan; Ehrlich, Rodney; Hawkridge, Tony; Hatherill, Mark; Geiter, Lawrence; Kafaar, Fazlin; Abrahams, Deborah Ann; Mulenga, Humphrey; Tameris, Michele; Geldenhuys, Hennie; Hanekom, Willem Albert; Verver, Suzanne; Hussey, Gregory Dudley

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem globally. Little is known about TB incidence in adolescents who are a proposed target group for new TB vaccines. We conducted a study to determine the TB incidence rates and risk factors for TB disease in a cohort of school-going adolescents in a high TB burden area in South Africa. Methods We recruited adolescents aged 12 to 18 years from high schools in Worcester, South Africa. Demographic and clinical information was collected, a tuberculin skin test (TST) performed and blood drawn for a QuantiFERON TB Gold assay at baseline. Screening for TB cases occurred at follow up visits and by surveillance of registers at public sector TB clinics over a period of up to 3.8 years after enrolment. Results A total of 6,363 adolescents were enrolled (58% of the school population targeted). During follow up, 67 cases of bacteriologically confirmed TB were detected giving an overall incidence rate of 0.45 per 100 person years (95% confidence interval 0.29–0.72). Black or mixed race, maternal education of primary school or less or unknown, a positive baseline QuantiFERON assay and a positive baseline TST were significant predictors of TB disease on adjusted analysis. Conclusion The adolescent TB incidence found in a high burden setting will help TB vaccine developers plan clinical trials in this population. Latent TB infection and low socio-economic status were predictors of TB disease. PMID:23533639

  11. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of YPO{sub 4} activated with Tb{sup 3+} and effect of Bi{sup 3+} co-doping on the luminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Angiuli, Fabio; Cavalli, Enrico; Belletti, Alessandro

    2012-08-15

    Single crystals of YPO{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+}(1%) have been grown from Pb{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} flux and their emission dynamics have been characterized by steady state and time resolved optical spectroscopy. The investigation has then been extended to green emitting phosphors with composition Y{sub 0.95-x}Tb{sub 0.05}Bi{sub x}PO{sub 4} (x=0, 0.0025, 0.005, 0.01, 0.025), synthesized by the Pechini sol-gel method and by solid state reaction. The former procedure has yielded higher quality materials in terms of size and morphology of the particles and of emission performance. The effect of the Bi{sup 3+} co-doping on the emission properties has been related to the Bi{sup 3+}{yields}Tb{sup 3+} energy transfer process as well as to the influence of the bismuth ions on the optical properties of the host lattice. - Graphical abstract: The intensity of the 370 nm excited luminescence increases with the Bi{sup 3+} content. A possible mechanism accounting for this behavior is proposed and discussed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Green emitting YPO{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+} phosphors were synthesized by different methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The emission dynamics have been investigated under different experimental conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The co-doping with Bi{sup 3+} ions increases the emission performance of the phosphors.

  12. Cross sections for fast-neutron interaction with Lu, Tb, and Ta isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Dzysiuk, N.; Kadenko, I.; Yermolenko, R.; Koning, A. J.

    2010-01-15

    The cross sections for (n,x) reactions with Lu, Tb, and Ta isotopes were measured at (d,t) neutron energies around 14 MeV with the activation technique using metal foils of natural composition. Additionally, tantalum samples were irradiated with (d,d) neutrons and filtered neutron beams. To ensure an acceptable precision of the results all major sources of uncertainties were taken into account. Calculations of efficiency and correction factors were performed with the Monte Carlo technique. The cross section results obtained for the {sup 175}Lu(n,{alpha}){sup 172}Tm reaction at (d,t) neutron energies are reported for the first time. {sup 181}Ta(n,{gamma}){sup 182}Ta{sup m2} reaction cross sections were also measured for the first time at 1.9, 58.7, and 144.3 keV and at 2.85 MeV. The earlier evaluated cross section upper estimate for the nuclear reaction {sup 159}Tb(n,n{sup '}{alpha}){sup 155}Eu is reported in this article to be one order lower. Some other cross sections were obtained with higher precision. Theoretical calculations of excitation functions were performed with the TALYS-1.0 code and compared with the experimental cross section values.

  13. Spectroscopic and energy transfer properties of Dy3+-doped, Tb3+/Dy3+-codoped dense oxyfluoride borogermanate scintillating glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xin-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Guang; Jiang, Da-Guo; Wang, Wen-Feng; Li, Yu-Nong; Chen, Zhi-Quan; Zhou, Yun-Zhi; Yang, Qing-Mei; Kang, Zhitao

    2016-06-01

    Dy3+-, Tb3+-activated, and Tb3+/Dy3+-coactivated oxyfluoride borogermanate scintillating glasses with the density of about 6.50 g/cm3 were successfully synthesized by a melt-quenching method. The structure and optical properties including transmittance, photoluminescence (excitation and emission spectra), photoluminescence decay, and X-ray excited luminescence (XEL) behaviors were studied in detail. Our results reveal that the energy transfer efficiency from Dy3+ to Tb3+ ions increases with an increase of Tb3+ concentration. The energy transfer mechanism is determined to be electric dipole-dipole interaction. However, the XEL intensity of Tb3+ decreases with the incorporation of sensitizer Dy3+ into borogermanate scintillating glass, which may result from the different mechanisms under ultraviolet light and X-ray excitation.

  14. Enhanced green upconversion luminescence in Yb3+/Tb3+-codoped silica fiber based on glass phase-separated method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Yingbo; Yang, Yu; Liao, Lei; Wang, Yibo; Zhao, Nan; Wang, Zhao; Liu, Changbo; Peng, Jinggang; Li, Haiqin; Dai, Nengli; Li, Jinyan; Yang, Luyun

    2015-09-01

    We reported on an Yb3+/Tb3+-codoped silica fiber with a large fiber core prepared from nanoporous silica glass based on glass phase-separated method. The measured refractive index profile indicated an excellent homogeneity of the doped active fiber core. Intense green upconversion emission from Tb3+ centered at 543 nm was obtained in the Yb3+/Tb3+-codoped silica fiber under 976-nm excitation. It is suggested that the green upconversion emission is dominated by a two-photon absorption process. It is found that the Al3+ ions as a modifier can facilitate the energy transfer from Yb3+ to Tb3+ in the porous glass fiber. The energy transfer efficiency from Yb3+ to Tb3+ was calculated.

  15. A Mutation in IL4RA Is Associated with the Degree of Pathology in Human TB Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hölscher, Christoph; Heitmann, Lisa; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Horstmann, Rolf D.; Meyer, Christian G.; Ehlers, Stefan; Thye, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of interleukin- (IL-) 4 receptor-alpha- (Rα-) dependent events in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB) is controversial. We have recently shown IL-13 overexpression in mice to cause recrudescent Mtb replication and centrally necrotizing granulomas strongly resembling pathology of human TB. A deletion of IL-4Rα completely abrogates TB tissue pathology in these mice. To validate our results in human TB patients, we here determined the association of distinct variants of the IL4, IL13, IL4RA, IL13RA1, and IL13RA2 genes with cavity formation in a large Ghanaian cohort of HIV-negative individuals with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB. In fact, the structural variant of the IL4RA I50V, previously shown to result in enhanced signal transduction, was significantly associated with greater cavity size, and a variant of IL13RA2 was associated with disease in females. To evaluate whether the human-like TB pathology in IL-13-overexpressing mice is specifically mediated through the IL-4Rα subunit, we analyzed IL-13 transgenic mice with a genetic ablation of the IL-4Rα. In these mice, the IL-13-mediated increased susceptibility, human-like pathology of collagen deposition around centrally necrotizing granulomas, and alternative macrophage activation were abolished. Together, our genetic association study in human TB patients further supports the assumption that IL-13/IL-4Rα-dependent mechanisms are involved in mediating tissue pathology of human TB. PMID:26977119

  16. Lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay for detecting active tuberculosis in Hiv-positive adults

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Maunank; Hanrahan, Colleen; Wang, Zhuo Yu; Dendukuri, Nandini; Lawn, Stephen D; Denkinger, Claudia M; Steingart, Karen R

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a global health priority. HIV-associated TB may have different clinical presentations and is challenging to diagnose. Conventional sputum tests have reduced sensitivity in HIV-positive individuals, who have higher rates of extrapulmonary TB compared with HIV-negative individuals. The lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM) is a new, commercially available point-of-care test that detects lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a lipopolysaccharide present in mycobacterial cell walls, in people with active TB disease. Objectives To assess the accuracy of LF-LAM for the diagnosis of active TB disease in HIV-positive adults who have signs and symptoms suggestive of TB (TB diagnosis).To assess the accuracy of LF-LAM as a screening test for active TB disease in HIV-positive adults irrespective of signs and symptoms suggestive of TB (TB screening). Search methods We searched the following databases without language restriction on 5 February 2015: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; MEDLINE (PubMed,1966); EMBASE (OVID, from 1980); Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED, from 1900), Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S, from 1900), and BIOSIS Previews (from 1926) (all three using the Web of Science platform; MEDION; LILACS (BIREME, from 1982); SCOPUS (from 1995); the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT); the search portal of the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP); and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&l (from 1861). Selection criteria Eligible study types included randomized controlled trials, cross-sectional studies, and cohort studies that determined LF-LAM accuracy for TB against a microbiological reference standard (culture or nucleic acid amplification test from any body site). A higher quality reference standard was one in which two or more specimen types were

  17. Investigation of multiferroic behaviour of TbMnO{sub 3} nanoplates

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, S.A. Khule, S.M.; Gaikwad, V.M.

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of TbMnO{sub 3} nanoplate. • Morphology induced defects detected by Raman spectroscopy. • Magnetic and dielectric anomalies confirmed multiferroic behavior is retained in TbMnO{sub 3} nanoplates. - Abstract: In the present study, hydrothermally prepared TbMnO{sub 3} in plates-like morphology at nanoscale are investigated in multiferroic view point. X-ray diffraction study confirms the orthorhombic phase of as-synthesized TbMnO{sub 3}. Microstructural features studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy show the plates-like morphology of as-synthesized TbMnO{sub 3} at nanoscale. Local distortions investigated by FT-Raman exhibits redshift in T mode by about 20 cm{sup −1} as compared to that of the single crystal. The redshift in T mode is mainly due to defect by tilting of octahedra and respective changes in bond angle of Mn–O(1)–Mn. This is assigned to the size-morphology induced defects. The temperature dependent zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetization are measured at H = 50 Oe and in the temperature range 2–300 K. The anomalies in magnetization are obtained at 8 and 42 K. Bifurcation of the ZFC and FC curves are observed very close to magnetic transition temperature 42 K. The 42 K anomaly is related to the sine wave ordering of Mn{sup 3+} moment; and 8 K anomaly is associated with magnetic ordering of the Tb{sup 3+}-sublattice propagation vector. The anomalies in the electric properties, ϵ′ (T), tan δ (T), which are noticed within the 28 K range, coincide with the temperature of incommensurate–commensurate (or lock-in) magnetic transition of TbMnO{sub 3.} This study confirms that multiferroic behavior is retained in TbMnO{sub 3} nanoplates.

  18. Dopant-mediated structural and magnetic properties of TbMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vinit; McDannald, A.; Staruch, M.; Ramprasad, R.; Jain, M.

    2015-07-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of the doped terbium manganites (Tb,A)MnO3 (A = Gd, Dy, and Ho) have been investigated using first-principles calculations and further confirmed by subsequent experimental studies. Both computational and experimental studies suggest that compared to the parent material, namely, TbMnO3 (with a magnetic moment of 9.7 μ B for Tb3+) Dy- and Ho-ion substituted TbMnO3 results in an increase in the magnetic susceptibility at low fields ( ≤ 10.6 μ B for Dy3+ and Ho3+). The observed spiral-spin AFM order in TbMnO3 is stable with respect to the dopant substitutions, which modify the Mn-O-Mn bond angles and lead to stronger the ferromagnetic component of the magnetic moment. Given the fact that magnetic ordering in TbMnO3 causes the ferroelectricity, this is an important step in the field of the magnetically driven ferroelectricity in the class of magnetoelectric multiferroics, which traditionally have low magnetic moments due to the predominantly antiferromagnetic order. In addition, the present study reveals important insights on the phenomenological coupling mechanism in detail, which is essential in order to design new materials with enhanced magneto-electric effects at higher temperatures.

  19. Generation and application of ssDNA aptamers against glycolipid antigen ManLAM of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for TB diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Shi-Min; Xie, Yan; Song, Neng; Guan, Qing; Yuan, Chunhui; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Lian

    2016-05-01

    The development of effective Mycobacterial antigen diagnostic reagents remains a high priority. Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) is a lipoglycan serving as a major cell wall component. ManLAM is also an early released antigen in the blood circulation system during Mycobacteria tuberculosis (M.tb) infection and is a perfect target antigen for TB diagnosis. In this study, ssDNA aptamers "antibodies" against ManLAM of the predominant clinical epidemic M.tb Beijing genotype strains were generated by the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) technique. The selected single aptamer T9 demonstrated the highest specificity and binding affinity, with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 668 ± 159 nmol/L. We further detected ManLAM antigens in serum and sputum samples from active pulmonary tuberculosis (aPTB) patients, extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) patients and healthy donors by using a T9 based enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay (ELONA). The results showed that the specificity and sensitivity were 95.31% and 83.00% (for 100 aPTB serum samples), 98.70% and 92.71% (for 96 aPTB sputum samples), and 94.44% and 88.71% (for 62 EPTB serum samples), respectively. A good correlation was observed between the T9 aptamer-based ELONA and the clinical T-SPOT.TB. Thus, T9 based ELONA has potentials for diagnosis of TB, including inactive TB, smear-negative TB, EPTB, and TB with immunodeficiency, and assist the diagnosis of LTBI albeit it could not distinguish LTBI and active TB.

  20. Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in Cattle in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lemma, Fitsum A.; Mekonnen, Daniel A.; Alemu, Zelalem E.; Kelkay, Tessema Z.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection is generally correlated with individual cattle’s age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife—including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the correlation between those factors and the prevalence of bTB, which is endemic in Ethiopia’s highland cattle, in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. A total of 2550 cattle from 102 herds were tested for bTB presence using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT). Data on herd structure, herd movement, management and production system, livestock transfer, and contact with wildlife were collected using semi-structured interviews with cattle herders and herd owners. The individual overall prevalence of cattle bTB was 5.5%, with a herd prevalence of 46%. Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a random herd-effect were used to analyse risk factors of cattle reactors within each herd. The older the age of the cattle and the lower the body condition the higher the chance of a positive bTB test result, but sex, lactation status and reproductive status were not correlated with bTB status. At herd level, General Linear Models showed that pastoral production systems with transhumant herds had a higher bTB prevalence than sedentary herds. A model averaging analysis identified herd size, contact with wildlife, and the interaction of herd size and contact with wildlife as significant risk factors for bTB prevalence in cattle. A subsequent Structural Equation Model showed that the probability of contact with wildlife was influenced by herd size, through herd movement. Larger herds moved more and grazed in larger areas, hence the probability of grazing in an area with wildlife and contact with either infected cattle or infected wildlife hosts increased, enhancing the chances for bTB infection. Therefore, future bTB control strategies in cattle in

  1. Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in Cattle in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dejene, Sintayehu W; Heitkönig, Ignas M A; Prins, Herbert H T; Lemma, Fitsum A; Mekonnen, Daniel A; Alemu, Zelalem E; Kelkay, Tessema Z; de Boer, Willem F

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection is generally correlated with individual cattle's age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife-including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the correlation between those factors and the prevalence of bTB, which is endemic in Ethiopia's highland cattle, in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. A total of 2550 cattle from 102 herds were tested for bTB presence using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT). Data on herd structure, herd movement, management and production system, livestock transfer, and contact with wildlife were collected using semi-structured interviews with cattle herders and herd owners. The individual overall prevalence of cattle bTB was 5.5%, with a herd prevalence of 46%. Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a random herd-effect were used to analyse risk factors of cattle reactors within each herd. The older the age of the cattle and the lower the body condition the higher the chance of a positive bTB test result, but sex, lactation status and reproductive status were not correlated with bTB status. At herd level, General Linear Models showed that pastoral production systems with transhumant herds had a higher bTB prevalence than sedentary herds. A model averaging analysis identified herd size, contact with wildlife, and the interaction of herd size and contact with wildlife as significant risk factors for bTB prevalence in cattle. A subsequent Structural Equation Model showed that the probability of contact with wildlife was influenced by herd size, through herd movement. Larger herds moved more and grazed in larger areas, hence the probability of grazing in an area with wildlife and contact with either infected cattle or infected wildlife hosts increased, enhancing the chances for bTB infection. Therefore, future bTB control strategies in cattle in

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lipolytic Enzymes as Potential Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Active Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Brust, Belinda; Lecoufle, Mélanie; Tuaillon, Edouard; Dedieu, Luc; Canaan, Stéphane; Valverde, Viviane; Kremer, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Background New diagnosis tests are urgently needed to address the global tuberculosis (TB) burden and to improve control programs especially in resource-limited settings. An effective in vitro diagnostic of TB based on serological methods would be regarded as an attractive progress because immunoassays are simple, rapid, inexpensive, and may offer the possibility to detect cases missed by standard sputum smear microscopy. However, currently available serology tests for TB are highly variable in sensitivity and specificity. Lipolytic enzymes have recently emerged as key factors in lipid metabolization during dormancy and/or exit of the non-replicating growth phase, a prerequisite step of TB reactivation. The focus of this study was to analyze and compare the potential of four Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipolytic enzymes (LipY, Rv0183, Rv1984c and Rv3452) as new markers in the serodiagnosis of active TB. Methods Recombinant proteins were produced and used in optimized ELISA aimed to detect IgG and IgM serum antibodies against the four lipolytic enzymes. The capacity of the assays to identify infection was evaluated in patients with either active TB or latent TB and compared with two distinct control groups consisting of BCG-vaccinated blood donors and hospitalized non-TB individuals. Results A robust humoral response was detected in patients with active TB whereas antibodies against lipolytic enzymes were infrequently detected in either uninfected groups or in subjects with latent infection. High specifity levels, ranging from 93.9% to 97.5%, were obtained for all four antigens with sensitivity values ranging from 73.4% to 90.5%, with Rv3452 displaying the highest performances. Patients with active TB usually exhibited strong IgG responses but poor IgM responses. Conclusion These results clearly indicate that the lipolytic enzymes tested are strongly immunogenic allowing to distinguish active from latent TB infections. They appear as potent biomarkers providing high

  3. Relationship between education and training activities and tuberculosis case detection in Fiji, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Delai, M Y; Gounder, S; Tayler-Smith, K; Van den Bergh, R; Harries, A D

    2012-12-21

    Due to concerns about under-reporting of the tuberculosis (TB) case burden in Fiji, efforts have been put into national training, education and awareness activities in the formal health sector and among village health workers, health volunteers and the community since 2010. There has been an absolute increase in TB registrations, and TB case notification rates during the period of training activities in 2010 (21.3 per 100 000 population) and 2011 (23.6/100 000) were significantly increased compared with TB case notification rates in 2008 (12.4/100 000) and 2009 (14.6/100 000), when no training activities took place (P < 0.01). These findings support the use of ongoing training efforts.

  4. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection among TB patients in Port Harcourt Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Erhabor, O; Jeremiah, Z A; Adias, T C; Okere, CE

    2010-01-01

    The joint statement by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends that all patients with tuberculosis (TB) undergo testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection after counseling. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of HIV infection among 120 patients diagnosed with microbiologically proven TB aged 18 to 54 years with a mean age of 39.5 years (standard deviation 6.75). The subjects studied were 36 male (30%) and 84 females (70%). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods were used to screen for HIV infection among the subjects. Of the 120 TB patients tested 30 (25%) were positive for HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV was higher in females 24 (80%) compared to males 6 (20%) and among singles (66.7%) compared to married subjects (33.3%) (χ2 = 83.5 and χ2 = 126.2, respectively P = 0.001). HIV-1 was the predominant viral subtype. HIV prevalence was significantly higher in subjects in the 38–47 year and 28–37 year age groups (both 40%) followed by the 18–28 year age group (20%) (χ2 = 42.6, P = 0.05). The mean CD4 lymphocyte count of the HIV-infected TB subjects was significantly lower (195 ± 40.5 cells/μL) compared to the non-HIV infected (288 ± 35.25 cells/μL P = 0.01). This study has shown a high prevalence of HIV among TB patients. Reactivation of TB among people living with HIV can be reduced by TB preventive therapy and by universal access to antiretroviral therapy. PMID:22096379

  5. Socio Economic Position in TB Prevalence and Access to Services: Results from a Population Prevalence Survey and a Facility-Based Survey in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Shahed; Quaiyum, Mohammad Abdul; Zaman, Khalequ; Banu, Sayera; Husain, Mohammad Ashaque; Islam, Mohammad Akramul; Cooreman, Erwin; Borgdorff, Martien; Lönnroth, Knut; Salim, Abdul Hamid; van Leth, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh DOTS has been provided free of charge since 1993, yet information on access to TB services by different population group is not well documented. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the socio economic position (SEP) of actively detected cases from the community and the cases being routinely detected under National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP) in Bangladesh. Methods and Findings SEP was assessed by validated asset item for each of the 21,427 households included in the national tuberculosis prevalence survey 2007–2009. A principal component analysis generated household scores and categorized in quartiles. The distribution of 33 actively identified cases was compared with the 240 NTP cases over the identical SEP quartiles to evaluate access to TB services by different groups of the population. The population prevalence of tuberculosis was 5 times higher in the lowest quartiles of population (95.4, 95% CI: 48.0–189.7) to highest quartile population (19.5, 95% CI: 6.9–55.0). Among the 33 cases detected during survey, 25 (75.8%) were from lower two quartiles, and the rest 8 (24.3%) were from upper two quartiles. Among TB cases detected passively under NTP, more than half of them 137 (57.1%) were from uppermost two quartiles, 98 (41%) from the second quartile, and 5 (2%) in the lowest quartile of the population. This distribution is not affected when adjusted for other factors or interactions among them. Conclusions The findings indicate that despite availability free of charge, DOTS is not equally accessed by the poorer sections of the population. However, these figures should be interpreted with caution since there is a need for additional studies that assess in-depth poverty indicators and its determinants in relation to access of the TB services provided in Bangladesh. PMID:23028718

  6. Spectroscopic investigation on tunable luminescence by energy transfer in Tb2-xSmx(MoO4)3 nanophosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, P. Mani; Vimal, G.; Biju, P. R.; Joseph, Cyriac; Unnikrishnan, N. V.; Ittyachen, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    New Sm3+ activated Tb2-xSmx(MoO4)3 nanophosphors were synthesized through sol-gel method. The structural and luminescence properties have been studied by XRD, TEM and photoluminescence measurements. The XRD pattern confirms that the Tb2-xSmx(MoO4)3 crystallizes in the same orthorhombic structure of Tb2(MoO4)3. The spectroscopic and laser parameters of Sm3+ ion in Tb2-x(MoO4)3 matrix were evaluated for the first time using Judd-Ofelt theoretical analysis. The higher value of stimulated emission cross-section of 4G5/2 → 6H7/2 transition of Sm3+ is favorable for low threshold and high gain to obtain continuous wave laser action. The photoluminescence excitation spectra suggest that this novel phosphor can be excited over a broad range from nUV to blue light (300-490 nm). Under the excitation of UV, Tb2-xSmx(MoO4)3 nanophosphor exhibits the characteristic emissions of Tb3+ and Sm3+. By varying the doping concentration of Sm3+, the emission color of the phosphors can be tuned and white emission in a single composition can be obtained under host excitation, in which an energy transfer from MoO42- → Sm3+/ Tb3+ and Tb3+ → Sm3+ was observed. The investigation of the luminescence decay curves and lifetime values implies the energy transfer between Tb3+ → Sm3+ and confirms the absence of Sm3+ → Tb3+ energy transfer. These phosphors might be a promising material for use in nUV LEDs and can exhibit tricolor luminescence under single excitation wavelength.

  7. Active tuberculosis among homeless persons, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1998-2007.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kamran; Rea, Elizabeth; McDermaid, Cameron; Stuart, Rebecca; Chambers, Catharine; Wang, Jun; Chan, Angie; Gardam, Michael; Jamieson, Frances; Yang, Jae; Hwang, Stephen W

    2011-03-01

    While tuberculosis (TB) in Canadian cities is increasingly affecting foreign-born persons, homeless persons remain at high risk. To assess trends in TB, we studied all homeless persons in Toronto who had a diagnosis of active TB during 1998-2007. We compared Canada-born and foreign-born homeless persons and assessed changes over time. We identified 91 homeless persons with active TB; they typically had highly contagious, advanced disease, and 19% died within 12 months of diagnosis. The proportion of homeless persons who were foreign-born increased from 24% in 1998-2002 to 39% in 2003-2007. Among foreign-born homeless persons with TB, 56% of infections were caused by strains not known to circulate among homeless persons in Toronto. Only 2% of infections were resistant to first-line TB medications. The rise in foreign-born homeless persons with TB strains likely acquired overseas suggests that the risk for drug-resistant strains entering the homeless shelter system may be escalating.

  8. Active Tuberculosis among Homeless Persons, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1998–2007

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Elizabeth; McDermaid, Cameron; Stuart, Rebecca; Chambers, Catharine; Wang, Jun; Chan, Angie; Gardam, Michael; Jamieson, Frances; Yang, Jae; Hwang, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    While tuberculosis (TB) in Canadian cities is increasingly affecting foreign-born persons, homeless persons remain at high risk. To assess trends in TB, we studied all homeless persons in Toronto who had a diagnosis of active TB during 1998–2007. We compared Canada-born and foreign-born homeless persons and assessed changes over time. We identified 91 homeless persons with active TB; they typically had highly contagious, advanced disease, and 19% died within 12 months of diagnosis. The proportion of homeless persons who were foreign-born increased from 24% in 1998–2002 to 39% in 2003–2007. Among foreign-born homeless persons with TB, 56% of infections were caused by strains not known to circulate among homeless persons in Toronto. Only 2% of infections were resistant to first-line TB medications. The rise in foreign-born homeless persons with TB strains likely acquired overseas suggests that the risk for drug-resistant strains entering the homeless shelter system may be escalating. PMID:21392424

  9. Lessons learnt from TB screening in closed immigration centres in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Crepet, Anna; Repetto, Ernestina; Al Rousan, Ahmad; Sané Schepisi, Monica; Girardi, Enrico; Prestileo, Tullio; Codecasa, Luigi; Garelli, Silvia; Corrao, Salvatore; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Decroo, Tom; Maccagno, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background Between June 2012 and December 2013 Médecins Sans Frontières launched a pilot project with the aim of testing a strategy for improving timely diagnosis of active pulmonary TB among migrants hosted in four centres of identification and expulsion (CIE) in Italy. Methods This is a descriptive study. For active TB case finding we used an active symptom screening approach among migrants at admission in four CIE's. Here we describe the feasibility and the yield of this programme. Results Overall, 3588 migrants were screened, among whom 87 (2.4%) had a positive questionnaire. Out of 30 migrants referred for further investigations, three were diagnosed as having TB, or 0.1% out of 3588 individuals that underwent screening. Twenty-five (29%, 25/87) migrants with positive questionnaires were not referred for further investigation, following the doctors' decision; however, for 32 (37%, 32/87) migrants the diagnostic work-out was not completed. In multivariate analyses, being over 35 years (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.1–2.6) and being transgender (OR 4.9; 95% CI 2.1–11.7), was associated with a positive questionnaire. Conclusions TB screening with symptom screening questionnaires of migrants at admission in closed centres is feasible. However, to improve the yield, follow-up of patients with symptoms or signs suggestive for TB needs to be improved. PMID:27208040

  10. Targeted screening and treatment for latent tuberculosis infection using QuantiFERON®-TB Gold is cost-effective in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Burgos, J. L.; Kahn, J. G.; Strathdee, S. A.; Valencia-Mendoza, A.; Bautista-Arredondo, S.; Laniado-Laborin, R.; Castañeda, R.; Deiss, R.; Garfein, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To assess the cost-effectiveness of screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) using a commercially available detection test and treating individuals at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a middle-income country. DESIGN We developed a Markov model to evaluate the cost per LTBI case detected, TB case averted and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained for a cohort of 1000 individuals at high risk for HIV infection over 20 years. Baseline model inputs for LTBI prevalence were obtained from published literature and cross-sectional data from tuberculosis (TB) screening using QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) testing among sex workers and illicit drug users at high risk for HIV recruited through street outreach in Tijuana, Mexico. Costs are reported in 2007 US dollars. Future costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% per year. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate model robustness. RESULTS Over 20 years, we estimate the program would prevent 78 cases of active TB and 55 TB-related deaths. The incremental cost per case of LTBI detected was US$730, cost per active TB averted was US$529 and cost per QALY gained was US$108. CONCLUSIONS In settings of endemic TB and escalating HIV incidence, targeting LTBI screening and treatment among high-risk groups may be highly cost-effective. PMID:19723375

  11. Participating in Political Activities: Political Systems, Unit Three. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Patrick, John J.

    The third unit to the first-semester course, "Comparing Political Experiences," provides 16 activities to help 12th-grade students acquire in-depth knowledge of various kinds of political activities, such as decision making, leadership, communication, and participation. The activities and readings are divided into six sections which stress the…

  12. Comparing the validity of 2 physical activity questionnaire formats in African-American and Hispanic women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of 2 physical activity questionnaire formats—one that lists activities (Checklist questionnaire) and one that assesses overall activities (Global questionnaire) by domain. Two questionnaire formats were validated among 260 African-American and Hi...

  13. Cell Death and Autophagy in TB

    PubMed Central

    Moraco, Andrew H.; Kornfeld, Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has succeeded in infecting one third of the human race though inhibition or evasion of innate and adaptive immunity. The pathogen is a facultative intracellular parasite that uses the niche provided by mononuclear phagocytes for its advantage. Complex interactions determine whether the bacillus will or will not be delivered to acidified lysosomes, whether the host phagocyte will survive infection or die, and whether the timing and mode of cell death works to the advantage of the host or the pathogen. Here we discuss cell death and autophagy in TB. These fundamental processes of cell biology feature in all aspects of TB pathogenesis and may be exploited to the treatment or prevention of TB disease. PMID:25453227

  14. Magnetic Order in TbCo2Zn20 and TbFe2Zn20

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, W.; Christianson, Andrew D; Zarestky, J. L.; Jia, S.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Piccoli, P. M. B.; Schultz, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    We report neutron di raction studies of TbCo2Zn20 and TbFe2Zn20, two isostructural compounds which exhibit dramatically di erent magnetic behavior. In the case of TbCo2Zn20, magnetic Bragg peaks corresponding to antiferromagnetic order are observed below TN 2.5 K with a propagation vector of (0.5 0.5 0.5). On the other hand, TbFe2Zn20 undergoes a ferromagnetic transition at temperatures as high as 66 K which shows a high sensitivity to sample-to-sample variations. Two samples of TbFe2Zn20 with the same nominal compositions but with substantially di erent mag- netic ordering temperatures (Tc 51 and 66 K) were measured by single crystal neutron di raction. Structural re nements of the neutron di raction data nd no direct signature of atomic site disorder between the two TbFe2Zn20 samples except for subtle di erences in the anisotropic thermal param- eters. The di erences in the anisotropic thermal parameters between the two samples is likely due to very small amounts of disorder. This provides further evidence for the extreme sensitivity of the magnetic properties of TbFe2Zn20 to small sample variations, even small amounts of disorder.

  15. Eu/Tb codoped spindle-shaped fluorinated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for dual-color cell imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Baojin; Zhang, Shan; Qiu, Jichuan; Li, Jianhua; Sang, Yuanhua; Xia, Haibing; Jiang, Huaidong; Claverie, Jerome; Liu, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Lanthanide doped fluorinated hydroxyapatite (FAp) nanoparticles are promising cell imaging nanomaterials but they are excited at wavelengths which do not match the light sources usually found in a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). In this work, we have successfully prepared spindle-shaped Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles by a hydrothermal method. Compared with single Eu doped FAp, Eu/Tb codoped FAp can be excited by a 488 nm laser, and exhibit both green and red light emission. By changing the amounts of Eu and Tb peaks, the emission in the green region (500-580 nm) can be decreased to the benefit of the emission in the red region (580-720 nm), thus reaching a balanced dual color emission. Using MC3T3-E1 cells co-cultured with Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles, it is observed that the nanoparticles are cytocompatible even at a concentration as high as 800 μg ml-1. The Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles are located in the cytoplasm and can be monitored by dual color--green and red imaging with a single excitation light at 488 nm. At a concentration of 200 μg ml-1, the cytoplasm is saturated in 8 hours, and Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles retain their fluorescence for at least 3 days. The cytocompatible Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles with unique dual color emission will be of great use for cell and tissue imaging.Lanthanide doped fluorinated hydroxyapatite (FAp) nanoparticles are promising cell imaging nanomaterials but they are excited at wavelengths which do not match the light sources usually found in a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). In this work, we have successfully prepared spindle-shaped Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles by a hydrothermal method. Compared with single Eu doped FAp, Eu/Tb codoped FAp can be excited by a 488 nm laser, and exhibit both green and red light emission. By changing the amounts of Eu and Tb peaks, the emission in the green region (500-580 nm) can be decreased to the benefit of the emission in the

  16. Tuberculosis: Learn the Signs and Symptoms of TB Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Tuberculosis (TB) Disease: Symptoms & Risk Factors Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria that ...

  17. Tuberculosis: The Connection between TB and HIV (the AIDS Virus)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force Tuberculosis: The Connection between TB and HIV Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Order this ... if I am infected with both TB and HIV? If you have HIV, it is important to ...

  18. Drug resistance among TB cases and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Chopra, K K

    2015-07-01

    The emergence of M. tuberculosis strains resistant to at least, Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampicin (RIF), the two most potent drugs of first-line anti-TB therapy is termed multidrug drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). This is a cause of concern to TB Control Programmes worldwide. When MDR-TB strains become resistant to the major second-line drugs, one of the fluouroquinolones and one of the three injectable drugs (Amikacin, Kanamycin and Capreomycin), it is defined as extensively drug resistant TB.(1,2) MDR-TB is a manmade, costly and deadly problem. Rapid diagnosis of MDR-TB is essential for the prompt initiation of effective second-line therapy to improve treatment outcome and limit transmission of the disease.

  19. HIV-1 and the immune response to TB

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Naomi F; Meintjes, Graeme; Wilkinson, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    TB causes 1.4 million deaths annually. HIV-1 infection is the strongest risk factor for TB. The characteristic immunological effect of HIV is on CD4 cell count. However, the risk of TB is elevated in HIV-1 infected individuals even in the first few years after HIV acquisition and also after CD4 cell counts are restored with antiretroviral therapy. In this review, we examine features of the immune response to TB and how this is affected by HIV-1 infection and vice versa. We discuss how the immunology of HIV–TB coinfection impacts on the clinical presentation and diagnosis of TB, and how antiretroviral therapy affects the immune response to TB, including the development of TB immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. We highlight important areas of uncertainty and future research needs. PMID:23653664

  20. Extreme ultraviolet emission spectra of Gd and Tb ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, D.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2010-11-15

    Theoretical extreme ultraviolet emission spectra of gadolinium and terbium ions calculated with the Cowan suite of codes and the flexible atomic code (FAC) relativistic code are presented. 4d-4f and 4p-4d transitions give rise to unresolved transition arrays in a range of ions. The effects of configuration interaction are investigated for transitions between singly excited configurations. Optimization of emission at 6.775 nm and 6.515 nm is achieved for Gd and Tb ions, respectively, by consideration of plasma effects. The resulting synthetic spectra are compared with experimental spectra recorded using the laser produced plasma technique.

  1. Comparative study of surface-active properties and antimicrobial activities of disaccharide monoesters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Song, Fei; Taxipalati, Maierhaba; Wei, Wei; Feng, Fengqin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of sugar or fatty acid in sugar ester compounds on the surface-active properties and antimicrobial activities of these compounds. Disaccharides of medium-chain fatty acid monoesters were synthesized through transesterifications by immobilized lipase (Lipozyme TLIM) to yield nine monoesters for subsequent study. Their antimicrobial activities were investigated using three pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Candida albicans. Their surface-active properties including air-water surface tension, critical micelle concentration, and foaming and emulsion power and stability were also studied. The results showed that all of the tested monoesters were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium) than against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Gram-negative bacterium). The results demonstrated that the carbon chain length was the most important factor influencing the surface properties, whereas degree of esterification and hydrophilic groups showed little effect.

  2. Comparative Study of Surface-Active Properties and Antimicrobial Activities of Disaccharide Monoesters

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Song, Fei; Taxipalati, Maierhaba; Wei, Wei; Feng, Fengqin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of sugar or fatty acid in sugar ester compounds on the surface-active properties and antimicrobial activities of these compounds. Disaccharides of medium-chain fatty acid monoesters were synthesized through transesterifications by immobilized lipase (Lipozyme TLIM) to yield nine monoesters for subsequent study. Their antimicrobial activities were investigated using three pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Candida albicans. Their surface-active properties including air–water surface tension, critical micelle concentration, and foaming and emulsion power and stability were also studied. The results showed that all of the tested monoesters were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium) than against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Gram-negative bacterium). The results demonstrated that the carbon chain length was the most important factor influencing the surface properties, whereas degree of esterification and hydrophilic groups showed little effect. PMID:25531369

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Alcohol Dependence Disorder among TB and HIV Infected Patients in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Rebecca; Chishinga, Nathaniel; Kinyanda, Eugene; Patel, Vikram; Ayles, Helen; Weiss, Helen A.; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence and correlates of alcohol dependence disorders in persons receiving treatment for HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) at 16 Primary Health Care centres (PHC) across Zambia. Methods 649 adult patients receiving treatment for HIV and/or TB at PHCs in Zambia (363 males, 286 females) were recruited between 1st December 2009 and 31st January 2010. Data on socio-demographic variables, clinical disease features (TB and HIV), and psychopathological status were collected. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to diagnose alcohol dependence disorder. Correlates of alcohol dependence were analyzed for men only, due to low prevalence in women. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using general estimating equations to allow for within-PHC clustering. Results The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 27.2% (95%CI: 17.7-39.5%) for men and 3.9% (95%CI: 1.4-0.1%) for women. Factors associated with alcohol dependence disorder in men included being single, divorced or widowed compared with married (adjusted OR = 1.47, 95%CI: 1.00-2.14) and being unemployed (adjusted OR=1.30, 95%CI: 1.01-1.67). The highest prevalence of alcohol dependence was among HIV-test unknown TB patients (34.7%), and lowest was among HIV positive patients on treatment but without TB (14.1%), although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.38). Conclusions Male TB/HIV patients in this population have high prevalence of alcohol dependence disorder, and prevalence differs by HIV/TB status. Further work is needed to explore interventions to reduce harmful drinking in this population. PMID:24069309

  4. Rapid synthesis of single-crystalline TbF{sub 3} with novel nanostructure via ultrasound irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Ling; Liu, Yangjia; Fan, Xizhi; Yang, Daowu; Cao, Xueqiang

    2011-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Terbium fluoride (TbF{sub 3}) nanopeanut has been successfully synthesized via a mild sonochemical route from an aqueous solution of terbium nitrate and fluoroborate without any template or organic additive. Research highlights: {yields} Research highlights {yields} TbF3 nanopeanut was prepared via sonochemical method. {yields} The morphologies of TbF3 can be tuned by ultrasound irradiation and fluoride source. {yields} The TbF3 nanopeanut shows high photoluminescence intensity. -- Abstract: Terbium fluoride (TbF{sub 3}) nanopeanut has been successfully synthesized via a mild sonochemical route from an aqueous solution of terbium nitrate and fluoroborate without any template or organic additive. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were utilized to characterize the synthesized samples. The morphologies and optical properties of the obtained TbF{sub 3} nanopeanut can be tuned by ultrasound irradiation as well as the fluoride source. The prepared TbF{sub 3} nanopeanut shows extraordinarily high room temperature photoluminescence intensity comparing to the products prepared by stirring. The possible formation mechanism is proposed in this paper.

  5. Ba3Tb(PO4)3: Crystal growth, structure, magnetic and magneto-optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Gong, Zhongliang; Wan, Qiping; Wu, Shuting; Guo, Feiyun; Zhuang, Naifeng; Chen, Jianzhong

    2015-06-01

    Ba3Tb(PO4)3 crystals have been grown by the slow-cooling method and the Czochralski technique for the first time for magneto-optical applications. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction confirms that the compound crystallizes in the cubic system I 4 bar 3 d , with eulytite structure with a = 10.4484(12) Å, V = 1140.6(2) Å3 and Z = 4. The hardness of Ba3Tb(PO4)3 crystal is about 5.5 Moh. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility indicated that the Ba3Tb(PO4)3 crystal exhibits paramagnetic behavior over the experimental temperature-range 2-300 K. Transmittance spectra and the Faraday rotation have been investigated, which demonstrate that Ba3Tb(PO4)3 crystal shows a higher visible transparency than Tb3Ga5O12 crystal and yields a Faraday rotation comparable to that of Sr3Tb(BO3)3 crystal. Ba3Tb(PO4)3 is therefore a promising material in particular for new magneto-optical applications in the visible region.

  6. Investigations on photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of Ca3La6(SiO4)6:Tb3 +, Mn2 +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhou, Beibei; Wang, Xichen

    2016-08-01

    Tb3 +/Mn2 + activated Ca3La6(SiO4)6 (CLS) phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction method, and their photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence (CL) properties were investigated. The CLS:Tb3 + sample shows a yellowish green emission under 377 nm excitation, and the excitation spectrum reveals the excitation peaks between 340 and 390 nm can match with the near-ultraviolet LED chip. Excellent thermal stability has been obtained in the CLS:Tb3 + phosphor by studying the temperature dependence of the Tb3 + emission intensity. By introducing Mn2 + into CLS:Tb3 +, tunable emissions are generated due to the efficient energy transfer from Tb3 + to Mn2 +. The CL spectrum of CLS:Tb3 + displays that the characteristic 5D4-7FJ (J = 6 - 3) transitions of Tb3 + are found under electron beam excitation. The above investigation results imply that the CLS:Tb3 +, Mn2 + phosphors could have potential applications on LEDs and FEDs.

  7. Investigations on photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of Ca3La6(SiO4)6:Tb(3+), Mn(2.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia; Zhou, Beibei; Wang, Xichen

    2016-08-01

    Tb(3+)/Mn(2+) activated Ca3La6(SiO4)6 (CLS) phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction method, and their photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence (CL) properties were investigated. The CLS:Tb(3+) sample shows a yellowish green emission under 377nm excitation, and the excitation spectrum reveals the excitation peaks between 340 and 390nm can match with the near-ultraviolet LED chip. Excellent thermal stability has been obtained in the CLS:Tb(3+) phosphor by studying the temperature dependence of the Tb(3+) emission intensity. By introducing Mn(2+) into CLS:Tb(3+), tunable emissions are generated due to the efficient energy transfer from Tb(3+) to Mn(2+). The CL spectrum of CLS:Tb(3+) displays that the characteristic (5)D4-(7)FJ (J=6-3) transitions of Tb(3+) are found under electron beam excitation. The above investigation results imply that the CLS:Tb(3+), Mn(2+) phosphors could have potential applications on LEDs and FEDs.

  8. Inhibitory effect of Xenorhabdus nematophila TB on plant pathogens Phytophthora capsici and Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangling; Zhang, Manrang; Tang, Qian; Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Entomopathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus spp. produce secondary metabolites with potential antimicrobial activity for use in agricultural productions. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of X. nematophila TB culture on plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora capsici. The cell-free filtrate of TB culture showed strong inhibitory effects (>90%) on mycelial growth of both pathogens. The methanol-extracted bioactive compounds (methanol extract) of TB culture also had strong inhibitory effects on mycelial growth and spore germinations of both pathogens. The methanol extract (1000 μg/mL) and cell-free filtrate both showed strong therapeutic and protective effects (>70%) on grey mold both in detached tomato fruits and plants, and leaf scorch in pepper plants. This study demonstrates X. nematophila TB produces antimicrobial metabolites of strong activity on plant pathogens, with great potential for controlling tomato grey mold and pepper leaf scorch and being used in integrated disease control to reduce chemical application. PMID:24599183

  9. Boeing TB-29 Superfortress (B-29)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    Boeing TB-29 Superfortress (B-29): Arriving for use with the NACA right at the end of World War II, this Boeing B-29 Superfortress was used for research into hydraulically boosting flight controls. After just over five years of study at Langley, the B-29 was returned to the Air Force.

  10. Timing of antiretroviral therapy and TB treatment outcomes in patients with TB-HIV in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Shewade, H. D.; Kyaw, N. T. T.; Oo, M. M.; Aung, T. K.; Aung, S. T.; Oo, H. N.; Win, T.; Harries, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Integrated HIV Care programme, Mandalay, Myanmar. Objectives: To determine time to starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in relation to anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) and its association with TB treatment outcomes in patients co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enrolled from 2011 to 2014. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Results: Of 1708 TB-HIV patients, 1565 (92%) started ATT first and 143 (8%) started ART first. Treatment outcomes were missing for 226 patients and were thus not included. In those starting ATT first, the median time to starting ART was 8.6 weeks. ART was initiated after 8 weeks in 830 (53%) patients. Unsuccessful outcome was found in 7%, with anaemia being an independent predictor. In patients starting ART first, the median time to starting ATT was 21.6 weeks. ATT was initiated within 3 months in 56 (39%) patients. Unsuccessful outcome was found in 12%, and in 20% of those starting ATT within 3 months. Patients with CD4 count <100/mm3 had a four times higher risk of an unsuccessful outcome. Conclusions: Timing of ART in relation to ATT was not an independent risk factor for unsuccessful outcome. Extensive screening for TB with rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests in HIV-infected persons and close monitoring of anaemia and immunosuppression are recommended to further improve TB treatment outcomes among patients with TB-HIV. PMID:27358804

  11. Comparing Pictorial and Video Modeling Activity Schedules during Transitions for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David F.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the differential effects of two different visual schedule strategies. In the context of an alternating treatments design, static-picture schedules were compared to video based activity schedules as supports for three middle school aged students with autism. Students used the visual schedules to transition between activities in…

  12. Comparing Pictorial and Video-Modeling Activity Schedules during Transitions for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David F.; Ayres, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the differential effects of two different visual schedule strategies. In the context of an alternating treatments design, static-picture schedules were compared to video based activity schedules as supports for three middle school aged students with autism. Students used the visual schedules to transition between activities in…

  13. Comparing Activity Patterns, Biological, and Family Factors in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutum, Monique Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Bundy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The association between motor proficiency and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) suggests children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be susceptible to inactivity-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare children with and without DCD on physical activity patterns, activity…

  14. Favoured Free-Time: Comparing Children's Activity Preferences in the UK and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Merris

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a comparative study of the free-time activity preferences of 9- to 11-year-old children in the UK and USA, as drawn by them in art workshops. Six themes emerged relating to sport, outdoor play, family/peers, media, special occasions and other (indefinable) activities. The children's talk about their drawings revealed additional…

  15. Comparing Role-Playing Activities in Second Life and Face-to-Face Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fei; Noh, Jeongmin J.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared student performances in role-playing activities in both a face-to-face (FTF) environment and a virtual 3D environment, Second Life (SL). We found that students produced a similar amount of communication in the two environments, but the communication styles were different. In SL role-playing activities, students took more…

  16. Comparing Two Forms of Concept Map Critique Activities to Facilitate Knowledge Integration Processes in Evolution Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwendimann, Beat A.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept map activities often lack a subsequent revision step that facilitates knowledge integration. This study compares two collaborative critique activities using a Knowledge Integration Map (KIM), a form of concept map. Four classes of high school biology students (n?=?81) using an online inquiry-based learning unit on evolution were assigned…

  17. HIV-TB coinfection impairs CD8(+) T-cell differentiation and function while dehydroepiandrosterone improves cytotoxic antitubercular immune responses.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Guadalupe V; Angerami, Matías T; Vecchione, María B; Laufer, Natalia; Turk, Gabriela; Ruiz, Maria J; Mesch, Viviana; Fabre, Bibiana; Maidana, Patricia; Ameri, Diego; Cahn, Pedro; Sued, Omar; Salomón, Horacio; Bottasso, Oscar A; Quiroga, María F

    2015-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among HIV-positive patients. The decreasing frequencies of terminal effector (TTE ) CD8(+) T cells may increase reactivation risk in persons latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We have previously shown that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) increases the protective antitubercular immune responses in HIV-TB patients. Here, we aimed to study Mtb-specific cytotoxicity, IFN-γ secretion, memory status of CD8(+) T cells, and their modulation by DHEA during HIV-TB coinfection. CD8(+) T cells from HIV-TB patients showed a more differentiated phenotype with diminished naïve and higher effector memory and TTE T-cell frequencies compared to healthy donors both in total and Mtb-specific CD8(+) T cells. Notably, CD8(+) T cells from HIV-TB patients displayed higher Terminal Effector (TTE ) CD45RA(dim) proportions with lower CD45RA expression levels, suggesting a not fully differentiated phenotype. Also, PD-1 expression levels on CD8(+) T cells from HIV-TB patients increased although restricted to the CD27(+) population. Interestingly, DHEA plasma levels positively correlated with TTE in CD8(+) T cells and in vitro DHEA treatment enhanced Mtb-specific cytotoxic responses and terminal differentiation in CD8(+) T cells from HIV-TB patients. Our data suggest that HIV-TB coinfection promotes a deficient CD8(+) T-cell differentiation, whereas DHEA may contribute to improving antitubercular immunity by enhancing CD8(+) T-cell functions during HIV-TB coinfection. PMID:26047476

  18. Electronic structure and optical properties of TbPO4: Experiment and density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadraoui, Z.; Horchani-Naifer, K.; Ferhi, M.; Ferid, M.

    2015-09-01

    Single crystals of TbPO4 were grown by high temperature solid-state reaction and identified by means of X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopies analysis. The electronic properties of TbPO4 such as the energy band structures, density of states were carried out using density functional theory (DFT). We have employed the LDA+U functional to treat the exchange correlation potential by solving Kohn-Sham equation. The calculated total and partial density of states indicate that the top of valance band is mainly built upon O-2p states and the bottom of the conduction band mostly originates from Tb-5d states. The population analysis indicates that the P-O bond was mainly covalent and Tb-O bond was mainly ionic. The emission spectrum, color coordinates and decay curve were employed to reveal the luminescence properties of TbPO4. Moreover, the optical properties including the dielectric function, absorption spectrum, refractive index, extinction coefficient, reflectivity and energy-loss spectrum are investigated and analyzed. The results are discussed and compared with the available experimental data.

  19. Magnetooptics of the luminescent transitions in Tb3+:Gd3Ga5O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiev, Uygun V.; Gruber, John B.; Ivanov, Igor'A.; Burdick, Gary W.; Liang, Hongbin; Zhou, Lei; Fu, Dejun; Pelenovich, Oleg V.; Pelenovich, Vasiliy O.; Lin, Zhou

    2015-08-01

    The spectra of the luminescence and magnetic circular polarization of luminescence in terbium-gadolinium gallium garnet Tb3+:Gd3Ga5O12 (Tb3+:GGG) were studied within the visible spectral range at temperatures T = 90 and 300 K in an external magnetic field of 0.45 T. The Zeeman effect in the luminescence "green" band associated with 4f → 4f transition 5D4 → 7F5 of Tb3+:GGG was also studied at T = 90 K in an external field of 0.55 T. Measurement of the Zeeman effect in Tb3+:GGG carried out for some doublet lines of the luminescence band 5D4 → 7F5 at T = 90 K shows that a magnetooptical effect of the intensity change of the emitted light is observed on these lines, in contrast to pure Zeeman splitting of the emission lines measured in the luminescence band 5D4 → 7F6. For the systems we have studied, the maximal value of the magnetooptical effect of the intensity change of the luminescence line at low temperatures has been achieved in paramagnetic garnet Tb0.2Y2.8Al5O12 at comparatively low magnetic fields.

  20. Comparative study of two structures of shunt active filter suppressing particular harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benchaita, L.; Salem Nia, A.; Saadate, S.

    1998-07-01

    This paper deals with the study of shunt active filters used for suppressing particular harmonics generated by nonlinear loads in utility distribution power systems. Both structures of shunt active filter, voltage source active filter (VSAF) and current source active filter (CSAF), are considered. The analytical study of specific harmonics identification in a given spectrum is first presented. For simulation as well as experimentation the nonlinear load is a conventional three phase thyristor rectifier and harmonics 5 and 7 are selected to be eliminated by active filter. The whole system consisting of the ac power supply network, the SCR rectifier and the shunt active filter (VSAF/CSAF) is then simulated. The simulation results are discussed and the efficiency of the two kinds of active filter are compared. Finally, for the first structure, VSAF, the simulation results are confirmed by experimental test realized by means of a fully digital control active power filter developed in our laboratory.

  1. A world of cities and the end of TB

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Amit; Ross, Alex; Rosenberg, Paul; Dye, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The WHO's End TB Strategy aims to reduce TB deaths by 95% and incidence by 90% between 2015 and 2035. As the world rapidly urbanizes, more people could have access to better infrastructure and services to help combat poverty and infectious diseases, including TB. And yet large numbers of people now live in overcrowded slums, with poor access to urban health services, amplifying the burden of TB. An alignment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for health and for urban development provides an opportunity to accelerate the overall decline in infection and disease, and to create cities free of TB. PMID:26884491

  2. Diagnosis and management of TB in children: an update.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Lucila; Starke, Jeffrey R

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, several notable modifications have occurred in the management of TB infection and disease in children. First, we review new data related to infection, including alternative regimens for the treatment of latent TB, management of drug-resistant infection and preventive therapy in the context of HIV infection. Next, we summarize updated WHO guidelines for the treatment of TB in children, explore issues specific to the management of disease in HIV-infected children, and retreatment of TB, and review pediatric recommendations for the management of drug-resistant TB. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of adjunctive therapy and new drugs in development. PMID:22114966

  3. A world of cities and the end of TB.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Amit; Ross, Alex; Rosenberg, Paul; Dye, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    The WHO's End TB Strategy aims to reduce TB deaths by 95% and incidence by 90% between 2015 and 2035. As the world rapidly urbanizes, more people could have access to better infrastructure and services to help combat poverty and infectious diseases, including TB. And yet large numbers of people now live in overcrowded slums, with poor access to urban health services, amplifying the burden of TB. An alignment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for health and for urban development provides an opportunity to accelerate the overall decline in infection and disease, and to create cities free of TB. PMID:26884491

  4. The Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase TbGAT is Dispensable for Viability and the Synthesis of Glycerolipids in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nipul; Pirani, Karim A; Zhu, Tongtong; Cheung-See-Kit, Melanie; Lee, Sungsu; Chen, Daniel G; Zufferey, Rachel

    2016-09-01

    Glycerolipids are the main constituents of biological membranes in Trypanosoma brucei, which causes sleeping sickness in humans. Importantly, they occur as a structural component of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol lipid anchor of the abundant cell surface glycoproteins procyclin in procyclic forms and variant surface glycoprotein in bloodstream form, that play crucial roles for the development of the parasite in the insect vector and the mammalian host, respectively. The present work reports the characterization of the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase TbGAT that initiates the biosynthesis of ester glycerolipids. TbGAT restored glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity when expressed in a Leishmania major deletion strain lacking this activity and exhibited preference for medium length, unsaturated fatty acyl-CoAs. TbGAT localized to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane with its N-terminal domain facing the cytosol. Despite that a TbGAT null mutant in T. brucei procyclic forms lacked glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity, it remained viable and exhibited similar growth rate as the wild type. TbGAT was dispensable for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, and GPI-anchored protein procyclin. However, the null mutant exhibited a slight decrease in phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis that was compensated with a modest increase in production of ether phosphatidylcholine. Our data suggest that an alternative initial acyltransferase takes over TbGAT's function in its absence. PMID:26909872

  5. The Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase TbGAT is Dispensable for Viability and the Synthesis of Glycerolipids in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nipul; Pirani, Karim A; Zhu, Tongtong; Cheung-See-Kit, Melanie; Lee, Sungsu; Chen, Daniel G; Zufferey, Rachel

    2016-09-01

    Glycerolipids are the main constituents of biological membranes in Trypanosoma brucei, which causes sleeping sickness in humans. Importantly, they occur as a structural component of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol lipid anchor of the abundant cell surface glycoproteins procyclin in procyclic forms and variant surface glycoprotein in bloodstream form, that play crucial roles for the development of the parasite in the insect vector and the mammalian host, respectively. The present work reports the characterization of the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase TbGAT that initiates the biosynthesis of ester glycerolipids. TbGAT restored glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity when expressed in a Leishmania major deletion strain lacking this activity and exhibited preference for medium length, unsaturated fatty acyl-CoAs. TbGAT localized to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane with its N-terminal domain facing the cytosol. Despite that a TbGAT null mutant in T. brucei procyclic forms lacked glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity, it remained viable and exhibited similar growth rate as the wild type. TbGAT was dispensable for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, and GPI-anchored protein procyclin. However, the null mutant exhibited a slight decrease in phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis that was compensated with a modest increase in production of ether phosphatidylcholine. Our data suggest that an alternative initial acyltransferase takes over TbGAT's function in its absence.

  6. Modified TB rapid test by proteinase K for rapid diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Yari, Shamsi; Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Alireza; Ghanei, Mostafa; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Fateh, Abolfazl; Yari, Fatemeh; Bahrmand, Ahmadreza

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis continues to be a challenge due to the low sensitivity of traditional diagnostic methods. Better and more rapid tests are needed for diagnosis of pleural TB. In this study, pleural fluids were tested with rapid test to determine Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB antigen). Affinity chromatography was used to purify specific polyclonal antibodies against MTB antigen. Pleural samples after decontamination were treated with proteinase K. Rapid test for pleural fluids was prepared by specific antibody. Rapid test was performed on 85 pleural fluid patients. The patients had a mean age of 46.55 ± 15.96 years and 38 were men. The performance of rapid test, using proteinase K, was found to be the most impressive: sensitivity 93%, specificity 94%, PPV 90%, and NPV 96% compared with adenosine deaminase test (ADA), PCR, smear, and culture. The present study did demonstrate that modified TB rapid test can substantially improve the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB.

  7. TIME Impact - a new user-friendly tuberculosis (TB) model to inform TB policy decisions.

    PubMed

    Houben, R M G J; Lalli, M; Sumner, T; Hamilton, M; Pedrazzoli, D; Bonsu, F; Hippner, P; Pillay, Y; Kimerling, M; Ahmedov, S; Pretorius, C; White, R G

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, predominantly affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where resources are limited. As such, countries need to be able to choose the most efficient interventions for their respective setting. Mathematical models can be valuable tools to inform rational policy decisions and improve resource allocation, but are often unavailable or inaccessible for LMICs, particularly in TB. We developed TIME Impact, a user-friendly TB model that enables local capacity building and strengthens country-specific policy discussions to inform support funding applications at the (sub-)national level (e.g. Ministry of Finance) or to international donors (e.g. the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria).TIME Impact is an epidemiological transmission model nested in TIME, a set of TB modelling tools available for free download within the widely-used Spectrum software. The TIME Impact model reflects key aspects of the natural history of TB, with additional structure for HIV/ART, drug resistance, treatment history and age. TIME Impact enables national TB programmes (NTPs) and other TB policymakers to better understand their own TB epidemic, plan their response, apply for funding and evaluate the implementation of the response.The explicit aim of TIME Impact's user-friendly interface is to enable training of local and international TB experts towards independent use. During application of TIME Impact, close involvement of the NTPs and other local partners also builds critical understanding of the modelling methods, assumptions and limitations inherent to modelling. This is essential to generate broad country-level ownership of the modelling data inputs and results. In turn, it stimulates discussions and a review of the current evidence and assumptions, strengthening the decision-making process in general.TIME Impact has been effectively applied in a variety of settings. In South Africa, it

  8. TIME Impact - a new user-friendly tuberculosis (TB) model to inform TB policy decisions.

    PubMed

    Houben, R M G J; Lalli, M; Sumner, T; Hamilton, M; Pedrazzoli, D; Bonsu, F; Hippner, P; Pillay, Y; Kimerling, M; Ahmedov, S; Pretorius, C; White, R G

    2016-03-24

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, predominantly affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where resources are limited. As such, countries need to be able to choose the most efficient interventions for their respective setting. Mathematical models can be valuable tools to inform rational policy decisions and improve resource allocation, but are often unavailable or inaccessible for LMICs, particularly in TB. We developed TIME Impact, a user-friendly TB model that enables local capacity building and strengthens country-specific policy discussions to inform support funding applications at the (sub-)national level (e.g. Ministry of Finance) or to international donors (e.g. the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria).TIME Impact is an epidemiological transmission model nested in TIME, a set of TB modelling tools available for free download within the widely-used Spectrum software. The TIME Impact model reflects key aspects of the natural history of TB, with additional structure for HIV/ART, drug resistance, treatment history and age. TIME Impact enables national TB programmes (NTPs) and other TB policymakers to better understand their own TB epidemic, plan their response, apply for funding and evaluate the implementation of the response.The explicit aim of TIME Impact's user-friendly interface is to enable training of local and international TB experts towards independent use. During application of TIME Impact, close involvement of the NTPs and other local partners also builds critical understanding of the modelling methods, assumptions and limitations inherent to modelling. This is essential to generate broad country-level ownership of the modelling data inputs and results. In turn, it stimulates discussions and a review of the current evidence and assumptions, strengthening the decision-making process in general.TIME Impact has been effectively applied in a variety of settings. In South Africa, it

  9. Verification of the MAS TMM by infrared TB/TV testing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szigetvari, Z.

    1990-09-01

    The structural/Thermal Mathematical Model (TMM) of the remote sensing instrument MAS (Microwave Atmospheric Sounder) was successfully TB/TV tested in a space simulation chamber. MAS is thermally characterized by strongly varying orbital heat loads and multiple solar reflections when situated in the orbiter cargo bay. Due to the complicated orbital environment and to budget limitations, the test objectives were simplified and achieved by infrared TB/TV testing methods. The simulation of the external radiative heat loads from Sun, Earth and orbiter cargo bay walls was realized by controlling the test chamber shroud temperatures at desired levels. The activities during preparation, completion and evaluation of the conducted infrared TB/TV tests are described and among others the implemented test data evaluation system DIANA is highlighted.

  10. IFN-gamma-release assays to diagnose TB infection in the immunocompromised individual.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Jose; Latorre, Irene; Altet, Neus; Mateo, Lourdes; De Souza-Galvão, Malú; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan; Ausina, Vicente

    2009-06-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) is used for diagnosing latent TB infection (LTBI). The main limitation of TST is its low sensitivity in populations with the highest risk of progression to active TB: immunosuppressed patients and young children. New IFN-gamma-based tests appear as an alternative to the TST. IFN-gamma-based tests seem more specific than the TST, being closely associated with LTBI factors, and not being affected by bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination. Indeterminate results are mainly related to immunosuppression. Looking at the available data, it seems prudent to recommend the utilization of IFN-gamma-based tests after a negative TST result, in order to increase the sensitivity of detecting LTBI cases in severely immunosuppressed patients. In summary, IFN-gamma-based tests appear to be a valuable tool, in combination with the TST, for diagnosing TB infection in immunosuppressed patients.

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Netilmicin, a New Aminoglycoside Antibiotic, Compared with That of Gentamicin

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Ian; Smith, Anne; Shannon, Kevin

    1977-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of netilmicin (Sch 20569), a new semisynthetic aminoglycoside, was compared with that of gentamicin against a variety of gram-negative bacteria, staphylococci, and streptococci. Both antibiotics had similar activity against most organisms, but netilmicin had appreciably greater activity against gram-negative organisms that were resistant to gentamicin because these species synthesized aminoglycoside 3-N-acetyltransferase I or aminoglycoside 2″-O-nucleotidyltransferase. Netilmicin was also more active than gentamicin against gentamicin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus that produced two enzymes–aminoglycoside-2″-O-phosphotransferase and aminoglycoside-6′-N-acetyltransferase. PMID:301004

  12. Recombination luminescence of CaSO4:Tb3+ and CaSO4:Gd3+phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtseva, Irina; Lushchik, Aleksandr; Maaroos, Aarne; Azmaganbetova, Zhannur; Nurakhmetov, Turlybek; Salikhoja, Zhussupbek

    2012-08-01

    A comparative study of the excitation of luminescence by VUV radiation as well as of thermally and photostimulated luminescence has been carried out for CaSO4:Tb3+ and CaSO4:Gd3+ phosphors, where Na+ or F- ions are used for charge compensation. The distinction in hole processes for the phosphors with Na+ or F- compensators is determined by the differing thermal stability of the holes localized at/near Tb3+Na+ and Gd3+Na+ (up to 100-160 K) or at/near Tb3+F- V Ca and Gd3+F- V Ca centers involving also a cation vacancy (up to 400-550 K). Tunnel luminescence in the pairs of localized electrons and holes nearby Tb3+ or Gd3+ has been detected. The mechanisms of electron-hole, hole-electron and tunnel recombination luminescence as well as a subsequent released energy transfer to RE3+ ions are considered.

  13. Cytokine and chemokine expression profiles in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulation are altered in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected subjects with active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Waruk, Jillian L M; Machuki, Zipporah; Mesa, Christine; Juno, Jennifer A; Anzala, Omu; Sharma, Meenu; Ball, T Blake; Oyugi, Julius; Kiazyk, Sandra

    2015-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infects nearly 2 million people annually and is the most common cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. Tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics cater to HIV-uninfected individuals in non-endemic countries, are expensive, slow, and lack sensitivity for those most affected. Patterns of soluble immune markers from Mtb-stimulated immune cells are not well defined in HIV co-infection. We assessed immune differences between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals with active TB utilizing IFNγ-based QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) testing in Nairobi, Kenya. Excess QFT supernatants were used to measure cytokine and chemokine responses by a 17-plex bead array. Mtb/HIV co-infected participants were significantly less likely to be QFT+ (47.2% versus 84.2% in the HIV-uninfected group), and demonstrated lower expression of all cytokines except for IFNα2. Receiver operator characteristic analyses identified IL-1α as a potential marker of co-infection. Among HIV-infected individuals, CD4+ T cell count correlated weakly with the expression of several analytes. Co-expression analysis highlighted differences in immune profiles between the groups. These data suggest that there is a unique and detectable Mtb-specific immune response in co-infection. A better understanding of Mtb immunology can translate into much needed immunodiagnostics with enhanced sensitivity in HIV-infected individuals, facilitating their opportunity to obtain live-saving treatment.

  14. Preoperative mapping of the sensorimotor cortex: comparative assessment of task-based and resting-state FMRI.

    PubMed

    Rosazza, Cristina; Aquino, Domenico; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Cordella, Roberto; Andronache, Adrian; Zacà, Domenico; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Tringali, Giovanni; Minati, Ludovico

    2014-01-01

    Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has recently been considered as a possible complement or alternative to task-based fMRI (tb-fMRI) for presurgical mapping. However, evidence of its usefulness remains scant, because existing studies have investigated relatively small samples and focused primarily on qualitative evaluation. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical usefulness of rs-fMRI in the context of presurgical mapping of motor functions, and in particular to determine the degree of correspondence with tb-fMRI which, while not a gold-standard, is commonly used in preoperative setting. A group of 13 patients with lesions close to the sensorimotor cortex underwent rs-fMRI and tb-fMRI to localize the hand, foot and mouth motor areas. We assessed quantitatively the degree of correspondence between multiple rs-fMRI analyses (independent-component and seed-based analyses) and tb-fMRI, with reference to sensitivity and specificity of rs-fMRI with respect to tb-fMRI, and centre-of-mass distances. Agreement with electro-cortical stimulation (ECS) was also investigated, and a traditional map thresholding approach based on agreement between two experienced operators was compared to an automatic threshold determination method. Rs-fMRI can localize the sensorimotor cortex successfully, providing anatomical specificity for hand, foot and mouth motor subregions, in particular with seed-based analyses. Agreement with tb-fMRI was only partial and rs-fMRI tended to provide larger patterns of correlated activity. With respect to the ECS data available, rs-fMRI and tb-fMRI performed comparably, even though the shortest distance to stimulation points was observed for the latter. Notably, the results of both were on the whole robust to thresholding procedure. Localization performed by rs-fMRI is not equivalent to tb-fMRI, hence rs-fMRI cannot be considered as an outright replacement for tb-fMRI. Nevertheless, since there is significant agreement between the two techniques, rs

  15. Anti-biofilm properties of the antimicrobial peptide temporin 1Tb and its ability, in combination with EDTA, to eradicate Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms on silicone catheters.

    PubMed

    Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Grassi, Lucia; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Bombardelli, Silvia; Medici, Chiara; Brancatisano, Franca Lisa; Esin, Semih; Batoni, Giovanna

    2016-08-01

    In search of new antimicrobials with anti-biofilm potential, in the present study activity of the frog-skin derived antimicrobial peptide temporin 1Tb (TB) against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms was investigated. A striking ability of TB to kill both forming and mature S. epidermidis biofilms was observed, especially when the peptide was combined with cysteine or EDTA, respectively. Kinetics studies demonstrated that the combination TB/EDTA was active against mature biofilms already after 2-4-h exposure. A double 4-h exposure of biofilms to TB/EDTA further increased the therapeutic potential of the same combination. Of note, TB/EDTA was able to eradicate S. epidermidis biofilms formed in vitro on silicone catheters. At eradicating concentrations, TB/EDTA did not cause hemolysis of human erythrocytes. The results shed light on the anti-biofilm properties of TB and suggest a possible application of the peptide in the lock therapy of catheters infected with S. epidermidis. PMID:27351824

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Community Active Case Finding and Household Contact Investigation for Tuberculosis Case Detection in Urban Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sekandi, Juliet N.; Dobbin, Kevin; Oloya, James; Okwera, Alphonse; Whalen, Christopher C.; Corso, Phaedra S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Case detection by passive case finding (PCF) strategy alone is inadequate for detecting all tuberculosis (TB) cases in high burden settings especially Sub-Saharan Africa. Alternative case detection strategies such as community Active Case Finding (ACF) and Household Contact Investigations (HCI) are effective but empirical evidence of their cost-effectiveness is sparse. The objective of this study was to determine whether adding ACF or HCI compared with standard PCF alone represent cost-effective alternative TB case detection strategies in urban Africa. Methods A static decision modeling framework was used to examine the costs and effectiveness of three TB case detection strategies: PCF alone, PCF+ACF, and PCF+HCI. Probability and cost estimates were obtained from National TB program data, primary studies conducted in Uganda, published literature and expert opinions. The analysis was performed from the societal and provider perspectives over a 1.5 year time-frame. The main effectiveness measure was the number of true TB cases detected and the outcome was incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) expressed as cost in 2013 US$ per additional true TB case detected. Results Compared to PCF alone, the PCF+HCI strategy was cost-effective at US$443.62 per additional TB case detected. However, PCF+ACF was not cost-effective at US$1492.95 per additional TB case detected. Sensitivity analyses showed that PCF+ACF would be cost-effective if the prevalence of chronic cough in the population screened by ACF increased 10-fold from 4% to 40% and if the program costs for ACF were reduced by 50%. Conclusions Under our baseline assumptions, the addition of HCI to an existing PCF program presented a more cost-effective strategy than the addition of ACF in the context of an African city. Therefore, implementation of household contact investigations as a part of the recommended TB control strategy should be prioritized. PMID:25658592

  17. Blood Transcriptional Biomarkers for Active Tuberculosis among Patients in the United States: a Case-Control Study with Systematic Cross-Classifier Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mikaela A.; Vasquez, Joshua; Weiner, Marc; Chapman, Adam; Engle, Melissa; Higgins, Michael; Quinones, Amy M.; Rosselli, Vanessa; Canono, Elizabeth; Yoon, Christina; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Davis, J. Lucian; Phang, Tzu; Stearman, Robert S.; Datta, Gargi; Garcia, Benjamin J.; Daley, Charles L.; Strong, Michael; Kechris, Katerina; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Reves, Randall; Geraci, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Blood transcriptional signatures are promising for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis but have not been evaluated among U.S. patients. To be used clinically, transcriptional classifiers need reproducible accuracy in diverse populations that vary in genetic composition, disease spectrum and severity, and comorbidities. In a prospective case-control study, we identified novel transcriptional classifiers for active TB among U.S. patients and systematically compared their accuracy to classifiers from published studies. Blood samples from HIV-uninfected U.S. adults with active TB, pneumonia, or latent TB infection underwent whole-transcriptome microarray. We used support vector machines to classify disease state based on transcriptional patterns. We externally validated our classifiers using data from sub-Saharan African cohorts and evaluated previously published transcriptional classifiers in our population. Our classifier distinguishing active TB from pneumonia had an area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 96.5% (95.4% to 97.6%) among U.S. patients, but the AUC was lower (90.6% [89.6% to 91.7%]) in HIV-uninfected Sub-Saharan Africans. Previously published comparable classifiers had AUC values of 90.0% (87.7% to 92.3%) and 82.9% (80.8% to 85.1%) when tested in U.S. patients. Our classifier distinguishing active TB from latent TB had AUC values of 95.9% (95.2% to 96.6%) among U.S. patients and 95.3% (94.7% to 96.0%) among Sub-Saharan Africans. Previously published comparable classifiers had AUC values of 98.0% (97.4% to 98.7%) and 94.8% (92.9% to 96.8%) when tested in U.S. patients. Blood transcriptional classifiers accurately detected active TB among U.S. adults. The accuracy of classifiers for active TB versus that of other diseases decreased when tested in new populations with different disease controls, suggesting additional studies are required to enhance generalizability. Classifiers that distinguish active TB from latent TB are accurate and generalizable

  18. Comparing trapezius muscle activity in the different planes of shoulder elevation.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, Tomonobu; Ishida, Tomoya; Samukawa, Mina; Saito, Hiroshi; Hirokawa, Motoki; Ezawa, Yuya; Sugawara, Makoto; Tohyama, Harukazu; Yamanaka, Masanori

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles' activity in the different planes of shoulder elevation. [Subjects] Twenty male subjects volunteered for this study. [Methods] Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity for each of the three regions of the trapezius muscles in the three different planes of elevation were collected while the participants maintained 30, 60, and 90 degrees of elevation in each plane. The EMG data were normalized with maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC), and compared among the planes at each angle of elevation. [Results] There were significantly different muscle activities among the elevation planes at each angle. [Conclusion] This study found that the three regions of the trapezius muscles changed their activity depending on the planes of shoulder elevation. These changes in the trapezius muscles could induce appropriate scapular motion to face the glenoid cavity in the correct directions in different planes of shoulder elevation.

  19. Potential Role of M. tuberculosis Specific IFN-γ and IL-2 ELISPOT Assays in Discriminating Children with Active or Latent Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Chiappini, Elena; Della Bella, Chiara; Bonsignori, Francesca; Sollai, Sara; Amedei, Amedeo; Galli, Luisa; Niccolai, Elena; Singh, Mahavir; D'Elios, Mario M.; de Martino, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Background Although currently available IGRA have been reported to be promising markers for TB infection, they cannot distinguish active tuberculosis (TB) from latent infection (LTBI). Objective Children with LTBI, active TB disease or uninfected were prospectively evaluated by an in-house ELISPOT assay in order to investigate possible immunological markers for a differential diagnosis between LTBI and active TB. Methods Children at risk for TB infection prospectively enrolled in our infectious disease unit were evaluated by in-house IFN-γ and IL-2 based ELISPOT assays using a panel of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens. Results Twenty-nine children were classified as uninfected, 21 as LTBI and 25 as active TB cases (including 5 definite and 20 probable cases). Significantly higher IFN-γ ELISPOT responses were observed in infected vs. uninfected children for ESAT-6 (p<0.0001), CFP-10 (p<0.0001), TB 10.3 (p = 0.003), and AlaDH (p = 0.001), while differences were not significant considering Ag85B (p = 0.063), PstS1 (p = 0.512), and HspX (16 kDa) (p = 0.139). IL-2 ELISPOT assay responses were different for ESAT-6 (p<0.0001), CFP-10 (p<0.0001), TB 10.3 (p<0.0001), HspX (16 kDa) (p<0.0001), PstS1 (p<0.0001) and AlaDH (p = 0.001); but not for Ag85B (p = 0.063). Comparing results between children with LTBI and those with TB disease differences were significant for IFN-γ ELISPOT only for AlaDH antigen (p = 0.021) and for IL-2 ELISPOT assay for AlaDH (p<0.0001) and TB 10.3 antigen (p = 0.043). ROC analyses demonstrated sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 81% of AlaDH-IL-2 ELISPOT assay in discriminating between latent and active TB using a cut off of 12.5 SCF per million PBMCs. Conclusion Our data suggest that IL-2 based ELISPOT with AlaDH antigen may be of help in discriminating children with active from those with latent TB. PMID:23029377

  20. [Present and future perspectives for the rapid molecular diagnosis of TB and MDR-TB].

    PubMed

    Tanasescu, Mihaela; Didilescu, Cristian; Marica, Constantin

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still one of the diseases with a major medical and social impact, and in terms of early diagnosis (which would imply a fair treatment and established at the time), difficulties related to the delay bacilli isolation in culture, decreased susceptibility testing methods to antituberculosis drugs, lack of methods for differentiation of M. Tuberculosis complex germs of non-TB Mycobacteria, may have important clinical implications. Traditional testing of anti-TB drug susceptibility on solid Löwenstein-Jensen medium (gold standard) or liquid media can only be performed using grown samples. Determining the time it takes up to 42 days on solid media and 12 days for liquid media. For MDR/XDR TB cases itis absolutely essential to reduce the detection time. In these cases rapid diagnostic methods prove their usefulness. Automatic testing in liquid medium, molecular hybridization methods are currently recommended by the current WHO guidelines. Rapid diagnosis of MDR-TBis extremely useful for the early establishment of an effective treatment tailored more accurately on the spectrum of sensitivity of the resistant strain (thus reducing the risk of developing additional resistance to other drugs) and control the spread of these strains. Genetic diagnostic methods, approved and recommended by the WHO, can reduce the time of diagnosis of TB case and, importantly, the case of MDR-TB. They do not replace the current standard diagnostic methods and resistance profile, but complete them in selected cases. PMID:24734352

  1. [Present and future perspectives for the rapid molecular diagnosis of TB and MDR-TB].

    PubMed

    Tanasescu, Mihaela; Didilescu, Cristian; Marica, Constantin

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still one of the diseases with a major medical and social impact, and in terms of early diagnosis (which would imply a fair treatment and established at the time), difficulties related to the delay bacilli isolation in culture, decreased susceptibility testing methods to antituberculosis drugs, lack of methods for differentiation of M. Tuberculosis complex germs of non-TB Mycobacteria, may have important clinical implications. Traditional testing of anti-TB drug susceptibility on solid Löwenstein-Jensen medium (gold standard) or liquid media can only be performed using grown samples. Determining the time it takes up to 42 days on solid media and 12 days for liquid media. For MDR/XDR TB cases itis absolutely essential to reduce the detection time. In these cases rapid diagnostic methods prove their usefulness. Automatic testing in liquid medium, molecular hybridization methods are currently recommended by the current WHO guidelines. Rapid diagnosis of MDR-TBis extremely useful for the early establishment of an effective treatment tailored more accurately on the spectrum of sensitivity of the resistant strain (thus reducing the risk of developing additional resistance to other drugs) and control the spread of these strains. Genetic diagnostic methods, approved and recommended by the WHO, can reduce the time of diagnosis of TB case and, importantly, the case of MDR-TB. They do not replace the current standard diagnostic methods and resistance profile, but complete them in selected cases.

  2. X-ray excited photoluminescence near the giant resonance in solid-solution Gd(1-x)Tb(x)OCl nanocrystals and their retention upon solvothermal topotactic transformation to Gd(1-x)Tb(x)F3.

    PubMed

    Waetzig, Gregory R; Horrocks, Gregory A; Jude, Joshua W; Zuin, Lucia; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2016-01-14

    Design rules for X-ray phosphors are much less established as compared to their optically stimulated counterparts owing to the absence of a detailed understanding of sensitization mechanisms, activation pathways and recombination channels upon high-energy excitation. Here, we demonstrate a pronounced modulation of the X-ray excited photoluminescence of Tb(3+) centers upon excitation in proximity to the giant resonance of the host Gd(3+) ions in solid-solution Gd1-xTbxOCl nanocrystals prepared by a non-hydrolytic cross-coupling method. The strong suppression of X-ray excited optical luminescence at the giant resonance suggests a change in mechanism from multiple exciton generation to single thermal exciton formation and Auger decay processes. The solid-solution Gd1-xTbxOCl nanocrystals are further topotactically transformed with retention of a nine-coordinated cation environment to solid-solution Gd1-xTbxF3 nanocrystals upon solvothermal treatment with XeF2. The metastable hexagonal phase of GdF3 can be stabilized at room temperature through this topotactic approach and is transformed subsequently to the orthorhombic phase. The fluoride nanocrystals indicate an analogous but blue-shifted modulation of the X-ray excited optical luminescence of the Tb(3+) centers upon X-ray excitation near the giant resonance of the host Gd(3+) ions.

  3. Need for more TB vaccine field sites.

    PubMed

    McShane, Helen

    2009-06-01

    Efforts to control the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic have been challenged by both the geographical overlap with the HIV pandemic, and the emergence of multi - and extensively - drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is, therefore, an urgent global need for an improved vaccine. However, the development of an improved vaccine is scientifically and logistically challenging. Immunological correlates or biomarkers of protection are not known and there is no perfect preclinical animal model with which to predict success in humans. Indeed, vaccine development in general is time-consuming and costly. One of the many road-blocks to the development of new TB vaccines is the availability of field sites that are suitable for large scale Phase IIb/III efficacy testing. Because disease incidence is low, even though prevalence is high, Phase IIb efficacy trials involve several thousand subjects, and require lengthy follow-up. Phase III licensure trials will need to be even larger, and are likely to require the involvement of multiple field sites. There is currently inadequate capacity within high-burden TB countries to conduct these essential trials. We need to invest now to expand current capacity if we are to reduce the time taken to develop new vaccines. PMID:19634709

  4. Solution Structural Analysis of the Single-Domain Parvulin TbPin1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lifang; Wu, Xueji; Peng, Yu; Goh, Jian Yuan; Liou, Yih-Cherng; Lin, Donghai; Zhao, Yufen

    2012-01-01

    Background Pin1-type parvulins are phosphorylation-dependent peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases. Their functions have been widely reported to be involved in a variety of cellular responses or processes, such as cell division, transcription, and apoptosis, as well as in human diseases including Alzheimer's disease and cancers. TbPin1 was identified as a novel class of Pin1-type parvulins from Trypanosoma brucei, containing a unique PPIase domain, which can catalyze the isomerization of phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro peptide bond. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined the solution structure of TbPin1 and performed 15N relaxation measurements to analyze its backbone dynamics using multi-dimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. The average RMSD values of the 20 lowest energy structures are 0.50±0.05 Å for backbone heavy atoms and 0.85±0.08 Å for all heavy atoms. TbPin1 adopts the typical catalytic tertiary structure of Pin1-type parvulins, which comprises a globular fold with a four-stranded anti-parallel β-sheet core surrounded by three α-helices and one 310-helix. The global structure of TbPin1 is relatively rigid except the active site. The 2D EXSY spectra illustrate that TbPin1 possesses a phosphorylation-dependent PPIase activity. The binding sites of TbPin1 for a phosphorylated peptide substrate {SSYFSG[p]TPLEDDSD} were determined by the chemical shift perturbation approach. Residues Ser15, Arg18, Asn19, Val21, Ser22, Val32, Gly66, Ser67, Met83, Asp105 and Gly107 are involved in substantial contact with the substrate. Conclusions/Significance The solution structure of TbPin1 and the binding sites of the phosphorylated peptide substrate on TbPin1 were determined. The work is helpful for further understanding the molecular basis of the substrate specificity for Pin1-type parvulin family and enzyme catalysis. PMID:22900083

  5. Thermobiology, energetics and activity patterns of the Eastern tube-nosed bat (Nyctimene robinsoni) in the Australian tropics: effect of temperature and lunar cycle.

    PubMed

    Riek, Alexander; Körtner, Gerhard; Geiser, Fritz

    2010-08-01

    Currently, there are no data on the thermal biology of free-ranging pteropodid bats (Chiroptera). Therefore, our aim was to investigate physiological and behavioural strategies employed by the fruit bat Nyctimene robinsoni (body mass approximately 50 g) in winter in tropical Northern Queensland in relation to ambient temperature (T(a)) and the lunar cycle. Daily body temperature (T(b)) fluctuations in free-ranging bats were measured via radio-telemetry and metabolic rate was measured in captivity via open-flow respirometry (T(a), 15-30 degrees C). Free-ranging bats showed a significant 24 h circadian cycle in T(b), with the lowest T(b) at the end of the rest phase just after sunset and the highest T(b) at the end of the activity phase just before sunrise. Average daily core T(b) ranged from 34.7+/-0.6 to 37.3+/-0.8 degrees C (mean +/- s.d.) over an average daily T(a) range of 17.1+/-1.1 to 23.5+/-1.8 degrees C. T(b) never fell below 30 degrees C but T(b) was significantly reduced during the full moon period compared with that during the new moon period. T(b) was correlated with T(a) during the second half of the rest phase (P<0.001) but not during the active phase. Resting metabolic rate of bats was significantly affected by T(a) (P<0.001, R(2)=0.856). Our results show that tube-nosed bats exhibit reduced T(b) on moonlit nights when they reduce foraging activity, but during our study torpor was not expressed. The energy constraints experienced here by tube-nosed bats with relatively moderate T(a) fluctuations, short commuting distances between roosting and feeding locations, and high availability of food were probably not substantial enough to require use of torpor.

  6. TB control in India--efforts, challenges and priorities.

    PubMed

    Sisodia, R S; Jain, D K; Agarwal, S S; Gupta, Avdhesh

    2011-12-01

    TB control is a long battle. Since after the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Robert Koch in 1882, endeavours have been made at different levels in the form of control measures like establishment of open-air sanatorium in Tilonia (Ajmer) in 1906, Tuberculosis Dispensary in Mumbai (1917), Tuberculosis Association of India (1939), Mass BCG campaign (1951), Establishment of Chemotherapy centre (TRC Chennai), National Sample Survey (1955-58), National Tuberculosis Institute Bangalore (1961), Developments of National Tuberculosis Programme (1962), Review of NTP by GOI, SIDA & WHO (1992), pilot testing of RNTCP (1993), implementation/expansion of RNTCP across the country (1997-2006). Shopping for health, marketing for TB diagnosis and treatment, MDR-TB, XDR-TB, TB-HIV combination and partnership related challenges are crucial and needs to be addressed .Universal access to DOTS for cutting the chain of transmission of bacilli, reducing the morbidity and mortality and reversing the TB epidemic in line with Millennium Development Goals, surveillance of notification, drug resistance, TB/HIV coinfection, operation researches, development of vaccines, immune therapeutic agents against tuberculosis and expansion of package of care to MDR-TB and XDR-TB would be the priorities for eradicating TB as a public health problem.

  7. Comparative analysis of cholinesterase activities in food animals using modified Ellman and Michel assays

    PubMed Central

    Askar, Kasim Abass; Kudi, A. Caleb; Moody, A. John

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated correlations between modified Ellman and Michel assay methods for measuring cholinesterase (ChE) activities. It also established a foundation for the applicability of measuring ChE activities in food animal species as biochemical biomarkers for evaluating exposure to and effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Measuring ChE activities in blood and tissue is currently the most important method of confirming the diagnosis of such exposure. The study also characterized the level of ChE activity in the selected organs/tissues of these animals and determined the best organ/tissue in which to measure ChE activity. The ChE activities were found to be higher in cattle than in sheep and higher in erythrocytes than in plasma and serum. The anticoagulant heparin significantly affects AChE activity in plasma compared with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). Of the different tissues tested, the mean of ChE activities was found to be highest in tissue from liver, followed by lung, muscle, kidney, and heart for sheep and cattle. In pigs, the ChE activities tested higher in kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and heart. The highest activities of ChE were found in pigs, followed by cattle and sheep. There was no significant difference between the modified Ellman and Michel method, but the percentage coefficient of variance (%CV) values were higher when the Michel method was used. PMID:22468023

  8. Tb3+ ion doping into Al2O3: Solubility limit and luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Yuya; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Adachi, Sadao

    2016-11-01

    Tb3+-activated Al2O3 phosphors with a molar ratio of \\text{Al}:\\text{Tb} = (1 - x):x are synthesized by metal organic decomposition (x = 0–0.15) and subsequent calcination at T c = 200–1200 °C for 1 h in air. The material properties of the synthesized phosphors are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) analyses, PL excitation spectroscopy, and luminescence lifetime measurements. At x = 0.015, the metastable phase of γ-Al2O3 is obtained by calcination at T c ∼ 300–1050 °C and a mixture of γ, θ, and α phases at T c ∼ 1050–1150 °C. The high-temperature stable phase of α-Al2O3 is obtained only at T c ≥ 1150 °C. Below T c ∼ 300 °C, the XRD data suggest the formation of boehmite (AlOOH). The solubility limit of Tb3+ in α-Al2O3 is also clearly determined to be x ∼ 0.015 (1.5%). The PL decay time of the Tb3+ green emission in α-Al2O3 is ∼1.1 ms for x < 0.015 and slowly decreases with further increase in x (Tb3+). The schematic energy-level diagram of Tb3+ in α-Al2O3 is proposed for a better understanding of the present phosphor system. Finally, the temperature dependence of the PL intensity is examined between T = 20 and 450 K, yielding quenching energies of E q ∼ 0.28 eV (α-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3).

  9. Advances and prospects for management of TB transmission between badgers and cattle.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gavin J; Carter, Stephen P; Delahay, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is the most serious endemic disease facing the livestock industry in the United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (RoI), where its management has been confounded by the presence of persistent infection in the Eurasian badger (Meles meles). Field evidence suggests that the social structure of badger populations can have an important influence on disease dynamics, and on the outcome of management interventions. Recent, large-scale badger culling experiments in the UK and RoI had complex epidemiological outcomes. In the UK, proactive culling led to reduced bTB incidence in cattle herds inside culled areas, but a temporary increase in adjacent areas. Reactive culling in response to herd breakdowns was associated with an increase in the incidence of bTB in cattle. In contrast, badger culling in RoI was reported to have only beneficial effects on bTB incidence in cattle. The reasons for these differences are not clear. The complexity of the evidence base for culling is highlighted by the different management approaches currently being adopted by the different authorities of the UK and RoI. It is generally accepted that a holistic approach to bTB management, which targets both cattle and wildlife, is necessary. Consequently recent research activities have also focussed on cattle and badger vaccines, and biosecurity on farms. This paper describes recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology of bTB in badgers and the consequences of culling, and current research to develop approaches for the vaccination of badgers, and methods of managing the risks of contact between badgers and cattle in farm buildings.

  10. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Sampa, Maria Helena; Rela, Paulo Roberto; Casas, Alexandre Las; Mori, Manoel Nunes; Duarte, Celina Lopes

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a study that compares the use of electron beam processing and activated carbon adsorption to clean up a standardized organic aqueous solution and a real industrial effluent. The electron beam treatment was performed in a batch system using the IPEN's Electron Beam Accelerators from Radiation Dynamics Inc., Dynamitron 37.5 kW. The granular activated carbon removal treatment was performed using charcoal made from wood "pinus". If the adequate irradiation dose is delivered to the organic pollutant, it is possible to conclude for the studied compounds that the Electron Beam Process is similar to the activated carbon process in organic removal efficiency.

  11. Comparative study of activation analyses for the determination of trace halogens in geological and cosmochemical samples.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Tomoshi; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2007-09-01

    Halogens (fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine) were determined by activation analyses (neutron activation analysis (NAA), photon activation analysis (PAA) and prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA)) for geological and cosmochemical solid samples. We studied how each analytical method was for the determination of trace amounts of halogens in rock samples. Radiochemical NAA (RNAA) showed the highest analytical reliability for three halogens (chlorine, bromine and iodine), whereas a set of four halogens (fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine) could be determined in principle by radiochemical PAA (RPAA) from a single specimen. Although it is a non-destructive method, PGA showed an analytical sensitivity for chlorine comparable to those of RNAA and RPAA.

  12. Dielectric properties of TbMnO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. C.; Cui, Y. M.; Zhang, L. W.

    2007-01-01

    The complex dielectric properties for ceramic samples of TbMnO3 were investigated as functions of temperature (100K ⩽T⩽360K) and frequency (100Hz⩽f⩽100kHz). Two thermally activated dielectric relaxations were found with the activation energies of 0.30 and 0.22eV for the high- and low-temperature relaxations, respectively. By means of complex impedance analysis the high-temperature relaxation was identified to originate from the internal barrier-layer capacitor effects related to the grain boundaries, and the low-temperature relaxation was ascribed to the dipolar effects induced by charge-carrier-hopping motions inside the grains.

  13. Category activation effects in judgment and behaviour: the moderating role of perceived comparability.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Henk; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2002-03-01

    Previous research on category activation effects demonstrates that extreme exemplar priming can lead to contrast effects as well as assimilation effects in target judgments. Two experiments extended this line of research by investigating the moderating role of perceived comparability, that is, the extent to which the exemplar and target are believed to belong to the same category and thus can be compared. In both experiments, participants judged the speed of a person displayed on a picture following priming with animals exemplifying either extreme speed ('cheetah') or extreme slowness ('turtle'). In addition, in the second experiment a behavioural measure was included. In the first experiment individual differences concerning the perceived comparability between animals and humans were assessed. In the second experiment perceived comparability was experimentally varied. Results showed that the direction of category activation effects (i.e. assimilation versus contrast) depended on the extent to which the prime and target categories were seen as comparable. Contrast effects on both judgments and behaviour emerged when the prime and the target category were perceived as comparable. However, assimilation effects on judgment and behaviour ensued when the prime and target category were not perceived as comparable.

  14. Comparative Effectiveness of After-School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Sabina B.; Sommer, Evan C.; Lambert, E. Warren; Vides de Andrade, Ana Regina; Davis, Lauren; Beech, Bettina M.; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Neloms, Stevon; Ryan, Colleen K.

    2013-01-01

    Background. We conducted a comparative effectiveness analysis to evaluate the difference in the amount of physical activity children engaged in when enrolled in a physical activity-enhanced after-school program based in a community recreation center versus a standard school-based after-school program. Methods. The study was a natural experiment with 54 elementary school children attending the community ASP and 37 attending the school-based ASP. Accelerometry was used to measure physical activity. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks, with 91% retention. Results. At baseline, 43% of the multiethnic sample was overweight/obese, and the mean age was 7.9 years (SD = 1.7). Linear latent growth models suggested that the average difference between the two groups of children at Week 12 was 14.7 percentage points in moderate-vigorous physical activity (P < .001). Cost analysis suggested that children attending traditional school-based ASPs—at an average cost of $17.67 per day—would need an additional daily investment of $1.59 per child for 12 weeks to increase their moderate-vigorous physical activity by a model-implied 14.7 percentage points. Conclusions. A low-cost, alternative after-school program featuring adult-led physical activities in a community recreation center was associated with increased physical activity compared to standard-of-care school-based after-school program. PMID:23984052

  15. Comparing Research Activities of Women and Men Faculty in Departments of Internal Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study compared research activities of men and women from data obtained in a 1982-83 survey of 7,947 medical school faculty in departments of internal medicine. Among findings were that women researchers had significantly fewer National Institutes of Health grants as well as reduced laboratory space. (Author/DB)

  16. [The comparative study of bioelectronic brain activity at the drug and Internet-addiction].

    PubMed

    Rabadanova, A I; Abacharova, Z S

    2014-01-01

    The comparative estimation of the bioelectric brain activities at different drug (heroin, opium, toxic organic join, home chemistry) and internet addiction are studied. These data can be interest for problem of general and specific mechanism of the influence of different factors, causing the addiction, on neirofisiological and neirochemical processes. PMID:25702456

  17. Increased Risk of Active Tuberculosis following Acute Kidney Injury: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Hsui; Huang, Hui-Yu; Huang, Tao-Min; Lai, Chun-Fu; Lin, Meng-Chun; Ko, Wen-Je; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Yu, Chong-Jen; Shu, Chin-Chung; Lee, Chih-Hsin; Wang, Jann-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Background Profound alterations in immune responses associated with uremia and exacerbated by dialysis increase the risk of active tuberculosis (TB). Evidence of the long-term risk and outcome of active TB after acute kidney injury (AKI) is limited. Methods This population-based-cohort study used claim records retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. We retrieved records of all hospitalized patients, more than 18 years, who underwent dialysis for acute kidney injury (AKI) during 1999–2008 and validated using the NSARF data. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model to adjust for the ongoing effect of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was conducted to predict long-term de novo active TB after discharge from index hospitalization. Results Out of 2,909 AKI dialysis patients surviving 90 days after index discharge, 686 did not require dialysis after hospital discharge. The control group included 11,636 hospital patients without AKI, dialysis, or history of TB. The relative risk of active TB in AKI dialysis patients, relative to the general population, after a mean follow-up period of 3.6 years was 7.71. Patients who did (hazard ratio [HR], 3.84; p<0.001) and did not (HR, 6.39; p<0.001) recover from AKI requiring dialysis had significantly higher incidence of TB than patients without AKI. The external validated data also showed nonrecovery subgroup (HR = 4.37; p = 0.049) had high risk of developing active TB compared with non-AKI. Additionally, active TB was associated with long-term all-cause mortality after AKI requiring dialysis (HR, 1.34; p = 0.032). Conclusions AKI requiring dialysis seems to independently increase the long-term risk of active TB, even among those who weaned from dialysis at discharge. These results raise concerns that the increasing global burden of AKI will in turn increase the incidence of active TB. PMID:23936044

  18. Comparative evaluation of antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and aspirin in children with pyrexia of varied aetiology.

    PubMed

    Kandoth, P W; Joshi, M K; Joshi, V R; Satoskar, R S

    1984-01-01

    The antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and aspirin was compared in sixteen children with pyrexia due to upper respiratory tract infection and in twelve with fever due to other causes. All 28 children received ibuprofen (7 mg/kg of body-weight) and aspirin (15 mg/kg of body-weight) in a single dose on 2 consecutive days in a crossover manner. Rectal temperature was recorded prior to and at regular intervals up to 8 hours after drug administration. Analysis of the results indicate that ibuprofen and aspirin effectively lower temperature and the two drugs are comparable in their antipyretic activity. In conclusion, significant antipyretic activity, good tolerance profile and availability in syrup form make ibuprofen a useful substitute for aspirin in children with fever. PMID:6500169

  19. Tracing contacts of TB patients in Malaysia: costs and practicality.

    PubMed

    Atif, Muhammad; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Ali, Irfhan; Asif, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculin skin testing (TST) and chest X-ray are the conventional methods used for tracing suspected tuberculosis (TB) patients. The purpose of the study was to calculate the cost incurred by Penang General Hospital on performing one contact tracing procedure using an activity based costing approach. Contact tracing records (including the demographic profile of contacts and outcome of the contact tracing procedure) from March 2010 until February 2011 were retrospectively obtained from the TB contact tracing record book. The human resource cost was calculated by multiplying the mean time spent (in minutes) by employees doing a specific activity by their per-minute salaries. The costs of consumables, Purified Protein Derivative vials and clinical equipment were obtained from the procurement section of the Pharmacy and Radiology Departments. The cost of the building was calculated by multiplying the area of space used by the facility with the unit cost of the public building department. Straight-line deprecation with a discount rate of 3% was assumed for the calculation of equivalent annual costs for the building and machines. Out of 1024 contact tracing procedures, TST was positive (≥10 mm) in 38 suspects. However, chemoprophylaxis was started in none. Yield of contact tracing (active tuberculosis) was as low as 0.5%. The total unit cost of chest X-ray and TST was MYR 9.23 (2.90 USD) & MYR 11.80 (USD 3.70), respectively. The total cost incurred on a single contact tracing procedure was MYR 21.03 (USD 6.60). Our findings suggest that the yield of contact tracing was very low which may be attributed to an inappropriate prioritization process. TST may be replaced with more accurate and specific methods (interferon gamma release assay) in highly prioritized contacts; or TST-positive contacts should be administered 6H therapy (provided that the chest radiography excludes TB) in accordance with standard protocols. The unit cost of contact tracing can be significantly

  20. Evaluation of QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lina; Sasaki, Yuka; Nagai, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Satoru; Takamori, Mikio; Sakashita, Kentaro; Saito, Takefumi; Fukushima, Kiyoyasu; Igarashi, Yuriko; Aono, Akio; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Takaki, Akiko; Mori, Toru; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Performance of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release assays still needs to be improved. The data on the performance of QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus), a new-generation of QFT assay are limited. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of QFT-Plus, and compared to that of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT). Blood samples were collected from 162 bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (TB) patients and 212 Mycobacterium tuberculosis-uninfected volunteers; these samples were then tested with QFT-GIT and QFT-Plus. The IFN-γ concentration of QFT-Plus was lower than that of QFT-GIT in TB patients (p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curves were compared between QFT-GIT and QFT-Plus. Both assays showed area under the curve values over 0.99 without significant difference. Using the conventional cut-off (0.35 IU/mL) for QFT-GIT, QFT-Plus had a lower sensitivity of 91.1% compared to 96.2% (p = 0.008) at its optimum cut-off (0.168 IU/mL) with the same specificity. Moreover, IFN-γ values were significantly reduced with age in QFT-GIT (p = 0.035) but not in QFT-Plus. The diagnostic performance of QFT-Plus was as accurate as that of QFT-GIT despite a lack of TB7.7 antigen and despite the decrease in quantitative values. However, the cut-off value for QFT-Plus should be considered independently from that of QFT-GIT to obtain the best sensitivity without compromising specificity. PMID:27470684

  1. Evaluation of QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Lina; Sasaki, Yuka; Nagai, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Satoru; Takamori, Mikio; Sakashita, Kentaro; Saito, Takefumi; Fukushima, Kiyoyasu; Igarashi, Yuriko; Aono, Akio; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Takaki, Akiko; Mori, Toru; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Performance of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release assays still needs to be improved. The data on the performance of QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus), a new-generation of QFT assay are limited. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of QFT-Plus, and compared to that of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT). Blood samples were collected from 162 bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (TB) patients and 212 Mycobacterium tuberculosis-uninfected volunteers; these samples were then tested with QFT-GIT and QFT-Plus. The IFN-γ concentration of QFT-Plus was lower than that of QFT-GIT in TB patients (p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curves were compared between QFT-GIT and QFT-Plus. Both assays showed area under the curve values over 0.99 without significant difference. Using the conventional cut-off (0.35 IU/mL) for QFT-GIT, QFT-Plus had a lower sensitivity of 91.1% compared to 96.2% (p = 0.008) at its optimum cut-off (0.168 IU/mL) with the same specificity. Moreover, IFN-γ values were significantly reduced with age in QFT-GIT (p = 0.035) but not in QFT-Plus. The diagnostic performance of QFT-Plus was as accurate as that of QFT-GIT despite a lack of TB7.7 antigen and despite the decrease in quantitative values. However, the cut-off value for QFT-Plus should be considered independently from that of QFT-GIT to obtain the best sensitivity without compromising specificity. PMID:27470684

  2. Increased error-related thalamic activity during early compared to late cocaine abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chiang-shan R.; Luo, Xi; Sinha, Rajita; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Malison, Robert T.; Ding, Yu-Shin; Zhang, Sheng; Ide, Jaime S.

    2010-01-01

    Altered cognitive control is implicated in the shaping of cocaine dependence. One of the key component processes of cognitive control is error monitoring. Our previous imaging work highlighted greater activity in distinct cortical and subcortical regions including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), thalamus and insula when participants committed an error during the stop signal task (Li et al., 2008b). Importantly, dACC, thalamic and insular activity has been associated with drug craving. One hypothesis is that the intense interoceptive activity during craving prevents these cerebral structures from adequately registering error and/or monitoring performance. Alternatively, the dACC, thalamus and insula show abnormally heightened responses to performance errors, suggesting that excessive responses to salient stimuli such as drug cues could precipitate craving. The two hypotheses would each predict decreased and increased activity during stop error (SE) as compared to stop success (SS) trials in the SST. Here we showed that cocaine dependent patients (PCD) experienced greater subjective feeling of loss of control and cocaine craving during early (average of day 6) compared to late (average of day 18) abstinence. Furthermore, compared to PCD during late abstinence, PCD scanned during early abstinence showed increased thalamic as well as insular but not dACC responses to errors (SE>SS). These findings support the hypothesis that heightened thalamic reactivity to salient stimuli co-occur with cocaine craving and loss of self control. PMID:20163923

  3. Comparative evaluation of passive, active, and passive-active distraction techniques on pain perception during local anesthesia administration in children.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoniem, Soad A; Mahmoud, Sara A

    2016-05-01

    Local anesthesia forms the backbone of pain control techniques and is necessary for a painless dental procedure. Nevertheless, administering a local anesthetic injection is among the most anxiety-provoking procedures to children. This study was performed to compare the efficacy of different distraction techniques (passive, active, and passive-active) on children's pain perception during local anesthesia administration. A total of 90 children aged four to nine years, requiring inferior alveolar nerve block for primary molar extraction, were included in this study and randomly divided into three groups according to the distraction technique employed during local anesthesia administration. Passive distraction group: the children were instructed to listen to a song on headphones; Active distraction group: the children were instructed to move their legs up and down alternatively; and Passive-active distraction group: this was a combination between both techniques. Pain perception during local anesthesia administration was evaluated by the Sounds, Eyes, and Motor (SEM) scale and Wong Baker FACES® Pain Rating Scale. There was an insignificant difference between the three groups for SEM scale and Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale at P = 0.743 and P = 0.112 respectively. The examined distraction techniques showed comparable results in reducing pain perception during local anesthesia administration.

  4. Comparative evaluation of passive, active, and passive-active distraction techniques on pain perception during local anesthesia administration in children

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmoniem, Soad A.; Mahmoud, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Local anesthesia forms the backbone of pain control techniques and is necessary for a painless dental procedure. Nevertheless, administering a local anesthetic injection is among the most anxiety-provoking procedures to children. This study was performed to compare the efficacy of different distraction techniques (passive, active, and passive-active) on children’s pain perception during local anesthesia administration. A total of 90 children aged four to nine years, requiring inferior alveolar nerve block for primary molar extraction, were included in this study and randomly divided into three groups according to the distraction technique employed during local anesthesia administration. Passive distraction group: the children were instructed to listen to a song on headphones; Active distraction group: the children were instructed to move their legs up and down alternatively; and Passive-active distraction group: this was a combination between both techniques. Pain perception during local anesthesia administration was evaluated by the Sounds, Eyes, and Motor (SEM) scale and Wong Baker FACES® Pain Rating Scale. There was an insignificant difference between the three groups for SEM scale and Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale at P = 0.743 and P = 0.112 respectively. The examined distraction techniques showed comparable results in reducing pain perception during local anesthesia administration. PMID:27222759

  5. Comparative ex vivo activity of novel endoperoxides in multidrug-resistant plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax.

    PubMed

    Marfurt, Jutta; Chalfein, Ferryanto; Prayoga, Pak; Wabiser, Frans; Wirjanata, Grennady; Sebayang, Boni; Piera, Kim A; Wittlin, Sergio; Haynes, Richard K; Möhrle, Jörg J; Anstey, Nicholas M; Kenangalem, Enny; Price, Ric N

    2012-10-01

    The declining efficacy of artemisinin derivatives against Plasmodium falciparum highlights the urgent need to identify alternative highly potent compounds for the treatment of malaria. In Papua Indonesia, where multidrug resistance has been documented against both P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria, comparative ex vivo antimalarial activity against Plasmodium isolates was assessed for the artemisinin derivatives artesunate (AS) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439, the semisynthetic 10-alkylaminoartemisinin derivatives artemisone and artemiside, and the conventional antimalarial drugs chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ), and piperaquine (PIP). Ex vivo drug susceptibility was assessed in 46 field isolates (25 P. falciparum and 21 P. vivax). The novel endoperoxide compounds exhibited potent ex vivo activity against both species, but significant differences in intrinsic activity were observed. Compared to AS and its active metabolite DHA, all the novel compounds showed lower or equal 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) in both species (median IC(50)s between 1.9 and 3.6 nM in P. falciparum and 0.7 and 4.6 nM in P. vivax). The antiplasmodial activity of novel endoperoxides showed different cross-susceptibility patterns in the two Plasmodium species: whereas their ex vivo activity correlated positively with CQ, PIP, AS, and DHA in P. falciparum, the same was not apparent in P. vivax. The current study demonstrates for the first time potent activity of novel endoperoxides against drug-resistant P. vivax. The high activity against drug-resistant strains of both Plasmodium species confirms these compounds to be promising candidates for future artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) regimens in regions of coendemicity.

  6. Neuron-specific enolase as a novel biomarker reflecting tuberculosis activity and treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sung-Jin; Jeong, Jee-Yeong; Jang, Tae-Won; Jung, Mann-Hong; Chun, Bong-Kwon; Cha, Hee-Jae; Oak, Chul-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: It is not clear which tests are indicative of the activity and severity of tuberculosis (TB). This study aimed to investigate the predictive value of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and to determine the origin of NSE in TB patients. Methods: A single-center retrospective analysis was conducted on newly diagnosed TB patients between January and December 2010. Patients were categorized into one of two disease groups (focal segmental or extensive) based on chest X-ray. Pre- and post-treatment NSE concentrations were evaluated. To determine the origin of serum NSE concentration, NSE staining was compared with macrophage-specific CD68 staining in lung tissues and with a tissue microarray using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Results: A total of 60 newly diagnosed TB patients were analyzed. In TB patients, NSE serum concentration was significantly increased and NSE level decreased after treatment (p < 0.001). In proportion to serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration, the mean serum concentration of NSE in the extensive group (25.12 ng/mL) was significantly higher than that in the focal segmental group (20.23 ng/mL, p = 0.04). Immunohistochemical staining revealed a large number of macrophages that stained positively for both NSE and CD68 in TB tissues. In addition, NSE signals mostly co-localized with CD68 signals in the tissue microarray of TB patients. Conclusions: Our results suggest that NSE may be a practical parameter that can be used to monitor TB activity and treatment response. Elevated serum NSE level originates, at least in part, from macrophages in granulomatous lesions. PMID:27271274

  7. Synthesis and potent antiprotozoal activity of mono/di amidino 2-anilinobenzimidazoles versus Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.

    PubMed

    Karaaslan, Cigdem; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Göker, Hakan

    2016-09-15

    A series of mono and dicationic new 2-anilinobenzimidazole carboxamidines were prepared in a four step process starting from 4-amino-3-nitrobenzonitrile and corresponding o-phenylenediamines. Their antiparasitic activity against Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (T.b. rhodesiense) were evaluated in vitro. Some of the dicationic compounds (10,12,14) showed equal or very close activity against T.b. rhodesiense with melarsoprol and also showed promising activity against P. falciparum as compared to chloroquine. Among the monocationic derivatives compound 21 exhibited best inhibitory activity against P. falciparum. PMID:27387356

  8. P-glycoprotein substrate transport assessed by comparing cellular and vesicular ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Nervi, Pierluigi; Li-Blatter, Xiaochun; Aänismaa, Päivi; Seelig, Anna

    2010-03-01

    We compared the P-glycoprotein ATPase activity in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles and living NIH-MDR1-G185 cells with the aim to detect substrate transport. To this purpose we used six substrates which differ significantly in their passive influx through the plasma membrane. In cells, the cytosolic membrane leaflet harboring the substrate binding site of P-glycoprotein has to be approached by passive diffusion through the lipid membrane, whereas in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles, it is accessible directly from the aqueous phase. Compounds exhibiting fast passive influx compared to active efflux by P-glycoprotein induced similar ATPase activity profiles in cells and inside-out plasma membrane vesicles, because their concentrations in the cytosolic leaflets were similar. Compounds exhibiting similar influx as efflux induced in contrast different ATPase activity profiles in cells and inside-out vesicles. Their concentration was significantly lower in the cytosolic leaflet of cells than in the cytosolic leaflet of inside-out membrane vesicles, indicating that P-glycoprotein could cope with passive influx. P-glycoprotein thus transported all compounds at a rate proportional to ATP hydrolysis (i.e. all compounds were substrates). However, it prevented substrate entry into the cytosol only if passive influx of substrates across the lipid bilayer was in a similar range as active efflux. PMID:20004641

  9. A comparative study of carboxyfluorescein diacetate and carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester as indicators of bacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Hoefel, Daniel; Grooby, Warwick L; Monis, Paul T; Andrews, Stuart; Saint, Christopher P

    2003-03-01

    Staining bacteria with esterified fluorogenic substrates followed by flow cytometric analysis offers a means for rapid detection of metabolically active bacteria. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to assess carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA/SE) as indicators of bacterial activity for cultured bacteria, including Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and bacteria from environmental waters. In theory, CFDA/SE should be a better indicator of metabolic bacterial activity compared to CFDA due to greater intracellular retention of the fluorescent product. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of exponential phase cultures, mixtures of active and inactive cells and bacteria from environmental waters revealed CFDA was successful in detecting active bacteria, whereas CFDA/SE was not. CFDA/SE labelled inactive cells with intensities equal to that of the active population and could not even discriminate between bacteria in exponential phase growth and a fixed cell preparation. We propose that the specific mode of action of the succinimidyl ester (SE) group in combination with the nonenzymatic aqueous hydrolysis of the CFDA moiety results in the nonspecific labelling of all cells, irrespective of their metabolic state. This study shows that CFDA/SE is a poor marker of bacterial activity. PMID:12531507

  10. Comparative study of the antibacterial activity of propolis from different geographical and climatic zones.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Véronique; Peyfoon, Elham; Watson, David G; Fearnley, James

    2008-09-01

    Propolis is a natural substance produced by honeybees upon collection and transformation of resins and exudates from plants. Comparative studies on propolis collected from a wide range of countries are crucial for linking its provenance to antibacterial activity and thus ensuring that the beneficial properties of propolis are used more efficiently by the general public. This study reports the in vitro screening of ethanol extracts of propolis (n = 40), collected from a wide range of countries within the tropical, subtropical and temperate zones, and on the comparison of their activity against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using a broth microdilution assay. The results obtained revealed that propolis extracts were mostly active against Gram-positive bacteria. The samples were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) in order to model their activity against Gram-positive microorganisms. Three distinct clusters were distinguished in the PCA mapping based on MIC values, categorizing samples with strong (MIC range 3.9-31.25 mg/L), moderate (MIC range 31.25-> or =500 mg/L) and weak antibacterial activity or inactivity (MIC > or = 500 mg/L only). It is hypothesized that for samples of tropical provenance differences in the activity profiles may depend on the climatic characteristics of the collection sites. High antibacterial activity was observed for samples from locations characterized by a wet-tropical rainforest-type climate.

  11. Comparing the Effects of Light- or Sonic-Activated Drug Delivery: Photochemical/Sonochemical Internalization.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Steen J; Gonzales, Jonathan; Zamora, Genesis; Berg, Kristian; Nair, Rohit Kumar; Hirschberg, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a technique that uses the photochemical properties of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the enhanced delivery of endolysosomal-trapped macromolecules into the cell cytoplasm. The released agent can therefore exert its full biological activity, in contrast to being degraded by lysosomal hydrolases. Activation of photosensitizers via ultrasound (US), called sonodynamic therapy (SDT), has been proposed as an alternative to light-activated PDT for the treatment of cancerous tumors. The use of focused US (FUS) to activate photosensitizers allows treatment at tumor sites buried deep within tissues, overcoming one of the main limitations of PDT/PCI. We have examined ultrasonic activation of photosensitizers together with the anticancer agent bleomycin (BLM) using sonochemical internalization (SCI), as an alternative to light-activated PCI. Our results indicate that, compared to drug or US treatment alone, US activation of the photosensitizer AlPcS2a together with BLM significantly inhibits the ability of treated glioma cells to form clonogenic colonies.

  12. Comparing the Effects of Light- or Sonic-Activated Drug Delivery: Photochemical/Sonochemical Internalization.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Steen J; Gonzales, Jonathan; Zamora, Genesis; Berg, Kristian; Nair, Rohit Kumar; Hirschberg, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a technique that uses the photochemical properties of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the enhanced delivery of endolysosomal-trapped macromolecules into the cell cytoplasm. The released agent can therefore exert its full biological activity, in contrast to being degraded by lysosomal hydrolases. Activation of photosensitizers via ultrasound (US), called sonodynamic therapy (SDT), has been proposed as an alternative to light-activated PDT for the treatment of cancerous tumors. The use of focused US (FUS) to activate photosensitizers allows treatment at tumor sites buried deep within tissues, overcoming one of the main limitations of PDT/PCI. We have examined ultrasonic activation of photosensitizers together with the anticancer agent bleomycin (BLM) using sonochemical internalization (SCI), as an alternative to light-activated PCI. Our results indicate that, compared to drug or US treatment alone, US activation of the photosensitizer AlPcS2a together with BLM significantly inhibits the ability of treated glioma cells to form clonogenic colonies. PMID:27279586

  13. Comparative studies on polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Schisandra chinensis leaves and fruits.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Andrei; Crișan, Gianina; Vlase, Laurian; Crișan, Ovidiu; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Raita, Oana; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Toiu, Anca; Oprean, Radu; Tilea, Ioan

    2014-09-22

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the polyphenolic content of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. leaves and fruits. The leaves are an important source of flavonoids (35.10 ± 1.23 mg RE/g plant material). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the polyphenolic compounds were achieved using a HPLC-UV-MS method. The main flavonoid from the leaves was isoquercitrin (2486.18 ± 5.72 μg/g plant material), followed by quercitrin (1645.14 ± 2.12 μg/g plant material). Regarding the fruit composition, the dominant compound there was rutin (13.02 ± 0.21 μg/g plant material), but comparing with the leaves, fruits can be considered a poor source of phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX), inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c and EPR spectroscopic assays, revealing a better antioxidant activity for the S. chinensis leaves extract. In the antimicrobial assay, S. chinensis leaves extract showed efficient activities against the targeted bacteria, being more active than the fruits extract. The results suggest the leaves of S. chinensis as a valuable source of antioxidant compounds with significant antioxidant activity.

  14. Cost-comparison of different management policies for tuberculosis patients in Italy. AIPO TB Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Migliori, G. B.; Ambrosetti, M.; Besozzi, G.; Farris, B.; Nutini, S.; Saini, L.; Casali, L.; Nardini, S.; Bugiani, M.; Neri, M.; Raviglione, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Although in developing countries the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) cases is among the most cost-effective health interventions, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of TB control in low-prevalence countries. The aim of the present study was to carry out an economic analysis in Italy that takes into account both the perspective of the resource-allocating authority (i.e. the Ministry of Health) and the broader social perspective, including a cost description based on current outcomes applied to a representative sample of TB patients nationwide (admission and directly observed treatment (DOT) during the initial intensive phase of treatment); a cost-comparison analysis of two alternative programmes: current policy based on available data (scenario 1) and an hypothetical policy oriented more towards outpatient care (scenario 2) (both scenarios included the option of including or not including DOT outside hospital admission, and incentives) were compared in terms of cost per case treated successfully. Indirect costs (such as loss of productivity) were included in considerations of the broader social perspective. The study was designed as a prospective monitoring activity based on the supervised collection of forms from a representative sample of Italian TB units. Individual data were collected and analysed to obtain a complete economic profile of the patients enrolled and to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. A separate analysis was done for each scenario to determine the end-point at different levels of cure rate (50-90%). The mean length of treatment was 6.6 months (i.e. patients hospitalized during the intensive phase; length of stay was significantly higher in smear-positive patients and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients). Roughly six direct smear and culture examinations were performed during hospital admission and three during ambulatory treatment. The cost of a single bed day was US$186.90, whereas that of a

  15. Preparation and characterization of thermoluminescent aluminium oxide doped with Tb3+ and Tb3+-Mg2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, V. S. M.; Azevedo, W. M.; Khoury, H. J.; Linhares Filho, P.

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents the preparation method and the thermoluminescence analysis of aluminium oxide doped with Tb3+ and Tb3+-Mg2+ obtained by Combustion Synthesis (CS). An aqueous solution containing stoichiometric amounts of aluminium, terbium, magnesium nitrates and urea were mixed and introduced in a muffle furnace pre-heated to 500°C. After combustion, the samples were thermally treated at 1300°C and irradiated with a Co-60 gamma radiation source. The TL glow curves of the annealed Al2O3:Tb and Al2O3:Tb,Mg samples presented a well defined TL peak at approximately 200 °C, whereas the samples without heat-treatment presented a large number of TL peaks in the range from 150 to 500°C. These peaks were attributed to amorphous and phase impurities (γ-Al2O3 mixed with the α-phase) still present in the sample. Dose response analysis showed a linear response in the dose range from 0.5 to 5 Gy. These results strongly suggest that CS is a suitable technique to prepare doped aluminium oxide for TL dosimetric applications.

  16. Interferon-Gamma Release Assays for the Diagnosis of Active Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Zhang, Renfang; Wang, Jiangrong; Liu, Li; Zheng, Yufang; Shen, Yinzhong; Qi, Tangkai; Lu, Hongzhou

    2011-01-01

    Background Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) have provided a new method for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. However, the role of IGRAs for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB), especially in HIV-infected patients remains unclear. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases to identify studies published in January 2001–July 2011 that evaluated the evidence of using QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube (QFT-GIT) and T-SPOT.TB (T-SPOT) on blood for the diagnosis of active TB in HIV-infected patients. Results The search identified 16 eligible studies that included 2801 HIV-infected individuals (637 culture confirmed TB cases). The pooled sensitivity for the diagnosis of active TB was 76.7% (95%CI, 71.6–80.5%) and 77.4% (95%CI, 71.4–82.6%) for QFT-GIT and T-SPOT, respectively, while the specificity was 76.1% (95%CI, 74.0–78.0%) and 63.1% (95%CI, 57.6–68.3%) after excluding the indeterminate results. Studies conducted in low/middle income countries showed slightly lower sensitivity and specificity when compared to that in high-income countries. The proportion of indeterminate results was as high as 10% (95%CI, 8.8–11.3%) and 13.2% (95%CI, 10.6–16.0%) for QFT-GIT and T-SPOT, respectively. Conclusion IGRAs in their current formulations have limited accuracy in diagnosing active TB in HIV-infected patients, and should not be used alone to rule out or rule in active TB cases in HIV-infected patients. Further modification is needed to improve their accuracy. PMID:22069472

  17. Highly uniform YF{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln = Ce{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}) walnut-like microcrystals: Hydrothermal synthesis and luminescent properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaojie; Sheng, Tianqi; Fu, Zuoling; Li, Wenhao; Jeong, Jung Hyun

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: The emission spectra of Y{sub 0.98−x}F{sub 3}:0.02Ce{sup 3+}, xTb{sup 3+} microcrystals with different Tb{sup 3+} concentrations demonstrated that energy transfer from the Ce{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} ions is highly efficient. The concentration quenching phenomenon occurs when the x = 0.13. We have discussed it in detail based on experiments and quantitative calculations. Highlights: ► YF{sub 3}:Ce{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} walnut-like microcrystals were prepared by a hydrothermal synthesis. ► The optical properties of YF{sub 3}:Ce{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} phosphors have been investigated in detail. ► The energy transfer distance and efficiency from Ce{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+} ions were calculated. ► The dipole–dipole interaction should be the dominant mechanism for energy transfer. - Abstract: Uniform and well-crystallized YF{sub 3} walnut-like microcrystals were prepared by a facile one-step hydrothermal synthesis. The crystalline phase, size, morphology, and luminescence properties were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescent excitation spectra (PLE). The results revealed that the existence of Ce{sup 3+} (sensitizer) can dramatically enhance green emission centered at 545 nm of Tb{sup 3+} (activator) in codoped samples due to an efficient energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+}. The critical energy transfer distance between Ce{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} was also calculated by methods of concentration quenching and spectral overlapping. Experimental analysis and theoretical calculations indicated that the dipole–dipole interaction should be the dominant mechanism for the Ce{sup 3+}–Tb{sup 3+} energy transfer.

  18. Fixed-Dose Combination Drug Approvals, Patents and Market Exclusivities Compared to Single Active Ingredient Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jing; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fixed-dose combinations (FDC) contain two or more active ingredients. The effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC compared to single active ingredient has not been assessed. Objectives Trends in FDA approved FDC in the period 1980–2012 and time lag between approval of FDC and single active ingredients in the combination were assessed, and the effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC was compared with their single active ingredients. Materials and Methods New molecular entities (NMEs), new therapeutic biologics license applications (BLAs) and FDC data were collected from the FDA Orange Book and Drugs@FDA. Analysis included FDC containing one or more NMEs or BLAs at first FDA approval (NMEs-FDC) and only already marketed drugs (Non-NMEs-FDC). Descriptive, Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon Rank Sum analyses were performed. Results During the study period, the FDA approved 28 NMEs-FDC (3.5% of NMEs) and 117 non-NMEs-FDC. FDC approvals increased from 12 in the 1980s to 59 in the 2000s. Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 5.43 years (interquartile range 1.74, 10.31) after first FDA approval of single active ingredients in the combination. The Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 2.33 years (-7.55, 2.39) before approval of generic single active ingredient. Non-NME-FDC added a median of 9.70 (2.75, 16.24) years to the patent and exclusivity life of the single active ingredients in the combination. Conclusion FDC approvals significantly increased over the last twenty years. Pharmaceutical companies market FDC drugs shortly before the generic versions of the single ingredients enter the market extending the patent and exclusivity life of drugs included in the combination. PMID:26469277

  19. The influence comparing of activated biochar and conventional biochar on the soil biological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořáčková, Helena; Mykajlo, Irina; Záhora, Jaroslav

    2016-04-01

    In our experiment we have used biochar. This material is the product of the pyrolysis that has shown a positive effect on numerous physical and chemical soil properties. However, its influence on the biological component of the soil is very variable. A number of toxic substances that inhibit the soil productivity may be produced during pyrolysis process. The experiment dealt with the hypothesis concerning biochar toxicity reduction by simulating natural processes in the soil. Biochar has been exposed to aeration in the aquatic environment, enriched with nutrients and a source of native soil microflora. It has been created 6 variants in total, each with four replications. The soils samples have been placed in a phytotron for 90 days. Variants consisted of the soil with fertilizers adding (compost, biochar, activated biochar) and have been prepared as well as variants containing compost and biochar and activated biochar optionally. The highest aboveground biomass production has been estimated in variants containing compost, while the lowest production - in the variants containing conventional biochar. During production comparing of the variants with the conventional biochar, activated biochar and control samples it has been evident that activated biochar promotes plant growth, and in contradiction conventional biochar inhibits it. We will approach to the same conclusions when comparing variants with a combination of conventional biochar + compost and activated biochar + compost. Mineral nitrogen leaching has been another investigated parameter. The highest leaching has occurred in the control variant, while the lowest - in the variant with activated biochar (the leaching of nitrate nitrogen has been negligeable). Our results suggest that activated biochar has the potential; however, it is necessary to carry out similar experiments in the field conditions.

  20. SUMOylation by the E3 Ligase TbSIZ1/PIAS1 Positively Regulates VSG Expression in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    López-Farfán, Diana; Bart, Jean-Mathieu; Rojas-Barros, Domingo I.; Navarro, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Bloodstream form trypanosomes avoid the host immune response by switching the expression of their surface proteins between Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSG), only one of which is expressed at any given time. Monoallelic transcription of the telomeric VSG Expression Site (ES) by RNA polymerase I (RNA pol I) localizes to a unique nuclear body named the ESB. Most work has focused on silencing mechanisms of inactive VSG-ESs, but the mechanisms involved in transcriptional activation of a single VSG-ES remain largely unknown. Here, we identify a highly SUMOylated focus (HSF) in the nucleus of the bloodstream form that partially colocalizes with the ESB and the active VSG-ES locus. SUMOylation of chromatin-associated proteins was enriched along the active VSG-ES transcriptional unit, in contrast to silent VSG-ES or rDNA, suggesting that it is a distinct feature of VSG-ES monoallelic expression. In addition, sequences upstream of the active VSG-ES promoter were highly enriched in SUMOylated proteins. We identified TbSIZ1/PIAS1 as the SUMO E3 ligase responsible for SUMOylation in the active VSG-ES chromatin. Reduction of SUMO-conjugated proteins by TbSIZ1 knockdown decreased the recruitment of RNA pol I to the VSG-ES and the VSG-ES-derived transcripts. Furthermore, cells depleted of SUMO conjugated proteins by TbUBC9 and TbSUMO knockdown confirmed the positive function of SUMO for VSG-ES expression. In addition, the largest subunit of RNA pol I TbRPA1 was SUMOylated in a TbSIZ-dependent manner. Our results show a positive mechanism associated with active VSG-ES expression via post-translational modification, and indicate that chromatin SUMOylation plays an important role in the regulation of VSG-ES. Thus, protein SUMOylation is linked to active gene expression in this protozoan parasite that diverged early in evolution. PMID:25474309

  1. Supporting clinical management of the difficult-to-treat TB cases: the ERS-WHO TB Consilium.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, Lia; Tadolini, Marina; Centis, Rosella; Duarte, Raquel; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Aliberti, Stefano; Dara, Masoud; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2015-03-01

    Multi-drug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) are considered a serious threat for TB control and elimination. The outcome of these patients is still largely unsatisfactory as of today, with treatment success rates being consistently below 50% at global level. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that management of MDR-TB cases is supported by a specialized team, including complementary medical professionals able to cover several perspectives (clinical, both for adults and children; surgical; radiological; public health; psychological; nursing, among others). Implementation of such a body (known as Consilium in most of the former Soviet Union countries) is often a pre-requisite to apply for international TB control funding and concessionally priced medicines to treat M/XDR-TB cases. The primary objective of the ERS/WHO TB Consilium is to provide clinical consultation for drug-resistant TB and other difficult-to-treat TB cases, including co-infection with HIV and paediatric cases. Through technical guidance to clinicians managing complex TB cases, the main contribution and outcome of the initiative will be a public health response aimed at achieving correct treatment of affected patients and preventing further development of drug resistance. The Consilum's secondary objective is to ensure monitoring and evaluation of clinical practices on the ground (diagnosis, treatment and prevention).

  2. Detection of interleukin-2 in addition to interferon-gamma discriminates active tuberculosis patients, latently infected individuals, and controls.

    PubMed

    Biselli, R; Mariotti, S; Sargentini, V; Sauzullo, I; Lastilla, M; Mengoni, F; Vanini, V; Girardi, E; Goletti, D; D' Amelio, R; Nisini, R

    2010-08-01

    Effective control of tuberculosis (TB) includes discrimination of subjects with active TB from individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI). As distinct interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2 profiles of antigen-specific T-cells have been associated with different clinical stages and antigen loads in several viral and bacterial diseases, we analysed these cytokines in TB using a modified QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube test. Detection of IL-2 in addition to IFN-gamma distinguishes not only Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected subjects from healthy controls, but also individuals with LTBI from active TB patients. This may help to improve diagnostic tests for TB.

  3. Comparative effects of petrol and diesel on enzyme activity in Tympanotonus fuscatus after sublethal exposure.

    PubMed

    Edori, O S; Festus, C; Edori, E S

    2014-04-01

    Pollution of the aquatic environment by petroleum and its products is common the world over. This study is aimed at examining sublethal effects of petrol and diesel on enzymes in Tympanotonus fuscatus namely: Aspartate Transaminase (AST) (E.C. 2.6.1.1), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) (E.C. 2.6.2.2) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) (E.C. 3.1.3.1) activity after exposure. The periwinkles were exposed to 10.40, 15.60, 21.00, 26.00 ml L(-1) and a control. The organs were removed on the sixth day and were prepared for enzymatic analysis. Enzyme activities were compared to the control value and between the toxicants. The effects of the toxicants on AST activity in the muscle and viscera were significantly different (p > 0.05) from the control value (137.50 ± 15.10 IU L(-1)). AST activity were raised more in petrol concentrations than the diesel concentrations in the muscle. The reverse was the case in the viscera at 15.60 ml L(-1) (227.50 ± 24.75 IU L(-1)). ALT activity in the muscle were not significant (p > 0.05) between the toxicant media. In the viscera, significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in some of the concentrations with petrol showing higher activity. ALP activity in the muscle were not significant (p > 0.05) in both media, but were more elicited in the diesel concentrations. In the viscera, the activities of ALP were more pronounced in the petrol concentrations and were significant (p > 0.05) at the higher diesel concentrations. The exposure of Tympanotonus fuscatus to petrol and diesel concentrations caused changes in the enzymatic activities in the organism with those of petrol more pronounced than those of the diesel.

  4. Defining torpor in free-ranging bats: experimental evaluation of external temperature-sensitive radiotransmitters and the concept of active temperature.

    PubMed

    Willis, C K R; Brigham, R M

    2003-07-01

    A variety of definitions involving body temperature (Tb), metabolic rate and behavior have been used to define torpor in mammals and birds. This problem is confounded in some studies of free-ranging animals that employ only skin temperature (Tsk), a measure that approximates but may not precisely reflect Tb. We assess the accuracy of Tsk in the context of a recent definition for torpor called active temperature. We compared the active temperatures of individual big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), which aggregate in cavities, with solitary, foliage-roosting hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus). In captive big brown bats, we compared Tsk and core Tb at a range of ambient temperatures for clustered and solitary roosting animals, compared Tsk and Tb during arousal from torpor, and quantified the effect of flight on warming from torpor. Hoary bats had significantly lower active temperatures than big brown bats despite having the same normothermic Tsk. Tsk was significantly lower than Tb during normothermia but often greater than Tb during torpor. Flight increased the rate of warming from torpor. This effect was more pronounced for Tsk than Tb. This suggests that bats could rely on heat generated by flight muscles to complete the final stages of arousal. Using active temperature to define torpor may underestimate torpor due to ambient cooling of external transmitters or animals leaving roosts while still torpid. Conversely, active temperature may also overestimate shallow torpor use if it is recorded during active arousal when shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis warm external transmitters. Our findings illuminate the need for laboratory studies that quantify the relationship between metabolic rate and Tsk over a range of ambient temperatures. PMID:12764630

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcuminoids, Turmerones, and Aqueous Extract of Curcuma longa

    PubMed Central

    Bagad, Ashish Subhash; Bhaskaran, Natarajan; Agarwal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Curcuma longa is widely known for its anti-inflammatory activity in traditional system of medicine for centuries and has been scientifically validated extensively. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of curcuminoids and oil-free aqueous extract (COFAE) of C. longa and compare it with that of curcuminoids and turmerones (volatile oil), the bioactive components of C. longa that are proven for the anti-inflammatory potential. The activity against inflammation was evaluated in xylene-induced ear edema, cotton pellet granuloma models in albino Swiss mice and albino Wistar rats, respectively. The results showed that COFAE of C. longa at three dose levels significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited inflammation in both models, as evidenced by reduction in ear weight and decrease in wet as well as dry weights of cotton pellets, when compared to the vehicle control. The COFAE of C. longa showed considerable anti-inflammatory effects against acute and chronic inflammation and the effects were comparable to those of curcuminoids and turmerones. PMID:24454348

  6. Enhanced emissions in Tb3+-doped oxyfluoride scintillating glass ceramics containing BaF2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lihui; Jia, Shijie; Li, Yang; Zhao, Shilong; Deng, Degang; Wang, Huanping; Jia, Guohua; Hua, Youjie; Xu, Shiqing

    2015-07-01

    Transparent Tb3+-doped glass ceramics containing BaF2 nanocrystals were prepared by melt-quenching method with subsequent heat treatment. The XRD and EDS results showed the precipitated crystalline phase in the glass matrix was BaF2. Under 376 nm light, Tb3+ doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing BaF2 nanocrystals showed more intense green emission than the as-made glass, and the emission intensity increased with increasing heat treatment temperature and time. The lifetimes of 541 nm emission of Tb3+ doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics were longer than that of as-made glass, which are in the range from 3.00 ms to 3.55 ms. Under X-ray excitation, the green emission was enhanced in the glass ceramics compared to the as-made glass. The results indicate Tb3+ doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing BaF2 nanocrystals could be a material candidate for X-ray glass scintillator for slow event detection.

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure and photoluminescence property of Eu/Tb MOFs with mixed polycarboxylate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lu; Zhang, Sheng; Qu, Xiaoni; Yang, Qi; Liu, Xiangyu; Wei, Qing; Xie, Gang; Chen, Sanping

    2015-11-01

    Lanthanide MOFs, [Eu(TCA)(NDC)·H2O]n (1) and [Tb(TCA)(NDC)·H2O]n (2), have been prepared with the mixed aromatic carboxylate ligands, namely, 4,4‧,4″-tricarboxytriphenylamine (H3TCA) and 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate (H2NDC). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that isomorphic 1 and 2 present pillar-layered 3D framework that Eu/Tb(III) bond with carboxylate in various coordination fashions. Optical investigation indicates that the as-prepared compounds feature characteristic luminescence emission bands of Eu/Tb ions in the visible regions at room temperature. Moreover, compound 2 shows a relatively longer luminescence lifetime (τ=0.342 ms) and significantly enhanced quantum yield (Φoverall=11%) comparing with those of 1 (τ=0.335 ms, Φoverall=0.06%). Two Ln-MOFs (Ln=EuIII, TbIII) with mixed polycarboxylate ligands present different luminescent properties.

  8. The Role of Adherence and Retreatment in De Novo Emergence of MDR-TB

    PubMed Central

    Cadosch, Dominique; Abel zur Wiesch, Pia; Kouyos, Roger; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Treatment failure after therapy of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) infections is an important challenge, especially when it coincides with de novo emergence of multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). We seek to explore possible causes why MDR-TB has been found to occur much more often in patients with a history of previous treatment. We develop a mathematical model of the replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within a patient reflecting the compartments of macrophages, granulomas, and open cavities as well as parameterizing the effects of drugs on the pathogen dynamics in these compartments. We use this model to study the influence of patient adherence to therapy and of common retreatment regimens on treatment outcome. As expected, the simulations show that treatment success increases with increasing adherence. However, treatment occasionally fails even under perfect adherence due to interpatient variability in pharmacological parameters. The risk of generating MDR de novo is highest between 40% and 80% adherence. Importantly, our simulations highlight the double-edged effect of retreatment: On the one hand, the recommended retreatment regimen increases the overall success rate compared to re-treating with the initial regimen. On the other hand, it increases the probability to accumulate more resistant genotypes. We conclude that treatment adherence is a key factor for a positive outcome, and that screening for resistant strains is advisable after treatment failure or relapse. PMID:26967493

  9. Improving thermal stability of KSrPO4:Tb3+ phosphors prepared by microwave assisted sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yu-Ming; Su, Yan-Kuin; Yang, Ru-Yuan

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, KSr0.94PO4:Tb0.063+ phosphor was synthesized successfully by microwave assisted sintering method at 1200 °C for 1 h under an air atmosphere. Photoluminescence results show KSr0.94PO4:Tb0.063+ phosphor prepared by microwave assisted sintering method presents an observable improved effect on the enhancement of thermal stability. The emission intensity reduces slowly and marginally by approximately 7% for the maximum emission peak with the temperature increasing from 30 °C to 200 °C indicating great thermal stability KSrPO4:Tb3+ phosphors are. Additionally, the activation energy (ΔE) of thermal quenching of KSrPO4:Tb3+ phosphor was calculated to be 0.2 eV. Moreover, the chromaticity (x, y) located at (0.30, 0.52) was kept without variation when the temperature increased from 30 °C to 200 °C.

  10. Comparative activation states of tumor-associated and peritoneal macrophages from mice bearing an induced fibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Valdez, J C; de Alderete, N; Meson, O E; Sirena, A; Perdigon, G

    1990-11-01

    Balb/c mice bearing a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma were used to compare the activation levels of tumor-associated and peritoneal macrophages. Two stages of tumor growth were examined, namely "small" and "large" tumors, with average diameters of 10 and 30 mm, respectively. The activation state, determined by measurement of both phagocytic index and beta-glucuronidase content, was found to be markedly higher in tumor-associated macrophages than in their peritoneal counterparts and it was, in addition, independent of tumor progression. The percentage of tumor-associated macrophages, which were detected on the basis of Fc receptor expression, remained constant in the growing neoplasm, at approximately 23% of total cell population. None of these parameters were affected by inoculation with an immunopotentiating dose of heat-killed Candida albicans which, on the other hand, seemed not to alter the course of the tumor. These data suggest that within the tumor microenvironment macrophages would somehow be maintained at a constant proportion and at a highly activated state, while outside the tumor they would be at a lower activation level. Our results also suggest that TAM would not possess antitumor activity in vivo, although we have found this activity in vitro.

  11. Comparative activation states of tumor-associated and peritoneal macrophages from mice bearing an induced fibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Valdez, J C; de Alderete, N; Meson, O E; Sirena, A; Perdigon, G

    1990-11-01

    Balb/c mice bearing a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma were used to compare the activation levels of tumor-associated and peritoneal macrophages. Two stages of tumor growth were examined, namely "small" and "large" tumors, with average diameters of 10 and 30 mm, respectively. The activation state, determined by measurement of both phagocytic index and beta-glucuronidase content, was found to be markedly higher in tumor-associated macrophages than in their peritoneal counterparts and it was, in addition, independent of tumor progression. The percentage of tumor-associated macrophages, which were detected on the basis of Fc receptor expression, remained constant in the growing neoplasm, at approximately 23% of total cell population. None of these parameters were affected by inoculation with an immunopotentiating dose of heat-killed Candida albicans which, on the other hand, seemed not to alter the course of the tumor. These data suggest that within the tumor microenvironment macrophages would somehow be maintained at a constant proportion and at a highly activated state, while outside the tumor they would be at a lower activation level. Our results also suggest that TAM would not possess antitumor activity in vivo, although we have found this activity in vitro. PMID:2099903

  12. Redefining Neighborhoods Using Common Destinations: Social Characteristics of Activity Spaces and Home Census Tracts Compared

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Malia; Pebley, Anne R.

    2014-01-01

    Research on neighborhood effects has focused largely on residential neighborhoods, but people are exposed to many other places in the course of their daily lives—at school, at work, when shopping, and so on. Thus, studies of residential neighborhoods consider only a subset of the social-spatial environment affecting individuals. In this article, we examine the characteristics of adults’ “activity spaces”—spaces defined by locations that individuals visit regularly, in Los Angeles County, California. Using geographic information system (GIS) methods, we define activity spaces in two ways and estimate their socioeconomic characteristics. Our research has two goals. First, we determine whether residential neighborhoods represent the social conditions to which adults are exposed in the course of their regular activities. Second, we evaluate whether particular groups are exposed to a broader or narrower range of social contexts in the course of their daily activities. We find that activity spaces are substantially more heterogeneous in terms of key social characteristics, compared to residential neighborhoods. However, the characteristics of both home neighborhoods and activity spaces are closely associated with individual characteristics. Our results suggest that most people experience substantial segregation across the range of spaces in their daily lives, not just at home. PMID:24719273

  13. Crystal and magnetic structure of the R15Si9C compounds (R = Ho, Er, Tb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, C.; Wrubl, F.; Hill, A. H.; Pani, M.; Manfrinetti, P.

    2011-07-01

    The synthesis of the new compounds R15Si9C with R = Sm, Gd-Er, Y and R15Ge9C with R = Ce, Pr and Nd has been recently reported; these compounds crystallize in the hexagonal La15Ge9Fe structure type, hP50-P63mc, Z = 2 (ordered superstructure of La5Ge3 (Mn5Si3-type, hP 16-P63/mcm, Z = 2)). Here we report the results of a neutron diffraction investigation that we have performed to study the crystal and magnetic structures of the R15Si9C compounds with R = Tb, Ho and Er. All three compounds see the establishment of commensurate magnetic order with a predominantly ferromagnetic interaction. Details of mixed antiferro-ferromagnetic spin arrangements (κ = [000]) (for Tb15Si9C and Ho15Si9C) or of purely ferromagnetic ordering (Er15Si9C), and of their temperature dependence, are given and linked to the different coordination of the four dissimilar rare earth sites. In the Tb and Ho compounds the thermal evolution of the magnetic moment values strongly differs between the different R sites. The position occupied by the principal carbon has been determined (Wyckoff site 2b) and the existence of a second position available for the interstitial carbon (Wyckoff site 2a) has been revealed for R = Ho, Tb. Moreover, in the Tb and Ho compounds the magnetic moment value of the rare earth site R4, surrounding the second interstitial carbon site, is strongly reduced if compared to the value on the other rare earth sites. The magnetic transition temperatures of all three compounds, i.e. TC = 130, 43 and 45 K for Tb15Si9C, Ho15Si9C and Er15Si9C, are remarkably high compared to those of the parent R5Si3 compounds. The magnetic behaviour of the partly filled Tb5Si3C0.25 is reported.

  14. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares; Torres, Yohandra Reyes

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing (1)H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated.

  15. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing 1H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated. PMID:27525023

  16. Speech recognition in noise with active and passive hearing protectors: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bockstael, Annelies; De Coensel, Bert; Botteldooren, Dick; D'Haenens, Wendy; Keppler, Hannah; Maes, Leen; Philips, Birgit; Swinnen, Freya; Bart, Vinck

    2011-06-01

    The perceived negative influence of standard hearing protectors on communication is a common argument for not wearing them. Thus, "augmented" protectors have been developed to improve speech intelligibility. Nevertheless, their actual benefit remains a point of concern. In this paper, speech perception with active earplugs is compared to standard passive custom-made earplugs. The two types of active protectors included amplify the incoming sound with a fixed level or to a user selected fraction of the maximum safe level. For the latter type, minimal and maximal amplification are selected. To compare speech intelligibility, 20 different speech-in-noise fragments are presented to 60 normal-hearing subjects and speech recognition is scored. The background noise is selected from realistic industrial noise samples with different intensity, frequency, and temporal characteristics. Statistical analyses suggest that the protectors' performance strongly depends on the noise condition. The active protectors with minimal amplification outclass the others for the most difficult and the easiest situations, but they also limit binaural listening. In other conditions, the passive protectors clearly surpass their active counterparts. Subsequently, test fragments are analyzed acoustically to clarify the results. This provides useful information for developing prototypes, but also indicates that tests with human subjects remain essential. PMID:21682395

  17. Pain Sensitisation in Women with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Vladimirova, Nora; Jespersen, Anders; Bartels, Else Marie; Christensen, Anton W.; Bliddal, Henning; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In some rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, joint pain persists without signs of inflammation. This indicates that central pain sensitisation may play a role in the generation of chronic pain in a subgroup of RA. Our aim was to assess the degree of peripheral and central pain sensitisation in women with active RA compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods. 38 women with active RA (DAS28 > 2.6) and 38 female HC were included in, and completed, the study. Exclusion criteria were polyneuropathy, pregnancy, and no Danish language. Cuff Pressure Algometry measurements were carried out on the dominant lower leg. Pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain sensitivity during tonic painful stimulation were recorded. Results. Women with active RA had significantly lower pain threshold (p < 0.01) and pain tolerance (p < 0.01) than HC. The mean temporal summation- (TS-) index in RA patients was 0.98 (SEM: 0.09) and 0.71 (SEM: 0.04) in HC (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Patients with active RA showed decreased pressure-pain threshold compared to HC. In addition, temporal summation of pressure-pain was increased, indicating central pain sensitization, at least in some patients. Defining this subgroup of patients may be of importance when considering treatment strategies. PMID:26266046

  18. Pain Sensitisation in Women with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, Nora; Jespersen, Anders; Bartels, Else Marie; Christensen, Anton W; Bliddal, Henning; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In some rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, joint pain persists without signs of inflammation. This indicates that central pain sensitisation may play a role in the generation of chronic pain in a subgroup of RA. Our aim was to assess the degree of peripheral and central pain sensitisation in women with active RA compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods. 38 women with active RA (DAS28 > 2.6) and 38 female HC were included in, and completed, the study. Exclusion criteria were polyneuropathy, pregnancy, and no Danish language. Cuff Pressure Algometry measurements were carried out on the dominant lower leg. Pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain sensitivity during tonic painful stimulation were recorded. Results. Women with active RA had significantly lower pain threshold (p < 0.01) and pain tolerance (p < 0.01) than HC. The mean temporal summation- (TS-) index in RA patients was 0.98 (SEM: 0.09) and 0.71 (SEM: 0.04) in HC (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Patients with active RA showed decreased pressure-pain threshold compared to HC. In addition, temporal summation of pressure-pain was increased, indicating central pain sensitization, at least in some patients. Defining this subgroup of patients may be of importance when considering treatment strategies. PMID:26266046

  19. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Spanish and Virginia groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mahatma, M K; Thawait, L K; Bishi, S K; Khatediya, N; Rathnakumar, A L; Lalwani, H B; Misra, J B

    2016-05-01

    Kernels of sixty groundnut genotypes comprising thirty each of Spanish and Virginia groups were characterized and compared for the content of oil, protein, phenols and antioxidant activity along with their fatty acid and sugars profiles. The antioxidant activity for Virginia genotypes was ranged from 12.5 to 16.5 μM Trolox equivalent activity for Spanish genotypes ranged from 6.8-15.2 μM. Amongst Virginia types, the highest oleic acid/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio of 2.38 was observed for NRCG 12312 while from Spanish group the highest O/L ratio of 1.24 was observed for NRCG 12731. The sucrose content for Virginia genotypes ranged from 38.5 to 69.0 mg/g while it was 27.9 to 53.3 mg/g for Spanish genotypes. Average myo-inositol content was higher for Spanish genotypes (0.8-2.1 mg/g) compared to Virginia (0.4-1.8 mg/g) while the reverse was true for stachayose content (Spanish: 3.5-7.9 mg/g; Virginia: 4.6-10.3 mg/g). Thus, Virginia genotypes could be preferred to Spanish genotypes for better oil stability and antioxidant activity. PMID:27407194

  20. Comparative hepatic cytochrome P450 activities and contaminant concentrations in caged carp and juvenile ducks

    SciTech Connect

    O`Keefe, P.; Gierthy, J.; Connor, S.; Bush, B.; Hong, C.S.; Wood, L.; Clayton, W.; Storm, R.

    1995-12-31

    Juvenile carp (Cyprinius carpio) weighing approx. 60 g were placed in cages located on the surface of sediments near an aluminum plant and an automobile parts plant in the Massena area of the St. Lawrence River. Fish were removed at weekly intervals over a 35 day exposure period and composited samples of liver tissue, cranial lipid, and fillet tissue were prepared for analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Liver tissue was also stored at {minus}80 C for determination of microsomal Cytochrome P450 activity using the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) assay. A control exposure was carried out upstream at an uncontaminated site. Juvenile pre-flight ducks (mallards, gadwalls, wood ducks and common mergansers) were collected in the contaminated areas on the St. Lawrence and on the Hudson River two to three months after hatching. Control pre-flight mallards, wood ducks and common mergansers were collected from remote lakes in the Addirondack State Park. Samples of subcutaneous fat and liver tissue were removed for analysis as described above for the carp. There was a three fold increase in AHH activity in the carp liver tissue at the end of the 35 day exposure period and there was a similar increase it activity for the mallards, common mergansers and wood ducks compared to controls. For each species the enzyme activity increases will be compared to the contaminant concentrations.

  1. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares; Torres, Yohandra Reyes

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing (1)H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated. PMID:27525023

  2. [Antitumor Activity of Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum Mycelium: in vivo Comparative Study].

    PubMed

    Krasnopolskaya, L M; Yarina, M S; Avtonomova, A V; Usov, A I; Isakova, E B; Bukchman, V M

    2015-01-01

    Fractions of water soluble and alkali soluble polysaccharides, as well as fucogalactan, a water soluble polysaccharide, and xylomannan, an alkali soluble polysaccharide, were isolated from the Ganoderma lucidum submerged mycelium. When administered orally, the polysaccharides showed antitumor activity in vivo on murine models of solid tumors. Xylomannan and fucogalactan showed the highest antitumor activity. Sensitivity to xylomannan was more pronounced in adenocarcinoma Ca755 as compared to the T-cell lymphocytic leukemia P388. The antitumor activity of the water soluble polysaccharides total fractions from the mycelium and fruiting bodies of the G. lucidum strain was almost identical. The maximum antitumor effect of the mycelium water soluble polysaccharides total fraction was observed with the use of the daily dose of 2 mg/kg.

  3. Spinal Motion and Muscle Activity during Active Trunk Movements - Comparing Sheep and Humans Adopting Upright and Quadrupedal Postures.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Stephanie; Licka, Theresia F

    2016-01-01

    Sheep are used as models for the human spine, yet comparative in vivo data necessary for validation is limited. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare spinal motion and trunk muscle activity during active trunk movements in sheep and humans. Three-dimensional kinematic data as well as surface electromyography (sEMG) of spinal flexion and extension was compared in twenty-four humans in upright (UR) and 4-point kneeling (KN) postures and in 17 Austrian mountain sheep. Kinematic markers were attached over the sacrum, posterior iliac spines, and spinous and transverse processes of T5, T8, T11, L2 and L5 in humans and over the sacrum, tuber sacrale, T5, T8, T12, L3 and L7 in sheep. The activity of erector spinae (ES), rectus abdominis (RA), obliquus externus (OE), and obliquus internus (OI) were collected. Maximum sEMG (MOE) was identified for each muscle and trial, and reported as a percentage (MOE%) of the overall maximally observed sEMG from all trials. Spinal range of motion was significantly smaller in sheep compared to humans (UR / KN) during flexion (sheep: 6-11°; humans 12-34°) and extension (sheep: 4°; humans: 11-17°). During extension, MOE% of ES was greater in sheep (median: 77.37%) than UR humans (24.89%), and MOE% of OE and OI was greater in sheep (OE 76.20%; OI 67.31%) than KN humans (OE 21.45%; OI 19.34%), while MOE% of RA was lower in sheep (21.71%) than UR humans (82.69%). During flexion, MOE% of RA was greater in sheep (83.09%) than humans (KN 47.42%; UR 41.38%), and MOE% of ES in sheep (45.73%) was greater than KN humans (14.45%), but smaller than UR humans (72.36%). The differences in human and sheep spinal motion and muscle activity suggest that caution is warranted when ovine data are used to infer human spine biomechanics.

  4. Spinal Motion and Muscle Activity during Active Trunk Movements – Comparing Sheep and Humans Adopting Upright and Quadrupedal Postures

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, Stephanie; Licka, Theresia F.

    2016-01-01

    Sheep are used as models for the human spine, yet comparative in vivo data necessary for validation is limited. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare spinal motion and trunk muscle activity during active trunk movements in sheep and humans. Three-dimensional kinematic data as well as surface electromyography (sEMG) of spinal flexion and extension was compared in twenty-four humans in upright (UR) and 4-point kneeling (KN) postures and in 17 Austrian mountain sheep. Kinematic markers were attached over the sacrum, posterior iliac spines, and spinous and transverse processes of T5, T8, T11, L2 and L5 in humans and over the sacrum, tuber sacrale, T5, T8, T12, L3 and L7 in sheep. The activity of erector spinae (ES), rectus abdominis (RA), obliquus externus (OE), and obliquus internus (OI) were collected. Maximum sEMG (MOE) was identified for each muscle and trial, and reported as a percentage (MOE%) of the overall maximally observed sEMG from all trials. Spinal range of motion was significantly smaller in sheep compared to humans (UR / KN) during flexion (sheep: 6–11°; humans 12–34°) and extension (sheep: 4°; humans: 11–17°). During extension, MOE% of ES was greater in sheep (median: 77.37%) than UR humans (24.89%), and MOE% of OE and OI was greater in sheep (OE 76.20%; OI 67.31%) than KN humans (OE 21.45%; OI 19.34%), while MOE% of RA was lower in sheep (21.71%) than UR humans (82.69%). During flexion, MOE% of RA was greater in sheep (83.09%) than humans (KN 47.42%; UR 41.38%), and MOE% of ES in sheep (45.73%) was greater than KN humans (14.45%), but smaller than UR humans (72.36%). The differences in human and sheep spinal motion and muscle activity suggest that caution is warranted when ovine data are used to infer human spine biomechanics. PMID:26741136

  5. A Data-Driven Evaluation of the Stop TB Global Partnership Strategy of Targeting Key Populations at Greater Risk for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Schnippel, Kathryn; Sharp, Alana

    2016-01-01

    Objective Identifying those infected with tuberculosis (TB) is an important component of any strategy for reducing TB transmission and population prevalence. The Stop TB Global Partnership recently launched an initiative with a focus on key populations at greater risk for TB infection or poor clinical outcomes, due to housing and working conditions, incarceration, low household income, malnutrition, co-morbidities, exposure to tobacco and silica dust, or barriers to accessing medical care. To achieve operational targets, the global health community needs effective, low cost, and large-scale strategies for identifying key populations. Using South Africa as a test case, we assess the feasibility and effectiveness of targeting active case finding to populations with TB risk factors identified from regularly collected sources of data. Our approach is applicable to all countries with TB testing and census data. It allows countries to tailor their outreach activities to the particular risk factors of greatest significance in their national context. Methods We use a national database of TB test results to estimate municipality-level TB infection prevalence, and link it to Census data to measure population risk factors for TB including rates of urban households, informal settlements, household income, unemployment, and mobile phone ownership. To examine the relationship between TB prevalence and risk factors, we perform linear regression analysis and plot the set of population characteristics against TB prevalence and TB testing rate by municipality. We overlay lines of best fit and smoothed curves of best fit from locally weighted scatter plot smoothing. Findings Higher TB prevalence is statistically significantly associated with more urban municipalities (slope coefficient β1 = 0.129, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.133), lower mobile phone access (β1 = -0.053, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.089), lower unemployment rates (β1 = -0.020, p = 0.003, R2 = 0.048), and a lower proportion of low

  6. Adverse Events in Healthy Individuals and MDR-TB Contacts Treated with Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs Potentially Effective for Preventing Development of MDR-TB: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Langendam, Miranda W.; Tiemersma, Edine W.; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Sandgren, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A recent systematic review concluded that there is insufficient evidence on the effectiveness to support or reject preventive therapy for treatment of contacts of patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Whether preventive therapy is favorable depends both on the effectiveness and the adverse events of the drugs used. We performed a systematic review to assess adverse events in healthy individuals and MDR-TB contacts treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs potentially effective for preventing development of MDR-TB. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other databases (August 2011). Record selection, data extraction, and study quality assessment were done in duplicate. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Of 6,901 identified references, 20 studies were eligible. Among the 16 studies in healthy volunteers (a total of 87 persons on either levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, or rifabutin, mostly for 1 week), serious adverse events and treatment discontinuation due to adverse events were rare (<1 and <5%, respectively), but mild adverse events frequently occurred. Due to small sample sizes of the levofloxacin and ofloxacin studies an increased frequency of mild adverse events compared to placebo could not be demonstrated or excluded. For moxifloxacin the comparative results were inconsistent. In four studies describing preventive therapy of MDR-TB contacts, therapy was stopped for 58–100% of the included persons because of the occurrence of adverse events ranging from mild adverse events such as nausea and dizziness to serious events requiring treatment. The quality of the evidence was very low. Although the number of publications and quality of evidence are low, the available evidence suggests that shortly after starting treatment the occurrence of serious adverse events is rare. Mild adverse events occur more frequently and may be of importance because these may provoke treatment interruption. PMID:23326464

  7. Comparative Proteomics Identifies Host Immune System Proteins Affected by Infection with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    López, Vladimir; Villar, Margarita; Queirós, João; Vicente, Joaquín; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Alves, Paulo C; Alberdi, Pilar; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly impact human and animal health worldwide. The mycobacterial life cycle is complex, and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) are natural reservoir hosts for MTBC and a model for mycobacterial infection and tuberculosis (TB). In the wild boar TB model, mycobacterial infection affects the expression of innate and adaptive immune response genes in mandibular lymph nodes and oropharyngeal tonsils, and biomarkers have been proposed as correlates with resistance to natural infection. However, the mechanisms used by mycobacteria to manipulate host immune response are not fully characterized. Our hypothesis is that the immune system proteins under-represented in infected animals, when compared to uninfected controls, are used by mycobacteria to guarantee pathogen infection and transmission. To address this hypothesis, a comparative proteomics approach was used to compare host response between uninfected (TB-) and M. bovis-infected young (TB+) and adult animals with different infection status [TB lesions localized in the head (TB+) or affecting multiple organs (TB++)]. The results identified host immune system proteins that play an important role in host response to mycobacteria. Calcium binding protein A9, Heme peroxidase, Lactotransferrin, Cathelicidin and Peptidoglycan-recognition protein were under-represented in TB+ animals when compared to uninfected TB- controls, but protein levels were higher as infection progressed in TB++ animals when compared to TB- and/or TB+ adult wild boar. MHCI was the only protein over-represented in TB+ adult wild boar when compared to uninfected TB- controls. The results reported here suggest that M. bovis manipulates host immune response by reducing the production of immune system proteins. However, as infection progresses, wild boar immune response recovers to limit pathogen

  8. Comparative Proteomics Identifies Host Immune System Proteins Affected by Infection with Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    López, Vladimir; Villar, Margarita; Queirós, João; Vicente, Joaquín; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Alves, Paulo C.; Alberdi, Pilar; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly impact human and animal health worldwide. The mycobacterial life cycle is complex, and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) are natural reservoir hosts for MTBC and a model for mycobacterial infection and tuberculosis (TB). In the wild boar TB model, mycobacterial infection affects the expression of innate and adaptive immune response genes in mandibular lymph nodes and oropharyngeal tonsils, and biomarkers have been proposed as correlates with resistance to natural infection. However, the mechanisms used by mycobacteria to manipulate host immune response are not fully characterized. Our hypothesis is that the immune system proteins under-represented in infected animals, when compared to uninfected controls, are used by mycobacteria to guarantee pathogen infection and transmission. To address this hypothesis, a comparative proteomics approach was used to compare host response between uninfected (TB-) and M. bovis-infected young (TB+) and adult animals with different infection status [TB lesions localized in the head (TB+) or affecting multiple organs (TB++)]. The results identified host immune system proteins that play an important role in host response to mycobacteria. Calcium binding protein A9, Heme peroxidase, Lactotransferrin, Cathelicidin and Peptidoglycan-recognition protein were under-represented in TB+ animals when compared to uninfected TB- controls, but protein levels were higher as infection progressed in TB++ animals when compared to TB- and/or TB+ adult wild boar. MHCI was the only protein over-represented in TB+ adult wild boar when compared to uninfected TB- controls. The results reported here suggest that M. bovis manipulates host immune response by reducing the production of immune system proteins. However, as infection progresses, wild boar immune response recovers to limit pathogen

  9. Comparative Proteomics Identifies Host Immune System Proteins Affected by Infection with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    López, Vladimir; Villar, Margarita; Queirós, João; Vicente, Joaquín; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Alves, Paulo C; Alberdi, Pilar; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly impact human and animal health worldwide. The mycobacterial life cycle is complex, and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) are natural reservoir hosts for MTBC and a model for mycobacterial infection and tuberculosis (TB). In the wild boar TB model, mycobacterial infection affects the expression of innate and adaptive immune response genes in mandibular lymph nodes and oropharyngeal tonsils, and biomarkers have been proposed as correlates with resistance to natural infection. However, the mechanisms used by mycobacteria to manipulate host immune response are not fully characterized. Our hypothesis is that the immune system proteins under-represented in infected animals, when compared to uninfected controls, are used by mycobacteria to guarantee pathogen infection and transmission. To address this hypothesis, a comparative proteomics approach was used to compare host response between uninfected (TB-) and M. bovis-infected young (TB+) and adult animals with different infection status [TB lesions localized in the head (TB+) or affecting multiple organs (TB++)]. The results identified host immune system proteins that play an important role in host response to mycobacteria. Calcium binding protein A9, Heme peroxidase, Lactotransferrin, Cathelicidin and Peptidoglycan-recognition protein were under-represented in TB+ animals when compared to uninfected TB- controls, but protein levels were higher as infection progressed in TB++ animals when compared to TB- and/or TB+ adult wild boar. MHCI was the only protein over-represented in TB+ adult wild boar when compared to uninfected TB- controls. The results reported here suggest that M. bovis manipulates host immune response by reducing the production of immune system proteins. However, as infection progresses, wild boar immune response recovers to limit pathogen

  10. 46 CFR 35.30-25 - Explosives-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Explosives-TB/ALL. 35.30-25 Section 35.30-25 Shipping... Explosives—TB/ALL. Fulminates or other detonating compounds in bulk in dry condition; explosive compositions... other like explosives shall not be accepted, stored, stowed or transported on board tank vessels....

  11. 46 CFR 35.30-25 - Explosives-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Explosives-TB/ALL. 35.30-25 Section 35.30-25 Shipping... Explosives—TB/ALL. Fulminates or other detonating compounds in bulk in dry condition; explosive compositions... other like explosives shall not be accepted, stored, stowed or transported on board tank vessels....

  12. 46 CFR 35.30-25 - Explosives-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explosives-TB/ALL. 35.30-25 Section 35.30-25 Shipping... Explosives—TB/ALL. Fulminates or other detonating compounds in bulk in dry condition; explosive compositions... other like explosives shall not be accepted, stored, stowed or transported on board tank vessels....

  13. 46 CFR 35.30-25 - Explosives-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Explosives-TB/ALL. 35.30-25 Section 35.30-25 Shipping... Explosives—TB/ALL. Fulminates or other detonating compounds in bulk in dry condition; explosive compositions... other like explosives shall not be accepted, stored, stowed or transported on board tank vessels....

  14. 46 CFR 35.30-25 - Explosives-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives-TB/ALL. 35.30-25 Section 35.30-25 Shipping... Explosives—TB/ALL. Fulminates or other detonating compounds in bulk in dry condition; explosive compositions... other like explosives shall not be accepted, stored, stowed or transported on board tank vessels....

  15. 46 CFR 34.30-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.30-1 Section 34.30-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems, Details § 34.30-1 Application—TB/ALL. Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with NFPA 13-1996....

  16. 46 CFR 34.10-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.10-1 Section 34.10-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) On all tankships the provisions of this subpart, with...

  17. 46 CFR 34.50-10 - Location-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location-TB/ALL. 34.50-10 Section 34.50-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-10 Location—TB/ALL. (a) Approved portable and semiportable...

  18. 46 CFR 34.10-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.10-1 Section 34.10-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) On all tankships the provisions of this subpart, with...

  19. 46 CFR 34.30-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.30-1 Section 34.30-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems, Details § 34.30-1 Application—TB/ALL. Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with NFPA 13-1996....

  20. 46 CFR 34.50-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.50-1 Section 34.50-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this subpart, with the...

  1. 46 CFR 34.30-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.30-1 Section 34.30-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems, Details § 34.30-1 Application—TB/ALL. Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with NFPA 13-1996....

  2. 46 CFR 34.50-10 - Location-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location-TB/ALL. 34.50-10 Section 34.50-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-10 Location—TB/ALL. (a) Approved portable and semiportable...

  3. 46 CFR 34.30-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.30-1 Section 34.30-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems, Details § 34.30-1 Application—TB/ALL. Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with NFPA 13-1996....

  4. 46 CFR 34.10-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.10-1 Section 34.10-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) On all tankships the provisions of this subpart, with...

  5. 46 CFR 34.50-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.50-1 Section 34.50-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this subpart, with the...

  6. 46 CFR 34.50-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.50-1 Section 34.50-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this subpart, with the...

  7. 46 CFR 34.50-5 - Classification-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Classification-TB/ALL. 34.50-5 Section 34.50-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-5 Classification—TB/ALL. (a) Portable and semiportable extinguishers...

  8. 46 CFR 34.10-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.10-1 Section 34.10-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) On all tankships the provisions of this subpart, with...

  9. 46 CFR 34.01-1 - Applicability-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability-TB/ALL. 34.01-1 Section 34.01-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT General § 34.01-1 Applicability—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this part shall apply to all tank vessels except as otherwise...

  10. 46 CFR 34.50-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 34.50-1 Section 34.50-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this subpart, with the...

  11. 46 CFR 34.50-5 - Classification-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Classification-TB/ALL. 34.50-5 Section 34.50-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers § 34.50-5 Classification—TB/ALL. (a) Portable and semiportable extinguishers...

  12. 46 CFR 30.10-35 - Headquarters-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Headquarters-TB/ALL. 30.10-35 Section 30.10-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-35 Headquarters—TB/ALL. The term Headquarters means the Office of the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC...

  13. 46 CFR 38.05-20 - Insulation-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insulation-TB/ALL. 38.05-20 Section 38.05-20 Shipping... Installation § 38.05-20 Insulation—TB/ALL. (a) Where used, tank insulation shall satisfy the following requirements for combustibility, installation, and arrangement: (1) Insulation in a location exposed...

  14. 46 CFR 38.05-20 - Insulation-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insulation-TB/ALL. 38.05-20 Section 38.05-20 Shipping... Installation § 38.05-20 Insulation—TB/ALL. (a) Where used, tank insulation shall satisfy the following requirements for combustibility, installation, and arrangement: (1) Insulation in a location exposed...

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-45 - Ocean-TB/O.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean-TB/O. 30.10-45 Section 30.10-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-45 Ocean—TB/O. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean...

  16. 46 CFR 30.10-45 - Ocean-TB/O.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean-TB/O. 30.10-45 Section 30.10-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-45 Ocean—TB/O. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean...

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-45 - Ocean-TB/O.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean-TB/O. 30.10-45 Section 30.10-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-45 Ocean—TB/O. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean...

  18. 46 CFR 30.10-45 - Ocean-TB/O.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean-TB/O. 30.10-45 Section 30.10-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-45 Ocean—TB/O. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean...

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-45 - Ocean-TB/O.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean-TB/O. 30.10-45 Section 30.10-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-45 Ocean—TB/O. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean...

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-3 - Approved-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approved-TB/ALL. 30.10-3 Section 30.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-3 Approved—TB/ALL. The term approved means approved by the Commandant unless otherwise stated....

  1. 46 CFR 32.65-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.65-1 Section 32.65-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL..., 1951 § 32.65-1 Application—TB/ALL. The requirements in this subpart apply to all tank vessels,...

  2. 46 CFR 35.35-75 - Emergencies-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergencies-TB/ALL. 35.35-75 Section 35.35-75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Cargo Handling § 35.35-75 Emergencies—TB/ALL. In case of emergencies nothing in the regulations in this subchapter shall be construed...

  3. 46 CFR 35.07-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 35.07-1 Section 35.07-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 35.07-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) Except as specifically noted, the provisions of this subpart shall apply to all...

  4. 46 CFR 32.65-15 - Cofferdams-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cofferdams-TB/ALL. 32.65-15 Section 32.65-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL..., 1951 § 32.65-15 Cofferdams—TB/ALL. Tank vessels equipped to carry Grade A, B, C, or D liquids...

  5. 46 CFR 32.57-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.57-1 Section 32.57-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this subpart shall apply to all tank vessels contracted for on...

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-35 - Headquarters-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Headquarters-TB/ALL. 30.10-35 Section 30.10-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-35 Headquarters—TB/ALL. The term Headquarters means the Commandant (CG-CVC), Attn: Office of Commercial...

  7. 46 CFR 32.70-15 - Pumprooms-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pumprooms-TB/ALL. 32.70-15 Section 32.70-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Pumprooms—TB/ALL. Tank vessels handling Grade A, B, C or D liquid cargo shall meet the requirements for...

  8. 46 CFR 32.75-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.75-1 Section 32.75-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Application—TB/ALL. All wood hull tank vessels, the construction or conversion of which was started prior...

  9. 46 CFR 32.70-10 - Cofferdams-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cofferdams-TB/ALL. 32.70-10 Section 32.70-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Cofferdams—TB/ALL. Tank vessels carrying Grade A, B, or C liquids shall be required to conform to...

  10. 46 CFR 35.07-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 35.07-1 Section 35.07-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 35.07-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) Except as specifically noted, the provisions of this subpart shall apply to all...

  11. 46 CFR 30.10-27 - Flashpoint-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flashpoint-TB/ALL. 30.10-27 Section 30.10-27 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-27 Flashpoint—TB/ALL. The term flashpoint indicates the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit at which a...

  12. 46 CFR 35.35-75 - Emergencies-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergencies-TB/ALL. 35.35-75 Section 35.35-75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Cargo Handling § 35.35-75 Emergencies—TB/ALL. In case of emergencies nothing in the regulations in this subchapter shall be construed...

  13. 46 CFR 32.75-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.75-1 Section 32.75-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Application—TB/ALL. All wood hull tank vessels, the construction or conversion of which was started prior...

  14. 46 CFR 32.40-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.40-1 Section 32.40-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 32.40-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of...

  15. 46 CFR 32.65-15 - Cofferdams-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cofferdams-TB/ALL. 32.65-15 Section 32.65-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL..., 1951 § 32.65-15 Cofferdams—TB/ALL. Tank vessels equipped to carry Grade A, B, C, or D liquids...

  16. 46 CFR 32.65-15 - Cofferdams-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cofferdams-TB/ALL. 32.65-15 Section 32.65-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL..., 1951 § 32.65-15 Cofferdams—TB/ALL. Tank vessels equipped to carry Grade A, B, C, or D liquids...

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-71 - Tankerman-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tankerman-TB/ALL. 30.10-71 Section 30.10-71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-71 Tankerman—TB/ALL. The following ratings are established in part 13 of this chapter. The terms for...

  18. 46 CFR 35.35-75 - Emergencies-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergencies-TB/ALL. 35.35-75 Section 35.35-75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Cargo Handling § 35.35-75 Emergencies—TB/ALL. In case of emergencies nothing in the regulations in this subchapter shall be construed...

  19. 46 CFR 32.70-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.70-1 Section 32.70-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Application—TB/ALL. All steel hull tank vessels, the construction or conversion of which was started prior...

  20. 46 CFR 35.03-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 35.03-1 Section 35.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vests § 35.03-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) Provisions of this subpart shall apply to all tank vessels....

  1. 46 CFR 30.10-5 - Cargo-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo-TB/ALL. 30.10-5 Section 30.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5 Cargo—TB/ALL. The term cargo means combustible liquid, flammable liquid, or liquefied flammable gas...

  2. 46 CFR 32.65-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.65-1 Section 32.65-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL..., 1951 § 32.65-1 Application—TB/ALL. The requirements in this subpart apply to all tank vessels,...

  3. 46 CFR 39.10-1 - Applicability-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., or benzene, to a facility covered by 33 CFR part 154 must meet the requirements prescribed by the... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability-TB/ALL. 39.10-1 Section 39.10-1 Shipping... Applicability—TB/ALL. (a) Except as specified by paragraph (c) of this section, this part applies to each...

  4. 46 CFR 32.40-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.40-1 Section 32.40-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 32.40-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of...

  5. 46 CFR 30.10-3 - Approved-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approved-TB/ALL. 30.10-3 Section 30.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-3 Approved—TB/ALL. The term approved means approved by the Commandant unless otherwise stated....

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-71 - Tankerman-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tankerman-TB/ALL. 30.10-71 Section 30.10-71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-71 Tankerman—TB/ALL. The following ratings are established in part 13 of this chapter. The terms for...

  7. 46 CFR 31.20-1 - Waters-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Waters-TB/ALL. 31.20-1 Section 31.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Waters Operated Over § 31.20-1 Waters—TB/ALL. The certificate of inspection shall show the waters over which the tank...

  8. 46 CFR 30.10-27 - Flashpoint-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flashpoint-TB/ALL. 30.10-27 Section 30.10-27 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-27 Flashpoint—TB/ALL. The term flashpoint indicates the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit at which a...

  9. 46 CFR 35.07-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 35.07-1 Section 35.07-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 35.07-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) Except as specifically noted, the provisions of this subpart shall apply to all...

  10. 46 CFR 30.10-35 - Headquarters-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Headquarters-TB/ALL. 30.10-35 Section 30.10-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-35 Headquarters—TB/ALL. The term Headquarters means the Commandant (CG-CVC), Attn: Office of Commercial...

  11. 46 CFR 32.02-10 - Rails-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rails-TB/ALL. 32.02-10 Section 32.02-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Safety Requirements § 32.02-10 Rails—TB/ALL. (a) All tank vessels, except unmanned tank...

  12. 46 CFR 35.35-75 - Emergencies-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergencies-TB/ALL. 35.35-75 Section 35.35-75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Cargo Handling § 35.35-75 Emergencies—TB/ALL. In case of emergencies nothing in the regulations in this subchapter shall be construed...

  13. 46 CFR 30.10-7 - Certificated-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Certificated-TB/ALL. 30.10-7 Section 30.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-7 Certificated—TB/ALL. The term certificated when applied to tank vessels refers to a vessel covered by...

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-11 - Coastwise-TB/C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coastwise-TB/C. 30.10-11 Section 30.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-11 Coastwise—TB/C. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of...

  15. 46 CFR 32.70-15 - Pumprooms-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pumprooms-TB/ALL. 32.70-15 Section 32.70-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Pumprooms—TB/ALL. Tank vessels handling Grade A, B, C or D liquid cargo shall meet the requirements for...

  16. 46 CFR 35.03-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 35.03-1 Section 35.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vests § 35.03-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) Provisions of this subpart shall apply to all tank vessels....

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-49 - Permit-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permit-TB/ALL. 30.10-49 Section 30.10-49 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-49 Permit—TB/ALL. The term permit refers to endorsement on the certificate of inspection, authorizing the...

  18. 46 CFR 30.10-17 - Commandant-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commandant-TB/ALL. 30.10-17 Section 30.10-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-17 Commandant—TB/ALL. The term Commandant means the Commandant of the Coast Guard....

  19. 46 CFR 32.40-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.40-1 Section 32.40-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 32.40-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of...

  20. 46 CFR 32.02-10 - Rails-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rails-TB/ALL. 32.02-10 Section 32.02-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Safety Requirements § 32.02-10 Rails—TB/ALL. (a) All tank vessels, except unmanned tank...

  1. 46 CFR 32.75-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.75-1 Section 32.75-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Application—TB/ALL. All wood hull tank vessels, the construction or conversion of which was started prior...

  2. 46 CFR 35.03-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 35.03-1 Section 35.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vests § 35.03-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) Provisions of this subpart shall apply to all tank vessels....

  3. 46 CFR 30.10-5 - Cargo-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo-TB/ALL. 30.10-5 Section 30.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5 Cargo—TB/ALL. The term cargo means combustible liquid, flammable liquid, or liquefied flammable gas...

  4. 46 CFR 32.70-15 - Pumprooms-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pumprooms-TB/ALL. 32.70-15 Section 32.70-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Pumprooms—TB/ALL. Tank vessels handling Grade A, B, C or D liquid cargo shall meet the requirements for...

  5. 46 CFR 32.70-10 - Cofferdams-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cofferdams-TB/ALL. 32.70-10 Section 32.70-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Cofferdams—TB/ALL. Tank vessels carrying Grade A, B, or C liquids shall be required to conform to...

  6. 46 CFR 32.57-5 - Definitions-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions-TB/ALL. 32.57-5 Section 32.57-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Definitions—TB/ALL. (a) Standard fire test. A “standard fire test” is one which develops in the test furnace...

  7. 46 CFR 35.03-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 35.03-1 Section 35.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vests § 35.03-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) Provisions of this subpart shall apply to all tank vessels....

  8. 46 CFR 30.10-71 - Tankerman-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tankerman-TB/ALL. 30.10-71 Section 30.10-71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-71 Tankerman—TB/ALL. The following ratings are established in part 13 of this chapter. The terms for...

  9. 46 CFR 30.10-11 - Coastwise-TB/C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coastwise-TB/C. 30.10-11 Section 30.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-11 Coastwise—TB/C. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of...

  10. 46 CFR 30.10-7 - Certificated-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Certificated-TB/ALL. 30.10-7 Section 30.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-7 Certificated—TB/ALL. The term certificated when applied to tank vessels refers to a vessel covered by...

  11. 46 CFR 32.57-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.57-1 Section 32.57-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this subpart shall apply to all tank vessels contracted for on...

  12. 46 CFR 32.65-15 - Cofferdams-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cofferdams-TB/ALL. 32.65-15 Section 32.65-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL..., 1951 § 32.65-15 Cofferdams—TB/ALL. Tank vessels equipped to carry Grade A, B, C, or D liquids...

  13. 46 CFR 30.10-17 - Commandant-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commandant-TB/ALL. 30.10-17 Section 30.10-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-17 Commandant—TB/ALL. The term Commandant means the Commandant of the Coast Guard....

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-71 - Tankerman-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tankerman-TB/ALL. 30.10-71 Section 30.10-71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-71 Tankerman—TB/ALL. The following ratings are established in part 13 of this chapter. The terms for...

  15. 46 CFR 32.57-5 - Definitions-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions-TB/ALL. 32.57-5 Section 32.57-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Definitions—TB/ALL. (a) Standard fire test. A “standard fire test” is one which develops in the test furnace...

  16. 46 CFR 30.10-35 - Headquarters-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Headquarters-TB/ALL. 30.10-35 Section 30.10-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-35 Headquarters—TB/ALL. The term Headquarters means the Office of the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington,...

  17. 46 CFR 31.20-1 - Waters-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Waters-TB/ALL. 31.20-1 Section 31.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Waters Operated Over § 31.20-1 Waters—TB/ALL. The certificate of inspection shall show the waters over which the tank...

  18. 46 CFR 30.10-7 - Certificated-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Certificated-TB/ALL. 30.10-7 Section 30.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-7 Certificated—TB/ALL. The term certificated when applied to tank vessels refers to a vessel covered by...

  19. 46 CFR 31.20-1 - Waters-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Waters-TB/ALL. 31.20-1 Section 31.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Waters Operated Over § 31.20-1 Waters—TB/ALL. The certificate of inspection shall show the waters over which the tank...

  20. 46 CFR 32.70-10 - Cofferdams-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cofferdams-TB/ALL. 32.70-10 Section 32.70-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Cofferdams—TB/ALL. Tank vessels carrying Grade A, B, or C liquids shall be required to conform to...

  1. 46 CFR 32.57-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.57-1 Section 32.57-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this subpart shall apply to all tank vessels contracted for on...

  2. 46 CFR 32.70-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.70-1 Section 32.70-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Application—TB/ALL. All steel hull tank vessels, the construction or conversion of which was started prior...

  3. 46 CFR 32.57-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.57-1 Section 32.57-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this subpart shall apply to all tank vessels contracted for on...

  4. 46 CFR 30.10-13 - Cofferdam-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cofferdam-TB/ALL. 30.10-13 Section 30.10-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-13 Cofferdam—TB/ALL. The term cofferdam means a void or empty space separating two or more compartments for...

  5. 46 CFR 30.10-7 - Certificated-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certificated-TB/ALL. 30.10-7 Section 30.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-7 Certificated—TB/ALL. The term certificated when applied to tank vessels refers to a vessel covered by...

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-13 - Cofferdam-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cofferdam-TB/ALL. 30.10-13 Section 30.10-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-13 Cofferdam—TB/ALL. The term cofferdam means a void or empty space separating two or more compartments for...

  7. 46 CFR 32.70-10 - Cofferdams-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cofferdams-TB/ALL. 32.70-10 Section 32.70-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Cofferdams—TB/ALL. Tank vessels carrying Grade A, B, or C liquids shall be required to conform to...

  8. 46 CFR 32.70-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.70-1 Section 32.70-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Application—TB/ALL. All steel hull tank vessels, the construction or conversion of which was started prior...

  9. 46 CFR 35.03-10 - Use-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use-TB/ALL. 35.03-10 Section 35.03-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vests § 35.03-10 Use—TB/ALL. (a) Approved buoyant work vests are considered to be items of safety apparel and may be carried aboard...

  10. 46 CFR 30.10-27 - Flashpoint-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flashpoint-TB/ALL. 30.10-27 Section 30.10-27 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-27 Flashpoint—TB/ALL. The term flashpoint indicates the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit at which a...

  11. 46 CFR 35.07-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 35.07-1 Section 35.07-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 35.07-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) Except as specifically noted, the provisions of this subpart shall apply to all...

  12. 46 CFR 30.10-13 - Cofferdam-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cofferdam-TB/ALL. 30.10-13 Section 30.10-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-13 Cofferdam—TB/ALL. The term cofferdam means a void or empty space separating two or more compartments for...

  13. 46 CFR 32.57-5 - Definitions-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions-TB/ALL. 32.57-5 Section 32.57-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Definitions—TB/ALL. (a) Standard fire test. A “standard fire test” is one which develops in the test furnace...

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-49 - Permit-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permit-TB/ALL. 30.10-49 Section 30.10-49 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-49 Permit—TB/ALL. The term permit refers to endorsement on the certificate of inspection, authorizing the...

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-5 - Cargo-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo-TB/ALL. 30.10-5 Section 30.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5 Cargo—TB/ALL. The term cargo means combustible liquid, flammable liquid, or liquefied flammable gas...

  16. 46 CFR 30.10-3 - Approved-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approved-TB/ALL. 30.10-3 Section 30.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-3 Approved—TB/ALL. The term approved means approved by the Commandant unless otherwise stated....

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-27 - Flashpoint-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flashpoint-TB/ALL. 30.10-27 Section 30.10-27 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-27 Flashpoint—TB/ALL. The term flashpoint indicates the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit at which a...

  18. 46 CFR 32.70-15 - Pumprooms-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pumprooms-TB/ALL. 32.70-15 Section 32.70-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Pumprooms—TB/ALL. Tank vessels handling Grade A, B, C or D liquid cargo shall meet the requirements for...

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-17 - Commandant-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commandant-TB/ALL. 30.10-17 Section 30.10-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-17 Commandant—TB/ALL. The term Commandant means the Commandant of the Coast Guard....

  20. 46 CFR 35.03-10 - Use-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use-TB/ALL. 35.03-10 Section 35.03-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vests § 35.03-10 Use—TB/ALL. (a) Approved buoyant work vests are considered to be items of safety apparel and may be carried aboard...

  1. 46 CFR 30.10-13 - Cofferdam-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cofferdam-TB/ALL. 30.10-13 Section 30.10-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-13 Cofferdam—TB/ALL. The term cofferdam means a void or empty space separating two or more compartments for...

  2. 46 CFR 32.65-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.65-1 Section 32.65-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL..., 1951 § 32.65-1 Application—TB/ALL. The requirements in this subpart apply to all tank vessels,...

  3. 46 CFR 32.70-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.70-1 Section 32.70-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Application—TB/ALL. All steel hull tank vessels, the construction or conversion of which was started prior...

  4. 46 CFR 30.10-49 - Permit-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permit-TB/ALL. 30.10-49 Section 30.10-49 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-49 Permit—TB/ALL. The term permit refers to endorsement on the certificate of inspection, authorizing the...

  5. 46 CFR 32.65-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.65-1 Section 32.65-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL..., 1951 § 32.65-1 Application—TB/ALL. The requirements in this subpart apply to all tank vessels,...

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-17 - Commandant-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commandant-TB/ALL. 30.10-17 Section 30.10-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-17 Commandant—TB/ALL. The term Commandant means the Commandant of the Coast Guard....

  7. 46 CFR 35.03-10 - Use-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use-TB/ALL. 35.03-10 Section 35.03-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vests § 35.03-10 Use—TB/ALL. (a) Approved buoyant work vests are considered to be items of safety apparel and may be carried aboard...

  8. 46 CFR 32.40-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.40-1 Section 32.40-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 32.40-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of...

  9. 46 CFR 30.10-3 - Approved-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approved-TB/ALL. 30.10-3 Section 30.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-3 Approved—TB/ALL. The term approved means approved by the Commandant unless otherwise stated....

  10. 46 CFR 30.10-49 - Permit-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permit-TB/ALL. 30.10-49 Section 30.10-49 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-49 Permit—TB/ALL. The term permit refers to endorsement on the certificate of inspection, authorizing the...

  11. 46 CFR 30.10-11 - Coastwise-TB/C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coastwise-TB/C. 30.10-11 Section 30.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-11 Coastwise—TB/C. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of...

  12. 46 CFR 30.10-5 - Cargo-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo-TB/ALL. 30.10-5 Section 30.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5 Cargo—TB/ALL. The term cargo means combustible liquid, flammable liquid, or liquefied flammable gas...

  13. 46 CFR 38.05-20 - Insulation-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insulation-TB/ALL. 38.05-20 Section 38.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Design and Installation § 38.05-20 Insulation—TB/ALL. (a) Where used, tank insulation shall satisfy the...

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-27 - Flashpoint-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flashpoint-TB/ALL. 30.10-27 Section 30.10-27 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-27 Flashpoint—TB/ALL. The term flashpoint indicates the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit at which a...

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-49 - Permit-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit-TB/ALL. 30.10-49 Section 30.10-49 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-49 Permit—TB/ALL. The term permit refers to endorsement on the certificate of inspection, authorizing the...

  16. 46 CFR 30.10-61 - Rivers-TB/R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rivers-TB/R. 30.10-61 Section 30.10-61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-61 Rivers—TB/R. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels whose navigation is restricted...

  17. 46 CFR 32.70-15 - Pumprooms-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumprooms-TB/ALL. 32.70-15 Section 32.70-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Pumprooms—TB/ALL. Tank vessels handling Grade A, B, C or D liquid cargo shall meet the requirements for...

  18. 46 CFR 34.01-1 - Applicability-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability-TB/ALL. 34.01-1 Section 34.01-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT General § 34.01-1 Applicability—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this part shall apply to all tank vessels except as otherwise...

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-13 - Cofferdam-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cofferdam-TB/ALL. 30.10-13 Section 30.10-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-13 Cofferdam—TB/ALL. The term cofferdam means a void or empty space separating two or more compartments for...

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-35 - Headquarters-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Headquarters-TB/ALL. 30.10-35 Section 30.10-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-35 Headquarters—TB/ALL. The term Headquarters means the Office of the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington,...