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Sample records for active transposable element

  1. Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0401 TITLE: Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...way as transcripts from the regular gene promoter. Transcriptional activation of retrotransposons is strongly linked with their CpG DNA methylation

  2. Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0402 TITLE: Mammary Cancer and Activation...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Sep 2013 – 31 Aug 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements 5a. CONTRACT...investigate molecular events occurring in the preclinical stages of mammary cancer. Specifically, the project investigates the intersection between the

  3. Transcriptional activity of transposable elements in coelacanth.

    PubMed

    Forconi, Mariko; Chalopin, Domitille; Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria Assunta; De Moro, Gianluca; Galiana, Delphine; Gerdol, Marco; Pallavicini, Alberto; Canapa, Adriana; Olmo, Ettore; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    The morphological stasis of coelacanths has long suggested a slow evolutionary rate. General genomic stasis might also imply a decrease of transposable elements activity. To evaluate the potential activity of transposable elements (TEs) in "living fossil" species, transcriptomic data of Latimeria chalumnae and its Indonesian congener Latimeria menadoensis were compared through the RNA-sequencing mapping procedures in three different organs (liver, testis, and muscle). The analysis of coelacanth transcriptomes highlights a significant percentage of transcribed TEs in both species. Major contributors are LINE retrotransposons, especially from the CR1 family. Furthermore, some particular elements such as a LF-SINE and a LINE2 sequences seem to be more expressed than other elements. The amount of TEs expressed in testis suggests possible transposition burst in incoming generations. Moreover, significant amount of TEs in liver and muscle transcriptomes were also observed. Analyses of elements displaying marked organ-specific expression gave us the opportunity to highlight exaptation cases, that is, the recruitment of TEs as new cellular genes, but also to identify a new Latimeria-specific family of Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements called CoeG-SINEs. Overall, transcriptome results do not seem to be in line with a slow-evolving genome with poor TE activity.

  4. Evolutionary active transposable elements in the genome of the coelacanth.

    PubMed

    Chalopin, Domitille; Fan, Shaohua; Simakov, Oleg; Meyer, Axel; Schartl, Manfred; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    The apparent morphological stasis in the lineage of the coelacanth, which has been called a "living fossil" by many, has been suggested to be causally related to a slow evolution of its genome, with strongly reduced activity of transposable elements (TEs). Analysis of the African coelacanth showed that at least 25% of its genome is constituted of transposable elements including retrotransposons, endogenous retroviruses and DNA transposons, with a strong predominance of non-Long Terminal Repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons. The coelacanth genome has been shaped by four major general bursts of transposition during evolution, with major contributions of LINE1, LINE2, CR1, and Deu non-LTR retrotransposons. Many transposable elements are expressed in different tissues and might be active. The number of TE families in coelacanth, but also in lungfish, is lower than in teleost fish, but is higher than in chicken and human. This observation is in agreement with the hypothesis of a sequential elimination of many TE families in the sarcopterygian lineage during evolution. Taken together, our analysis indicates that the coelacanth contains more TE families than birds and mammals, and that these elements have been active during the evolution of the coelacanth lineage. Hence, at the level of transposable element activity, the coelacanth genome does not appear to evolve particularly slowly.

  5. Tempo and Mode of Transposable Element Activity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kofler, Robert; Nolte, Viola; Schlötterer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary dynamics of transposable element (TE) insertions have been of continued interest since TE activity has important implications for genome evolution and adaptation. Here, we infer the transposition dynamics of TEs by comparing their abundance in natural D. melanogaster and D. simulans populations. Sequencing pools of more than 550 South African flies to at least 320-fold coverage, we determined the genome wide TE insertion frequencies in both species. We suggest that the predominance of low frequency insertions in the two species (>80% of the insertions have a frequency <0.2) is probably due to a high activity of more than 58 families in both species. We provide evidence for 50% of the TE families having temporally heterogenous transposition rates with different TE families being affected in the two species. While in D. melanogaster retrotransposons were more active, DNA transposons showed higher activity levels in D. simulans. Moreover, we suggest that LTR insertions are mostly of recent origin in both species, while DNA and non-LTR insertions are older and more frequently vertically transmitted since the split of D. melanogaster and D. simulans. We propose that the high TE activity is of recent origin in both species and a consequence of the demographic history, with habitat expansion triggering a period of rapid evolution. PMID:26186437

  6. Real-time transposable element activity in individual live cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gloria; Martini, K. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The excision and reintegration of transposable elements (TEs) restructure their host genomes, generating cellular diversity involved in evolution, development, and the etiology of human diseases. Our current knowledge of TE behavior primarily results from bulk techniques that generate time and cell ensemble averages, but cannot capture cell-to-cell variation or local environmental and temporal variability. We have developed an experimental system based on the bacterial TE IS608 that uses fluorescent reporters to directly observe single TE excision events in individual cells in real time. We find that TE activity depends upon the TE’s orientation in the genome and the amount of transposase protein in the cell. We also find that TE activity is highly variable throughout the lifetime of the cell. Upon entering stationary phase, TE activity increases in cells hereditarily predisposed to TE activity. These direct observations demonstrate that real-time live-cell imaging of evolution at the molecular and individual event level is a powerful tool for the exploration of genome plasticity in stressed cells. PMID:27298350

  7. Intrinsic characteristics of neighboring DNA modulate transposable element activity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Esnault, Caroline; Palavesam, Azhahianambi; Pilitt, Kristina; O'Brochta, David A

    2011-01-01

    Identifying factors influencing transposable element activity is essential for understanding how these elements impact genomes and their evolution as well as for fully exploiting them as functional genomics tools and gene-therapy vectors. Using a genetics-based approach, the influence of genomic position on piggyBac mobility in Drosophila melanogaster was assessed while controlling for element structure, genetic background, and transposase concentration. The mobility of piggyBac elements varied over more than two orders of magnitude solely as a result of their locations within the genome. The influence of genomic position on element activities was independent of factors resulting in position-dependent transgene expression ("position effects"). Elements could be relocated to new genomic locations without altering their activity if ≥ 500 bp of genomic DNA originally flanking the element was also relocated. Local intrinsic factors within the neighboring DNA that determined the activity of piggyBac elements were portable not only within the genome but also when elements were moved to plasmids. The predicted bendability of the first 50 bp flanking the 5' and 3' termini of piggyBac elements could account for 60% of the variance in position-dependent activity observed among elements. These results are significant because positional influences on transposable element activities will impact patterns of accumulation of elements within genomes. Manipulating and controlling the local sequence context of piggyBac elements could be a powerful, novel way of optimizing gene vector activity.

  8. The coelacanth: Can a “living fossil” have active transposable elements in its genome?

    PubMed Central

    Naville, Magali; Chalopin, Domitille; Casane, Didier; Laurenti, Patrick; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The coelacanth has long been regarded as a “living fossil,” with extant specimens looking very similar to fossils dating back to the Cretaceous period. The hypothesis of a slowly or even not evolving genome has been proposed to account for this apparent morphological stasis. While this assumption seems to be sustained by different evolutionary analyses on protein-coding genes, recent studies on transposable elements have provided more conflicting results. Indeed, the coelacanth genome contains many transposable elements and has been shaped by several major bursts of transposition during evolution. In addition, comparison of orthologous genomic regions from the genomes of the 2 extant coelacanth species L. chalumnae and L. menadoensis revealed multiple species-specific insertions, indicating transposable element recent activity and contribution to post-speciation genome divergence. These observations, which do not support the genome stasis hypothesis, challenge either the impact of transposable elements on organismal evolution or the status of the coelacanth as a “living fossil.” Closer inspection of fossil and molecular data indicate that, even if coelacanths might evolve more slowly than some other lineages due to demographic and/or ecological factors, this variation is still in the range of a “non-fossil” vertebrate species. PMID:26442185

  9. The coelacanth: Can a "living fossil" have active transposable elements in its genome?

    PubMed

    Naville, Magali; Chalopin, Domitille; Casane, Didier; Laurenti, Patrick; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The coelacanth has long been regarded as a "living fossil," with extant specimens looking very similar to fossils dating back to the Cretaceous period. The hypothesis of a slowly or even not evolving genome has been proposed to account for this apparent morphological stasis. While this assumption seems to be sustained by different evolutionary analyses on protein-coding genes, recent studies on transposable elements have provided more conflicting results. Indeed, the coelacanth genome contains many transposable elements and has been shaped by several major bursts of transposition during evolution. In addition, comparison of orthologous genomic regions from the genomes of the 2 extant coelacanth species L. chalumnae and L. menadoensis revealed multiple species-specific insertions, indicating transposable element recent activity and contribution to post-speciation genome divergence. These observations, which do not support the genome stasis hypothesis, challenge either the impact of transposable elements on organismal evolution or the status of the coelacanth as a "living fossil." Closer inspection of fossil and molecular data indicate that, even if coelacanths might evolve more slowly than some other lineages due to demographic and/or ecological factors, this variation is still in the range of a "non-fossil" vertebrate species.

  10. The Holozoan Capsaspora owczarzaki Possesses a Diverse Complement of Active Transposable Element Families

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Martin; Suga, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Capsaspora owczarzaki, a protistan symbiont of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata, is the centre of much interest in evolutionary biology due to its close relationship to Metazoa. The whole genome sequence of this protist has revealed new insights into the ancestral genome composition of Metazoa, in particular with regard to gene families involved in the evolution of multicellularity. The draft genome revealed the presence of 23 families of transposable element, made up from DNA transposon as well as long terminal repeat (LTR) and non-LTR retrotransposon families. The phylogenetic analyses presented here show that all of the transposable elements identified in the C. owczarzaki genome have orthologous families in Metazoa, indicating that the ancestral metazoan also had a rich diversity of elements. Molecular evolutionary analyses also show that the majority of families has recently been active within the Capsaspora genome. One family now appears to be inactive and a further five families show no evidence of current transposition. Most individual element copies are evolutionarily young; however, a small proportion of inserts appear to have persisted for longer in the genome. The families present in the genome show contrasting population histories and appear to be in different stages of their life cycles. Transcriptome data have been analyzed from multiple stages in the C. owczarzaki life cycle. Expression levels vary greatly both between families and between different stages of the life cycle, suggesting an unexpectedly complex level of transposable element regulation in a single celled organism. PMID:24696401

  11. Interspecies insertion polymorphism analysis reveals recent activity of transposable elements in extant coelacanths.

    PubMed

    Naville, Magali; Chalopin, Domitille; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Coelacanths are lobe-finned fish represented by two extant species, Latimeria chalumnae in South Africa and Comoros and L. menadoensis in Indonesia. Due to their intermediate phylogenetic position between ray-finned fish and tetrapods in the vertebrate lineage, they are of great interest from an evolutionary point of view. In addition, extant specimens look similar to 300 million-year-old fossils; because of their apparent slowly evolving morphology, coelacanths have been often described as « living fossils ». As an underlying cause of such a morphological stasis, several authors have proposed a slow evolution of the coelacanth genome. Accordingly, sequencing of the L. chalumnae genome has revealed a globally low substitution rate for protein-coding regions compared to other vertebrates. However, genome and gene evolution can also be influenced by transposable elements, which form a major and dynamic part of vertebrate genomes through their ability to move, duplicate and recombine. In this work, we have searched for evidence of transposition activity in coelacanth genomes through the comparative analysis of orthologous genomic regions from both Latimeria species. Comparison of 5.7 Mb (0.2%) of the L. chalumnae genome with orthologous Bacterial Artificial Chromosome clones from L. menadoensis allowed the identification of 27 species-specific transposable element insertions, with a strong relative contribution of CR1 non-LTR retrotransposons. Species-specific homologous recombination between the long terminal repeats of a new coelacanth endogenous retrovirus was also detected. Our analysis suggests that transposon activity is responsible for at least 0.6% of genome divergence between both Latimeria species. Taken together, this study demonstrates that coelacanth genomes are not evolutionary inert: they contain recently active transposable elements, which have significantly contributed to post-speciation genome divergence in Latimeria.

  12. Transposable elements become active and mobile in the genomes of aging mammalian somatic tissues.

    PubMed

    De Cecco, Marco; Criscione, Steven W; Peterson, Abigail L; Neretti, Nicola; Sedivy, John M; Kreiling, Jill A

    2013-12-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) were discovered by Barbara McClintock in maize and have since been found to be ubiquitous in all living organisms. Transposition is mutagenic and organisms have evolved mechanisms to repress the activity of their endogenous TEs. Transposition in somatic cells is very low, but recent evidence suggests that it may be derepressed in some cases, such as cancer development. We have found that during normal aging several families of retrotransposable elements (RTEs) start being transcribed in mouse tissues. In advanced age the expression culminates in active transposition. These processes are counteracted by calorie restriction (CR), an intervention that slows down aging. Retrotransposition is also activated in age-associated, naturally occurring cancers in the mouse. We suggest that somatic retrotransposition is a hitherto unappreciated aging process. Mobilization of RTEs is likely to be an important contributor to the progressive dysfunction of aging cells.

  13. Transposable elements become active and mobile in the genomes of aging mammalian somatic tissues

    PubMed Central

    De Cecco, Marco; Criscione, Steven W.; Peterson, Abigail L.; Neretti, Nicola; Sedivy, John M.; Kreiling, Jill A.

    2013-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) were discovered by Barbara McClintock in maize and have since been found to be ubiquitous in all living organisms. Transposition is mutagenic and organisms have evolved mechanisms to repress the activity of their endogenous TEs. Transposition in somatic cells is very low, but recent evidence suggests that it may be derepressed in some cases, such as cancer development. We have found that during normal aging several families of retrotransposable elements (RTEs) start being transcribed in mouse tissues. In advanced age the expression culminates in active transposition. These processes are counteracted by calorie restriction (CR), an intervention that slows down aging. Retrotransposition is also activated in age-associated, naturally occurring cancers in the mouse. We suggest that somatic retrotransposition is a hitherto unappreciated aging process. Mobilization of RTEs is likely to be an important contributor to the progressive dysfunction of aging cells. PMID:24323947

  14. Transposable elements for insect transformation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The germ-line of more than 35 species from five orders of insects have been genetically transformed, using vectors derived from Class II transposable elements. Initially the P and hobo vector systems developed for D. melanogaster were not applicable to other species, but four transposons found in ot...

  15. Transposable DNA elements and life history traits: II. Transposition of P DNA elements in somatic cells reduces fitness, mating activity, and locomotion of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, R C; Thompson, J N; Barker, J S; Huai, H

    1999-01-01

    Some transposable DNA elements in higher organisms are active in somatic cells, as well as in germinal cells. What effect does the movement of DNA elements in somatic cells have on life history traits? It has previously been reported that somatically active P and mariner elements in Drosophila induce genetic damage and significantly reduce lifespan. In this study, we report that the movement of P elements in somatic cells also significantly reduces fitness, mating activity, and locomotion of Drosophila melanogaster. If other elements cause similar changes in life history traits, it is doubtful if transposable DNA elements remain active for long in somatic cells in natural populations.

  16. The hobo transposable element has transposase-dependent and -independent excision activity in drosophilid species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mobility of the hobo transposable element was determined for several strains of Drosophila melanogaster and several Drosophila species. Mobility was assessed by use of an in vivo transient assay in the soma of developing embryos, which monitored hobo excision from injected indicator plasmids. Excisi...

  17. Transposable elements and circular DNAs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Circular DNAs are extra-chromosomal fragments that become circularized by genomic recombination events. We have recently shown that yeast LTR elements generate circular DNAs through recombination events between their flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs). Similarly, circular DNAs can be generated by recombination between LTRs residing at different genomic loci, in which case the circular DNA will contain the intervening sequence. In yeast, this can result in gene copy number variations when circles contain genes and origins of replication. Here, I speculate on the potential and implications of circular DNAs generated through recombination between human transposable elements. PMID:28090380

  18. Tana1, a new putatively active Tc1-like transposable element in the genome of sturgeons.

    PubMed

    Pujolar, José Martin; Astolfi, Laura; Boscari, Elisa; Vidotto, Michele; Barbisan, Federica; Bruson, Alice; Congiu, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new putatively active Tc1-like transposable element (Tana1) in the genome of sturgeons, an ancient group of fish considered as living fossils. The complete sequence of Tana1 was first characterized in the 454-sequenced transcriptome of the Adriatic sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and then isolated from the genome of the same species and from 12 additional sturgeons including three genera of the Acipenseridae (Acipenser, Huso, Scaphirhynchus). The element has a total length of 1588bp and presents inverted repeats of 210bp, one of which partially overlapping the 3' region of the transposase gene. The spacing of the DDE motif within the catalytic domain in Tana1 is unique (DD38E) and indicates that Tana1 can be considered as the first representative of a new Tc1 subfamily. The integrity of the native form (with no premature termination codons within the transposase), the presence of all expected functional domains and its occurrence in the sturgeon transcriptome suggest a current or recent activity of Tana1. The presence of Tana1 in the genome of the 13 sturgeon species in our study points to an ancient origin of the element that existed before the split of the group 170 million years ago. The dissemination of Tana1 across sturgeon genomes could be interpreted by postulating vertical transmission from an ancestral Tana1 with a particularly slow evolutionary rate Horizontal transmission might have also played a role in the dissemination of Tana1 as evidenced by the presence of a complete copy in the genome of Atlantic salmon. Vertical and horizontal transmission are not mutually exclusive and may have concurred in shaping the evolution of Tana1.

  19. An active hAT transposable element causing bud mutation of carnation by insertion into the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase gene.

    PubMed

    Momose, Masaki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Toguri, Toshihiro; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying spontaneous bud mutations, which provide an important breeding tool in carnation, are poorly understood. Here we describe a new active hAT type transposable element, designated Tdic101, the movement of which caused a bud mutation in carnation that led to a change of flower color from purple to deep pink. The color change was attributed to Tdic101 insertion into the second intron of F3'H, the gene for flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase responsible for purple pigment production. Regions on the deep pink flowers of the mutant can revert to purple, a visible phenotype of, as we show, excision of the transposable element. Sequence analysis revealed that Tdic101 has the characteristics of an autonomous element encoding a transposase. A related, but non-autonomous element dTdic102 was found to move in the genome of the bud mutant as well. Its mobilization might be the result of transposase activities provided by other elements such as Tdic101. In carnation, therefore, the movement of transposable elements plays an important role in the emergence of a bud mutation.

  20. Transposable Elements Contribute to Activation of Maize Genes in Response to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Makarevitch, Irina; Waters, Amanda J.; West, Patrick T.; Stitzer, Michelle; Hirsch, Candice N.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Springer, Nathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) account for a large portion of the genome in many eukaryotic species. Despite their reputation as “junk” DNA or genomic parasites deleterious for the host, TEs have complex interactions with host genes and the potential to contribute to regulatory variation in gene expression. It has been hypothesized that TEs and genes they insert near may be transcriptionally activated in response to stress conditions. The maize genome, with many different types of TEs interspersed with genes, provides an ideal system to study the genome-wide influence of TEs on gene regulation. To analyze the magnitude of the TE effect on gene expression response to environmental changes, we profiled gene and TE transcript levels in maize seedlings exposed to a number of abiotic stresses. Many genes exhibit up- or down-regulation in response to these stress conditions. The analysis of TE families inserted within upstream regions of up-regulated genes revealed that between four and nine different TE families are associated with up-regulated gene expression in each of these stress conditions, affecting up to 20% of the genes up-regulated in response to abiotic stress, and as many as 33% of genes that are only expressed in response to stress. Expression of many of these same TE families also responds to the same stress conditions. The analysis of the stress-induced transcripts and proximity of the transposon to the gene suggests that these TEs may provide local enhancer activities that stimulate stress-responsive gene expression. Our data on allelic variation for insertions of several of these TEs show strong correlation between the presence of TE insertions and stress-responsive up-regulation of gene expression. Our findings suggest that TEs provide an important source of allelic regulatory variation in gene response to abiotic stress in maize. PMID:25569788

  1. Nezha, a novel active miniature inverted-repeat transposable element in cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Fengfeng; Tran Thao; Xu Ying

    2008-01-25

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) were first identified in plants and exerted extensive proliferations throughout eukaryotic and archaeal genomes. But very few MITEs have been characterized in bacteria. We identified a novel MITE, called Nezha, in cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 and Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Nezha, like most previously known MITEs in other organisms, is small in size, non-coding, carrying TIR and DR signals, and of potential to form a stable RNA secondary structure, and it tends to insert into A+T-rich regions. Recent transpositions of Nezha were observed in A. variabilis ATCC 29413 and Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, respectively. Nezha might have proliferated recently with aid from the transposase encoded by ISNpu3-like elements. A possible horizontal transfer event of Nezha from cyanobacteria to Polaromonas JS666 is also observed.

  2. Cloning of the bronze locus in maize by a simple and generalizable procedure using the transposable controlling element Activator (Ac)

    PubMed Central

    Fedoroff, Nina V.; Furtek, Douglas B.; Nelson, Oliver E.

    1984-01-01

    The bronze (bz) locus of maize has been cloned by an indirect procedure utilizing the cloned transposable controlling element Activator (Ac). Restriction endonuclease fragments of maize DNA were cloned in bacteriophage λ and recombinant phage with homology to the center of the Ac element were isolated. The cloned fragments were analyzed to determine which contained sequences that were structurally identical to a previously isolated Ac element. Two such fragments were identified. Sequences flanking the Ac element were subcloned and used to probe genomic DNA from plants with well-defined mutations at the bz locus. By this means, it was established that one of the genomic clones contained a bz locus sequence. The subcloned probe fragment was then used to clone a nonmutant Bz allele of the locus. The method described here should prove useful in cloning other loci with Ac insertion mutations. Images PMID:16593478

  3. Transposable Elements and Genetic Instabilities in Crop Plants

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Burr, B.; Burr, F.

    1981-04-10

    Transposable elements have long been associated with certain unstable loci in maize and have been intensively studied by McClintock and others. It is known that a transposable element can control the expression of the structural genes at the locus where it resides. These controlling elements in maize are now beginning to be studied at the molecular level. Using recombinant molecular probes we have been able to describe the changes induced by the controlling element Ds at the shrunken locus. Ds elements appear to be large and dissimilar insertions into the wild-type locus - two elements actually map within the transcribed region of the gene. Genetic instabilities have been described in other economically important plants but the bases for these phenomena have not been understood. We believe that it is likely that some of these instabilities are the result of transposable element activity much as in the case of maize.

  4. Transposable elements and genetic instabilities in crop plants

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, B.; Burr, F.

    1981-04-10

    Transposable elements have long been associated with certain unstable loci in maize and have been intensively studied by McClintock and others. It is known that a transposable element can control the expression of the structural genes at the locus where it resides. These controlling elements in maize are now beginning to be studied at the molecular level. Using recombinant molecular probes we have been able to describe the changes induced by the controlling element Ds at the shrunken locus. Ds elements appear to be large and dissimilar insertions into the wild-type locus - two elements actually map within the transcribed region of the gene. Genetic instabilities have been described in other economically important plants but the bases for these phenomena have not been understood. We believe that it is likely that some of these instabilities are the result of transposable element activity much as in the case of maize.

  5. Heavy-ion radiation induces both activation of multiple endogenous transposable elements and alterations in DNA methylation in rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Xishan; Xiaolin, Cui; Li, Xiang

    2012-07-01

    Space radiation represents a complex environmental condition in which several interacting factors such as electron, neutron, proton, heavy-ion are involved, which may provoke stress responses and jeopardize genome integrity. Given the inherent property of epigenetic modifications to respond to intrinsic aswell as external perturbations, it is conceivable that epigenetic markers like DNA methylation and transposition may undergo alterations in response to space radiation. Cytosine DNA methylation plays important roles in maintaining genome stability and controlling gene expression. A predominant means for Transposable elements (TEs) to cause genetic instability is via their transpositional activation. To find the detailed molecular characterization of the nature of genomic changes induced by space radiation, the seeds of rice were exposed to 0.02, 0.2, 1, 2 and 20 Gy dose of ^{12}C heavy-ion radiation, respectively. We found that extensive alteration in both DNA methylation and gene expression occurred in rice plants after different dose of heavy-ion radiation. Here we shown that heavy-ion radiation has induced transposition of mPing and Tos17 in rice, which belong to distinct classes including the miniature inverted terminal repeat TEs (MITEs) and long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, respectively. mPing and Tos17 mobility were found to correlate with cytosine methylation alteration detected by MSAP and genetic variation detected by AFLP. The result showed that at least in some cases transposition of TEs was associated with cytosine demethylation within the elements. Our results implicate that the heavy-ion radiation represents a potent mutagenic agent that can cause genomic instabilities by eliciting transposition of endogenous TEs in rice. Keywords: Heavy-ion radiation, DNA methylation, Transposable elements, mPing, Tos17

  6. Transposable elements as a molecular evolutionary force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedoroff, N. V.

    1999-01-01

    This essay addresses the paradoxes of the complex and highly redundant genomes. The central theses developed are that: (1) the distinctive feature of complex genomes is the existence of epigenetic mechanisms that permit extremely high levels of both tandem and dispersed redundancy; (2) the special contribution of transposable elements is to modularize the genome; and (3) the labilizing forces of recombination and transposition are just barely contained, giving a dynamic genetic system of ever increasing complexity that verges on the chaotic.

  7. Detection of a novel active transposable element in Caldicellulosiruptor hydrothermalis and a new search for elements in this genus.

    PubMed

    Chung, Daehwan; Farkas, Joel; Westpheling, Janet

    2013-05-01

    We show that a previously annotated hypothetical protein is the transposase of a new and active IS element, ISCahy1, widespread in Caldicellulosiruptor species. Transposition generated an 11-bp direct repeat at the insertion site in Caldicellulosiruptor hydrothermalis, suggesting a cut-and-paste mechanism. The discovery of an active insertion sequence in Caldicellulosiruptor species led to a survey of potential IS elements in the genome sequences of eight Caldicellulosiruptor species that identified several new elements, including one novel to this genus.

  8. Transposable element origins of epigenetic gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Lisch, Damon; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L

    2011-04-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are massively abundant and unstable in all plant genomes, but are mostly silent because of epigenetic suppression. Because all known epigenetic pathways act on all TEs, it is likely that the specialized epigenetic regulation of regular host genes (RHGs) was co-opted from this ubiquitous need for the silencing of TEs and viruses. With their internally repetitive and rearranging structures, and the acquisition of fragments of RHGs, the expression of TEs commonly makes antisense RNAs for both TE genes and RHGs. These antisense RNAs, particularly from heterochromatic reservoirs of 'zombie' TEs that are rearranged to form variously internally repetitive structures, may be advantageous because their induction will help rapidly suppress active TEs of the same family. RHG fragments within rapidly rearranging TEs may also provide the raw material for the ongoing generation of miRNA genes. TE gene expression is regulated by both environmental and developmental signals, and insertions can place nearby RHGs under the regulation (both standard and epigenetic) of the TE. The ubiquity of TEs, their frequent preferential association with RHGs, and their ability to be programmed by epigenetic signals all indicate that RGHs have nearly unlimited access to novel regulatory cassettes to assist plant adaptation.

  9. Transposable elements in response to environmental stressors&

    PubMed Central

    Miousse, Isabelle R.; Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G.; Lumen, Annie; Ferguson, Alesia; Kavouras, Ilias G.; Koturbash, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) comprise a group of repetitive sequences that bring positive, negative, as well as neutral effects to the host organism. Earlier considered as “junk DNA,” TEs are now well-accepted driving forces of evolution and critical regulators the of expression of genetic information. Their activity is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, including methylation of DNA and histone modifications. The loss of epigenetic control over TEs, exhibited as loss of DNA methylation and decondensation of the chromatin structure, may result in TEs reactivation, initiation of their insertional mutagenesis (retrotransposition) and has been reported in numerous human diseases, including cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that these alterations are not the simple consequences of the disease, but often may drive the pathogenesis, as they can be detected early during disease development. Knowledge derived from the in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies, clearly demonstrates that exposure to ubiquitous environmental stressors, many of which are carcinogens or suspected carcinogens, are capable of causing alterations in methylation and expression of TEs and initiate retrotransposition events. Evidence summarized in this review suggests that TEs are the sensitive endpoints for detection of effects caused by such environmental stressors, as ionizing radiation (terrestrial, space, and UV-radiation), air pollution (including particulate matter [PM]-derived and gaseous), persistent organic pollutants, and metals. Furthermore, the significance of these effects is characterized by their early appearance, persistence and presence in both, target organs and peripheral blood. Altogether, these findings suggest that TEs may potentially be introduced into safety and risk assessment and serve as biomarkers of exposure to environmental stressors. Furthermore, TEs also show significant potential to become invaluable surrogate biomarkers in clinic and possible targets

  10. Transposable Elements: No More 'Junk DNA'.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Ji; Lee, Jungnam; Han, Kyudong

    2012-12-01

    Since the advent of whole-genome sequencing, transposable elements (TEs), just thought to be 'junk' DNA, have been noticed because of their numerous copies in various eukaryotic genomes. Many studies about TEs have been conducted to discover their functions in their host genomes. Based on the results of those studies, it has been generally accepted that they have a function to cause genomic and genetic variations. However, their infinite functions are not fully elucidated. Through various mechanisms, including de novo TE insertions, TE insertion-mediated deletions, and recombination events, they manipulate their host genomes. In this review, we focus on Alu, L1, human endogenous retrovirus, and short interspersed element/variable number of tandem repeats/Alu (SVA) elements and discuss how they have affected primate genomes, especially the human and chimpanzee genomes, since their divergence.

  11. [Transposition of the maize transposable element dSpm in transgenic sugar beets].

    PubMed

    Kishchenko, E M; Komarnitskiĭ, I K; Kuchuk, N V

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic sugar beet plants carrying maize Spmn/dSpm transposable elements system have been constructed. Heterologous system of maize transposable elements Spm/dSpm was active in transgenic sugar beets that permits transposon-based gene tagging and obtaining of marker-free transgenic sugar beet.

  12. Genomic impact of eukaryotic transposable elements

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The third international conference on the genomic impact of eukaryotic transposable elements (TEs) was held 24 to 28 February 2012 at the Asilomar Conference Center, Pacific Grove, CA, USA. Sponsored in part by the National Institutes of Health grant 5 P41 LM006252, the goal of the conference was to bring together researchers from around the world who study the impact and mechanisms of TEs using multiple computational and experimental approaches. The meeting drew close to 170 attendees and included invited floor presentations on the biology of TEs and their genomic impact, as well as numerous talks contributed by young scientists. The workshop talks were devoted to computational analysis of TEs with additional time for discussion of unresolved issues. Also, there was ample opportunity for poster presentations and informal evening discussions. The success of the meeting reflects the important role of Repbase in comparative genomic studies, and emphasizes the need for close interactions between experimental and computational biologists in the years to come. PMID:23171443

  13. Rates of movement of transposable elements in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, A; Albornoz, J

    1996-05-23

    Mobilization rates of nine families of transposable elements (P, hobo, FB, gypsy, 412, copia, blood, 297, and jockey) were estimated by using 182 lines. Lines were started from a completely isogenic population of Drosophila melanogaster, carrying the marker sepia as an indicator of possible contamination, and have been accumulating spontaneous mutations independently for 80 generations of brother-sister (or two double-first-cousin) matings. Transposable element movements have been analyzed in complete genomes by the Southern technique. Mobilization was a rare event, with an average rate of 10(-5) per site per generation. The most active element was FB. In contrast, the retroelements gypsy and blood did not move at all. Most changes in restriction patterns were consistent with rearrangements rather than with true transposition. The euchromatic or heterochromatic location of elements was tested by comparing insertion patterns from adults and salivary glands. Certain putative rearrangements involved heterochromatic copies of the retroelements 412, copia or 297. Clustering of movement across families was observed, suggesting that movement of different families may be non-independent. As association between modified insertion patterns and mutant effects on quantitative traits shows that spontaneous transposition events cause continuous variation.

  14. Increased Variation in Adh Enzyme Activity in Drosophila Mutation-Accumulation Experiment Is Not Due to Transposable Elements at the Adh Structural Gene

    PubMed Central

    Aquadro, C. F.; Tachida, H.; Langley, C. H.; Harada, K.; Mukai, T.

    1990-01-01

    We present here a molecular analysis of the region surrounding the structural gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) in 47 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that have each accumulated mutations for 300 generations. While these lines show a significant increase in variation of alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity compared to control lines, we found no restriction map variation in a 13-kb region including the complete Adh structural gene and roughly 5 kb of both 5' and 3' sequences. Thus, the rapid accumulation of ADH activity variation after 28,200 allele generations does not appear to have been due to the mobilization of transposable elements into or out of the Adh structural gene region. PMID:1963870

  15. The impact of transposable elements on mammalian development.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Perez, Jose L; Widmann, Thomas J; Adams, Ian R

    2016-11-15

    Despite often being classified as selfish or junk DNA, transposable elements (TEs) are a group of abundant genetic sequences that have a significant impact on mammalian development and genome regulation. In recent years, our understanding of how pre-existing TEs affect genome architecture, gene regulatory networks and protein function during mammalian embryogenesis has dramatically expanded. In addition, the mobilization of active TEs in selected cell types has been shown to generate genetic variation during development and in fully differentiated tissues. Importantly, the ongoing domestication and evolution of TEs appears to provide a rich source of regulatory elements, functional modules and genetic variation that fuels the evolution of mammalian developmental processes. Here, we review the functional impact that TEs exert on mammalian developmental processes and discuss how the somatic activity of TEs can influence gene regulatory networks.

  16. Transposable elements belonging to the Tc1-Mariner superfamily are heavily mutated in Colletotrichum graminicola.

    PubMed

    Braga, Raíssa Mesquita; Santana, Mateus Ferreira; Veras da Costa, Rodrigo; Brommonschenkel, Sergio Herminio; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements are ubiquitous and constitute an important source of genetic variation in addition to generating deleterious mutations. Several filamentous fungi are able to defend against transposable elements using RIP(repeat-induced point mutation)-like mechanisms, which induce mutations in duplicated sequences. The sequenced Colletotrichum graminicola genome and the availability of transposable element databases provide an efficient approach for identifying and characterizing transposable elements in this fungus, which was the subject of this study. We identified 132 full-sized Tc1-Mariner transposable elements in the sequenced C. graminicola genome, which were divided into six families. Several putative transposases that have been found in these elements have conserved DDE motifs, but all are interrupted by stop codons. An in silico analysis showed evidence for RIP-generated mutations. The TCg1 element, which was cloned from the Brazilian 2908 m isolate, has a putative transposase sequence with three characteristic conserved motifs. However, this sequence is interrupted by five stop codons. Genomic DNA from various isolates was analyzed by hybridization with an internal region of TCg1. All of the isolates featured transposable elements that were similar to TCg1, and several hybridization profiles were identified. C. graminicola has many Tc1-Mariner transposable elements that have been degenerated by characteristic RIP mutations. It is unlikely that any of the characterized elements are autonomous in the sequenced isolate. The possible existence of active copies in field isolates from Brazil was shown. The TCg1 element is present in several C. graminicola isolates and is a potentially useful molecular marker for population studies of this phytopathogen.

  17. Cross-Regulation between Transposable Elements and Host DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Zaratiegui, Mikel

    2017-01-01

    Transposable elements subvert host cellular functions to ensure their survival. Their interaction with the host DNA replication machinery indicates that selective pressures lead them to develop ancestral and convergent evolutionary adaptations aimed at conserved features of this fundamental process. These interactions can shape the co-evolution of the transposons and their hosts. PMID:28335567

  18. Transposable Element Targeting by piRNAs in Laurasiatherians with Distinct Transposable Element Histories

    PubMed Central

    Vandewege, Michael W.; Platt, Roy N.; Ray, David A.; Hoffmann, Federico G.

    2016-01-01

    PIWI proteins and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are part of a cellular pathway that has evolved to protect genomes against the proliferation of transposable elements (TEs). PIWIs and piRNAs assemble into complexes that are involved in epigenetic and post-transcriptional repression of TEs. Most of our understanding of the mechanisms of piRNA-mediated TE silencing comes from fruit fly and mouse models. However, even in these well-studied animals it is unclear how piRNA responses relate to variable TE expression and whether the strength of the piRNA response affects TE content over time. Here, we assessed the evolutionary interactions between TE and piRNAs in a statistical framework using three nonmodel laurasiatherian mammals as a study system: dog, horse, and a vesper bat. These three species diverged ∼80 million years ago and have distinct genomic TE contents. By comparing species with distinct TE landscapes, we aimed to identify clear relationships among TE content, expression, and piRNAs. We found that the TE subfamilies that are the most transcribed appear to elicit the strongest “ping-pong” response. This was most evident among long interspersed elements, but the relationships between expression and ping-pong pilRNA (piRNA-like) expression were more complex among SINEs. SINE transcripts were equally abundant in the dog and horse yet new SINE insertions were relatively rare in the horse genome, where we identified a stronger piRNA response. Our analyses suggest that the piRNA response can have a strong impact on the TE composition of a genome. However, our results also suggest that the presence of a robust piRNA response is apparently not sufficient to stop TE mobilization and accumulation. PMID:27060702

  19. Transposable genetic elements in Spirulina and potential applications for genetic engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroyuki, Kojima; Qin, Song; Thankappan, Ajith Kumar; Yoshikazu, Kawata; Shin-Ichi, Yano

    1998-03-01

    Transposable elements in cyanobacteria are briefly reviewed. Evidence is presented to show that transposable elements in Spirulina platensis is actually reflected on the phenotype change, i e., helical to straight filaments. Transposition intermediates of DNA were isolated from the extrachromosome and the transposition was related to helical variations in Spirulina. Uses of transposable elements for microalgal recombination are discussed based on the transposition mechanism.

  20. Epigenetic reprogramming and small RNA silencing of transposable elements in pollen

    PubMed Central

    Slotkin, R. Keith; Vaughn, Matthew; Tanurdžic, Miloš; Borges, Filipe; Becker, Jörg D.; Feijó, José A.; Martienssen, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The mutagenic activity of transposable elements (TEs) is suppressed by epigenetic silencing and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), especially in gametes that would transmit transposed elements to the next generation. In pollen from the model plant Arabidopsis, we show that TEs are unexpectedly reactivated and transpose, but only in the pollen vegetative nucleus, which accompanies the sperm cells but does not provide DNA to the fertilized zygote. TE expression coincides with down-regulation of the heterochromatin remodeler DECREASE IN DNA METHYLATION 1 and of most TE siRNAs. However, 21 nucleotide siRNA from Athila retrotransposons is generated in pollen and accumulates in sperm, indicating that siRNA from TEs activated in the vegetative nucleus can target silencing in gametes. We propose a conserved role for reprogramming in germline companion cells, such as nurse cells in insects and vegetative nuclei in plants, to reveal intact TEs in the genome and regulate their activity in gametes. PMID:19203581

  1. Transposable Element Dynamics among Asymbiotic and Ectomycorrhizal Amanita Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Jaqueline; Skrede, Inger; Wolfe, Benjamin E.; LaButti, Kurt; Ohm, Robin A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Pringle, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous inhabitants of eukaryotic genomes and their proliferation and dispersal shape genome architectures and diversity. Nevertheless, TE dynamics are often explored for one species at a time and are rarely considered in ecological contexts. Recent work with plant pathogens suggests a link between symbiosis and TE abundance. The genomes of pathogenic fungi appear to house an increased abundance of TEs, and TEs are frequently associated with the genes involved in symbiosis. To investigate whether this pattern is general, and relevant to mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses, we sequenced the genomes of related asymbiotic (AS) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) Amanita fungi. Using methods developed to interrogate both assembled and unassembled sequences, we characterized and quantified TEs across three AS and three ECM species, including the AS outgroup Volvariella volvacea. The ECM genomes are characterized by abundant numbers of TEs, an especially prominent feature of unassembled sequencing libraries. Increased TE activity in ECM species is also supported by phylogenetic analysis of the three most abundant TE superfamilies; phylogenies revealed many radiations within contemporary ECM species. However, the AS species Amanita thiersii also houses extensive amplifications of elements, highlighting the influence of additional evolutionary parameters on TE abundance. Our analyses provide further evidence for a link between symbiotic associations among plants and fungi, and increased TE activity, while highlighting the importance individual species’ natural histories may have in shaping genome architecture. PMID:24923322

  2. R-strippled maize as a transposable element system

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.M.; Satyanarayana, K.V.; Kermicle, J.L.

    1984-07-01

    The I-R element at the R locus destabilizes kernel pigmentation giving the variegated pattern known as stippled (R-st). In trans linkage phase with R-st the element was shown to act as a modifier of stippled, intensifying seed spotting in parallel with effects of the dominant linked modifier M-st. Presence of I-R in the genome was, therefore, shown to be detectable as a modifier of R-st. When this test was used, new modifiers resembling M-st were often detected following mutations of R-st to the stable allele R-sc. Such mutations evidently occurred by transposition of I-R away from the R locus to a site where it was identifiable as a modifier. M-st may be such a transposed I-R. Analysis of mutations to R-sc during the second (sperm-forming) mitosis in pollen grains showed that some of the transposed I-R elements were linked with R, whereas others assorted independently. Their strengths varied from barely discernible to a level equal to M-st. Overreplication frequently accompanied transposition at the sperm-forming mitosis, leading to transposed I-R elements in both the mutant and nonmutant sperm.

  3. Horizontal transfers of transposable elements in eukaryotes: The flying genes.

    PubMed

    Panaud, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are the major components of eukaryotic genomes. Their propensity to densely populate and in some cases invade the genomes of plants and animals is in contradiction with the fact that transposition is strictly controlled by several molecular pathways acting at either transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels. Horizontal transfers, defined as the transmission of genetic material between sexually isolated species, have long been considered as rare phenomena. Here, we show that the horizontal transfers of transposable elements (HTTs) are very frequent in ecosystems. The exact mechanisms of such transfers are not well understood, but species involved in close biotic interactions, like parasitism, show a propensity to exchange genetic material horizontally. We propose that HTTs allow TEs to escape the silencing machinery of their host genome and may therefore be an important mechanism for their survival and their dissemination in eukaryotes.

  4. No Accumulation of Transposable Elements in Asexual Arthropods.

    PubMed

    Bast, Jens; Schaefer, Ina; Schwander, Tanja; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan; Kraaijeveld, Ken

    2016-03-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) and other repetitive DNA can accumulate in the absence of recombination, a process contributing to the degeneration of Y-chromosomes and other nonrecombining genome portions. A similar accumulation of repetitive DNA is expected for asexually reproducing species, given their entire genome is effectively nonrecombining. We tested this expectation by comparing the whole-genome TE loads of five asexual arthropod lineages and their sexual relatives, including asexual and sexual lineages of crustaceans (Daphnia water fleas), insects (Leptopilina wasps), and mites (Oribatida). Surprisingly, there was no evidence for increased TE load in genomes of asexual as compared to sexual lineages, neither for all classes of repetitive elements combined nor for specific TE families. Our study therefore suggests that nonrecombining genomes do not accumulate TEs like nonrecombining genomic regions of sexual lineages. Even if a slight but undetected increase of TEs were caused by asexual reproduction, it appears to be negligible compared to variance between species caused by processes unrelated to reproductive mode. It remains to be determined if molecular mechanisms underlying genome regulation in asexuals hamper TE activity. Alternatively, the differences in TE dynamics between nonrecombining genomes in asexual lineages versus nonrecombining genome portions in sexual species might stem from selection for benign TEs in asexual lineages because of the lack of genetic conflict between TEs and their hosts and/or because asexual lineages may only arise from sexual ancestors with particularly low TE loads.

  5. Small RNAs, DNA methylation and transposable elements in wheat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background More than 80% of the wheat genome is composed of transposable elements (TEs). Since active TEs can move to different locations and potentially impose a significant mutational load, their expression is suppressed in the genome via small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs). sRNAs guide silencing of TEs at the transcriptional (mainly 24-nt sRNAs) and post-transcriptional (mainly 21-nt sRNAs) levels. In this study, we report the distribution of these two types of sRNAs among the different classes of wheat TEs, the regions targeted within the TEs, and their impact on the methylation patterns of the targeted regions. Results We constructed an sRNA library from hexaploid wheat and developed a database that included our library and three other publicly available sRNA libraries from wheat. For five completely-sequenced wheat BAC contigs, most perfectly matching sRNAs represented TE sequences, suggesting that a large fraction of the wheat sRNAs originated from TEs. An analysis of all wheat TEs present in the Triticeae Repeat Sequence database showed that sRNA abundance was correlated with the estimated number of TEs within each class. Most of the sRNAs perfectly matching miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) belonged to the 21-nt class and were mainly targeted to the terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). In contrast, most of the sRNAs matching class I and class II TEs belonged to the 24-nt class and were mainly targeted to the long terminal repeats (LTRs) in the class I TEs and to the terminal repeats in CACTA transposons. An analysis of the mutation frequency in potentially methylated sites revealed a three-fold increase in TE mutation frequency relative to intron and untranslated genic regions. This increase is consistent with wheat TEs being preferentially methylated, likely by sRNA targeting. Conclusions Our study examines the wheat epigenome in relation to known TEs. sRNA-directed transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing plays important roles in

  6. The Initiation of Epigenetic Silencing of Active Transposable Elements Is Triggered by RDR6 and 21-22 Nucleotide Small Interfering RNAs1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Nuthikattu, Saivageethi; McCue, Andrea D.; Panda, Kaushik; Fultz, Dalen; DeFraia, Christopher; Thomas, Erica N.; Slotkin, R. Keith

    2013-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile fragments of DNA that are repressed in both plant and animal genomes through the epigenetic inheritance of repressed chromatin and expression states. The epigenetic silencing of TEs in plants is mediated by a process of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). Two pathways of RdDM have been identified: RNA Polymerase IV (Pol IV)-RdDM, which has been shown to be responsible for the de novo initiation, corrective reestablishment, and epigenetic maintenance of TE and/or transgene silencing; and RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase6 (RDR6)-RdDM, which was recently identified as necessary for maintaining repression for a few TEs. We have further characterized RDR6-RdDM using a genome-wide search to identify TEs that generate RDR6-dependent small interfering RNAs. We have determined that TEs only produce RDR6-dependent small interfering RNAs when transcriptionally active, and we have experimentally identified two TE subfamilies as direct targets of RDR6-RdDM. We used these TEs to test the function of RDR6-RdDM in assays for the de novo initiation, corrective reestablishment, and maintenance of TE silencing. We found that RDR6-RdDM plays no role in maintaining TE silencing. Rather, we found that RDR6 and Pol IV are two independent entry points into RdDM and epigenetic silencing that perform distinct functions in the silencing of TEs: Pol IV-RdDM functions to maintain TE silencing and to initiate silencing in an RNA Polymerase II expression-independent manner, while RDR6-RdDM functions to recognize active Polymerase II-derived TE mRNA transcripts to both trigger and correctively reestablish TE methylation and epigenetic silencing. PMID:23542151

  7. Transposable Elements: Powerful Contributors to Angiosperm Evolution and Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Keith R.; McComb, Jen A.; Greene, Wayne K.

    2013-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are a dominant feature of most flowering plant genomes. Together with other accepted facilitators of evolution, accumulating data indicate that TEs can explain much about their rapid evolution and diversification. Genome size in angiosperms is highly correlated with TE content and the overwhelming bulk (>80%) of large genomes can be composed of TEs. Among retro-TEs, long terminal repeats (LTRs) are abundant, whereas DNA-TEs, which are often less abundant than retro-TEs, are more active. Much adaptive or evolutionary potential in angiosperms is due to the activity of TEs (active TE-Thrust), resulting in an extraordinary array of genetic changes, including gene modifications, duplications, altered expression patterns, and exaptation to create novel genes, with occasional gene disruption. TEs implicated in the earliest origins of the angiosperms include the exapted Mustang, Sleeper, and Fhy3/Far1 gene families. Passive TE-Thrust can create a high degree of adaptive or evolutionary potential by engendering ectopic recombination events resulting in deletions, duplications, and karyotypic changes. TE activity can also alter epigenetic patterning, including that governing endosperm development, thus promoting reproductive isolation. Continuing evolution of long-lived resprouter angiosperms, together with genetic variation in their multiple meristems, indicates that TEs can facilitate somatic evolution in addition to germ line evolution. Critical to their success, angiosperms have a high frequency of polyploidy and hybridization, with resultant increased TE activity and introgression, and beneficial gene duplication. Together with traditional explanations, the enhanced genomic plasticity facilitated by TE-Thrust, suggests a more complete and satisfactory explanation for Darwin’s “abominable mystery”: the spectacular success of the angiosperms. PMID:24065734

  8. Transposable elements: powerful contributors to angiosperm evolution and diversity.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Keith R; McComb, Jen A; Greene, Wayne K

    2013-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are a dominant feature of most flowering plant genomes. Together with other accepted facilitators of evolution, accumulating data indicate that TEs can explain much about their rapid evolution and diversification. Genome size in angiosperms is highly correlated with TE content and the overwhelming bulk (>80%) of large genomes can be composed of TEs. Among retro-TEs, long terminal repeats (LTRs) are abundant, whereas DNA-TEs, which are often less abundant than retro-TEs, are more active. Much adaptive or evolutionary potential in angiosperms is due to the activity of TEs (active TE-Thrust), resulting in an extraordinary array of genetic changes, including gene modifications, duplications, altered expression patterns, and exaptation to create novel genes, with occasional gene disruption. TEs implicated in the earliest origins of the angiosperms include the exapted Mustang, Sleeper, and Fhy3/Far1 gene families. Passive TE-Thrust can create a high degree of adaptive or evolutionary potential by engendering ectopic recombination events resulting in deletions, duplications, and karyotypic changes. TE activity can also alter epigenetic patterning, including that governing endosperm development, thus promoting reproductive isolation. Continuing evolution of long-lived resprouter angiosperms, together with genetic variation in their multiple meristems, indicates that TEs can facilitate somatic evolution in addition to germ line evolution. Critical to their success, angiosperms have a high frequency of polyploidy and hybridization, with resultant increased TE activity and introgression, and beneficial gene duplication. Together with traditional explanations, the enhanced genomic plasticity facilitated by TE-Thrust, suggests a more complete and satisfactory explanation for Darwin's "abominable mystery": the spectacular success of the angiosperms.

  9. Horizontal transfer and evolution of prokaryote transposable elements in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Clément; Cordaux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT) of transposable elements (TEs) plays a key role in prokaryotic evolution, and mounting evidence suggests that it has also had an important impact on eukaryotic evolution. Although many prokaryote-to-prokaryote and eukaryote-to-eukaryote HTs of TEs have been characterized, only few cases have been reported between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, we carried out a comprehensive search for all major groups of prokaryotic insertion sequences (ISs) in 430 eukaryote genomes. We uncovered a total of 80 sequences, all deriving from the IS607 family, integrated in the genomes of 14 eukaryote species belonging to four distinct phyla (Amoebozoa, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Stramenopiles). Given that eukaryote IS607-like sequences are most closely related to cyanobacterial IS607 and that their phylogeny is incongruent with that of their hosts, we conclude that the presence of IS607-like sequences in eukaryotic genomes is the result of several HT events. Selection analyses further suggest that our ability to detect these prokaryote TEs today in eukaryotes is because HT of these sequences occurred recently and/or some IS607 elements were domesticated after HT, giving rise to new eukaryote genes. Supporting the recent age of some of these HTs, we uncovered intact full-length, potentially active IS607 copies in the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellani. Overall, our study shows that prokaryote-to-eukaryote HT of TEs occurred at relatively low frequency during recent eukaryote evolution and it sets IS607 as the most widespread TE (being present in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses).

  10. Argonautes team up to silence transposable elements in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Charles J; Martienssen, Robert A

    2015-03-04

    The de novo silencing of transposable elements in plants and animals is mediated in part by RNA-directed chromatin modification. In flowering plants, AGO4 has been seen as the key argonauteprotein in the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway that links the plant-specific RNA polymerase V with the de novo DNA methyltransferase DRM2 (Zhong et al,2014). Two recent papers in The EMBO Journal strongly implicate a role for the AGO6 protein in the process of de novo silencing.

  11. Gene vector and transposable element behavior in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    O'Brochta, David A; Sethuraman, Nagaraja; Wilson, Raymond; Hice, Robert H; Pinkerton, Alexandra C; Levesque, Cynthia S; Bideshi, Dennis K; Jasinskiene, Nijole; Coates, Craig J; James, Anthony A; Lehane, Michael J; Atkinson, Peter W

    2003-11-01

    The development of efficient germ-line transformation technologies for mosquitoes has increased the ability of entomologists to find, isolate and analyze genes. The utility of the currently available systems will be determined by a number of factors including the behavior of the gene vectors during the initial integration event and their behavior after chromosomal integration. Post-integration behavior will determine whether the transposable elements being employed currently as primary gene vectors will be useful as gene-tagging and enhancer-trapping agents. The post-integration behavior of existing insect vectors has not been extensively examined. Mos1 is useful as a primary germ-line transformation vector in insects but is inefficiently remobilized in Drosophila melanogaster and Aedes aegypti. Hermes transforms D. melanogaster efficiently and can be remobilized in this species. This element is also useful for creating transgenic A. aegypti, but its mode of integration in mosquitoes results in the insertion of flanking plasmid DNA. Hermes can be remobilized in the soma of A. aegypti and transposes using a common cut-and-paste mechanism; however, the element does not remobilize in the germ line. piggyBac can be used to create transgenic mosquitoes and occasionally integrates using a mechanism other than a simple cut-and-paste mechanism. Preliminary data suggest that remobilization is infrequent. Minos also functions in mosquitoes and, like the other gene vectors, appears to remobilize inefficiently following integration. These results have implications for future gene vector development efforts and applications.

  12. Evolutionary interaction between W/Y chromosome and transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Śliwińska, Ewa B; Martyka, Rafał; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    The W/Y chromosome is unique among chromosomes as it does not recombine in its mature form. The main side effect of cessation of recombination is evolutionary instability and degeneration of the W/Y chromosome, or frequent W/Y chromosome turnovers. Another important feature of W/Y chromosome degeneration is transposable element (TEs) accumulation. Transposon accumulation has been confirmed for all W/Y chromosomes that have been sequenced so far. Models of W/Y chromosome instability include the assemblage of deleterious mutations in protein coding genes, but do not include the influence of transposable elements that are accumulated gradually in the non-recombining genome. The multiple roles of genomic TEs, and the interactions between retrotransposons and genome defense proteins are currently being studied intensively. Small RNAs originating from retrotransposon transcripts appear to be, in some cases, the only mediators of W/Y chromosome function. Based on the review of the most recent publications, we present knowledge on W/Y evolution in relation to retrotransposable element accumulation.

  13. DPTEdb, an integrative database of transposable elements in dioecious plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Gu, Lian-Feng; Gao, Wu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Dioecious plants usually harbor 'young' sex chromosomes, providing an opportunity to study the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA elements frequently found in plants and are suggested to play important roles in plant sex chromosome evolution. The genomes of several dioecious plants have been sequenced, offering an opportunity to annotate and mine the TE data. However, comprehensive and unified annotation of TEs in these dioecious plants is still lacking. In this study, we constructed a dioecious plant transposable element database (DPTEdb). DPTEdb is a specific, comprehensive and unified relational database and web interface. We used a combination of de novo, structure-based and homology-based approaches to identify TEs from the genome assemblies of previously published data, as well as our own. The database currently integrates eight dioecious plant species and a total of 31 340 TEs along with classification information. DPTEdb provides user-friendly web interfaces to browse, search and download the TE sequences in the database. Users can also use tools, including BLAST, GetORF, HMMER, Cut sequence and JBrowse, to analyze TE data. Given the role of TEs in plant sex chromosome evolution, the database will contribute to the investigation of TEs in structural, functional and evolutionary dynamics of the genome of dioecious plants. In addition, the database will supplement the research of sex diversification and sex chromosome evolution of dioecious plants.Database URL: http://genedenovoweb.ticp.net:81/DPTEdb/index.php.

  14. DPTEdb, an integrative database of transposable elements in dioecious plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Gu, Lian-Feng; Gao, Wu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Dioecious plants usually harbor ‘young’ sex chromosomes, providing an opportunity to study the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA elements frequently found in plants and are suggested to play important roles in plant sex chromosome evolution. The genomes of several dioecious plants have been sequenced, offering an opportunity to annotate and mine the TE data. However, comprehensive and unified annotation of TEs in these dioecious plants is still lacking. In this study, we constructed a dioecious plant transposable element database (DPTEdb). DPTEdb is a specific, comprehensive and unified relational database and web interface. We used a combination of de novo, structure-based and homology-based approaches to identify TEs from the genome assemblies of previously published data, as well as our own. The database currently integrates eight dioecious plant species and a total of 31 340 TEs along with classification information. DPTEdb provides user-friendly web interfaces to browse, search and download the TE sequences in the database. Users can also use tools, including BLAST, GetORF, HMMER, Cut sequence and JBrowse, to analyze TE data. Given the role of TEs in plant sex chromosome evolution, the database will contribute to the investigation of TEs in structural, functional and evolutionary dynamics of the genome of dioecious plants. In addition, the database will supplement the research of sex diversification and sex chromosome evolution of dioecious plants. Database URL: http://genedenovoweb.ticp.net:81/DPTEdb/index.php PMID:27173524

  15. Transposable elements and early evolution of sex chromosomes in fish.

    PubMed

    Chalopin, Domitille; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Galiana, Delphine; Anderson, Jennifer L; Schartl, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    In many organisms, the sex chromosome pair can be recognized due to heteromorphy; the Y and W chromosomes have often lost many genes due to the absence of recombination during meiosis and are frequently heterochromatic. Repetitive sequences are found at a high proportion on such heterochromatic sex chromosomes and the evolution and emergence of sex chromosomes has been connected to the dynamics of repeats and transposable elements. With an amazing plasticity of sex determination mechanisms and numerous instances of independent emergence of novel sex chromosomes, fish represent an excellent lineage to investigate the early stages of sex chromosome differentiation, where sex chromosomes often are homomorphic and not heterochromatic. We have analyzed the composition, distribution, and relative age of TEs from available sex chromosome sequences of seven teleost fish. We observed recent bursts of TEs and simple repeat accumulations around young sex determination loci. More strikingly, we detected transposable element (TE) amplifications not only on the sex determination regions of the Y and W sex chromosomes, but also on the corresponding regions of the X and Z chromosomes. In one species, we also clearly demonstrated that the observed TE-rich sex determination locus originated from a TE-poor genomic region, strengthening the link between TE accumulation and emergence of the sex determination locus. Altogether, our results highlight the role of TEs in the initial steps of differentiation and evolution of sex chromosomes.

  16. Patterns of Transposable Element Expression and Insertion in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Evan A.; Wang, Lu; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Wang, Jianrong; McDonald, John F.; Jordan, I. King

    2016-01-01

    Human transposable element (TE) activity in somatic tissues causes mutations that can contribute to tumorigenesis. Indeed, TE insertion mutations have been implicated in the etiology of a number of different cancer types. Nevertheless, the full extent of somatic TE activity, along with its relationship to tumorigenesis, have yet to be fully explored. Recent developments in bioinformatics software make it possible to analyze TE expression levels and TE insertional activity directly from transcriptome (RNA-seq) and whole genome (DNA-seq) next-generation sequence data. We applied these new sequence analysis techniques to matched normal and primary tumor patient samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) in order to analyze the patterns of TE expression and insertion for three cancer types: breast invasive carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and lung adenocarcinoma. Our analysis focused on the three most abundant families of active human TEs: Alu, SVA, and L1. We found evidence for high levels of somatic TE activity for these three families in normal and cancer samples across diverse tissue types. Abundant transcripts for all three TE families were detected in both normal and cancer tissues along with an average of ~80 unique TE insertions per individual patient/tissue. We observed an increase in L1 transcript expression and L1 insertional activity in primary tumor samples for all three cancer types. Tumor-specific TE insertions are enriched for private mutations, consistent with a potentially causal role in tumorigenesis. We used genome feature analysis to investigate two specific cases of putative cancer-causing TE mutations in further detail. An Alu insertion in an upstream enhancer of the CBL tumor suppressor gene is associated with down-regulation of the gene in a single breast cancer patient, and an L1 insertion in the first exon of the BAALC gene also disrupts its expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Our results are consistent with

  17. Resident aliens: the Tc1/mariner superfamily of transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Plasterk, R H; Izsvák, Z; Ivics, Z

    1999-08-01

    Transgenic technology is currently applied to several animal species of agricultural or medical importance, such as fish, cattle, mosquitos and parasitic worms. However, the repertoire of genetic tools used for molecular analyses of mice and Drosophila is not always applicable to other species. For example, while retroviral enhancer-trap experiments in mice can be based on embryonic stem (ES) cell technology, this is not currently an option with other animals. Similarly, the germline transformation of Drosophila depends on the use of the P-element transposon, which does not jump in other genera. This article analyses the main characteristics of Tc1/mariner transposable elements, examines some of the factors that have contributed to their evolutionary success, and describes their potential, as well as their limitations, for transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis in diverse animals.

  18. Evolution and Diversity of Transposable Elements in Vertebrate Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Sotero-Caio, Cibele G.; Platt, Roy N.; Suh, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are selfish genetic elements that mobilize in genomes via transposition or retrotransposition and often make up large fractions of vertebrate genomes. Here, we review the current understanding of vertebrate TE diversity and evolution in the context of recent advances in genome sequencing and assembly techniques. TEs make up 4–60% of assembled vertebrate genomes, and deeply branching lineages such as ray-finned fishes and amphibians generally exhibit a higher TE diversity than the more recent radiations of birds and mammals. Furthermore, the list of taxa with exceptional TE landscapes is growing. We emphasize that the current bottleneck in genome analyses lies in the proper annotation of TEs and provide examples where superficial analyses led to misleading conclusions about genome evolution. Finally, recent advances in long-read sequencing will soon permit access to TE-rich genomic regions that previously resisted assembly including the gigantic, TE-rich genomes of salamanders and lungfishes. PMID:28158585

  19. Transposable elements in cancer and other human diseases.

    PubMed

    Chenais, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences representing a substantial fraction of most genomes. Through the creation of new genes and functions, TEs are important elements of genome plasticity and evolution. However TE insertion in human genomes may be the cause of genetic dysfunction and alteration of gene expression contributing to cancer and other human diseases. Besides the chromosome rearrangements induced by TE repeats, this mini-review shows how gene expression may be altered following TE insertion, for example by the creation of new polyadenylation sites, by the creation of new exons (exonization), by exon skipping and by other modification of alternative splicing, and also by the alteration of regulatory sequences. Through the correlation between TE mobility and the methylation status of DNA, the importance of chromatin regulation is evident in several diseases. Finally this overview ends with a brief presentation of the use of TEs as biotechnology tools for insertional mutagenesis screening and gene therapy with DNA transposons.

  20. Transposable Elements: From DNA Parasites to Architects of Metazoan Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Piskurek, Oliver; Jackson, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most unexpected insights that followed from the completion of the human genome a decade ago was that more than half of our DNA is derived from transposable elements (TEs). Due to advances in high throughput sequencing technologies it is now clear that TEs comprise the largest molecular class within most metazoan genomes. TEs, once categorised as "junk DNA", are now known to influence genomic structure and function by increasing the coding and non-coding genetic repertoire of the host. In this way TEs are key elements that stimulate the evolution of metazoan genomes. This review highlights several lines of TE research including the horizontal transfer of TEs through host-parasite interactions, the vertical maintenance of TEs over long periods of evolutionary time, and the direct role that TEs have played in generating morphological novelty. PMID:24704977

  1. Transposable elements: from DNA parasites to architects of metazoan evolution.

    PubMed

    Piskurek, Oliver; Jackson, Daniel J

    2012-07-12

    One of the most unexpected insights that followed from the completion of the human genome a decade ago was that more than half of our DNA is derived from transposable elements (TEs). Due to advances in high throughput sequencing technologies it is now clear that TEs comprise the largest molecular class within most metazoan genomes. TEs, once categorised as "junk DNA", are now known to influence genomic structure and function by increasing the coding and non-coding genetic repertoire of the host. In this way TEs are key elements that stimulate the evolution of metazoan genomes. This review highlights several lines of TE research including the horizontal transfer of TEs through host-parasite interactions, the vertical maintenance of TEs over long periods of evolutionary time, and the direct role that TEs have played in generating morphological novelty.

  2. Study of Transposable Elements and Their Genomic Impact.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Lopez, Martin; Vilar-Astasio, Raquel; Tristan-Ramos, Pablo; Lopez-Ruiz, Cesar; Garcia-Pérez, Jose L

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) have been considered traditionally as junk DNA, i.e., DNA sequences that despite representing a high proportion of genomes had no evident cellular functions. However, over the last decades, it has become undeniable that not only TE-derived DNA sequences have (and had) a fundamental role during genome evolution, but also TEs have important implications in the origin and evolution of many genomic disorders. This concise review provides a brief overview of the different types of TEs that can be found in genomes, as well as a list of techniques and methods used to study their impact and mobilization. Some of these techniques will be covered in detail in this Method Book.

  3. Transposable elements and small RNAs: Genomic fuel for species diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Federico G; McGuire, Liam P; Counterman, Brian A; Ray, David A

    2015-01-01

    While transposable elements (TE) have long been suspected of involvement in species diversification, identifying specific roles has been difficult. We recently found evidence of TE-derived regulatory RNAs in a species-rich family of bats. The TE-derived small RNAs are temporally associated with the burst of species diversification, suggesting that they may have been involved in the processes that led to the diversification. In this commentary, we expand on the ideas that were briefly touched upon in that manuscript. Specifically, we suggest avenues of research that may help to identify the roles that TEs may play in perturbing regulatory pathways. Such research endeavors may serve to inform evolutionary biologists of the ways that TEs have influenced the genomic and taxonomic diversity around us. PMID:26904375

  4. Transposable elements and small RNAs: Genomic fuel for species diversity.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Federico G; McGuire, Liam P; Counterman, Brian A; Ray, David A

    2015-01-01

    While transposable elements (TE) have long been suspected of involvement in species diversification, identifying specific roles has been difficult. We recently found evidence of TE-derived regulatory RNAs in a species-rich family of bats. The TE-derived small RNAs are temporally associated with the burst of species diversification, suggesting that they may have been involved in the processes that led to the diversification. In this commentary, we expand on the ideas that were briefly touched upon in that manuscript. Specifically, we suggest avenues of research that may help to identify the roles that TEs may play in perturbing regulatory pathways. Such research endeavors may serve to inform evolutionary biologists of the ways that TEs have influenced the genomic and taxonomic diversity around us.

  5. A blessing in disguise: Transposable elements are more than parasites.

    PubMed

    Martin, Antoine; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2010-07-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are various DNA fragments inserted throughout genomes, which are able to move or duplicate themselves. Recent advances in genomics have placed them back at the center of genome dynamics. One of the emerging observations, especially in plants, is the importance of interactions between TEs and genes to generate or to participate in relevant functions essential for development, adaptation and/or life cycle. A recent publication illustrates the influence of TEs epigenetic control on the expression of a neighboring gene crucial for reproduction. Different reports lately showed that a fundamental mechanism such as imprinting is likely to be closely linked to the dynamics of TEs epigenetic control. Here we discuss and bring together these and others recent findings, to underline that the cis-vicinity or the trans-relation between TEs and genes could bring unexpected but positive outcomes.

  6. Composite transposable elements in the Xenopus laevis genome.

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, J E; Knutzon, D S; Carroll, D

    1989-01-01

    Members of two related families of transposable elements, Tx1 and Tx2, were isolated from the genome of Xenopus laevis and characterized. In both families, two versions of the elements were found. The smaller version in each family (Tx1d and Tx2d) consisted largely of two types of 400-base-pair tandem internal repeats. These elements had discrete ends and short inverted terminal repeats characteristic of mobile DNAs that are presumed to move via DNA intermediates, e.g., Drosophila P and maize Ac elements. The longer versions (Tx1c and Tx2c) differed from Tx1d and Tx2d by the presence of a 6.9-kilobase-pair internal segment that included two long open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 had one cysteine-plus-histidine-rich sequence of the type found in retroviral gag proteins. ORF2 showed more substantial homology to retroviral pol genes and particularly to the analogs of pol found in a subclass of mobile DNAs that are supposed retrotransposons, such as mammalian long interspersed repetitive sequences, Drosophila I factors, silkworm R1 elements, and trypanosome Ingi elements. Thus, the Tx1 elements present a paradox by exhibiting features of two classes of mobile DNAs that are thought to have very different modes of transposition. Two possible resolutions are considered: (i) the composite versions are actually made up of two independent elements, one of the retrotransposon class, which has a high degree of specificity for insertion into a target within the other, P-like element; and (ii) the composite elements are intact, autonomous mobile DNAs, in which the pol-like gene product collaborates with the terminal inverted repeats to cause transposition of the entire unit. Images PMID:2550791

  7. Expression of Transposable Elements in Neural Tissues during Xenopus Development

    PubMed Central

    Faunes, Fernando; Sanchez, Natalia; Moreno, Mauricio; Olivares, Gonzalo H.; Lee-Liu, Dasfne; Almonacid, Leonardo; Slater, Alex W.; Norambuena, Tomas; Taft, Ryan J.; Mattick, John S.; Melo, Francisco; Larrain, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Transposable elements comprise a large proportion of animal genomes. Transposons can have detrimental effects on genome stability but also offer positive roles for genome evolution and gene expression regulation. Proper balance of the positive and deleterious effects of transposons is crucial for cell homeostasis and requires a mechanism that tightly regulates their expression. Herein we describe the expression of DNA transposons of the Tc1/mariner superfamily during Xenopus development. Sense and antisense transcripts containing complete Tc1-2_Xt were detected in Xenopus embryos. Both transcripts were found in zygotic stages and were mainly localized in Spemann's organizer and neural tissues. In addition, the Tc1-like elements Eagle, Froggy, Jumpy, Maya, Xeminos and TXr were also expressed in zygotic stages but not oocytes in X. tropicalis. Interestingly, although Tc1-2_Xt transcripts were not detected in Xenopus laevis embryos, transcripts from other two Tc1-like elements (TXr and TXz) presented a similar temporal and spatial pattern during X. laevis development. Deep sequencing analysis of Xenopus tropicalis gastrulae showed that PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are specifically derived from several Tc1-like elements. The localized expression of Tc1-like elements in neural tissues suggests that they could play a role during the development of the Xenopus nervous system. PMID:21818339

  8. Are chromosomal inversions induced by transposable elements? A paradigm from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Mathiopoulos, K D; della Torre, A; Santolamazza, F; Predazzi, V; Petrarca, V; Coluzzi, M

    1999-09-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements abound in nature and can be studied in detail in organisms with polytene chromosomes. In Drosophila and in Anopheline mosquitoes most speciation processes seem to be associated with the establishment of chromosomal rearrangements, particularly of paracentric inversions. It is not known what triggers inversions in natural populations. In the laboratory inversions are commonly generated by X-rays, mutagens or after the activity of certain transposable elements (TEs). The Anopheles gambiae complex is comprised of six sibling species, each one characterized by the presence of fixed paracentric inversions on their chromosomes. Two of these, An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, are the most important vectors of human malaria and are structured into sub-populations, each carrying a characteristic set of polymorphic chromosomal inversions. We have cloned the breakpoints of the naturally occurring polymorphic inversion In(2R)d' of An. arabiensis. Analysis of the surrounding sequences demonstrated that adjacent to the distal breakpoint lies a transposable element that we called Odysseus. Characteristics of Odysseus' terminal region and its cytological distribution in different strains as well as within the same strain indicate that Odysseus is an actively transposing element. The presence of Odysseus at the junction of the naturally occurring inversion In(2R)d' suggests that the inversion may be the result of the TEs activity. Cytological evidence from Drosophila melanogaster has also implicated the hobo transposable element in the generation of certain Hawaiian endemic inversions. This picture supports the hypothesis of the important role of TEs in generating natural inversions.

  9. A proposal for the reference-based annotation of de novo transposable element insertions.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Casey M

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the causes and consequences of transposable element (TE) activity in the genomic era requires sophisticated bioinformatics approaches to accurately identify individual insertion sites. Next-generation sequencing technology now makes it possible to rapidly identify new TE insertions using resequencing data, opening up new possibilities to study the nature of TE-induced mutation and the target site preferences of different TE families. While the identification of new TE insertion sites is seemingly a simple task, the mechanisms of transposition present unique challenges for the annotation of de novo transposable element insertions mapped to a reference genome. Here I discuss these challenges and propose a framework for the annotation of de novo TE insertions that accommodates known mechanisms of TE insertion and established coordinate systems for genome annotation.

  10. Characterization of Transposable Elements in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Labbe, Jessy L; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Tuskan, Gerald A; Le Tacon, F; Martin, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Background: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs) in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TEspecific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. Methodology/Principal Findings: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copy elements distributed within 171 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs exhibits signs of ancient transposition except some intact copies of terminal inverted repeats (TIRS), long terminal repeats (LTRs) and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD) element. There were three main periods of TE expansion in L. bicolor: the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 0.5 Mya ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. Conclusions: This analysis 1) represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, 2) contributes to improve genome annotation and a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution and 3) provides a valuable resource for future research on the genome evolution within the Laccaria genus.

  11. The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genome reflects a recent history of biased accumulation of transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Staton, S Evan; Bakken, Bradley H; Blackman, Benjamin K; Chapman, Mark A; Kane, Nolan C; Tang, Shunxue; Ungerer, Mark C; Knapp, Steven J; Rieseberg, Loren H; Burke, John M

    2012-10-01

    Aside from polyploidy, transposable elements are the major drivers of genome size increases in plants. Thus, understanding the diversity and evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), especially given its large genome size (∼3.5 Gb) and the well-documented cases of amplification of certain transposons within the genus, is of considerable importance for understanding the evolutionary history of this emerging model species. By analyzing approximately 25% of the sunflower genome from random sequence reads and assembled bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, we show that it is composed of over 81% transposable elements, 77% of which are long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. Moreover, the LTR retrotransposon fraction in BAC clones harboring genes is disproportionately composed of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons ('chromoviruses'), and the majority of the intact chromoviruses contain tandem chromodomain duplications. We show that there is a bias in the efficacy of homologous recombination in removing LTR retrotransposon DNA, thereby providing insight into the mechanisms associated with transposable element (TE) composition in the sunflower genome. We also show that the vast majority of observed LTR retrotransposon insertions have likely occurred since the origin of this species, providing further evidence that biased LTR retrotransposon activity has played a major role in shaping the chromatin and DNA landscape of the sunflower genome. Although our findings on LTR retrotransposon age and structure could be influenced by the selection of the BAC clones analyzed, a global analysis of random sequence reads indicates that the evolutionary patterns described herein apply to the sunflower genome as a whole.

  12. What makes transposable elements move in the Drosophila genome?

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro, M P García

    2012-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs), by their capacity of moving and inducing mutations in the genome, are considered important drivers of species evolution. The successful invasions of TEs in genomes, despite their mutational properties, are an apparent paradox. TEs' transposition is usually strongly regulated to low value, but in some cases these elements can also show high transposition rates, which has been associated sometimes to changes in environmental conditions. It is evident that factors susceptible to induce transpositions in natural populations contribute to TE perpetuation. Different factors were proposed as causative agents of TE mobilization in a wide range of organisms: biotic and abiotic stresses, inter- and intraspecific crosses and populational factors. However, there is no clear evidence of the factors capable of inducing TE mobilization in Drosophila, and data on laboratory stocks show contradictory results. The aim of this review is to have an update critical revision about mechanisms promoting transposition of TEs in Drosophila, and to provide to the readers a global vision of the dynamics of these genomic elements in the Drosophila genome. PMID:21971178

  13. Useful parasites: the evolutionary biology and biotechnology applications of transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Bonchev, Georgi N

    2016-12-01

    Transposable elements usually comprise the most abundant nongenic fraction of eukaryotic genomes. Because of their capacity to selfreplicate and to induce a wide range of mutations, transposable elements have long been considered as 'parasitic' or 'selfish'. Today, we recognize that the findings about genomic changes affected by transposable elements have considerably altered our view of the ways in which genomes evolve and work. Numerous studies have provided evidences that mobile elements have the potential to act as agents of evolution by increasing, rearranging and diversifying the genetic repertoire of their hosts. With large-scale sequencing becoming increasingly available, more and more scientists come across transposable element sequences in their data. I will provide examples that transposable elements, although having signatures of 'selfish' DNA, play a significant biological role in the maintainance of genome integrity and providing novel regulatoty networks. These features, along with the transpositional and mutagenic capacity to produce a raw genetic diversity, make the genome mobile fraction, a key player in species adaptation and microevolution. The last but not least, transposable elements stand as informative DNA markers that may complement other conventional DNA markers. Altogether, transposable elements represent a promising, but still largely unexplored research niche and deserve to be included into the agenda of molecular ecologists, evolutionary geneticists, conservation biologists and plant breeders.

  14. Transposable element influences on gene expression in plants.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Cory D; Springer, Nathan M

    2017-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) comprise a major portion of many plant genomes and bursts of TE movements cause novel genomic variation within species. In order to maintain proper gene function, plant genomes have evolved a variety of mechanisms to tolerate the presence of TEs within or near genes. Here, we review our understanding of the interactions between TEs and gene expression in plants by assessing three ways that transposons can influence gene expression. First, there is growing evidence that TE insertions within introns or untranslated regions of genes are often tolerated and have minimal impact on expression level or splicing. However, there are examples in which TE insertions within genes can result in aberrant or novel transcripts. Second, TEs can provide novel alternative promoters, which can lead to new expression patterns or original coding potential of an alternate transcript. Third, TE insertions near genes can influence regulation of gene expression through a variety of mechanisms. For example, TEs may provide novel cis-acting regulatory sites behaving as enhancers or insert within existing enhancers to influence transcript production. Alternatively, TEs may change chromatin modifications in regions near genes, which in turn can influence gene expression levels. Together, the interactions of genes and TEs provide abundant evidence for the role of TEs in changing basic functions within plant genomes beyond acting as latent genomic elements or as simple insertional mutagens. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Gene Regulatory Mechanisms and Networks, edited by Dr. Erich Grotewold and Dr. Nathan Springer.

  15. Transposable element dynamics of the hAT element Herves in the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Ramanand A; Arensburger, Peter; Atkinson, Peter W; O'Brochta, David A

    2007-08-01

    Transposable elements are being considered as genetic drive agents for introducing phenotype-altering genes into populations of vectors of human disease. The dynamics of endogenous elements will assist in predicting the behavior of introduced elements. Transposable element display was used to estimate the site-occupancy frequency distribution of Herves in six populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. The site-occupancy distribution data suggest that the element has been recently active within the sampled populations. All 218 individuals sampled contained at least one copy of Herves with a mean of 3.6 elements per diploid genome. No significant differences in copy number were observed among populations. Nucleotide polymorphism within the element was high (pi = 0.0079 in noncoding sequences and 0.0046 in coding sequences) relative to that observed in some of the more well-studied elements in Drosophila melanogaster. In total, 33 distinct forms of Herves were found on the basis of the sequence of the first 528 bp of the transposase open reading frame. Only two forms were found in all six study populations. Although Herves elements in An. gambiae are quite diverse, 85% of the individuals examined had evidence of complete forms of the element. Evidence was found for the lateral transfer of Herves from an unknown source into the An. gambiae lineage prior to the diversification of the An. gambiae species complex. The characteristics of Herves in An. gambiae are somewhat unlike those of P elements in D. melanogaster.

  16. Multilevel Selection Theory and the Evolutionary Functions of Transposable Elements

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Tyler D.P.; Doolittle, W. Ford

    2015-01-01

    One of several issues at play in the renewed debate over “junk DNA” is the organizational level at which genomic features might be seen as selected, and thus to exhibit function, as etiologically defined. The intuition frequently expressed by molecular geneticists that junk DNA is functional because it serves to “speed evolution” or as an “evolutionary repository” could be recast as a claim about selection between species (or clades) rather than within them, but this is not often done. Here, we review general arguments for the importance of selection at levels above that of organisms in evolution, and develop them further for a common genomic feature: the carriage of transposable elements (TEs). In many species, not least our own, TEs comprise a large fraction of all nuclear DNA, and whether they individually or collectively contribute to fitness—or are instead junk— is a subject of ongoing contestation. Even if TEs generally owe their origin to selfish selection at the lowest level (that of genomes), their prevalence in extant organisms and the prevalence of extant organisms bearing them must also respond to selection within species (on organismal fitness) and between species (on rates of speciation and extinction). At an even higher level, the persistence of clades may be affected (positively or negatively) by TE carriage. If indeed TEs speed evolution, it is at these higher levels of selection that such a function might best be attributed to them as a class. PMID:26253318

  17. PIF- and Pong-like transposable elements: distribution, evolution and relationship with Tourist-like miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Ning; Feschotte, Cédric; Wessler, Susan R

    2004-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are short, nonautonomous DNA elements that are widespread and abundant in plant genomes. Most of the hundreds of thousands of MITEs identified to date have been divided into two major groups on the basis of shared structural and sequence characteristics: Tourist-like and Stowaway-like. Since MITEs have no coding capacity, they must rely on transposases encoded by other elements. Two active transposons, the maize P Instability Factor (PIF) and the rice Pong element, have recently been implicated as sources of transposase for Tourist-like MITEs. Here we report that PIF- and Pong-like elements are widespread, diverse, and abundant in eukaryotes with hundreds of element-associated transposases found in a variety of plant, animal, and fungal genomes. The availability of virtually the entire rice genome sequence facilitated the identification of all the PIF/Pong-like elements in this organism and permitted a comprehensive analysis of their relationship with Tourist-like MITEs. Taken together, our results indicate that PIF and Pong are founding members of a large eukaryotic transposon superfamily and that members of this superfamily are responsible for the origin and amplification of Tourist-like MITEs. PMID:15020481

  18. Marsupial-specific microRNAs evolved from marsupial-specific transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Devor, Eric J; Peek, Andrew S; Lanier, William; Samollow, Paul B

    2009-12-15

    Using a direct miRNA cloning strategy we previously identified fourteen marsupial- or species-specific microRNAs in the marsupial species Monodelphis domestica. In the present study we examined each of the pre-miRNAs and their flanking sequences and demonstrate that half of these miRNAs evolved from marsupial-specific transposable elements. These findings reinforce the view that transposable elements are a previously unappreciated source of new, lineage-specific microRNAs.

  19. Whole Genome Resequencing Reveals Natural Target Site Preferences of Transposable Elements in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Linheiro, Raquel S.; Bergman, Casey M.

    2012-01-01

    Transposable elements are mobile DNA sequences that integrate into host genomes using diverse mechanisms with varying degrees of target site specificity. While the target site preferences of some engineered transposable elements are well studied, the natural target preferences of most transposable elements are poorly characterized. Using population genomic resequencing data from 166 strains of Drosophila melanogaster, we identified over 8,000 new insertion sites not present in the reference genome sequence that we used to decode the natural target preferences of 22 families of transposable element in this species. We found that terminal inverted repeat transposon and long terminal repeat retrotransposon families present clade-specific target site duplications and target site sequence motifs. Additionally, we found that the sequence motifs at transposable element target sites are always palindromes that extend beyond the target site duplication. Our results demonstrate the utility of population genomics data for high-throughput inference of transposable element targeting preferences in the wild and establish general rules for terminal inverted repeat transposon and long terminal repeat retrotransposon target site selection in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:22347367

  20. Population genetics and molecular evolution of DNA sequences in transposable elements. I. A simulation framework.

    PubMed

    Kijima, T E; Innan, Hideki

    2013-11-01

    A population genetic simulation framework is developed to understand the behavior and molecular evolution of DNA sequences of transposable elements. Our model incorporates random transposition and excision of transposable element (TE) copies, two modes of selection against TEs, and degeneration of transpositional activity by point mutations. We first investigated the relationships between the behavior of the copy number of TEs and these parameters. Our results show that when selection is weak, the genome can maintain a relatively large number of TEs, but most of them are less active. In contrast, with strong selection, the genome can maintain only a limited number of TEs but the proportion of active copies is large. In such a case, there could be substantial fluctuations of the copy number over generations. We also explored how DNA sequences of TEs evolve through the simulations. In general, active copies form clusters around the original sequence, while less active copies have long branches specific to themselves, exhibiting a star-shaped phylogeny. It is demonstrated that the phylogeny of TE sequences could be informative to understand the dynamics of TE evolution.

  1. Novel non-autonomous transposable elements on W chromosome of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tsuguru; Shimada, Toru; Mita, Kazuei

    2010-09-01

    The sex chromosomes of the silkworm Bombyx mori are designated ZW(XY) for females and ZZ (XX) for males. Numerous long terminal repeat (LTR) and non-LTR retrotransposons, retroposons and DNA transposons have accumulated as strata on the W chromosome. However, there are nucleotide sequences that do not show the characteristics of typical transposable elements on the W chromosome. To analyse these uncharacterized nucleotide sequences on the W chromosome, we used whole-genome shotgun (WGS) data and assembled data that was obtained using male genome DNA. Through these analyses,we found that almost all of these uncharacterized sequences were non-autonomous transposable elements that do not fit into the conventional classification. It is notable that some of these transposable elements contained the Bombyx short interspersed element (Bm1) sequences in the elements. We designated them as secondary-Bm1 transposable elements (SBTEs). Because putative ancestral SBTE nucleotide sequences without Bm1 do not occur in the WGS data, we suggest that the Bm1 sequences of SBTEs are not carried on each element merely as a package but are components of each element. Therefore, we confirmed that SBTEs should be classified as a new group of transposable elements.

  2. Novel non-autonomous transposable elements on W chromosome of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hiroaki; Fujii, Tsuguru; Shimada, Toru; Mita, Kazuei

    2010-01-01

    The sex chromosomes of the silkworm Bombyx mori are designated ZW (XY) for females and ZZ (XX) for males. Numerous long terminal repeat (LTR) and non-LTR retrotransposons, retroposons and DNA transposons have accumulated as strata on the W chromosome. However, there are nucleotide sequences that do not show the characteristics of typical transposable elements on the W chromosome. To analyse these uncharacterized nucleotide sequences on the W chromosome, we used whole-genome shotgun (WGS) data and assembled data that was obtained using male genome DNA. Through these analyses, we found that almost all of these uncharacterized sequences were non-autonomous transposable elements that do not fit into the conventional classification. It is notable that some of these transposable elements contained the Bombyx short interspersed element (Bm1) sequences in the elements. We designated them as secondary-Bm1 transposable elements (SBTEs). Because putative ancestral SBTE nucleotide sequences without Bm1 do not occur in theWGS data, we suggest that the Bm1 sequences of SBTEs are not carried on each element merely as a package but are components of each element. Therefore, we confirmed that SBTEs should be classified as a new group of transposable elements.

  3. Abundance, distribution and potential impact of transposable elements in the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a ascomycete that causes Black Sigatoka in bananas. Recently, the M. fijiensis genome was sequenced. Repetitive sequences are ubiquitous components of fungal genomes. In most genomic analyses, repetitive sequences are associated with transposable elements (TEs). TEs are dispersed repetitive DNA sequences found in a host genome. These elements have the ability to move from one location to another within the genome, and their insertion can cause a wide spectrum of mutations in their hosts. Some of the deleterious effects of TEs may be due to ectopic recombination among TEs of the same family. In addition, some transposons are physically linked to genes and can control their expression. To prevent possible damage caused by the presence of TEs in the genome, some fungi possess TE-silencing mechanisms, such as RIP (Repeat Induced Point mutation). In this study, the abundance, distribution and potential impact of TEs in the genome of M. fijiensis were investigated. Results A total of 613 LTR-Gypsy and 27 LTR-Copia complete elements of the class I were detected. Among the class II elements, a total of 28 Mariner, five Mutator and one Harbinger complete elements were identified. The results of this study indicate that transposons were and are important ectopic recombination sites. A distribution analysis of a transposable element from each class of the M. fijiensis isolates revealed variable hybridization profiles, indicating the activity of these elements. Several genes encoding proteins involved in important metabolic pathways and with potential correlation to pathogenicity systems were identified upstream and downstream of transposable elements. A comparison of the sequences from different transposon groups suggested the action of the RIP silencing mechanism in the genome of this microorganism. Conclusions The analysis of TEs in M. fijiensis suggests that TEs play an important role in the evolution of this organism because the

  4. Characterization of three active transposable elements recently inserted in three independent DFR-A alleles and one high-copy DNA transposon isolated from the Pink allele of the ANS gene in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunggil; Park, Jee Young; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-06-01

    Intact retrotransposon and DNA transposons inserted in a single gene were characterized in onions (Allium cepa) and their transcription and copy numbers were estimated in this study. While analyzing diverse onion germplasm, large insertions in the DFR-A gene encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were found in two accessions. A 5,070-bp long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon inserted in the active DFR-A (R4) allele was identified from one of the large insertions and designated AcCOPIA1. An intact ORF encoded typical domains of copia-like LTR retrotransposons. However, AcCOPIA1 contained atypical 'TG' and 'TA' dinucleotides at the ends of the LTRs. A 4,615-bp DNA transposon was identified in the other large insertion. This DNA transposon, designated AcCACTA1, contained an ORF coding for a transposase showing homology with the CACTA superfamily transposable elements (TEs). Another 5,073-bp DNA transposon was identified from the DFR-A (TRN) allele. This DNA transposon, designated AchAT1, belonged to the hAT superfamily with short 4-bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). Finally, a 6,258-bp non-autonomous DNA transposon, designated AcPINK, was identified in the ANS-p allele encoding anthocyanidin synthase, the next downstream enzyme to DFR in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. AcPINK also possessed very short 3-bp TIRs. Active transcription of AcCOPIA1, AcCACTA1, and AchAT1 was observed through RNA-Seq analysis and RT-PCR. The copy numbers of AcPINK estimated by mapping the genomic DNA reads produced by NextSeq 500 were predominantly high compared with the other TEs. A series of evidence indicated that these TEs might have transposed in these onion genes very recently, providing a stepping stone for elucidation of enormously large-sized onion genome structure.

  5. Transposable Elements versus the Fungal Genome: Impact on Whole-Genome Architecture and Transcriptional Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Castanera, Raúl; López-Varas, Leticia; Borgognone, Alessandra; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Schmutz, Jeremy; Grimwood, Jane; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Ramírez, Lucía

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are exceptional contributors to eukaryotic genome diversity. Their ubiquitous presence impacts the genomes of nearly all species and mediates genome evolution by causing mutations and chromosomal rearrangements and by modulating gene expression. We performed an exhaustive analysis of the TE content in 18 fungal genomes, including strains of the same species and species of the same genera. Our results depicted a scenario of exceptional variability, with species having 0.02 to 29.8% of their genome consisting of transposable elements. A detailed analysis performed on two strains of Pleurotus ostreatus uncovered a genome that is populated mainly by Class I elements, especially LTR-retrotransposons amplified in recent bursts from 0 to 2 million years (My) ago. The preferential accumulation of TEs in clusters led to the presence of genomic regions that lacked intra- and inter-specific conservation. In addition, we investigated the effect of TE insertions on the expression of their nearby upstream and downstream genes. Our results showed that an important number of genes under TE influence are significantly repressed, with stronger repression when genes are localized within transposon clusters. Our transcriptional analysis performed in four additional fungal models revealed that this TE-mediated silencing was present only in species with active cytosine methylation machinery. We hypothesize that this phenomenon is related to epigenetic defense mechanisms that are aimed to suppress TE expression and control their proliferation. PMID:27294409

  6. A novel class of Helitron-related transposable elements in maize contain portions of multiple pseudogenes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Smriti; Gallavotti, Andrea; Stryker, Gabrielle A; Schmidt, Robert J; Lal, Shailesh K

    2005-01-01

    We recently described a maize mutant caused by an insertion of a Helitron type transposable element (Lal, S.K., Giroux, M.J., Brendel, V., Vallejos, E. and Hannah, L.C., 2003, Plant Cell, 15: 381-391). Here we describe another Helitron insertion in the barren stalk1 gene of maize. The termini of a 6525 bp insertion in the proximal promoter region of the mutant reference allele of maize barren stalk1 gene (ba1-ref) shares striking similarity to the Helitron insertion we reported in the Shrunken-2 gene. This insertion is embedded with pseudogenes that differ from the pseudogenes discovered in the mutant Shrunken-2 insertion. Using the common terminal ends of the mutant insertions as a query, we discovered other Helitron insertions in maize BAC clones. Based on the comparison of the insertion site and PCR amplified genomic sequences, these elements inserted between AT dinucleotides. These putative non-autonomous Helitron insertions completely lacked sequences similar to RPA (replication protein A) and DNA Helicases reported in other species. A blastn analysis indicated that both the 5' and 3' termini of Helitrons are repeated in the maize genome. These data provide strong evidence that Helitron type transposable elements are active and may have played an essential role in the evolution and expansion of the maize genome.

  7. Transposable Elements versus the Fungal Genome: Impact on Whole-Genome Architecture and Transcriptional Profiles.

    PubMed

    Castanera, Raúl; López-Varas, Leticia; Borgognone, Alessandra; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Schmutz, Jeremy; Grimwood, Jane; Pérez, Gúmer; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Grigoriev, Igor V; Stajich, Jason E; Ramírez, Lucía

    2016-06-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are exceptional contributors to eukaryotic genome diversity. Their ubiquitous presence impacts the genomes of nearly all species and mediates genome evolution by causing mutations and chromosomal rearrangements and by modulating gene expression. We performed an exhaustive analysis of the TE content in 18 fungal genomes, including strains of the same species and species of the same genera. Our results depicted a scenario of exceptional variability, with species having 0.02 to 29.8% of their genome consisting of transposable elements. A detailed analysis performed on two strains of Pleurotus ostreatus uncovered a genome that is populated mainly by Class I elements, especially LTR-retrotransposons amplified in recent bursts from 0 to 2 million years (My) ago. The preferential accumulation of TEs in clusters led to the presence of genomic regions that lacked intra- and inter-specific conservation. In addition, we investigated the effect of TE insertions on the expression of their nearby upstream and downstream genes. Our results showed that an important number of genes under TE influence are significantly repressed, with stronger repression when genes are localized within transposon clusters. Our transcriptional analysis performed in four additional fungal models revealed that this TE-mediated silencing was present only in species with active cytosine methylation machinery. We hypothesize that this phenomenon is related to epigenetic defense mechanisms that are aimed to suppress TE expression and control their proliferation.

  8. Genomic patterns associated with paternal/maternal distribution of transposable elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurka, Jerzy

    2003-03-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are specialized DNA or RNA fragments capable of surviving in intragenomic niches. They are commonly, perhaps unjustifiably referred to as "selfish" or "parasitic" elements. TEs can be divided in two major classes: retroelements and DNA transposons. The former include non-LTR retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements, using reverse transriptase for their reproduction prior to integration into host DNA. The latter depend mostly on host DNA replication, with possible exception of rolling-circle transposons recently discovered by our team. I will review basic information on TEs, with emphasis on human Alu and L1 retroelements discussed in the context of genomic organization. TEs are non-randomly distributed in chromosomal DNA. In particular, human Alu elements tend to prefer GC-rich regions, whereas L1 accumulate in AT-rich regions. Current explanations of this phenomenon focus on the so called "target effects" and post-insertional selection. However, the proposed models appear to be unsatisfactory and alternative explanations invoking "channeling" to different chromosomal regions will be a major focus of my presentation. Transposable elements (TEs) can be expressed and integrated into host DNA in the male or female germlines, or both. Different models of expression and integration imply different proportions of TEs on sex chromosomes and autosomes. The density of recently retroposed human Alu elements is around three times higher on chromosome Y than on chromosome X, and over two times higher than the average density for all human autosomes. This implies Alu activity in paternal germlines. Analogous inter-chromosomal proportions for other repeat families should determine their compatibility with one of the three basic models describing the inheritance of TEs. Published evidence indicates that maternally and paternally imprinted genes roughly correspond to GC-rich and AT-rich DNA. This may explain the observed chromosomal distribution of

  9. Transposable elements as agents of rapid adaptation may explain the genetic paradox of invasive species.

    PubMed

    Stapley, Jessica; Santure, Anna W; Dennis, Stuart R

    2015-05-01

    Rapid adaptation of invasive species to novel habitats has puzzled evolutionary biologists for decades, especially as this often occurs in the face of limited genetic variability. Although some ecological traits common to invasive species have been identified, little is known about the possible genomic/genetic mechanisms that may underlie their success. A common scenario in many introductions is that small founder population sizes will often lead to reduced genetic diversity, but that invading populations experience large environmental perturbations, such as changes in habitat and environmental stress. Although sudden and intense stress is usually considered in a negative context, these perturbations may actually facilitate rapid adaptation by affecting genome structure, organization and function via interactions with transposable elements (TEs), especially in populations with low genetic diversity. Stress-induced changes in TE activity can alter gene action and can promote structural variation that may facilitate the rapid adaptation observed in new environments. We focus here on the adaptive potential of TEs in relation to invasive species and highlight their role as powerful mutational forces that can rapidly create genetic diversity. We hypothesize that activity of transposable elements can explain rapid adaptation despite low genetic variation (the genetic paradox of invasive species), and provide a framework under which this hypothesis can be tested using recently developed and emerging genomic technologies.

  10. A family of transposable elements co-opted into developmental enhancers in the mouse neocortex.

    PubMed

    Notwell, James H; Chung, Tisha; Heavner, Whitney; Bejerano, Gill

    2015-03-25

    The neocortex is a mammalian-specific structure that is responsible for higher functions such as cognition, emotion and perception. To gain insight into its evolution and the gene regulatory codes that pattern it, we studied the overlap of its active developmental enhancers with transposable element (TE) families and compared this overlap to uniformly shuffled enhancers. Here we show a striking enrichment of the MER130 repeat family among active enhancers in the mouse dorsal cerebral wall, which gives rise to the neocortex, at embryonic day 14.5. We show that MER130 instances preserve a common code of transcriptional regulatory logic, function as enhancers and are adjacent to critical neocortical genes. MER130, a nonautonomous interspersed TE, originates in the tetrapod or possibly Sarcopterygii ancestor, which far predates the appearance of the neocortex. Our results show that MER130 elements were recruited, likely through their common regulatory logic, as neocortical enhancers.

  11. What makes up plant genomes: The vanishing line between transposable elements and genes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongyan; Ferguson, Ann A; Jiang, Ning

    2016-02-01

    The ultimate source of evolution is mutation. As the largest component in plant genomes, transposable elements (TEs) create numerous types of mutations that cannot be mimicked by other genetic mechanisms. When TEs insert into genomic sequences, they influence the expression of nearby genes as well as genes unlinked to the insertion. TEs can duplicate, mobilize, and recombine normal genes or gene fragments, with the potential to generate new genes or modify the structure of existing genes. TEs also donate their transposase coding regions for cellular functions in a process called TE domestication. Despite the host defense against TE activity, a subset of TEs survived and thrived through discreet selection of transposition activity, target site, element size, and the internal sequence. Finally, TEs have established strategies to reduce the efficacy of host defense system by increasing the cost of silencing TEs. This review discusses the recent progress in the area of plant TEs with a focus on the interaction between TEs and genes.

  12. Population and clinical genetics of human transposable elements in the (post) genomic era

    PubMed Central

    Rishishwar, Lavanya; Wang, Lu; Clayton, Evan A.; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; McDonald, John F.; Jordan, I. King

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent technological developments—in genomics, bioinformatics and high-throughput experimental techniques—are providing opportunities to study ongoing human transposable element (TE) activity at an unprecedented level of detail. It is now possible to characterize genome-wide collections of TE insertion sites for multiple human individuals, within and between populations, and for a variety of tissue types. Comparison of TE insertion site profiles between individuals captures the germline activity of TEs and reveals insertion site variants that segregate as polymorphisms among human populations, whereas comparison among tissue types ascertains somatic TE activity that generates cellular heterogeneity. In this review, we provide an overview of these new technologies and explore their implications for population and clinical genetic studies of human TEs. We cover both recent published results on human TE insertion activity as well as the prospects for future TE studies related to human evolution and health. PMID:28228978

  13. Altering genomic integrity: heavy metal exposure promotes trans-posable element-mediated damage

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Maria E.; Servant, Geraldine; Ade, Catherine; Roy-Enge, Astrid M.

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of genomic integrity is critical for cellular homeostasis and survival. The active transposable elements (TEs) composed primarily of three mobile element lineages LINE-1, Alu, and SVA comprise approximately 30% of the mass of the human genome. For the past two decades, studies have shown that TEs significantly contribute to genetic instability and that TE-caused damages are associated with genetic diseases and cancer. Different environmental exposures, including several heavy metals, influence how TEs interact with its host genome increasing their negative impact. This mini-review provides some basic knowledge on TEs, their contribution to disease and an overview of the current knowledge on how heavy metals influence TE-mediated damage. PMID:25774044

  14. Cloning of inversion breakpoints in the Anopheles gambiae complex traces a transposable element at the inversion junction.

    PubMed

    Mathiopoulos, K D; della Torre, A; Predazzi, V; Petrarca, V; Coluzzi, M

    1998-10-13

    Anopheles arabiensis, one of the two most potent malaria vectors of the gambiae complex, is characterized by the presence of chromosomal paracentric inversions. Elucidation of the nature and the dynamics of these inversions is of paramount importance for the understanding of the population genetics and evolutionary biology of this mosquito and of the impact on malaria epidemiology. We report here the cloning of the breakpoints of the naturally occurring polymorphic inversion 2Rd' of A. arabiensis. A cDNA clone that cytologically mapped on the proximal breakpoint was the starting material for the isolation of a cosmid clone that spanned the breakpoint. Analysis of the surrounding sequences demonstrated that adjacent to the distal breakpoint lies a repetitive element that exhibits distinct distribution in different A. arabiensis strains. Sequencing analysis of that area revealed elements characteristic of transposable element terminal repeats. We called this presumed transposable element Odysseus. The presence of Odysseus at the junction of the naturally occuring inversion 2Rd' suggests that the inversion may be the result of the transposable element's activity. Characteristics of Odysseus' terminal region as well as its cytological distribution in different strains may indicate a relatively recent activity of Odysseus.

  15. A Gaijin-like miniature inverted repeat transposable element is mobilized in rice during cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Miniature inverted repeat transposable element (MITE) is one type of transposable element (TE), which is largely found in eukaryotic genomes and involved in a wide variety of biological events. However, only few MITEs were proved to be currently active and their physiological function remains largely unknown. Results We found that the amplicon discrepancy of a gene locus LOC_Os01g0420 in different rice cultivar genomes was resulted from the existence of a member of Gaijin-like MITEs (mGing). This result indicated that mGing transposition was occurred at this gene locus. By using a modified transposon display (TD) analysis, the active transpositions of mGing were detected in rice Jiahua No. 1 genome under three conditions: in seedlings germinated from the seeds received a high dose γ-ray irradiation, in plantlets regenerated from anther-derived calli and from scutellum-derived calli, and were confirmed by PCR validation and sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or short additional DNA sequences at transposition sites post mGing transposition. It suggested that sequence modification was possibly taken place during mGing transposition. Furthermore, cell re-differentiation experiment showed that active transpositions of both mGing and mPing (another well studied MITE) were identified only in regenerated plantlets. Conclusions It is for the first time that mGing active transposition was demonstrated under γ-ray irradiation or in cell re-differentiation process in rice. This newly identified active MITE will provide a foundation for further analysis of the roles of MITEs in biological process. PMID:22500940

  16. Characterization of new hAT transposable elements in 12 Drosophila genomes.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Ortiz, Mauro; Loreto, Elgion Lucio Silva

    2009-01-01

    In silico searches for sequences homologous to hAT elements in 12 Drosophila genomes have allowed us to identify 37 new hAT elements (8 in D. ananassae, 11 in D. mojavensis, 2 in D. sechellia, 1 in D. simulans, 2 in D. virilis, 3 in D. yakuba, 3 in D. persimilis, 1 in D. grimshawi, 5 in D. willistoni and 1 in D. pseudobscura). The size of these elements varies from 2,359 to 4,962 bp and the terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) show lengths ranging from 10 to 24 bp. Several elements show intact transposase ORFs, suggesting that they are active. Conserved amino acid motifs were identified that correspond to those important for transposase activity. These elements are highly variable and phylogenetic analysis showed that they can be clustered into four different families. Incongruencies were observed between the phylogenies of the transposable elements and those of their hosts, suggesting that horizontal transfer may have occurred between some of the species.

  17. The First Rule of Plant Transposable Element Silencing: Location, Location, Location

    PubMed Central

    Sigman, Meredith J.; Slotkin, R. Keith

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile units of DNA that comprise large portions of plant genomes. Besides creating mutations via transposition and contributing to genome size, TEs play key roles in chromosome architecture and gene regulation. TE activity is repressed by overlapping mechanisms of chromatin condensation, epigenetic transcriptional silencing, and targeting by small interfering RNAs. The specific regulation of different TEs, as well as their different roles in chromosome architecture and gene regulation, is specified by where on the chromosome the TE is located: near a gene, within a gene, in a pericentromere/TE island, or at the centromere core. In this Review, we investigate the silencing mechanisms responsible for inhibiting TE activity for each of these chromosomal contexts, emphasizing that chromosomal location is the first rule dictating the specific regulation of each TE. PMID:26869697

  18. [Chromatin structure, heterochromatin, and transposable genetic elements--are they from one team?].

    PubMed

    Leĭbovich, B A

    2002-01-01

    Gene content proved to be less than expected in completely sequenced eukaryotic genomes. Moreover, gene number differs only three times between such distant organisms as human and Drosophila. Hence it is likely that the essential functional and structural differences between the two species mostly depend on the regulation of gene activity than on the set and quality of genes themselves. New data demonstrate that changes in chromatin structure play a greater role in the fine gene activity regulation than considered before. R.B. Khesin had foresaw many chromatin functions that only recently came to be recognized. Khesin was interested in genome inconstancy over his last years. A higher content of several important chromosomal proteins was recently revealed in chromatin of transposable genetic elements (TGE). The possible role of TGE in chromatin organization in the nucleus is considered.

  19. Enhancer/Suppressor mutator (En/Spm)-like transposable elements of cassava (Manihot esculenta) are transcriptionally inactive.

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, M A; Beeching, J R

    2010-04-13

    Transposable elements contribute to the size, structure, variation, and diversity of the genome and have major effects on gene function. Sequencing projects have revealed the diversity of transposable elements in many organisms and have shown that they constitute a high percentage of the genome. PCR-based techniques using degenerate primers designed from conserved enzyme domains of transposable elements can provide quick and extensive surveys, making study of diversity and abundance and their applications possible in species where full genome sequence data are not yet available. We studied cassava (Manihot esculenta) En/Spm-like transposons (Meens) with regard to genomic distribution, sequence diversity and methylation status. Cassava transposase fragments characteristic of En/Spm-like transposons were isolated, cloned and characterized. Sequence analysis showed that cassava En/Spm-like elements are highly conserved, with overall identity in the range of 68-98%. Southern hybridization supports the presence of multiple copies of En/Spm-like transposons integrated in the genome of all cassava cultivars that we tested. Hybridization patterns of HpaII- and MspI-digested cassava genomic DNA revealed highly methylated sequences. There were no clear differences in hybridization pattern between the cultivars. We did not detect RNA transcripts of Meens by Northern procedures. We examined the possibility of recent transposition activities of the cassava En/Spm-like elements.

  20. Evolutionary impact of transposable elements on genomic diversity and lineage-specific innovation in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ian A; Naville, Magali; Chalopin, Domitille; Levin, Perrine; Berger, Chloé Suzanne; Galiana, Delphine; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Since their discovery, a growing body of evidence has emerged demonstrating that transposable elements are important drivers of species diversity. These mobile elements exhibit a great variety in structure, size and mechanisms of transposition, making them important putative actors in organism evolution. The vertebrates represent a highly diverse and successful lineage that has adapted to a wide range of different environments. These animals also possess a rich repertoire of transposable elements, with highly diverse content between lineages and even between species. Here, we review how transposable elements are driving genomic diversity and lineage-specific innovation within vertebrates. We discuss the large differences in TE content between different vertebrate groups and then go on to look at how they affect organisms at a variety of levels: from the structure of chromosomes to their involvement in the regulation of gene expression, as well as in the formation and evolution of non-coding RNAs and protein-coding genes. In the process of doing this, we highlight how transposable elements have been involved in the evolution of some of the key innovations observed within the vertebrate lineage, driving the group's diversity and success.

  1. TEnest 2.0: Computational annotation and visualization of nested transposable elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass genomes are highly repetitive, for example, Oryza sativa (rice) contains 35% repeat sequences, Zea mays (maize) comprise 75%, and Triticum aestivum (wheat) includes approximately 80%. Most of these repeats occur as abundant transposable elements (TE), which present unique challenges to sequen...

  2. Excision of the piggyBac transposable element in maize cells is a precise event

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The piggyBac transposable element (TE) from the moth Trichoplusia ni encodes a ‘cut and paste’ DNA transposase that has been used to transform a number of insects, as well as planaria, mammalian cells, and mice. The wild type and a mutated piggyBac TE excised from a DNA vector in transient assays u...

  3. Detection and characterization of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements in “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are non-autonomous transposons (devoid a transposase gene, tps) involving insertion/deletion of genomic DNA in bacterial genomes influencing gene functions. No transposon has yet been reported in “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus”, an alpha-pr...

  4. RJPrimers: unique transposable element insertion junction discovery and PCR primer design for marker development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transposable elements (TE) exist in the genomes of nearly all eukaryotes. TE mobilization through “cut-and-paste” or “copy-and-paste” mechanisms causes their insertions into other repetitive sequences, gene loci, and other DNA. An insertion of a TE produces a junction consisting of the TE-end sequen...

  5. Molecular and Genetic Characterization of Mu Transposable Elements in Zea Mays: Behavior in Callus Culture and Regenerated Plants

    PubMed Central

    Planckaert, F.; Walbot, V.

    1989-01-01

    Active Mutator lines of maize (Zea mays L.) have a high mutation rate and contain multiple hypomethylated 1.4-kb and 1.7-kb Mu transposable elements. Correlated with the inactivation of the Mutator system, these Mu elements cease to transpose and become more methylated. To determine whether the shock of tissue culture can affect Mutator activities, F(1) progenies of outcrosses between active or inactive Mutator stocks and inbred line Al88 were used to initiate embryogenic callus cultures. HinfI restriction digestion of genomic DNA isolated from 3-5-month-old cultures demonstrated that there is a very good correlation between the modification state of Mu elements in the cultures and the Mutator parent. Despite the dedifferentiation and rapid proliferation characteristic of tissue culture, the Mutator activity state is relatively stable during an extended tissue culture period. Cultures established from inactive Mutator lines were not reactivated; cultures established from active lines maintained a high Mu copy number, and most Mu elements remained unmodified. In contrast, weakly active Mutator parents gave rise to cultures in which Mu element modification could switch between low and high methylation during the culture period. Evidence for transposition was investigated with EcoRI digestion of genomic DNA isolated at different times during culture. The appearance of novel Mu-hybridizing fragments and a strong background hybridization are interpreted as evidence that transposition events occur during culture. Plants regenerated from such active cultures transmitted Mutator activity to their progeny. PMID:2574698

  6. Identification of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) and biogenesis of their siRNAs in the Solanaceae: New functional implications for MITEs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small RNAs regulate the genome by guiding transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing machinery to specific target sequences, including genes and transposable elements (TEs). Although miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are closely associated with euchromatic genes, the br...

  7. Transposable elements as a potential source for understanding the fish genome

    PubMed Central

    Porto-Foresti, Fabio; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    Transposable elements are repetitive sequences with the capacity tomove inside of the genome. They constitute the majority of the eukaryotic genomes, and are extensively present in the human genome, representing more than 45% of the genome sequences. The knowledge of the origin and function of these elements in the fish genome is still reduced and fragmented, mainly with regard to its structure and organization in the chromosomes of the representatives of this biological group, with data currently available for very few species that represent the great variety of forms and existing diversity. Comparative analyses ascertain differences in the organization of such elements in the species studied up to the present. They can be part of the heterochromatic regions in some species or be spread throughout the genome in others. The main objective of the present revision is to discuss the aspects of the organization of transposable elements in the fish genome. PMID:22016858

  8. Strong phylogenetic inertia on genome size and transposable element content among 26 species of flies.

    PubMed

    Sessegolo, Camille; Burlet, Nelly; Haudry, Annabelle

    2016-08-01

    While the evolutionary mechanisms driving eukaryote genome size evolution are still debated, repeated element content appears to be crucial. Here, we reconstructed the phylogeny and identified repeats in the genome of 26 Drosophila exhibiting a twofold variation in genome size. The content in transposable elements (TEs) is highly correlated to genome size evolution among these closely related species. We detected a strong phylogenetic signal on the evolution of both genome size and TE content, and a genome contraction in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup.

  9. Chironomus riparius (Diptera) genome sequencing reveals the impact of minisatellite transposable elements on population divergence.

    PubMed

    Oppold, Ann-Marie; Schmidt, Hanno; Rose, Marcel; Hellmann, Sören Lukas; Dolze, Florian; Ripp, Fabian; Weich, Bettina; Schmidt-Ott, Urs; Schmidt, Erwin; Kofler, Robert; Hankeln, Thomas; Pfenninger, Markus

    2017-03-18

    Active transposable elements (TEs) may result in divergent genomic insertion and abundance patterns among conspecific populations. Upon secondary contact, such divergent genetic backgrounds can theoretically give rise to classical Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities (DMI), thus contributing to the evolution of endogenous genetic barriers and eventually cause population divergence. We investigated differential TE abundance among conspecific populations of the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius and evaluated their potential role in causing endogenous genetic incompatibilities between these populations. We focussed on a Chironomus-specific TE, the minisatellite-like Cla-element, whose activity is associated with speciation in the genus. Using a newly generated and annotated draft genome for a genomic study with five natural C. riparius populations, we found highly population-specific TE insertion patterns with many private insertions. A significant correlation of the pairwise FST estimated from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the FST estimated from TEs, is consistent with drift as the major force driving TE population differentiation. However, the significantly higher Cla-element FST level due to a high proportion of differentially fixed Cla-element insertions also indicates selection against segregating (i.e. heterozygous) insertions. With reciprocal crossing experiments and fluorescent in-situ hybridisation of Cla-elements to polytene chromosomes, we documented phenotypic effects on female fertility and chromosomal mispairings. We propose that the inferred negative selection on heterozygous Cla-element insertions may cause endogenous genetic barriers and therefore acts as DMI among C. riparius populations. The intrinsic genomic turnover exerted by TEs may thus have a direct impact on population divergence that is operationally different from drift and local adaptation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Holliday Junctions Are Associated with Transposable Element Sequences in the Human Genome.

    PubMed

    Ladias, Paris; Markopoulos, Georgios; Lazaros, Leandros; Markoula, Sofia; Tzavaras, Theodore; Georgiou, Ioannis

    2016-02-13

    Holliday junctions (HJs) constitute important intermediate structures for many cell functions such as DNA recombination and DNA repair. They derive from a 10-nt degenerate sequence, with a 3-nt core motif. In this study, we explored the human genome whether the HJ degenerate sequence associates with transposable elements (TEs) and mainly with those of the active and inactive ALU, LINE, SVA and HERV families. We identified six different forms of the HJ sequence motif, and we located the genomic coordinates of sequences containing both HJs and TEs. From 2982 total HJs, a significant number of 1319 TE-associated HJs were found, with a median distribution of 1 per 2.4 Mb. The HJs with higher GC content were observed more frequently at the genome. A high percentage of HJs were associated with all main TE families, with specificity for particular active or inactive elements: DNA elements and the retroelements ALUs, LINEs and HERVs up to 41.94%, 72.72%, 42.94% and 84.5%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HJs occur in both active and inactive TEs. Furthermore, the TE-associated HJs were almost exclusively found within a distance less than 1 Mb from human genes, while only 23 were not associated with any genes. This is the first report associating human HJs, with mobile elements. Our data pinpoint that particular HJ forms show preference for specific active retrotransposon families of ALUs and LINEs, suggesting that retrotransposon-incorporated HJs may relocate or replicate in the genome through retrotransposition, contributing to recombination, genome plasticity and DNA repair.

  11. Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    cytes and ADS-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (ADS-iPSCs) (19) and primary mouse ES cells to isolated sperm and oocytes (20). We selected an...051 59 5 92% H9-IMR90 5875 7 669 782 605 58 91% oocyte - ES cell (mouse) 4727 1 204 883 334 25 93% sperm - ES cell (mouse) 4580 4 364 748 1027 104 91...collaborator, Dr. Anne Peaston, developed a genetically engineered mouse model in which a specific mammary cell population is fluorescently marked upon

  12. Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    sequencing. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT U b...Values beyond some threshold are assumed to affect their nearby genes equivalently. When both hyper - and hypomethylated DMRs are present near a...differential methylation signatures for all genes. Using an unsupervised clustering technique, we arrange the signatures according to their shapes and

  13. Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    propose that the wide-spread remodeling of DNA methylation patterns found in tumors may begin at this early pre-clinical stages modeled in this study...elucidating relationships between DNA methylation and expression. These tools have broad potential to affect our understanding of the functions of DNA ...methylation in breast cancer and may impact cancer prevention in the future. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast cancer, epigenetic, DNA methylation

  14. Myriad Triple-Helix-Forming Structures in the Transposable Element RNAs of Plants and Fungi.

    PubMed

    Tycowski, Kazimierz T; Shu, Mei-Di; Steitz, Joan A

    2016-05-10

    The ENE (element for nuclear expression) is a cis-acting RNA structure that protects viral or cellular noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) from nuclear decay through triple-helix formation with the poly(A) tail or 3'-terminal A-rich tract. We expanded the roster of nine known ENEs by bioinformatic identification of ∼200 distinct ENEs that reside in transposable elements (TEs) of numerous non-metazoan and one fish species and in four Dicistrovirus genomes. Despite variation within the ENE core, none of the predicted triple-helical stacks exceeds five base triples. Increased accumulation of reporter transcripts in human cells demonstrated functionality for representative ENEs. Location close to the poly(A) tail argues that ENEs are active in TE transcripts. Their presence in intronless, but not intron-containing, hAT transposase genes supports the idea that TEs acquired ENEs to counteract the RNA-destabilizing effects of intron loss, a potential evolutionary consequence of TE horizontal transfer in organisms that couple RNA silencing to splicing deficits.

  15. Myriad Triple-Helix-Forming Structures in the Transposable Element RNAs of Plants and Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Tycowski, Kazimierz T.; Shu, Mei-Di; Steitz, Joan A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The ENE (element for nuclear expression) is a cis-acting RNA structure that protects viral or cellular noncoding (nc)RNAs from nuclear decay through triple-helix formation with the poly(A) tail or 3′-terminal A-rich tract. We expanded the roster of 9 known ENEs by bioinformatic identification of ~200 distinct ENEs that reside in transposable elements (TEs) of numerous non-metazoan and one fish species, and in four Dicistrovirus genomes. Despite variation within the ENE core, none of the predicted triple-helical stacks exceeds five base triples. Increased accumulation of reporter transcripts in human cells demonstrated functionality for representative ENEs. Location close to the poly(A) tail argues that ENEs are active in TE transcripts. Their presence in intronless but not intron-containing hAT transposase genes supports the idea that TEs acquired ENEs to counteract the RNA-destabilizing effects of intron loss, a potential evolutionary consequence of TE horizontal transfer in organisms that couple RNA silencing to splicing deficits. PMID:27134163

  16. Strategies for silencing and escape: the ancient struggle between transposable elements and their hosts.

    PubMed

    Lisch, Damon; Slotkin, R Keith

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, there has been an explosion in our understanding of the mechanisms by which plant transposable elements (TEs) are epigenetically silenced and maintained in an inactive state over long periods of time. This highly efficient process results in vast numbers of inactive TEs; indeed, the majority of many plant genomes are composed of these quiescent elements. This observation has led to the rather static view that TEs represent an essentially inert portion of plant genomes. However, recent work has demonstrated that TE silencing is a highly dynamic process that often involves transcription of TEs at particular times and places during plant development. Plants appear to use transcripts from silenced TEs as an ongoing source of information concerning the mobile portion of the genome. In contrast to our understanding of silencing pathways, we know relatively little about the ways in which TEs evade silencing. However, vast differences in TE content between even closely related plant species suggest that they are often wildly successful at doing so. Here, we discuss TE activity in plants as the result of a constantly shifting balance between host strategies for TE silencing and TE strategies for escape and amplification.

  17. The contribution of transposable elements to the evolution of regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    Feschotte, Cédric

    2008-01-01

    Preface The control and coordination of eukaryotic gene expression rely on transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory networks. Although progress has been made in mapping the components and deciphering the function of these networks, the mechanisms by which such intricate circuits originate and evolve remain poorly understood. Here I revisit and expand earlier models proposing that genomic repeats, and in particular transposable elements, have been a rich source of material for the assembly and tinkering of eukaryotic gene regulatory systems. PMID:18368054

  18. Large-scale mapping of transposable element insertion sites using digital encoding of sample identity.

    PubMed

    Gohl, Daryl M; Freifeld, Limor; Silies, Marion; Hwa, Jennifer J; Horowitz, Mark; Clandinin, Thomas R

    2014-03-01

    Determining the genomic locations of transposable elements is a common experimental goal. When mapping large collections of transposon insertions, individualized amplification and sequencing is both time consuming and costly. We describe an approach in which large numbers of insertion lines can be simultaneously mapped in a single DNA sequencing reaction by using digital error-correcting codes to encode line identity in a unique set of barcoded pools.

  19. Scattered organization of the histone multigene family and transposable elements in Synbranchus

    PubMed Central

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    The fish species Synbranchus marmoratus is widely distributed throughout the Neotropical region and exhibits a significant karyotype differentiation. However, data concerning the organization and location of the repetitive DNA sequences in the genomes of these karyomorphs are still lacking. In this study we made a physical mapping of the H3 and H4 histone multigene family and the transposable elements Rex1 and Rex3 in the genome of three known S. marmoratus karyomorphs. The results indicated that both histone sequences seem to be linked with one another and are scattered all over the chromosomes of the complement, with a little compartmentalization in one acrocentric pair, which is different from observations in other fish groups. Likewise, the transposable elements Rex1 and Rex3 were also dispersed throughout the genome as small clusters. The data also showed that the histone sites are organized in a differentiated manner in the genomes of S. marmoratus, while the transposable elements Rex1 and Rex3 do not seem to be compartmentalized in this group. PMID:24688288

  20. The industrial melanism mutation in British peppered moths is a transposable element.

    PubMed

    Van't Hof, Arjen E; Campagne, Pascal; Rigden, Daniel J; Yung, Carl J; Lingley, Jessica; Quail, Michael A; Hall, Neil; Darby, Alistair C; Saccheri, Ilik J

    2016-06-02

    Discovering the mutational events that fuel adaptation to environmental change remains an important challenge for evolutionary biology. The classroom example of a visible evolutionary response is industrial melanism in the peppered moth (Biston betularia): the replacement, during the Industrial Revolution, of the common pale typica form by a previously unknown black (carbonaria) form, driven by the interaction between bird predation and coal pollution. The carbonaria locus has been coarsely localized to a 200-kilobase region, but the specific identity and nature of the sequence difference controlling the carbonaria-typica polymorphism, and the gene it influences, are unknown. Here we show that the mutation event giving rise to industrial melanism in Britain was the insertion of a large, tandemly repeated, transposable element into the first intron of the gene cortex. Statistical inference based on the distribution of recombined carbonaria haplotypes indicates that this transposition event occurred around 1819, consistent with the historical record. We have begun to dissect the mode of action of the carbonaria transposable element by showing that it increases the abundance of a cortex transcript, the protein product of which plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, during early wing disc development. Our findings fill a substantial knowledge gap in the iconic example of microevolutionary change, adding a further layer of insight into the mechanism of adaptation in response to natural selection. The discovery that the mutation itself is a transposable element will stimulate further debate about the importance of 'jumping genes' as a source of major phenotypic novelty.

  1. Exaptation of Transposable Elements into Novel Cis-Regulatory Elements: Is the Evidence Always Strong?

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Flávio S.J.; Franchini, Lucía F.; Rubinstein, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic sequences that can jump around the genome from one location to another, behaving as genomic parasites. TEs have been particularly effective in colonizing mammalian genomes, and such heavy TE load is expected to have conditioned genome evolution. Indeed, studies conducted both at the gene and genome levels have uncovered TE insertions that seem to have been co-opted—or exapted—by providing transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) that serve as promoters and enhancers, leading to the hypothesis that TE exaptation is a major factor in the evolution of gene regulation. Here, we critically review the evidence for exaptation of TE-derived sequences as TFBSs, promoters, enhancers, and silencers/insulators both at the gene and genome levels. We classify the functional impact attributed to TE insertions into four categories of increasing complexity and argue that so far very few studies have conclusively demonstrated exaptation of TEs as transcriptional regulatory regions. We also contend that many genome-wide studies dealing with TE exaptation in recent lineages of mammals are still inconclusive and that the hypothesis of rapid transcriptional regulatory rewiring mediated by TE mobilization must be taken with caution. Finally, we suggest experimental approaches that may help attributing higher-order functions to candidate exapted TEs. PMID:23486611

  2. Alpha3, a transposable element that promotes host sexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Barsoum, Emad; Martinez, Paula; Aström, Stefan U

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models predict that selfish DNA elements require host sex to persist in a population. Therefore, a transposon that induces sex would strongly favor its own spread. We demonstrate that a protein homologous to transposases, called alpha3, was essential for mating type switch in Kluyveromyces lactis. Mutational analysis showed that amino acids conserved among transposases were essential for its function. During switching, sequences in the 5' and 3' flanking regions of the alpha3 gene were joined, forming a DNA circle, showing that alpha3 mobilized from the genome. The sequences encompassing the alpha3 gene circle junctions in the mating type alpha (MATalpha) locus were essential for switching from MATalpha to MATa, suggesting that alpha3 mobilization was a coupled event. Switching also required a DNA-binding protein, Mating type switch 1 (Mts1), whose binding sites in MATalpha were important. Expression of Mts1 was repressed in MATa/MATalpha diploids and by nutrients, limiting switching to haploids in low-nutrient conditions. A hairpin-capped DNA double-strand break (DSB) was observed in the MATa locus in mre11 mutant strains, indicating that mating type switch was induced by MAT-specific DSBs. This study provides empirical evidence for selfish DNA promoting host sexual reproduction by mediating mating type switch.

  3. α3, a transposable element that promotes host sexual reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Barsoum, Emad; Martinez, Paula; Åström, Stefan U.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models predict that selfish DNA elements require host sex to persist in a population. Therefore, a transposon that induces sex would strongly favor its own spread. We demonstrate that a protein homologous to transposases, called α3, was essential for mating type switch in Kluyveromyces lactis. Mutational analysis showed that amino acids conserved among transposases were essential for its function. During switching, sequences in the 5′ and 3′ flanking regions of the α3 gene were joined, forming a DNA circle, showing that α3 mobilized from the genome. The sequences encompassing the α3 gene circle junctions in the mating type α (MATα) locus were essential for switching from MATα to MATa, suggesting that α3 mobilization was a coupled event. Switching also required a DNA-binding protein, Mating type switch 1 (Mts1), whose binding sites in MATα were important. Expression of Mts1 was repressed in MATa/MATα diploids and by nutrients, limiting switching to haploids in low-nutrient conditions. A hairpin-capped DNA double-strand break (DSB) was observed in the MATa locus in mre11 mutant strains, indicating that mating type switch was induced by MAT-specific DSBs. This study provides empirical evidence for selfish DNA promoting host sexual reproduction by mediating mating type switch. PMID:20008928

  4. Pegasus, a small terminal inverted repeat transposable element found in the white gene of Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Besansky, N J; Mukabayire, O; Bedell, J A; Lusz, H

    1996-10-01

    Pegasus, a novel transposable element, was discovered as a length polymorphism in the white gene of Anopheles gambiae. Sequence analysis revealed that this 535 bp element was flanked by 8 bp target site duplications and 8 bp perfect terminal inverted repeats similar to those found in many members of the Tc1 family. Its small size and lack of long open reading frames preclude protein coding capacity. Southern analysis and in situ hybridization to polytene chromosomes demonstrated that Pegasus occurs in approximately 30 copies in the genomes of An. gambiae and its sibling species and is homogenous in structure but polymorphic in chromosomal location. Characterization of five additional elements by sequencing revealed nucleotide identities of 95% to 99%. Of 30 Pegasus-containing phage clones examined by PCR, only one contained an element exceeding 535 bp in length, due to the insertion of another transposable element-like sequence. Thus, the majority, if not all, extant Pegasus elements may be defective copies of a complete element whose contemporary existence in An. gambiae is uncertain. No Pegasus-hybridizing sequences were detected in nine other anophelines and three culicines examined, suggesting a very limited taxonomic distribution.

  5. The Role of Transposable Elements in Health and Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Dubnau, Joshua; Ponomarev, Igor

    2013-01-01

    First discovered in maize by Barbara McClintock in the 1940s, transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that in some cases have the ability to move along chromosomes or “transpose” in the genome. This revolutionary finding was initially met with resistance by the scientific community and viewed by some as heretical. A large body of knowledge has accumulated over the last 60 years on the biology of TEs. Indeed, it is now known that TEs can generate genomic instability and reconfigure gene expression networks both in the germline and somatic cells. This review highlights recent findings on the role of TEs in health and diseases of the CNS, which were presented at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience meeting. The work of the speakers in this symposium shows that TEs are expressed and active in the brain, challenging the dogma that neuronal genomes are static and revealing that they are susceptible to somatic genomic alterations. These new findings on TE expression and function in the CNS have major implications for understanding the neuroplasticity of the brain, which could hypothetically have a role in shaping individual behavior and contribute to vulnerability to disease. PMID:24198348

  6. Human population-specific gene expression and transcriptional network modification with polymorphic transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Jordan, I King

    2016-12-19

    Transposable element (TE) derived sequences are known to contribute to the regulation of the human genome. The majority of known TE-derived regulatory sequences correspond to relatively ancient insertions, which are fixed across human populations. The extent to which human genetic variation caused by recent TE activity leads to regulatory polymorphisms among populations has yet to be thoroughly explored. In this study, we searched for associations between polymorphic TE (polyTE) loci and human gene expression levels using an expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) approach. We compared locus-specific polyTE insertion genotypes to B cell gene expression levels among 445 individuals from 5 human populations. Numerous human polyTE loci correspond to both cis and trans eQTL, and their regulatory effects are directly related to cell type-specific function in the immune system. PolyTE loci are associated with differences in expression between European and African population groups, and a single polyTE loci is indirectly associated with the expression of numerous genes via the regulation of the B cell-specific transcription factor PAX5 The polyTE-gene expression associations we found indicate that human TE genetic variation can have important phenotypic consequences. Our results reveal that TE-eQTL are involved in population-specific gene regulation as well as transcriptional network modification.

  7. Patterns of Repeat-Induced Point Mutation in Transposable Elements of Basidiomycete Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Horns, Felix; Petit, Elsa; Yockteng, Roxana; Hood, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous genomic parasites that have prompted the evolution of genome defense systems that restrict their activity. Repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) is a homology-dependent genome defense that introduces C-to-T transition mutations in duplicated DNA sequences and is thought to control the proliferation of selfish repetitive DNA. Here, we determine the taxonomic distribution of hypermutation patterns indicative of RIP among basidiomycetes. We quantify C-to-T transition mutations in particular di- and trinucleotide target sites for TE-like sequences from nine fungal genomes. We find evidence of RIP-like patterns of hypermutation at TpCpG trinucleotide sites in repetitive sequences from all species of the Pucciniomycotina subphylum of the Basidiomycota, Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, Puccinia graminis, Melampsora laricis-populina, and Rhodotorula graminis. In contrast, we do not find evidence for RIP-like hypermutation in four species of the Agaricomycotina and Ustilaginomycotina subphyla of the Basidiomycota. Our results suggest that a RIP-like process and the specific nucleotide context for mutations are conserved within the Pucciniomycotina subphylum. These findings imply that coevolutionary interactions between TEs and a hypermutating genome defense are stable over long evolutionary timescales. PMID:22250128

  8. Evolutionary genomics of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in Brassica.

    PubMed

    Nouroz, Faisal; Noreen, Shumaila; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2015-12-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are truncated derivatives of autonomous DNA transposons, and are dispersed abundantly in most eukaryotic genomes. We aimed to characterize various MITEs families in Brassica in terms of their presence, sequence characteristics and evolutionary activity. Dot plot analyses involving comparison of homoeologous bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences allowed identification of 15 novel families of mobile MITEs. Of which, 5 were Stowaway-like with TA Target Site Duplications (TSDs), 4 Tourist-like with TAA/TTA TSDs, 5 Mutator-like with 9-10 bp TSDs and 1 novel MITE (BoXMITE1) flanked by 3 bp TSDs. Our data suggested that there are about 30,000 MITE-related sequences in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea genomes. In situ hybridization showed one abundant family was dispersed in the A-genome, while another was located near 45S rDNA sites. PCR analysis using primers flanking sequences of MITE elements detected MITE insertion polymorphisms between and within the three Brassica (AA, BB, CC) genomes, with many insertions being specific to single genomes and others showing evidence of more recent evolutionary insertions. Our BAC sequence comparison strategy enables identification of evolutionarily active MITEs with no prior knowledge of MITE sequences. The details of MITE families reported in Brassica enable their identification, characterization and annotation. Insertion polymorphisms of MITEs and their transposition activity indicated important mechanism of genome evolution and diversification. MITE families derived from known Mariner, Harbinger and Mutator DNA transposons were discovered, as well as some novel structures. The identification of Brassica MITEs will have broad applications in Brassica genomics, breeding, hybridization and phylogeny through their use as DNA markers.

  9. Transcriptionally active MuDR, the regulatory element of the mutator transposable element family of Zea mays, is present in some accessions of the Mexican land race Zapalote chico.

    PubMed Central

    de la Luz Gutiérrez-Nava, M; Warren, C A; León, P; Walbot, V

    1998-01-01

    To date, mobile Mu transposons and their autonomous regulator MuDR have been found only in the two known Mutator lines of maize and their immediate descendants. To gain insight into the origin, organization, and regulation of Mutator elements, we surveyed exotic maize and related species for cross-hybridization to MuDR. Some accessions of the mexican land race Zapalote chico contain one to several copies of full-length, unmethylated, and transcriptionally active MuDR-like elements plus non-autonomous Mu elements. The sequenced 5.0-kb MuDR-Zc element is 94.6% identical to MuDR, with only 20 amino acid changes in the 93-kD predicted protein encoded by mudrA and ten amino acid changes in the 23-kD predicted protein of mudrB. The terminal inverted repeat (TIR) A of MuDR-Zc is identical to standard MuDR; TIRB is 11.2% divergent from TIRA. In Zapalote chico, mudrA transcripts are very rare, while mudrB transcripts are as abundant as in Mutator lines with a few copies of MuDR. Zapalote chico lines with MuDR-like elements can trans-activate reporter alleles in inactive Mutator backgrounds; they match the characteristic increased forward mutation frequency of standard Mutator lines, but only after outcrossing to another line. Zapalote chico accessions that lack MuDR-like elements and the single copy MuDR a1-mum2 line produce few mutations. New mutants recovered from Zapalote chico are somatically stable. PMID:9584107

  10. Strong phylogenetic inertia on genome size and transposable element content among 26 species of flies

    PubMed Central

    Burlet, Nelly

    2016-01-01

    While the evolutionary mechanisms driving eukaryote genome size evolution are still debated, repeated element content appears to be crucial. Here, we reconstructed the phylogeny and identified repeats in the genome of 26 Drosophila exhibiting a twofold variation in genome size. The content in transposable elements (TEs) is highly correlated to genome size evolution among these closely related species. We detected a strong phylogenetic signal on the evolution of both genome size and TE content, and a genome contraction in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. PMID:27576524

  11. Behavior of the hobo transposable element with regard to TPE repeats in transgenic lines of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Souames, Sémi; Bazin, Claude; Bonnivard, Eric; Higuet, Dominique

    2003-12-01

    The hobo transposable element of Drosophila melanogaster is known to induce a hybrid dysgenesis syndrome. Moreover it displays a polymorphism of a microsatellite in its coding region: TPE repeats. In European populations, surveys of the distribution of hobo elements with regard to TPE repeats revealed that the 5TPE element is distributed along a frequency gradient, and it is even more frequent than the 3TPE element in Western populations. This suggests that the invasive ability of the hobo elements could be related to the number of TPE repeats they contain. To test this hypothesis we monitored the evolution of 16 lines derived from five initial independent transgenic lines bearing the 3TPE element and/or the 5TPE element. Four lines bearing 5TPE elements and four bearing 3TPE elements were used as a noncompetitive genetic background to compare the evolution of the 5TPE element to that of the 3TPE element. Eight lines bearing both elements provided a competitive genetic context to study potential interactions between these two elements. We studied genetic and molecular aspects of the first 20 generations. At the molecular level, we showed that the 5TPE element is able to spread within the genome at least as efficiently as the 3TPE element. Surprisingly, at the genetic level we found that the 5TPE element is less active than the 3TPE element, and moreover may be able to regulate the activity of the 3TPE element. Our findings suggest that the invasive potential of the 5TPE element could be due not only to its intrinsic transposition capacity but also to a regulatory potential.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Transposable Elements Highlights Mobilome Diversity and Evolution in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Chalopin, Domitille; Naville, Magali; Plard, Floriane; Galiana, Delphine; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are major components of vertebrate genomes, with major roles in genome architecture and evolution. In order to characterize both common patterns and lineage-specific differences in TE content and TE evolution, we have compared the mobilomes of 23 vertebrate genomes, including 10 actinopterygian fish, 11 sarcopterygians, and 2 nonbony vertebrates. We found important variations in TE content (from 6% in the pufferfish tetraodon to 55% in zebrafish), with a more important relative contribution of TEs to genome size in fish than in mammals. Some TE superfamilies were found to be widespread in vertebrates, but most elements showed a more patchy distribution, indicative of multiple events of loss or gain. Interestingly, loss of major TE families was observed during the evolution of the sarcopterygian lineage, with a particularly strong reduction in TE diversity in birds and mammals. Phylogenetic trends in TE composition and activity were detected: Teleost fish genomes are dominated by DNA transposons and contain few ancient TE copies, while mammalian genomes have been predominantly shaped by nonlong terminal repeat retrotransposons, along with the persistence of older sequences. Differences were also found within lineages: The medaka fish genome underwent more recent TE amplification than the related platyfish, as observed for LINE retrotransposons in the mouse compared with the human genome. This study allows the identification of putative cases of horizontal transfer of TEs, and to tentatively infer the composition of the ancestral vertebrate mobilome. Taken together, the results obtained highlight the importance of TEs in the structure and evolution of vertebrate genomes, and demonstrate their major impact on genome diversity both between and within lineages. PMID:25577199

  13. Comparative analysis of transposable elements highlights mobilome diversity and evolution in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Chalopin, Domitille; Naville, Magali; Plard, Floriane; Galiana, Delphine; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-01-09

    Transposable elements (TEs) are major components of vertebrate genomes, with major roles in genome architecture and evolution. In order to characterize both common patterns and lineage-specific differences in TE content and TE evolution, we have compared the mobilomes of 23 vertebrate genomes, including 10 actinopterygian fish, 11 sarcopterygians, and 2 nonbony vertebrates. We found important variations in TE content (from 6% in the pufferfish tetraodon to 55% in zebrafish), with a more important relative contribution of TEs to genome size in fish than in mammals. Some TE superfamilies were found to be widespread in vertebrates, but most elements showed a more patchy distribution, indicative of multiple events of loss or gain. Interestingly, loss of major TE families was observed during the evolution of the sarcopterygian lineage, with a particularly strong reduction in TE diversity in birds and mammals. Phylogenetic trends in TE composition and activity were detected: Teleost fish genomes are dominated by DNA transposons and contain few ancient TE copies, while mammalian genomes have been predominantly shaped by nonlong terminal repeat retrotransposons, along with the persistence of older sequences. Differences were also found within lineages: The medaka fish genome underwent more recent TE amplification than the related platyfish, as observed for LINE retrotransposons in the mouse compared with the human genome. This study allows the identification of putative cases of horizontal transfer of TEs, and to tentatively infer the composition of the ancestral vertebrate mobilome. Taken together, the results obtained highlight the importance of TEs in the structure and evolution of vertebrate genomes, and demonstrate their major impact on genome diversity both between and within lineages.

  14. Widespread contribution of transposable elements to the innovation of gene regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Vasavi; Cheng, Yong; Ma, Zhihai; Li, Daofeng; Xing, Xiaoyun; Edge, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) have been shown to contain functional binding sites for certain transcription factors (TFs). However, the extent to which TEs contribute to the evolution of TF binding sites is not well known. We comprehensively mapped binding sites for 26 pairs of orthologous TFs in two pairs of human and mouse cell lines (representing two cell lineages), along with epigenomic profiles, including DNA methylation and six histone modifications. Overall, we found that 20% of binding sites were embedded within TEs. This number varied across different TFs, ranging from 2% to 40%. We further identified 710 TF–TE relationships in which genomic copies of a TE subfamily contributed a significant number of binding peaks for a TF, and we found that LTR elements dominated these relationships in human. Importantly, TE-derived binding peaks were strongly associated with open and active chromatin signatures, including reduced DNA methylation and increased enhancer-associated histone marks. On average, 66% of TE-derived binding events were cell type-specific with a cell type-specific epigenetic landscape. Most of the binding sites contributed by TEs were species-specific, but we also identified binding sites conserved between human and mouse, the functional relevance of which was supported by a signature of purifying selection on DNA sequences of these TEs. Interestingly, several TFs had significantly expanded binding site landscapes only in one species, which were linked to species-specific gene functions, suggesting that TEs are an important driving force for regulatory innovation. Taken together, our data suggest that TEs have significantly and continuously shaped gene regulatory networks during mammalian evolution. PMID:25319995

  15. The DAWGPAWS pipeline for the annotation of genes and transposable elements in plant genomes

    PubMed Central

    Estill, James C; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L

    2009-01-01

    Background High quality annotation of the genes and transposable elements in complex genomes requires a human-curated integration of multiple sources of computational evidence. These evidences include results from a diversity of ab initio prediction programs as well as homology-based searches. Most of these programs operate on a single contiguous sequence at a time, and the results are generated in a diverse array of readable formats that must be translated to a standardized file format. These translated results must then be concatenated into a single source, and then presented in an integrated form for human curation. Results We have designed, implemented, and assessed a Perl-based workflow named DAWGPAWS for the generation of computational results for human curation of the genes and transposable elements in plant genomes. The use of DAWGPAWS was found to accelerate annotation of 80–200 kb wheat DNA inserts in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors by approximately twenty-fold and to also significantly improve the quality of the annotation in terms of completeness and accuracy. Conclusion The DAWGPAWS genome annotation pipeline fills an important need in the annotation of plant genomes by generating computational evidences in a high throughput manner, translating these results to a common file format, and facilitating the human curation of these computational results. We have verified the value of DAWGPAWS by using this pipeline to annotate the genes and transposable elements in 220 BAC insertions from the hexaploid wheat genome (Triticum aestivum L.). DAWGPAWS can be applied to annotation efforts in other plant genomes with minor modifications of program-specific configuration files, and the modular design of the workflow facilitates integration into existing pipelines. PMID:19545381

  16. Transposable element fragments in protein-coding regions and their contributions to human functional proteins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Li, Li; Sun, Zhirong

    2007-10-15

    Transposable elements (TEs) and their contributions to protein-coding regions are of particular interest. Here we searched for TE fragments in Homo sapiens at both the transcript and protein levels. We found evidence in support of TE exonization and its association with alternative splicing. Despite recent findings that long evolutionary times are required to incorporate TE into proteins, we found many functional proteins with translated TE cassettes derived from young TEs. Analyses of two Bcl-family proteins and Alu-encoded segments suggest the coding and functional potential of TE sequences.

  17. A brief history of the status of transposable elements: from junk DNA to major players in evolution.

    PubMed

    Biémont, Christian

    2010-12-01

    The idea that some genetic factors are able to move around chromosomes emerged more than 60 years ago when Barbara McClintock first suggested that such elements existed and had a major role in controlling gene expression and that they also have had a major influence in reshaping genomes in evolution. It was many years, however, before the accumulation of data and theories showed that this latter revolutionary idea was correct although, understandably, it fell far short of our present view of the significant influence of what are now known as "transposable elements" in evolution. In this article, I summarize the main events that influenced my thinking about transposable elements as a young scientist and the influence and role of these specific genomic elements in evolution over subsequent years. Today, we recognize that the findings about genomic changes affected by transposable elements have considerably altered our view of the ways in which genomes evolve and work.

  18. Transposable element distribution, abundance and role in genome size variation in the genus Oryza

    PubMed Central

    Zuccolo, Andrea; Sebastian, Aswathy; Talag, Jayson; Yu, Yeisoo; Kim, HyeRan; Collura, Kristi; Kudrna, Dave; Wing, Rod A

    2007-01-01

    Background The genus Oryza is composed of 10 distinct genome types, 6 diploid and 4 polyploid, and includes the world's most important food crop – rice (Oryza sativa [AA]). Genome size variation in the Oryza is more than 3-fold and ranges from 357 Mbp in Oryza glaberrima [AA] to 1283 Mbp in the polyploid Oryza ridleyi [HHJJ]. Because repetitive elements are known to play a significant role in genome size variation, we constructed random sheared small insert genomic libraries from 12 representative Oryza species and conducted a comprehensive study of the repetitive element composition, distribution and phylogeny in this genus. Particular attention was paid to the role played by the most important classes of transposable elements (Long Terminal Repeats Retrotransposons, Long interspersed Nuclear Elements, helitrons, DNA transposable elements) in shaping these genomes and in their contributing to genome size variation. Results We identified the elements primarily responsible for the most strikingly genome size variation in Oryza. We demonstrated how Long Terminal Repeat retrotransposons belonging to the same families have proliferated to very different extents in various species. We also showed that the pool of Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons is substantially conserved and ubiquitous throughout the Oryza and so its origin is ancient and its existence predates the speciation events that originated the genus. Finally we described the peculiar behavior of repeats in the species Oryza coarctata [HHKK] whose placement in the Oryza genus is controversial. Conclusion Long Terminal Repeat retrotransposons are the major component of the Oryza genomes analyzed and, along with polyploidization, are the most important contributors to the genome size variation across the Oryza genus. Two families of Ty3-gypsy elements (RIRE2 and Atlantys) account for a significant portion of the genome size variations present in the Oryza genus. PMID:17727727

  19. Evolutionary Histories of Transposable Elements in the Genome of the Largest Living Marsupial Carnivore, the Tasmanian Devil

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, Susanne; Hallström, Björn M; Kumar, Vikas; Dodt, William G; Janke, Axel; Schumann, Gerald G; Nilsson, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    The largest living carnivorous marsupial, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), is the sole survivor of a lineage originating about 12 Ma. We set out to investigate the spectrum of transposable elements found in the Tasmanian devil genome, the first high-coverage genome of an Australian marsupial. Marsupial genomes have been shown to have the highest amount of transposable elements among vertebrates. We analyzed the horizontally transmitted DNA transposons OC1 and hAT-1_MEu in the Tasmanian devil genome. OC1 is present in all carnivorous marsupials, while having a very limited distribution among the remaining Australian marsupial orders. In contrast, hAT-1_MEu is present in all Australian marsupial orders, and has so far only been identified in a few placental mammals. We screened 158 introns for phylogenetically informative retrotransposons in the order Dasyuromorphia, and found that the youngest SINE (Short INterspersed Element), WSINE1, is no longer active in the subfamily Dasyuridae. The lack of detectable WSINE1 activity in this group may be due to a retrotransposon inactivation event approximately 30 Ma. We found that the Tasmanian devil genome contains a relatively low number of continuous full-length LINE-1 (Long INterspersed Element 1, L1) retrotransposons compared with the opossum genome. Furthermore, all L1 elements in the Tasmanian devil appeared to be nonfunctional. Hidden Markov Model approaches suggested that other potential sources of functional reverse transcriptase are absent from the genome. We discuss the issues associated with assembling long, highly similar L1 copies from short read Illumina data and describe how assembly artifacts can potentially lead to erroneous conclusions. PMID:25633377

  20. Evolutionary histories of transposable elements in the genome of the largest living marsupial carnivore, the Tasmanian devil.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Susanne; Hallström, Björn M; Kumar, Vikas; Dodt, William G; Janke, Axel; Schumann, Gerald G; Nilsson, Maria A

    2015-05-01

    The largest living carnivorous marsupial, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), is the sole survivor of a lineage originating about 12 Ma. We set out to investigate the spectrum of transposable elements found in the Tasmanian devil genome, the first high-coverage genome of an Australian marsupial. Marsupial genomes have been shown to have the highest amount of transposable elements among vertebrates. We analyzed the horizontally transmitted DNA transposons OC1 and hAT-1_MEu in the Tasmanian devil genome. OC1 is present in all carnivorous marsupials, while having a very limited distribution among the remaining Australian marsupial orders. In contrast, hAT-1_MEu is present in all Australian marsupial orders, and has so far only been identified in a few placental mammals. We screened 158 introns for phylogenetically informative retrotransposons in the order Dasyuromorphia, and found that the youngest SINE (Short INterspersed Element), WSINE1, is no longer active in the subfamily Dasyuridae. The lack of detectable WSINE1 activity in this group may be due to a retrotransposon inactivation event approximately 30 Ma. We found that the Tasmanian devil genome contains a relatively low number of continuous full-length LINE-1 (Long INterspersed Element 1, L1) retrotransposons compared with the opossum genome. Furthermore, all L1 elements in the Tasmanian devil appeared to be nonfunctional. Hidden Markov Model approaches suggested that other potential sources of functional reverse transcriptase are absent from the genome. We discuss the issues associated with assembling long, highly similar L1 copies from short read Illumina data and describe how assembly artifacts can potentially lead to erroneous conclusions.

  1. Scanning of Transposable Elements and Analyzing Expression of Transposase Genes of Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xiang; Lai, Xian-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Zheng; Tan, Xue-Mei; Wang, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Background Transposable elements (TEs) are the most abundant genomic components in eukaryotes and affect the genome by their replications and movements to generate genetic plasticity. Sweet potato performs asexual reproduction generally and the TEs may be an important genetic factor for genome reorganization. Complete identification of TEs is essential for the study of genome evolution. However, the TEs of sweet potato are still poorly understood because of its complex hexaploid genome and difficulty in genome sequencing. The recent availability of the sweet potato transcriptome databases provides an opportunity for discovering and characterizing the expressed TEs. Methodology/Principal Findings We first established the integrated-transcriptome database by de novo assembling four published sweet potato transcriptome databases from three cultivars in China. Using sequence-similarity search and analysis, a total of 1,405 TEs including 883 retrotransposons and 522 DNA transposons were predicted and categorized. Depending on mapping sets of RNA-Seq raw short reads to the predicted TEs, we compared the quantities, classifications and expression activities of TEs inter- and intra-cultivars. Moreover, the differential expressions of TEs in seven tissues of Xushu 18 cultivar were analyzed by using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiling. It was found that 417 TEs were expressed in one or more tissues and 107 in all seven tissues. Furthermore, the copy number of 11 transposase genes was determined to be 1–3 copies in the genome of sweet potato by Real-time PCR-based absolute quantification. Conclusions/Significance Our result provides a new method for TE searching on species with transcriptome sequences while lacking genome information. The searching, identification and expression analysis of TEs will provide useful TE information in sweet potato, which are valuable for the further studies of TE-mediated gene mutation and optimization in asexual reproduction

  2. Gene Marker Loss Induced by the Transposable Element, En, in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Cormack, J.; Peterson, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    The En/Spm transposable element system in maize includes the functional element, En/Spm and the receptor element I/dSpm. An En receptor has been found that shows En-induced breakage. This En-responsive receptor (designated 1836518) is located on the short arm of chromosome 9, proximal to Wx. In the presence of En, markers distal to the receptor show a loss of gene expression. Kernels heterozygous for aleurone and endosperm marker genes have a variegated appearance. The hypothesis is advanced that this variegation represents a physical loss of the chromosome segments carrying the genes distal to the receptor position. It is the first case of an En-controlled breakage event. PMID:8005421

  3. The devil is in the details: Transposable element analysis of the Tasmanian devil genome

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The third marsupial genome was sequenced from the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), a species that currently is driven to extinction by a rare transmissible cancer. The transposable element (TE) landscape of the Tasmanian devil genome revealed that the main driver of retrotransposition the Long INterspersed Element 1 (LINE1) seem to have become inactivated during the past 12 million years. Strangely, the Short INterspersed Elements (SINE), that normally hijacks the LINE1 retrotransposition system, became inactive prior to LINE1 at around 30 million years ago. The SINE inactivation was in vitro verified in several species. Here I discuss that the apparent LINE1 inactivation might be caused by a genome assembly artifact. The repetitive fraction of any genome is highly complex to assemble and the observed problems are not unique to the Tasmanian devil genome. PMID:27066301

  4. Characterization of new transposable element sub-families from white clover (Trifolium repens) using PCR amplification.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kailey E; Thomas, Mary C; Martini, Samer; Shuipys, Tautvydas; Didorchuk, Volodymyr; Shanker, Rachyl M; Laten, Howard M

    2016-10-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) dominate the landscapes of most plant and animal genomes. Once considered junk DNA and genetic parasites, these interspersed, repetitive DNA elements are now known to play major roles in both genetic and epigenetic processes that sponsor genome variation and regulate gene expression. Knowledge of TE consensus sequences from elements in species whose genomes have not been sequenced is limited, and the individual TEs that are encountered in clones or short-reads rarely represent potentially canonical, let alone, functional representatives. In this study, we queried the Repbase database with eight BAC clones from white clover (Trifolium repens), identified a large number of candidate TEs, and used polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing to create consensus sequences for three new TE families. The results show that TE family consensus sequences can be obtained experimentally in species for which just a single, full-length member of a TE family has been sequenced.

  5. The devil is in the details: Transposable element analysis of the Tasmanian devil genome.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Maria A

    2016-01-01

    The third marsupial genome was sequenced from the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), a species that currently is driven to extinction by a rare transmissible cancer. The transposable element (TE) landscape of the Tasmanian devil genome revealed that the main driver of retrotransposition the Long INterspersed Element 1 (LINE1) seem to have become inactivated during the past 12 million years. Strangely, the Short INterspersed Elements (SINE), that normally hijacks the LINE1 retrotransposition system, became inactive prior to LINE1 at around 30 million years ago. The SINE inactivation was in vitro verified in several species. Here I discuss that the apparent LINE1 inactivation might be caused by a genome assembly artifact. The repetitive fraction of any genome is highly complex to assemble and the observed problems are not unique to the Tasmanian devil genome.

  6. Genomic distribution of copia-like transposable elements in somatic tissues and during development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Di Franco, C; Pisano, C; Dimitri, P; Gigliotti, S; Junakovic, N

    1989-12-01

    The genomic distribution of elements of the copia, 412, B 104, mdg 1, mdg 4 and 1731 transposon families was compared by the Southern technique in DNA preparations extracted from brains, salivary glands and adult flies of two related Drosophila lines. The copia, 412 and mdg 1 sequences were also probed in DNA from sperm, embryos, and 1st and 2nd instar larvae. The homogeneity of the patterns observed shows that somatic transposition is unlikely to occur frequently. A correlation between mobility and the euchromatic or heterochromatic location of transposable elements is discussed. In addition, an explanation of the variable band intensities of transposable elements in Southern autoradiographs is proposed.

  7. Translational repression by a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element in the 3′ untranslated region

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jianqiang; Liu, Juhong; Xie, Kabin; Xing, Feng; Xiong, Fang; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Xianghua; Xiong, Lizhong

    2017-01-01

    Transposable elements constitute a substantial portion of eukaryotic genomes and contribute to genomic variation, function, and evolution. Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs), as DNA transposons, are widely distributed in plant and animal genomes. Previous studies have suggested that retrotransposons act as translational regulators; however, it remains unknown how host mRNAs are influenced by DNA transposons. Here we report a translational repression mechanism mediated by a stowaway-like MITE (sMITE) embedded in the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of Ghd2, a member of the CCT (CONSTANS [CO], CO-LIKE and TIMING OF CAB1) gene family in rice. Ghd2 regulates important agronomic traits, including grain number, plant height and heading date. Interestingly, the translational repression of Ghd2 by the sMITE mainly relies on Dicer-like 3a (OsDCL3a). Furthermore, other MITEs in the 3′-UTRs of different rice genes exhibit a similar effect on translational repression, thus suggesting that MITEs may exert a general regulatory function at the translational level. PMID:28256530

  8. Sequencing of Pooled DNA Samples (Pool-Seq) Uncovers Complex Dynamics of Transposable Element Insertions in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Schlötterer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements that parasitize genomes by semi-autonomously increasing their own copy number within the host genome. While TEs are important for genome evolution, appropriate methods for performing unbiased genome-wide surveys of TE variation in natural populations have been lacking. Here, we describe a novel and cost-effective approach for estimating population frequencies of TE insertions using paired-end Illumina reads from a pooled population sample. Importantly, the method treats insertions present in and absent from the reference genome identically, allowing unbiased TE population frequency estimates. We apply this method to data from a natural Drosophila melanogaster population from Portugal. Consistent with previous reports, we show that low recombining genomic regions harbor more TE insertions and maintain insertions at higher frequencies than do high recombining regions. We conservatively estimate that there are almost twice as many “novel” TE insertion sites as sites known from the reference sequence in our population sample (6,824 novel versus 3,639 reference sites, with on average a 31-fold coverage per insertion site). Different families of transposable elements show large differences in their insertion densities and population frequencies. Our analyses suggest that the history of TE activity significantly contributes to this pattern, with recently active families segregating at lower frequencies than those active in the more distant past. Finally, using our high-resolution TE abundance measurements, we identified 13 candidate positively selected TE insertions based on their high population frequencies and on low Tajima's D values in their neighborhoods. PMID:22291611

  9. Mutational Analysis of the Open Reading Frames in the Transposable Element Is1

    PubMed Central

    Jakowec, M.; Prentki, P.; Chandler, M.; Galas, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    IS1 is one of the smallest transposable elements found in bacteria (768 bp). It contains eight overlapping open-reading-frames (ORFs) greater than 50 codons, designated insA to insG and insB'. To determine which of the ORFs actually code for proteins involved in transposition, we have introduced amber codons into each ORF by site-directed mutagenesis which make neutral changes in the overlapping ORFs. Each mutant IS1 was then tested for its ability to mediate cointegrate formation in Su(+) and Su(-) backgrounds. The mutant elements were also tested for trans-complementation in an IS1-free Salmonella background. Our results show that the products of the insA and insB genes are the only ones essential for cointegrate formation. We suggest that other ORFs may, however, encode accessory proteins. PMID:2851480

  10. Expressing genes do not forget their LINEs: transposable elements and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kines, Kristine J; Belancio, Victoria P

    2012-01-01

    Historically the accumulated mass of mammalian transposable elements (TEs), particularly those located within gene boundaries, was viewed as a genetic burden potentially detrimental to the genomic landscape. This notion has been strengthened by the discovery that transposable sequences can alter the architecture of the transcriptome, not only through insertion, but also long after the integration process is completed. Insertions previously considered harmless are now known to impact the expression of host genes via modification of the transcript quality or quantity, transcriptional interference, or by the control of pathways that affect the mRNA life-cycle. Conversely, several examples of the evolutionary advantageous impact of TEs on the host gene structure that diversified the cellular transcriptome are reported. TE-induced changes in gene expression can be tissue- or disease-specific, raising the possibility that the impact of TE sequences may vary during development, among normal cell types, and between normal and disease-affected tissues. The understanding of the rules and abundance of TE-interference with gene expression is in its infancy, and its contribution to human disease and/or evolution remains largely unexplored.

  11. Genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 miniature inverted-repeat transposable element families in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Perumal; Murukarthick, Jayakodi; Izzah, Nur Kholilatul; Lee, Jonghoon; Choi, Hong-Il; Shirasawa, Kenta; Choi, Beom-Soon; Liu, Shengyi; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are ubiquitous, non-autonomous class II transposable elements. Here, we conducted genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 MITE families in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana. A total of 5894 and 6026 MITE members belonging to the 20 families were found in the whole genome pseudo-chromosome sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. Meanwhile, only four of the 20 families, comprising 573 members, were identified in the Arabidopsis genome, indicating that most of the families were activated in the Brassica genus after divergence from Arabidopsis. Copy numbers varied from 4 to 1459 for each MITE family, and there was up to 6-fold variation between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In particular, analysis of intact members showed that whereas eleven families were present in similar copy numbers in B. rapa and B. oleracea, nine families showed copy number variation ranging from 2- to 16-fold. Four of those families (BraSto-3, BraTo-3, 4, 5) were more abundant in B. rapa, and the other five (BraSto-1, BraSto-4, BraTo-1, 7 and BraHAT-1) were more abundant in B. oleracea. Overall, 54% and 51% of the MITEs resided in or within 2 kb of a gene in the B. rapa and B. oleracea genomes, respectively. Notably, 92 MITEs were found within the CDS of annotated genes, suggesting that MITEs might play roles in diversification of genes in the recently triplicated Brassica genome. MITE insertion polymorphism (MIP) analysis of 289 MITE members showed that 52% and 23% were polymorphic at the inter- and intra-species levels, respectively, indicating that there has been recent MITE activity in the Brassica genome. These recently activated MITE families with abundant MIP will provide useful resources for molecular breeding and identification of novel functional genes arising from MITE insertion.

  12. Minos as a novel Tc1/mariner-type transposable element for functional genomic analysis in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Evangelinos, Minoas; Anagnostopoulos, Gerasimos; Karvela-Kalogeraki, Iliana; Stathopoulou, Panagiota M; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Diallinas, George

    2015-08-01

    Transposons constitute powerful genetic tools for gene inactivation, exon or promoter trapping and genome analyses. The Minos element from Drosophila hydei, a Tc1/mariner-like transposon, has proved as a very efficient tool for heterologous transposition in several metazoa. In filamentous fungi, only a handful of fungal-specific transposable elements have been exploited as genetic tools, with the impala Tc1/mariner element from Fusarium oxysporum being the most successful. Here, we developed a two-component transposition system to manipulate Minos transposition in Aspergillus nidulans (AnMinos). Our system allows direct selection of transposition events based on re-activation of niaD, a gene necessary for growth on nitrate as a nitrogen source. On average, among 10(8) conidiospores, we obtain up to ∼0.8×10(2) transposition events leading to the expected revertant phenotype (niaD(+)), while ∼16% of excision events lead to AnMinos loss. Characterized excision footprints consisted of the four terminal bases of the transposon flanked by the TA target duplication and led to no major DNA rearrangements. AnMinos transposition depends on the presence of its homologous transposase. Its frequency was not significantly affected by temperature, UV irradiation or the transcription status of the original integration locus (niaD). Importantly, transposition is dependent on nkuA, encoding an enzyme essential for non-homologous end joining of DNA in double-strand break repair. AnMinos proved to be an efficient tool for functional analysis as it seems to transpose in different genomic loci positions in all chromosomes, including a high proportion of integration events within or close to genes. We have used Minos to obtain morphological and toxic analogue resistant mutants. Interestingly, among morphological mutants some seem to be due to Minos-elicited over-expression of specific genes, rather than gene inactivation.

  13. Transposable elements and two other molecular markers as typing tools for the genus Paracoccidioides.

    PubMed

    Alves, Fernanda Lourenço; Ribeiro, Mariceli Araújo; Hahn, Rosane Christine; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Cisalpino, Patrícia Silva; Marini, Marjorie Mendes

    2015-02-01

    Studies comparing Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii have shown that these fungi have significant genomic differences that may have implications in the clinical manifestation, diagnosis, and treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis caused by them. Thus, molecular typing methods are required that can distinguish between various species of Paracoccidioides. The aim of this study was to explore the potential use as molecular markers of the transposable elements Trem A-H recently identified and characterized in the genus Paracoccidioides as a means of differentiating the species. We take advantage of the abundance and distribution of these transposons in the Paracoccidioides genomes to develop a simple and highly reproducible polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique. Furthermore we compare the performance of this test with two other molecular markers already in use to identify these fungi.

  14. Novel trends in genetics: transposable elements and their application in medicine.

    PubMed

    Vand Rajabpour, Fatemeh; Raoofian, Reza; Habibi, Laleh; Akrami, Seyed Mohammad; Tabrizi, Mina

    2014-10-01

    Forty-five percent of the human genome is composed of Transposable Elements (TEs); therefore, TEs have had an undisputed impact on evolution of the most evolved creature by a very simple mechanism of action.  Scientists have been studying this simple mechanism of action and are currently using it to develop efficient and safe gene delivery systems especially for treatment of diseases. TEs have also been used safely in generating induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC) for regenerative medicine, which opens the door to a world of possibilities in our approach in trying to wrestle with many challenges in medicine. The PiggyBac (PB) system has yielded more success in generation of induced pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine, and the Sleeping Beauty (SB) has been more successful in Gene Therapy. Recent advances are indicative of more good news to come regarding the potential heights of successes achievable by the use of the TE-based systems.

  15. The ant genomes have been invaded by several types of mariner transposable elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorite, Pedro; Maside, Xulio; Sanllorente, Olivia; Torres, María I.; Periquet, Georges; Palomeque, Teresa

    2012-12-01

    To date, only three types of full-length mariner elements have been described in ants, each one in a different genus of the Myrmicinae subfamily: Sinvmar was isolated from various Solenopsis species, Myrmar from Myrmica ruginodis, and Mboumar from Messor bouvieri. In this study, we report the coexistence of three mariner elements ( Tnigmar- Si, Tnigmar- Mr, and Tnigmar- Mb) in the genome of a single species, Tapinoma nigerrimum (subfamily Dolichoderinae). Molecular evolutionary analyses of the nucleotide sequence data revealed a general agreement between the evolutionary history of most the elements and the ant species that harbour them, and suggest that they are at the vertical inactivation stage of the so-called Mariner Life Cycle. In contrast, significantly reduced levels of synonymous divergence between Mboumar and Tnigmar- Mb and between Myrmar and Botmar (a mariner element isolated from Bombus terrestris), relative to those observed between their hosts, suggest that these elements arrived to the species that host them by horizontal transfer, long after the species' split. The horizontal transfer events for the two pairs of elements could be roughly dated within the last 2 million years and about 14 million years, respectively. As would be expected under this scenario, the coding sequences of the youngest elements, Tnigmar- Mb and Mboumar, are intact and, thus, potentially functional. Each mariner element has a different chromosomal distribution pattern according to their stage within the Mariner Life Cycle. Finally, a new defective transposable element ( Azteca) has also been found inserted into the Tnigmar- Mr sequences showing that the ant genomes have been invaded by at least four different types of mariner elements.

  16. MicroRNA-Dependent Transcriptional Silencing of Transposable Elements in Drosophila Follicle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mugat, Bruno; Akkouche, Abdou; Serrano, Vincent; Armenise, Claudia; Li, Blaise; Brun, Christine; Fulga, Tudor A.; Van Vactor, David; Pélisson, Alain; Chambeyron, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference-related silencing mechanisms concern very diverse and distinct biological processes, from gene regulation (via the microRNA pathway) to defense against molecular parasites (through the small interfering RNA and the Piwi-interacting RNA pathways). Small non-coding RNAs serve as specificity factors that guide effector proteins to ribonucleic acid targets via base-pairing interactions, to achieve transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation. Because of the small sequence complementarity required for microRNA-dependent post-transcriptional regulation, thousands of microRNA (miRNA) putative targets have been annotated in Drosophila. In Drosophila somatic ovarian cells, genomic parasites, such as transposable elements (TEs), are transcriptionally repressed by chromatin changes induced by Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that prevent them from invading the germinal genome. Here we show, for the first time, that a functional miRNA pathway is required for the piRNA-mediated transcriptional silencing of TEs in this tissue. Global miRNA depletion, caused by tissue- and stage-specific knock down of drosha (involved in miRNA biogenesis), AGO1 or gawky (both responsible for miRNA activity), resulted in loss of TE-derived piRNAs and chromatin-mediated transcriptional de-silencing of TEs. This specific TE de-repression was also observed upon individual titration (by expression of the complementary miRNA sponge) of two miRNAs (miR-14 and miR-34) as well as in a miR-14 loss-of-function mutant background. Interestingly, the miRNA defects differentially affected TE- and 3' UTR-derived piRNAs. To our knowledge, this is the first indication of possible differences in the biogenesis or stability of TE- and 3' UTR-derived piRNAs. This work is one of the examples of detectable phenotypes caused by loss of individual miRNAs in Drosophila and the first genetic evidence that miRNAs have a role in the maintenance of genome stability via piRNA-mediated TE repression. PMID

  17. The Role of Vertical and Horizontal Transfer in the Evolutionary Dynamics of PIF-Like Transposable Elements in Triticeae

    PubMed Central

    Markova, Dragomira N.; Mason-Gamer, Roberta J.

    2015-01-01

    PIF-like transposable elements are members of the PIF/Harbinger superfamily of DNA transposons found in the genomes of many plants, animals, and fungi. The evolution of the gene that encodes the transposase responsible for mobilizing PIF-like elements has been studied in both plants and animals, but the elements' history in flowering plants remains poorly known. In this work, we describe the phylogenetic distribution and evolution of PIF-like elements in the genomes of 21 diploid species from the wheat tribe, Triticeae, and we present the first convincing evidence of horizontal transfer of PIF elements in plant genomes. A phylogenetic analysis of 240 PIF sequences based on the conserved region of the transposase domain revealed at least four main transposase lineages. Their complex evolutionary history can be best explained by a combination of vertical transmission with differential evolutionary success among lineages, and occasional horizontal transfer between phylogenetically distant Triticeae genera. In addition, we identified 127 potentially functional transposase sequences indicating possible recent activity of PIF. PMID:26355747

  18. Genotype dependent burst of transposable element expression in crowns of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during cold acclimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expression of 1,613 transposable elements (TEs) represented in the Affymetix Wheat Genome Chip was examined during cold treatment in crowns of 4 hexaploid wheat genotypes that vary in tolerance to cold and in flowering time. The TE expression profiles showed a constant level of expression throug...

  19. A novel class of miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) that contain hitchhiking (GTCY)n microsatellites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insertion of transposable elements results in the modification of genome structure and gene expression, and also facilitates the propagation of derived internal sequences. We show that (GTCY)n microsatellite loci within genomes of Lepidoptera are mobile and multilocus due to hitchhiking within ...

  20. Distribution patterns and impact of transposable elements in genes of green algae.

    PubMed

    Philippsen, Gisele S; Avaca-Crusca, Juliana S; Araujo, Ana P U; DeMarco, Ricardo

    2016-12-05

    Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences able to transpose in the host genome, a remarkable feature that enables them to influence evolutive trajectories of species. An investigation about the TE distribution and TE impact in different gene regions of the green algae species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri was performed. Our results indicate that TEs are very scarce near introns boundaries, suggesting that insertions in this region are negatively selected. This contrasts with previous results showing enrichment of tandem repeats in introns boundaries and suggests that different evolutionary forces are acting in these different classes of repeats. Despite the relatively low abundance of TEs in the genome of green algae when compared to mammals, the proportion of poly(A) sites derived from TEs found in C. reinhardtii was similar to that described in human and mice. This fact, associated with the enrichment of TEs in gene 5' and 3' flanks of C. reinhardtii, opens up the possibility that TEs may have considerably contributed for gene regulatory sequences evolution in this species. Moreover, it was possible identify several instances of TE exonization for C. reinhardtii, with a particularly interesting case from a gene coding for Condensin II, a protein involved in the maintenance of chromosomal structure, where the addition of a transposomal PHD finger may contribute to binding specificity of this protein. Taken together, our results suggest that the low abundance of TEs in green algae genomes is correlated with a strict negative selection process, combined with the retention of copies that contribute positively with gene structures.

  1. RelocaTE2: a high resolution transposable element insertion site mapping tool for population resequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinfeng; Wrightsman, Travis R.; Wessler, Susan R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Transposable element (TE) polymorphisms are important components of population genetic variation. The functional impacts of TEs in gene regulation and generating genetic diversity have been observed in multiple species, but the frequency and magnitude of TE variation is under appreciated. Inexpensive and deep sequencing technology has made it affordable to apply population genetic methods to whole genomes with methods that identify single nucleotide and insertion/deletion polymorphisms. However, identifying TE polymorphisms, particularly transposition events or non-reference insertion sites can be challenging due to the repetitive nature of these sequences, which hamper both the sensitivity and specificity of analysis tools. Methods We have developed the tool RelocaTE2 for identification of TE insertion sites at high sensitivity and specificity. RelocaTE2 searches for known TE sequences in whole genome sequencing reads from second generation sequencing platforms such as Illumina. These sequence reads are used as seeds to pinpoint chromosome locations where TEs have transposed. RelocaTE2 detects target site duplication (TSD) of TE insertions allowing it to report TE polymorphism loci with single base pair precision. Results and Discussion The performance of RelocaTE2 is evaluated using both simulated and real sequence data. RelocaTE2 demonstrate high level of sensitivity and specificity, particularly when the sequence coverage is not shallow. In comparison to other tools tested, RelocaTE2 achieves the best balance between sensitivity and specificity. In particular, RelocaTE2 performs best in prediction of TSDs for TE insertions. Even in highly repetitive regions, such as those tested on rice chromosome 4, RelocaTE2 is able to report up to 95% of simulated TE insertions with less than 0.1% false positive rate using 10-fold genome coverage resequencing data. RelocaTE2 provides a robust solution to identify TE insertion sites and can be incorporated into

  2. Rice transposable elements are characterized by various methylation environments in the genome

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Miwako; Kiyohara, Akihiro; Takasu, Atsuko; Kishima, Yuji; Ohtsubo, Hisako; Sano, Yoshio

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent studies using high-throughput methods have revealed that transposable elements (TEs) are a comprehensive target for DNA methylation. However, the relationship between TEs and their genomic environment regarding methylation still remains unclear. The rice genome contains representatives of all known TE families with different characteristics of chromosomal distribution, structure, transposition, size, and copy number. Here we studied the DNA methylation state around 12 TEs in nine genomic DNAs from cultivated rice strains and their closely related wild strains. Results We employed a transposon display (TD) method to analyze the methylation environments in the genomes. The 12 TE families, consisting of four class I elements, seven class II elements, and one element of a different class, were differentially distributed in the rice chromosomes: some elements were concentrated in the centromeric or pericentromeric regions, but others were located in euchromatic regions. The TD analyses revealed that the TE families were embedded in flanking sequences with different methylation degrees. Each TE had flanking sequences with similar degrees of methylation among the nine rice strains. The class I elements tended to be present in highly methylated regions, while those of the class II elements showed widely varying degrees of methylation. In some TE families, the degrees of methylation were markedly lower than the average methylation state of the genome. In two families, dramatic changes of the methylation state occurred depending on the distance from the TE. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the TE families in the rice genomes can be characterized by the methylation states of their surroundings. The copy number and degree of conservation of the TE family are not likely to be correlated with the degree of methylation. We discuss possible relationships between the methylation state of TEs and their surroundings. This is the first report demonstrating

  3. Three transposed elements in the intron of a human VK immunoglobulin gene.

    PubMed

    Straubinger, B; Osterholzer, E; Zachau, H G

    1987-11-25

    Two gene segments coding for the variable region of human immunoglobulin light chains of the kappa type (VK genes, ref. 2) were found to have unusual structures. The two genes which are called A6 and A22 are located in duplicated gene clusters. Their restriction maps are very similar. About 4 kb of the A22 gene region were sequenced. It turned out that the intron contains an insert with the characteristics of a transposed element. The inserted DNA of 1.2 kb length contains imperfect direct and inverted repeats at its ends; at the insertion site a duplication of five nucleotides was found. Within the inserted DNA one copy each of an Alu element and of the simple sequence motif (T-G)17 were identified. Also these two repetitive sequences are themselves flanked by short direct repeats. The major inserted DNA has no significant homology to published human nucleic acid sequences. The whole structure is interpreted best by assuming a sequential insertion of the three elements. The coding region of the VK gene itself has several mutations which by themselves would render it a pseudogene; we assume that the insertion event(s) occurred prior to the mutations. According to mapping and hybridization data A6 is very similar to A22.

  4. Enrichment of short interspersed transposable elements to embryonic stem cell-specific hypomethylated gene regions.

    PubMed

    Muramoto, Hiroki; Yagi, Shintaro; Hirabayashi, Keiji; Sato, Shinya; Ohgane, Jun; Tanaka, Satoshi; Shiota, Kunio

    2010-08-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have a distinctive epigenome, which includes their genome-wide DNA methylation modification status, as represented by the ESC-specific hypomethylation of tissue-dependent and differentially methylated regions (T-DMRs) of Pou5f1 and Nanog. Here, we conducted a genome-wide investigation of sequence characteristics associated with T-DMRs that were differentially methylated between ESCs and somatic cells, by focusing on transposable elements including short interspersed elements (SINEs), long interspersed elements (LINEs) and long terminal repeats (LTRs). We found that hypomethylated T-DMRs were predominantly present in SINE-rich/LINE-poor genomic loci. The enrichment for SINEs spread over 300 kb in cis and there existed SINE-rich genomic domains spreading continuously over 1 Mb, which contained multiple hypomethylated T-DMRs. The characterization of sequence information showed that the enriched SINEs were relatively CpG rich and belonged to specific subfamilies. A subset of the enriched SINEs were hypomethylated T-DMRs in ESCs at Dppa3 gene locus, although SINEs are overall methylated in both ESCs and the liver. In conclusion, we propose that SINE enrichment is the genomic property of regions harboring hypomethylated T-DMRs in ESCs, which is a novel aspect of the ESC-specific epigenomic information.

  5. Invertrons, a class of structurally and functionally related genetic elements that includes linear DNA plasmids, transposable elements, and genomes of adeno-type viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, K

    1990-01-01

    Invertrons are genetic elements composed of DNA with inverted terminal repeats at both ends, covalently bonded to terminal proteins involved in the initiation of DNA replication at both their 5' termini when they exist in the cytoplasm of their host in free form. They function as viruses, linear DNA plasmids, transposable elements, and sometimes combinations of two of these properties. They differ from retroviruses and related retro-type transposons which have direct repeats on both their genomic ends and exploit RNA intermediates for replication of their DNA. A model for replication and integration of invertrons is presented, as well as a model for transposition of transposable elements. PMID:2157134

  6. The genomic proliferation of transposable elements in colonizing populations: Schistosoma mansoni in the new world.

    PubMed

    Wijayawardena, Bhagya K; DeWoody, J Andrew; Minchella, Dennis J

    2015-06-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genes with an inherent ability to move within and among genomes. Theory predicts that TEs proliferate extensively during physiological stress due to the breakdown of TE repression systems. We tested this hypothesis in Schistosoma mansoni, a widespread trematode parasite that causes the human disease schistosomiasis. According to phylogenetic analysis, S. mansoni invaded the new world during the last 500 years. We hypothesized that new world strains of S. mansoni would have more copies of TEs than old world strains due to the physiological stress associated with invasion of the new world. We quantified the copy number of six TEs (Saci-1, Saci-2 and Saci-3, Perere-1, Merlin-sm1, and SmTRC1) in the genome and the transcriptome of old world and new world strains of S. mansoni, using qPCR relative quantification. As predicted, the genomes of new world parasites contain significantly more copies of class I and class II TEs in both laboratory and field strains. However, such differences are not observed in the transcriptome suggesting that either TE silencing mechanisms have reactivated to control the expression of these elements or the presence of inactive truncated copies of TEs.

  7. Accurate Transposable Element Annotation Is Vital When Analyzing New Genome Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Roy N.; Blanco-Berdugo, Laura; Ray, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements with the ability to replicate themselves throughout the host genome. In some taxa TEs reach copy numbers in hundreds of thousands and can occupy more than half of the genome. The increasing number of reference genomes from nonmodel species has begun to outpace efforts to identify and annotate TE content and methods that are used vary significantly between projects. Here, we demonstrate variation that arises in TE annotations when less than optimal methods are used. We found that across a variety of taxa, the ability to accurately identify TEs based solely on homology decreased as the phylogenetic distance between the queried genome and a reference increased. Next we annotated repeats using homology alone, as is often the case in new genome analyses, and a combination of homology and de novo methods as well as an additional manual curation step. Reannotation using these methods identified a substantial number of new TE subfamilies in previously characterized genomes, recognized a higher proportion of the genome as repetitive, and decreased the average genetic distance within TE families, implying recent TE accumulation. Finally, these finding—increased recognition of younger TEs—were confirmed via an analysis of the postman butterfly (Heliconius melpomene). These observations imply that complete TE annotation relies on a combination of homology and de novo–based repeat identification, manual curation, and classification and that relying on simple, homology-based methods is insufficient to accurately describe the TE landscape of a newly sequenced genome. PMID:26802115

  8. P-MITE: a database for plant miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiongjiong; Hu, Qun; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Chen; Kuang, Hanhui

    2014-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are prevalent in eukaryotic species including plants. MITE families vary dramatically and usually cannot be identified based on homology. In this study, we de novo identified MITEs from 41 plant species, using computer programs MITE Digger, MITE-Hunter and/or Repetitive Sequence with Precise Boundaries (RSPB). MITEs were found in all, but one (Cyanidioschyzon merolae), species. Combined with the MITEs identified previously from the rice genome, >2.3 million sequences from 3527 MITE families were obtained from 41 plant species. In general, higher plants contain more MITEs than lower plants, with a few exceptions such as papaya, with only 538 elements. The largest number of MITEs is found in apple, with 237 302 MITE sequences. The number of MITE sequences in a genome is significantly correlated with genome size. A series of databases (plant MITE databases, P-MITE), available online at http://pmite.hzau.edu.cn/django/mite/, was constructed to host all MITE sequences from the 41 plant genomes. The databases are available for sequence similarity searches (BLASTN), and MITE sequences can be downloaded by family or by genome. The databases can be used to study the origin and amplification of MITEs, MITE-derived small RNAs and roles of MITEs on gene and genome evolution. PMID:24174541

  9. Analysis of transposable elements in the genome of Asparagus officinalis from high coverage sequence data.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2014-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant.

  10. Evolution of hypervirulence by a MRSA clone through acquisition of a transposable element.

    PubMed

    Benson, Meredith A; Ohneck, Elizabeth A; Ryan, Chanelle; Alonzo, Francis; Smith, Hannah; Narechania, Apurva; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Satola, Sarah W; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Sebra, Robert; Deikus, Gintaras; Shopsin, Bo; Planet, Paul J; Torres, Victor J

    2014-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus has evolved as a pathogen that causes a range of diseases in humans. There are two dominant modes of evolution thought to explain most of the virulence differences between strains. First, virulence genes may be acquired from other organisms. Second, mutations may cause changes in the regulation and expression of genes. Here we describe an evolutionary event in which transposition of an IS element has a direct impact on virulence gene regulation resulting in hypervirulence. Whole-genome analysis of a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain USA500 revealed acquisition of a transposable element (IS256) that is absent from close relatives of this strain. Of the multiple copies of IS256 found in the USA500 genome, one was inserted in the promoter sequence of repressor of toxins (Rot), a master transcriptional regulator responsible for the expression of virulence factors in S. aureus. We show that insertion into the rot promoter by IS256 results in the derepression of cytotoxin expression and increased virulence. Taken together, this work provides new insight into evolutionary strategies by which S. aureus is able to modify its virulence properties and demonstrates a novel mechanism by which horizontal gene transfer directly impacts virulence through altering toxin regulation.

  11. International Congress on Transposable Elements (ICTE) 2012 in Saint Malo and the sea of TE stories.

    PubMed

    Ainouche, Abdelkader; Bétermier, Mireille; Chandler, Mick; Cordaux, Richard; Cristofari, Gaël; Deragon, Jean-Marc; Lesage, Pascale; Panaud, Olivier; Quesneville, Hadi; Vaury, Chantal; Vieira, Cristina; Vitte, Clémentine

    2012-10-30

    An international conference on Transposable Elements (TEs) was held 21-24 April 2012 in Saint Malo, France. Organized by the French Transposition Community (GDR Elements Génétiques Mobiles et Génomes, CNRS) and the French Society of Genetics (SFG), the conference's goal was to bring together researchers from around the world who study transposition in diverse organisms using multiple experimental approaches. The meeting drew more than 217 attendees and most contributed through poster presentations (117), invited talks and short talks selected from poster abstracts (48 in total). The talks were organized into four scientific sessions, focused on: impact of TEs on genomes, control of transposition, evolution of TEs and mechanisms of transposition. Here, we present highlights from the talks given during the platform sessions. The conference was sponsored by Alliance pour les sciences de la vie et de la santé (Aviesan), Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM), Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD), Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Université de Perpignan, Université de Rennes 1, Région Bretagne and Mobile DNA. CHAIR OF THE ORGANIZATION COMMITTEE: Jean-Marc Deragon ORGANIZERS: Abdelkader Ainouche, Mireille Bétermier, Mick Chandler, Richard Cordaux, Gaël Cristofari, Jean-Marc Deragon, Pascale Lesage, Didier Mazel, Olivier Panaud, Hadi Quesneville, Chantal Vaury, Cristina Vieira and Clémentine Vitte.

  12. Accurate Transposable Element Annotation Is Vital When Analyzing New Genome Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Platt, Roy N; Blanco-Berdugo, Laura; Ray, David A

    2016-01-21

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements with the ability to replicate themselves throughout the host genome. In some taxa TEs reach copy numbers in hundreds of thousands and can occupy more than half of the genome. The increasing number of reference genomes from nonmodel species has begun to outpace efforts to identify and annotate TE content and methods that are used vary significantly between projects. Here, we demonstrate variation that arises in TE annotations when less than optimal methods are used. We found that across a variety of taxa, the ability to accurately identify TEs based solely on homology decreased as the phylogenetic distance between the queried genome and a reference increased. Next we annotated repeats using homology alone, as is often the case in new genome analyses, and a combination of homology and de novo methods as well as an additional manual curation step. Reannotation using these methods identified a substantial number of new TE subfamilies in previously characterized genomes, recognized a higher proportion of the genome as repetitive, and decreased the average genetic distance within TE families, implying recent TE accumulation. Finally, these finding-increased recognition of younger TEs-were confirmed via an analysis of the postman butterfly (Heliconius melpomene). These observations imply that complete TE annotation relies on a combination of homology and de novo-based repeat identification, manual curation, and classification and that relying on simple, homology-based methods is insufficient to accurately describe the TE landscape of a newly sequenced genome.

  13. The epigenetic regulation of transposable elements by PIWI-interacting RNAs in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kuniaki

    2013-01-01

    A mechanism is required to repress the expression and transposition of transposable elements (TEs) to ensure the stable inheritance of genomic information. Accumulating evidence indicates that small non-coding RNAs are important regulators of TEs. Among small non-coding RNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) serve as guide molecules for recognizing and silencing numerous TEs and work in collaboration with PIWI subfamily proteins in gonadal cells. Disruption of the piRNA pathway correlates with loss of proper genomic organization, gene expression control and fertility. Moreover, recent studies on the molecular mechanisms of piRNA biogenesis and on piRNA function have shown that piRNAs act as maternally inherited genic elements, transferring information about repressed TEs to progeny. These findings enable a molecular explanation of mysterious epigenetic phenomena, such as hybrid dysgenesis and TE adaptation with age. Here, I review our current knowledge of piRNAs derived from biochemical and genetic studies and discuss how small RNAs are utilized to maintain genome organization and to provide non-DNA genetic information. I mainly focus on Drosophila but also discuss comparisons with other species.

  14. Spatio-temporal requirements for transposable element piRNA-mediated silencing during Drosophila oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dufourt, Jérémy; Dennis, Cynthia; Boivin, Antoine; Gueguen, Nathalie; Théron, Emmanuelle; Goriaux, Coline; Pouchin, Pierre; Ronsseray, Stéphane; Brasset, Emilie; Vaury, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    During Drosophila oogenesis, transposable element (TE) repression involves the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway which ensures genome integrity for the next generation. We developed a transgenic model to study repression of the Idefix retrotransposon in the germline. Using a candidate gene KD-approach, we identified differences in the spatio-temporal requirements of the piRNA pathway components for piRNA-mediated silencing. Some of them (Aub, Vasa, Spn-E) are necessary in very early stages of oogenesis within the germarium and appear to be less important for efficient TE silencing thereafter. Others (Piwi, Ago3, Mael) are required at all stages of oogenesis. Moreover, during early oogenesis, in the dividing cysts within the germarium, Idefix anti-sense transgenes escape host control, and this is associated with very low piwi expression. Silencing of P-element-based transgenes is also strongly weakened in these cysts. This region, termed the ‘Piwiless pocket’ or Pilp, may ensure that new TE insertions occur and are transmitted to the next generation, thereby contributing to genome dynamics. In contrast, piRNA-mediated silencing is strong in germline stem cells in which TE mobilization is tightly repressed ensuring the continued production of viable germline cysts. PMID:24288375

  15. Spatio-temporal requirements for transposable element piRNA-mediated silencing during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dufourt, Jérémy; Dennis, Cynthia; Boivin, Antoine; Gueguen, Nathalie; Théron, Emmanuelle; Goriaux, Coline; Pouchin, Pierre; Ronsseray, Stéphane; Brasset, Emilie; Vaury, Chantal

    2014-02-01

    During Drosophila oogenesis, transposable element (TE) repression involves the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway which ensures genome integrity for the next generation. We developed a transgenic model to study repression of the Idefix retrotransposon in the germline. Using a candidate gene KD-approach, we identified differences in the spatio-temporal requirements of the piRNA pathway components for piRNA-mediated silencing. Some of them (Aub, Vasa, Spn-E) are necessary in very early stages of oogenesis within the germarium and appear to be less important for efficient TE silencing thereafter. Others (Piwi, Ago3, Mael) are required at all stages of oogenesis. Moreover, during early oogenesis, in the dividing cysts within the germarium, Idefix anti-sense transgenes escape host control, and this is associated with very low piwi expression. Silencing of P-element-based transgenes is also strongly weakened in these cysts. This region, termed the 'Piwiless pocket' or Pilp, may ensure that new TE insertions occur and are transmitted to the next generation, thereby contributing to genome dynamics. In contrast, piRNA-mediated silencing is strong in germline stem cells in which TE mobilization is tightly repressed ensuring the continued production of viable germline cysts.

  16. Integrated cytogenetics and genomics analysis of transposable elements in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Valente, Guilherme; Kocher, Thomas; Eickbush, Thomas; Simões, Rafael P; Martins, Cesar

    2016-06-01

    Integration of cytogenetics and genomics has become essential to a better view of architecture and function of genomes. Although the advances on genomic sequencing have contributed to study genes and genomes, the repetitive DNA fraction of the genome is still enigmatic and poorly understood. Among repeated DNAs, transposable elements (TEs) are major components of eukaryotic chromatin and their investigation has been hindered even after the availability of whole sequenced genomes. The cytogenetic mapping of TEs in chromosomes has proved to be of high value to integrate information from the micro level of nucleotide sequence to a cytological view of chromosomes. Different TEs have been cytogenetically mapped in cichlids; however, neither details about their genomic arrangement nor appropriated copy number are well defined by these approaches. The current study integrates TEs distribution in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus genome based on cytogenetic and genomics/bioinformatics approach. The results showed that some elements are not randomly distributed and that some are genomic dependent on each other. Moreover, we found extensive overlap between genomics and cytogenetics data and that tandem duplication may be the major mechanism responsible for the genomic dynamics of TEs here analyzed. This paper provides insights in the genomic organization of TEs under an integrated view based on cytogenetics and genomics.

  17. Identification and characterisation of five novel miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae).

    PubMed

    Osborne, P W; Luke, G N; Holland, P W H; Ferrier, D E K

    2006-01-01

    As the sister group to vertebrates, amphioxus is consistently used as a model of genome evolution for understanding the invertebrate/vertebrate transition. The amphioxus genome has not undergone massive duplications like those in the vertebrates or disruptive rearrangements like in the genome of Ciona, a urochordate, making it an ideal evolutionary model. Transposable elements have been linked to many genomic evolutionary changes including increased genome size, modified gene expression, massive gene rearrangements, and possibly intron evolution. Despite their importance in genome evolution, few previous examples of transposable elements have been identified in amphioxus. We report five novel Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Elements (MITEs) identified by an analysis of amphioxus DNA sequence, which we have named LanceleTn-1, LanceleTn-2, LanceleTn-3a, LanceleTn-3b and LanceleTn-4. Several of the LanceleTn elements were identified in the amphioxus ParaHox cluster, and we suggest these have had important implications for the evolution of this highly conserved gene cluster. The estimated high copy numbers of these elements implies that MITEs are probably the most abundant type of mobile element in amphioxus, and are thus likely to have been of fundamental importance in shaping the evolution of the amphioxus genome.

  18. Genome-wide analysis of transposable elements in the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): description of novel families.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Hernandez, Eric M; Fernández-Medina, Rita Daniela; Navarro-Escalante, Lucio; Nuñez, Jonathan; Benavides-Machado, Pablo; Carareto, Claudia M A

    2017-02-15

    The coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei is the most limiting pest of coffee production worldwide. The CBB genome has been recently sequenced; however, information regarding the presence and characteristics of transposable elements (TEs) was not provided. Using systematic searching strategies based on both de novo and homology-based approaches, we present a library of TEs from the draft genome of CBB sequenced by the Colombian Coffee Growers Federation. The library consists of 880 sequences classified as 66% Class I (LTRs: 46%, non-LTRs: 20%) and 34% Class II (DNA transposons: 8%, Helitrons: 16% and MITEs: 10%) elements, including families of the three main LTR (Gypsy, Bel-Pao and Copia) and non-LTR (CR1, Daphne, I/Nimb, Jockey, Kiri, R1, R2 and R4) clades and DNA superfamilies (Tc1-mariner, hAT, Merlin, P, PIF-Harbinger, PiggyBac and Helitron). We propose the existence of novel families: Hypo, belonging to the LTR Gypsy superfamily; Hamp, belonging to non-LTRs; and rosa, belonging to Class II or DNA transposons. Although the rosa clade has been previously described, it was considered to be a basal subfamily of the mariner family. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, including Tc1, mariner, pogo, rosa and Lsra elements from other insects, we propose that rosa and Lsra elements are subfamilies of an independent family of Class II elements termed rosa. The annotations obtained indicate that a low percentage of the assembled CBB genome (approximately 8.2%) consists of TEs. Although these TEs display high diversity, most sequences are degenerate, with few full-length copies of LTR and DNA transposons and several complete and putatively active copies of non-LTR elements. MITEs constitute approximately 50% of the total TEs content, with a high proportion associated with DNA transposons in the Tc1-mariner superfamily.

  19. The genomic landscape shaped by selection on transposable elements across 18 mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transposable element (TE)-derived sequence dominates the landscape of mammalian genomes and can modulate gene function by dysregulating transcription and translation. Our current knowledge of TEs in laboratory mouse strains is limited primarily to those present in the C57BL/6J reference genome, with most mouse TEs being drawn from three distinct classes, namely short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and the endogenous retrovirus (ERV) superfamily. Despite their high prevalence, the different genomic and gene properties controlling whether TEs are preferentially purged from, or are retained by, genetic drift or positive selection in mammalian genomes remain poorly defined. Results Using whole genome sequencing data from 13 classical laboratory and 4 wild-derived mouse inbred strains, we developed a comprehensive catalogue of 103,798 polymorphic TE variants. We employ this extensive data set to characterize TE variants across the Mus lineage, and to infer neutral and selective processes that have acted over 2 million years. Our results indicate that the majority of TE variants are introduced though the male germline and that only a minority of TE variants exert detectable changes in gene expression. However, among genes with differential expression across the strains there are twice as many TE variants identified as being putative causal variants as expected. Conclusions Most TE variants that cause gene expression changes appear to be purged rapidly by purifying selection. Our findings demonstrate that past TE insertions have often been highly deleterious, and help to prioritize TE variants according to their likely contribution to gene expression or phenotype variation. PMID:22703977

  20. Gross Deletions Involving IGHM, BTK, or Artemis: A Model for Genomic Lesions Mediated by Transposable Elements

    PubMed Central

    van Zelm, Menno C.; Geertsema, Corinne; Nieuwenhuis, Nicole; de Ridder, Dick; Conley, Mary Ellen; Schiff, Claudine; Tezcan, Ilhan; Bernatowska, Ewa; Hartwig, Nico G.; Sanders, Elisabeth A.M.; Litzman, Jiri; Kondratenko, Irina; van Dongen, Jacques J.M.; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2008-01-01

    Most genetic disruptions underlying human disease are microlesions, whereas gross lesions are rare with gross deletions being most frequently found (6%). Similar observations have been made in primary immunodeficiency genes, such as BTK, but for unknown reasons the IGHM and DCLRE1C (Artemis) gene defects frequently represent gross deletions (∼60%). We characterized the gross deletion breakpoints in IGHM-, BTK-, and Artemis-deficient patients. The IGHM deletion breakpoints did not show involvement of recombination signal sequences or immunoglobulin switch regions. Instead, five IGHM, eight BTK, and five unique Artemis breakpoints were located in or near sequences derived from transposable elements (TE). The breakpoints of four out of five disrupted Artemis alleles were located in highly homologous regions, similar to Ig subclass deficiencies and Vh deletion polymorphisms. Nevertheless, these observations suggest a role for TEs in mediating gross deletions. The identified gross deletion breakpoints were mostly located in TE subclasses that were specifically overrepresented in the involved gene as compared to the average in the human genome. This concerned both long (LINE1) and short (Alu, MIR) interspersed elements, as well as LTR retrotransposons (ERV). Furthermore, a high total TE content (>40%) was associated with an increased frequency of gross deletions. Both findings were further investigated and confirmed in a total set of 20 genes disrupted in human disease. Thus, to our knowledge for the first time, we provide evidence that a high TE content, irrespective of the type of element, results in the increased incidence of gross deletions as gene disruption underlying human disease. PMID:18252213

  1. Transposable elements: insertion pattern and impact on gene expression evolution in hominids.

    PubMed

    Warnefors, Maria; Pereira, Vini; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2010-08-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) can affect the regulation of nearby genes through several mechanisms. Here, we examine to what extent recent TE insertions have contributed to the evolution of gene expression in hominids. We compare expression levels of human and chimpanzee orthologs and detect a weak increase in expression divergence (ED) for genes with species-specific TE insertions compared with unaffected genes. However, we show that genes with TE insertions predating the human-chimpanzee split also exhibit a similar increase in ED and therefore conclude that the increase is not due to the transcriptional influence of the TEs. These results are further confirmed by lineage-specific analysis of ED, using rhesus macaque as an outgroup: Human-chimpanzee ortholog pairs, where one ortholog has suffered TE insertion but not the other, do not show increased ED along the lineage where the insertion occurred, relative to the other lineage. We also show that genes with recent TE insertions tend to produce more alternative transcripts but find no evidence that the TEs themselves promote transcript diversity. Finally, we observe that TEs are enriched upstream relative to downstream of genes and show that this is due to insertional bias, rather than selection, because this bias is only observed in genes expressed in the germ line. This provides an alternative neutral explanation for the accumulation of TEs in upstream sequences.

  2. Mobility properties of the Hermes transposable element in transgenic lines of Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ryan C.

    2010-01-01

    The Hermes transposable element has been used to genetically transform a wide range of insect species, including the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, a vector of several important human pathogens. Hermes integrations into the mosquito germline are characterized by the non-canonical integration of the transposon and flanking plasmid and, once integrated, Hermes is stable in the presence of its transposase. In an effort to improve the post-integration mobility of Hermes in the germline of Ae. aegypti, a transgenic helper Mos1 construct expressing Hermes transposase under the control of a testis-specific promoter was crossed to a separate transgenic strain containing a target Hermes transposon. In less than 1% of the approximately 1,500 progeny from jumpstarter lines analyzed, evidence of putative Hermes germline remobilizations were detected. These recovered transposition events occur through an aberrant mechanism and provide insight into the non-canonical cut-and-paste transposition of Hermes in the germ line of Ae. aegypti. PMID:20596755

  3. Germline transformation of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., using the piggyBac transposable element.

    PubMed

    Martins, S; Naish, N; Walker, A S; Morrison, N I; Scaife, S; Fu, G; Dafa'alla, T; Alphey, L

    2012-08-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is one of the most economically important agricultural pests. The larvae of this moth cause damage by feeding on the foliage of cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower and rapeseed. Control generally comprises chemical treatment; however, the diamondback moth is renowned for rapid development of resistance to pesticides. Other methods, such as biological control, have not been able to provide adequate protection. Germline transformation of pest insects has become available in recent years as an enabling technology for new genetics-based control methods, such as the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL(®) ). In the present study, we report the first transformation of the diamondback moth, using the piggyBac transposable element, by embryo microinjection. In generating transgenic strains using four different constructs, the function of three regulatory sequences in this moth was demonstrated in driving expression of fluorescent proteins. The transformation rates achieved, 0.48-0.68%, are relatively low compared with those described in other Lepidoptera, but not prohibitive, and are likely to increase with experience. We anticipate that germline transformation of the diamondback moth will permit the development of RIDL strains for use against this pest and facilitate the wider use of this species as a model organism for basic studies.

  4. Population scale mapping of transposable element diversity reveals links to gene regulation and epigenomic variation

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Tim; Eichten, Steven R; Cahn, Jonathan; Karpievitch, Yuliya V; Borevitz, Justin O; Lister, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the presence or absence of transposable elements (TEs) is a major source of genetic variation between individuals. Here, we identified 23,095 TE presence/absence variants between 216 Arabidopsis accessions. Most TE variants were rare, and we find these rare variants associated with local extremes of gene expression and DNA methylation levels within the population. Of the common alleles identified, two thirds were not in linkage disequilibrium with nearby SNPs, implicating these variants as a source of novel genetic diversity. Many common TE variants were associated with significantly altered expression of nearby genes, and a major fraction of inter-accession DNA methylation differences were associated with nearby TE insertions. Overall, this demonstrates that TE variants are a rich source of genetic diversity that likely plays an important role in facilitating epigenomic and transcriptional differences between individuals, and indicates a strong genetic basis for epigenetic variation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20777.001 PMID:27911260

  5. The Role of Transposable Elements in the Origin and Evolution of MicroRNAs in Human

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Sheng; Jin, Ping; Zhou, Xue; Chen, Liming; Ma, Fei

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in eukaryotes via targeting gene 3'-untranslated regions. Transposable elements (TEs) are considered as natural origins of some miRNAs. However, what miRNAs are and how these miRNAs originate and evolve from TEs remain unclear. We identified 409 TE-derived miRNAs (386 overlapped with TEs and 23 un-overlapped with TEs) which are derived from TEs in human. This indicates that the TEs play important roles in origin of miRNAs in human. In addition, we found that the proportions of miRNAs derived from TEs (MDTEs) in human are more than other vertebrates especially non-mammal vertebrates. Furthermore, we classified MDTEs into three types and found that TE head or tail sequences along with adjacent genomic sequences contribute to generation of human miRNAs. Our current study will improve the understanding of origin and evolution of human miRNAs. PMID:26115450

  6. BmTEdb: a collective database of transposable elements in the silkworm genome.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-En; Zhang, Hua-Hao; Xia, Tian; Han, Min-Jin; Shen, Yi-Hong; Zhang, Ze

    2013-01-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is one of the major insect model organisms, and its draft and fine genome sequences became available in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Transposable elements (TEs) constitute ~40% of the silkworm genome. To better understand the roles of TEs in organization, structure and evolution of the silkworm genome, we used a combination of de novo, structure-based and homology-based approaches for identification of the silkworm TEs and identified 1308 silkworm TE families. These TE families and their classification information were organized into a comprehensive and easy-to-use web-based database, BmTEdb. Users are entitled to browse, search and download the sequences in the database. Sequence analyses such as BLAST, HMMER and EMBOSS GetORF were also provided in BmTEdb. This database will facilitate studies for the silkworm genomics, the TE functions in the silkworm and the comparative analysis of the insect TEs. Database URL: http://gene.cqu.edu.cn/BmTEdb/.

  7. Transposable elements, polydactyl proteins and the genesis of human-specific transcription networks

    PubMed Central

    Trono, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) may account for up to two-thirds of the human genome, and as genomic threats they are subjected to epigenetic control mechanisms engaged from the earliest stages of embryonic development. We previously determined that an important component of this process is the sequence-specific recognition of TEs by KRAB-containing zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs), a large family of tetrapod-restricted transcription factors that act by recruiting inducers of heterochromatin formation and DNA methylation. We further demonstrated that KRAB-ZFPs and their cofactor KAP1 exert a marked influence on the transcription dynamics of embryonic stem cells via their docking of repressor complexes at TE-contained regulatory sequences. It is generally held that, beyond this early embryonic period, TEs become permanently silenced, and that the evolutionary selection of KRAB-ZFPs and other TE controllers is the result of a simple evolutionary arms race between the host and these genetics invaders. Here, I discuss recent evidence that invalidates this dual assumption, and instead suggests that KRAB-ZFPs are the instruments of a massive enterprise of TE domestication, whereby transposon-based regulatory sequences and their cellular ligands establish species-specific transcription regulation networks that influence multiple aspects of human development and physiology. PMID:26763983

  8. Transposable Element Insertions in Long Intergenic Non-Coding RNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Sivakumar; Chernikova, Diana; Rogozin, Igor B.; Poliakov, Eugenia; Managadze, David; Koonin, Eugene V.; Milanesi, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are abundant in mammalian genomes and appear to have contributed to the evolution of their hosts by providing novel regulatory or coding sequences. We analyzed different regions of long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) genes in human and mouse genomes to systematically assess the potential contribution of TEs to the evolution of the structure and regulation of expression of lincRNA genes. Introns of lincRNA genes contain the highest percentage of TE-derived sequences (TES), followed by exons and then promoter regions although the density of TEs is not significantly different between exons and promoters. Higher frequencies of ancient TEs in promoters and exons compared to introns implies that many lincRNA genes emerged before the split of primates and rodents. The content of TES in lincRNA genes is substantially higher than that in protein-coding genes, especially in exons and promoter regions. A significant positive correlation was detected between the content of TEs and evolutionary rate of lincRNAs indicating that inserted TEs are preferentially fixed in fast-evolving lincRNA genes. These results are consistent with the repeat insertion domains of LncRNAs hypothesis under which TEs have substantially contributed to the origin, evolution, and, in particular, fast functional diversification, of lincRNA genes. PMID:26106594

  9. Phylogenetic and Genomic Analyses Resolve the Origin of Important Plant Genes Derived from Transposable Elements

    PubMed Central

    Joly-Lopez, Zoé; Hoen, Douglas R.; Blanchette, Mathieu; Bureau, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Once perceived as merely selfish, transposable elements (TEs) are now recognized as potent agents of adaptation. One way TEs contribute to evolution is through TE exaptation, a process whereby TEs, which persist by replicating in the genome, transform into novel host genes, which persist by conferring phenotypic benefits. Known exapted TEs (ETEs) contribute diverse and vital functions, and may facilitate punctuated equilibrium, yet little is known about this process. To better understand TE exaptation, we designed an approach to resolve the phylogenetic context and timing of exaptation events and subsequent patterns of ETE diversification. Starting with known ETEs, we search in diverse genomes for basal ETEs and closely related TEs, carefully curate the numerous candidate sequences, and infer detailed phylogenies. To distinguish TEs from ETEs, we also weigh several key genomic characteristics including repetitiveness, terminal repeats, pseudogenic features, and conserved domains. Applying this approach to the well-characterized plant ETEs MUG and FHY3, we show that each group is paraphyletic and we argue that this pattern demonstrates that each originated in not one but multiple exaptation events. These exaptations and subsequent ETE diversification occurred throughout angiosperm evolution including the crown group expansion, the angiosperm radiation, and the primitive evolution of angiosperms. In addition, we detect evidence of several putative novel ETE families. Our findings support the hypothesis that TE exaptation generates novel genes more frequently than is currently thought, often coinciding with key periods of evolution. PMID:27189548

  10. Chromosomal Replication Dynamics and Interaction with the β Sliding Clamp Determine Orientation of Bacterial Transposable Elements

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Manuel J.; Díaz-Maldonado, Héctor; González-Tortuero, Enrique; López de Saro, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Insertion sequences (ISs) are small transposable elements widespread in bacterial genomes, where they play an essential role in chromosome evolution by stimulating recombination and genetic flow. Despite their ubiquity, it is unclear how ISs interact with the host. Here, we report a survey of the orientation patterns of ISs in bacterial chromosomes with the objective of gaining insight into the interplay between ISs and host chromosomal functions. We find that a significant fraction of IS families present a consistent and family-specific orientation bias with respect to chromosomal DNA replication, especially in Firmicutes. Additionally, we find that the transposases of up to nine different IS families with different transposition pathways interact with the β sliding clamp, an essential replication factor, suggesting that this is a widespread mechanism of interaction with the host. Although we find evidence that the interaction with the β sliding clamp is common to all bacterial phyla, it also could explain the observed strong orientation bias found in Firmicutes, because in this group β is asymmetrically distributed during synthesis of the leading or lagging strands. Besides the interaction with the β sliding clamp, other asymmetries also play a role in the biased orientation of some IS families. The utilization of the highly conserved replication sliding clamps suggests a mechanism for host regulation of IS proliferation and also a universal platform for IS dispersal and transmission within bacterial populations and among phylogenetically distant species. PMID:24614824

  11. The role of the transposable element hobo in the origin of endemic inversions in wild populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lyttle, T W; Haymer, D S

    1992-01-01

    Evidence from in situ hybridizations of DNA from the transposable element hobo to polytene salivary gland chromosome squashes reveals that hobo occupies both cytological breakpoints of three of four endemic inversions sampled from natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster in the Hawaiian islands. The fourth endemic inversion has a single hobo insert at one breakpoint. Cosmopolitan inversions on the same chromosomes do not show this association. Frequencies of both endemic and cosmopolitan inversions in Hawaiian populations fall in ranges typical for natural populations of D. melanogaster sampled worldwide, suggesting that these results may be typical of other regions besides Hawaii. This appears to be the first direct demonstration that transposable elements are responsible for causing specific rearrangements found in nature; consequently, it is also the first direct demonstration that chromosome rearrangements can arise in nature in a manner predicted by results of hybrid dysgenic crosses in the laboratory. Possible population genetic and evolutionary consequences are discussed.

  12. Transposable element dynamics and PIWI regulation impacts lncRNA and gene expression diversity in Drosophila ovarian cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Sytnikova, Yuliya A.; Rahman, Reazur; Chirn, Gung-wei; Clark, Josef P.

    2014-01-01

    Piwi proteins and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) repress transposable elements (TEs) from mobilizing in gonadal cells. To determine the spectrum of piRNA-regulated targets that may extend beyond TEs, we conducted a genome-wide survey for transcripts associated with PIWI and for transcripts affected by PIWI knockdown in Drosophila ovarian somatic sheet (OSS) cells, a follicle cell line expressing the Piwi pathway. Despite the immense sequence diversity among OSS cell piRNAs, our analysis indicates that TE transcripts are the major transcripts associated with and directly regulated by PIWI. However, several coding genes were indirectly regulated by PIWI via an adjacent de novo TE insertion that generated a nascent TE transcript. Interestingly, we noticed that PIWI-regulated genes in OSS cells greatly differed from genes affected in a related follicle cell culture, ovarian somatic cells (OSCs). Therefore, we characterized the distinct genomic TE insertions across four OSS and OSC lines and discovered dynamic TE landscapes in gonadal cultures that were defined by a subset of active TEs. Particular de novo TEs appeared to stimulate the expression of novel candidate long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in a cell lineage-specific manner, and some of these TE-associated lncRNAs were associated with PIWI and overlapped PIWI-regulated genes. Our analyses of OSCs and OSS cells demonstrate that despite having a Piwi pathway to suppress endogenous mobile elements, gonadal cell TE landscapes can still dramatically change and create transcriptome diversity. PMID:25267525

  13. International Congress on Transposable Elements (ICTE) 2012 in Saint Malo and the sea of TE stories

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    An international conference on Transposable Elements (TEs) was held 21–24 April 2012 in Saint Malo, France. Organized by the French Transposition Community (GDR Elements Génétiques Mobiles et Génomes, CNRS) and the French Society of Genetics (SFG), the conference’s goal was to bring together researchers from around the world who study transposition in diverse organisms using multiple experimental approaches. The meeting drew more than 217 attendees and most contributed through poster presentations (117), invited talks and short talks selected from poster abstracts (48 in total). The talks were organized into four scientific sessions, focused on: impact of TEs on genomes, control of transposition, evolution of TEs and mechanisms of transposition. Here, we present highlights from the talks given during the platform sessions. The conference was sponsored by Alliance pour les sciences de la vie et de la santé (Aviesan), Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM), Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD), Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Université de Perpignan, Université de Rennes 1, Région Bretagne and Mobile DNA. Chair of the organization committee Jean-Marc Deragon Organizers Abdelkader Ainouche, Mireille Bétermier, Mick Chandler, Richard Cordaux, Gaël Cristofari, Jean-Marc Deragon, Pascale Lesage, Didier Mazel, Olivier Panaud, Hadi Quesneville, Chantal Vaury, Cristina Vieira and Clémentine Vitte PMID:23110759

  14. Effects of Transposable Elements on the Expression of the Forked Gene of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, K. K.; Chien, A. J.; Corces, V. G.

    1993-01-01

    The products of the forked gene are involved in the formation and/or maintenance of a temporary fibrillar structure within the developing bristle rudiment of Drosophila melanogaster. Mutations in the forked locus alter this structure and result in aberrant development of macrochaetae, microchaetae and trichomes. The locus has been characterized at the molecular level by walking, mutant characterization and transcript analysis. Expression of the six forked transcripts is temporally restricted to midlate pupal development. At this time, RNAs of 6.4, 5.6, 5.4, 2.5, 1.9 and 1.1 kilobases (kb) are detected by Northern analysis. The coding region of these RNAs has been found to be within a 21-kb stretch of genomic DNA. The amino terminus of the proteins encoded by the 5.4- and 5.6-kb forked transcripts contain tandem copies of ankyrin-like repeats that may play an important role in the function of forked-encoded products. The profile of forked RNA expression is altered in seven spontaneous mutations characterized during this study. Three forked mutations induced by the insertion of the gypsy retrotransposon contain a copy of this element inserted into an intron of the gene. In these mutants, the 5.6-, 5.4- and 2.5-kb forked mRNAs are truncated via recognition of the polyadenylation site in the 5' long terminal repeat of the gypsy retrotransposon. These results help explain the role of the forked gene in fly development and further our understanding of the role of transposable elements in mutagenesis. PMID:8244011

  15. Satellite DNA and Transposable Elements in Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), a Dioecious Plant with Small Y and Large X Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Puterova, Janka; Razumova, Olga; Martinek, Tomas; Alexandrov, Oleg; Divashuk, Mikhail; Kubat, Zdenek; Hobza, Roman; Karlov, Gennady

    2017-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is a dioecious shrub commonly used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and environmental industry as a source of oil, minerals and vitamins. In this study, we analyzed the transposable elements and satellites in its genome. We carried out Illumina DNA sequencing and reconstructed the main repetitive DNA sequences. For data analysis, we developed a new bioinformatics approach for advanced satellite DNA analysis and showed that about 25% of the genome consists of satellite DNA and about 24% is formed of transposable elements, dominated by Ty3/Gypsy and Ty1/Copia LTR retrotransposons. FISH mapping revealed X chromosome-accumulated, Y chromosome-specific or both sex chromosomes-accumulated satellites but most satellites were found on autosomes. Transposable elements were located mostly in the subtelomeres of all chromosomes. The 5S rDNA and 45S rDNA were localized on one autosomal locus each. Although we demonstrated the small size of the Y chromosome of the seabuckthorn and accumulated satellite DNA there, we were unable to estimate the age and extent of the Y chromosome degeneration. Analysis of dioecious relatives such as Shepherdia would shed more light on the evolution of these sex chromosomes. PMID:28057732

  16. Modular organization and reticulate evolution of the ORF1 of Jockey superfamily transposable elements

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINES) are the most common transposable element (TE) in almost all metazoan genomes examined. In most LINE superfamilies there are two open reading frames (ORFs), and both are required for transposition. The ORF2 is well characterized, while the structure and function of the ORF1 is less well understood. ORF1s have been classified into five types based on structural organization and the domains identified. Here we perform a large scale analysis of ORF1 domains of 448 elements from the Jockey superfamily using multiple alignments and Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-HMM comparisons. Results Three major lineages, Chicken repeat 1 (CR1), LINE2 (L2) and Jockey, were identified. All Jockey lineage elements have the same type of ORF1. In contrast, in the L2 and CR1 lineage elements, all five ORF1 types are found, with no one type of ORF1 predominating. A plant homeodomain (PHD) is much more prevalent than previously suspected. ORF1 type variations involving the PHD domain were found in many subgroups of the L2 and CR1 lineages. A Jockey lineage-like ORF1 with a PHD domain was found in both lineages. A phylogenetic analysis of this ORF1 suggests that it has been horizontally transferred. Likewise, an esterase containing ORF1 type was only found in two exclusively vertebrate L2 and CR1 groups, indicating that it may have been acquired in a vertebrate common ancestor and then transferred between the lineages. Conclusions The ORF1 of the CR1 and L2 lineages is very structurally diverse. The presence of a PHD domain in many ORF1s of the L2 and CR1 lineages is suggestive of domain shuffling. There is also evidence of possible horizontal transfer of entire ORF1s between lineages. In conclusion, while the structure of the ORF2 appears to be highly constrained and its evolution tree-like, the structure of the ORF1 within the CR1 and L2 lineages is much more variable and its evolution reticulate. PMID:25093042

  17. A Transposable Element within the Non-canonical Telomerase RNA of Arabidopsis thaliana Modulates Telomerase in Response to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hengyi; Nelson, Andrew D. L.; Shippen, Dorothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical factors in many biological processes, but little is known about how their regulatory functions evolved. One of the best-studied lncRNAs is TER, the essential RNA template for telomerase reverse transcriptase. We previously showed that Arabidopsis thaliana harbors three TER isoforms: TER1, TER2 and TER2S. TER1 serves as a canonical telomere template, while TER2 is a novel negative regulator of telomerase activity, induced in response to double-strand breaks (DSBs). TER2 contains a 529 nt intervening sequence that is removed along with 36 nt at the RNA 3’ terminus to generate TER2S, an RNA of unknown function. Here we investigate how A. thaliana TER2 acquired its regulatory function. Using data from the 1,001 Arabidopsis genomes project, we report that the intervening sequence within TER2 is derived from a transposable element termed DSB responsive element (DRE). DRE is found in the TER2 loci of most but not all A. thaliana accessions. By analyzing accessions with (TER2) and without DRE (TER2Δ) we demonstrate that this element is responsible for many of the unique properties of TER2, including its enhanced binding to TERT and telomerase inhibitory function. We show that DRE destabilizes TER2, and further that TER2 induction by DNA damage reflects increased RNA stability and not increased transcription. DRE-mediated changes in TER2 stability thus provide a rapid and sensitive switch to fine-tune telomerase enzyme activity. Altogether, our data shows that invasion of the TER2 locus by a small transposon converted this lncRNA into a DNA damage sensor that modulates telomerase enzyme activity in response to genome assault. PMID:26075395

  18. The rice miniature inverted repeat transposable element mPing is an effective insertional mutagen in soybean.

    PubMed

    Hancock, C Nathan; Zhang, Feng; Floyd, Kristen; Richardson, Aaron O; Lafayette, Peter; Tucker, Donna; Wessler, Susan R; Parrott, Wayne A

    2011-10-01

    Insertional mutagenesis of legume genomes such as soybean (Glycine max) should aid in identifying genes responsible for key traits such as nitrogen fixation and seed quality. The relatively low throughput of soybean transformation necessitates the use of a transposon-tagging strategy where a single transformation event will produce many mutations over a number of generations. However, existing transposon-tagging tools being used in legumes are of limited utility because of restricted transposition (Ac/Ds: soybean) or the requirement for tissue culture activation (Tnt1: Medicago truncatula). A recently discovered transposable element from rice (Oryza sativa), mPing, and the genes required for its mobilization, were transferred to soybean to determine if it will be an improvement over the other available transposon-tagging tools. Stable transformation events in soybean were tested for mPing transposition. Analysis of mPing excision at early and late embryo developmental stages revealed increased excision during late development in most transgenic lines, suggesting that transposition is developmentally regulated. Transgenic lines that produced heritable mPing insertions were identified, with the plants from the highest activity line producing at least one new insertion per generation. Analysis of the mPing insertion sites in the soybean genome revealed that features displayed in rice were retained including transposition to unlinked sites and a preference for insertion within 2.5 kb of a gene. Taken together these findings indicate that mPing has the characteristics necessary for an effective transposon-tagging resource.

  19. Biotinylation of histones represses transposable elements in human and mouse cells and cell lines and in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chew, Yap Ching; West, John T; Kratzer, Stephanie J; Ilvarsonn, Anne M; Eissenberg, Joel C; Dave, Bhavana J; Klinkebiel, David; Christman, Judith K; Zempleni, Janos

    2008-12-01

    Transposable elements such as long terminal repeats (LTR) constitute approximately 45% of the human genome; transposition events impair genome stability. Fifty-four promoter-active retrotransposons have been identified in humans. Epigenetic mechanisms are important for transcriptional repression of retrotransposons, preventing transposition events, and abnormal regulation of genes. Here, we demonstrate that the covalent binding of the vitamin biotin to lysine-12 in histone H4 (H4K12bio) and lysine-9 in histone H2A (H2AK9bio), mediated by holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS), is an epigenetic mechanism to repress retrotransposon transcription in human and mouse cell lines and in primary cells from a human supplementation study. Abundance of H4K12bio and H2AK9bio at intact retrotransposons and a solitary LTR depended on biotin supply and HCS activity and was inversely linked with the abundance of LTR transcripts. Knockdown of HCS in Drosophila melanogaster enhances retrotransposition in the germline. Importantly, we demonstrated that depletion of H4K12bio and H2AK9bio in biotin-deficient cells correlates with increased production of viral particles and transposition events and ultimately decreases chromosomal stability. Collectively, this study reveals a novel diet-dependent epigenetic mechanism that could affect cancer risk.

  20. Genome-Wide Patterns of Adaptation to Temperate Environments Associated with Transposable Elements in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    González, Josefa; Karasov, Talia L.; Messer, Philipp W.; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2010-01-01

    Investigating spatial patterns of loci under selection can give insight into how populations evolved in response to selective pressures and can provide monitoring tools for detecting the impact of environmental changes on populations. Drosophila is a particularly good model to study adaptation to environmental heterogeneity since it is a tropical species that originated in sub-Saharan Africa and has only recently colonized the rest of the world. There is strong evidence for the adaptive role of Transposable Elements (TEs) in the evolution of Drosophila, and TEs might play an important role specifically in adaptation to temperate climates. In this work, we analyzed the frequency of a set of putatively adaptive and putatively neutral TEs in populations with contrasting climates that were collected near the endpoints of two known latitudinal clines in Australia and North America. The contrasting results obtained for putatively adaptive and putatively neutral TEs and the consistency of the patterns between continents strongly suggest that putatively adaptive TEs are involved in adaptation to temperate climates. We integrated information on population behavior, possible environmental selective agents, and both molecular and functional information of the TEs and their nearby genes to infer the plausible phenotypic consequences of these insertions. We conclude that adaptation to temperate environments is widespread in Drosophila and that TEs play a significant role in this adaptation. It is remarkable that such a diverse set of TEs located next to a diverse set of genes are consistently adaptive to temperate climate-related factors. We argue that reverse population genomic analyses, as the one described in this work, are necessary to arrive at a comprehensive picture of adaptation. PMID:20386746

  1. Transposable element derived DNaseI-hypersensitive sites in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Jordan, I King

    2006-01-01

    Background Transposable elements (TEs) are abundant genomic sequences that have been found to contribute to genome evolution in unexpected ways. Here, we characterize the evolutionary and functional characteristics of TE-derived human genome regulatory sequences uncovered by the high throughput mapping of DNaseI-hypersensitive (HS) sites. Results Human genome TEs were found to contribute substantially to HS regulatory sequences characterized in CD4+ T cells: 23% of HS sites contain TE-derived sequences. While HS sites are far more evolutionarily conserved than non HS sites in the human genome, consistent with their functional importance, TE-derived HS sites are highly divergent. Nevertheless, TE-derived HS sites were shown to be functionally relevant in terms of driving gene expression in CD4+ T cells. Genes involved in immune response are statistically over-represented among genes with TE-derived HS sites. A number of genes with both TE-derived HS sites and immune tissue related expression patterns were found to encode proteins involved in immune response such as T cell specific receptor antigens and secreted cytokines as well as proteins with clinical relevance to HIV and cancer. Genes with TE-derived HS sites have higher average levels of sequence and expression divergence between human and mouse orthologs compared to genes with non TE-derived HS sites. Conclusion The results reported here support the notion that TEs provide a specific genome-wide mechanism for generating functionally relevant gene regulatory divergence between evolutionary lineages. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Wolfgang J. Miller (nominated by Jerzy Jurka), Itai Yanai and Mikhail S.Gelfand. PMID:16857058

  2. A transposable element insertion in APOB causes cholesterol deficiency in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Menzi, F; Besuchet-Schmutz, N; Fragnière, M; Hofstetter, S; Jagannathan, V; Mock, T; Raemy, A; Studer, E; Mehinagic, K; Regenscheit, N; Meylan, M; Schmitz-Hsu, F; Drögemüller, C

    2016-04-01

    Cholesterol deficiency, a new autosomal recessive inherited genetic defect in Holstein cattle, has been recently reported to have an influence on the rearing success of calves. The affected animals show unresponsive diarrhea accompanied by hypocholesterolemia and usually die within the first weeks or months of life. Here, we show that whole genome sequencing combined with the knowledge about the pedigree and inbreeding status of a livestock population facilitates the identification of the causative mutation. We resequenced the entire genomes of an affected calf and a healthy partially inbred male carrying one copy of the critical 2.24-Mb chromosome 11 segment in its ancestral state and one copy of the same segment with the cholesterol deficiency mutation. We detected a single structural variant, homozygous in the affected case and heterozygous in the non-affected carrier male. The genetic makeup of this key animal provides extremely strong support for the causality of this mutation. The mutation represents a 1.3kb insertion of a transposable LTR element (ERV2-1) in the coding sequence of the APOB gene, which leads to truncated transcripts and aberrant splicing. This finding was further supported by RNA sequencing of the liver transcriptome of an affected calf. The encoded apolipoprotein B is an essential apolipoprotein on chylomicrons and low-density lipoproteins, and therefore, the mutation represents a loss of function mutation similar to autosomal recessive inherited familial hypobetalipoproteinemia-1 (FHBL1) in humans. Our findings provide a direct gene test to improve selection against this deleterious mutation in Holstein cattle.

  3. Excision of transposable elements from the chalcone isomerase and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase genes may contribute to the variegation of the yellow-flowered carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus).

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yoshio; Higeta, Daisuke; Suzuki, Akane; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2002-05-01

    In the "Rhapsody" cultivar of the carnation, which bears white flowers variegated with red flecks and sectors, a transposable element, dTdic1, belonging to the Ac/Ds superfamily, was found within the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene. The red flecks and sectors of "Rhapsody" may be attributable to a reversion to DFR activity after the excision of dTdic1. The yellow color of the carnation petals is attributed to the synthesis and accumulation of chalcone 2'-glucoside. In several of the carnation cultivars that bear yellow flowers variegated with white flecks and sectors, both the chalcone isomerase (CHI) and DFR genes are disrupted by dTdic1.

  4. Distribution of Unlinked Receptor Sites for Transposed Ac Elements from the Bz-M2(ac) Allele in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Dooner, H. K.; Belachew, A.; Burgess, D.; Harding, S.; Ralston, M.; Ralston, E.

    1994-01-01

    We have shown before that the Ac element from the maize bz-m2(Ac) allele, located in the short arm of chromosome 9 (9S), transposes preferentially to sites that are linked to the bz donor locus. Yet, about half of the Ac transpositions recovered from bz-m2(Ac) are in receptor sites not linked to the donor locus. In this study, we have analyzed the distribution of those unlinked receptor sites. Thirty-seven transposed Ac (trAc) elements that recombined independently of the bz locus were mapped using a set of wx reciprocal translocations. We found that the distribution of unlinked receptor sites for trAs was not random. Ten trAcs mapped to 9L, i.e., Ac had transposed to sites physically, if not genetically, linked to the donor site. Among chromosomes other than 9, the Ac element of bz-m2(Ac) appeared to have transposed preferentially to certain chromosomes, such as 5 and 7, but infrequently to others, such as 1, the longest chromosome in the maize genome. The seven trAc elements in chromosome 5 were mapped relative to markers in 5S and 5L and localized to both arms of 5. We also investigated the transposition of Ac to the homolog of the donor chromosome. We found that Ac rarely transposes from bz-m2(Ac) to the homologous chromosome 9. The clustering of Ac receptor sites around the donor locus has been taken to mean that a physical association between the donor site and nearby receptor sites occurs during transposition. The preferential occurrence of 9L among chromosomes harboring unlinked receptor sites would be expected according to this model, since sites in 9L would tend to be physically closer to 9S than sites in other chromosomes. The nonrandom pattern seen among the remaining chromosomes could reflect an underlying nuclear architecture, i.e., an ordering of the chromosomes in the interphase nucleus, as suggested from previous cytological observations. PMID:8138163

  5. Allopolyploidy has a moderate impact on restructuring at three contrasting transposable element insertion sites in resynthesized Brassica napus allotetraploids.

    PubMed

    Sarilar, Véronique; Palacios, Paulina Martinez; Rousselet, Agnès; Ridel, Céline; Falque, Matthieu; Eber, Frédérique; Chèvre, Anne-Marie; Joets, Johann; Brabant, Philippe; Alix, Karine

    2013-04-01

    The role played by whole-genome duplication (WGD) in evolution and adaptation is particularly well illustrated in allopolyploids, where WGD is concomitant with interspecific hybridization. This 'Genome Shock', usually accompanied by structural and functional modifications, has been associated with the activation of transposable elements (TEs). However, the impact of allopolyploidy on TEs has been studied in only a few polyploid species, and not in Brassica, which has been marked by recurrent polyploidy events. Here, we developed sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP) markers for three contrasting TEs, and compared profiles between resynthesized Brassica napus allotetraploids and their diploid Brassica progenitors. To evaluate restructuring at TE insertion sites, we scored changes in SSAP profiles and analysed a large set of differentially amplified SSAP bands. No massive structural changes associated with the three TEs surveyed were detected. However, several transposition events, specific to the youngest TE originating from the B. oleracea genome, were identified. Our study supports the hypothesis that TE responses to allopolyploidy are highly specific. The changes observed in SSAP profiles lead us to hypothesize that they may partly result from changes in DNA methylation, questioning the role of epigenetics during the formation of a new allopolyploid genome.

  6. Construction and uses of a new transposable element whose insertion is able to produce gene fusions with the neomycin-phosphotransferase-coding region of Tn903.

    PubMed

    Ratet, P; Richaud, F

    1986-01-01

    We describe the construction of a transposable element derived from the Mu phage that upon insertion is able to create a gene fusion between the region of Tn903 coding for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT I), which confers resistance to aminoglycosides including kanamycin (KmR), neomycin and G418, and the control elements of the gene where the insertion occurs. A chloramphenicol (Cm) transacetylase gene (cat) that confers resistance to Cm is present in the transposon so that transposition events can be monitored even when no active fusions with the nptI coding region occur. The transposase gene is deleted and, therefore, this transposon is perfectly stable upon insertion. The properties of this new transposable element were studied by obtaining gene fusions between the Escherichia coli L-arabinose operon and 'nptI gene. In some of them the KmR phenotype is induced by arabinose. Insertions of this element in cloned fragments of the T-DNA region of Agrobacterium rhizogenes were also isolated. Some of them confer a KmR phenotype upon its E. coli carriers, which indicates that portions of the T-DNA are expressed in these cells.

  7. Convergent evolution of endometrial prolactin expression in primates, mice, and elephants through the independent recruitment of transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Emera, Deena; Casola, Claudio; Lynch, Vincent J; Wildman, Derek E; Agnew, Dalen; Wagner, Günter P

    2012-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a multifunctional signaling molecule best known for its role in regulating lactation in mammals. Systemic PRL is produced by the anterior pituitary, but extrapituitary PRL has also been detected in many tissues including the human endometrium. Prolactin is essential for pregnancy in rodents and one of the most dramatically induced genes in the endometrium during human pregnancy. The promoter for human endometrial Prl is located about 5.8 kb upstream of the pituitary promoter and is derived from a transposable element called MER39. Although it has been shown that prolactin is expressed in the pregnant endometrium of a few mammals other than humans, MER39 has been described as primate specific. Thus, in an effort to understand mechanisms of prolactin regulatory evolution, we sought to determine how uterine prolactin is transcribed in species that lack MER39. Using a variety of complementary strategies, including reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and whole-transcriptome sequencing, we show that endometrial Prl expression is not a shared character of all placental mammals, as it is not expressed in rabbits, pigs, dogs, or armadillos. We show that in primates, mice, and elephants, prolactin mRNA is transcribed in the pregnant endometrium from alternative promoters, different from the pituitary promoter and different from each other. Moreover, we demonstrate that the spider monkey promoter derives from the long terminal repeat (LTR) element MER39 as in humans, the mouse promoter derives from the LTR element MER77, and the elephant promoter derives from the lineage-specific LINE retrotransposon L1-2_LA. We also find surprising variation of transcriptional start sites within these transposable elements and of Prl splice variants, suggesting a high degree of flexibility in the promoter architecture even among closely related species. Finally, the three groups shown here to express endometrial prolactin

  8. The Mutator-Related Cy Transposable Element of Zea Mays L. Behaves as a near-Mendelian Factor

    PubMed Central

    Schnable, P. S.; Peterson, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    The bz-rcy allele arose in a single gamete of the TEL (transposable-element laden) population, when the rcy receptor element inserted into the Bronze1 locus. This newly arisen receptor allele conditions a stable bronze kernel phenotype in the absence of the independently segregating regulatory element, Cy. In the presence of Cy, bz-rcy conditions fully colored spots on a bronze background. The spots represent clonal sectors arising from mutations of bz-rcy to Bz'. Although Cy exhibits genetic interactions with the Mutator system it differs from Mu-homologous elements in its near-Mendelian behavior which is in contrast to the non-Mendelian inheritance of Mutator and Mu-homologous elements. Evidence is presented which suggests that the timing and mode of Cy transposition differ from those of Mu1. PMID:17246483

  9. The Tempo and Mode of Evolution of Transposable Elements as Revealed by Molecular Phylogenies Reconstructed from Mosquito Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Massad, Eduardo; Tu, Zhijian; Ribeiro, José M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Although many mathematical models exist predicting the dynamics of transposable elements, there is a lack of available empirical data to validate these models and inherent assumptions. Genomes can provide a snapshot of several transposable-element families in a single organism, and these could have their demographics inferred by coalescent analysis, allowing for the testing of theories on TE amplification dynamics. Using the available genomes of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, we indicate that such an approach is feasible. Our analysis follows four steps: (i) mining the two mosquito genomes currently available in search of TE families; (ii) fitting, to selected families found in (i), a phylogeny tree under the general time-reversible (GTR) nucleotide substitution model with an uncorrelated lognormal relaxed clock (UCLN) and a non-parametric demographic model; (iii) fitting a non-parametric coalescent model to the tree generated in (ii); (iv) fitting parametric models motivated by ecological theories to the curve generated in (iii). PMID:19656180

  10. Molecular characterization and chromosomal distribution of Galileo, Kepler and Newton, three foldback transposable elements of the Drosophila buzzatii species complex.

    PubMed

    Casals, Ferran; Cáceres, Mario; Manfrin, Maura Helena; González, Josefa; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2005-04-01

    Galileo is a foldback transposable element that has been implicated in the generation of two polymorphic chromosomal inversions in Drosophila buzzatii. Analysis of the inversion breakpoints led to the discovery of two additional elements, called Kepler and Newton, sharing sequence and structural similarities with Galileo. Here, we describe in detail the molecular structure of these three elements, on the basis of the 13 copies found at the inversion breakpoints plus 10 additional copies isolated during this work. Similarly to the foldback elements described in other organisms, these elements have long inverted terminal repeats, which in the case of Galileo possess a complex structure and display a high degree of internal variability between copies. A phylogenetic tree built with their shared sequences shows that the three elements are closely related and diverged approximately 10 million years ago. We have also analyzed the abundance and chromosomal distribution of these elements in D. buzzatii and other species of the repleta group by Southern analysis and in situ hybridization. Overall, the results suggest that these foldback elements are present in all the buzzatti complex species and may have played an important role in shaping their genomes. In addition, we show that recombination rate is the main factor determining the chromosomal distribution of these elements.

  11. Spontaneous germline excision of Tol1, a DNA-based transposable element naturally occurring in the medaka fish genome.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Koga, Hajime; Nakamura, Kodai; Fujita, Akiko; Hattori, Akimasa; Matsuda, Masaru; Koga, Akihiko

    2014-04-01

    DNA-based transposable elements are ubiquitous constituents of eukaryotic genomes. Vertebrates are, however, exceptional in that most of their DNA-based elements appear to be inactivated. The Tol1 element of the medaka fish, Oryzias latipes, is one of the few elements for which copies containing an undamaged gene have been found. Spontaneous transposition of this element in somatic cells has previously been demonstrated, but there is only indirect evidence for its germline transposition. Here, we show direct evidence of spontaneous excision in the germline. Tyrosinase is the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. In an albino laboratory strain of medaka fish, which is homozygous for a mutant tyrosinase gene in which a Tol1 copy is inserted, we identified de novo reversion mutations related to melanin pigmentation. The gamete-based reversion rate was as high as 0.4%. The revertant fish carried the tyrosinase gene from which the Tol1 copy had been excised. We previously reported the germline transposition of Tol2, another DNA-based element that is thought to be a recent invader of the medaka fish genome. Tol1 is an ancient resident of the genome. Our results indicate that even an old element can contribute to genetic variation in the host genome as a natural mutator.

  12. FB-NOF is a non-autonomous transposable element, expressed in Drosophila melanogaster and present only in the melanogaster group.

    PubMed

    Badal, Martí; Xamena, Noel; Cabré, Oriol

    2013-09-10

    Most foldback elements are defective due to the lack of coding sequences but some are associated with coding sequences and may represent the entire element. This is the case of the NOF sequences found in the FB of Drosophila melanogaster, formerly considered as an autonomous TE and currently proposed as part of the so-called FB-NOF element, the transposon that would be complete and fully functional. NOF is always associated with FB and never seen apart from the FB inverted repeats (IR). This is the reason why the FB-NOF composite element can be considered the complete element. At least one of its ORFs encodes a protein that has always been considered its transposase, but no detailed studies have been carried out to verify this. In this work we test the hypothesis that FB-NOF is an active transposon nowadays. We search for its expression product, obtaining its cDNA, and propose the ORF and the sequence of its potential protein. We found that the NOF protein is not a transposase as it lacks any of the motifs of known transposases and also shows structural homology with hydrolases, therefore FB-NOF cannot belong to the superfamily MuDR/foldback, as up to now it has been classified, and can be considered as a non-autonomous transposable element. The alignment with the published genomes of 12 Drosophila species shows that NOF presence is restricted only to the 6 Drosophila species belonging to the melanogaster group.

  13. Distribution of T1, Q, Pegasus and mariner transposable elements on the polytene chromosomes of PEST, a standard strain of Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Mukabayire, O; Besansky, N J

    1996-06-01

    The chromosomal locations of four families of transposable elements, T1, Q, Pegasus and mariner, have been determined by in situ hybridization to polytene chromosomes of ovarian nurse cells of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. As part of this effort, we have developed a vigorous pink-eyed laboratory strain of A. gambiae (PEST), rendered homozygous standard for chromosomal inversions on all autosomes. Ten different individuals of this strain were studied with each transposable element probe. The average number of hybridization sites per genome was 83.9 for T1, 63.4 for Q, 31.5 for Pegasus and 64.7 for mariner, excluding pericentric and centromeric regions. However, some degree of polymorphism was observed within each family such that, considering all ten individuals, 94 different sites were detected for T1, 82 sites for Q, 45 sites for Pegasus and 71 sites for mariner. The mean occupancy per site varied from 0.70 (Pegasus) to 0.91 (mariner), which, while significantly higher than that seen for transposable elements in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster, is comparable to that seen in established laboratory stocks. In addition, these element families were not randomly distributed. All but Pegasus were concentrated in centromeric heterochromatin and centromere-proximal euchromatin, most showed a deficit of hybridization sites in the distal section of chromosomes, and a significant proportion of sites were coincident between families. These results provide the first detailed examination of the cytogenetic location of transposable elements in a nondrosophilid insect, and, through comparison with the behavior of transposable elements in Drosophila, may provide insight into the interaction between elements and host. The mapped elements are also expected to serve as landmarks useful in integrating the developing physical map of the PEST strain with the chromosomal banding pattern.

  14. Relaxed natural selection alone does not permit transposable element expansion within 4,000 generations in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Plague, Gordon R; Dougherty, Kevin M; Boodram, Krystal S; Boustani, Samantha E; Cao, Huansheng; Manning, Sarah R; McNally, Camille C

    2011-07-01

    Insertion sequences (ISs) are transposable genetic elements in bacterial genomes. IS elements are common among bacteria but are generally rare within free-living species, probably because of the negative fitness effects they have on their hosts. Conversely, ISs frequently proliferate in intracellular symbionts and pathogens that recently transitioned from a free-living lifestyle. IS elements can profoundly influence the genomic evolution of their bacterial hosts, although it is unknown why they often expand in intracellular bacteria. We designed a laboratory evolution experiment with Escherichia coli K-12 to test the hypotheses that IS elements often expand in intracellular bacteria because of relaxed natural selection due to (1) their generally small effective population sizes (N (e)) and thus enhanced genetic drift, and (2) their nutrient rich environment, which makes many biosynthetic genes unnecessary and thus selectively neutral territory for IS insertion. We propagated 12 populations under four experimental conditions: large N (e) versus small N (e), and nutrient rich medium versus minimal medium. We found that relaxed selection over 4,000 generations was not sufficient to permit IS element expansion in any experimental population, thus leading us to hypothesize that IS expansion in intracellular symbionts may often be spurred by enhanced transposition rates, possibly due to environmental stress, coupled with relaxed natural selection.

  15. Illumina TruSeq synthetic long-reads empower de novo assembly and resolve complex, highly-repetitive transposable elements.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Rajiv C; Taylor, Ryan W; Blauwkamp, Timothy A; Kelley, Joanna L; Kertesz, Michael; Pushkarev, Dmitry; Petrov, Dmitri A; Fiston-Lavier, Anna-Sophie

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized genomic analysis, including the de novo assembly of whole genomes. Nevertheless, assembly of complex genomes remains challenging, in part due to the presence of dispersed repeats which introduce ambiguity during genome reconstruction. Transposable elements (TEs) can be particularly problematic, especially for TE families exhibiting high sequence identity, high copy number, or complex genomic arrangements. While TEs strongly affect genome function and evolution, most current de novo assembly approaches cannot resolve long, identical, and abundant families of TEs. Here, we applied a novel Illumina technology called TruSeq synthetic long-reads, which are generated through highly-parallel library preparation and local assembly of short read data and which achieve lengths of 1.5-18.5 Kbp with an extremely low error rate ([Formula: see text]0.03% per base). To test the utility of this technology, we sequenced and assembled the genome of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster (reference genome strain y; cn, bw, sp) achieving an N50 contig size of 69.7 Kbp and covering 96.9% of the euchromatic chromosome arms of the current reference genome. TruSeq synthetic long-read technology enables placement of individual TE copies in their proper genomic locations as well as accurate reconstruction of TE sequences. We entirely recovered and accurately placed 4,229 (77.8%) of the 5,434 annotated transposable elements with perfect identity to the current reference genome. As TEs are ubiquitous features of genomes of many species, TruSeq synthetic long-reads, and likely other methods that generate long-reads, offer a powerful approach to improve de novo assemblies of whole genomes.

  16. Analysis of copy-number variation, insertional polymorphism, and methylation status of the tiniest class I (TRIM) and class II (MITE) transposable element families in various rice strains.

    PubMed

    Baruch, Omer; Kashkush, Khalil

    2012-05-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) dominate the genetic capacity of most eukaryotes, especially plants, where they may compose up to 90% of the genome. Many studies, both in plants and animals reported that in fact non-autonomous elements that have lost their protein-coding sequences and became miniature elements were highly associated with genes, and showed a high level of transpositional activity such as mPing family in rice. In this study, we have investigated in detail the copy number, insertional polymorphism and the methylation status of the tiniest LTR retrotransposon family, termed TRIM, in nine rice strains, in comparison with mPing. While TRIM showed similar copy numbers (average of 79 insertions) in all the nine rice strains, the copy number of mPing varied dramatically (ranging from 6 to 203 insertions) in the same strains. Site-specific PCR analysis revealed that ~58% of the TRIM elements have identical insertion sites among the nine rice strains, while none of the mPing elements (100% polymorphism) have identical insertion sites in the same strains. Finally, over 65% of the TRIM insertion sites were cytosine methylated in all nine rice strains, while the level of the methylated mPing insertion sites ranged between 43 and 81.5%. The findings of this study indicate that unlike mPing, TRIM is most probably a fossil TE family in rice. In addition, the data shows that there might be a strong correlation between TE methylation and copy number.

  17. Coordinately Co-opted Multiple Transposable Elements Constitute an Enhancer for wnt5a Expression in the Mammalian Secondary Palate

    PubMed Central

    Kimura-Yoshida, Chiharu; Yan, Kuo; Bormuth, Olga; Ding, Qiong; Nakanishi, Akiko; Sasaki, Takeshi; Hirakawa, Mika; Sumiyama, Kenta; Furuta, Yasuhide; Tarabykin, Victor; Matsuo, Isao; Okada, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of cis-regulatory elements is a major driving force of evolution, and there are several examples of developmental enhancers derived from transposable elements (TEs). However, it remains unclear whether one enhancer element could have been produced via cooperation among multiple, yet distinct, TEs during evolution. Here we show that an evolutionarily conserved genomic region named AS3_9 comprises three TEs (AmnSINE1, X6b_DNA and MER117), inserted side-by-side, and functions as a distal enhancer for wnt5a expression during morphogenesis of the mammalian secondary palate. Functional analysis of each TE revealed step-by-step retroposition/transposition and co-option together with acquisition of a binding site for Msx1 for its full enhancer function during mammalian evolution. The present study provides a new perspective suggesting that a huge variety of TEs, in combination, could have accelerated the diversity of cis-regulatory elements involved in morphological evolution. PMID:27741242

  18. Expression of the Arabidopsis transposable element Tag1 is targeted to developing gametophytes.

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Mary; Theriault, Angie; Liu, Dong; Crawford, Nigel M

    2003-01-01

    The Arabidopsis transposon Tag1 undergoes late excision during vegetative and germinal development in plants containing 35S-Tag1-GUS constructs. To determine if transcriptional regulation can account for the developmental control of Tag1 excision, the transcriptional activity of Tag1 promoter-GUS fusion constructs of various lengths was examined in transgenic plants. All constructs showed expression in the reproductive organs of developing flowers but no expression in leaves. Expression was restricted to developing gametophytes in both male and female lineages. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that Tag1 expression predominates in the reproductive organs of flower buds. These results are consistent with late germinal excision of Tag1, but they cannot explain the vegetative excision activity of Tag1 observed with 35S-Tag1-GUS constructs. To resolve this issue, Tag1 excision was reexamined using elements with no adjacent 35S promoter sequences. Tag1 excision in this context is restricted to germinal events with no detectable vegetative excision. If a 35S enhancer sequence is placed next to Tag1, vegetative excision is restored. These results indicate that the intrinsic activity of Tag1 is restricted to germinal excision due to targeted expression of the Tag1 transposase to developing gametophytes and that this activity is altered by the presence of adjacent enhancers or promoters. PMID:14704189

  19. The origin and evolution of six miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements in Bombyx mori and Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-Hao; Xu, Hong-En; Shen, Yi-Hong; Han, Min-Jin; Zhang, Ze

    2013-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are a specific group of nonautonomous DNA transposons, and they are distributed in a wide range of hosts. However, the origin and evolutionary history of MITEs in eukaryotic genomes remain unclear. In this study, six MITEs were identified in the silkworm (Bombyx mori). Five elements are grouped into four known superfamilies of DNA transposons, and one represents a novel class of MITEs. Unexpectedly, six similar MITEs are also present in the triatomine bug (Rhodnius prolixus) that diverged from the common ancestor with the silkworm about 370 Ma. However, they show different lengths in two species, suggesting that they are different derivatives of progenitor transposons. Three direct progenitor transposons (Sola1, hobo/Ac/Tam [hAT], and Ginger2) are also identified in some other organisms, and several lines of evidence suggested that these autonomous elements might have been independently and horizontally transferred into their hosts. Furthermore, it is speculated that the twisted-wing parasites may be the candidate vectors for these horizontal transfers. The data presented in this study provide some new insights into the origin and evolutionary history of MITEs in the silkworm and triatomine bug.

  20. Heterochromatin and molecular characterization of DsmarMITE transposable element in the beetle Dichotomius schiffleri (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Xavier, Crislaine; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; de Moura, Rita Cássia

    2014-12-01

    Cytogenetic studies of the Neotropical beetle genus Dichotomius (Scarabaeinae, Coleoptera) have shown dynamism for centromeric constitutive heterochromatin sequences. In the present work we studied the chromosomes and isolated repetitive sequences of Dichotomius schiffleri aiming to contribute to the understanding of coleopteran genome/chromosomal organization. Dichotomius schiffleri presented a conserved karyotype and heterochromatin distribution in comparison to other species of the genus with 2n = 18, biarmed chromosomes, and pericentromeric C-positive blocks. Similarly to heterochromatin distributional patterns, the highly and moderately repetitive DNA fraction (C 0 t-1 DNA) was detected in pericentromeric areas, contrasting with the euchromatic mapping of an isolated TE (named DsmarMITE). After structural analyses, the DsmarMITE was classified as a non-autonomous element of the type miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) with terminal inverted repeats similar to Mariner elements of insects from different orders. The euchromatic distribution for DsmarMITE indicates that it does not play a part in the dynamics of constitutive heterochromatin sequences.

  1. CACTA-superfamily transposable element is inserted in MYB transcription factor gene of soybean line producing variegated seeds.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fan; Di, Shaokang; Takahashi, Ryoji

    2015-08-01

    The R gene of soybean, presumably encoding a MYB transcription factor, controls seed coat color. The gene consists of multiple alleles, R (black), r-m (black spots and (or) concentric streaks on brown seed), and r (brown seed). This study was conducted to determine the structure of the MYB transcription factor gene in a near-isogenic line (NIL) having r-m allele. PCR amplification of a fragment of the candidate gene Glyma.09G235100 generated a fragment of about 1 kb in the soybean cultivar Clark, whereas a fragment of about 14 kb in addition to fragments of 1 and 1.4 kb were produced in L72-2040, a Clark 63 NIL with the r-m allele. Clark 63 is a NIL of Clark with the rxp and Rps1 alleles. A DNA fragment of 13 060 bp was inserted in the intron of Glyma.09G235100 in L72-2040. The fragment had the CACTA motif at both ends, imperfect terminal inverted repeats (TIR), inverse repetition of short sequence motifs close to the 5' and 3' ends, and a duplication of three nucleotides at the site of integration, indicating that it belongs to a CACTA-superfamily transposable element. We designated the element as Tgm11. Overall nucleotide sequence, motifs of TIR, and subterminal repeats were similar to those of Tgm1 and Tgs1, suggesting that these elements comprise a family.

  2. Interactions between WHITE Genes Carried by a Large Transposing Element and the ZESTE1 Allele in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Gubb, D.; Roote, J.; McGill, S.; Shelton, M.; Ashburner, M.

    1986-01-01

    TE146, a large transposing element of Drosophila melanogaster, carries two copies of the white and roughest genes in tandem. In consequence, z1 w 11E4; TE146(Z)/+ flies have a zeste (lemon-yellow) eye color. However, one in 103 TE146 chromosomes mutates to a red-eyed form. The majority of these "spontaneous red" (SR) derivatives of TE146 have only one copy of the white gene and are, cytologically, two- to three-banded elements, rather than six-banded as their progenitor. The SR forms of TE146 are also unstable and give zeste-colored forms with a frequency of about one in 104. One such "spontaneous zeste" (SZ) derivative carries duplicated white genes as an inverted, rather than a tandem, repeat. The genetic instability of this inverted repeat form of TE146 is different from that of the original tandem repeat form. In particular, the inverted repeat form frequently produces derivatives with internal rearrangements of the TE and gives a much lower frequency of SR forms. In addition, two novel features of the interaction between w+ alleles in a zeste background have been found. First, copies of w + can become insensitive to suppression by zeste even when paired. Second, an inversion breakpoint may disrupt the pairing between two adjacent w+ alleles, necessary for their suppression by zeste, without physically separating them. PMID:17246318

  3. A role for palindromic structures in the cis-region of maize Sirevirus LTRs in transposable element evolution and host epigenetic response

    PubMed Central

    Bousios, Alexandros; Diez, Concepcion M.; Takuno, Shohei; Bystry, Vojtech; Darzentas, Nikos; Gaut, Brandon S.

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) proliferate within the genome of their host, which responds by silencing them epigenetically. Much is known about the mechanisms of silencing in plants, particularly the role of siRNAs in guiding DNA methylation. In contrast, little is known about siRNA targeting patterns along the length of TEs, yet this information may provide crucial insights into the dynamics between hosts and TEs. By focusing on 6456 carefully annotated, full-length Sirevirus LTR retrotransposons in maize, we show that their silencing associates with underlying characteristics of the TE sequence and also uncover three features of the host–TE interaction. First, siRNA mapping varies among families and among elements, but particularly along the length of elements. Within the cis-regulatory portion of the LTRs, a complex palindrome-rich region acts as a hotspot of both siRNA matching and sequence evolution. These patterns are consistent across leaf, tassel, and immature ear libraries, but particularly emphasized for floral tissues and 21- to 22-nt siRNAs. Second, this region has the ability to form hairpins, making it a potential template for the production of miRNA-like, hairpin-derived small RNAs. Third, Sireviruses are targeted by siRNAs as a decreasing function of their age, but the oldest elements remain highly targeted, partially by siRNAs that cross-map to the youngest elements. We show that the targeting of older Sireviruses reflects their conserved palindromes. Altogether, we hypothesize that the palindromes aid the silencing of active elements and influence transposition potential, siRNA targeting levels, and ultimately the fate of an element within the genome. PMID:26631490

  4. Sequence Assembly of Yarrowia lipolytica Strain W29/CLIB89 Shows Transposable Element Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Ethan; Kanomata, Yuzo; Wu, Jenny; Zeller, Michael; Oakes, Melanie; Baldi, Pierre; Sandmeyer, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica, an oleaginous yeast, is capable of accumulating significant cellular mass in lipid making it an important source of biosustainable hydrocarbon-based chemicals. In spite of a similar number of protein-coding genes to that in other Hemiascomycetes, the Y. lipolytica genome is almost double that of model yeasts. Despite its economic importance and several distinct strains in common use, an independent genome assembly exists for only one strain. We report here a de novo annotated assembly of the chromosomal genome of an industrially-relevant strain, W29/CLIB89, determined by hybrid next-generation sequencing. For the first time, each Y. lipolytica chromosome is represented by a single contig. The telomeric rDNA repeats were localized by Irys long-range genome mapping and one complete copy of the rDNA sequence is reported. Two large structural variants and retroelement differences with reference strain CLIB122 including a full-length, novel Ty3/Gypsy long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon and multiple LTR-like sequences are described. Strikingly, several of these are adjacent to RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes, which are almost double in number in Y. lipolytica compared to other Hemiascomycetes. In addition to previously-reported dimeric RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes, tRNA pseudogenes were identified. Multiple full-length and truncated LINE elements are also present. Therefore, although identified transposons do not constitute a significant fraction of the Y. lipolytica genome, they could have played an active role in its evolution. Differences between the sequence of this strain and of the existing reference strain underscore the utility of an additional independent genome assembly for this economically important organism. PMID:27603307

  5. A dispersed family of repetitive DNA sequences exhibits characteristics of a transposable element in the genus Lycopersicon.

    PubMed

    Young, R J; Francis, D M; St Clair, D A; Taylor, B H

    1994-06-01

    A segment of DNA 5' to the transcribed region of an auxin-regulated gene, ARPI, from Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. VFN8 contains a sequence with the structural characteristics of a transposable element. The putative element (Lyt1) is 1340 bp long, has terminal inverted repeats of approximately 235 bp and is flanked by 9-bp direct repeats. Lyt1 has a structure similar to the Robertson's Mutator (Mu) family from maize. The terminal inverted repeats are 80% AT-rich, are 96.6% identical, and define a larger family of repetitive elements. Southern analysis and genomic dot-blot reconstructions detected at least 41 copies of Lyt1-hybridizing sequences in red-fruited Lycopersicon spp. (L. esculentum, L. pimpinellifolium and L. cheesmanii), and 2-8 copies in the green-fruited species (L. hirsutum, L. pennellii, L. peruvianum, L. chilense and L. chmielewskii). There were two to four copies in the Solanum spp. closely allied with the genus Lycopersicon (S. lycopersicoides, S. ochranthum and S. juglandifolium), while the more distantly related Solanum spp. showed little (one to two copies in S. tuberosum) to no (S. quitoense) detectable hybridization under stringent conditions. Linkage analysis in the F2 progeny of a cross between L. esculentum and L. cheesmanii indicated that at least six loci that hybridize to the Lyt1 sequence are dispersed in the genome. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern analyses revealed that some red-fruited accessions and L. chmielewskii lacked Lyt1 5' to the transcribed region of ARPI. Subsequent sequence analysis indicated that only one copy of the 9-bp direct repeat (target site) was present, suggesting that transposition of the element into the ARPI gene occurred after the divergence of the red-fruited and green-fruited Lycopersicon species.

  6. Reverted glutathione S-transferase-like genes that influence flower color intensity of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) originated from excision of a transposable element

    PubMed Central

    Momose, Masaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    A glutathione S-transferase-like gene, DcGSTF2, is responsible for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower color intensity. Two defective genes, DcGSTF2mu with a nonsense mutation and DcGSTF2-dTac1 containing a transposable element dTac1, have been characterized in detail in this report. dTac1 is an active element that produces reverted functional genes by excision of the element. A pale-pink cultivar ‘Daisy’ carries both defective genes, whereas a spontaneous deep-colored mutant ‘Daisy-VPR’ lost the element from DcGSTF2-dTac1. This finding confirmed that dTac1 is active and that the resulting reverted gene, DcGSTF2rev1, missing the element is responsible for this color change. Crosses between the pale-colored cultivar ‘06-LA’ and a deep-colored cultivar ‘Spectrum’ produced segregating progeny. Only the deep-colored progeny had DcGSTF2rev2 derived from the ‘Spectrum’ parent, whereas progeny with pale-colored flowers had defective forms from both parents, DcGSTF2mu and DcGSTF2-dTac1. Thus, DcGSTF2rev2 had functional activity and likely originated from excision of dTac1 since there was a footprint sequence at the vacated site of the dTac1 insertion. Characterizing the DcGSTF2 genes in several cultivars revealed that the two functional genes, DcGSTF2rev1 and DcGSTF2rev2, have been used for some time in carnation breeding with the latter in use for more than half a century. PMID:24399917

  7. Reverted glutathione S-transferase-like genes that influence flower color intensity of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) originated from excision of a transposable element.

    PubMed

    Momose, Masaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-12-01

    A glutathione S-transferase-like gene, DcGSTF2, is responsible for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower color intensity. Two defective genes, DcGSTF2mu with a nonsense mutation and DcGSTF2-dTac1 containing a transposable element dTac1, have been characterized in detail in this report. dTac1 is an active element that produces reverted functional genes by excision of the element. A pale-pink cultivar 'Daisy' carries both defective genes, whereas a spontaneous deep-colored mutant 'Daisy-VPR' lost the element from DcGSTF2-dTac1. This finding confirmed that dTac1 is active and that the resulting reverted gene, DcGSTF2rev1, missing the element is responsible for this color change. Crosses between the pale-colored cultivar '06-LA' and a deep-colored cultivar 'Spectrum' produced segregating progeny. Only the deep-colored progeny had DcGSTF2rev2 derived from the 'Spectrum' parent, whereas progeny with pale-colored flowers had defective forms from both parents, DcGSTF2mu and DcGSTF2-dTac1. Thus, DcGSTF2rev2 had functional activity and likely originated from excision of dTac1 since there was a footprint sequence at the vacated site of the dTac1 insertion. Characterizing the DcGSTF2 genes in several cultivars revealed that the two functional genes, DcGSTF2rev1 and DcGSTF2rev2, have been used for some time in carnation breeding with the latter in use for more than half a century.

  8. An adaptive transposable element insertion in the regulatory region of the EO gene in the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Shen, Yi-Hong; Han, Min-Jin; Cao, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Ze

    2014-12-01

    Although there are many studies to show a key role of transposable elements (TEs) in adaptive evolution of higher organisms, little is known about the molecular mechanisms. In this study, we found that a partial TE (Taguchi) inserted in the cis-regulatory region of the silkworm ecdysone oxidase (EO) gene, which encodes a crucial enzyme to reduce the titer of molting hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone, 20E). The TE insertion occurred during domestication of silkworm and the frequency of the TE insertion in the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori) is high, 54.24%. The linkage disequilibrium in the TE inserted strains of the domesticated silkworm was elevated. Molecular population genetics analyses suggest that this TE insertion is adaptive for the domesticated silkworm. Luminescent reporter assay shows that the TE inserted in the cis-regulatory region of the EO gene functions as a 20E-induced enhancer of the gene expression. Further, phenotypic bioassay indicates that the silkworm with the TE insertion exhibited more stable developmental phenotype than the silkworm without the TE insertion when suffering from food shortage. Thus, the inserted TE in the cis-regulatory region of the EO gene increased developmental uniformity of silkworm individuals through regulating 20E metabolism, partially explaining transformation of a domestication developmental trait in the domesticated silkworm. Our results emphasize the exceptional role of gene expression regulation in developmental transition of domesticated animals.

  9. Chromosomal Distribution of Transposable Elements in Drosophila Melanogaster: Test of the Ectopic Recombination Model for Maintenance of Insertion Site Number

    PubMed Central

    Hoogland, C.; Biemont, C.

    1996-01-01

    Data of insertion site localization and site occupancy frequency of P, hobo, I, copia, mdg1, mdg3, 412, 297, and roo transposable elements (TEs) on the polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster were extracted from the literature. We show that TE insertion site number per chromosomal division was significantly correlated with the amount of DNA. The insertion site number weighted by DNA content was not correlated with recombination rate for all TEs except hobo, for which a positive correlation was detected. No global tendency emerged in the relationship between TE site occupancy frequency, weighted by DNA content, and recombination rate; a strong negative correlation was, however, found for the 3L arm. A possible dominant deleterious effect of chromosomal rearrangements due to recombination between TE insertions is thus not the main factor explaining the dynamics of TEs, since this hypothesis implies a negative relationship between recombination rate and both TE insertion site number and site occupancy frequency. The alternative hypothesis of selection against deleterious effects of insertional mutations is discussed. PMID:8878685

  10. iMITEdb: the genome-wide landscape of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements in insects

    PubMed Central

    Han, Min-Jin; Zhou, Qiu-Zhong; Zhang, Hua-Hao; Tong, Xiaoling; Lu, Cheng; Zhang, Ze; Dai, Fangyin

    2016-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) have attracted much attention due to their widespread occurrence and high copy numbers in eukaryotic genomes. However, the systematic knowledge about MITEs in insects and other animals is still lacking. In this study, we identified 6012 MITE families from 98 insect species genomes. Comparison of these MITEs with known MITEs in the NCBI non-redundant database and Repbase showed that 5701(∼95%) of 6012 MITE families are novel. The abundance of MITEs varies drastically among different insect species, and significantly correlates with genome size. In general, larger genomes contain more MITEs than small genomes. Furthermore, all identified MITEs were included in a newly constructed database (iMITEdb) (http://gene.cqu.edu.cn/iMITEdb/), which has functions such as browse, search, BLAST and download. Overall, our results not only provide insight on insect MITEs but will also improve assembly and annotation of insect genomes. More importantly, the results presented in this study will promote studies of MITEs function, evolution and application in insects. Database URL: http://gene.cqu.edu.cn/iMITEdb/ PMID:28025339

  11. Exogenous Transposable Elements Circumvent Identity-Based Silencing, Permitting the Dissection of Expression-Dependent Silencing[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Fultz, Dalen

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of epigenetic marks has received a great deal of attention, yet the initiation of epigenetic silencing of a new transgene, virus, or transposable element (TE) remains enigmatic. The overlapping and simultaneous function of multiple silencing mechanisms has obscured this area of investigation. Here, we revealed two broad mechanisms that can initiate silencing independently: identity-based and expression-dependent silencing. We found that identity-based silencing is targeted by 21- to 22-nucleotide or 24-nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) generated from previously silenced regions of the genome. By transforming exogenous TEs into Arabidopsis thaliana, we circumvented identity-based silencing, allowing us to isolate and investigate the molecular mechanism of expression-dependent silencing. We found that several siRNA-generating mechanisms all trigger de novo expression-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) through RNA Polymerase V. In addition, while full-length TEs quickly progress beyond RdDM to heterochromatin formation and the final maintenance methylation state, TE fragments stall at the RdDM phase. Lastly, we found that transformation into a mutant genotype followed by introgression into the wild type does not result in the same level of silencing as direct transformation into the wild type. This demonstrates that the plant genotype during a narrow window of time at TE insertion (or transgene transformation) is key for establishing the transgenerational extent of epigenetic silencing. PMID:28193737

  12. A novel application of ecological analyses to assess transposable element distributions in the genome of the domestic cow, Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Brent; Elliott, Tyler A; Linquist, Stefan; Kremer, Stefan C; Gregory, T Ryan; Cottenie, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are among the most abundant components of many eukaryotic genomes. Efforts to explain TE abundance, as well as TE diversity among genomes, have led some researchers to draw an analogy between genomic and ecological processes. Adopting this perspective, we conducted an analysis of the cow (Bos taurus) genome using techniques developed by community ecologists to determine whether environmental factors influence community composition. Specifically, each chromosome within the Bos taurus genome was treated as a "linear transect", and a multivariate redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to identify large-scale spatial patterns in TE communities associated with 10 TE families. The position of each TE community on the chromosome accounted for ∼50% of the variation along the chromosome "transect". Multivariate analysis further revealed an effect of gene density on TE communities that is influenced by several other factors in the (genomic) environment, including chromosome length and TE density. The results of this analysis demonstrate that ecological methods can be applied successfully to help answer genomic questions.

  13. Diversity, distribution, and significance of transposable elements in the genome of the only selfing hermaphroditic vertebrate Kryptolebias marmoratus

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Jae-Sung; Choi, Beom-Soon; Kim, Jaebum; Kim, Bo-Mi; Lee, Young-Mi; Kim, Il-Chan; Kanamori, Akira; Choi, Ik-Young; Schartl, Manfred; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-01-01

    The Kryptolebias marmoratus is unique because it is the only self-fertilizing hermaphroditic vertebrate, known to date. It primarily reproduces by internal self-fertilization in a mixed ovary/testis gonad. Here, we report on a high-quality genome assembly for the K. marmoratus South Korea (SK) strain highlighting the diversity and distribution of transposable elements (TEs). We find that K. marmoratus genome maintains number and composition of TEs. This can be an important genomic attribute promoting genome recombination in this selfing fish, while, in addition to a mixed mating strategy, it may also represent a mechanism contributing to the evolutionary adaptation to ecological pressure of the species. Future work should help clarify this point further once genomic information is gathered for other taxa of the family Rivulidae that do not self-fertilize. We provide a valuable genome resource that highlights the potential impact of TEs on the genome evolution of a fish species with an uncommon life cycle. PMID:28071692

  14. Evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements in the short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Gentles, Andrew J; Wakefield, Matthew J; Kohany, Oleksiy; Gu, Wanjun; Batzer, Mark A; Pollock, David D; Jurka, Jerzy

    2007-07-01

    The genome of the gray short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica is notable for its large size ( approximately 3.6 Gb). We characterized nearly 500 families of interspersed repeats from the Monodelphis. They cover approximately 52% of the genome, higher than in any other amniotic lineage studied to date, and may account for the unusually large genome size. In comparison to other mammals, Monodelphis is significantly rich in non-LTR retrotransposons from the LINE-1, CR1, and RTE families, with >29% of the genome sequence comprised of copies of these elements. Monodelphis has at least four families of RTE, and we report support for horizontal transfer of this non-LTR retrotransposon. In addition to short interspersed elements (SINEs) mobilized by L1, we found several families of SINEs that appear to use RTE elements for mobilization. In contrast to L1-mobilized SINEs, the RTE-mobilized SINEs in Monodelphis appear to shift from G+C-rich to G+C-low regions with time. Endogenous retroviruses have colonized approximately 10% of the opossum genome. We found that their density is enhanced in centromeric and/or telomeric regions of most Monodelphis chromosomes. We identified 83 new families of ancient repeats that are highly conserved across amniotic lineages, including 14 LINE-derived repeats; and a novel SINE element, MER131, that may have been exapted as a highly conserved functional noncoding RNA, and whose emergence dates back to approximately 300 million years ago. Many of these conserved repeats are also present in human, and are highly over-represented in predicted cis-regulatory modules. Seventy-six of the 83 families are present in chicken in addition to mammals.

  15. Transposable elements are a major cause of somatic polymorphism in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Grégory; Le Cunff, Loïc; Dereeper, Alexis; Legrand, Delphine; Sabot, François; Bouchez, Olivier; Audeguin, Laurent; Boursiquot, Jean-Michel; This, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Through multiple vegetative propagation cycles, clones accumulate mutations in somatic cells that are at the origin of clonal phenotypic diversity in grape. Clonal diversity provided clones such as Cabernet-Sauvignon N°470, Chardonnay N° 548 and Pinot noir N° 777 which all produce wines of superior quality. The economic impact of clonal selection is therefore very high: since approx. 95% of the grapevines produced in French nurseries originate from the French clonal selection. In this study we provide the first broad description of polymorphism in different clones of a single grapevine cultivar, Pinot noir, in the context of vegetative propagation. Genome sequencing was performed using 454 GS-FLX methodology without a priori, in order to identify and quantify for the first time molecular polymorphisms responsible for clonal variability in grapevine. New generation sequencing (NGS) was used to compare a large portion of the genome of three Pinot noir clones selected for their phenotypic differences. Reads obtained with NGS and the sequence of Pinot noir ENTAV-INRA® 115 sequenced by Velasco et al., were aligned on the PN40024 reference sequence. We then searched for molecular polymorphism between clones. Three types of polymorphism (SNPs, Indels, mobile elements) were found but insertion polymorphism generated by mobile elements of many families displayed the highest mutational event with respect to clonal variation. Mobile elements inducing insertion polymorphism in the genome of Pinot noir were identified and classified and a list is presented in this study as potential markers for the study of clonal variation. Among these, the dynamic of four mobile elements with a high polymorphism level were analyzed and insertion polymorphism was confirmed in all the Pinot clones registered in France.

  16. Distribution and evolutionary dynamics of Stowaway Miniature Inverted repeat Transposable Elements (MITEs) in grasses.

    PubMed

    Minaya, Miguel; Pimentel, Manuel; Mason-Gamer, Roberta; Catalan, Pilar

    2013-07-01

    The occurrence of Stowaway MITEs and their potential footprints in the grasses was assessed within an explicit phylogenetic framework. An organismal tree was used to analyze the distribution and evolutionary dynamics of these elements and their potential excision footprints in the fourth intron of the β-amylase gene and in other introns of several nuclear genes across the Poaceae. Megablast and discontiguous megablast searches in the Entrez nucleotide database were performed for the β-amylase, blz-1, dmc1, nuc, and xly genes MITEs. These elements and their potential footprints were distributed in introns and intergenic spacers of many other nuclear genes throughout the BEP lineages; however, they were absent in the studied PACCMAD lineages. A plausible underlying dynamic of successive acquisitions and deletions of β-amylase Stowaway MITEs in the temperate grasses could be explained by three alternative hypotheses: (i) a single early acquisition of a palindrome element, similar to Tc1-Mariner, in the fourth intron of the β-amylase gene in the ancestor of the Pooideae, followed by multiple independent losses, (ii) multiple independent acquisitions of MITEs in non-related pooid lineages or (iii) different waves of acquisition of MITEs, followed by multiple losses and horizontal transfers in the temperate grasses. This last hypothesis seems to fit best with the evidence found to date.

  17. Genomic skimming for identification of medium/highly abundant transposable elements in Arundo donax and Arundo plinii.

    PubMed

    Lwin, Aung Kyaw; Bertolini, Edoardo; Pè, Mario Enrico; Zuccolo, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are the most abundant genetic material for almost all eukaryotic genomes. Their effects on the host genomes range from an extensive size variation to the regulation of gene expression, altering gene function and creating new genes. Because of TEs pivotal contribute to the host genome structure and regulation, their identification and characterization provide a wealth of useful data for gaining an in-depth understanding of host genome functioning. The giant reed (Arundo donax) is a perennial rhizomatous C3 grass, octadecaploid, with an estimated nuclear genome size of 2744 Mbp. It is a promising feedstock for second-generation biofuels and biomethane production. To identify and characterize the most repetitive TEs in the genomes of A. donax and its ancestral A. plinii species, we carried out low-coverage whole genome shotgun sequencing for both species. Using a de novo repeat identification approach, 33,041 and 28,237 non-redundant repetitive sequences were identified and characterized in A. donax and A. plinii genomes, representing 37.55 and 31.68% of each genome, respectively. Comparative phylogenetic analyses, including the major TE classes identified in A. donax and A. plinii, together with rice and maize TE paralogs, were carried out to understand the evolutionary relationship of the most abundant TE classes. Highly conserved copies of RIRE1-like Ty1-Copia elements were discovered in two Arundo spp. in which they represented nearly 3% of each genomic sequence. We identified and characterized the medium/highly repetitive TEs in two unexplored polyploid genomes, thus generating useful information for the study of the genomic structure, composition, and functioning of these two non-model species. We provided a valuable resource that could be exploited in any effort aimed at sequencing and assembling these two genomes.

  18. Three groups of transposable elements with contrasting copy number dynamics and host responses in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) genome.

    PubMed

    Diez, Concepcion M; Meca, Esteban; Tenaillon, Maud I; Gaut, Brandon S

    2014-04-01

    Most angiosperm nuclear DNA is repetitive and derived from silenced transposable elements (TEs). TE silencing requires substantial resources from the plant host, including the production of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Thus, the interaction between TEs and siRNAs is a critical aspect of both the function and the evolution of plant genomes. Yet the co-evolutionary dynamics between these two entities remain poorly characterized. Here we studied the organization of TEs within the maize (Zea mays ssp mays) genome, documenting that TEs fall within three groups based on the class and copy numbers. These groups included DNA elements, low copy RNA elements and higher copy RNA elements. The three groups varied statistically in characteristics that included length, location, age, siRNA expression and 24:22 nucleotide (nt) siRNA targeting ratios. In addition, the low copy retroelements encompassed a set of TEs that had previously been shown to decrease expression within a 24 nt siRNA biogenesis mutant (mop1). To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of the three groups, we estimated their abundance in two landraces, one with a genome similar in size to that of the maize reference and the other with a 30% larger genome. For all three accessions, we assessed TE abundance as well as 22 nt and 24 nt siRNA content within leaves. The high copy number retroelements are under targeted similarly by siRNAs among accessions, appear to be born of a rapid bust of activity, and may be currently transpositionally dead or limited. In contrast, the lower copy number group of retrolements are targeted more dynamically and have had a long and ongoing history of transposition in the maize genome.

  19. Evidence for Small RNAs Homologous to Effector-Encoding Genes and Transposable Elements in the Oomycete Phytophthora infestans

    PubMed Central

    Vetukuri, Ramesh R.; Åsman, Anna K. M.; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Jahan, Sultana N.; Reimegård, Johan; Fogelqvist, Johan; Savenkov, Eugene; Söderbom, Fredrik; Avrova, Anna O.; Whisson, Stephen C.; Dixelius, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans is the oomycete pathogen responsible for the devastating late blight disease on potato and tomato. There is presently an intense research focus on the role(s) of effectors in promoting late blight disease development. However, little is known about how they are regulated, or how diversity in their expression may be generated among different isolates. Here we present data from investigation of RNA silencing processes, characterized by non-coding small RNA molecules (sRNA) of 19–40 nt. From deep sequencing of sRNAs we have identified sRNAs matching numerous RxLR and Crinkler (CRN) effector protein genes in two isolates differing in pathogenicity. Effector gene-derived sRNAs were present in both isolates, but exhibited marked differences in abundance, especially for CRN effectors. Small RNAs in P. infestans grouped into three clear size classes of 21, 25/26 and 32 nt. Small RNAs from all size classes mapped to RxLR effector genes, but notably 21 nt sRNAs were the predominant size class mapping to CRN effector genes. Some effector genes, such as PiAvr3a, to which sRNAs were found, also exhibited differences in transcript accumulation between the two isolates. The P. infestans genome is rich in transposable elements, and the majority of sRNAs of all size classes mapped to these sequences, predominantly to long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. RNA silencing of Dicer and Argonaute genes provided evidence that generation of 21 nt sRNAs is Dicer-dependent, while accumulation of longer sRNAs was impacted by silencing of Argonaute genes. Additionally, we identified six microRNA (miRNA) candidates from our sequencing data, their precursor sequences from the genome sequence, and target mRNAs. These miRNA candidates have features characteristic of both plant and metazoan miRNAs. PMID:23272103

  20. Phytophthora infestans Argonaute 1 binds microRNA and small RNAs from effector genes and transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Åsman, Anna K M; Fogelqvist, Johan; Vetukuri, Ramesh R; Dixelius, Christina

    2016-08-01

    Phytophthora spp. encode large sets of effector proteins and distinct populations of small RNAs (sRNAs). Recent evidence has suggested that pathogen-derived sRNAs can modulate the expression of plant defense genes. Here, we studied the sRNA classes and functions associated with Phytophthora infestans Argonaute (Ago) proteins. sRNAs were co-immunoprecipitated with three PiAgo proteins and deep sequenced. Twenty- to twenty-two-nucleotide (nt) sRNAs were identified as the main interaction partners of PiAgo1 and high enrichment of 24-26-nt sRNAs was seen in the PiAgo4-bound sample. The frequencies and sizes of transposable element (TE)-derived sRNAs in the different PiAgo libraries suggested diversified roles of the PiAgo proteins in the control of different TE classes. We further provide evidence for the involvement of PiAgo1 in the P. infestans microRNA (miRNA) pathway. Protein-coding genes are probably regulated by the shared action of PiAgo1 and PiAgo5, as demonstrated by analysis of differential expression. An abundance of sRNAs from genes encoding host cell death-inducing Crinkler (CRN) effectors was bound to PiAgo1, implicating this protein in the regulation of the expanded CRN gene family. The data suggest that PiAgo1 plays an essential role in gene regulation and that at least two RNA silencing pathways regulate TEs in the plant-pathogenic oomycete P. infestans.

  1. Melanoma loss-of-function mutants in Xiphophorus caused by Xmrk-oncogene deletion and gene disruption by a transposable element.

    PubMed Central

    Schartl, M; Hornung, U; Gutbrod, H; Volff, J N; Wittbrodt, J

    1999-01-01

    The overexpression of the Xmrk oncogene (ONC-Xmrk) in pigment cells of certain Xiphophorus hybrids has been found to be the primary change that results in the formation of malignant melanoma. Spontaneous mutant stocks have been isolated that have lost the ability to induce tumor formation when crossed with Xiphophorus helleri. Two of these loss-of-function mutants were analyzed for genetic defects in ONC-Xmrk's. In the lof-1 mutant a novel transposable element, TX-1, has jumped into ONC-Xmrk, leading to a disruption of the gene and a truncated protein product lacking the carboxyterminal domain of the receptor tyrosine kinase. TX-1 is obviously an active LTR-containing retrotransposon in Xiphophorus that was not found in other fish species outside the family Poeciliidae. Surprisingly, it does not encode any protein, suggesting the existence of a helper function for this retroelement. In the lof-2 mutant the entire ONC-Xmrk gene was found to be deleted. These data show that ONC-Xmrk is indeed the tumor-inducing gene of Xiphophorus and thus the critical constituent of the tumor (Tu) locus. PMID:10545466

  2. Parafoveal Processing of Transposed-Letter Words and Nonwords: Evidence against Parafoveal Lexical Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca L.; Dunne, Maxine D.

    2012-01-01

    The current experiments explored the parafoveal processing of transposed-letter (TL) neighbors by using an eye-movement-contingent boundary change paradigm. In Experiment 1 readers received a parafoveal preview of a target word (e.g., "calm") that was either (1) identical to the target word ("calm"), (2) a TL-neighbor ("clam"), or (3) a…

  3. Molecular evolution under increasing transposable element burden in Drosophila: A speed limit on the evolutionary arms race

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genome architecture is profoundly influenced by transposable elements (TEs), and natural selection against their harmful effects is a critical factor limiting their spread. Genome defense by the piRNA silencing pathway also plays a crucial role in limiting TE proliferation. How these two forces jointly determine TE abundance is not well understood. To shed light on the nature of factors that predict TE success, we test three distinct hypotheses in the Drosophila genus. First, we determine whether TE abundance and relaxed genome-wide purifying selection on protein sequences are positively correlated. This serves to test the hypothesis that variation in TE abundance in the Drosophila genus can be explained by the strength of natural selection, relative to drift, acting in parallel against mildly deleterious non-synonymous mutations. Second, we test whether increasing TE abundance is correlated with an increased rate of amino-acid evolution in genes encoding the piRNA machinery, as might be predicted by an evolutionary arms race model. Third, we test whether increasing TE abundance is correlated with greater codon bias in genes of the piRNA machinery. This is predicted if increasing TE abundance selects for increased efficiency in the machinery of genome defense. Results Surprisingly, we find neither of the first two hypotheses to be true. Specifically, we found that genome-wide levels of purifying selection, measured by the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates (ω), were greater in species with greater TE abundance. In addition, species with greater TE abundance have greater levels of purifying selection in the piRNA machinery. In contrast, it appears that increasing TE abundance has primarily driven adaptation in the piRNA machinery by increasing codon bias. Conclusions These results indicate that within the Drosophila genus, a historically reduced strength of selection relative to drift is unlikely to explain patterns of increased TE

  4. TE-Locate: A Tool to Locate and Group Transposable Element Occurrences Using Paired-End Next-Generation Sequencing Data.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Alexander; Nizhynska, Viktoria; Long, Quan

    2012-09-12

    Transposable elements (TEs) are common mobile DNA elements present in nearly all genomes. Since the movement of TEs within a genome can sometimes have phenotypic consequences, an accurate report of TE actions is desirable. To this end, we developed TE-Locate, a computational tool that uses paired-end reads to identify the novel locations of known TEs. TE-Locate can utilize either a database of TE sequences, or annotated TEs within the reference sequence of interest. This makes TE-Locate useful in the search for any mobile sequence, including retrotransposed gene copies. One major concern is to act on the correct hierarchy level, thereby avoiding an incorrect calling of a single insertion as multiple events of TEs with high sequence similarity. We used the (super)family level, but TE-Locate can also use any other level, right down to the individual transposable element. As an example of analysis with TE-Locate, we used the Swedish population in the 1,001 Arabidopsis genomes project, and presented the biological insights gained from the novel TEs, inducing the association between different TE superfamilies. The program is freely available, and the URL is provided in the end of the paper.

  5. The En/Spm transposable element of Zea mays contains splice sites at the termini generating a novel intron from a dSpm element in the A2 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Menssen, A; Höhmann, S; Martin, W; Schnable, P S; Peterson, P A; Saedler, H; Gierl, A

    1990-01-01

    The A2 locus of Zea mays, identified as one of the genes affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis, was cloned using the transposable elements rcy and dSpm as gene tags. The A2 gene encodes a putative protein of 395 amino acids and is devoid of introns. Two a2-m1 alleles, containing dSpm insertions of different sizes, were characterized. The dSpm element from the original state allele has perfect termini and undergoes frequent transposition. The element from the class II state allele is no longer competent to transpose. It has retained the 13 bp terminal inverted repeat but has lost all subterminal sites at the 5' end, which are recognized by tnpA protein, the most abundant product of the En/Spm transposable element system. The relatively high A2 gene expression of one a2-m1 allele is due to removal of almost all dSpm sequences by splicing. The slightly altered A2 enzyme is still functional as shown by complementation of an a2 mutant with the corresponding cDNA. The 5' and 3' splice sites are constituted by the termini of the dSpm element; it therefore represents a novel intron of the A2 gene. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. PMID:2170105

  6. An immunity-triggering effector from the Barley smut fungus Ustilago hordei resides in an Ustilaginaceae-specific cluster bearing signs of transposable element-assisted evolution.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shawkat; Laurie, John D; Linning, Rob; Cervantes-Chávez, José Antonio; Gaudet, Denis; Bakkeren, Guus

    2014-07-01

    The basidiomycete smut fungus Ustilago hordei was previously shown to comprise isolates that are avirulent on various barley host cultivars. Through genetic crosses we had revealed that a dominant avirulence locus UhAvr1 which triggers immunity in barley cultivar Hannchen harboring resistance gene Ruh1, resided within an 80-kb region. DNA sequence analysis of this genetically delimited region uncovered the presence of 7 candidate secreted effector proteins. Sequence comparison of their coding sequences among virulent and avirulent parental and field isolates could not distinguish UhAvr1 candidates. Systematic deletion and complementation analyses revealed that UhAvr1 is UHOR_10022 which codes for a small effector protein of 171 amino acids with a predicted 19 amino acid signal peptide. Virulence in the parental isolate is caused by the insertion of a fragment of 5.5 kb with similarity to a common U. hordei transposable element (TE), interrupting the promoter of UhAvr1 and thereby changing expression and hence recognition of UhAVR1p. This rearrangement is likely caused by activities of TEs and variation is seen among isolates. Using GFP-chimeric constructs we show that UhAvr1 is induced only in mated dikaryotic hyphae upon sensing and infecting barley coleoptile cells. When infecting Hannchen, UhAVR1p causes local callose deposition and the production of reactive oxygen species and necrosis indicative of the immune response. UhAvr1 does not contribute significantly to overall virulence. UhAvr1 is located in a cluster of ten effectors with several paralogs and over 50% of TEs. This cluster is syntenous with clusters in closely-related U. maydis and Sporisorium reilianum. In these corn-infecting species, these clusters harbor however more and further diversified homologous effector families but very few TEs. This increased variability may have resulted from past selection pressure by resistance genes since U. maydis is not known to trigger immunity in its corn host.

  7. Identification of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) and biogenesis of their siRNAs in the Solanaceae: new functional implications for MITEs.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Hanhui; Padmanabhan, Chellappan; Li, Feng; Kamei, Ayako; Bhaskar, Pudota B; Ouyang, Shu; Jiang, Jiming; Buell, C Robin; Baker, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Small RNAs regulate the genome by guiding transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing machinery to specific target sequences, including genes and transposable elements (TEs). Although miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are closely associated with euchromatic genes, the broader functional impact of these short TE insertions in genes is largely unknown. We identified 22 families of MITEs in the Solanaceae (MiS1-MiS22) and found abundant MiS insertions in Solanaceae genomic DNA and expressed sequence tags (EST). Several Solanaceae MITEs generate genome changes that potentially affect gene function and regulation, most notably, a MiS insertion that provides a functionally indispensable alternative exon in the tobacco mosaic virus N resistance gene. We show that MITEs generate small RNAs that are primarily 24 nt in length, as detected by Northern blot hybridization and by sequencing small RNAs of Solanum demissum, Nicotiana glutinosa, and Nicotiana benthamiana. Additionally, we show that stable RNAi lines silencing DICER-LIKE3 (DCL3) in tobacco and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2) in potato cause a reduction in 24-nt MITE siRNAs, suggesting that, as in Arabidopsis, TE-derived siRNA biogenesis is DCL3 and RDR2 dependent. We provide evidence that DICER-LIKE4 (DCL4) may also play a role in MITE siRNA generation in the Solanaceae.

  8. Terminal-repeat retrotransposons with GAG domain in plant genomes: a new testimony on the complex world of transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, Cristian; Gayraud, Thomas; de Souza, Rogerio Fernandes; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Akaffou, Sélastique; Laforga Vanzela, Andre Luis; Kochko, Alexandre de; Rigoreau, Michel; Crouzillat, Dominique; Hamon, Serge; Hamon, Perla; Guyot, Romain

    2015-01-07

    A novel structure of nonautonomous long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons called terminal repeat with GAG domain (TR-GAG) has been described in plants, both in monocotyledonous, dicotyledonous and basal angiosperm genomes. TR-GAGs are relatively short elements in length (<4 kb) showing the typical features of LTR-retrotransposons. However, they carry only one open reading frame coding for the GAG precursor protein involved for instance in transposition, the assembly, and the packaging of the element into the virus-like particle. GAG precursors show similarities with both Copia and Gypsy GAG proteins, suggesting evolutionary relationships of TR-GAG elements with both families. Despite the lack of the enzymatic machinery required for their mobility, strong evidences suggest that TR-GAGs are still active. TR-GAGs represent ubiquitous nonautonomous structures that could be involved in the molecular diversities of plant genomes.

  9. Changes in DNA methylation and transgenerational mobilization of a transposable element (mPing) by the Topoisomerase II inhibitor, Etoposide, in rice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Etoposide (epipodophyllotoxin) is a chemical commonly used as an anti-cancer drug which inhibits DNA synthesis by blocking topoisomerase II activity. Previous studies in animal cells have demonstrated that etoposide constitutes a genotoxic stress which may induce genomic instability including mobilization of normally quiescent transposable elements (TEs). However, it remained unknown whether similar genetically mutagenic effects could be imposed by etoposide in plant cells. Also, no information is available with regard to whether the drug may cause a perturbation of epigenetic stability in any organism. Results To investigate whether etoposide could generate genetic and/or epigenetic instability in plant cells, we applied etoposide to germinating seeds of six cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes including both subspecies, japonica and indica. Based on the methylation-sensitive gel-blotting results, epigenetic changes in DNA methylation of three TEs (Tos17, Osr23 and Osr36) and two protein-encoding genes (Homeobox and CDPK-related genes) were detected in the etoposide-treated plants (S0 generation) in four of the six studied japonica cultivars, Nipponbare, RZ1, RZ2, and RZ35, but not in the rest japonica cultivar (Matsumae) and the indica cultivar (93-11). DNA methylation changes in the etoposide-treated S0 rice plants were validated by bisulfite sequencing at both of two analyzed loci (Tos17 and Osr36). Transpositional activity was tested for eight TEs endogenous to the rice genome in both the S0 plants and their selfed progenies (S1 and S2) of one of the cultivars, RZ1, which manifested heritable phenotypic variations. Results indicated that no transposition occurred in the etoposide-treated S0 plants for any of the TEs. Nonetheless, a MITE transposon, mPing, showed rampant mobilization in the S1 and S2 progenies descended from the drug-treated S0 plants. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that etoposide imposes a similar genotoxic stress on

  10. Evidence that a family of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) from the Arabidopsis thaliana genome has arisen from a pogo-like DNA transposon.

    PubMed

    Feschotte, C; Mouchès, C

    2000-05-01

    Sequence similarities exist between terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) of some miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) families isolated from a wide range of organisms, including plants, insects, and humans, and TIRs of DNA transposons from the pogo family. We present here evidence that one of these MITE families, previously described for Arabidopsis thaliana, is derived from a larger element encoding a putative transposase. We have named this novel class II transposon Lemi1. We show that its putative product is related to transposases of the Tc1/mariner superfamily, being closer to the pogo family. A similar truncated element was found in a tomato DNA sequence, indicating an ancient origin and/or horizontal transfer for this family of elements. These results are reminiscent of those recently reported for the human genome, where other members of the pogo family, named Tiggers, are believed to be responsible for the generation of abundant MITE-like elements in an early primate ancestor. These results further suggest that some MITE families, which are highly reiterated in plant, insect, and human genomes, could have arisen from a similar mechanism, implicating pogo-like elements.

  11. Recent transposition of yabusame, a novel piggyBac-like transposable element in the genome of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Daimon, Takaaki; Mitsuhiro, Masao; Katsuma, Susumu; Abe, Hiroaki; Mita, Kazuei; Shimada, Toru

    2010-08-01

    On the W chromosome of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, we found a novel piggyBac-like DNA transposon that potentially encodes an intact transposase (610 amino acid residues), which is flanked by 16-bp perfect inverted terminal repeats and a duplicated TTAA target site. Interestingly, we also identified another intact copy of this transposon on an autosome (chromosome 21), which showed 99.6% identity in the DNA sequence of the transposase (99.3% amino acid identity). These features raised the possibility that this novel piggyBac-like DNA transposon, designated as yabusame, may retain transposition activity. Here we report the identification and characterization of yabusame transposons from the silkworm. We cloned the full length of the yabusame transposon on the W chromosome (yabusame-W) and its autosomal copy (yabusame-1). Southern blot analysis showed that there are interstrain polymorphisms in yabusame elements for their insertion sites and copy number. We also found strong evidence for the recent transposition of yabusame elements in the silkworm genome. Although our in vitro excision assays suggested that the transposition activity of yabusame-1 and yabusame-W has been lost almost entirely, our data will lead to a greater understanding of the characteristics of piggyBac superfamily elements.

  12. Early transposable element insertion in intron 9 of the Hsf4 gene results in autosomal recessive cataracts in lop11 and ldis1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Talamas, Elijah; Jackson, Lavinia; Koeberl, Matthew; Jackson, Todd; McElwee, John L.; Hawes, Norman L.; Chang, Bo; Jablonski, Monica M.; Sidjanin, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Lens opacity 11 (lop11) is an autosomal recessive mouse cataract mutation that arose spontaneously in the RIIIS/J strain. At 3 weeks of age mice exhibit total cataracts with vacuoles. The lop11 locus was mapped to mouse chromosome 8. Analysis of the mouse genome for the lop11 critical region identified Hsf4 as a candidate gene. Molecular evaluation of Hsf4 revealed an early transposable element (ETn) in intron 9 inserted 61 bp upstream of the intron/exon junction. The same mutation was also identified in a previously mapped cataract mutant, ldis1. The ETn insertion altered splicing and expression of the Hsf4 gene, resulting in the truncated Hsf4 protein. In humans, mutations in HSF4 have been associated with both autosomal dominant and recessive cataracts. The lop11 mouse is an excellent resource for evaluating the role of Hsf4 in transparency of the lens. PMID:16595169

  13. Early transposable element insertion in intron 9 of the Hsf4 gene results in autosomal recessive cataracts in lop11 and ldis1 mice.

    PubMed

    Talamas, Elijah; Jackson, Lavinia; Koeberl, Matthew; Jackson, Todd; McElwee, John L; Hawes, Norman L; Chang, Bo; Jablonski, Monica M; Sidjanin, D J

    2006-07-01

    Lens opacity 11 (lop11) is an autosomal recessive mouse cataract mutation that arose spontaneously in the RIIIS/J strain. At 3 weeks of age mice exhibit total cataracts with vacuoles. The lop11 locus was mapped to mouse chromosome 8. Analysis of the mouse genome for the lop11 critical region identified Hsf4 as a candidate gene. Molecular evaluation of Hsf4 revealed an early transposable element (ETn) in intron 9 inserted 61 bp upstream of the intron/exon junction. The same mutation was also identified in a previously mapped cataract mutant, ldis1. The ETn insertion altered splicing and expression of the Hsf4 gene, resulting in the truncated Hsf4 protein. In humans, mutations in HSF4 have been associated with both autosomal dominant and recessive cataracts. The lop11 mouse is an excellent resource for evaluating the role of Hsf4 in transparency of the lens.

  14. New insights into the population structure of Anopheles gambiae s.s. in the Gulf of Guinea Islands revealed by Herves transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Salgueiro, Patrícia; Moreno, Marta; Simard, Frédéric; O'Brochta, David; Pinto, João

    2013-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile portions of DNA that are able to replicate and spread in the genome of many organisms. TEs can be used as a means to insert transgenes in insects, being stably inherited throughout generations. Anopheles gambiae is the main vector of human malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa. Given the extraordinary burden this disease imposes, the mosquito became a choice target for genetic control approaches with the purpose of reducing malaria transmission. In this study, we investigated the abundance and distribution of Herves TE in An. gambiae s.s. from Cameroon and four islands in the Gulf of Guinea, in order to determine their genetic structure. We have detected a population subdivision between Equatorial Guinea islands and the islands of São Tomé, Príncipe and mainland. This partitioning associates more with political rather than geographic boundaries, possibly reflecting different mainland source populations colonizing the islands.

  15. Contrasting patterns of transposable element and satellite distribution on sex chromosomes (XY1Y2) in the dioecious plant Rumex acetosa.

    PubMed

    Steflova, Pavlina; Tokan, Viktor; Vogel, Ivan; Lexa, Matej; Macas, Jiri; Novak, Petr; Hobza, Roman; Vyskot, Boris; Kejnovsky, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Rumex acetosa is a dioecious plant with the XY1Y2 sex chromosome system. Both Y chromosomes are heterochromatic and are thought to be degenerated. We performed low-pass 454 sequencing and similarity-based clustering of male and female genomic 454 reads to identify and characterize major groups of R. acetosa repetitive DNA. We found that Copia and Gypsy retrotransposons dominated, followed by DNA transposons and nonlong terminal repeat retrotransposons. CRM and Tat/Ogre retrotransposons dominated the Gypsy superfamily, whereas Maximus/Sireviruses were most abundant among Copia retrotransposons. Only one Gypsy subfamily had accumulated on Y1 and Y2 chromosomes, whereas many retrotransposons were ubiquitous on autosomes and the X chromosome, but absent on Y1 and Y2 chromosomes, and others were depleted from the X chromosome. One group of CRM Gypsy was specifically localized to centromeres. We also found that majority of previously described satellites (RAYSI, RAYSII, RAYSIII, and RAE180) are accumulated on the Y chromosomes where we identified Y chromosome-specific variant of RAE180. We discovered two novel satellites-RA160 satellite dominating on the X chromosome and RA690 localized mostly on the Y1 chromosome. The expression pattern obtained from Illumina RNA sequencing showed that the expression of transposable elements is similar in leaves of both sexes and that satellites are also expressed. Contrasting patterns of transposable elements (TEs) and satellite localization on sex chromosomes in R. acetosa, where not only accumulation but also depletion of repetitive DNA was observed, suggest that a plethora of evolutionary processes can shape sex chromosomes.

  16. An Immunity-Triggering Effector from the Barley Smut Fungus Ustilago hordei Resides in an Ustilaginaceae-Specific Cluster Bearing Signs of Transposable Element-Assisted Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shawkat; Laurie, John D.; Linning, Rob; Cervantes-Chávez, José Antonio; Gaudet, Denis; Bakkeren, Guus

    2014-01-01

    The basidiomycete smut fungus Ustilago hordei was previously shown to comprise isolates that are avirulent on various barley host cultivars. Through genetic crosses we had revealed that a dominant avirulence locus UhAvr1 which triggers immunity in barley cultivar Hannchen harboring resistance gene Ruh1, resided within an 80-kb region. DNA sequence analysis of this genetically delimited region uncovered the presence of 7 candidate secreted effector proteins. Sequence comparison of their coding sequences among virulent and avirulent parental and field isolates could not distinguish UhAvr1 candidates. Systematic deletion and complementation analyses revealed that UhAvr1 is UHOR_10022 which codes for a small effector protein of 171 amino acids with a predicted 19 amino acid signal peptide. Virulence in the parental isolate is caused by the insertion of a fragment of 5.5 kb with similarity to a common U. hordei transposable element (TE), interrupting the promoter of UhAvr1 and thereby changing expression and hence recognition of UhAVR1p. This rearrangement is likely caused by activities of TEs and variation is seen among isolates. Using GFP-chimeric constructs we show that UhAvr1 is induced only in mated dikaryotic hyphae upon sensing and infecting barley coleoptile cells. When infecting Hannchen, UhAVR1p causes local callose deposition and the production of reactive oxygen species and necrosis indicative of the immune response. UhAvr1 does not contribute significantly to overall virulence. UhAvr1 is located in a cluster of ten effectors with several paralogs and over 50% of TEs. This cluster is syntenous with clusters in closely-related U. maydis and Sporisorium reilianum. In these corn-infecting species, these clusters harbor however more and further diversified homologous effector families but very few TEs. This increased variability may have resulted from past selection pressure by resistance genes since U. maydis is not known to trigger immunity in its corn host

  17. Cytogenetic mapping of the retroelements Rex1, Rex3 and Rex6 among cichlid fish: new insights on the chromosomal distribution of transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Valente, G T; Mazzuchelli, J; Ferreira, I A; Poletto, A B; Fantinatti, B E A; Martins, C

    2011-01-01

    To enhance our understanding of the organization of the genome and chromosome evolution of cichlid fish species, we have isolated and physically mapped onto the chromosomes the transposable elements (TEs) Rex1, Rex3 and Rex6, which are conserved in teleost fish, in the chromosomes of African and South American cichlid species. The physical mapping of different Rex elements showed that they are primarily compartmentalized in the pericentromeric heterochromatic regions, although dispersed or clustered signals in euchromatic regions were also observed. The presence of TEs in heterochromatin can be correlated with their role in the structure and organization of heterochromatic areas (such as centromeres) or with the lower selective pressure that act on these gene-poor regions. The Rex elements were also concentrated in the largest chromosome pair of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. This chromosome pair is supposed to have originated by fusions, demonstrating the possible involvement of TEs with chromosome rearrangements. Besides general patterns of chromosomal distribution, comparative analysis suggests that Rex elements could differ in their chromosomal distribution among different fish groups or species and that intrinsic aspects of the genomes could influence the spread, accumulation or elimination of TEs.

  18. The Dynamics of the roo Transposable Element In Mutation-Accumulation Lines and Segregating Populations of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Papaceit, Montserrat; Ávila, Victoria; Aguadé, Montserrat; García-Dorado, Aurora

    2007-01-01

    We estimated the number of copies for the long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposable element roo in a set of long-standing Drosophila melanogaster mutation-accumulation full-sib lines and in two large laboratory populations maintained with effective population size ∼500, all of them derived from the same isogenic origin. Estimates were based on real-time quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. Considering previous estimates of roo copy numbers obtained at earlier stages of the experiment, the results imply a strong acceleration of the insertion rate in the accumulation lines. The detected acceleration is consistent with a model where only one (maybe a few) of the ∼70 roo copies in the ancestral isogenic genome was active and each active copy caused new insertions with a relatively high rate (∼10−2), with new inserts being active copies themselves. In the two laboratory populations, however, a stabilized copy number or no accelerated insertion was found. Our estimate of the average deleterious viability effects per accumulated insert [E(s) < 0.003] is too small to account for the latter finding, and we discuss the mechanisms that could contain copy number. PMID:17890368

  19. Epigenetic mechanisms and associated brain circuits in the regulation of positive emotions: A role for transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Gaudi, Simona; Guffanti, Guia; Fallon, James; Macciardi, Fabio

    2016-10-15

    Epigenetic programming and reprogramming are at the heart of cellular differentiation and represent developmental and evolutionary mechanisms in both germline and somatic cell lines. Only about 2% of our genome is composed of protein-coding genes, while the remaining 98%, once considered "junk" DNA, codes for regulatory/epigenetic elements that control how genes are expressed in different tissues and across time from conception to death. While we already know that epigenetic mechanisms are at play in cancer development and in regulating metabolism (cellular and whole body), the role of epigenetics in the developing prenatal and postnatal brain, and in maintaining a proper brain activity throughout the various stages of life, in addition to having played a critical role in human evolution, is a relatively new domain of knowledge. Here we present the current state-of-the-art techniques and results of these studies within the domain of emotions, and then speculate on how genomic and epigenetic mechanisms can modify and potentially alter our emotional (limbic) brain and affect our social interactions. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2944-2954, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Small RNA profiling of Xenopus embryos reveals novel miRNAs and a new class of small RNAs derived from intronic transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Harding, Joanne L; Horswell, Stuart; Heliot, Claire; Armisen, Javier; Zimmerman, Lyle B; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Miska, Eric A; Hill, Caroline S

    2014-01-01

    Small RNA control of gene expression is critical for developmental processes in vertebrate embryos. To determine the dynamics of small RNA expression and to uncover novel small RNAs in the early vertebrate embryo, we performed high-throughput sequencing of all small RNAs in Xenopus tropicalis embryos at three developmental time points and in dissected halves of gastrula embryos. This analysis allowed us to identify novel microRNAs and we show that microRNA expression is highly dynamic and spatially localized in early embryos. In addition, we have developed a microRNA prediction pipeline and demonstrate that it has the power to predict new miRNAs that are experimentally detectable in frogs, mice, and humans. By combining the small RNA sequencing with mRNA profiling at the different developmental stages, we identify a new class of small noncoding RNAs that we name siteRNAs, which align in clusters to introns of protein-coding genes. We show that siteRNAs are derived from remnants of transposable elements present in the introns. We find that genes containing clusters of siteRNAs are transcriptionally repressed as compared with all genes. Furthermore, we show that this is true for individual genes containing siteRNA clusters, and that these genes are enriched in specific repressive histone modifications. Our data thus suggest a new mechanism of siteRNA-mediated gene silencing in vertebrates, and provide an example of how mobile elements can affect gene regulation.

  1. DINE-1, the highest copy number repeats in Drosophila melanogaster are non-autonomous endonuclease-encoding rolling-circle transposable elements (Helentrons)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Drosophila INterspersed Elements-1 (DINE-1/INE1) transposable elements (TEs) are the most abundant component of the Drosophila melanogaster genome and have been associated with functional gene duplications. DINE-1 TEs do not encode any proteins (non-autonomous) thus are moved by autonomous partners. The identity of the autonomous partners has been a mystery. They have been allied to Helitrons (rolling-circle transposons), MITEs (DNA transposons), and non-LTR retrotransposons by different authors. Results We report multiple lines of bioinformatic evidence that illustrate the relationship of DINE-1 like TEs to endonuclease-encoding rolling-circle TEs (Helentrons). The structural features of Helentrons are described, which resemble the organization of the non-autonomous partners, but differ significantly from canonical Helitrons. In addition to the presence of an endonuclease domain fused to the Rep/Helicase protein, Helentrons have distinct structural features. Evidence is presented that illustrates that Helentrons are widely distributed in invertebrate, fish, and fungal genomes. We describe an intermediate family from the Phytophthora infestans genome that phylogenetically groups with Helentrons but that displays Helitron structure. In addition, evidence is presented that Helentrons can capture gene fragments in a pattern reminiscent of canonical Helitrons. Conclusions We illustrate the relationship of DINE-1 and related TE families to autonomous partners, the Helentrons. These findings will allow their proper classification and enable a more accurate understanding of the contribution of rolling-circle transposition to the birth of new genes, gene networks, and genome composition. PMID:24959209

  2. Quantum states with strong positive partial transpose

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Jurkowski, Jacek; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2008-02-15

    We construct a large class of bipartite M x N quantum states which defines a proper subset of states with positive partial transposes (PPTs). Any state from this class has PPT but the positivity of its partial transposition is recognized with respect to canonical factorization of the original density operator. We propose to call elements from this class states with strong positive partial transposes (SPPTs). We conjecture that all SPPT states are separable.

  3. Expression and diversification analysis reveals transposable elements play important roles in the origin of Lycopersicon-specific lncRNAs in tomato.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Ai, Guo; Zhang, Chunli; Cui, Long; Wang, Jiafa; Li, Hanxia; Zhang, Junhong; Ye, Zhibiao

    2016-03-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate gene expression and biological processes. With the development of high-throughput RNA sequencing technology, lncRNAs have been extensively studied in recent years. Nevertheless, the expression and evolution of lncRNAs in plants remain poorly understood. Here, we identified 413 and 709 multi-exon noncoding transcripts from 353 and 595 loci of the cultivar tomato Heinz1706 and its wild relative LA1589, respectively. Systematic comparison of the sequence and expression of lncRNAs showed that they are poorly conserved in Solanaceae, with only < 0.4% lncRNAs present in all sequenced genomes of tomato and potato. Sequence analysis of Lycopersicon-specific lncRNA loci in Solanum lycopersicum and S. pennellii showed that the origins of these molecules are associated with transposable elements (TEs). LncRNA-314, a fruit-specific lncRNA expressed in S. lycopersicum and S. pimpinellifolium, but not in S. pennellii, originated through two evolutionary events: speciation of S. pennellii resulted in insertion of a long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon into chromosome 10 and contributed to most of the transcribed region of lncRNA-314; and a large deletion in Lycopersicon generated the promoter region and part of the transcribed region of lncRNA-314. These results provide novel insights into the evolution of lncRNAs in plants.

  4. The Chinese hamster Alu-equivalent sequence: a conserved highly repetitious, interspersed deoxyribonucleic acid sequence in mammals has a structure suggestive of a transposable element.

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, S R; Toomey, T P; Leinwand, L; Jelinek, W R

    1981-01-01

    A consensus sequence has been determined for a major interspersed deoxyribonucleic acid repeat in the genome of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells). This sequence is extensively homologous to (i) the human Alu sequence (P. L. Deininger et al., J. Mol. Biol., in press), (ii) the mouse B1 interspersed repetitious sequence (Krayev et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 8:1201-1215, 1980) (iii) an interspersed repetitious sequence from African green monkey deoxyribonucleic acid (Dhruva et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:4514-4518, 1980) and (iv) the CHO and mouse 4.5S ribonucleic acid (this report; F. Harada and N. Kato, Nucleic Acids Res. 8:1273-1285, 1980). Because the CHO consensus sequence shows significant homology to the human Alu sequence it is termed the CHO Alu-equivalent sequence. A conserved structure surrounding CHO Alu-equivalent family members can be recognized. It is similar to that surrounding the human Alu and the mouse B1 sequences, and is represented as follows: direct repeat-CHO-Alu-A-rich sequence-direct repeat. A composite interspersed repetitious sequence has been identified. Its structure is represented as follows: direct repeat-residue 47 to 107 of CHO-Alu-non-Alu repetitious sequence-A-rich sequence-direct repeat. Because the Alu flanking sequences resemble those that flank known transposable elements, we think it likely that the Alu sequence dispersed throughout the mammalian genome by transposition. Images PMID:9279371

  5. Using the P[wHy] hybrid transposable element to disrupt genes in region 54D-55B in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Stephanie E; Gelbart, William M

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the function of each gene in the genome of a model organism such as Drosophila melanogaster is an important goal. The development of improved methods for uncovering the mutant phenotypes of specific genes can accelerate achievement of this goal. The P[wHy] hybrid transposable element can be used to generate nested sets of precisely mapped deletions in a given region of the Drosophila genome. Here we use the P[wHy] method to generate overlapping, molecularly defined deletions from a set of three P[wHy] insertions in the 54E-F region of chromosome 2. Deletions that span a total of 0.5 Mb were identified and molecularly mapped precisely. Using overlapping deletions, the mutant phenotypes of nine previously uncharacterized genes in a 101-kb region were determined, including identification of new loci required for viability and female fertility. In addition, the deletions were used to molecularly map previously isolated lethal mutations. Thus, the P[wHy] method provides an efficient method for systematically determining the phenotypes of genes in a given region of the fly genome. PMID:12242231

  6. A tale of two dead ends: origin of a potential new gene and a potential new transposable element.

    PubMed

    Clutterbuck, A John

    2007-03-01

    An article in this issue of Molecular Microbiology by Cultrone et al. describes how a non-autonomous helitron element could arise from its autonomous parent transposon by deletion followed by readthrough into an adjacent gene and its promoter, thus providing a mechanism for distribution of a specifically regulated promoter sequence around the genome, where it would have the potential to evolve new functions.

  7. Genome-Wide Comparison of Magnaporthe Species Reveals a Host-Specific Pattern of Secretory Proteins and Transposable Elements

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Malali

    2016-01-01

    Blast disease caused by the Magnaporthe species is a major factor affecting the productivity of rice, wheat and millets. This study was aimed at generating genomic information for rice and non-rice Magnaporthe isolates to understand the extent of genetic variation. We have sequenced the whole genome of the Magnaporthe isolates, infecting rice (leaf and neck), finger millet (leaf and neck), foxtail millet (leaf) and buffel grass (leaf). Rice and finger millet isolates infecting both leaf and neck tissues were sequenced, since the damage and yield loss caused due to neck blast is much higher as compared to leaf blast. The genome-wide comparison was carried out to study the variability in gene content, candidate effectors, repeat element distribution, genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and SNPs. The analysis of repeat element footprints revealed some genes such as naringenin, 2-oxoglutarate 3-dioxygenase being targeted by Pot2 and Occan, in isolates from different host species. Some repeat insertions were host-specific while other insertions were randomly shared between isolates. The distributions of repeat elements, secretory proteins, CAZymes and SNPs showed significant variation across host-specific lineages of Magnaporthe indicating an independent genome evolution orchestrated by multiple genomic factors. PMID:27658241

  8. Transpositionally active episomal hAT elements

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background hAT elements and V(D)J recombination may have evolved from a common ancestral transposable element system. Extrachromosomal, circular forms of transposable elements (referred to here as episomal forms) have been reported yet their biological significance remains unknown. V(D)J signal joints, which resemble episomal transposable elements, have been considered non-recombinogenic products of V(D)J recombination and a safe way to dispose of excised chromosomal sequences. V(D)J signal joints can, however, participate in recombination reactions and the purpose of this study was to determine if hobo and Hermes episomal elements are also recombinogenic. Results Up to 50% of hobo/Hermes episomes contained two intact, inverted-terminal repeats and 86% of these contained from 1-1000 bp of intercalary DNA. Episomal hobo/Hermes elements were recovered from Musca domestica (a natural host of Hermes), Drosophila melanogaster (a natural host of hobo) and transgenic Drosophila melanogaster and Aedes aegypti (with autonomous Hermes elements). Episomal Hermes elements were recovered from unfertilized eggs of M. domestica and D. melanogaster demonstrating their potential for extrachromosomal, maternal transmission. Reintegration of episomal Hermes elements was observed in vitro and in vivo and the presence of Hermes episomes resulted in lower rates of canonical Hermes transposition in vivo. Conclusion Episomal hobo/Hermes elements are common products of element excision and can be maternally transmitted. Episomal forms of Hermes are capable of integration and also of influencing the transposition of canonical elements suggesting biological roles for these extrachromosomal elements in element transmission and regulation. PMID:20003420

  9. Partial Revertants of the Transposable Element-Associated Suppressible Allele White-Apricot in Drosophila Melanogaster: Structures and Responsiveness to Genetic Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Mount, S. M.; Green, M. M.; Rubin, G. M.

    1988-01-01

    The eye color phenotype of white-apricot (w(a)), a mutant allele of the white locus caused by the insertion of the transposable element copia into a small intron, is suppressed by the extragenic suppressor suppressor-of-white-apricot (su(w(a))) and enhanced by the extragenic enhancers suppressor-of-forked su(f)) and Enhancer-of-white-apricot (E(w(a))). Derivatives of w(a) have been analyzed molecularly and genetically in order to correlate the structure of these derivatives with their response to modifiers. Derivatives in which the copia element is replaced precisely by a solo long terminal repeat (sLTR) were generated in vitro and returned to the germline by P-element mediated transformation; flies carrying this allele within a P transposon show a nearly wild-type phenotype and no response to either su(f) or su(w(a)). In addition, eleven partial phenotypic revertants of w(a) were analyzed. Of these, one appears to be a duplication of a large region which includes w(a), three are new alleles of su(w(a)), two are sLTR derivatives whose properties confirm results obtained using transformation, and five are secondary insertions into the copia element within w(a). One of these, w(aR84h), differs from w(a) by the insertion of the most 3' 83 nucleotides of the I factor. The five insertion derivatives show a variety of phenotypes and modes of interaction with su((f) and su(w(a)). The eye pigmentation of w(aR84h) is affected by su(f) and E(w(a)), but not su(w(a)). These results demonstrate that copia (as opposed to the interruption of white sequences) is essential for the w(a) phenotype and its response to genetic modifiers, and that there are multiple mechanisms for the alteration of the w(a) phenotype by modifiers. PMID:2834265

  10. Development of crop-specific transposable element (SINE) markers for studying gene flow from oilseed rape to wild radish.

    PubMed

    Prieto, J L; Pouilly, N; Jenczewski, E; Deragon, J M; Chèvre, A M

    2005-08-01

    The screening of wild populations for evidence of gene flow from a crop to a wild related species requires the unambiguous detection of crop genes within the genome of the wild species, taking into account the intraspecific variability of each species. If the crop and wild relatives share a common ancestor, as is the case for the Brassica crops and their wild relatives (subtribe Brassiceae), the species-specific markers needed to make this unambiguous detection are difficult to identify. In the model oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38)-wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18) system, we utilized the presence or absence of a short-interspersed element (SINE) at a given locus to develop oilseed rape-specific markers, as SINE insertions are irreversible. By means of sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (SINE-SSAP) reactions, we identified and cloned 67 bands specific to the oilseed rape genome and absent from that of wild radish. Forty-seven PCR-specific markers were developed from three combinations of primers anchored either in (1) the 5'- and 3'-genomic sequences flanking the SINE, (2) the 5'-flanking and SINE internal sequences or (3) the SINE internal and flanking 3'-sequences. Seventeen markers were monomorphic whatever the oilseed rape varieties tested, whereas 30 revealed polymorphism and behaved either as dominant (17) or co-dominant (13) markers. Polymorphic markers were mapped on 19 genomic regions assigned to ten linkage groups. The markers developed will be efficient tools to trace the occurrence and frequency of introgressions of oilseed rape genomic region within wild radish populations.

  11. Possible involvement of the long terminal repeat of transposable element 17.6 in regulating expression of an insecticide resistance-associated P450 gene in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, L C; Zelhof, A C; Shaw, B J; Ch'ang, L Y

    1992-01-01

    P450-A and P450-B are electrophoretically defined subsets of cytochrome P450 enzymes in Drosophila melanogaster. P450-A is present among all strains tested, whereas expression of P450-B is associated with resistance to insecticides. Monoclonal antibodies were used to obtain cDNA clones for an enzyme from each P450 subset (i.e., P450-A1 and P450-B1). The P450-B1 cDNA was sequenced and shown to code for a P450 of 507 amino acids. Its gene has been named CYP6A2. Comparative molecular analyses of a pair of susceptible, 91-C, and resistant, 91-R, Drosophila strains were made. There was 20-30 times more P450-B1 mRNA in 91-R than in 91-C, and the small amount of P450-B1 mRNA in 91-C was significantly larger in size than that in 91-R. The P450-B1 gene in 91-R was structurally different from that in 91-C but was not amplified. The P450-B1 gene in 91-C contained a solitary long terminal repeat of transposable element 17.6 in its 3' untranslated region. It was absent in the P450-B1 gene of 91-R. On the basis of features of the long terminal repeat and its location in the gene of the susceptible fly, we propose that a posttranscriptional mechanism involving mRNA stability could be involved in regulating P450-B1 gene expression. Images PMID:1317576

  12. Cloning and characterization of a transposable-like repeat in the heterochromatin of the darkling beetle Misolampus goudoti.

    PubMed

    Pons, Joan

    2004-08-01

    A long repeat unit of the PstI family in Misolampus goudoti (Coleoptera, Tenebrionodae) is characterized in this work. The 30 sequenced units have small differences in length (consensus 1169 bp), but very similar nucleotide composition (mean 61.1% A+T). PstI repeats contain a 36-bp-long inverted repeat at both the 5' and 3' ends, with a fully conserved 16-bp-long motif similar to those found in class II transposable elements. However, the transposable-like PstI repeats seems to be defective, since they do not encode for any protein related with transposition. Interestingly, energetically stable hairpins resembled the structure of a miniature interspersed transposable element, suggesting that the PstI satellite DNA family in M. goudoti may have originated from an ancestral active transposable element as also described in Drosophila guanche. The presence of transposable-like structure along with the non-detection of gene conversion or unequal crossing-over events suggest that transposition could be one of the putative molecular mechanisms involved in the strong amplification and (or) homogenization of these repeats. A putative transposition of PstI repeats allowing their genomic mobility also could explain why this satellite is widely distributed to all heterochromatic regions, telomeres, pericentromeric regions, and on the Y chromosome, whereas satellites of other tenebrionids lacking transposable-like structures are restricted only to pericentromeric regions.

  13. Transposable elements and viruses as factors in adaptation and evolution: an expansion and strengthening of the TE-Thrust hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Keith R; Greene, Wayne K

    2012-11-01

    In addition to the strong divergent evolution and significant and episodic evolutionary transitions and speciation we previously attributed to TE-Thrust, we have expanded the hypothesis to more fully account for the contribution of viruses to TE-Thrust and evolution. The concept of symbiosis and holobiontic genomes is acknowledged, with particular emphasis placed on the creativity potential of the union of retroviral genomes with vertebrate genomes. Further expansions of the TE-Thrust hypothesis are proposed regarding a fuller account of horizontal transfer of TEs, the life cycle of TEs, and also, in the case of a mammalian innovation, the contributions of retroviruses to the functions of the placenta. The possibility of drift by TE families within isolated demes or disjunct populations, is acknowledged, and in addition, we suggest the possibility of horizontal transposon transfer into such subpopulations. "Adaptive potential" and "evolutionary potential" are proposed as the extremes of a continuum of "intra-genomic potential" due to TE-Thrust. Specific data is given, indicating "adaptive potential" being realized with regard to insecticide resistance, and other insect adaptations. In this regard, there is agreement between TE-Thrust and the concept of adaptation by a change in allele frequencies. Evidence on the realization of "evolutionary potential" is also presented, which is compatible with the known differential survivals, and radiations of lineages. Collectively, these data further suggest the possibility, or likelihood, of punctuated episodes of speciation events and evolutionary transitions, coinciding with, and heavily underpinned by, intermittent bursts of TE activity.

  14. Jumping Genes: The Transposable DNAs of Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Claire M.; Berg, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    Transposons are transposable elements that carry genes for antibiotic resistance. Provides background information on the structure and organization of these "jumping genes" in bacteria. Also describes the use of transposons in tagging genes and lists pertinent references and resource materials. (DH)

  15. A tiger mouse and relatives. Variants caused by an activated transposable element?

    PubMed

    Wallace, M E; Nash, H R

    1984-01-01

    In a laboratory-bred population of wild Peruvian house mice, one male had an excessive rate of non-pairing of the X and Y chromosomes. After crossing him with laboratory stock mice, a mouse of very unusual phenotype appeared from a yellow (AyA) mother. He was yellow with black dorsal stripes; hence Tiger. He was mated to many females, and inbred F2 and F3 generations were raised. There were no more tiger phenotypes, but his F1 contained an excess of black-and-tans over yellows, showing him to be a gonosomic mosaic Ayat/atat; the homozygous cell line probably arose from the heterozygous one. The mitotic karyotype was normal. Some of Tiger's mates were of known allozyme types and their progeny were scored. The allozyme segregations were normal, except at the Es-3 locus (esterase-3), for which Tiger was typed as homozygous. Several unusual events among Tiger's close relatives included a mutation to an unstable pattern mutant, three probable translocations, and several cases of somatic defect. All unusual mice derived from Tiger's yellow mother, whose genome was one-quarter Peruvian. Yellow is associated with an ecotropic murine leukemia virus. The Peru genome is characterized by a high occurrence of mutation and aberrant karyotypes. It is suggested that something from the Peru genome in Tiger's mother caused instability of the DNA sequence associated with yellow, with related disturbance at different locations thereafter. The nature of this instability, and of the Peru genome, is discussed.

  16. Activation and inactivation of Pseudomonas stutzeri methylbenzene catabolism pathways mediated by a transposable element

    SciTech Connect

    Bolognese, F.; Di Lecce, C.; Galli, E.; Barbieri, P.

    1999-05-01

    The arrangement of the genes involved in o-xylene, m-xylene, and p-xylene catabolism was investigated in three Pseudomonas stutzeri strains: the wild-type strain OX1, which is able to grow on o-xylene but not on the meta and para isomers; the mutant M1, which grows on m-xylene and p-xylene but is unable to utilize the ortho isomer; and the revertant R1, which can utilize all the three isomers of xylene. A 3-kb insertion sequence (IS) termed ISPs1, which inactivates the m-xylene and p-xylene catabolic pathway in P. stutzeri OX1 and the o-xylene catabolic genes in P. stutzeri M1, was detected. No IS was detected in the corresponding catabolic regions of the P. stutzeri R1 genome. ISPs1 is present in several copies in the genomes of the three strains. It is flanked by 24-bp imperfect inverted repeats, causes the direct duplication of 8 bp in the target DNA, and seems to be related to the ISL3 family.

  17. The exon junction complex controls transposable element activity by ensuring faithful splicing of the piwi transcript

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Colin D.; Mestdagh, Claire; Akhtar, Junaid; Kreim, Nastasja; Deinhard, Pia; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Treisman, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The exon junction complex (EJC) is a highly conserved ribonucleoprotein complex that binds RNAs during splicing and remains associated with them following export to the cytoplasm. While the role of this complex in mRNA localization, translation, and degradation has been well characterized, its mechanism of action in splicing a subset of Drosophila and human transcripts remains to be elucidated. Here, we describe a novel function for the EJC and its splicing subunit, RnpS1, in preventing transposon accumulation in both Drosophila germline and surrounding somatic follicle cells. This function is mediated specifically through the control of piwi transcript splicing, where, in the absence of RnpS1, the fourth intron of piwi is retained. This intron contains a weak polypyrimidine tract that is sufficient to confer dependence on RnpS1. Finally, we demonstrate that RnpS1-dependent removal of this intron requires splicing of the flanking introns, suggesting a model in which the EJC facilitates the splicing of weak introns following its initial deposition at adjacent exon junctions. These data demonstrate a novel role for the EJC in regulating piwi intron excision and provide a mechanism for its function during splicing. PMID:25104425

  18. Chemical images of marine bio-active compounds by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and transposed orthogonal partial least squares (T-OPLS).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Aamer; Josefson, Mats; Nylund, Göran M; Pavia, Henrik; Abrahamsson, Katarina

    2012-08-06

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with transposed Orthogonal Partial Least Squares (T-OPLS) was shown to produce chemical images of the natural antibacterial surface-active compound 1,1,3,3-tetrabromo-2-heptanone (TBH) on Bonnemaisonia hamifera. The use of gold colloids functionalised with the internal standard 4-mercapto-benzonitrile (MBN) made it possible to create images of the relative concentration of TBH over the surfaces. A gradient of TBH could be mapped over and in the close vicinity of the B. hamifera algal vesicles at the attomol/pixel level. T-OPLS produced a measure of the spectral correlation for each pixel of the hyperspectral images whilst not including spectral variation that was linearly independent of the target spectrum. In this paper we show the possibility to retrieve specific spectral information with a low magnitude in a complex matrix.

  19. The diversity of class II transposable elements in mammalian genomes has arisen from ancestral phylogenetic splits during ancient waves of proliferation through the genome.

    PubMed

    Hellen, Elizabeth H B; Brookfield, John F Y

    2013-01-01

    DNA transposons make up 3% of the human genome, approximately the same percentage as genes. However, because of their inactivity, they are often ignored in favor of the more abundant, active, retroelements. Despite this relative ignominy, there are a number of interesting questions to be asked of these transposon families. One particular question relates to the timing of proliferation and inactivation of elements in a family. Does an ongoing process of turnover occur, or is the process more akin to a life cycle for the family, with elements proliferating rapidly before deactivation at a later date? We answer this question by tracing back to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of each modern transposon family, using two different methods. The first method identifies the MRCA of the species in which a family of transposon fossils can still be found, which we assume will have existed soon after the true origin date of the transposon family. The second method uses molecular dating techniques to predict the age of the MRCA element from which all elements found in a modern genome are descended. Independent data from five pairs of species are used in the molecular dating analysis: human-chimpanzee, human-orangutan, dog-panda, dog-cat, and cow-pig. Orthologous pairs of elements from host species pairs are included, and the divergence dates of these species are used to constrain the analysis. We discover that, in general, the times to element common ancestry for a given family are the same for the different species pairs, suggesting that there has been no order-specific process of turnover. Furthermore, for most families, the ages of the common ancestor of the host species and of that of the elements are similar, suggesting a life cycle model for the proliferation of transposons. Where these two ages differ, in families found only in Primates and Rodentia, for example, we find that the host species date is later than that of the common ancestor of the elements, implying

  20. TamiR1123 originated from a family of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITE) including one inserted in the Vrn-A1a promoter in wheat.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming; Carver, Brett F; Yan, Liuling

    2014-02-01

    More than half of spring wheat cultivars have a dominant Vrn-A1a allele that has an insertion of a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) in its promoter. In this study, we found that the MITE present in the Vrn-A1a gene (MITE_VRN) is a nearly perfect palindrome and it can form highly stable hairpin loops when expressed as RNA. MITE_VRN also possessed sequences of a microRNA in Triticum aestivum (TamiR1123). The P(32) labeled TamiR1123 probe detected two RNA molecules on a small RNA gel blot, one expected for MITE_VRN, and the other expected for TamiR1123. These results demonstrated that MITE_VRN was expressed as RNAs and TamiR1123 was originated from the MITE_VRN family. The isogenic line TDD carrying the dominant Vrn-A1a allele with MITE_VRN showed higher TamiR1123 and Vrn-A1a transcript levels than the isogenic line TDE carrying the recessive vrn-A1a allele without MITE_VRN. TamiR1123 were greatly up-regulated by plant age but slightly down-regulated by low temperature and short days. These findings have pointed to alternative regulatory mechanisms for plant development governed by Vrn-A1a in spring wheat.

  1. Characterization of EamaT1, a member of maT family of transposable elements from the earthworm Eisenia andrei (Annelida, Oligochaeta).

    PubMed

    Jee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Go Eun; Hong, Seung Hyun; Seo, Sang Beom; Shim, Jae Kuk; Park, Soon Cheol; Choo, Jong Kil

    2007-10-01

    The maT family is a unique clade within the Tc1-mariner superfamily, and their distribution is to date known as being limited to invertebrates. A novel transposon named EamaT1 is described from the genome of the earthworm Eisenia andrei. The full sized EamaT1 was obtained by degenerate and inverse PCR-based amplification. Sequence analysis of multiple copies of the EamaT1, which consisted of 0.9 and 1.4 kb elements, showed that the consensual EamaT1 with inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) of 69 bp was 1,422 bp long and flanked by a duplicated TA dinucleotide. The EamaT1 is present in approximately 120-250 copies per diploid genome but undergoes an inactivation process as a result of accumulating multiple mutations and is nonfunctional. The open reading frame (ORF) of the EamaT1 consensus encoding 356 amino acid sequences of transposase contained a DD37D signature and a conserved paired-like DNA binding motif for the transposition mechanism. The result of ITRs comparison confirmed their consensus terminal sequences (5'-CAGGGTG-3') and AT-rich region on the internal bases for ITRs-transposase interaction.

  2. A bacterial genetic screen identifies functional coding sequences of the insect mariner transposable element Famar1 amplified from the genome of the earwig, Forficula auricularia.

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Elizabeth G; Witherspoon, David J; Lampe, David J

    2004-01-01

    Transposons of the mariner family are widespread in animal genomes and have apparently infected them by horizontal transfer. Most species carry only old defective copies of particular mariner transposons that have diverged greatly from their active horizontally transferred ancestor, while a few contain young, very similar, and active copies. We report here the use of a whole-genome screen in bacteria to isolate somewhat diverged Famar1 copies from the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, that encode functional transposases. Functional and nonfunctional coding sequences of Famar1 and nonfunctional copies of Ammar1 from the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, were sequenced to examine their molecular evolution. No selection for sequence conservation was detected in any clade of a tree derived from these sequences, not even on branches leading to functional copies. This agrees with the current model for mariner transposon evolution that expects neutral evolution within particular hosts, with selection for function occurring only upon horizontal transfer to a new host. Our results further suggest that mariners are not finely tuned genetic entities and that a greater amount of sequence diversification than had previously been appreciated can occur in functional copies in a single host lineage. Finally, this method of isolating active copies can be used to isolate other novel active transposons without resorting to reconstruction of ancestral sequences. PMID:15020471

  3. Structure of the acyl-glucose-dependent anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase gene in carnations and its disruption by transposable elements in some varieties.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Yuzo; Matsuba, Yuki; Okamoto, Emi; Okamura, Masachika; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Nobuhiro

    2011-12-01

    The pink, red and crimson petal colors of carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus) are produced by anthocyanins. The anthocyanins, pelargonidin and cyanidin can be modified by two glucoses at the 3 and 5 positions, and by a single malic acid. Petal color variation can result from failure of such modification, for example, the lack of a glucose at the 5 position is responsible for the color variants of some commercial varieties. With respect to this variation, modification by 5-O-glucosyltransferase plays the most important role in glucosylation at the 5 position. Recently, we identified a novel acyl-glucose-dependent anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase (AA5GT), that uses acyl-glucoses, but not UDP-glucose, as the glucose donor. Although we showed that loss of AA5GT expression was responsible for loss of glucosylation at the 5 position of anthocyanin in some varieties, the cause of this repression of AA5GT expression could not be determined. Here, we have succeeded in isolating the AA5GT gene and found that it consists of 12 exons and 11 introns. In carnation varieties lacking a glucose at the 5 position, we identified the insertion of two different retrotransposons, Ty1dic1 and Retdic1, into AA5GT. Ty1dic1, which belongs to the class I long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons of Ty1/copia families, was inserted into exon 10. Retdic1, which includes a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE)-like sequence, was inserted into intron 5. Thus, insertion of either Ty1dic1 or Retdic1 can disrupt AA5GT and result in the lack of glucosylation at the 5 position in anthocyanins.

  4. The Effect of Neighborhood Frequency in Reading: Evidence with Transposed-Letter Neighbors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acha, Joana; Perea, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Transposed-letter effects (e.g., jugde activates judge) pose serious models for models of visual-word recognition that use position-specific coding schemes. However, even though the evidence of transposed-letter effects with nonword stimuli is strong, the evidence for word stimuli is scarce and inconclusive. The present experiment examined the…

  5. Visible-light-active elemental photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Niu, Ping; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2013-04-02

    Seeking visible-light-active photocatalysts for efficient solar-energy conversion has become an intensifying endeavor worldwide. In this concept paper, general requirements for finding new visible-light-active photocatalysts are briefly introduced, and recent progress in exploring elemental photocatalysts for clean-energy generation and environmental remediation are reviewed. Finally, opportunities and challenges facing elemental photocatalysts are discussed.

  6. An Ac transposon system based on maize chromosome 4S for isolating long-distance-transposed Ac tags in the maize genome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Li, Zhaoying; Fan, Jun; Li, Pengfei; Hu, Wei; Wang, Gang; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2010-12-01

    Transposon tagging is an important tool for gene isolation and functional studies. In maize, several transposon-tagging systems have been developed, mostly using Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) and Mutator systems. Here, we establish another Ac-based transposon system with the donor Ac tightly linked with sugary1 (su1) on maize chromosome 4S. Newly transposed Ac (tr-Acs) were detected based on a negative dosage effect, and long-distance-transposed Ac events were identified and isolated from the donor Ac by a simple backcross scheme. In this study, we identified 208 independent long-distance-transposed Ac lines. Thirty-one flanking sequences of these tr-Acs were isolated and localized in the maize genome. As found in previous studies, the tr-Acs preferentially inserted into genic sequences. The distribution of tr-Acs is not random. In our study, the tr-Acs preferentially transposed into chromosomes 1, 2, 9 and 10. We discuss the preferential distribution of tr-Acs from Ac systems. Our system is complementary to two other Ac-based regional-mutagenesis systems in maize, and the combined use of these systems will achieve an even and high-density distribution of Ac elements throughout the maize genome for functional-genomics studies.

  7. Transposable modules generated by a single copy of insertion sequence ISPme1 and their influence on structure and evolution of natural plasmids of Paracoccus methylutens DM12.

    PubMed

    Bartosik, Dariusz; Putyrski, Mateusz; Dziewit, Lukasz; Malewska, Edyta; Szymanik, Michal; Jagiello, Ewa; Lukasik, Jacek; Baj, Jadwiga

    2008-05-01

    We demonstrated that a single copy of insertion sequence ISPme1 can mobilize adjacent segments of genomic DNA of Paracoccus methylutens DM12, which leads to the generation of diverse transposable elements of various size and DNA contents. All elements (named transposable modules [TMos]) contain ISPme1 (placed at the 5' ends of the elements) and have variable 3'-end regions of between 0.5 and 5 kb. ISPme1 was shown to encode an outwardly oriented promoter, which may activate the transcription of genes transposed within TMos in evolutionarily distinct hosts. TMos may therefore be considered to be natural systems enabling gene capture, expression, and spread. However, unless these elements have been inserted into a highly conserved genetic context to enable a precise definition of their termini, it is extremely difficult or even impossible to identify them in bacterial genomes by in silico sequence analysis. We showed that TMos are present in the chromosome and plasmids of strain DM12. Sequence analysis of plasmid pMTH1 (32 kb) revealed that four TMos, previously identified with a trap vector, pMEC1, comprise 87% of its genome. Repeated TMos within pMTH1 may stimulate other structural rearrangements resulting from homologous recombination between long repeat sequences. This illustrates that TMos may play a significant role in shaping the structure of natural plasmids, which consequently may have a great impact on the evolution of plasmid genomes.

  8. Retrotransposon long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) is activated during salamander limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Kuo, Dwight; Nathanson, Jason; Satoh, Akira; Pao, Gerald M; Yeo, Gene W; Bryant, Susan V; Voss, S Randal; Gardiner, David M; Hunter, Tony

    2012-09-01

    Salamanders possess an extraordinary capacity for tissue and organ regeneration when compared to mammals. In our effort to characterize the unique transcriptional fingerprint emerging during the early phase of salamander limb regeneration, we identified transcriptional activation of some germline-specific genes within the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) that is indicative of cellular reprogramming of differentiated cells into a germline-like state. In this work, we focus on one of these genes, the long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposon, which is usually active in germ cells and silent in most of the somatic tissues in other organisms. LINE-1 was found to be dramatically upregulated during regeneration. In addition, higher genomic LINE-1 content was also detected in the limb regenerate when compared to that before amputation indicating that LINE-1 retrotransposition is indeed active during regeneration. Active LINE-1 retrotransposition has been suggested to have a potentially deleterious impact on genomic integrity. Silencing of activated LINE-1 by small RNAs has been reported to be part of the machinery aiming to maintain genomic integrity. Indeed, we were able to identify putative LINE-1-related piRNAs in the limb blastema. Transposable element-related piRNAs have been identified frequently in the germline in other organisms. Thus, we present here a scenario in which a unique germline-like state is established during axolotl limb regeneration, and the re-activation of LINE-1 may serve as a marker for cellular dedifferentiation in the early-stage of limb regeneration.

  9. Evolutionary origin of Rosaceae-specific active non-autonomous hAT elements and their contribution to gene regulation and genomic structural variation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Peng, Qian; Zhao, Jianbo; Ren, Fei; Zhou, Hui; Wang, Wei; Liao, Liao; Owiti, Albert; Jiang, Quan; Han, Yuepeng

    2016-05-01

    Transposable elements account for approximately 30 % of the Prunus genome; however, their evolutionary origin and functionality remain largely unclear. In this study, we identified a hAT transposon family, termed Moshan, in Prunus. The Moshan elements consist of three types, aMoshan, tMoshan, and mMoshan. The aMoshan and tMoshan types contain intact or truncated transposase genes, respectively, while the mMoshan type is miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE). The Moshan transposons are unique to Rosaceae, and the copy numbers of different Moshan types are significantly correlated. Sequence homology analysis reveals that the mMoshan MITEs are direct deletion derivatives of the tMoshan progenitors, and one kind of mMoshan containing a MuDR-derived fragment were amplified predominately in the peach genome. The mMoshan sequences contain cis-regulatory elements that can enhance gene expression up to 100-fold. The mMoshan MITEs can serve as potential sources of micro and long noncoding RNAs. Whole-genome re-sequencing analysis indicates that mMoshan elements are highly active, and an insertion into S-haplotype-specific F-box gene was reported to cause the breakdown of self-incompatibility in sour cherry. Taken together, all these results suggest that the mMoshan elements play important roles in regulating gene expression and driving genomic structural variation in Prunus.

  10. Transpose symmetry of the Jones matrix and topological phases.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Rajendra

    2008-04-15

    The transmission Jones matrix of an arbitrary stack of reciprocal plane-parallel plates that has been turned through 180 degrees about an axis in the plane of the stack is, in an appropriate basis, the transpose of the transmission matrix of the unturned slab with a change in the sign of the off-diagonal elements. We prove this convention-free result for the case where reflection at the interfaces can be ignored and use it to devise an experimental scheme to separate isotropic and topological phase changes in a reciprocal optical medium.

  11. piRNA pathway targets active LINE1 elements to establish the repressive H3K9me3 mark in germ cells.

    PubMed

    Pezic, Dubravka; Manakov, Sergei A; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Aravin, Alexei A

    2014-07-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) occupy a large fraction of metazoan genomes and pose a constant threat to genomic integrity. This threat is particularly critical in germ cells, as changes in the genome that are induced by TEs will be transmitted to the next generation. Small noncoding piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) recognize and silence a diverse set of TEs in germ cells. In mice, piRNA-guided transposon repression correlates with establishment of CpG DNA methylation on their sequences, yet the mechanism and the spectrum of genomic targets of piRNA silencing are unknown. Here we show that in addition to DNA methylation, the piRNA pathway is required to maintain a high level of the repressive H3K9me3 histone modification on long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) in germ cells. piRNA-dependent chromatin repression targets exclusively full-length elements of actively transposing LINE families, demonstrating the remarkable ability of the piRNA pathway to recognize active elements among the large number of genomic transposon fragments.

  12. Partial transpose criteria for symmetric states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnet-Waldraff, F.; Braun, D.; Giraud, O.

    2016-10-01

    We express the positive-partial-transpose (PPT) separability criterion for symmetric states of multiqubit systems in terms of matrix inequalities based on the recently introduced tensor representation for spin states. We construct a matrix from the tensor representation of the state and show that it is similar to the partial transpose of the density matrix written in the computational basis. Furthermore, the positivity of this matrix is equivalent to the positivity of a correlation matrix constructed from tensor products of Pauli operators. This allows for a more transparent experimental interpretation of the PPT criteria for an arbitrary spin-j state. The unitary matrices connecting our matrix to the partial transpose of the state generalize the so-called magic basis that plays a central role in Wootters' explicit formula for the concurrence of a two-qubit system and the Bell bases used for the teleportation of a one- or two-qubit state.

  13. Behavior of a modified Dissociation element in barley: a tool for genetic studies and for breeding transgenic barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize-derived sequences from the transposable elements Activator (Ac) and Dissociation (Ds) have enabled studies of gene function via transposon tagging. The characteristics of synthetic, transgene-containing Ds elements constructed for some of these studies has demonstrated their ability to resolve...

  14. Trace element inhibition of phytase activity.

    PubMed

    Santos, T; Connolly, C; Murphy, R

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, 70 % of global monogastric feeds contains an exogenous phytase. Phytase supplementation has enabled a more efficient utilisation of phytate phosphorous (P) and reduction of P pollution. Trace minerals, such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) are essential for maintaining health and immunity as well as being involved in animal growth, production and reproduction. Exogenous sources of phytase and trace elements are regularly supplemented to monogastric diets and usually combined in a premix. However, the possibility for negative interaction between individual components within the premix is high and is often overlooked. Therefore, this initial study focused on assessing the potential in vitro interaction between inorganic and organic chelated sources of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn with three commercially available phytase preparations. Additionally, this study has investigated if the degree of enzyme inhibition was dependent of the type of chelated sources. A highly significant relationship between phytase inhibition, trace mineral type as well as mineral source and concentration, p < 0.001 was verified. The proteinate sources of OTMs were consistently and significantly less inhibitory than the majority of the other sources, p < 0.05. This was verified for Escherichia coli and Peniophora lycii phytases for Fe and Zn, as well as for Cu with E. coli and Aspergillus niger phytases. Different chelate trace mineral sources demonstrated diversifying abilities to inhibit exogenous phytase activity.

  15. Transposed Paternò-Büchi Reaction.

    PubMed

    Kumarasamy, Elango; Raghunathan, Ramya; Kandappa, Sunil Kumar; Sreenithya, A; Jockusch, Steffen; Sunoj, Raghavan B; Sivaguru, J

    2017-01-18

    A complementary strategy of utilizing ππ* excited state of alkene instead of nπ* excited state of the carbonyl chromophore in a "transposed Paternò-Büchi" reaction is evaluated with atropisomeric enamides as the model system. Based on photophysical investigations, the nature of excited states and the reactive pathway was deciphered leading to atropselective reaction. This new concept of switching of excited-state configuration should pave the way to control the stereochemical course of photoreaction due to the orbital approaches required for photochemical reactivity.

  16. Circulant states with positive partial transpose

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2007-09-15

    We construct a large class of quantum dxd states which are positive under partial transposition (so called PPT states). The construction is based on certain direct sum decomposition of the total Hilbert space displaying characteristic circular structure - that is why we call them circulant states. It turns out that partial transposition maps any such decomposition into another one and hence both original density matrix and its partially transposed partner share similar cyclic properties. This class contains many well-known examples of PPT states from the literature and gives rise to a huge family of completely new states.

  17. Computing Partial Transposes and Related Entanglement Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maziero, Jonas

    2016-12-01

    The partial transpose (PT) is an important function for entanglement testing and quantification and also for the study of geometrical aspects of the quantum state space. In this article, considering general bipartite and multipartite discrete systems, explicit formulas ready for the numerical implementation of the PT and of related entanglement functions are presented and the Fortran code produced for that purpose is described. What is more, we obtain an analytical expression for the Hilbert-Schmidt entanglement of two-qudit systems and for the associated closest separable state. In contrast to previous works on this matter, we only use the properties of the PT, not applying Lagrange multipliers.

  18. Genomic parasites or symbionts? Modeling the effects of environmental pressure on transposition activity in asexual populations.

    PubMed

    Startek, Michał; Le Rouzic, Arnaud; Capy, Pierre; Grzebelus, Dariusz; Gambin, Anna

    2013-12-01

    Transposable elements are DNA segments capable of persisting in host genomes by self-replication in spite of deleterious mutagenic effects. The theoretical dynamics of these elements within genomes has been studied extensively, and population genetic models predict that they can invade and maintain as a result of both intra-genomic and inter-individual selection in sexual species. In asexuals, the success of selfish DNA is more difficult to explain. However, most theoretical work assumes constant environment. Here, we analyze the impact of environmental change on the dynamics of transposition activity when horizontal DNA exchange is absent, based on a stochastic computational model of transposable element proliferation. We argue that repeated changes in the phenotypic optimum in a multidimensional fitness landscape may induce explosive bursts of transposition activity associated with faster adaptation. However, long-term maintenance of transposition activity is unlikely. This could contribute to the significant variation in the transposable element copy number among closely related species.

  19. Transposed-Letter and Laterality Effects in Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perea, Manuel; Fraga, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    Two divided visual field lexical decision experiments were conducted to examine the role of the cerebral hemispheres in transposed-letter similarity effects. In Experiment 1, we created two types of nonwords: nonadjacent transposed-letter nonwords ("TRADEGIA"; the base word was "TRAGEDIA," the Spanish for "TRAGEDY") and two-letter different…

  20. Experiment in Learning to Discriminate Frequency Transposed Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlstrom, K.G.; And Others

    In order to improve speech perception by transposing the speech signals to lower frequencies, to determine which aspects of the information in the acoustic speech signals were influenced by transposition, and to compare two different methods of training speech perception, 44 subjects were trained to discriminate between transposed words or…

  1. Elemental analysis of combustion products by neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Heft, R.E.; Koszykowski, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the neutron activation analysis method, which is being used to determine the elemental profile of combustion products from coal-fired power plants, oil shale retorting, and underground coal gasification. (DLC)

  2. Elements of active vibration control for rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Heinz

    1990-01-01

    The success or failure of active vibration control is determined by the availability of suitable actuators, modeling of the entire system including all active elements, positioning of the actuators and sensors, and implementation of problem-adapted control concepts. All of these topics are outlined and their special problems are discussed in detail. Special attention is given to efficient modeling of systems, especially for considering the active elements. Finally, design methods for and the application of active vibration control on rotating machinery are demonstrated by several real applications.

  3. Conformal optical elements for correcting wavefront distortions in YAG : Nd{sup 3+} active elements

    SciTech Connect

    Korolkov, V P; Nasyrov, R K; Poleshchuk, A G; Arapov, Yu D; Ivanov, A F

    2013-02-28

    Correction of the wavefront is studied for the light beam passing wide-aperture YAG : Nd3+ single-crystal rods, which are used as active elements in high-power solid-state lasers. A nonideal character of the crystal structure is responsible for the deformation of the wavefront of passing radiation. By using the halftone technology we have developed conformal aberration correctors capable of compensating rod nonuniformities and reducing the laser radiation divergence by an order of magnitude. The results obtained make it possible to employ optically nonuniform active elements in laser constructions. (laser optics 2012)

  4. Finite-element model of the active organ of Corti

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Baumgart, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The cochlear amplifier that provides our hearing with its extraordinary sensitivity and selectivity is thought to be the result of an active biomechanical process within the sensory auditory organ, the organ of Corti. Although imaging techniques are developing rapidly, it is not currently possible, in a fully active cochlea, to obtain detailed measurements of the motion of individual elements within a cross section of the organ of Corti. This motion is predicted using a two-dimensional finite-element model. The various solid components are modelled using elastic elements, the outer hair cells (OHCs) as piezoelectric elements and the perilymph and endolymph as viscous and nearly incompressible fluid elements. The model is validated by comparison with existing measurements of the motions within the passive organ of Corti, calculated when it is driven either acoustically, by the fluid pressure or electrically, by excitation of the OHCs. The transverse basilar membrane (BM) motion and the shearing motion between the tectorial membrane and the reticular lamina are calculated for these two excitation modes. The fully active response of the BM to acoustic excitation is predicted using a linear superposition of the calculated responses and an assumed frequency response for the OHC feedback. PMID:26888950

  5. Parallel matrix transpose algorithms on distributed memory concurrent computers

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.; Walker, D.W.; Dongarra, J.J. |

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes parallel matrix transpose algorithms on distributed memory concurrent processors. It is assumed that the matrix is distributed over a P x Q processor template with a block scattered data distribution. P, Q, and the block size can be arbitrary, so the algorithms have wide applicability. The communication schemes of the algorithms are determined by the greatest common divisor (GCD) of P and Q. If P and Q are relatively prime, the matrix transpose algorithm involves complete exchange communication. If P and Q are not relatively prime, processors are divided into GCD groups and the communication operations are overlapped for different groups of processors. Processors transpose GCD wrapped diagonal blocks simultaneously, and the matrix can be transposed with LCM/GCD steps, where LCM is the least common multiple of P and Q. The algorithms make use of non-blocking, point-to-point communication between processors. The use of nonblocking communication allows a processor to overlap the messages that it sends to different processors, thereby avoiding unnecessary synchronization. Combined with the matrix multiplication routine, C = A{center_dot}B, the algorithms are used to compute parallel multiplications of transposed matrices, C = A{sup T}{center_dot}B{sup T}, in the PUMMA package. Details of the parallel implementation of the algorithms are given, and results are presented for runs on the Intel Touchstone Delta computer.

  6. ELEMENTAL MERCURY CAPTURE BY ACTIVATED CARBON IN A FLOW REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory


    The paper gives results of bench-scale experiments in a flow reactor to simulate the entrained-flow capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) using solid sorbents. Adsorption of Hgo by a lignite-based activated carbon (Calgon FGD) was examined at different carbon/mercury (C/Hg) rat...

  7. Incorporation of Active Elements into the Articulated Total Body Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-30

    the elbow , shoulder, hip and knee joints, 20. OISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21. ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED X SAME...Active Elements into the Articulated Total Body Model Block 19 continued. Several validation studies were performed. One simulated elbow flexion with...29 V. PHASE III- MODELLING THE GENERAL MUSCULATURE .... ........ ... 31 """. iii A. Elbow Joint

  8. Metal chlorides loaded on activated carbon to capture elemental mercury.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhemin; Ma, Jing; Mei, Zhijian; Zhang, Jianda

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) was considered to be an effective sorbent to control mercury in combustion systems. However, its capture capacity was low and it required a high carbon-to-mercury mass ratio. AC loaded with catalyst showed a high elemental mercury (Hg0) capture capacity due to large surface area of AC and high oxidization ability of catalyst. In this study, several metal chlorides and metal oxides were used to promote the sorption capacity of AC. As a result, metal chlorides were better than metal oxides loaded on AC to remove gaseous mercury. X-ray diffractometer (XRD), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and specific surface area by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET) analysis showed the main mechanisms: first, AC had an enormous surface area for loading enough MClx; second, Cl and MxOy were generated during pyrogenation of MClx; finally, there were lots of active elements such as Cl and MxOy which could react with elemental mercury and convert it to mercury oxide and mercury chloride. The HgO and HgCl2 might be released from AC's porous structure by thermo regeneration. A catalytic chemisorption mechanism predominates the sorption process of elemental mercury. As Co and Mn were valence variable metal elements, their catalytic effect on Hg0 oxidization may accelerate both oxidation and halogenation of Hg0. The sorbents loaded with metal chlorides possessed a synergistic function of catalytic effect of valence variable metal and chlorine oxidation.

  9. A transposable class I composite transposon carrying mph (methyl parathion hydrolase) from Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3.

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Hong; Wang, Shu-Jun; Fu, He; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2009-03-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3 utilizes methyl parathion (O,O-dimethyl O-p-nitrophenol phosphorothioate) or para-nitrophenol as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy. A gene encoding methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) had been characterized previously and found to be located on a typical class I composite transposon that comprised IS6100 (Tnmph). In this study, the transposability of this transposon was confirmed by transposition assays in two distinct mating-out systems. Tnmph was demonstrated to transpose efficiently in a random manner in Pseudomonas putida PaW340 by Southern blot and in Ralstonia sp. U2 by sequence analysis of the Tnmph insertion sites, both exhibiting MPH activity. The linkage of the mph-like gene with IS6100, together with the transposability of Tnmph, as well as its capability to transpose in other phylogenetically divergent bacterial species, suggest that Tnmph may contribute to the wide distribution of mph-like genes and the adaptation of bacteria to organophosphorus compounds.

  10. Transposed-Letter Priming across Inflectional Morpheme Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zargar, Ehsan Shafiee; Witzel, Naoko

    2017-01-01

    This study reports findings from two experiments testing whether a transposed-letter (TL) priming effect can be obtained when the transposition occurs across morphological boundaries. Previous studies have primarily tested derivationally complex words or compound words, but have not examined a more rule-based and productive morphological…

  11. FAIRE (Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements) isolates active regulatory elements from human chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Giresi, Paul G.; Kim, Jonghwan; McDaniell, Ryan M.; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Lieb, Jason D.

    2007-01-01

    DNA segments that actively regulate transcription in vivo are typically characterized by eviction of nucleosomes from chromatin and are experimentally identified by their hypersensitivity to nucleases. Here we demonstrate a simple procedure for the isolation of nucleosome-depleted DNA from human chromatin, termed FAIRE (Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements). To perform FAIRE, chromatin is crosslinked with formaldehyde in vivo, sheared by sonication, and phenol-chloroform extracted. The DNA recovered in the aqueous phase is fluorescently labeled and hybridized to a DNA microarray. FAIRE performed in human cells strongly enriches DNA coincident with the location of DNaseI hypersensitive sites, transcriptional start sites, and active promoters. Evidence for cell-type–specific patterns of FAIRE enrichment is also presented. FAIRE has utility as a positive selection for genomic regions associated with regulatory activity, including regions traditionally detected by nuclease hypersensitivity assays. PMID:17179217

  12. Isolation of active regulatory elements from eukaryotic chromatin using FAIRE (Formaldehyde Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements)

    PubMed Central

    Giresi, Paul G.; Lieb, Jason D.

    2009-01-01

    The binding of sequence-specific regulatory factors and the recruitment of chromatin remodeling activities cause nucleosomes to be evicted from chromatin in eukaryotic cells. Traditionally, these active sites have been identified experimentally through their sensitivity to nucleases. Here we describe the details of a simple procedure for the genome-wide isolation of nucleosome-depleted DNA from human chromatin, termed FAIRE (Formaldehyde Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements). We also provide protocols for different methods of detecting FAIRE-enriched DNA, including use of PCR, DNA microarrays, and next-generation sequencing. FAIRE works on all eukaryotic chromatin tested to date. To perform FAIRE, chromatin is crosslinked with formaldehyde, sheared by sonication, and phenol-chloroform extracted. Most genomic DNA is crosslinked to nucleosomes and is sequestered to the interphase, whereas DNA recovered in the aqueous phase corresponds to nucleosome-depleted regions of the genome. The isolated regions are largely coincident with the location of DNaseI hypersensitive sites, transcriptional start sites, enhancers, insulators, and active promoters. Given its speed and simplicity, FAIRE has utility in establishing chromatin profiles of diverse cell types in health and disease, isolating DNA regulatory elements en masse for further characterization, and as a screening assay for the effects of small molecules on chromatin organization. PMID:19303047

  13. Cis-regulatory RNA elements that regulate specialized ribosome activity

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Shifeng; Barna, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that the ribosome itself can play a highly regulatory role in the specialized translation of specific subpools of mRNAs, in particular at the level of ribosomal proteins (RP). However, the mechanism(s) by which this selection takes place has remained poorly understood. In our recent study, we discovered a combination of unique RNA elements in the 5′UTRs of mRNAs that allows for such control by the ribosome. These mRNAs contain a Translation Inhibitory Element (TIE) that inhibits general cap-dependent translation, and an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) that relies on a specific RP for activation. The unique combination of an inhibitor of general translation and an activator of specialized translation is key to ribosome-mediated control of gene expression. Here we discuss how these RNA regulatory elements provide a new level of control to protein expression and their implications for gene expression, organismal development and evolution. PMID:26327194

  14. Identification of active transcriptional regulatory elements with GRO-seq

    PubMed Central

    Danko, Charles G.; Hyland, Stephanie L.; Core, Leighton J.; Martins, Andre L.; Waters, Colin T; Lee, Hyung Won; Cheung, Vivian G.; Kraus, W. Lee; Lis, John T.; Siepel, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs), including enhancers and promoters, determine the transcription levels of associated genes. We have recently shown that global run-on and sequencing (GRO-seq) with enrichment for 5'-capped RNAs reveals active TREs with high accuracy. Here, we demonstrate that active TREs can be identified by applying sensitive machine-learning methods to standard GRO-seq data. This approach allows TREs to be assayed together with gene expression levels and other transcriptional features in a single experiment. Our prediction method, called discriminative Regulatory Element detection from GRO-seq (dREG), summarizes GRO-seq read counts at multiple scales and uses support vector regression to identify active TREs. The predicted TREs are more strongly enriched for several marks of transcriptional activation, including eQTL, GWAS-associated SNPs, H3K27ac, and transcription factor binding than those identified by alternative functional assays. Using dREG, we survey TREs in eight human cell types and provide new insights into global patterns of TRE function. PMID:25799441

  15. Matching Element Symbols with State Abbreviations: A Fun Activity for Browsing the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelk, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A classroom activity is presented in which students are challenged to find matches between the United States two-letter postal abbreviations for states and chemical element symbols. The activity aims to lessen negative apprehensions students might have when the periodic table of the elements with its more than 100 combinations of letters is first…

  16. Transition Metals Catalyzed Element-Cyano Bonds Activations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Falck, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Cyano group as a versatile functionalized intermediate has been explored for several decades, as it readily transfers to many useful functionalization groups such as amine, amide, acid, etc., which make it possess high popularization and use value in organic synthesis. Reactions involved with element-cyano bond cleavage can provide not only a new cyano group but also a freshly functionalized skeleton in one-pot, consequently making it of high importance. The highlights reviewed herein include H-CN, Si-CN, C-CN, B-CN, Sn-CN, Ge-CN, S-CN, Halo-CN, N-CN, and O-CN bonds cleavages and will summarize progress in such an important research area. This review article will focus on transition metal catalyzed reactions involving element-cyano bond activation. PMID:25558119

  17. Idefix insulator activity can be modulated by nearby regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Brasset, E; Bantignies, F; Court, F; Cheresiz, S; Conte, C; Vaury, C

    2007-01-01

    Insulators play important roles in controlling gene activity and maintaining regulatory independence between neighbouring genes. In this article, we show that the enhancer-blocking activity of the insulator present within the LTR retrotransposon Idefix can be abolished if two copies of the region containing the insulator--specifically, the long terminal repeat (LTR)--are fused to the retrotransposon's 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). The presence of this combination of two [LTR-5' UTR] modules is a prerequisite for the loss of enhancer-blocking activity. We further show that the 5' UTR causes flanking genomic sequences to be displaced to the nuclear periphery, which is not observed when two insulators are present by themselves. This study thus provides a functional link between insulators and independent genomic modules, which may cooperate to allow the specific regulation of defined genomic loci via nuclear repositioning. It further illustrates the complexity of genomic regulation within a chromatic environment with multiple functional elements.

  18. A non-autonomous insect piggyBac trasposable element is mobile in tobacco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The piggyBac transposable element, originally isolated from a virus in an insect cell line, is a valuable molecular tool for transgenesis and mutagenesis of invertebrates. For heterologous transgenesis in a variety of mammals, transfer of the piggyBac transposable element from an ectopic plasmid onl...

  19. Active control of multi-element rotor blade airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torok, Michael S. (Inventor); Moffitt, Robert C. (Inventor); Bagai, Ashish (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A multi-element rotor blade includes an individually controllable main element and fixed aerodynamic surface in an aerodynamically efficient location relative to the main element. The main element is controlled to locate the fixed aerodynamic surface in a position to increase lift and/or reduce drag upon the main element at various azimuthal positions during rotation.

  20. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) Upgrade Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past year the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) has been undergoing a significant upgrade beyond its initial configuration. The NTREES facility is designed to perform realistic non-nuclear testing of nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) fuel elements and fuel materials. Although the NTREES facility cannot mimic the neutron and gamma environment of an operating NTR, it can simulate the thermal hydraulic environment within an NTR fuel element to provide critical information on material performance and compatibility. The first phase of the upgrade activities which was completed in 2012 in part consisted of an extensive modification to the hydrogen system to permit computer controlled operations outside the building through the use of pneumatically operated variable position valves. This setup also allows the hydrogen flow rate to be increased to over 200 g/sec and reduced the operation complexity of the system. The second stage of modifications to NTREES which has just been completed expands the capabilities of the facility significantly. In particular, the previous 50 kW induction power supply has been replaced with a 1.2 MW unit which should allow more prototypical fuel element temperatures to be reached. The water cooling system was also upgraded to so as to be capable of removing 100% of the heat generated during. This new setup required that the NTREES vessel be raised onto a platform along with most of its associated gas and vent lines. In this arrangement, the induction heater and water systems are now located underneath the platform. In this new configuration, the 1.2 MW NTREES induction heater will be capable of testing fuel elements and fuel materials in flowing hydrogen at pressures up to 1000 psi at temperatures up to and beyond 3000 K and at near-prototypic reactor channel power densities. NTREES is also capable of testing potential fuel elements with a variety of propellants, including hydrogen with additives to inhibit

  1. Reduction of selenite to elemental selenium nanoparticles by activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rohan; Matassa, Silvio; Singh, Satyendra; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Total selenium removal by the activated sludge process, where selenite is reduced to colloidal elemental selenium nanoparticles (BioSeNPs) that remain entrapped in the activated sludge flocs, was studied. Total selenium removal efficiencies with glucose as electron donor (2.0 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1)) at neutral pH and 30 °C gave 2.9 and 6.8 times higher removal efficiencies as compared to the electron donors lactate and acetate, respectively. Total selenium removal efficiencies of 79 (±3) and 86 (±1) % were achieved in shake flasks and fed batch reactors, respectively, at dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations above 4.0 mg L(-1) and 30 °C when fed with 172 mg L(-1) (1 mM) Na2SeO3 and 2.0 g L(-1) COD of glucose. Continuously operated reactors operating at neutral pH, 30 °C and a DO >3 mg L(-1) removed 33.98 and 36.65 mg of total selenium per gram of total suspended solids (TSS) at TSS concentrations of 1.3 and 3.0 g L(-1), respectively. However, selenite toxicity to the activated sludge led to failure of a continuously operating activated sludge reactor at the applied loading rates. This suggests that a higher hydraulic retention time (HRT) or different reactor configurations need to be applied for selenium-removing activated sludge processes. Graphical Abstract Scheme representing the possible mechanisms of selenite reduction at high and low DO levels in the activated sludge process.

  2. Neutron activation analysis; A sensitive test for trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, T.Z. . Ward Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses neutron activation analysis (NAA), an extremely sensitive technique for determining the elemental constituents of an unknown specimen. Currently, there are some twenty-five moderate-power TRIGA reactors scattered across the United States (fourteen of them at universities), and one of their principal uses is for NAA. NAA is procedurally simple. A small amount of the material to be tested (typically between one and one hundred milligrams) is irradiated for a period that varies from a few minutes to several hours in a neutron flux of around 10{sup 12} neutrons per square centimeter per second. A tiny fraction of the nuclei present (about 10{sup {minus}8}) is transmuted by nuclear reactions into radioactive forms. Subsequently, the nuclei decay, and the energy and intensity of the gamma rays that they emit can be measured in a gamma-ray spectrometer.

  3. Gaussian-state interferometry with passive and active elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparaciari, Carlo; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2016-02-01

    We address the precision of optical interferometers fed by quantum and semiclassical Gaussian states involving passive and/or active elements, such as beam splitters, photodetectors, and optical parametric amplifiers. We first address the ultimate bounds to precision by discussing the behavior of the quantum Fisher information. We then consider photodetection at the output and calculate the sensitivity of the interferometers taking into account the nonunit quantum efficiency of the detectors. Our results show that in the ideal case of photon number detectors with unit quantum efficiency the best configuration is the symmetric one, namely, a passive (active) interferometer with a passive (active) detection stage: in this case one may achieve Heisenberg scaling of sensitivity by suitably optimizing over Gaussian states at the input. On the other hand, in the realistic case of detectors with nonunit quantum efficiency, the performances of the passive scheme are unavoidably degraded, whereas detectors involving optical parametric amplifiers allow us to fully compensate for the presence of loss in the detection stage, thus restoring the Heisenberg scaling.

  4. Cis-Active RNA Elements (CREs) and Picornavirus RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Steil, Benjamin P.; Barton, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of picornavirus RNA replication has improved over the past 10 years, due in large part to the discovery of cis-active RNA elements (CREs) within picornavirus RNA genomes. CREs function as templates for the conversion of VPg, the Viral Protein of the genome, into VPgpUpUOH. These so called CREs are different from the previously recognized cis-active RNA sequences and structures within the 5′ and 3′ NTRs of picornavirus genomes. Two adenosine residues in the loop of the CRE RNA structures allow the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 3DPol to add two uridine residues to the tyrosine residue of VPg. Because VPg and/or VPgpUpUOH prime the initiation of viral RNA replication, the asymmetric replication of viral RNA could not be explained without an understanding of the viral RNA template involved in the conversion of VPg into VPgpUpUOH primers. We review the growing body of knowledge regarding picornavirus CREs and discuss how CRE RNAs work coordinately with viral replication proteins and other cis-active RNAs in the 5′ and 3′ NTRs during RNA replication. PMID:18773930

  5. Assessment of nose protector for sport activities: finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Coto, Neide Pena; Meira, Josete Barbosa Cruz; Brito e Dias, Reinaldo; Driemeier, Larissa; de Oliveira Roveri, Guilherme; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito

    2012-04-01

    There has been a significant increase in the number of facial fractures stemming from sport activities in recent years, with the nasal bone one of the most affected structures. Researchers recommend the use of a nose protector, but there is no standardization regarding the material employed. Clinical experience has demonstrated that a combination of a flexible and rigid layer of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) offers both comfort and safety to practitioners of sports. The aim of the present study was the investigation into the stresses generated by the impact of a rigid body on the nasal bone on models with and without an EVA protector. For such, finite element analysis was employed. A craniofacial model was constructed from images obtained through computed tomography. The nose protector was modeled with two layers of EVA (1 mm of rigid EVA over 2 mm of flexible EVA), following the geometry of the soft tissue. Finite element analysis was performed using the LS Dyna program. The bone and rigid EVA were represented as elastic linear material, whereas the soft tissues and flexible EVA were represented as hyperelastic material. The impact from a rigid sphere on the frontal region of the face was simulated with a constant velocity of 20 m s(-1) for 9.1 μs. The model without the protector served as the control. The distribution of maximal stress of the facial bones was recorded. The maximal stress on the nasal bone surpassed the breaking limit of 0.13-0.34 MPa on the model without a protector, while remaining below this limit on the model with the protector. Thus, the nose protector made from both flexible and rigid EVA proved effective at protecting the nasal bones under high-impact conditions.

  6. The hobo transposable element excises and has related elements in tephritid species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Function of the Drosophila melanogaster hobo transposon in tephritid species was tested in transient embryonic excision assays by scientists at the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Center for Medical Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida. Wild-type and mutant strains of Ana...

  7. LRE2, an active human L1 element, has low level transcriptional activity and extremely low reverse transcriptase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, S.E.; Dombroski, B.A.; Sassaman, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    Previously, we found a 2 kb insertion containing a rearranged L1 element plus a unique sequence component (USC) within exon 48 of the dystrophin gene of a patient with muscular dystrophy. We used the USC to clone the precursor of this insertion, the second known {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} human L1 element. The locus LRE2 (L1 Retrotransposable Element 2) has an allele derived from the patient which matches the insertion sequence exactly. LRE2 has a perfect 13-15 bp target site duplication, 2 open reading frames (ORFs), and an unusual 21 bp truncation of the 5{prime} end in a region known to be important for L1 transcription. The truncated LRE2 promoter has about 20% of the transcriptional activity of a previously studied L1 promoter after transfection into NTera2D1 cells of a construct in which the L1 promoter drives the expression of a lacZ gene. In addition, the reverse transcriptase (RT) encoded by LRE2 is active in an in vivo pseudogene assay in yeast and an in vitro assay. However, in both assays the RT of LRE2 is 1-5% as active as that of LRE1. These data demonstrate that multiple {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} L1 elements exist in the human genome, and that active elements can have highly variable rates of transcription and reverse transcriptase activity. That the RT of LRE2 has extremely low activity suggests the possibility that retrotransposition of an L1 element may in some cases involve an RT encoded by another L1 element.

  8. Emergy of the Global Biogeochemical Cycles of Biologically Active Elements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate estimates of the emergy of elemental flows are needed to accurately evaluate the far field effects of anthropogenic wastes. The transformity and specific emergy of the elements and of their different chemical species is also needed to quantify the inputs to many producti...

  9. Trace Elements Induce Predominance among Methanogenic Activity in Anaerobic Digestion.

    PubMed

    Wintsche, Babett; Glaser, Karin; Sträuber, Heike; Centler, Florian; Liebetrau, Jan; Harms, Hauke; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements (TE) play an essential role in all organisms due to their functions in enzyme complexes. In anaerobic digesters, control, and supplementation of TEs lead to stable and more efficient methane production processes while TE deficits cause process imbalances. However, the underlying metabolic mechanisms and the adaptation of the affected microbial communities to such deficits are not yet fully understood. Here, we investigated the microbial community dynamics and resulting process changes induced by TE deprivation. Two identical lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactors fed with distiller's grains and supplemented with TEs (cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, tungsten) and a commercial iron additive were operated in parallel. After 72 weeks of identical operation, the feeding regime of one reactor was changed by omitting TE supplements and reducing the amount of iron additive. Both reactors were operated for further 21 weeks. Various process parameters (biogas production and composition, total solids and volatile solids, TE concentration, volatile fatty acids, total ammonium nitrogen, total organic acids/alkalinity ratio, and pH) and the composition and activity of the microbial communities were monitored over the total experimental time. While the methane yield remained stable, the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, total ammonia nitrogen, and acetate increased in the TE-depleted reactor compared to the well-supplied control reactor. Methanosarcina and Methanoculleus dominated the methanogenic communities in both reactors. However, the activity ratio of these two genera was shown to depend on TE supplementation explainable by different TE requirements of their energy conservation systems. Methanosarcina dominated the well-supplied anaerobic digester, pointing to acetoclastic methanogenesis as the dominant methanogenic pathway. Under TE deprivation, Methanoculleus and thus hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was favored although Methanosarcina was not overgrown by

  10. Trace Elements Induce Predominance among Methanogenic Activity in Anaerobic Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Wintsche, Babett; Glaser, Karin; Sträuber, Heike; Centler, Florian; Liebetrau, Jan; Harms, Hauke; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements (TE) play an essential role in all organisms due to their functions in enzyme complexes. In anaerobic digesters, control, and supplementation of TEs lead to stable and more efficient methane production processes while TE deficits cause process imbalances. However, the underlying metabolic mechanisms and the adaptation of the affected microbial communities to such deficits are not yet fully understood. Here, we investigated the microbial community dynamics and resulting process changes induced by TE deprivation. Two identical lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactors fed with distiller’s grains and supplemented with TEs (cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, tungsten) and a commercial iron additive were operated in parallel. After 72 weeks of identical operation, the feeding regime of one reactor was changed by omitting TE supplements and reducing the amount of iron additive. Both reactors were operated for further 21 weeks. Various process parameters (biogas production and composition, total solids and volatile solids, TE concentration, volatile fatty acids, total ammonium nitrogen, total organic acids/alkalinity ratio, and pH) and the composition and activity of the microbial communities were monitored over the total experimental time. While the methane yield remained stable, the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, total ammonia nitrogen, and acetate increased in the TE-depleted reactor compared to the well-supplied control reactor. Methanosarcina and Methanoculleus dominated the methanogenic communities in both reactors. However, the activity ratio of these two genera was shown to depend on TE supplementation explainable by different TE requirements of their energy conservation systems. Methanosarcina dominated the well-supplied anaerobic digester, pointing to acetoclastic methanogenesis as the dominant methanogenic pathway. Under TE deprivation, Methanoculleus and thus hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was favored although Methanosarcina was not overgrown

  11. Trace element analysis of coal by neutron activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The irradiation, counting, and data reduction scheme is described for an analysis capability of 1000 samples per year. Up to 56 elements are reported on each sample. The precision and accuracy of the method are shown for 25 elements designated as hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The interference corrections for selenium and ytterbium on mercury and ytterbium on selenium are described. The effect of bromine and antimony on the determination of arsenic is also mentioned. The use of factorial design techniques to evaluate interferences in the determination of mercury, selenium, and arsenic is shown. Some typical trace element results for coal, fly ash, and bottom ash are given.

  12. Trace element analysis of coal by neutron activation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The irradiation, counting, and data reduction scheme is described for an analysis capability of 1000 samples per year. Up to 56 elements are reported on each sample. The precision and accuracy of the method are shown for 25 elements designated as hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The interference corrections for selenium and ytterbium on mercury and ytterbium on selenium are described. The effect of bromine and antimony on the determination of arsenic is also mentioned. The use of factorial design techniques to evaluate interferences in the determination of mercury, selenium, and arsenic is shown. Some typical trace element results for coal, fly ash, and bottom ash are given.

  13. Selection of active elements in system reduction of vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, K.

    2016-11-01

    This work presents non-classical method of design of mechatronic systems. The purpose of this paper is also introduces synthesis of mechatronic system understand as design of mechatronic systems. The synthesis may be applied to modify the already existing systems in order to achieve a desired result. The system was consisted from mechanical and electrical elements. Electrical elements were used as subsystem reducing unwanted vibration of mechanical system. Electrical elements can be realized in the form of coils with movable core. The system was modelled in Matlab Simulink.

  14. Distribution of Unlinked Transpositions of a Ds Element from a T-DNA Locus on Tomato Chromosome 4

    PubMed Central

    Briza, J.; Carroll, B. J.; Klimyuk, V. I.; Thomas, C. M.; Jones, D. A.; Jones, JDG.

    1995-01-01

    In maize, receptor sites for unlinked transpositions of Activator (Ac) elements are not distributed randomly. To test whether the same is true in tomato, the receptor sites for a Dissociation (Ds) element derived from Ac, were mapped for 26 transpositions unlinked to a donor T-DNA locus on chromosome 4. Four independent transposed Dss mapped to sites on chromosome 4 genetically unlinked to the donor T-DNA, consistent with a preference for transposition to unlinked sites on the same chromosome as opposed to sites on other chromosomes. There was little preference among the nondonor chromosomes, except perhaps for chromosome 2, which carried seven transposed Dss, but these could not be proven to be independent. However, these data, when combined with those from other studies in tomato examining the distribution of transposed Acs or Dss among nondonor chromosomes, suggest there may be absolute preferences for transposition irrespective of the chromosomal location of the donor site. If true, transposition to nondonor chromosomes in tomato would differ from that in maize, where the preference seems to be determined by the spatial arrangement of chromosomes in the interphase nucleus. The tomato lines carrying Ds elements at known locations are available for targeted transposon tagging experiments. PMID:8536985

  15. Repair of transposable phage Mu DNA insertions begins only when the E. coli replisome collides with the transpososome.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sooin; Harshey, Rasika M

    2015-08-01

    We report a new cellular interaction between the infecting transposable phage Mu and the host Escherichia coli replication machinery during repair of Mu insertions, which involves filling-in of short target gaps on either side of the insertion, concomitant with degradation of extraneous long flanking DNA (FD) linked to Mu. Using the FD as a marker to follow repair, we find that after transposition into the chromosome, the unrepaired Mu is indefinitely stable until the replication fork arrives at the insertion site, whereupon the FD is rapidly degraded. When the fork runs into a Mu target gap, a double strand end (DSE) will result; we demonstrate fork-dependent DSEs proximal to Mu. These findings suggest that Pol III stalled at the transpososome is exploited for co-ordinated repair of both target gaps flanking Mu without replicating the intervening 37 kb of Mu, disassembling the stable transpososome in the process. This work is relevant to all transposable elements, including retroviral elements like HIV-1, which share with Mu the common problem of repair of their flanking target gaps.

  16. Discrete elements within the SV40 enhancer region display different cell-specific enhancer activities.

    PubMed Central

    Ondek, B; Shepard, A; Herr, W

    1987-01-01

    The SV40 enhancer contains three genetically defined elements, called A, B and C, that can functionally compensate for one another. By using short, synthetic DNA oligonucleotides, we show that each of these elements can act autonomously as an enhancer when present as multiple tandem copies. Analysis of a progressive series of B element oligomers shows a single element is ineffective as an enhancer and that the activity of two or more elements increases with copy number. Assay in five different cell lines of two separate enhancers containing six tandem copies of either the B or C element shows that these elements possess different cell-specific activities. Parallel oligomer enhancer constructs containing closely spaced double point mutations display no enhancer activity in any of the cell lines tested, indicating that these elements represent single units of enhancer function. These elements contain either a 'core' or 'octamer' consensus sequence but these consensus sequences alone are not sufficient for enhancer activity. The different cell-specific activities of the B and C elements are consistent with functional interactions with different trans-acting factors. We discuss how tandem duplication of such dissimilar elements, as in the wild-type SV40 72-bp repeats, can serve to expand the conditions under which an enhancer can function. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3036487

  17. Trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis for pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Methods and technology were developed to analyze 1000 samples/yr of coal and other pollution-related samples. The complete trace element analysis of 20-24 samples/wk averaged 3-3.5 man-hours/sample. The computerized data reduction scheme could identify and report data on as many as 56 elements. In addition to coal, samples of fly ash, bottom ash, crude oil, fuel oil, residual oil, gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, filtered air particulates, ore, stack scrubber water, clam tissue, crab shells, river sediment and water, and corn were analyzed. Precision of the method was plus or minus 25% based on all elements reported in coal and other sample matrices. Overall accuracy was estimated at 50%.

  18. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) Upgrade Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J. Jr.; Moran, Robert P.; Pearson, J. Boise

    2012-01-01

    To support the on-going nuclear thermal propulsion effort, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The facility to perform this testing is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator (NTREES). This device can simulate the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components will be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner so as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes which would normally occur as a result of nuclear fission and would be exposed to flowing hydrogen. Initial testing of a somewhat prototypical fuel element has been successfully performed in NTREES and the facility has now been shutdown to allow for an extensive reconfiguration of the facility which will result in a significant upgrade in its capabilities

  19. ELEMENTAL MERCURY ADSORPTION BY ACTIVATED CARBON TREATED WITH SULFURIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of the adsorption of elemental mercury at 125 C by a sulfuric-acid (H2S04, 50% w/w/ solution)-treated carbon for the removal of mercury from flue gas. The pore structure of the sample was characterized by nitrogen (N2) at -196 C and the t-plot m...

  20. On the Role of the Artistic Element in Pedagogical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulatova, O. S.

    2006-01-01

    Pedagogy includes not only knowledge of the different sciences, but also elements of the artistic and imaginative perception of the world. In this article, the author discusses the importance of creating an atmosphere and construct situations that foster a rate of compassion, so that students can internalize feelings in their own spiritual space…

  1. Trace elements removal from water using modified activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Campos, V; Buchler, P M

    2008-02-01

    This paper present the possible alternative options for the remove of trace elements from drinking water supplies in the trace. Arsenic and chromium are two of the most toxic pollutants, introduced into natural waters from a variety of sources and causing various adverse effects on living bodies. The performance of three filter bed methods was evaluated in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted to investigate the sorption of arsenic and chromium on carbon steel and removal of trace elements from drinking water with a household filtration process. The affinity of the arsenic and chromium species for Fe/Fe3C (iron/iron carbide) sites is the key factor controlling the removal of the elements. The method is based on the use of powdered block carbon, powder carbon steel and ceramic spheres in the ion-sorption columns as a cleaning process. The modified powdered block carbon is a satisfactory and economical sorbent for trace elements (arsenite and chromate) dissolved in water due to its low unit cost of about $23 and compatibility with the traditional household filtration system.

  2. The impact of element-element interactions on antioxidant enzymatic activity in the blood of white stork (Ciconia ciconia) chicks.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Piotr; Kurhalyuk, Nataliya; Kasprzak, Mariusz; Jerzak, Leszek; Tkachenko, Halyna; Szady-Grad, Małgorzata; Klawe, Jacek J; Koim, Beata

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this work was to determine interrelationships among macroelements Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe, microelements Zn, Cu, Mn, and Co, and toxic heavy metals Pb and Cd in the blood of white stork Ciconia ciconia, during postnatal development, in different Polish environments, and their impact on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. We considered the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARSs), i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA), and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ceruloplasmine (CP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). Blood samples were collected from storks developing at Odra meadows (Kłopot; southwestern Poland). They were compared with blood of chicks from several suburban sites located 20 km away from Zielona Góra (0.1 million inhabitants; southwestern Poland) and near Głogów, where a copper smelter is situated. We also conducted research in the Pomeranian region (Cecenowo; northern Poland). We collected blood samples via venipuncture of the brachial vein of chicks in 2005-2007. They were retrieved from the nest and placed in individual ventilated cotton sacks. The blood was collected using a 5-ml syringe washed with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). We found significant interactions between macro- and microelements and enzymatic activity and TBARS products. We noticed the predominance of Cd and Pb participation in element-enzyme interactions. Simultaneously, we found interrelationships between cadmium and Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe and the activity of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, CP, GR, and TBARS products in the blood of white stork chicks. In the case of lead these relationships were not numerous and they were significant for Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, and Co. Correlations with enzymes were significant for Pb-CAT and Pb-TBARS. We noted that activities of most enzymes (SOD, CAT, CP, GR) and TBARS products are determined by their interactions with physiological elements Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn and toxic

  3. Finite Element Learning Modules as Active Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ashland O.; Jensen, Daniel; Rencis, Joseph; Wood, Kristin; Wood, John; White, Christina; Raaberg, Kristen Kaufman; Coffman, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of active learning is to solicit participation by students beyond the passive mode of traditional classroom lectures. Reading, writing, participating in discussions, hands-on activities, engaging in active problem solving, and collaborative learning can all be involved. The skills acquired during active learning tend to go above and…

  4. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) Upgrade Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William

    2013-01-01

    A key technology element in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion is the development of fuel materials and components which can withstand extremely high temperatures while being exposed to flowing hydrogen. NTREES provides a cost effective method for rapidly screening of candidate fuel components with regard to their viability for use in NTR systems. The NTREES is designed to mimic the conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel elements and other components would be subjected to during reactor operation. The NTREES consists of a water cooled ASME code stamped pressure vessel and its associated control hardware and instrumentation coupled with inductive heaters to simulate the heat provided by the fission process. The NTREES has been designed to safely allow hydrogen gas to be injected into internal flow passages of an inductively heated test article mounted in the chamber.

  5. Genomic Organization of the Drosophila Telomere RetrotransposableElements

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.A.; DeBaryshe, P.G.; Traverse, K.L.; Celniker, S. E.; Pardue, M-L.

    2006-10-16

    The emerging sequence of the heterochromatic portion of the Drosophila melanogaster genome, with the most recent update of euchromatic sequence, gives the first genome-wide view of the chromosomal distribution of the telomeric retrotransposons, HeT-A, TART, and Tahre. As expected, these elements are entirely excluded from euchromatin, although sequence fragments of HeT-A and TART 3 untranslated regions are found in nontelomeric heterochromatin on the Y chromosome. The proximal ends of HeT-A/TART arrays appear to be a transition zone because only here do other transposable elements mix in the array. The sharp distinction between the distribution of telomeric elements and that of other transposable elements suggests that chromatin structure is important in telomere element localization. Measurements reported here show (1) D. melanogaster telomeres are very long, in the size range reported for inbred mouse strains (averaging 46 kb per chromosome end in Drosophila stock 2057). As in organisms with telomerase, their length varies depending on genotype. There is also slight under-replication in polytene nuclei. (2) Surprisingly, the relationship between the number of HeT-A and TART elements is not stochastic but is strongly correlated across stocks, supporting the idea that the two elements are interdependent. Although currently assembled portions of the HeT-A/TART arrays are from the most-proximal part of long arrays, {approx}61% of the total HeT-A sequence in these regions consists of intact, potentially active elements with little evidence of sequence decay, making it likely that the content of the telomere arrays turns over more extensively than has been thought.

  6. Repetitive elements dynamics in cell identity programming, maintenance and disease.

    PubMed

    Bodega, Beatrice; Orlando, Valerio

    2014-12-01

    The days of 'junk DNA' seem to be over. The rapid progress of genomics technologies has been unveiling unexpected mechanisms by which repetitive DNA and in particular transposable elements (TEs) have evolved, becoming key issues in understanding genome structure and function. Indeed, rather than 'parasites', recent findings strongly suggest that TEs may have a positive function by contributing to tissue specific transcriptional programs, in particular as enhancer-like elements and/or modules for regulation of higher order chromatin structure. Further, it appears that during development and aging genomes experience several waves of TEs activation, and this contributes to individual genome shaping during lifetime. Interestingly, TEs activity is major target of epigenomic regulation. These findings are shedding new light on the genome-phenotype relationship and set the premises to help to explain complex disease manifestation, as consequence of TEs activity deregulation.

  7. Latent Regulatory Potential of Human-Specific Repetitive Elements

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Michelle C.; Wilson, Michael D.; Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L.; Schmidt, Dominic; Stark, Rory; Pan, Qun; Schwalie, Petra C.; Menon, Suraj; Lukk, Margus; Watt, Stephen; Thybert, David; Kutter, Claudia; Kirschner, Kristina; Flicek, Paul; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Odom, Duncan T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary At least half of the human genome is derived from repetitive elements, which are often lineage specific and silenced by a variety of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Using a transchromosomic mouse strain that transmits an almost complete single copy of human chromosome 21 via the female germline, we show that a heterologous regulatory environment can transcriptionally activate transposon-derived human regulatory regions. In the mouse nucleus, hundreds of locations on human chromosome 21 newly associate with activating histone modifications in both somatic and germline tissues, and influence the gene expression of nearby transcripts. These regions are enriched with primate and human lineage-specific transposable elements, and their activation corresponds to changes in DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides. This study reveals the latent regulatory potential of the repetitive human genome and illustrates the species specificity of mechanisms that control it. PMID:23246434

  8. Exercise and Activity: Key Elements in the Management of OI

    MedlinePlus

    ... in both children and adults. Research indicates that physical activity is important because it promotes: general health through cardiovascular fitness mental alertness weight control improved sleep quality ...

  9. Determination of elements in National Bureau of Standards' geological Standard Reference Materials by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Glascock, M.D.; Carni, J.J.; Vogt, J.R.; Spalding, T.G.

    1982-08-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) have been used to determine elemental concentrations in two recently issued National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Materials (SRM's). The results obtained are in good agreement with the certified and information values reported by NBS for those elements in each material for which comparisons are available. Average concentrations of 35 elements in SRM 278 obsidian rock and 32 elements in SRM 688 basalt rock are reported for comparison with results that may be obtained by other laboratories.

  10. Preconcentration and Speciation of Trace Elements and Trace-Element Analogues of Radionuclides by Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chatt, A.

    1999-11-14

    We have developed a number of preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) methods in our laboratory for the determination of trace elements in a variety of complex sample matrices. We developed a number of cocrystallization and coprecipitation methods for the determination of trace elements in water samples. We developed several methods for the determination of I in foods and diets. We have developed a number of PNAA methods in our laboratory We determined As and Sb in geological materials and natural waters by coprecipitation with Se and Au in silicate rocks and ores by coprecipitation with Te followed by NAA. We developed an indirect NAA method for the determination of B in leachates of borosilicate glass. We have been interested in studying the speciation of Am, Tc, and Np in simulated vitrified groundwater leachates of high-level wastes under oxid and anoxic conditions using a number of techniques. We then used PNAA methods to study speciation of trace-element analogues of radionuclides. We have been able to apply biochemical techniques and NAA for the separation, preconcentration, and characterization of metalloprotein and protein-bound trace-element species in subcellular fractions of bovine kidneys. Lately, we have concentrated our efforts to develop chemical and biochemical methods in conjunction with NAA, NMR, and MS for the separation and identification of extractable organohalogens (EOX) in tissues of beluga whales, cod, and northern pink shrimp

  11. LINE-1 Elements in Structural Variation and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Christine R.; Garcia-Perez, José Luis; Badge, Richard M.; Moran, John V.

    2014-01-01

    The completion of the human genome reference sequence ushered in a new era for the study and discovery of human transposable elements. It now is undeniable that transposable elements, historically dismissed as junk DNA, have had an instrumental role in sculpting the structure and function of our genomes. In particular, long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) and short interspersed elements (SINEs) continue to affect our genome, and their movement can lead to sporadic cases of disease. Here, we briefly review the types of transposable elements present in the human genome and their mechanisms of mobility. We next highlight how advances in DNA sequencing and genomic technologies have enabled the discovery of novel retrotransposons in individual genomes. Finally, we discuss how L1-mediated retrotransposition events impact human genomes. PMID:21801021

  12. Roles of metal/activated carbon hybridization on elemental mercury adsorption.

    PubMed

    Bae, Kyong-Min; Kim, Byung-Joo; Rhee, Kyong Yop; Park, Soo-Jin

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the elemental mercury removal behavior of metal (copper or nickel)/activated carbon hybrid materials were investigated. The pore structures and total pore volumes of the hybrid materials were analyzed using the N2/77 K adsorption isotherms. The microstructure and surface morphologies of the hybrid materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. In the experimental results, the elemental mercury adsorption capacities of all copper/activated carbon hybrid materials were higher than that of the as-received material despite the decrease in specific surface areas and total pore volumes after the metal loading. All the samples containing the metal particles showed excellent elemental mercury adsorption. The Ni/ACs exhibited superior elemental mercury adsorption to those of Cu/ACs. This suggests that Ni/ACs have better elemental mercury adsorption due to the higher activity of nickel.

  13. Active finite element analysis of skeletal muscle-tendon complex during isometric, shortening and lengthening contraction.

    PubMed

    Tsui, C P; Tang, C Y; Leung, C P; Cheng, K W; Ng, Y F; Chow, D H K; Li, C K

    2004-01-01

    An active finite element model was developed to predict the mechanical behaviors of skeletal muscle-tendon complex during isometric, shortening and lengthening contraction. The active finite element was created through incorporation of a user-defined material property into ABAQUS finite element code. The active finite element is controlled by a motor element that is activated by a mathematical function. The nonlinear passive behavior of the muscle was defined by the viscoelastic elements and can be easily altered to other properties by using other elements in the material library without the need of re-defining the constitutive relation of the muscle. The isometric force-length relationship, force-strain relations of the muscle-tendon complex during both shortening and lengthening contraction and muscle relaxation response were predicted using the proposed finite element model. The predicted results were found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. In addition, the stress distribution in the muscle-tendon complex during isometric, shortening and lengthening contractions was simulated. The location of the maximum stress may provide useful information for studying muscle damage and fatigue in the future.

  14. Emergy Evaluations of the Global Biogeochemical Cycles of Six Biologically Active Elements and Two Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimates of the emergy carried by the flows of biologically active elements (BAE) and compounds are needed to accurately evaluate the near and far field effects of anthropogenic wastes. The transformities and specific emergies of these elements and of their different chemical sp...

  15. Entrapped elemental selenium nanoparticles affect physicochemical properties of selenium fed activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rohan; Seder-Colomina, Marina; Jordan, Norbert; Dessi, Paolo; Cosmidis, Julie; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Weiss, Stephan; Farges, François; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-09-15

    Selenite containing wastewaters can be treated in activated sludge systems, where the total selenium is removed from the wastewater by the formation of elemental selenium nanoparticles, which are trapped in the biomass. No studies have been carried out so far on the characterization of selenium fed activated sludge flocs, which is important for the development of this novel selenium removal process. This study showed that more than 94% of the trapped selenium in activated sludge flocs is in the form of elemental selenium, both as amorphous/monoclinic selenium nanospheres and trigonal selenium nanorods. The entrapment of the elemental selenium nanoparticles in the selenium fed activated sludge flocs leads to faster settling rates, higher hydrophilicity and poorer dewaterability compared to the control activated sludge (i.e., not fed with selenite). The selenium fed activated sludge showed a less negative surface charge density as compared to the control activated sludge. The presence of trapped elemental selenium nanoparticles further affected the spatial distribution of Al and Mg in the activated sludge flocs. This study demonstrated that the formation and subsequent trapping of elemental selenium nanoparticles in the activated sludge flocs affects their physicochemical properties.

  16. Optimal placement of active elements in control augmented structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepulveda, A. E.; Jin, I. M.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology for structural/control synthesis is presented in which the optimal location of active members is treated in terms of (0,1) variables. Structural member sizes, control gains and (0,1) placement variables are treated simultaneously as design variables. Optimization is carried out by generating and solving a sequence of explicit approximate problems using a branch and bound strategy. Intermediate design variable and intermediate response quantity concepts are used to enhance the quality of the approximate design problems. Numerical results for example problems are presented to illustrate the efficacy of the design procedure set forth.

  17. In vivo "photofootprint" changes at sequences between the yeast GAL1 upstream activating sequence and "TATA" element require activated GAL4 protein but not a functional TATA element.

    PubMed Central

    Selleck, S B; Majors, J

    1988-01-01

    Transcription of the yeast GAL1 and GAL10 genes is induced by growth on galactose. Using the technique of photofootprinting in vivo, we previously documented equivalent transcription-dependent footprints within the putative "TATA" elements of both genes. To explore the functional significance of these observations, we created a 3-base-pair substitution mutation within the GAL1 promoter TATA element, which disrupted the ATATAA consensus sequence but left intact the photomodification targets. The mutation reduced galactose-induced RNA levels by a factor of 100. The mutant promoter no longer displayed the characteristic TATA sequence footprint, supporting the hypothesis that transcription activation involves the binding of a TATA box factor. We also observed a collection of transcription-correlated alterations in the modification pattern at sites between the UASG and the GAL1 TATA element, within sequences that are not required for inducible transcription. These patterns, characteristic of the induced wild-type GAL1 gene, were still galactose inducible with the TATA mutant GAl1 promoter, despite the low level of transcription from this promoter. We conclude that the GAL4-dependent protein/DNA structure responsible for the altered pattern within nonessential sequences is therefore not strictly coupled to an active TATA element or to high levels of expression. Nonetheless, the patterns probably reflect a stable protein-dependent structure that accompanies assembly of the transcription initiation complex. Images PMID:3041409

  18. Heavy metals and rare earth elements source-sink in some Egyptian cigarettes as determined by neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Nada, A; Abdel-Wahab, M; Sroor, A; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Abdel-Sabour, M F

    1999-07-01

    Heavy metals and rare earth elements in two types of cigarettes were studied. The contents of trace elements were determined by using delayed neutron activation analysis. In the present study 11 elements have been detected in popular and fine brand cigarettes marketed in Egypt. Evaluation of these elements with their potential hazards for smokers is briefly discussed. The material balance (source and sink) for each element was determined. Also the ratio of element recovery to the total amount was assessed.

  19. Role of Oxygen as Surface-Active Element in Linear GTA Welding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadaiah, Nirsanametla; Bag, Swarup

    2013-11-01

    Although the surface-active elements such as oxygen and sulfur have an adverse effect on momentum transport in liquid metals during fusion welding, such elements can be used beneficially up to a certain limit to increase the weld penetration in the gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding process. The fluid flow pattern and consequently the weld penetration and width change due to a change in coefficient of surface tension from a negative value to a positive value. The present work is focused on the analysis of possible effects of surface-active elements to change the weld pool dimensions in linear GTA welding. A 3D finite element-based heat transfer and fluid flow model is developed to study the effect of surface-active elements on stainless steel plates. A velocity in the order of 180 mm/s due to surface tension force is estimated at an optimum concentration of surface-active elements. Further, the differential evolution-based global optimization algorithm is integrated with the numerical model to estimate uncertain model parameters such as arc efficiency, effective arc radius, and effective values of material properties at high temperatures. The effective values of thermal conductivity and viscosity are estimated to be enhanced nine and seven times, respectively, over corresponding room temperature values. An error analysis is also performed to find out the overall reliability of the computed results, and a maximum reliability of 0.94 is achieved.

  20. TRANSPOSABLE REGULARIZED COVARIANCE MODELS WITH AN APPLICATION TO MISSING DATA IMPUTATION.

    PubMed

    Allen, Genevera I; Tibshirani, Robert

    2010-06-01

    Missing data estimation is an important challenge with high-dimensional data arranged in the form of a matrix. Typically this data matrix is transposable, meaning that either the rows, columns or both can be treated as features. To model transposable data, we present a modification of the matrix-variate normal, the mean-restricted matrix-variate normal, in which the rows and columns each have a separate mean vector and covariance matrix. By placing additive penalties on the inverse covariance matrices of the rows and columns, these so called transposable regularized covariance models allow for maximum likelihood estimation of the mean and non-singular covariance matrices. Using these models, we formulate EM-type algorithms for missing data imputation in both the multivariate and transposable frameworks. We present theoretical results exploiting the structure of our transposable models that allow these models and imputation methods to be applied to high-dimensional data. Simulations and results on microarray data and the Netflix data show that these imputation techniques often outperform existing methods and offer a greater degree of flexibility.

  1. TRANSPOSABLE REGULARIZED COVARIANCE MODELS WITH AN APPLICATION TO MISSING DATA IMPUTATION

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Genevera I.; Tibshirani, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Missing data estimation is an important challenge with high-dimensional data arranged in the form of a matrix. Typically this data matrix is transposable, meaning that either the rows, columns or both can be treated as features. To model transposable data, we present a modification of the matrix-variate normal, the mean-restricted matrix-variate normal, in which the rows and columns each have a separate mean vector and covariance matrix. By placing additive penalties on the inverse covariance matrices of the rows and columns, these so called transposable regularized covariance models allow for maximum likelihood estimation of the mean and non-singular covariance matrices. Using these models, we formulate EM-type algorithms for missing data imputation in both the multivariate and transposable frameworks. We present theoretical results exploiting the structure of our transposable models that allow these models and imputation methods to be applied to high-dimensional data. Simulations and results on microarray data and the Netflix data show that these imputation techniques often outperform existing methods and offer a greater degree of flexibility. PMID:26877823

  2. EFFECT OF MOISTURE ON ADSORPTION OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY BY ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses experiments using activated carbon to capture elemental mercury (Hgo), and a bench-scale dixed-bed reactor and a flow reactor to determine the role of surface moisture in Hgo adsorption. Three activated-carbon samples, with different pore structure and ash co...

  3. Binding among Select Episodic Elements Is Altered via Active Short-Term Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Donna J.; Voss, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    Of the many elements that comprise an episode, are any disproportionately bound to the others? We tested whether active short-term retrieval selectively increases binding. Individual objects from multiobject displays were retrieved after brief delays. Memory was later tested for the other objects. Cueing with actively retrieved objects facilitated…

  4. IN-FLIGHT CAPTURE OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY BY A CHLORINE-IMPREGNATED ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the in-flight capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) by a chlorine (C1)-impregnated activated carbon. Efforts to develop sorbents for the control of Hg emissions have demonstrated that C1-impregnation of virgin activated carbons using dilute solutions of hydrogen ...

  5. IMPORTANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON'S OXYGEN SURFACE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS ON ELEMENTAL MERCURY ADSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of varying physical and chemical properties of activated carbons on adsorption of elemental mercury [Hg(0)] was studied by treating two activated carbons to modify their surface functional groups and pore structures. Heat treatment (1200 K) in nitrogen (N2), air oxidat...

  6. Prediction of Geomagnetic Activity and Key Parameters in High-Latitude Ionosphere-Basic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyatsky, W.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2007-01-01

    Prediction of geomagnetic activity and related events in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere is an important task of the Space Weather program. Prediction reliability is dependent on the prediction method and elements included in the prediction scheme. Two main elements are a suitable geomagnetic activity index and coupling function -- the combination of solar wind parameters providing the best correlation between upstream solar wind data and geomagnetic activity. The appropriate choice of these two elements is imperative for any reliable prediction model. The purpose of this work was to elaborate on these two elements -- the appropriate geomagnetic activity index and the coupling function -- and investigate the opportunity to improve the reliability of the prediction of geomagnetic activity and other events in the Earth's magnetosphere. The new polar magnetic index of geomagnetic activity and the new version of the coupling function lead to a significant increase in the reliability of predicting the geomagnetic activity and some key parameters, such as cross-polar cap voltage and total Joule heating in high-latitude ionosphere, which play a very important role in the development of geomagnetic and other activity in the Earth s magnetosphere, and are widely used as key input parameters in modeling magnetospheric, ionospheric, and thermospheric processes.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A CL-IMPREGNATED ACTIVATED CARBON FOR ENTRAINED-FLOW CAPTURE OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts to discern the role of an activated carbon's surface functional groups on the adsorption of elemental mercury [Hg(0)] and mercuric chloride demonstrated that chlorine (Cl) impregnation of a virgin activated carbon using dilute solutions of hydrogen chloride leads to incre...

  8. Multi-element analysis of emeralds and associated rocks by k(o) neutron activation analysis

    PubMed

    Acharya; Mondal; Burte; Nair; Reddy; Reddy; Reddy; Manohar

    2000-12-01

    Multi-element analysis was carried out in natural emeralds, their associated rocks and one sample of beryl obtained from Rajasthan, India. The concentrations of 21 elements were assayed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using the k0 method (k0 INAA method) and high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The data reveal the segregation of some elements from associated (trapped and host) rocks to the mineral beryl forming the gemstones. A reference rock standard of the US Geological Survey (USGS BCR-1) was also analysed as a control of the method.

  9. Active Moss Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Trace Element Deposition in Belgrade Urban Area using ENAA and AAS

    SciTech Connect

    Anicic, M.; Tasic, M.; Tomasevic, M.; Rajsic, S.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Strelkova, L. P.; Steinnes, E.

    2007-11-26

    Active biomonitoring of air quality in Belgrade, Serbia, was performed using the moss Sphagnum girgensohnii. Moss bags were exposed in parallel with and without irrigation respectively for four consecutive 3-month periods at three urban sites. Twenty-nine elements were determined in the exposed moss samples by ENAA and three (Cu, Cd, and Pb) by AAS. The relative accumulation factor (RAF) was greater than 1 for the majority of elements. Elements such as Cl, K, Rb and Cs, however, leached from the moss tissue during the exposure time. For all exposure periods, higher uptake in the irrigated moss bags was evident for Al, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Pb, and Cd.

  10. Codeposition of Elements in Diffusion Coatings by the Halide-Activated Pack Cementation Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    codeposition of two or more elements in a halide-activated cementation pack is inherently difficult because of large differences in the thermodynamic ...are inherently graded in composition so that sharp differences in physical properties such as coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) are minimized. The...intention of this paper is to demonstrate the possibility to codeposit two or more elements into alloy substrates despite an inherent thermodynamic

  11. Improving the antioxidant activity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricm Gaertn) sprout with trace element water.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Kuang; Chiang, Been-Huang; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Liu, Chia-Ling

    2008-05-15

    Trace element water (TEW) (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm) was used to grow buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricm Gaertn) to evaluate whether the beneficial effects of trace elements on the antioxidant activity could be accomplished with the supplement of TEW. At 300ppm, TEW significantly increased the Cu, Zn and Fe contents in buckwheat sprout, but not the Se and Mn contents. The levels of rutin, quercitrin and quercetin did not differ between buckwheat sprouts grown in TEW and de-ionized water (DIW). The ethanolic extract from buckwheat sprout grown in 300ppm TEW showed higher DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion chelating activity, superoxide anion scavenging activity and inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation than that grown in DIW. The extract of the TEW group also enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase activity and resulted in lower level of reactive oxygen species in human Hep G2 cells.

  12. Eye movements when reading transposed text: the importance of word-beginning letters.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah J; Johnson, Rebecca L; Liversedge, Simon P; Rayner, Keith

    2008-10-01

    Participants' eye movements were recorded as they read sentences with words containing transposed adjacent letters. Transpositions were either external (e.g., problme, rpoblem) or internal (e.g., porblem, probelm) and at either the beginning (e.g., rpoblem, porblem) or end (e.g., problme, probelm) of words. The results showed disruption for words with transposed letters compared to the normal baseline condition, and the greatest disruption was observed for word-initial transpositions. In Experiment 1, transpositions within low frequency words led to longer reading times than when letters were transposed within high frequency words. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the position of word-initial letters is most critical even when parafoveal preview of words to the right of fixation is unavailable. The findings have important implications for the roles of different letter positions in word recognition and the effects of parafoveal preview on word recognition processes.

  13. Trace elements affect methanogenic activity and diversity in enrichments from subsurface coal bed produced water.

    PubMed

    Unal, Burcu; Perry, Verlin Ryan; Sheth, Mili; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Nüsslein, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients) are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effects of eight trace elements (iron, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, manganese, boron, and copper) on methane production, on mcrA transcript levels, and on methanogenic community structure in enrichment cultures obtained from coal bed methane (CBM) well produced water samples from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Methane production was shown to be limited both by a lack of additional trace elements as well as by the addition of an overly concentrated trace element mixture. Addition of trace elements at concentrations optimized for standard media enhanced methane production by 37%. After 7 days of incubation, the levels of mcrA transcripts in enrichment cultures with trace element amendment were much higher than in cultures without amendment. Transcript levels of mcrA correlated positively with elevated rates of methane production in supplemented enrichments (R(2) = 0.95). Metabolically active methanogens, identified by clone sequences of mcrA mRNA retrieved from enrichment cultures, were closely related to Methanobacterium subterraneum and Methanobacterium formicicum. Enrichment cultures were dominated by M. subterraneum and had slightly higher predicted methanogenic richness, but less diversity than enrichment cultures without amendments. These results suggest that varying concentrations of trace elements in produced water from different subsurface coal wells may cause changing levels of CBM production and alter the composition of the active methanogenic community.

  14. Trace Elements Affect Methanogenic Activity and Diversity in Enrichments from Subsurface Coal Bed Produced Water

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Burcu; Perry, Verlin Ryan; Sheth, Mili; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Nüsslein, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients) are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effects of eight trace elements (iron, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, manganese, boron, and copper) on methane production, on mcrA transcript levels, and on methanogenic community structure in enrichment cultures obtained from coal bed methane (CBM) well produced water samples from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Methane production was shown to be limited both by a lack of additional trace elements as well as by the addition of an overly concentrated trace element mixture. Addition of trace elements at concentrations optimized for standard media enhanced methane production by 37%. After 7 days of incubation, the levels of mcrA transcripts in enrichment cultures with trace element amendment were much higher than in cultures without amendment. Transcript levels of mcrA correlated positively with elevated rates of methane production in supplemented enrichments (R2 = 0.95). Metabolically active methanogens, identified by clone sequences of mcrA mRNA retrieved from enrichment cultures, were closely related to Methanobacterium subterraneum and Methanobacterium formicicum. Enrichment cultures were dominated by M. subterraneum and had slightly higher predicted methanogenic richness, but less diversity than enrichment cultures without amendments. These results suggest that varying concentrations of trace elements in produced water from different subsurface coal wells may cause changing levels of CBM production and alter the composition of the active methanogenic community. PMID

  15. Genomic cartography and proposal of nomenclature for the repeated, interspersed elements of the Leishmania major SIDER2 family and identification of SIDER2-containing transcripts.

    PubMed

    Requena, Jose M; Rastrojo, Alberto; Garde, Esther; López, Manuel C; Thomas, M Carmen; Aguado, Begoña

    2017-03-01

    The genomes of most eukaryotic organisms contain a large number of transposable elements that are able to move from one genomic site to another either by transferring of DNA mobile elements (transposons) or transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate (retroposons). An exception to this rule is found in protists of the subgenus Leishmania, in which active retroposons degenerated after a flourishing era, leaving only retroposon remains; these have been classified into two families: SIDER1 and SIDER2. In this work, we have re-examined the elements belonging to the family SIDER2 present in the genome of Leishmania major with the aim of providing a nomenclature that will facilitate a future reference to particular elements. According to sequence conservation, the 1100 SIDER2 elements have been grouped into subfamilies, and the inferred taxonomic relationships have also been incorporated into the nomenclature. Additionally, we are providing detailed data regarding the genomic distribution of these elements and their association with specific transcripts, based on the recently established transcriptome for L. major. Thus, the presented data can help to study and better understand the roles played by these degenerated retroposons in both regulation of gene expression and genome plasticity.

  16. Integrator element as a promoter of active learning in engineering teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Paulo C.; Oliveira, Cristina G.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present a teaching proposal used in an Introductory Physics course to civil engineering students from Porto's Engineering Institute/Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto (ISEP). The proposal was born from the need to change students' perception and motivation for learning physics. It consists in the use of an integrator element, called the physics elevator project. This integrator element allows us to use, in a single project, all the content taught in the course and uses several active learning strategies. In this paper, we analyse this project as: (i) a clarifying element of the contents covered in the course; (ii) a promoter element of motivation and active participation in class and finally and (iii) a link between the contents covered in the course and the 'real world'. The data were collected by a questionnaire and interviews to students. From the data collected, it seems that the integrator element improves students' motivation towards physics and develops several skills that they consider to be important to their professional future. It also acts as a clarifying element and makes the connection between the physics that is taught and the 'real world'.

  17. Studies of generalized elemental imbalances in neurological disease patients using INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis)

    SciTech Connect

    Ehmann, W.D.; Vance, D.E.; Khare, S.S.; Kasarskis, E.J.; Markesbery, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Evidence has been presented in the literature to implicate trace elements in the etiology of several age-related neurological diseases. Most of these studies are based on brain analyses. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), we have observed trace element imbalances in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Picks's disease. The most prevalent elemental imbalances found in the brain were for bromine, mercury, and the alkali metals. In this study the authors report INAA studies of trace elements in nonneural tissues from Alzheimer's disease and ALS patients. Samples from household relatives were collected for use as controls wherever possible. Hair samples were washed according to the International Atomic Energy Agency recommended procedure. Fingernail samples were scraped with a quartz knife prior to washing by the same procedure. For ALS patients, blood samples were also collected. These data indicate that elemental imbalances in Alzheimer's disease and ALS are not restricted to the brain. Many elements perturbed in the brain are also altered in the several nonneural tissues examined to date. The imbalances in different tissues, however, are not always in the same direction. The changes observed may represent causes, effects, or simply epiphenomena. Longitudinal studies of nonneural tissues and blood, as well as tissue microprobe analyses at the cellular and subcellular level, will be required in order to better assess the role of trace elements in the etiology of these diseases.

  18. Trace element water improves the antioxidant activity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang; Hsu, Cheng-Kuang

    2007-10-31

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) was grown in trace element water (TEW) (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) and deionized water (DIW) to evaluate whether the beneficial effects of trace elements on the antioxidant activity could be accomplished with the supplement of TEW. At 300 ppm, TEW significantly increased the Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe contents in buckwheat sprout but not the Se content. However, the levels of rutin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin did not differ between buckwheat sprouts grown in TEW and DIW. The ethanolic extract from buckwheat sprout grown in 300 ppm of TEW showed higher ferrous ion chelating activity and inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation than that grown in DIW. The extract in the TEW group also enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase activity and lowered reactive oxygen species and superoxide anion in the human Hep G2 cell. It was concluded that TEW could increase the antioxidant activities of buckwheat sprouts.

  19. The landscape of transposable elements in the finished genome of the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repetitive sequence analysis has become an integral part of genome sequencing projects in addition to gene identification and annotation. Identification of repeats is important not only because it improves gene prediction, but also because of the role that repetitive sequences play in determining th...

  20. Discovery and characterization of a new transposable element, Tn4811, in Streptomyces lividans 66.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C W; Yu, T W; Chung, H M; Chou, C F

    1992-01-01

    Transposition of a new 5.4-kb transposon, Tn4811, of Streptomyces lividans to the melC operon of Streptomyces antibioticus on plasmid pIJ702 was discovered. The nucleotide sequence of this copy of Tn4811, which contained an imperfect (9 of 11 bp) terminal inverted repeat, five putative Streptomyces coding sequences for an oxidoreductase and its transcription regulator, and three transposition-related proteins, was determined. SLP- strains of S. lividans contained one copy (A) of Tn4811, while SLP2+ strains contained an additional copy (B) on the SLP2 plasmid. The nucleotide sequences at three insertion junctions of Tn4811 were determined. Copy B lacked 41 bp from the left end. At the other five junctions the duplication of a putative 3-bp target sequence (TGA) was observed. A sequence of less than 3 kb homologous to Tn4811 was present in S. antibioticus. DNA homologous to Tn4811 was not detected in 14 other Streptomyces species. Images PMID:1332944

  1. Miniature inverted-repeat transposable element identification and genetic marker development in Agrostis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) is an important species to the turfgrass industry because of its adaptation for use in high quality turf stands such as golf course putting greens, tees, and fairways. A. stolonifera is a highly outcrossing allotetraploid making genetic marker developmen...

  2. Chromosomal organization and evolutionary history of Mariner transposable elements in Scarabaeinae coleopterans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the aim to increase the knowledge on the evolution of coleopteran genomes, we investigated through cytogenetics and nucleotide sequence analysis Mariner transposons in three Scarabaeinae species (Coprophanaeus cyanescens, C. ensifer and Diabroctis mimas). Results The cytogenetic mapping revealed an accumulation of Mariner transposon in the pericentromeric repetitive regions characterized as rich in heterochromatin and C 0 t-1 DNA fraction (DNA enriched with high and moderately repeated sequences). Nucleotide sequence analysis of Mariner revealed the presence of two major groups of Mariner copies in the three investigated coleoptera species. Conclusions The Mariner is accumulated in the centromeric area of the coleopteran chromosomes probably as a consequence of the absence of recombination in the heterochromatic regions. Our analysis detected high diversification of Mariner sequences during the evolutionary history of the group. Furthermore, comparisons between the coleopterans sequences with other insects and mammals, suggest that the horizontal transfer (HT) could have acted in the spreading of the Mariner in diverse non-related animal groups. PMID:24286129

  3. Transposable element junctions in marker development and genomic characterization of barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley is a model plant in genomic studies of Triticeae species. A complete barley genome sequence will facilitate not only barley breeding programs, but also those for related species. However, the large genome size and high repetitive sequence content complicate the barley genome assembly. The ma...

  4. Regulation of Metastasis and DNA Damage Resistance Pathways by Transposable Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Workshop on Chromosome Architecture and Cancer Workshop, NIH, Bethesda MD. Jan, 2014 "BRCA Function and Cancer Susceptibility" AACR Special...Integrity, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada Jun, 2014 Keynote Speaker, NCI Workshop of the Center of Excellence in Chromosome Biology, Bethesda, MD IVD

  5. Hypomethylation of retrotransposable elements correlates with genomic instability in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Daskalos, Alexandros; Nikolaidis, Georgios; Xinarianos, George; Savvari, Paraskevi; Cassidy, Adrian; Zakopoulou, Roubini; Kotsinas, Athanasios; Gorgoulis, Vassilis; Field, John K; Liloglou, Triantafillos

    2009-01-01

    LINE-1 and Alu elements are non-LTR retrotransposons, constituting together over 30% of the human genome and they are frequently hypomethylated in human tumors. A relationship between global hypomethylation and genomic instability has been shown, however, there is little evidence to suggest active role for hypomethylation-mediated reactivation of retroelements in human cancer. In our study, we examined by Pyrosequencing the methylation levels of LINE-1 and Alu sequences in 48 primary nonsmall cell carcinomas and their paired adjacent tissues. We demonstrate a significant reduction of the methylation levels of both elements (p = 7.7 x 10(-14) and 9.6 x 10(-7), respectively). The methylation indices of the 2 elements correlated (p = 0.006), suggesting a possible common mechanism for their methylation maintenance. Genomic instability was measured utilizing 11 fluorescent microsatellite markers located on lung cancer hot-spot regions such as 3p, 5q 9p, 13q and 17p. Hypomethylation of both transposable elements was associated with increased genomic instability (LINE, p = 7.1 x 10(-5); Alu, p = 0.008). The reduction of the methylation index of LINE-1 and Alu following treatment of 3 lung cell lines with 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine, consistently resulted in increased expression of both elements. Our study demonstrates the strong link between hypomethylation of transposable elements with genomic instability in non-small cell lung cancer and provides early evidence for a potential active role of these elements in lung neoplasia. As demethylating agents are now entering lung cancer trials, it is imperative to gain a greater insight into the potential reactivation of silent retrotransposons in order to advance for the clinical utilization of epigenetics in cancer therapy.

  6. Elemental characterization of Hazm El-Jalamid phosphorite by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A; Khater, Ashraf E M

    2016-08-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analyses (INAA) have been used to achieve accurate knowledge about the elemental analysis of phosphate ore deposits collected from Hazm El-Jalamid Northeast of Saudi Arabia. The samples were prepared for irradiation by thermal neutrons using a thermal neutron flux of 7×10(12)ncm(-2)s(-1) at ACT Lab Canada. The concentrations of 19 elements were determined. These included 12 major, minor and trace elements (Au, As, Ba, Br, Cr, Mo, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, U and Zn) and 7 rare earth elements (REEs) (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb and Lu). Major elements (Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cr, Ti, Mn, P, Sr and Ba) were determined using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The comparison of the concentration of U and the REEs in the Hazm El-Jalamid phosphate samples with those of the Umm Wu'al phosphate from Saudi Arabia and El-Sibayia and El Hamrawein phosphate from Egypt shows that the contents of U and REEs are clearly higher in the Umm Wu'al, El-Sibayia and El Hamrawein phosphates than in the Hazm El-Jalamid phosphate samples. The results of major, trace elements, uranium and rare earth elements (REE) from El Jalamid phosphate have been compared with the global values of these elements. The concentrations for most of the elements studied are lower than the concentrations reported in the literature. The acquired data will serve as a reference for the follow-up studies to assess the agronomic effectiveness of the Hazm El-Jalamid phosphate rocks.

  7. Orthographic Reading Deficits in Dyslexic Japanese Children: Examining the Transposed-Letter Effect in the Color-Word Stroop Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shino; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Isomura, Tomoko; Masataka, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    In orthographic reading, the transposed-letter effect (TLE) is the perception of a transposed-letter position word such as "cholocate" as the correct word "chocolate." Although previous studies on dyslexic children using alphabetic languages have reported such orthographic reading deficits, the extent of orthographic reading impairment in dyslexic Japanese children has remained unknown. This study examined the TLE in dyslexic Japanese children using the color-word Stroop paradigm comprising congruent and incongruent Japanese hiragana words with correct and transposed-letter positions. We found that typically developed children exhibited Stroop effects in Japanese hiragana words with both correct and transposed-letter positions, thus indicating the presence of TLE. In contrast, dyslexic children indicated Stroop effects in correct letter positions in Japanese words but not in transposed, which indicated an absence of the TLE. These results suggest that dyslexic Japanese children, similar to dyslexic children using alphabetic languages, may also have a problem with orthographic reading.

  8. Study of essential elements in cattle tissues from a tropical country using instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Artur Canella; Menezes, Maria Angela de B C; Veado, Julio Cesar C

    2002-09-01

    There has been increasing interest in the elemental composition of animal tissues to support health and nutritional studies. Determining the elemental concentration in cattle tissues is especially important because these materials are used for multipurpose objectives such as the assessment of animal health, the quality of human foods consumed, and as a potential environmental biomonitor. Chromium, copper, sodium, potassium, iron, and zinc levels were determined in bovine tissues--kidney, liver and muscle--from cattle bred and raised in a potentially metal contaminated region because of mineral activities. The Brazilian data were obtained using k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis, performed at the Nuclear Development Technology Centre/Nuclear Energy National Commission (CDTN/CNEN) in Minas Gerais State. The values of international organizations and the Brazilian analytical data are compatible. This study indicates that the nuclear technique is an efficient tool to determine elemental concentration in animal biological samples.

  9. Intracisternal A-particle element transposition into the murine beta-glucuronidase gene correlates with loss of enzyme activity: a new model for beta-glucuronidase deficiency in the C3H mouse.

    PubMed

    Gwynn, B; Lueders, K; Sands, M S; Birkenmeier, E H

    1998-11-01

    The severity of human mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII), or Sly syndrome, depends on the relative activity of the enzyme beta-glucuronidase. Loss of beta-glucuronidase activity can cause hydrops fetalis, with in utero or postnatal death of the patient. In this report, we show that beta-glucuronidase activity is not detectable by a standard fluorometric assay in C3H/HeOuJ (C3H) mice homozygous for a new mutation, gusmps2J. These gusmps2J/gusmps2J mice are born and survive much longer than the previously characterized beta-glucuronidase-null B6.C-H-2(bm1)/ByBir-gusmps (gusmps/gusmps) mice. Northern blot analysis of liver from gusmps2J/gusmps2J mice demonstrates a 750-bp reduction in size of beta-glucuronidase mRNA. A 5.4-kb insertion in the Gus-sh nucleotide sequence from these mice was localized by Southern blot analysis to intron 8. The ends of the inserted sequences were cloned by inverse PCR and revealed an intracisternal A-particle (IAP) element inserted near the 3' end of the intron. The sequence of the long terminal repeat (LTR) regions of the IAP most closely matches that of a composite LTR found in transposed IAPs previously identified in the C3H strain. The inserted IAP may contribute to diminished beta-glucuronidase activity either by interfering with transcription or by destabilizing the message. The resulting phenotype is much less severe than that previously described in the gusmps/gusmps mouse and provides an opportunity to study MPS VII on a genetic background that clearly modulates disease severity.

  10. Exterior optical cloaking and illusions by using active sources: A boundary element perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H. H.; Xiao, J. J.; Lai, Y.; Chan, C. T.

    2010-05-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that active sources can be used to cloak any objects that lie outside the cloaking devices [F. Guevara Vasquez, G. W. Milton, and D. Onofrei, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073901 (2009)]. Here, we propose that active sources can create illusion effects so that an object outside the cloaking device can be made to look like another object. Invisibility is a special case in which the concealed object is transformed to a volume of air. From a boundary element perspective, we show that active sources can create a nearly “silent” domain which can conceal any objects inside and at the same time make the whole system look like an illusion of our choice outside a virtual boundary. The boundary element method gives the fields and field gradients, which can be related to monopoles and dipoles, on continuous curves which define the boundary of the active devices. Both the cloaking and illusion effects are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  11. Insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity through interrogation of cis elements disrupted in human erythroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Aoi; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Ludwig, Leif S; Fiorini, Claudia; Yasuda, Makiko; Choudhuri, Avik; McDonel, Patrick; Zon, Leonard I; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2016-04-19

    Whole-exome sequencing has been incredibly successful in identifying causal genetic variants and has revealed a number of novel genes associated with blood and other diseases. One limitation of this approach is that it overlooks mutations in noncoding regulatory elements. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which mutations in transcriptionalcis-regulatory elements result in disease remain poorly understood. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to interrogate three such elements harboring mutations in human erythroid disorders, which in all cases are predicted to disrupt a canonical binding motif for the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA1. Deletions of as few as two to four nucleotides resulted in a substantial decrease (>80%) in target gene expression. Isolated deletions of the canonical GATA1 binding motif completely abrogated binding of the cofactor TAL1, which binds to a separate motif. Having verified the functionality of these three GATA1 motifs, we demonstrate strong evolutionary conservation of GATA1 motifs in regulatory elements proximal to other genes implicated in erythroid disorders, and show that targeted disruption of such elements results in altered gene expression. By modeling transcription factor binding patterns, we show that multiple transcription factors are associated with erythroid gene expression, and have created predictive maps modeling putative disruptions of their binding sites at key regulatory elements. Our study provides insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity and may prove a useful resource for investigating the pathogenicity of noncoding variants in human erythroid disorders.

  12. Insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity through interrogation of cis elements disrupted in human erythroid disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Aoi; Ulirsch, Jacob C.; Ludwig, Leif S.; Fiorini, Claudia; Yasuda, Makiko; Choudhuri, Avik; McDonel, Patrick; Zon, Leonard I.; Sankaran, Vijay G.

    2016-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing has been incredibly successful in identifying causal genetic variants and has revealed a number of novel genes associated with blood and other diseases. One limitation of this approach is that it overlooks mutations in noncoding regulatory elements. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which mutations in transcriptional cis-regulatory elements result in disease remain poorly understood. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to interrogate three such elements harboring mutations in human erythroid disorders, which in all cases are predicted to disrupt a canonical binding motif for the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA1. Deletions of as few as two to four nucleotides resulted in a substantial decrease (>80%) in target gene expression. Isolated deletions of the canonical GATA1 binding motif completely abrogated binding of the cofactor TAL1, which binds to a separate motif. Having verified the functionality of these three GATA1 motifs, we demonstrate strong evolutionary conservation of GATA1 motifs in regulatory elements proximal to other genes implicated in erythroid disorders, and show that targeted disruption of such elements results in altered gene expression. By modeling transcription factor binding patterns, we show that multiple transcription factors are associated with erythroid gene expression, and have created predictive maps modeling putative disruptions of their binding sites at key regulatory elements. Our study provides insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity and may prove a useful resource for investigating the pathogenicity of noncoding variants in human erythroid disorders. PMID:27044088

  13. Active neutron coincidence counting for the assay of MTR fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, R.

    1983-02-01

    The active well coincidence counter (AWCC) and the neutron coincidence collar (CC) were investigated for their suitability to assay materials testing reactor (MTR) fuel elements. The AWCC was used with its special insert to hold the fuel element and interrogation source. The CC was modified by the addition of polyethylene liners 2.5 cm (1 in.) thick on the sides. For a typical MTR element (approx. 220 g /sup 235/U) and 1000-s count times, statistical errors were approx. 1.6% for the CC and approx. 0.6% for AWCC. For either instrument, the change in count rate corresponding to the removal or addition of one fuel plate (with an 18-plate element) was approx. 3.8%; thus, either instrument can detect removal of one plate. The AWCC can also detect removal of one plate in count times that are considerably less than 1000 s. Various functions were investigated to fit the coincidence count rate vs /sup 235/U mass curve for the AWCC. Programs have been written for the Hewlett-Packard HP-97 calculator to calculate the calibration constants of these functions by a least-squares technique. Coincidence count rates in the AWCC depend on the orientation of the plates of the fuel elements because of the counting efficiency variation in the insert. To lessen this dependence, the MTR element should be counted with its plates positioned vertically, that is, parallel to the radius of the device. For the collar, the effect of plate orientation is much smaller.

  14. Transposed Letter Priming with Horizontal and Vertical Text in Japanese and English Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witzel, Naoko; Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that in masked priming, a target word (e.g., "JUDGE") is primed more effectively by a transposed letter (TL) prime (e.g., "jugde") than by an orthographic control prime (e.g., "junpe"). This is inconsistent with the slot coding schemes used in many models of visual word recognition. Several…

  15. Distributional Analysis of the Transposed-Letter Neighborhood Effect on Naming Latency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca L.; Staub, Adrian; Fleri, Amanda M.

    2012-01-01

    Printed words that have a transposed-letter (TL) neighbor (e.g., angel has the TL neighbor angle) have been shown to be more difficult to process, in a range of paradigms, than words that do not have a TL neighbor. However, eye movement evidence suggests that this processing difficulty may occur on only a subset of trials. To investigate this…

  16. The Quiet Clam Is Quite Calm: Transposed-Letter Neighborhood Effects on Eye Movements during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    In responses time tasks, inhibitory neighborhood effects have been found for word pairs that differ in a transposition of two adjacent letters (e.g., "clam/calm"). Here, the author describes two eye-tracking experiments conducted to explore transposed-letter (TL) neighborhood effects within the context of normal silent reading. In…

  17. Construction of three-qubit genuine entanglement with bipartite positive partial transposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Kil-Chan; Kye, Seung-Hyeok

    2016-03-01

    We construct triqubit genuinely entangled states which have positive partial transposes (PPTs) with respect to the bipartition of systems. These examples disprove a conjecture [Novo, Moroder, and Gühne, Phys. Rev A 88, 012305 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.012305] which claims that PPT mixtures are necessary and sufficient for the biseparability of three qubits.

  18. Eye Movements when Reading Transposed Text: The Importance of Word-Beginning Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sarah J.; Johnson, Rebecca L.; Liversedge, Simon P.; Rayner, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Participants' eye movements were recorded as they read sentences with words containing transposed adjacent letters. Transpositions were either external (e.g., problme, rpoblem) or internal (e.g., porblem, probelm) and at either the beginning (e.g., rpoblem, porblem) or end (e.g., problme, probelm) of words. The results showed disruption for words…

  19. Bio-active trace elements (cd, cu, fe, ni) in the oligotrophic south china sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, L.-S.; Jiann, K.-T.; Liu, K.-K.

    2003-04-01

    Bio-active trace elements (Cu, Ni, Cd, Fe) in seawater play a critical role in regulating oceanic phytoplankton growth and, hence, may influence global carbon cycle. However, their in-situ speciation and bio-reactivity are poorly understood. Dissolved copper and nickel are believed to be present in seawater predominantly as low molecular weight soluble organic complexes which are readily available to marine organism and immune from particle scavenging. Dissolved iron is believed to exist predominantly as high molecular weight colloidal species. Using ultraclean ultrafiltration and ion exchange/affinity chelating chemistry, we demonstrate that in the oligotrophic ocean waters, these four bio-active elements have distinctive characteristics of speciation and reactivity, even though they display similar nutrient-type distributions. For dissolved Cu, the concentration increased from 0.9 nM in the surface water to 3 nM at depths below 500 m; for dissolved Ni, 2˜9 nM; for dissolved Cd, 0.01˜0.9 nM; for dissolved Fe, 0.1˜0.6 nM. All four elements showed a subsurface minimum around 60 m deep, which corresponded to the subsurface Chl a maximum, indicating strong biological interactions with these elements. Detailed analysis revealed distinct size distribution and chemical reactivity for each element. For Cu, more than 50% in surface water was in smaller than 1kDa labile forms; the strongly complexed inert form increased from 28% at surface to 50% below 500 meter; the colloidal form Cu decreased from 12% at surface to a minimum of 6% at 60 meter, and then gradually increased to 16% in deeper water. For Ni, more than 80% was in smaller than 1kDa labile form, and very small fraction (˜5%) in colloidal from. For Cd, almost all dissolved fraction was in smaller than 1kDa labile form. As for Fe, its dynamic nature in water column caused by complicated bio-interactions was evident. This study indicated that, with preferential uptake of trace elements by different phytoplankton

  20. Atmospheric Deposition of Trace Elements in Ombrotrophic Peat as a Result of Anthropic Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabio Lourençato, Lucio; Cabral Teixeira, Daniel; Vieira Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-05-01

    Ombrotrophic peat can be defined as a soil rich in organic matter, formed from the partial decomposition of vegetable organic material in a humid and anoxic environment, where the accumulation of material is necessarily faster than the decomposition. From the physical-chemical point of view, it is a porous and highly polar material with high adsorption capacity and cation exchange. The high ability of trace elements to undergo complexation by humic substances happens due to the presence of large amounts of oxygenated functional groups in these substances. Since the beginning of industrialization human activities have scattered a large amount of trace elements in the environment. Soil contamination by atmospheric deposition can be expressed as a sum of site contamination by past/present human activities and atmospheric long-range transport of trace elements. Ombrotrophic peat records can provide valuable information about the entries of trace metals into the atmosphere and that are subsequently deposited on the soil. These trace elements are toxic, non-biodegradable and accumulate in the food chain, even in relatively low quantities. Thus studies on the increase of trace elements in the environment due to human activities are necessary, particularly in the southern hemisphere, where these data are scarce. The aims of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of mercury in ombrotrophic peat altomontanas coming from atmospheric deposition. The study is conducted in the Itatiaia National Park, Brazilian conservation unit, situated between the southeastern state of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Minas Gerais. An ombrotrophic peat core is being sampled in altitude (1980m), to measure the trace elements concentrations of this material. As it is conservation area, the trace elements found in the samples is mainly from atmospheric deposition, since in Brazil don't exist significant lithology of trace elements. The samples are characterized by organic matter content which

  1. LASERS AND AMPLIFIERS: Service life of dye-impregnated polymer active laser elements at various energy densities and pump powers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, L. K.; Kytina, I. G.; Kytin, V. G.; Tsogoeva, S. A.; Saprykin, L. G.; Konstantinov, B. A.

    1997-02-01

    The dependence of the rate of photodecomposition of the dye rhodamine 6G in polymer active elements on the average pump intensity was studied. The service life of such active elements pumped transversely with low-intensity (less than 1MW cm-2) pump pulses was also investigated. When the average intensity was reduced below a certain value, the dye photodecomposition rate decreased significantly and the service life of the active elements rose strongly.

  2. Group 14 hydrides with low valent elements for activation of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Swadhin K; Roesky, Herbert W

    2012-02-21

    Transition metal compounds are well known as activators of small molecules, and they serve as efficient catalysts for a variety of homogeneous and heterogeneous transformations. In contrast, there is a general feeling that main group compounds cannot act as efficient catalysts because of their inability to activate small molecules. Traditionally, the activation of small molecules is considered one of the key steps during a catalytic cycle with transition metals. As a consequence, researchers have long neglected the full range of possibilities in harnessing main group elements for the design of efficient catalysts. Recent developments, however, have made it possible to synthesize main group compounds with low-valent elements capable of activating small molecules. In particular, the judicious use of sterically appropriate ligands has been successful in preparing and stabilizing a variety of Group 14 hydrides with low-valent elements. In this Account, we discuss recent advances in the synthesis of Group 14 hydrides with low-valent elements and assess their potential as small-molecule activators. Group 14, which comprises the nonmetal C, the semimetals Si and Ge, and the metals Sn and Pb, was for years a source of hydrides with the Group 14 element almost exclusively in tetravalent form. Synthetic difficulties and the low stability of Group 14 hydrides in lower oxidation states were difficult to overcome. But in 2000, a divalent Sn(II) hydride was prepared as a stable compound through the incorporation of sterically encumbered aromatic ligands. More recently, the stabilization of GeH(2) and SnH(2) complexes using an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) as a donor and BH(3) or a metal carbonyl complex as an acceptor was reported. A similar strategy was also employed to synthesize the Si(II) hydride. This class of hydrides may be considered coordinatively saturated, with the lone pair of electrons on the Group 14 elements taking part in coordination. We discuss the large

  3. Neutron activation analysis of major, minor, and trace elements in marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, S.F.; Zeisler, R.; Koster, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques are well established in the multielement assay of geological materials. Similarly, applications of NAA to the analysis of marine sediments have been described. The different emphasis on elemental composition in studying and monitoring the health of the environment, however, presents a new challenge to the analyst. To investigate as many elements as possible, previous multielement procedures need to be reevaluated and modified. In this work, the authors have utilized the NAA steps of a recently developed sequential analysis procedure that obtained concentrations for 45 biological and pollutant elements in marine bivalves. This procedure, with modification, was applied to samples of marine sediments collected for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Status and Trends (NS T) specimen banking program.

  4. Elemental characterization of the Avogadro silicon crystal WASO 04 by neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, G.; Bergamaschi, L.; Giordani, L.; Mana, G.; Massa, E.; Oddone, M.

    2012-12-01

    Impurity measurements of the 28Si crystal used for the determination of the Avogadro constant are essential to prevent biased results or underestimated uncertainties. A review of the existing data confirmed the high purity of silicon with respect to a large number of elements. In order to obtain direct evidence of purity, we developed a relative analytical method based on neutron activation. As a preliminary test, this method was applied to a sample of the Avogadro natural silicon crystal WASO 04. The investigation concerned 29 elements. The mass fraction of Au was quantified to be (1.03 ± 0.18) × 10-12. For the remaining 28 elements, the mass fractions were below the detection limits, which ranged between 1 × 10-12 and 1 × 10-5.

  5. Antioxidant enzyme activities of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to trace elements.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, U R; Dharmani, M; Kanthimathi, M S; Indran, M

    2005-07-01

    The trace elements copper, zinc, and selenium are important immune modulators and essential cofactors of the antioxidant enzymes. In the present study, the proliferative effect of human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that have been exposed to copper, zinc, and selenium and the corresponding activities of antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase, were determined. Zinc and copper stimulated the PBMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner within the dose range 25-200 micromol/L. SOD and GPx activities in PBMCs exposed to zinc were inhibited, whereas catalase activity was unaffected. All the three antioxidant enzymes in the cells exposed to copper were inhibited. Selenium exerted more potent inhibition of the cell proliferation while causing stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes at the lowest dose (25 micromol/L) than at the highest dose (200 micromol/L) tested. A significant negative correlation was observed between proliferation and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and GPx) activities in trace-element-exposed PBMC. The present findings substantiate the importance of trace elements as immune modulators and the involvement of enzymatic antioxidant system in the immune cell regulation.

  6. Amidase activity in soils. IV. Effects of trace elements and pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Frankenberger, W.T., Jr.; Tabatabai, M.A.

    1981-11-01

    Amidase was recently detected in soils, and this study was carried out to assess the effects of 21 trace elements, 12 herbicides, 2 fungicides, and 2 insecticides on the activity of this enzyme. Results showed that most of the trace elements and pesticides studied inhibited amidase activity in soils. The degree of inhibition varied among the soils used. When the trace elements were compared by using 5 ..mu..mol/g of soil, the average inhibition of amidase in three soils showed that Ag(I), Hg(I), As(III), and Se(IV) were the most effective inhibitors, but only Ag(I) and As(III) showed average inhibition > 50%. The least effective inhibitors (average inhibition < 3%) included Cu(I), Ba(II), Cu(II), Fe(II), Ni(II), Al(III), Fe(III), Ti(IV), V(IV), As(V), Mo(VI), and W(VI). Other elements that inhibited amidase activity in soils were Cd(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Pb(II), Sn(II), Zn(II), B(III), and Cr(III). Enzyme kinetic studies showed that As(III) was a competitive inhibitor of amidase, whereas Ag(I), Hg(II), and Se(IV) were noncompetitive inhibitors. When the pesticides studied were compared by using 10 ..mu..g of active ingredient per gram of soil, the average inhibition of amidase in three soils ranged from 2% with dinitroamine, EPTC plus R-25788, and captan to 10% with butylate. Other pesticides that inhibited amidase activity in soils were atrazine, naptalam, chloramben, dicamba, cyanazine, 2,4-D, alachlor, paraquat, trifluralin, maneb, diazinon, and malathion. The inhibition of amidase by diazinon, alachlor, and butylate followed noncompetitive kinetics.

  7. Overexpression of the Multidrug Efflux Operon acrEF by Insertional Activation with IS1 or IS10 Elements in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT204 acrB Mutants Selected with Fluoroquinolones

    PubMed Central

    Olliver, Anne; Vallé, Michel; Chaslus-Dancla, Elisabeth; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2005-01-01

    advantage for serovar Typhimurium DT204 strains as opposed to DT104 strains for which no high-level FQ resistance nor insertional mutations were found. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that the IS1- or IS10- activated AcrEF efflux pump may relay AcrAB in serovar Typhimurium, and underline the importance of transposable elements in the acquisition of FQ and multidrug resistance. PMID:15616308

  8. Elemental abundances in atmospheres of cool dwarfs with solar-like activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipova, L. I.; Boyarchuk, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    The elemental abundances in the atmosphere of the red dwarf HD 32147, which belongs to the HR 1614 moving groups, are analyzed. The atmospheric parameters determined from spectroscopic data (the condition of equal abundances for neutral and ionized atoms of a given element) differ considerably from those derived from photometry and parallax data. The abundances of several elements are also anomalous, with the anomaly increasing with decreasing ionization potential. It is concluded that this star is a red dwarf displaying solar-like activity; i.e., having dark (cool) spots on its surface, which may sometimes be considerable in size. Modeling synthetic spectra of stars with cool spots on their surfaces, with the spectral lines consisting of two components formed in media with different temperatures, indicate that the spectroscopic atmospheric parameters derived in such cases are incorrect; this can also explain the observed dependence of the elemental abundances on the corresponding ionization potentials. This leads to the conclusion thatHD32147 is indeed a star with solar-like activity. Several other such stars considered as examples display the same anomalies as those of HD 32147. These modeling results are also valid for Ap and Am stars, and are able to explain short-wavelength observations of the Sun and some stars (the FIP effect).

  9. Molecular genetic analysis of Drosophila eyes absent mutants reveals an eye enhancer element.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, J E; Bui, Q T; Liu, H; Bonini, N M

    2000-01-01

    The eyes absent (eya) gene is critical for normal eye development in Drosophila and is highly conserved to vertebrates. To define regions of the gene critical for eye function, we have defined the mutations in the four viable eya alleles. Two of these mutations are eye specific and undergo transvection with other mutations in the gene. These were found to be deletion mutations that remove regulatory sequence critical for eye cell expression of the gene. Two other viable alleles cause a reduced eye phenotype and affect the function of the gene in additional tissues, such as the ocelli. These mutations were found to be insertion mutations of different transposable elements within the 5' UTR of the transcript. Detailed analysis of one of these revealed that the transposable element has become subject to regulation by eye enhancer sequences of the eya gene, disrupting normal expression of EYA in the eye. More extended analysis of the deletion region in the eye-specific alleles indicated that the deleted region defines an enhancer that activates gene expression in eye progenitor cells. This enhancer is responsive to ectopic expression of the eyeless gene. This analysis has defined a critical regulatory region required for proper eye expression of the eya gene. PMID:10628984

  10. The evolution of tyrosine-recombinase elements in Nematoda.

    PubMed

    Szitenberg, Amir; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Blaxter, Mark L; Lunt, David H

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements can be categorised into DNA and RNA elements based on their mechanism of transposition. Tyrosine recombinase elements (YREs) are relatively rare and poorly understood, despite sharing characteristics with both DNA and RNA elements. Previously, the Nematoda have been reported to have a substantially different diversity of YREs compared to other animal phyla: the Dirs1-like YRE retrotransposon was encountered in most animal phyla but not in Nematoda, and a unique Pat1-like YRE retrotransposon has only been recorded from Nematoda. We explored the diversity of YREs in Nematoda by sampling broadly across the phylum and including 34 genomes representing the three classes within Nematoda. We developed a method to isolate and classify YREs based on both feature organization and phylogenetic relationships in an open and reproducible workflow. We also ensured that our phylogenetic approach to YRE classification identified truncated and degenerate elements, informatively increasing the number of elements sampled. We identified Dirs1-like elements (thought to be absent from Nematoda) in the nematode classes Enoplia and Dorylaimia indicating that nematode model species do not adequately represent the diversity of transposable elements in the phylum. Nematode Pat1-like elements were found to be a derived form of another Pat1-like element that is present more widely in animals. Several sequence features used widely for the classification of YREs were found to be homoplasious, highlighting the need for a phylogenetically-based classification scheme. Nematode model species do not represent the diversity of transposable elements in the phylum.

  11. The Evolution of Tyrosine-Recombinase Elements in Nematoda

    PubMed Central

    Szitenberg, Amir; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Blaxter, Mark L.; Lunt, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements can be categorised into DNA and RNA elements based on their mechanism of transposition. Tyrosine recombinase elements (YREs) are relatively rare and poorly understood, despite sharing characteristics with both DNA and RNA elements. Previously, the Nematoda have been reported to have a substantially different diversity of YREs compared to other animal phyla: the Dirs1-like YRE retrotransposon was encountered in most animal phyla but not in Nematoda, and a unique Pat1-like YRE retrotransposon has only been recorded from Nematoda. We explored the diversity of YREs in Nematoda by sampling broadly across the phylum and including 34 genomes representing the three classes within Nematoda. We developed a method to isolate and classify YREs based on both feature organization and phylogenetic relationships in an open and reproducible workflow. We also ensured that our phylogenetic approach to YRE classification identified truncated and degenerate elements, informatively increasing the number of elements sampled. We identified Dirs1-like elements (thought to be absent from Nematoda) in the nematode classes Enoplia and Dorylaimia indicating that nematode model species do not adequately represent the diversity of transposable elements in the phylum. Nematode Pat1-like elements were found to be a derived form of another Pat1-like element that is present more widely in animals. Several sequence features used widely for the classification of YREs were found to be homoplasious, highlighting the need for a phylogenetically-based classification scheme. Nematode model species do not represent the diversity of transposable elements in the phylum. PMID:25197791

  12. Direct tests of a pixelated microchannel plate as the active element of a shower maximum detector

    DOE PAGES

    Apresyan, A.; Los, S.; Pena, C.; ...

    2016-05-07

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We report our studies of microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCPs) as the active element of a shower-maximum detector. We present test beam results obtained using Photonis XP85011 to detect secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. We focus on the use of the multiple pixels on the Photonis MCP in order to find a transverse two-dimensional shower distribution. A spatial resolution of 0.8 mm was obtained with an 8 GeV electron beam. As a result, a method for measuring themore » arrival time resolution for electromagnetic showers is presented, and we show that time resolution better than 40 ps can be achieved.« less

  13. Direct tests of a pixelated microchannel plate as the active element of a shower maximum detector

    SciTech Connect

    Apresyan, A.; Los, S.; Pena, C.; Presutti, F.; Ronzhin, A.; Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S.

    2016-05-07

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We report our studies of microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCPs) as the active element of a shower-maximum detector. We present test beam results obtained using Photonis XP85011 to detect secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. We focus on the use of the multiple pixels on the Photonis MCP in order to find a transverse two-dimensional shower distribution. A spatial resolution of 0.8 mm was obtained with an 8 GeV electron beam. As a result, a method for measuring the arrival time resolution for electromagnetic showers is presented, and we show that time resolution better than 40 ps can be achieved.

  14. Active magnetic bearing control loop modeling for a finite element rotordynamics code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genta, Giancarlo; Delprete, Cristiana; Carabelli, Stefano

    1994-05-01

    A mathematical model of an active electromagnetic bearing which includes the actuator, the sensor and the control system is developed and implemented in a specialized finite element code for rotordynamic analysis. The element formulation and its incorporation in the model of the machine are described in detail. A solution procedure, based on a modal approach in which the number of retained modes is controlled by the user, is then shown together with other procedures for computing the steady-state response to both static and unbalance forces. An example of application shows the numerical results obtained on a model of an electric motor suspended on a five active-axis magnetic suspension. The comparison of some of these results with the experimental characteristics of the actual system shows the ability of the present model to predict its performance.

  15. Active magnetic bearing control loop modeling for a finite element rotordynamics code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genta, Giancarlo; Delprete, Cristiana; Carabelli, Stefano

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model of an active electromagnetic bearing which includes the actuator, the sensor and the control system is developed and implemented in a specialized finite element code for rotordynamic analysis. The element formulation and its incorporation in the model of the machine are described in detail. A solution procedure, based on a modal approach in which the number of retained modes is controlled by the user, is then shown together with other procedures for computing the steady-state response to both static and unbalance forces. An example of application shows the numerical results obtained on a model of an electric motor suspended on a five active-axis magnetic suspension. The comparison of some of these results with the experimental characteristics of the actual system shows the ability of the present model to predict its performance.

  16. Thin-disk laser based on an Yb:YAG / YAG composite active element

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, I I; Mukhin, I B; Vadimova, O L; Palashov, O V

    2015-03-31

    A thin-disk laser module based on an Yb:YAG / YAG composite active element is developed with a small-signal gain of 1.25 and a stored energy of 400 mJ under cw pumping. The gain and thermally induced phase distortions in the module are studied experimentally. Based on this module, a thin-disk laser with an average power of 300 W and a slope efficiency of 42% is designed. (lasers)

  17. Direct tests of micro channel plates as the active element of a new shower maximum detector

    DOE PAGES

    Ronzhin, A.; Los, S.; Ramberg, E.; ...

    2015-05-22

    We continue the study of micro channel plates (MCP) as the active element of a shower maximum (SM) detector. We present below test beam results obtained with MCPs detecting directly secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. The MCP efficiency to shower particles is close to 100%. Furthermore, the time resolution obtained for this new type of the SM detector is at the level of 40 ps.

  18. Activation of the cell integrity pathway is channelled through diverse signalling elements in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Barba, Gregorio; Soto, Teresa; Madrid, Marisa; Núñez, Andrés; Vicente, Jeronima; Gacto, Mariano; Cansado, José

    2008-04-01

    MAPK Pmk1p is the central element of a cascade involved in the maintenance of cell integrity and other functions in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Pmk1p becomes activated by multiple stressing situations and also during cell separation. GTPase Rho2p acts upstream of the protein kinase C homolog Pck2p to activate the Pmk1 signalling pathway through direct interaction with MAPKKK Mkh1p. In this work we analyzed the functional significance of both Rho2p and Pck2p in the transduction of various stress signals by the cell integrity pathway. The results indicate that basal Pmk1p activity can be positively regulated by alternative mechanisms which are independent on the control by Rho2p and/or Pck2p. Unexpectedly, Pck1p, another protein kinase C homolog, negatively modulates Pmk1p basal activity by an unknown mechanism. Moreover, different elements appear to regulate the stress-induced activation of Pmk1p depending on the nature of the triggering stimuli. Whereas Pmk1p activation induced by hyper- or hypotonic stresses is channeled through Rho2p-Pck2p, other stressors, like glucose deprivation or cell wall disturbance, are transduced via other pathways in addition to that of Rho2p-Pck2p. On the contrary, Pmk1p activation observed during cell separation or after treatment with hydrogen peroxide does not involve Rho2p-Pck2p. Finally, Pck2p function is critical to maintain a Pmk1p basal activity that allows Pmk1p activation induced by heat stress. These data demonstrate the existence of a complex signalling network modulating Pmk1p activation in response to a variety of stresses in fission yeast.

  19. Native Thrombocidin-1 and Unfolded Thrombocidin-1 Exert Antimicrobial Activity via Distinct Structural Elements

    PubMed Central

    Kwakman, Paulus H. S.; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; de Boer, Leonie; Nguyen, Leonard T.; Boszhard, Laura; Vreede, Jocelyne; Dekker, Henk L.; Speijer, Dave; Drijfhout, Jan W.; te Velde, Anje A.; Crielaard, Wim; Vogel, Hans J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) can have direct antimicrobial activity, which is apparently related to the presence of a distinct positively charged patch on the surface. However, chemokines can retain antimicrobial activity upon linearization despite the loss of their positive patch, thus questioning the importance of this patch for activity. Thrombocidin-1 (TC-1) is a microbicidal protein isolated from human blood platelets. TC-1 only differs from the chemokine NAP-2/CXCL7 by a two-amino acid C-terminal deletion, but this truncation is crucial for antimicrobial activity. We assessed the structure-activity relationship for antimicrobial activity of TC-1. Reduction of the charge of the TC-1-positive patch by replacing lysine 17 with alanine reduced the activity against bacteria and almost abolished activity against the yeast Candida albicans. Conversely, augmentation of the positive patch by increasing charge density or size resulted in a 2–3-fold increased activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis but did not substantially affect activity against C. albicans. Reduction of TC-1 resulted in loss of the folded conformation, but this disruption of the positive patch did not affect antimicrobial activity. Using overlapping 15-mer synthetic peptides, we demonstrate peptides corresponding to the N-terminal part of TC-1 to have similar antimicrobial activity as intact TC-1. Although we demonstrate that the positive patch is essential for activity of folded TC-1, unfolded TC-1 retained antimicrobial activity despite the absence of a positive patch. This activity is probably exerted by a linear peptide stretch in the N-terminal part of the molecule. We conclude that intact TC-1 and unfolded TC-1 exert antimicrobial activity via distinct structural elements. PMID:22025617

  20. Wnt-mediated activation of NeuroD1 and retro-elements during adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Tomoko; Hsieh, Jenny; Muotri, Alysson; Yeo, Gene; Warashina, Masaki; Lie, Dieter Chichung; Moore, Lynne; Nakashima, Kinichi; Asashima, Makoto; Gage, Fred H

    2009-09-01

    In adult hippocampus, new neurons are continuously generated from neural stem cells (NSCs), but the molecular mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis remain elusive. We found that Wnt signaling, together with the removal of Sox2, triggered the expression of NeuroD1 in mice. This transcriptional regulatory mechanism was dependent on a DNA element containing overlapping Sox2 and T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF)-binding sites (Sox/LEF) in the promoter. Notably, Sox/LEF sites were also found in long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1) elements, consistent with their critical roles in the transition of NSCs to proliferating neuronal progenitors. Our results describe a previously unknown Wnt-mediated regulatory mechanism that simultaneously coordinates activation of NeuroD1 and LINE-1, which is important for adult neurogenesis and survival of neuronal progenitors. Moreover, the discovery that LINE-1 retro-elements embedded in the mammalian genome can function as bi-directional promoters suggests that Sox/LEF regulatory sites may represent a general mechanism, at least in part, for relaying environmental signals to other nearby loci to promote adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  1. Overall design of actively controlled smart structures by the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbert, Ulrich; Koeppe, Heinz; Seeger, Falko

    2001-08-01

    The design process of engineering smart structures requires a virtual overall model, which includes the main functional parts such as the passive structure, the actuators and sensors as well as the control algorithm. The objective of the paper is to pre-sent such a design concept for vibration suppression of thin-walled shell structures controlled by piezoelectric wafers and fi-bers. This concept is based on a recently developed finite element package for the simulation of multi-physics problems. At first a rough design of actuator and sensor distributions is estimated which is based on the controllability and observabilty indices. Then the Matlab/Simulink software tool is used for controller design. From the finite element model all required data and information are transferred to Matlab/Simulink via a data exchange interface. After having designed the controller the result in form of the controller matrices or as C-codes can be transferred back into the finite element simulation package. Within the finite element code the controlled structural behavior can be studied under different disturbances. The structural design can be improved in an iterative way, e.g. by changing the actuator and sensor positions based on a sensitivity analy-sis. As an example an actively controlled smart plate structure is designed and tested to demonstrate the proposed procedure.

  2. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Olga; Treitler, Julia T.; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany). Using spatial analysis (GIS), we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water). In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers). Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the landscape is

  3. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas.

    PubMed

    Heim, Olga; Treitler, Julia T; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany). Using spatial analysis (GIS), we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water). In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers). Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the landscape is

  4. Observation of new spontaneous fission activities from elements 100 to 105

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, L.P.

    1982-03-01

    Several new Spontaneous Fission (SF) activities have been found. No definite identification could be made for any of the new SF activities; however, half-lives and possible assignments to element-104 isotopes consistent with several cross bombardments include /sup 257/Rf(3.8 s, 14% SF), /sup 258/Rf(13 ms), /sup 259/Rf(approx. 3 s, 8% SF), /sup 260/Rf(approx. 20 ms), and /sup 262/Rf(approx. 50 ms). The 80-ms SF activity claimed by the Dubna group for the discovery of element 104 (/sup 260/104) was not observed. A difficulty exists in the interpretation that /sup 260/Rf is a approx. 20-ms SF activity: in order to be correct, for example, the SF activities with half-lives between 14 and 24 ms produced in the reactions 109- to 119-MeV /sup 18/O + /sup 248/Cm, 88- to 100-MeV /sup 15/N + /sup 249/Bk, and 96-MeV /sup 18/O + /sup 249/Cf must be other nuclides due to their large production cross sections, or the cross sections for production of /sup 260/Rf must be enhanced by unknown mechanisms. Based on calculated total production cross sections a possible approx. 1% electron-capture branch in /sup 258/Lr(4.5 s) to the SF emitter /sup 258/No(1.2 ms) and an upper limit of 0.05% for SF branching in /sup 254/No(55 s) were determined. Other measured half-lives from unknown nuclides produced in respective reactions include approx. 1.6 s (/sup 18/O + /sup 248/CM), indications of a approx. 47-s SF activity (75-MeV /sup 12/C + /sup 249/Cf), and two or more SF activities with 3 s less than or equal to T/sub 1/2/ less than or equal to 60 s (/sup 18/O + /sup 249/Bk). The most exciting conclusion of this work is that if the tentative assignments to even-even element 104 isotopes are correct, there would be a sudden change in the SF half-life systematics at element 104 which has been predicted theoretically and attributed to the disappearance of the second hump of the double-humped fission barrier.

  5. Probabilistic seismic hazard study based on active fault and finite element geodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastelic, Vanja; Carafa, Michele M. C.; Visini, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    We present a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) that is exclusively based on active faults and geodynamic finite element input models whereas seismic catalogues were used only in a posterior comparison. We applied the developed model in the External Dinarides, a slow deforming thrust-and-fold belt at the contact between Adria and Eurasia.. is the Our method consists of establishing s two earthquake rupture forecast models: (i) a geological active fault input (GEO) model and, (ii) a finite element (FEM) model. The GEO model is based on active fault database that provides information on fault location and its geometric and kinematic parameters together with estimations on its slip rate. By default in this model all deformation is set to be released along the active faults. The FEM model is based on a numerical geodynamic model developed for the region of study. In this model the deformation is, besides along the active faults, released also in the volumetric continuum elements. From both models we calculated their corresponding activity rates, its earthquake rates and their final expected peak ground accelerations. We investigated both the source model and the earthquake model uncertainties by varying the main active fault and earthquake rate calculation parameters through constructing corresponding branches of the seismic hazard logic tree. Hazard maps and UHS curves have been produced for horizontal ground motion on bedrock conditions VS 30 ≥ 800 m/s), thereby not considering local site amplification effects. The hazard was computed over a 0.2° spaced grid considering 648 branches of the logic tree and the mean value of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years hazard level, while the 5th and 95th percentiles were also computed to investigate the model limits. We conducted a sensitivity analysis to control which of the input parameters influence the final hazard results in which measure. The results of such comparison evidence the deformation model and

  6. Modeling of a fluid-loaded smart shell structure for active noise and vibration control using a coupled finite element-boundary element approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringwelski, S.; Gabbert, U.

    2010-10-01

    A recently developed approach for the simulation and design of a fluid-loaded lightweight structure with surface-mounted piezoelectric actuators and sensors capable of actively reducing the sound radiation and the vibration is presented. The objective of this paper is to describe the theoretical background of the approach in which the FEM is applied to model the actively controlled shell structure. The FEM is also employed to model finite fluid domains around the shell structure as well as fluid domains that are partially or totally bounded by the structure. Boundary elements are used to characterize the unbounded acoustic pressure fields. The approach presented is based on the coupling of piezoelectric and acoustic finite elements with boundary elements. A coupled finite element-boundary element model is derived by introducing coupling conditions at the fluid-fluid and fluid-structure interfaces. Because of the possibility of using piezoelectric patches as actuators and sensors, feedback control algorithms can be implemented directly into the multi-coupled structural-acoustic approach to provide a closed-loop model for the design of active noise and vibration control. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the approach developed, a number of test simulations are carried out and the results are compared with experimental data. As a test case, a box-shaped shell structure with surface-mounted piezoelectric actuators and four sensors and an open rearward end is considered. A comparison between the measured values and those predicted by the coupled finite element-boundary element model shows a good agreement.

  7. On the processing of canonical word order during eye fixations in reading: Do readers process transposed word previews?

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, Keith; Angele, Bernhard; Schotter, Elizabeth R.; Bicknell, Klinton

    2013-01-01

    Whether readers always identify words in the order they are printed is subject to considerable debate. In the present study, we used the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) to manipulate the preview for a two-word target region (e.g. white walls in My neighbor painted the white walls black). Readers received an identical (white walls), transposed (walls white), or unrelated preview (vodka clubs). We found that there was a clear cost of having a transposed preview compared to an identical preview, indicating that readers cannot or do not identify words out of order. However, on some measures, the transposed preview condition did lead to faster processing than the unrelated preview condition, suggesting that readers may be able to obtain some useful information from a transposed preview. Implications of the results for models of eye movement control in reading are discussed. PMID:24003322

  8. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis of toxic elements in radioactive waste packages.

    PubMed

    Ma, J-L; Carasco, C; Perot, B; Mauerhofer, E; Kettler, J; Havenith, A

    2012-07-01

    The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) are conducting an R&D program to improve the characterization of long-lived and medium activity (LL-MA) radioactive waste packages. In particular, the amount of toxic elements present in radioactive waste packages must be assessed before they can be accepted in repository facilities in order to avoid pollution of underground water reserves. To this aim, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA-Cadarache has started to study the performances of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for elements showing large capture cross sections such as mercury, cadmium, boron, and chromium. This paper reports a comparison between Monte Carlo calculations performed with the MCNPX computer code using the ENDF/B-VII.0 library and experimental gamma rays measured in the REGAIN PGNAA cell with small samples of nickel, lead, cadmium, arsenic, antimony, chromium, magnesium, zinc, boron, and lithium to verify the validity of a numerical model and gamma-ray production data. The measurement of a ∼20kg test sample of concrete containing toxic elements has also been performed, in collaboration with Forschungszentrum Jülich, to validate the model in view of future performance studies for dense and large LL-MA waste packages.

  9. Statins Increase Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 Gene Transcription through a Pregnane X Receptor Regulated Element.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Frederick M; Linder, Kathryn M; Cardozo, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a multifunctional protein that has important roles in inflammation and wound healing. Its aberrant regulation may contribute to many disease processes such as heart disease. The PAI-1 promoter is responsive to multiple inputs including cytokines, growth factors, steroids and oxidative stress. The statin drugs, atorvastatin, mevastatin and rosuvastatin, increased basal and stimulated expression of the PAI-1 promoter 3-fold. A statin-responsive, nuclear hormone response element was previously identified in the PAI-1 promoter, but it was incompletely characterized. We characterized this direct repeat (DR) of AGGTCA with a 3-nucleotide spacer at -269/-255 using deletion and directed mutagenesis. Deletion or mutation of this element increased basal transcription from the promoter suggesting that it repressed PAI-1 transcription in the unliganded state. The half-site spacing and the ligand specificity suggested that this might be a pregnane X receptor (PXR) responsive element. Computational molecular docking showed that atorvastatin, mevastatin and rosuvastatin were structurally compatible with the PXR ligand-binding pocket in its agonist conformation. Experiments with Gal4 DNA binding domain fusion proteins showed that Gal4-PXR was activated by statins while other DR + 3 binding nuclear receptor fusions were not. Overexpression of PXR further enhanced PAI-1 transcription in response to statins. Finally, ChIP experiments using Halo-tagged PXR and RXR demonstrated that both components of the PXR-RXR heterodimer bound to this region of the PAI-1 promoter.

  10. Statins Increase Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 Gene Transcription through a Pregnane X Receptor Regulated Element

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Frederick M.; Linder, Kathryn M.; Cardozo, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a multifunctional protein that has important roles in inflammation and wound healing. Its aberrant regulation may contribute to many disease processes such as heart disease. The PAI-1 promoter is responsive to multiple inputs including cytokines, growth factors, steroids and oxidative stress. The statin drugs, atorvastatin, mevastatin and rosuvastatin, increased basal and stimulated expression of the PAI-1 promoter 3-fold. A statin-responsive, nuclear hormone response element was previously identified in the PAI-1 promoter, but it was incompletely characterized. We characterized this direct repeat (DR) of AGGTCA with a 3-nucleotide spacer at -269/-255 using deletion and directed mutagenesis. Deletion or mutation of this element increased basal transcription from the promoter suggesting that it repressed PAI-1 transcription in the unliganded state. The half-site spacing and the ligand specificity suggested that this might be a pregnane X receptor (PXR) responsive element. Computational molecular docking showed that atorvastatin, mevastatin and rosuvastatin were structurally compatible with the PXR ligand-binding pocket in its agonist conformation. Experiments with Gal4 DNA binding domain fusion proteins showed that Gal4-PXR was activated by statins while other DR + 3 binding nuclear receptor fusions were not. Overexpression of PXR further enhanced PAI-1 transcription in response to statins. Finally, ChIP experiments using Halo-tagged PXR and RXR demonstrated that both components of the PXR-RXR heterodimer bound to this region of the PAI-1 promoter. PMID:26379245

  11. Repetitive elements, architects of genomic variation in Verticillium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular wilt pathogens in the genus Verticillium show considerable variation with respect to their host ranges, genomic organization, and the variety and number of transposable elements (TEs) that they carry. These families of TE sequences were first documented in the wide host range, plant pathog...

  12. A structured annotation frame for the transposable phages: a new proposed family "Saltoviridae" within the Caudovirales.

    PubMed

    Hulo, Chantal; Masson, Patrick; Le Mercier, Philippe; Toussaint, Ariane

    2015-03-01

    Enterobacteriophage Mu is the best studied and paradigm member of the transposable phages. Mu-encoded proteins have been annotated in detail in UniProtKB and linked to a controlled vocabulary describing the various steps involved in the phage lytic and lysogenic cycles. Transposable phages are ubiquitous temperate bacterial viruses with a dsDNA linear genome. Twenty-six of them, that infect α, β and γ-proteobacteria, have been sequenced. Their conserved properties are described. Based on these characteristics, we propose a reorganization of the Caudovirales, to allow for the inclusion of a "Saltoviridae" family and two newly proposed subfamilies, the "Myosaltovirinae" and "Siphosaltovirinae". The latter could temporarily be included in the existing Myoviridae and Siphoviridae families.

  13. Moving from science to service: transposing and sustaining the Early Risers prevention program in a community service system.

    PubMed

    Bloomquist, Michael L; August, Gerald J; Horowitz, Jason L; Lee, Susanne S; Jensen, Cheryl

    2008-07-01

    This paper summarizes an effort to transpose and sustain the evidence-based Early Risers "Skills for Success" conduct problems prevention program in a real world community service system. The Early Risers program had previously been implemented by a local agency within the context of research-based operations. In the current initiative, responsibility for funding and operating the program was transferred from program developers to a local community agency and county service system. There is a description of how the local community partnership adopted the program and real world program evaluation data pertaining to costs and implementation of the program over 2 years (N = 168 children) is presented. It is demonstrated that the local community system provided ongoing funding and that the agency implemented the program with acceptable exposure and participation. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors carefully assess multiple elements of fidelity and share important lessons regarding community-based implementation, obstacles, and collaboration. The article should be of interest to anyone considering a replication of the evidence-based Early Risers program and also to a broader audience of researchers and practitioners involved in translational research.

  14. Speed of sound estimation with active PZT element for thermal monitoring during ablation therapy: feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Younsu; Guo, Xiaoyu; Cheng, Alexis; Boctor, Emad M.

    2016-04-01

    Controlling the thermal dose during ablation therapy is instrumental to successfully removing the tumor while preserving the surrounding healthy tissue. In the practical scenario, surgeons must be able to determine the ablation completeness in the tumor region. Various methods have been proposed to monitor it, one of which uses ultrasound since it is a common intraoperative imaging modality due to its non-invasive, cost-effective, and convenient natures. In our approach, we propose to use time of flight (ToF) information to estimate speed of sound changes. Accurate speed of sound estimation is crucial because it is directly correlated with temperature change and subsequent determination of ablation completeness. We divide the region of interest in a circular fashion with a variable radius from the ablator tip. We introduce the concept of effective speed of sound in each of the sub-regions. Our active PZT element control system facilitates this unique approach by allowing us to acquire one-way ToF information between the PZT element and each of the ultrasound elements. We performed a simulation and an experiment to verify feasibility of this method. The simulation result showed that we could compute the effective speed of sound within 0.02m/s error in our discrete model. We also perform a sensitivity analysis for this model. Most of the experimental results had less than 1% error. Simulation using a Gaussian continuous model with multiple PZT elements is also demonstrated. We simulate the effect of the element location one the optimization result.

  15. High-performance passive viscous isolator element for active/passive (hybrid) isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Torey; Davis, L. Porter; Sullivan, Jeanne M.; Hoffman, Terry; Das, Alok

    1996-05-01

    A high performance passive isolator has been developed for a multiaxis isolation system for vibration isolation of an optical payload. This passive isolator will be used along with an active element to provide improved vibration isolation performance over previous isolators. The isolator has been designed using ideas developed previously for 'tuned' three parameter passive isolators. The isolator has also been developed offering the lowest system passive break frequencies structurally feasible for the lightweight optical payload. The implementations of these passive isolator design considerations complement the active portion of the system, and also provide the best passive isolation at the higher frequencies long after the active system has 'rolled off.' The mathematics used to design the isolator as well as the isolator's physical attributes are discussed. The unique design challenges of incorporating the passive element with the active, forming one 'hybrid' D-strut$TM, also are discussed. Finally, actual test data from isolator testing are compared to predicted performance, verifying the isolator's exceptional performance and predictability.

  16. Sensitivity of temporal excitation properties to the neuronal element activated by extracellular stimulation.

    PubMed

    Miocinovic, Svjetlana; Grill, Warren M

    2004-01-15

    Measurements of the chronaxies and refractory periods with extracellular stimuli have been used to conclude that large diameter axons are responsible for the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS). We hypothesized that because action potential initiation by extracellular stimulation occurs in the axons of central nervous system (CNS) neurons, the chronaxies and refractory periods determined using extracellular stimulation would be similar for cells and axons. Computer simulation was used to determine the sensitivity of chronaxie and refractory period to the neural element stimulated. The results demonstrate that chronaxies and refractory periods were dependent on the polarity of the extracellular stimulus and the electrode-to-neuron distance, and indicate that there is little systematic difference in either chronaxies or refractory periods between local cells or axons of passage with extracellular stimulation. This finding points out the difficulty in drawing conclusions regarding which neuronal elements are activated based on extracellular measurements of temporal excitation properties.

  17. Nutrient elements of commercial tea from Nigeria by an instrumental neutron activation analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Jona, S A; Williams, I S

    2000-08-30

    A prototype miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) with a thermal neutron flux of 3.0 x 10(11) n cm(-2) s(-1) has been used to determine the concentrations of some nutrient elements leading to short-lived activation products in commercial tea leaf samples from Nigeria. A total of eight elements Al, Ca, Cl, Cu, K, Mg, Mn and Na, that can be routinely used for quality control purposes, were analyzed in this study. Two biological reference materials, tomato leaves (NIST-1573) and citrus leaves (NIST-1572) were used as the standard and quality control materials, respectively. The analytical results show that the average concentrations of Al, Ca, Cl, Cu, K, Mg, Mn and Na in Nigerian tea are slightly higher when compared with a Chinese herbal tea analyzed in this study. The concentration ratios of K/Ca were found to be high in all the samples analyzed suggesting cultivation in potash-rich soils.

  18. Dissection of a Ciona regulatory element reveals complexity of cross-species enhancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Chung; Pauls, Stefan; Bacha, Jamil; Elgar, Greg; Loose, Matthew; Shimeld, Sebastian M.

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate genomes share numerous conserved non-coding elements, many of which function as enhancer elements and are hypothesised to be under evolutionary constraint due to a need to be bound by combinations of sequence-specific transcription factors. In contrast, few such conserved elements can be detected between vertebrates and their closest invertebrate relatives. Despite this lack of sequence identity, cross-species transgenesis has identified some cases where non-coding DNA from invertebrates drives reporter gene expression in transgenic vertebrates in patterns reminiscent of the expression of vertebrate orthologues. Such instances are presumed to reflect the presence of conserved suites of binding sites in the regulatory regions of invertebrate and vertebrate orthologues, such that both regulatory elements can correctly interpret the trans-activating environment. Shuffling of binding sites has been suggested to lie behind loss of sequence conservation; however this has not been experimentally tested. Here we examine the underlying basis of enhancer activity for the Ciona intestinalis βγ-crystallin gene, which drives expression in the lens of transgenic vertebrates despite the Ciona lineage predating the evolution of the lens. We construct an interactive gene regulatory network (GRN) for vertebrate lens development, allowing network interactions to be robustly catalogued and conserved network components and features to be identified. We show that a small number of binding motifs are necessary for Ciona βγ-crystallin expression, and narrow down the likely factors that bind to these motifs. Several of these overlap with the conserved core of the vertebrate lens GRN, implicating these sites in cross species function. However when we test these motifs in a transgenic vertebrate they prove to be dispensable for reporter expression in the lens. These results show that current models depicting cross species enhancer function as dependent on conserved binding

  19. Extending neutron activation analysis to materials with high concentrations of neutron absorbing elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilian, Cornelia

    The purpose of this study was to investigate epithermal neutron self-shielding for all nuclides used in Neutron Activation Analysis, NAA. The study started with testing the theory and measuring the nuclear factors characterizing thermal and epithermal self-shielding for 1 mL cylindrical samples containing the halogens Cl, Br and I irradiated in a mixed thermal and epithermal neutron spectrum. For mono-element samples, both thermal and epithermal experimental self-shielding factors were well fitted by sigmoid functions. As a result, to correct thermal neutron self-shielding, the sigmoid uses a single parameter, mth, which can be directly calculated for any element from the sample size, the weighted sum of the thermal absorption cross-sections, sigmaabs, of the elements in the sample and a constant kth characteristic of the irradiation site. However, to correct epithermal self-shielding, the parameter mep, a function of sample geometry and composition, irradiation conditions and nuclear characteristics, needs to be measured for each activated nuclide. Since the preliminary tests were positive and showed that self-shielding, as high as 30%, could be corrected with an accuracy of about 1%, except in cases with significant epithermal shielding of one element by another, we pursued the study with the verification of two additional aspects. First, the dependency of the self-shielding parameters mth, and mep, on the properties of the irradiation site was evaluated using three different irradiation sites of a SLOWPOKE reactor, and it was concluded that the amount of both thermal and epithermal self-shielding varied by less than 10% from one site to another. Second, the variation of the self-shielding parameters, mth, and mep, with the size of the cylinder, as r( r+h), was tested for h/r ratios from 0.02 to 6.0, and this geometry dependence was confirmed even in slightly non-isotropic neutron fields. These results allowed separating from the mep parameter the amount of

  20. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency. PMID:26819083

  1. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency.

  2. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration.

    PubMed

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-28

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency.

  3. DIVERSITY OF DcMaster-LIKE ELEMENTS OF THE PIF/Harbinger SUPERFAMILY IN THE CARROT GENOME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transposable elements constitute a significant fraction of plant genomes. Both autonomous and non-autonomous elements of the DcMaster family, residing in the carrot genome, were described previously. DcMaster elements were classified as members of the PIF/Harbinger superfamily. In the present paper ...

  4. Discrete element modeling of the faulting in the sedimentary cover above an active salt diapir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hongwei; Zhang, Jie; Meng, Lingsen; Liu, Yuping; Xu, Shijing

    2009-09-01

    Geological mapping, seismic analyses, and analogue experiments show that active salt diapirism results in significant faulting in the overburden strata. Faults associated with active diapirism generally develop over the crest of the dome and form a radial pattern. In this study, we have created a 3-D discrete element model and used this model to investigate the fault system over active diapirs. The model reproduces some common features observed in physical experiments and natural examples. The discrete element results show that most faults initiate near the model surface and have displacement decreasing downward. In addition, model results indicate that the earliest fault, working as the master fault, has a strong influence on the subsequent fault pattern. The footwall of the master fault is mainly deformed by arc-parallel stretching and develops a subradial fault pattern, whereas the hanging wall is deformed by both arc-parallel stretching and gliding along the master fault and top of salt, and hence develops both parallel and oblique faults. Model results replicate the fault pattern and deformation mechanism of the Reitbrook dome, Germany.

  5. Aortic ascorbic acid, trace elements, and superoxide dismutase activity in human aneurysmal and occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Dubick, M A; Hunter, G C; Casey, S M; Keen, C L

    1987-02-01

    Altered trace elements and ascorbic acid metabolism have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, their role in the disease process, or the effect of atherosclerosis on their tissue levels within plaque, is poorly understood. The present study analyzes the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn, and ascorbic acid and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in tissue samples from 29 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and 14 patients with atherosclerotic occlusive disease (AOD). It was observed that the Fe and Mn concentrations in AAA and AOD tissue were higher than the levels in nondiseased control aorta, whereas Cu and Zn levels in AAA and AOD tissue were similar to the levels in controls. The Zn:Cu ratio was significantly lower in the AAA tissue in comparison to both AOD and control tissue. In addition, AAA and AOD tissue had low ascorbic acid levels and low Cu,Zn-SOD activity with Cu,Zn-SOD:Mn-SOD ratios of 0.27 and 0.19, respectively, compared to a ratio of 3.20 in control aorta. These data indicate that aorta affected by aneurysms and occlusive disease have altered trace element and ascorbic acid concentrations, as well as low Cu,Zn-SOD activity. Although these observations do not directly support the hypothesis that AAA is associated with aortic Cu deficiency they do suggest a role for oxygen radicals or increased lipid peroxidation in occlusive and aneurysmal disease of the aorta.

  6. Aortic ascorbic acid, trace elements, and superoxide dismutase activity in human aneurysmal and occlusive disease

    SciTech Connect

    Dubick, M.A.; Hunter, G.C.; Casey, S.M.; Keen, C.L.

    1987-02-01

    Altered trace elements and ascorbic acid metabolism have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, their role in the disease process, or the effect of atherosclerosis on their tissue levels within plaque, is poorly understood. The presence study analyzes the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn, and ascorbic acid and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in tissue samples from 29 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and 14 patients with atherosclerotic occlusive disease (AOD). It was observed that the Fe and Mn concentrations in AAA and AOD tissue were higher than the levels in nondiseased control aorta, whereas Cu and Zn levels in AAA and AOD tissue were similar to the levels in controls. The Zn:Cu ratio was significantly lower in the AAA tissue in comparison to both AOD and control tissue. In addition, AAA and AOD tissue had low ascorbic acid levels and low Cu, Zn-SOD activity with Cu,Zn-SOD:Mn-SOD ratios of 0.27 and 0.19, respectively, compared to a ratio of 3.20 in control aorta. These data indicate that aorta affected by aneurysms and occlusive disease have altered trace element and ascorbic acid concentrations, as well as low Cu,Zn-SOD activity. Although these observations do not directly support the hypothesis that AAA is associated with aortic Cu deficiency they do suggest a role for oxygen radicals or increased lipid peroxidation in occlusive and aneurysmal disease of the aorta.

  7. Regulatory elements involved in the bidirectional activity of an immunoglobulin promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Doyen, N; Dreyfus, M; Rougeon, F

    1989-01-01

    We show that the promoter from the mouse VH441 heavy-chain immunoglobulin gene, when present on plasmids transiently introduced into myeloma cells, promotes transcription bidirectionally, due to the presence on both strands of TATA-like sequences bracketing the highly conserved decanucleotide element. The two divergent promoters compete for the transcriptional machinery, their relative strength ultimately reflecting the likeness of the two TATA boxes to the consensus sequence. Moreover, their relative activity is also strongly influenced by certain point mutations within the distally located heavy-chain enhancer. The bearing of these results on current concepts of promoter function is discussed. Images PMID:2494644

  8. Major and trace element distributions around active volcanic vents determined by analyses of grasses: implications for element cycling and bio-monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. S.; Mather, T. A.; Pyle, D. M.; Day, J. A.; Witt, M. L. I.; Collins, S. J.; Hilton, R. G.

    2010-10-01

    Samples of grass were collected at Masaya Volcano (Nicaragua; Rhynchelytrum repens and Andropogon angustatus) and the Piton de La Fournaise (around the April 2007 eruptive vent, La Réunion; Vetiveria zizanioides) to investigate the controls on major and trace element concentrations in plants around active volcanic vents. Samples were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for a wide range of elements, and atomic absorption spectroscopy for Hg. At Masaya, As, Cu, Mo, Tl and K concentrations in both grass species showed a simple pattern of variability consistent with exposure to the volcanic plume. Similar variability was found in A. angustatus for Al, Co, Cs, Hg and Mg. At the Piton de La Fournaise, the patterns of variability in V. zizanioides were more complex and related to variable exposures to emissions from both the active vent and lava flow. These results suggest that exposure to volcanic emissions is, for many elements, the main control on compositional variability in vegetation growing on active volcanoes. Thus, vegetation may be an important environmental reservoir for elements emitted by volcanoes and should be considered as part of the global biogeochemical cycles.

  9. Identifying transcription start sites and active enhancer elements using BruUV-seq.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Brian; Veloso, Artur; Kirkconnell, Killeen S; de Andrade Lima, Leonardo Carmo; Paulsen, Michelle T; Ljungman, Emily A; Bedi, Karan; Prasad, Jayendra; Wilson, Thomas E; Ljungman, Mats

    2015-12-11

    BruUV-seq utilizes UV light to introduce transcription-blocking DNA lesions randomly in the genome prior to bromouridine-labeling and deep sequencing of nascent RNA. By inhibiting transcription elongation, but not initiation, pre-treatment with UV light leads to a redistribution of transcription reads resulting in the enhancement of nascent RNA signal towards the 5'-end of genes promoting the identification of transcription start sites (TSSs). Furthermore, transcripts associated with arrested RNA polymerases are protected from 3'-5' degradation and thus, unstable transcripts such as putative enhancer RNA (eRNA) are dramatically increased. Validation of BruUV-seq against GRO-cap that identifies capped run-on transcripts showed that most BruUV-seq peaks overlapped with GRO-cap signal over both TSSs and enhancer elements. Finally, BruUV-seq identified putative enhancer elements induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) treatment concomitant with expression of nearby TNF-induced genes. Taken together, BruUV-seq is a powerful new approach for identifying TSSs and active enhancer elements genome-wide in intact cells.

  10. Identifying transcription start sites and active enhancer elements using BruUV-seq

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, Brian; Veloso, Artur; Kirkconnell, Killeen S.; Lima, Leonardo Carmo de Andrade; Paulsen, Michelle T.; Ljungman, Emily A.; Bedi, Karan; Prasad, Jayendra; Wilson, Thomas E.; Ljungman, Mats

    2015-01-01

    BruUV-seq utilizes UV light to introduce transcription-blocking DNA lesions randomly in the genome prior to bromouridine-labeling and deep sequencing of nascent RNA. By inhibiting transcription elongation, but not initiation, pre-treatment with UV light leads to a redistribution of transcription reads resulting in the enhancement of nascent RNA signal towards the 5′-end of genes promoting the identification of transcription start sites (TSSs). Furthermore, transcripts associated with arrested RNA polymerases are protected from 3′–5′ degradation and thus, unstable transcripts such as putative enhancer RNA (eRNA) are dramatically increased. Validation of BruUV-seq against GRO-cap that identifies capped run-on transcripts showed that most BruUV-seq peaks overlapped with GRO-cap signal over both TSSs and enhancer elements. Finally, BruUV-seq identified putative enhancer elements induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) treatment concomitant with expression of nearby TNF-induced genes. Taken together, BruUV-seq is a powerful new approach for identifying TSSs and active enhancer elements genome-wide in intact cells. PMID:26656874

  11. Trace elements determinations in cancerous and non-cancerous human tissues using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Insup.

    1989-01-01

    Recent improvements in analyzing techniques when coupled to the growing knowledge of trace element biochemistry provide a powerful tool to investigate the relationship between trace elements and cancer. It is hoped that selective delivery or restriction of specific minerals may aid in cancer prevention or treatment. Tissues were collected at the time of surgery of various cancer patients including colon cancer and breast cancer. Three kinds of tissues were taken from a patient; cancerous, noncancerous, and transitional tissue obtained from a region located between the cancer and healthy tissues. A total of 57 tissues were obtained from 19 cancer patients. Seven of them were colon cancer patients, and 5 of them were breast cancer patients. Nine elements were determined using instrumental activation analysis. Cancerous colon tissue had significantly higher concentrations of selenium and iron than healthy tissues. Cancerous breast tissue had significantly higher concentrations of selenium, iron, manganese, and rubidium than healthy tissues. Iron can be enriched in cancer tissue because cancer tissue retains more blood vessels. Selenium is enriched in cancer tissue, possibly in an effort of the body to inhibit the growth of tumors. The manganese enrichment can be explained in the same manner as selenium considering its suspected anticarcinogenicity. It is not certain why rubidium was enriched in cancer tissue. It could be that this is the result of alteration of cell membrane permeability, change in extracellular matrix, or increased metabolism in cancer tissue.

  12. Evaluation of a combination of continuum and truss finite elements in a model of passive and active muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Hedenstierna, S; Halldin, P; Brolin, K

    2008-12-01

    The numerical method of finite elements (FE) is a powerful tool for analysing stresses and strains in the human body. One area of increasing interest is the skeletal musculature. This study evaluated modelling of skeletal muscle tissue using a combination of passive non-linear, viscoelastic solid elements and active Hill-type truss elements, the super-positioned muscle finite element (SMFE). The performance of the combined materials and elements was evaluated for eccentric motions by simulating a tensile experiment from a published study on a stimulated rabbit muscle including three different strain rates. It was also evaluated for isometric and concentric contractions. The resulting stress-strain curves had the same overall pattern as the experiments, with the main limitation being sensitivity to the active force-length relation. It was concluded that the SMFE could model active and passive muscle tissue at constant rate elongations for strains below failure, as well as isometric and concentric contractions.

  13. Tissue-specific SMARCA4 binding at active and repressed regulatory elements during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Attanasio, Catia; Nord, Alex S; Zhu, Yiwen; Blow, Matthew J; Biddie, Simon C; Mendenhall, Eric M; Dixon, Jesse; Wright, Crystal; Hosseini, Roya; Akiyama, Jennifer A; Holt, Amy; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Shoukry, Malak; Afzal, Veena; Ren, Bing; Bernstein, Bradley E; Rubin, Edward M; Visel, Axel; Pennacchio, Len A

    2014-06-01

    The SMARCA4 (also known as BRG1 in humans) chromatin remodeling factor is critical for establishing lineage-specific chromatin states during early mammalian development. However, the role of SMARCA4 in tissue-specific gene regulation during embryogenesis remains poorly defined. To investigate the genome-wide binding landscape of SMARCA4 in differentiating tissues, we engineered a Smarca4(FLAG) knock-in mouse line. Using ChIP-seq, we identified ∼51,000 SMARCA4-associated regions across six embryonic mouse tissues (forebrain, hindbrain, neural tube, heart, limb, and face) at mid-gestation (E11.5). The majority of these regions was distal from promoters and showed dynamic occupancy, with most distal SMARCA4 sites (73%) confined to a single or limited subset of tissues. To further characterize these regions, we profiled active and repressive histone marks in the same tissues and examined the intersection of informative chromatin states and SMARCA4 binding. This revealed distinct classes of distal SMARCA4-associated elements characterized by activating and repressive chromatin signatures that were associated with tissue-specific up- or down-regulation of gene expression and relevant active/repressed biological pathways. We further demonstrate the predicted active regulatory properties of SMARCA4-associated elements by retrospective analysis of tissue-specific enhancers and direct testing of SMARCA4-bound regions in transgenic mouse assays. Our results indicate a dual active/repressive function of SMARCA4 at distal regulatory sequences in vivo and support its role in tissue-specific gene regulation during embryonic development.

  14. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William; Harris, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) was favorably impressed by the operational risk management approach taken by the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to address the stated life sciences issues. The life sciences community at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) seems to be focused on operational risk management. This approach is more likely to provide risk managers with the information they need at the time they need it. Concerning the information provided to the SRP by the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance Project (EPSP), it is obvious that a great deal of productive activity is under way. Evaluation of this information was hampered by the fact that it often was not organized in a fashion that reflects the "Gaps and Tasks" approach of the overall Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) effort, and that a substantial proportion of the briefing concerned subjects that, while interesting, are not part of the HHC Element (e.g., the pressurized rover presentation). Additionally, no information was provided on several of the tasks or how they related to work underway or already accomplished. This situation left the SRP having to guess at the efforts and relationship to other elements, and made it hard to easily map the EVA Project efforts currently underway, and the data collected thus far, to the gaps and tasks in the IRP. It seems that integration of the EPSP project into the HHC Element could be improved. Along these lines, we were concerned that our SRP was split off from the other participating SRPs at an early stage in the overall agenda for the meeting. In reality, the concerns of EPSP and other projects share much common ground. For example, the commonality of the concerns of the EVA and exercise physiology groups is obvious, both in terms of what reduced exercise capacity can do to EVA capability, and how the exercise performed during an EVA could contribute to an overall exercise countermeasure prescription.

  15. 25 years of N-heterocyclic carbenes: activation of both main-group element-element bonds and NHCs themselves.

    PubMed

    Würtemberger-Pietsch, Sabrina; Radius, Udo; Marder, Todd B

    2016-04-14

    N-Heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) are widely used ligands and reagents in modern inorganic synthesis as well as in homogeneous catalysis and organocatalysis. However, NHCs are not always innocent bystanders. In the last few years, more and more examples were reported of reactions of NHCs with main-group elements which resulted in modification of the NHC. Many of these reactions lead to ring expansion and the formation of six-membered heterocyclic rings involving insertion of the heteroatom into the C-N bond and migration of hydrides, phenyl groups or boron-containing fragments. Furthermore, a few related NHC rearrangements were observed some decades ago. In this Perspective, we summarise the history of NHC ring expansion reactions from the 1960s till the present.

  16. Active learning: effects of core training design elements on self-regulatory processes, learning, and adaptability.

    PubMed

    Bell, Bradford S; Kozlowski, Steve W J

    2008-03-01

    This article describes a comprehensive examination of the cognitive, motivational, and emotional processes underlying active learning approaches; their effects on learning and transfer; and the core training design elements (exploration, training frame, emotion control) and individual differences (cognitive ability, trait goal orientation, trait anxiety) that shape these processes. Participants (N = 350) were trained to operate a complex, computer-based simulation. Exploratory learning and error-encouragement framing had a positive effect on adaptive transfer performance and interacted with cognitive ability and dispositional goal orientation to influence trainees' metacognition and state goal orientation. Trainees who received the emotion-control strategy had lower levels of state anxiety. Implications for development of an integrated theory of active learning, learner-centered design, and research extensions are discussed.

  17. Active magnetic bearings used as exciters for rolling element bearing outer race defect diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanping; Di, Long; Zhou, Jin; Jin, Chaowu; Guo, Qintao

    2016-03-01

    The active health monitoring of rotordynamic systems in the presence of bearing outer race defect is considered in this paper. The shaft is assumed to be supported by conventional mechanical bearings and an active magnetic bearing (AMB) is used in the mid of the shaft location as an exciter to apply electromagnetic force to the system. We investigate a nonlinear bearing-pedestal system model with the outer race defect under the electromagnetic force. The nonlinear differential equations are integrated using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm. The simulation and experimental results show that the characteristic signal of outer race incipient defect is significantly amplified under the electromagnetic force through the AMBs, which is helpful to improve the diagnosis accuracy of rolling element bearing׳s incipient outer race defect.

  18. OTX2 Activity at Distal Regulatory Elements Shapes the Chromatin Landscape of Group 3 Medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Gaylor; Awad, Mary E; Riggi, Nicolo; Archer, Tenley C; Iyer, Sowmya; Boonseng, Wannaporn E; Rossetti, Nikki E; Naigles, Beverly; Rengarajan, Shruthi; Volorio, Angela; Kim, James C; Mesirov, Jill P; Tamayo, Pablo; Pomeroy, Scott L; Aryee, Martin J; Rivera, Miguel N

    2017-02-17

    Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor and is divided into at least four subgroups known as WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. Here, we characterized gene regulation mechanisms in the most aggressive subtype, Group 3 tumors, through genome-wide chromatin and expression profiling. Our results show that most active distal sites in these tumors are occupied by the transcription factor OTX2. Highly active OTX2-bound enhancers are often arranged as clusters of adjacent peaks and are also bound by the transcription factor NEUROD1. These sites are responsive to OTX2 and NEUROD1 knockdown and could also be generated de novo upon ectopic OTX2 expression in primary cells, showing that OTX2 cooperates with NEUROD1 and plays a major role in maintaining and possibly establishing regulatory elements as a pioneer factor. Among OTX2 target genes, we identified the kinase NEK2, whose knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition decreased cell viability. Our studies thus show that OTX2 controls the regulatory landscape of Group 3 medulloblastoma through cooperative activity at enhancer elements and contributes to the expression of critical target genes.SIGNIFICANCE: The gene regulation mechanisms that drive medulloblastoma are not well understood. Using chromatin profiling, we find that the transcription factor OTX2 acts as a pioneer factor and, in cooperation with NEUROD1, controls the Group 3 medulloblastoma active enhancer landscape. OTX2 itself or its target genes, including the mitotic kinase NEK2, represent attractive targets for future therapies. Cancer Discov; 7(3); 1-14. ©2017 AACR.

  19. Hybridization of active and passive elements for planar photonic components and interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, M.; Bidnyk, S.; Balakrishnan, A.

    2007-02-01

    The deployment of Passive Optical Networks (PON) for Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) applications currently represents the fastest growing sector of the telecommunication industry. Traditionally, FTTH transceivers have been manufactured using commodity bulk optics subcomponents, such as thin film filters (TFFs), micro-optic collimating lenses, TO-packaged lasers, and photodetectors. Assembling these subcomponents into a single housing requires active alignment and labor-intensive techniques. Today, the majority of cost reducing strategies using bulk subcomponents has been implemented making future reductions in the price of manufacturing FTTH transceivers unlikely. Future success of large scale deployments of FTTH depends on further cost reductions of transceivers. Realizing the necessity of a radically new packaging approach for assembly of photonic components and interconnects, we designed a novel way of hybridizing active and passive elements into a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) platform. In our approach, all the filtering components were monolithically integrated into the chip using advancements in planar reflective gratings. Subsequently, active components were passively hybridized with the chip using fully-automated high-capacity flip-chip bonders. In this approach, the assembly of the transceiver package required no active alignment and was readily suitable for large-scale production. This paper describes the monolithic integration of filters and hybridization of active components in both silica-on-silicon and silicon-on-insulator PLCs.

  20. Analysis of solid-rocket effluents for aluminum, silicon, and other trace elements by neutron activation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furr, A. K.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity and reliability of neutron activation analysis in detecting trace elements in solid rocket effluents are discussed. Special attention was given to Al and Si contaminants. The construction and performance of a thermal column irradiation unit was reported.

  1. Active moss biomonitoring applied to an industrial site in Romania: relative accumulation of 36 elements in moss-bags.

    PubMed

    Culicov, O A; Mocanu, R; Frontasyeva, M V; Yurukova, L; Steinnes, E

    2005-09-01

    Active moss biomonitoring using the species Sphagnum girgensohnii was tested at a strongly polluted site in Romania (Baia Mare) according to a novel sampling design. Nine moss transplants from each of the two background areas (Dubna, Russia and Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria) were deployed in parallel on balconies about 24 m above street level for 4 months. The samples were analyzed for 36 elements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Based on the results obtained the sampling variability is discussed in relation to the analytical variability, and the relative uptake of the different elements is assessed. The moss-bags using Sphagnum girgensohnii demonstrate a high or a very high relative uptake for a majority of the 36 investigated elements, but the values depend on the initial element concentration in the moss. Moss leaves analyzed separately showed somewhat higher levels than stems for many elements. Practical considerations however still speak in favor of using the whole moss for transplants.

  2. Involvement of multiple elements in FXR-mediated transcriptional activation of FGF19.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Hata, Tatsuya; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Kagawa, Tatehiro; Yoshinari, Kouichi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2012-10-01

    The intestinal endocrine hormone human fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is involved in the regulation of not only hepatic bile acid metabolism but also carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In the present study, bile acid/farnesoid X receptor (FXR) responsiveness in the FGF19 promoter region was investigated by a reporter assay using the human colon carcinoma cell line LS174T. The assay revealed the presence of bile acid/FXR-responsive elements in the 5'-flanking region up to 8.8 kb of FGF19. Deletion analysis indicated that regions from -1866 to -1833, from -1427 to -1353, and from -75 to +262 were involved in FXR responsiveness. Four, four, and two consecutive half-sites of nuclear receptors were observed in the three regions, respectively. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed FXR/retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) heterodimer binding in these three regions. EMSA and reporter assays using mutated constructs indicated that the nuclear receptor IR1, ER2, and DR8 motifs in the 5'-flanking region were involved in FXR responsiveness of FGF19. Lithocholic acid (LCA) (10 μM), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) (10 μM), or GW4064 (0.1 μM) treatment increased reporter activity in a construct including the three motifs under FXR-expressing conditions whereas LCA and not CDCA or GW4064 treatment increased the reporter activity under pregnane X receptor (PXR)-expressing conditions. These results suggest that FGF19 is transcriptionally activated through multiple FXR-responsive elements in the promoter region.

  3. Hormone withdrawal triggers a premature and sustained gene activation from delayed secondary glucocorticoid response elements.

    PubMed

    Hess, P; Payvar, F

    1992-02-15

    Glucocorticoid regulatory elements, denoted GREs and delayed secondary GREs (sGREs), bind the purified glucocorticoid receptors via distinctive sequence motifs and confer a primary and delayed secondary hormone inducibility, respectively, upon a linked reporter construct in stably transfected mammalian cells. The delayed secondary responses, but not the primary responses, are preceded by a time lag of several hours and blocked by protein synthesis inhibitors. In this report, we further characterized and distinguished these hormonal inductions. A 206-base pair DNA fragment from the hepatic rat alpha 2u-globulin (RUG) gene, containing at least two delayed sGREs, was specifically activated by glucocorticoids in a dose-dependent manner via a process which is sensitive to receptor antagonist RU486. Delayed sGRE-stimulated production of correctly initiated transcripts was preceded by a time lag of 2 h, a time when the GRE-mediated induction had reached maximal levels. A pulse of glucocorticoids sustained maximal activation of the delayed secondary response but not the primary response. In fact, hormone withdrawal triggered a premature induction of this delayed secondary response, suggesting that delayed sGREs are under both negative and positive control of the hormone receptor. Two separable elements of the 206-base pair fragment, including the 29-base pair sequence of a single receptor binding site, activated the reporter expression as effectively with transient, pulsatile exposure to hormone as with continuous exposure. Our results suggest that the information content of a hormonal pulse is retained, or "memorized," more persistently by a receptor binding site of delayed sGREs than those of the prototypical GREs.

  4. Effects of heavy metal and other elemental additives to activated sludge on growth of Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Hartenstein, R.; Neuhauser, E.F.; Narahara, A.

    1981-09-01

    The approximate level at which added concentrations of certain elements would cause an activated sludge to induce a toxic effect upon the growth of Eisenia foetida was determined. During 43 trials on sludge samples obtained throughout 1 year of study, earthworms grew from 3 to 10 mg live wt at hatching to 792 mg +- 18% (mean +- C.V.) in 8 weeks, when sludge was 24/sup 0/C and contained no additives. None of several elements commonly used in microbial growth media enhanced the growth rate of the earthworm. At salt concentrations up to about 6.6% on a dry wt basis, none of six anions tested was in and of itself toxic, while five of 15 cations - Co, Hg, Cu, Ni, and Cd - appeared specifically to inhibit growth rate or cause death. Manganese, Cr, and Pb were innocuous even at the highest levels of application - 22,000, 46,000, and 52,000 mg/kg, respectively. Neither the anionic nor cationic component of certain salts, such as NaCl or NH/sub 4/Cl, could be said to inhibit growth, which occurred only at high concentrations of these salts (about 3.3 and/or 6.6%). Below 7 mmho/cm, toxicity could not be correlated with electrolytic conductance, though higher values may help to explain the nonspecific growth inhibitory effects of salts like NaCl and KCl. Nor could toxicity ever be ascribed to hydrogen ion activity, since sludge pH was not altered even at the highest salt dose. It is concluded that except under very extreme conditions, the levels of heavy metals and salts generally found in activated sludges will not have an adverse affect on the growth of E. foetida.

  5. Effect of Regulatory Element DNA Methylation on Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Rivier-Cordey, Anne-Sophie; Caetano, Carlos; Fish, Richard J.; Kruithof, Egbert K. O.

    2016-01-01

    Expression of the tissue-type plasminogen activator gene (t-PA; gene name PLAT) is regulated, in part, by epigenetic mechanisms. We investigated the relationship between PLAT methylation and PLAT expression in five primary human cell types and six transformed cell lines. CpG methylation was analyzed in the proximal PLAT gene promoter and near the multihormone responsive enhancer (MHRE) -7.3 kilobase pairs upstream of the PLAT transcriptional start site (TSS, -7.3 kb). In Bowes melanoma cells, the PLAT promoter and the MHRE were fully unmethylated and t-PA secretion was extremely high. In other cell types the region from -647 to -366 was fully methylated, whereas an unmethylated stretch of DNA from -121 to +94 was required but not sufficient for detectable t-PA mRNA and t-PA secretion. DNA methylation near the MHRE was not correlated with t-PA secretion. Specific methylation of the PLAT promoter region -151 to +151, inserted into a firefly luciferase reporter gene, abolished reporter gene activity. The region -121 to + 94 contains two well-described regulatory elements, a PMA-responsive element (CRE) near -106 and a GC-rich region containing an Sp1 binding site near +59. Methylation of double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides containing the CRE or the GC-rich region had little or no effect on transcription factor binding. Methylated CpGs may attract co-repressor complexes that contain histone deacetylases (HDAC). However, reporter gene activity of methylated plasmids was not restored by the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin. In conclusion, efficient PLAT gene expression requires a short stretch of unmethylated CpG sites in the proximal promoter. PMID:27973546

  6. Safety of active implantable devices during MRI examinations: a finite element analysis of an implantable pump.

    PubMed

    Büchler, Philippe; Simon, Anne; Burger, Jürgen; Ginggen, Alec; Crivelli, Rocco; Tardy, Yanik; Luechinger, Roger; Olsen, Sigbjørn

    2007-04-01

    The goal of this study was to propose a general numerical analysis methodology to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-safety of active implants. Numerical models based on the finite element (FE) technique were used to estimate if the normal operation of an active device was altered during MRI imaging. An active implanted pump was chosen to illustrate the method. A set of controlled experiments were proposed and performed to validate the numerical model. The calculated induced voltages in the important electronic components of the device showed dependence with the MRI field strength. For the MRI radiofrequency fields, significant induced voltages of up to 20 V were calculated for a 0.3T field-strength MRI. For the 1.5 and 3.0OT MRIs, the calculated voltages were insignificant. On the other hand, induced voltages up to 11 V were calculated in the critical electronic components for the 3.0T MRI due to the gradient fields. Values obtained in this work reflect to the worst case situation which is virtually impossible to achieve in normal scanning situations. Since the calculated voltages may be removed by appropriate protection circuits, no critical problems affecting the normal operation of the pump were identified. This study showed that the proposed methodology helps the identification of the possible incompatibilities between active implants and MR imaging, and can be used to aid the design of critical electronic systems to ensure MRI-safety.

  7. Activity of a Py-Im polyamide targeted to the estrogen response element.

    PubMed

    Nickols, Nicholas G; Szablowski, Jerzy O; Hargrove, Amanda E; Li, Benjamin C; Raskatov, Jevgenij A; Dervan, Peter B

    2013-05-01

    Pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides are a class of programmable DNA minor groove binders capable of modulating the activity of DNA-binding proteins and affecting changes in gene expression. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is a ligand-activated hormone receptor that binds as a homodimer to estrogen response elements (ERE) and is a driving oncogene in a majority of breast cancers. We tested a selection of structurally similar Py-Im polyamides with differing DNA sequence specificity for activity against 17β-estadiol (E2)-induced transcription and cytotoxicity in ERα positive, E2-stimulated T47DKBluc cells, which express luciferase under ERα control. The most active polyamide targeted the sequence 5'-WGGWCW-3' (W = A or T), which is the canonical ERE half site. Whole transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq revealed that treatment of E2-stimulated breast cancer cells with this polyamide reduced the effects of E2 on the majority of those most strongly affected by E2 but had much less effect on the majority of E2-induced transcripts. In vivo, this polyamide circulated at detectable levels following subcutaneous injection and reduced levels of ER-driven luciferase expression in xenografted tumors in mice after subcutaneous compound administration without significant host toxicity.

  8. Farnesoid X Receptor Inhibits the Transcriptional Activity of Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein in Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Sandrine; Huaman Samanez, Carolina; Dehondt, Hélène; Ploton, Maheul; Briand, Olivier; Lien, Fleur; Dorchies, Emilie; Dumont, Julie; Postic, Catherine; Cariou, Bertrand; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The glucose-activated transcription factor carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) induces the expression of hepatic glycolytic and lipogenic genes. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear bile acid receptor controlling bile acid, lipid, and glucose homeostasis. FXR negatively regulates hepatic glycolysis and lipogenesis in mouse liver. The aim of this study was to determine whether FXR regulates the transcriptional activity of ChREBP in human hepatocytes and to unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms. Agonist-activated FXR inhibits glucose-induced transcription of several glycolytic genes, including the liver-type pyruvate kinase gene (L-PK), in the immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) and HepaRG cell lines. This inhibition requires the L4L3 region of the L-PK promoter, known to bind the transcription factors ChREBP and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α). FXR interacts directly with ChREBP and HNF4α proteins. Analysis of the protein complex bound to the L4L3 region reveals the presence of ChREBP, HNF4α, FXR, and the transcriptional coactivators p300 and CBP at high glucose concentrations. FXR activation does not affect either FXR or HNF4α binding to the L4L3 region but does result in the concomitant release of ChREBP, p300, and CBP and in the recruitment of the transcriptional corepressor SMRT. Thus, FXR transrepresses the expression of genes involved in glycolysis in human hepatocytes. PMID:23530060

  9. Development of a Cl-impregnated activated carbon for entrained-flow capture of elemental mercury.

    PubMed

    Ghorishi, S Behrooz; Keeney, Robert M; Serre, Shannon D; Gullett, Brian K; Jozewicz, Wojciech S

    2002-10-15

    Efforts to discern the role of an activated carbon's surface functional groups on the adsorption of elemental mercury (Hg0) and mercuric chloride demonstrated that chlorine (Cl) impregnation of a virgin activated carbon using dilute solutions of hydrogen chloride leads to increases (by a factor of 2-3) in fixed-bed capture of these mercury species. A commercially available activated carbon (DARCO FGD, NORITAmericas Inc. [FGD])was Cl-impregnated (Cl-FGD) [5 lb (2.3 kg) per batch] and tested for entrained-flow, short-time-scale capture of Hg0. In an entrained flow reactor, the Cl-FGD was introduced in Hg0-laden flue gases (86 ppb of Hg0) of varied compositions with gas/solid contact times of about 3-4 s, resulting in significant Hg0 removal (80-90%), compared to virgin FGD (10-15%). These levels of Hg0 removal were observed across a wide range of very low carbon-to-mercury weight ratios (1000-5000). Variation of the natural gas combustion flue gas composition, by doping with nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide, and the flow reactor temperature (100-200 degrees C) had minimal effects on Hg0 removal bythe Cl-FGD in these carbon-to-mercury weight ratios. These results demonstrate significant enhancement of activated carbon reactivity with minimal treatment and are applicable to combustion facilities equipped with downstream particulate matter removal such as an electrostatic precipitator.

  10. Effects of europium ions (Eu3+) on the distribution and related biological activities of elements in Lathyrus sativus L roots.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong Er; Gao, Yong Sheng; Li, Feng Min; Zeng, Fuli

    2003-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopic and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses were used to study the distributions of different types of elements in the epidermis, exodermis, endodermis, and vascular cylinder of the fracture face in the Lathyrus sativus L. roots in the presence or absence of Eu3+. Some index of the biological activity related to the elements binding with protein were determined also. The results showed that the tissular distributions of elements in the fracture face are different in the presence and absence of Eu3+. The atomic percentages of P, S, Ca, and Mn were influenced more than those of other elements. Eu3+ promoted the biological activities of various kinds of element. The one possible mechanism changing the biological activities was that the reaction of Eu3+ +e--> Eu2+ would influence the electron capture or transport in elements of binding protein. Another mechanism was that CaM-Ca2+ becoming CaM-Eu3+ through Eu3+ instead of Ca2+ would affect the biological activity of elements by regulating the Ca2+ level in the plant cell.

  11. Trace elements in scalp hair of children chronically exposed to volcanic activity (Mt. Etna, Italy).

    PubMed

    Varrica, D; Tamburo, E; Dongarrà, G; Sposito, F

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this survey was to use scalp hair as a biomonitor to evaluate the environmental exposure to metals and metalloids of schoolchildren living around the Mt. Etna area, and to verify whether the degree of human exposure to trace elements is subject to changes in local environmental factors. Twenty trace elements were determined in 376 samples of scalp hair from schoolboys (11-13 years old) of both genders, living in ten towns located around the volcanic area of Mt. Etna (Sicily). The results were compared with those (215 samples) from children living in areas of Sicily characterized by a different geological setting (reference site). As, U and V showed much higher concentrations at the volcanic site whereas Sr was particularly more abundant at the reference site. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) indicated an Etna factor, made up of V, U and Mn, and a second factor, concerning the reference site, characterized by Ni and Sr, and to a lesser extent by Mo and Cd. Significant differences in element concentrations were also observed among three different sectors of Mt. Etna area. Young people living in the Mt. Etna area are naturally exposed to enhanced intakes of some metals (V, U, Mn) and non-metals (e.g., As) than individuals of the same age residing in other areas of Sicily, characterized by different lithologies and not influenced by volcanic activity. The petrographic nature of local rocks and the dispersion of the volcanic plume explain the differences, with ingestion of water and local food as the most probable exposure pathways.

  12. Staphylococcal SCCmec elements encode an active MCM-like helicase and thus may be replicative

    SciTech Connect

    Mir-Sanchis, Ignacio; Roman, Christina A.; Misiura, Agnieszka; Pigli, Ying Z.; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Rice, Phoebe A.

    2016-08-29

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public-health threat worldwide. Although the mobile genomic island responsible for this phenotype, staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC), has been thought to be nonreplicative, we predicted DNA-replication-related functions for some of the conserved proteins encoded by SCC. We show that one of these, Cch, is homologous to the self-loading initiator helicases of an unrelated family of genomic islands, that it is an active 3'-to-5' helicase and that the adjacent ORF encodes a single-stranded DNA–binding protein. Our 2.9-Å crystal structure of intact Cch shows that it forms a hexameric ring. Cch, like the archaeal and eukaryotic MCM-family replicative helicases, belongs to the pre–sensor II insert clade of AAA+ ATPases. Additionally, we found that SCC elements are part of a broader family of mobile elements, all of which encode a replication initiator upstream of their recombinases. Replication after excision would enhance the efficiency of horizontal gene transfer.

  13. Molluscan mobile elements similar to the vertebrate recombination-activating genes

    PubMed Central

    Panchin, Yuri; Moroz, Leonid L.

    2009-01-01

    Animal genomes contain ~20,000 genes. Additionally millions of genes for antigen receptors are generated in cells of the immune system from the sets of separate gene segments by a mechanism known as the V(D)J somatic recombination. The components of the V(D)J recombination system, Recombination-Activating Gene proteins (RAG1 and RAG2) and recombination signal sequence (RSS), are thought to have “entered” the vertebrate genome as a hypothetical “RAG transposon”. Recently discovered mobile elements have terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) similar to RSS and may encode proteins with a different degree of similarity to RAG1. We describe a novel N-RAG-TP transposon identified from the sea slug Aplysia californica that encodes a protein similar to the N-terminal part of RAG1 in vertebrates. This refines the “RAG transposon” hypothesis and allows us to propose a scenario for V(D)J recombination machinery evolution from a relic transposon related to the existing mobile elements N-RAG-TP, Chapaev and Transib. PMID:18313399

  14. Using rare earth element tracers and neutron activation analysis to study rill erosion process.

    PubMed

    Li, Mian; Li, Zhan-bin; Ding, Weng-feng; Liu, Pu-ling; Yao, Wen-yi

    2006-03-01

    Spatially averaged soil erosion data provide little information on the process of rill erosion. The dynamically varied data on the temporal and spatial distributions in the rill erosion process are needed to better understand the erosion process and reveal its innate characteristics. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of rare earth element (REE) tracers and the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method on the study of the rill erosion process and to reveal quantitatively the relationships and characteristics of temporal and spatial distributions of sediment yield in rill erosion. Four REEs were used to study the changeable process of rill erosion at 4 slope positions. Four water inflow rates were applied to a 0.3 x 5 m soil bed at 3 slopes of 10.5%, 15.8% and 21.2% in scouring experiments. All of the runoff was collected in the experiment. Each sample was air-dried and well mixed. Then 20 g of each sample was sieved through 100-mesh and about a 50 mg sample was weighed for analysis of the four elemental compositions by NAA. Results indicate that the REE tracers and NAA method can be used to not only quantitatively determine soil erosion amounts on different slope segments, but also to reveal the changeable process of rill erosion amount. All of the relative errors of the experimental results were less than 25%, which is considered satisfactory on the study of rill erosion process.

  15. Staphylococcal SCCmec elements encode an active MCM–like helicase and thus may be replicative

    PubMed Central

    Mir-Sanchis, Ignacio; Roman, Christina A.; Misiura, Agnieszka; Pigli, Ying Z.; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Rice, Phoebe A.

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public health threat worldwide. Although the mobile genomic island responsible for this phenotype, called SCC, was labeled non-replicative, we predicted DNA replication-related functions for some of their conserved proteins. We show that one of these, Cch, is homologous to the self-loading initiator helicases of an unrelated family of genomic islands, that it is an active 3’ to 5' helicase, and that the adjacent ORF encodes an ssDNA-binding protein. Our 2.9Å crystal structure of intact Cch shows that it forms a hexameric ring. Cch belongs to the pre-sensor II insert clade of AAA+ ATPases, as do the archaeal and eukaryotic MCM-family replicative helicases. Additionally, we find that SCC elements are part of a broader family of mobile elements that all encode a replication initiator upstream of their recombinases. Replication after excision would enhance the efficiency of horizontal gene transfer. PMID:27571176

  16. REDISTRIBUTION OF ALKALINE ELEMENTS IN ASSOCIATION WITH AQUEOUS ACTIVITY IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Takuya; Yoneda, Shigekazu E-mail: s-yoneda@kahaku.go.jp

    2015-12-10

    It is known that the Sayama meteorite (CM2) shows an extensive signature for aqueous alteration on the meteorite parent body, and that most of the primary minerals in the chondrules are replaced with phyllosilicates as the result of the aqueous alteration. In this paper, it is confirmed from the observation of two-dimensional Raman spectra that a part of olivine in a chondrule collected from the Sayama chondrite is serperntinized. Ion microprobe analysis of the chondrule showed that alkaline elements such as Rb and Cs are heterogeneously redistributed in the chondrule. The result of higher Rb and Cs contents in serpentinized phases in the chondrule rather than in other parts suggested the selective adsorption of alkaline elements into the serpentine in association with early aqueous activity on the meteorite parent body. Furthermore Ba isotopic analysis provided variations of {sup 135}Ba/{sup 138}Ba and {sup 137}Ba/{sup 138}Ba in the chondrule. This result was consistent with our previous isotopic data suggesting isotopic evidence for the existence of the presently extinct nuclide {sup 135}Cs in the Sayama meteorite, but the abundance of {sup 135}Cs in the solar system remains unclear because of large analytical uncertainties.

  17. Orthographic Reading Deficits in Dyslexic Japanese Children: Examining the Transposed-Letter Effect in the Color-Word Stroop Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Shino; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Isomura, Tomoko; Masataka, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    In orthographic reading, the transposed-letter effect (TLE) is the perception of a transposed-letter position word such as “cholocate” as the correct word “chocolate.” Although previous studies on dyslexic children using alphabetic languages have reported such orthographic reading deficits, the extent of orthographic reading impairment in dyslexic Japanese children has remained unknown. This study examined the TLE in dyslexic Japanese children using the color-word Stroop paradigm comprising congruent and incongruent Japanese hiragana words with correct and transposed-letter positions. We found that typically developed children exhibited Stroop effects in Japanese hiragana words with both correct and transposed-letter positions, thus indicating the presence of TLE. In contrast, dyslexic children indicated Stroop effects in correct letter positions in Japanese words but not in transposed, which indicated an absence of the TLE. These results suggest that dyslexic Japanese children, similar to dyslexic children using alphabetic languages, may also have a problem with orthographic reading. PMID:27303331

  18. Androgen receptor stimulates bone sialoprotein (BSP) gene transcription via cAMP response element and activator protein 1/glucocorticoid response elements.

    PubMed

    Takai, Hideki; Nakayama, Youhei; Kim, Dong-Soon; Arai, Masato; Araki, Shouta; Mezawa, Masaru; Nakajima, Yu; Kato, Naoko; Masunaga, Hiroshi; Ogata, Yorimasa

    2007-09-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an early marker of osteoblast differentiation. Androgens are steroid hormones that are essential for skeletal development. The androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor and a member of the steroid receptor superfamily that plays an important role in male sexual differentiation and prostate cell proliferation. To determine the molecular mechanism involved in the stimulation of bone formation, we have analyzed the effects of androgens and AR effects on BSP gene transcription. AR protein levels were increased after AR overexpression in ROS17/2.8 cells. BSP mRNA levels were increased by AR overexpression. However, the endogenous and overexpressed BSP mRNA levels were not changed by DHT (10(-8) M, 24 h). Whereas luciferase (LUC) activities in all constructs, including a short construct (nts -116 to +60), were increased by AR overexpression, the basal and LUC activities enhanced by AR overexpression were not induced by DHT (10(-8)M, 24 h). The effect of AR overexpression was abrogated by 2 bp mutations in either the cAMP response element (CRE) or activator protein 1 (AP1)/glucocorticoid response element (GRE). Gel shift analyses showed that AR overexpression increased binding to the CRE and AP1/GRE elements. Notably, the CRE-protein complexes were supershifted by phospho-CREB antibody, and CREB, c-Fos, c-Jun, and AR antibodies disrupted the complexes formation. The AP1/GRE-protein complexes were supershifted by c-Fos antibody and c-Jun, and AR antibodies disrupted the complexes formation. These studies demonstrate that AR stimulates BSP gene transcription by targeting the CRE and AP1/GRE elements in the promoter of the rat BSP gene.

  19. Method of Lines Transpose an Implicit Vlasov Maxwell Solver for Plasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-17

    Benjamin Ong , and Lee Van Groningen, Method of lines transpose: An implicit solution to the wave equation, Mathematics of Computation (2014). 9. Matthew F...Lagrangian method for the Vlasov Equation”, Journal of Computational Physics, 229(4), 1130–1149, 2010. 2. A.J. Christlieb, C.B. Macdonald and B. Ong , “Parallel...for load-balanced parallel grid- less DSMC”, Computer Physics Communications, issn 0010-4655, 2010. 4. A.J. Christlieb and B. Ong , “Implicit Parallel

  20. Microgravity decreases c-fos induction and serum response element activity.

    PubMed

    de Groot, R P; Rijken, P J; den Hertog, J; Boonstra, J; Verkleij, A J; de Laat, S W; Kruijer, W

    1990-09-01

    Several studies have shown that altered gravity conditions influence mammalian cell growth and differentiation. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects, however, remain relatively obscure. In this paper we show that microgravity reached in a sounding rocket strongly decreases epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced expression of the proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun, which are both implicated in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation. Decreased activity of the serum response element (SRE), present in the c-fos promoter-enhancer region, is probably responsible for the decrease in EGF-induced c-fos expression. In addition, we show that gravity alterations differentially modulate distinctive signal transduction pathways, indicating that gravity-dependent modulations of mammalian cell proliferation are unlikely to be caused by a nonspecific stress response of the cell.

  1. Recent perspectives in solar physics - Elemental composition, coronal structure and magnetic fields, solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newkirk, G., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Elemental abundances in the solar corona are studied. Abundances in the corona, solar wind and solar cosmic rays are compared to those in the photosphere. The variation in silicon and iron abundance in the solar wind as compared to helium is studied. The coronal small and large scale structure is investigated, emphasizing magnetic field activity and examining cosmic ray generation mechanisms. The corona is observed in the X-ray and EUV regions. The nature of coronal transients is discussed with emphasis on solar-wind modulation of galactic cosmic rays. A schematic plan view of the interplanetary magnetic field during sunspot minimum is given showing the presence of magnetic bubbles and their concentration in the region around 4-5 AU by a fast solar wind stream.

  2. Neutron Activation Analysis of the Rare Earth Elements (REE) - With Emphasis on Geological Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stosch, Heinz-Günter

    2016-08-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been the analytical method of choice for rare earth element (REE) analysis from the early 1960s through the 1980s. At that time, irradiation facilitieswere widely available and fairly easily accessible. The development of high-resolution gamma-ray detectors in the mid-1960s eliminated, formany applications, th