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Sample records for active travel walking

  1. Neighborhood walkability and active travel (walking and cycling) in New York City.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Lance; Neckerman, Kathryn; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Quinn, James; Richards, Catherine; Bader, Michael D M; Lovasi, Gina; Jack, Darby; Weiss, Christopher; Konty, Kevin; Arno, Peter; Viola, Deborah; Kerker, Bonnie; Rundle, Andrew G

    2013-08-01

    Urban planners have suggested that built environment characteristics can support active travel (walking and cycling) and reduce sedentary behavior. This study assessed whether engagement in active travel is associated with neighborhood walkability measured for zip codes in New York City. Data were analyzed on engagement in active travel and the frequency of walking or biking ten blocks or more in the past month, from 8,064 respondents to the New York City 2003 Community Health Survey (CHS). A neighborhood walkability scale that measures: residential, intersection, and subway stop density; land use mix; and the ratio of retail building floor area to retail land area was calculated for each zip code. Data were analyzed using zero-inflated negative binomial regression incorporating survey sample weights and adjusting for respondents' sociodemographic characteristics. Overall, 44 % of respondents reported no episodes of active travel and among those who reported any episode, the mean number was 43.2 episodes per month. Comparing the 75th to the 25th percentile of zip code walkability, the odds ratio for reporting zero episodes of active travel was 0.71 (95 % CI 0.61, 0.83) and the exponentiated beta coefficient for the count of episodes of active travel was 1.13 (95 % CI 1.06, 1.21). Associations between lower walkability and reporting zero episodes of active travel were significantly stronger for non-Hispanic Whites as compared to non-Hispanic Blacks and to Hispanics and for those living in higher income zip codes. The results suggest that neighborhood walkability is associated with higher engagement in active travel. PMID:22941058

  2. Walking Objectively Measured: Classifying Accelerometer Data with GPS and Travel Diaries

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bumjoon; Moudon, Anne V.; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Reichley, Lucas; Saelens, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study developed and tested an algorithm to classify accelerometer data as walking or non-walking using either GPS or travel diary data within a large sample of adults under free-living conditions. Methods Participants wore an accelerometer and a GPS unit, and concurrently completed a travel diary for 7 consecutive days. Physical activity (PA) bouts were identified using accelerometry count sequences. PA bouts were then classified as walking or non-walking based on a decision-tree algorithm consisting of 7 classification scenarios. Algorithm reliability was examined relative to two independent analysts’ classification of a 100-bout verification sample. The algorithm was then applied to the entire set of PA bouts. Results The 706 participants’ (mean age 51 years, 62% female, 80% non-Hispanic white, 70% college graduate or higher) yielded 4,702 person-days of data and had a total of 13,971 PA bouts. The algorithm showed a mean agreement of 95% with the independent analysts. It classified physical activity into 8,170 (58.5 %) walking bouts and 5,337 (38.2%) non-walking bouts; 464 (3.3%) bouts were not classified for lack of GPS and diary data. Nearly 70% of the walking bouts and 68% of the non-walking bouts were classified using only the objective accelerometer and GPS data. Travel diary data helped classify 30% of all bouts with no GPS data. The mean duration of PA bouts classified as walking was 15.2 min (SD=12.9). On average, participants had 1.7 walking bouts and 25.4 total walking minutes per day. Conclusions GPS and travel diary information can be helpful in classifying most accelerometer-derived PA bouts into walking or non-walking behavior. PMID:23439414

  3. Walking and Cycling in the United States, 2001–2009: Evidence From the National Household Travel Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Buehler, Ralph; Merom, Dafna; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To assess changes in walking and cycling in the United States between 2001 and 2009. Methods. The 2001 and 2009 National Household Travel Surveys were used to compute the frequency, duration, and distance of walking and cycling per capita. The population-weighted person and trip files were merged to calculate the prevalence of any walking and cycling and of walking and cycling at least 30 minutes per day. Results. The average American made 17 more walk trips in 2009 than in 2001, covering 9 more miles per year, compared with only 2 more bike trips, and 5 more miles cycling. At the population level, the prevalence of “any walking” remained unchanged (about 18%), whereas walking at least 30 minutes per day increased from 7.2% to 8.0%. The prevalence of “any cycling” and cycling 30 minutes per day remained unchanged (1.7% and 0.9%, respectively). Active travel declined for women, children, and seniors, but increased among men, the middle aged, employed, well-educated, and persons without a car. Conclusions. Walking increased slightly, whereas cycling levels stagnated, and the overall prevalence of active travel remained low. Improved infrastructure for walking and cycling must be combined with programs to encourage active travel among more groups, especially children, seniors, and women. PMID:21551387

  4. Evaluating the travel, physical activity and carbon impacts of a ‘natural experiment’ in the provision of new walking and cycling infrastructure: methods for the core module of the iConnect study

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Fiona; Cooper, Ashley; Rutter, Harry; Adams, Emma; Brand, Christian; Ghali, Karen; Jones, Tim; Mutrie, Nanette; Powell, Jane; Preston, John; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Song, Yena

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Improving infrastructure to support walking and cycling is often regarded as fundamental to encouraging their widespread uptake. However, there is little evidence that specific provision of this kind has led to a significant increase in walking or cycling in practice, let alone wider impacts such as changes in overall physical activity or carbon emissions. Connect2 is a major new project that aims to promote walking and cycling in the UK by improving local pedestrian and cycle routes. It therefore provides a useful opportunity to contribute new evidence in this field by means of a natural experimental study. Methods and analysis iConnect is an independent study that aims to integrate the perspectives of public health and transport research on the measurement and evaluation of the travel, physical activity and carbon impacts of the Connect2 programme. In this paper, the authors report the study design and methods for the iConnect core module. This comprised a cohort study of residents living within 5 km of three case study Connect2 projects in Cardiff, Kenilworth and Southampton, supported by a programme of qualitative interviews with key informants about the projects. Participants were asked to complete postal questionnaires, repeated before and after the opening of the new infrastructure, which collected data on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, travel, car fuel purchasing and physical activity, and potential psychosocial and environmental correlates and mediators of those behaviours. In the absence of suitable no-intervention control groups, the study design drew on heterogeneity in exposure both within and between case study samples to provide for a counterfactual. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the University of Southampton Research Ethics Committee. The findings will be disseminated through academic presentations, peer-reviewed publications and the study website (http://www.iconnect.ac.uk) and by means of a

  5. Travel Mode and Physical Activity at Sydney University

    PubMed Central

    Rissel, Chris; Mulley, Corinne; Ding, Ding

    2013-01-01

    How staff and students travel to university can impact their physical activity level. An online survey of physical activity and travel behaviour was conducted in early November 2012 to inform planning of physical activity and active travel promotion programs at the University of Sydney, Australia as part of the “Sit Less, Move More” sub-committee of the Healthy University Initiative, and as baseline data for evaluation. There were 3,737 useable responses, 60% of which were from students. Four out of five respondents travelled to the University on the day of interest (Tuesday, November 30, 2012). The most frequently used travel modes were train (32%), car as driver (22%), bus (17%), walking (17%) and cycling (6%). Staff were twice as likely to drive as students, and also slightly more likely to use active transport, defined as walking and cycling (26% versus 22%). Overall, 41% of respondents were sufficiently active (defined by meeting physical activity recommendations of 150 min per week). Participants were more likely to meet physical activity recommendations if they travelled actively to the University. With a high proportion of respondents using active travel modes or public transport already, increasing the physical activity levels and increasing the use of sustainable travel modes would mean a mode shift from public transport to walking and cycling for students is needed and a mode shift from driving to public transport or active travel for University staff. Strategies to achieve this are discussed. PMID:23939390

  6. Children's Physical Activity: The Contribution of Playing and Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackett, Roger L.; Paskins, James

    2008-01-01

    This paper draws on research in which 200 children were fitted with motion sensors and asked to keep travel and activity diaries. The findings show that walking and playing away from home can contribute significantly to children's volume of physical activity, with consequent implications for their health. Not only do both playing and walking…

  7. Modeling spatial segregation and travel cost influences on utilitarian walking: Towards policy intervention

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Rodriguez, Daniel A.; Brown, Daniel G.; Riolo, Rick; Diez-Roux, Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    We develop an agent-based model of utilitarian walking and use the model to explore spatial and socioeconomic factors affecting adult utilitarian walking and how travel costs as well as various educational interventions aimed at changing attitudes can alter the prevalence of walking and income differentials in walking. The model is validated against US national data. We contrast realistic and extreme parameter values in our model and test effects of changing these parameters across various segregation and pricing scenarios while allowing for interactions between travel choice and place and for behavioral feedbacks. Results suggest that in addition to income differences in the perceived cost of time, the concentration of mixed land use (differential density of residences and businesses) are important determinants of income differences in walking (high income walk less), whereas safety from crime and income segregation on their own do not have large influences on income differences in walking. We also show the difficulty in altering walking behaviors for higher income groups who are insensitive to price and how adding to the cost of driving could increase the income differential in walking particularly in the context of segregation by income and land use. We show that strategies to decrease positive attitudes towards driving can interact synergistically with shifting cost structures to favor walking in increasing the percent of walking trips. Agent-based models, with their ability to capture dynamic processes and incorporate empirical data, are powerful tools to explore the influence on health behavior from multiple factors and test policy interventions. PMID:25733776

  8. Evaluating the impacts of new walking and cycling infrastructure on carbon dioxide emissions from motorized travel: a controlled longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Walking and cycling is widely assumed to substitute for at least some motorized travel and thereby reduce energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. While the evidence suggests that a supportive built environment may be needed to promote walking and cycling, it is unclear whether and how interventions in the built environment that attract walkers and cyclists may reduce transport CO2 emissions. Our aim was therefore to evaluate the effects of providing new infrastructure for walking and cycling on CO2 emissions from motorised travel. A cohort of 1849 adults completed questionnaires at baseline (2010) and one-year follow-up (2011), before and after the construction of new high-quality routes provided as part of the Sustrans Connect2 programme in three UK municipalities. A second cohort of 1510 adults completed questionnaires at baseline and two-year follow-up (2012). The participants reported their past-week travel behaviour and car characteristics from which CO2 emissions by mode and purpose were derived using methods described previously. A set of exposure measures of proximity to and use of the new routes were derived. Overall transport CO2 emissions decreased slightly over the study period, consistent with a secular trend in the case study regions. As found previously the new infrastructure was well used at one- and two-year follow-up, and was associated with population-level increases in walking, cycling and physical activity at two-year follow-up. However, these effects did not translate into sizeable CO2 effects as neither living near the infrastructure nor using it predicted changes in CO2 emissions from motorised travel, either overall or disaggregated by journey purpose. This lack of a discernible effect on travel CO2 emissions are consistent with an interpretation that some of those living nearer the infrastructure may simply have changed where they walked or cycled, while others may have walked or cycled more but few, if any, may have substituted

  9. Sociospatial patterning of the use of new transport infrastructure: Walking, cycling and bus travel on the Cambridgeshire guided busway

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, Eva; Panter, Jenna; Dalton, Alice; Jones, Andy; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Background New transport infrastructure may help promote active travel, thereby contributing to increasing overall physical activity and population health gain. In 2011 a guided busway with a path for walking and cycling was opened in Cambridgeshire, UK. This paper investigates the predictors of walking, cycling and bus use on the busway. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of the final questionnaire wave (2012) of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge cohort study following the opening of the busway. Participants were 453 adult commuters who had not moved home or workplace. Busway use was self-reported and proximity calculated using GIS. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess predictors of walking, cycling and bus use on the busway. Results Exposure to the intervention (proximity: the negative square root of the distance from home to busway in kilometres) increased the odds of use for cycling (OR 2.18; 95% CI 1.58 to 3.00), bus travel (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.02) and walking (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.70). The effect of exposure was strengthened in towns for bus use, and in towns and villages for walking, compared with urban areas. Men were more likely than women to have cycled on the busway, whereas individual socioeconomic characteristics did not predict bus use or walking. Conclusion New high-quality transport infrastructure attracts users, determined by geographical exposure and spatial contextual factors such as settlement size and availability of parking at work. Future longitudinal analyses will determine effects on overall travel and physical activity behaviour change. PMID:26207202

  10. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  11. School Travel Planning: Mobilizing School and Community Resources to Encourage Active School Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buliung, Ron; Faulkner, Guy; Beesley, Theresa; Kennedy, Jacky

    2011-01-01

    Background: Active school transport (AST), school travel using an active mode like walking, may be important to children's overall physical activity. A "school travel plan" (STP) documents a school's transport characteristics and provides an action plan to address school and neighborhood barriers to AST. Methods: We conducted a pilot STP…

  12. Financial Incentives to Promote Active Travel

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    Context Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between “nudging,” which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. Evidence acquisition The literature review identified studies published between January 1997 and January 2012 of financial incentives relating to any mode of travel in which the impact on active travel, physical activity, or obesity levels was reported. It encompassed macroenvironmental schemes, such as gasoline taxes, and microenvironmental schemes, such as employer-subsidized bicycles. Five relevant reviews and 20 primary studies (of which nine were not included in the reviews) were identified. Evidence synthesis The results show that more-robust evidence is required if policymakers are to maximize the health impact of fiscal policy relating to transport schemes of this kind. Conclusions Drawing on a literature review and insights from the SLOTH (sleep, leisure, occupation, transportation, and home-based activities) time-budget model, this paper argues that financial incentives may have a larger role in promoting walking and cycling than is acknowledged generally. PMID:23159264

  13. School Administrators' Perceptions of Factors that Influence Children's Active Travel to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Anna E.; Pluto, Delores M.; Ogoussan, Olga; Banda, Jorge A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increasing children's active travel to school may be 1 strategy for addressing the growing prevalence of obesity among school age children. Using the School Travel Survey, we examined South Carolina school district leaders' perceptions of factors that influence elementary and middle school students walking to school. Methods: Frequency…

  14. Understanding walking activity in multiple sclerosis: step count, walking intensity and uninterrupted walking activity duration related to degree of disability.

    PubMed

    Neven, An; Vanderstraeten, Annelien; Janssens, Davy; Wets, Geert; Feys, Peter

    2016-09-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), physical activity (PA) is most commonly measured as number of steps, while also walking intensity and walking activity duration are keys for a healthy lifestyle. The aim of this study was to investigate (1) the number of steps persons with MS (PwMS) take; (2) the number of steps they take at low and moderate intensity; and (3) their walking activity duration for 2, 3, 6, 10, 12 and 14 uninterrupted minutes; all related to the degree of disability. 64 PwMS participated, distinguished in a mild (n = 31) and moderate MS subgroup (n = 34) based on their ambulatory dysfunction (Disease Steps). Standardized clinical tests were performed, and step data from the StepWatch Activity Monitor were collected for seven consecutive days. The results showed that (1) step count in PwMS was lower than PA recommendations, and is negatively influenced by a higher disability degree. (2) No walking was registered during 77 % of the day. PwMS are making steps for 22 % at low and only 1 % at moderate intensity. (3) Both MS subgroups rarely walk for more than six uninterrupted minutes, especially not at moderate intensity. PwMS need to be encouraged to make steps at moderate intensity, and to make steps for longer periods of time (minimal ten uninterrupted minutes). PMID:27207680

  15. Characterizing Walk Trips in communities by Using Data from 2009 National Household Travel Survey, American Community Survey, and Other Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Reuscher, Tim; Wilson, Daniel W; Murakami, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Non-motorized travel (i.e. walking and bicycling) are of increasing interest to the transportation profession, especially in context with energy consumption, reducing vehicular congestion, urban development patterns, and promotion of healthier life styles. This research project aimed to identify factors impacting the amount of travel for both walk and bike trips at the Census block group or tract level, using several public and private data sources. The key survey of travel behavior is the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) which had over 87,000 walk trips for persons 16 and over, and over 6000 bike trips for persons 16 and over. The NHTS, in conjunction with the Census Bureau s American Community Survey, street density measures using Census Bureau TIGER, WalkScore , Nielsen Claritas employment estimates, and several other sources were used for this study. Stepwise Logistic Regression modeling techniques as well as Discriminant Analysis were applied using the integrated data set. While the models performed reasonably well for walk trips, travel by bike was abandoned due to sparseness of data. This paper discusses data sources utilized and modeling processes conducted under this study. It also presents a summary of findings and addresses data challenges and lesson-learned from this research effort.

  16. Walking Associated With Public Transit: Moving Toward Increased Physical Activity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Shailendra N.; Dannenberg, Andrew L.; Wendel, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed changes in transit-associated walking in the United States from 2001 to 2009 and documented their importance to public health. Methods. We examined transit walk times using the National Household Travel Survey, a telephone survey administered by the US Department of Transportation to examine travel behavior in the United States. Results. People are more likely to transit walk if they are from lower income households, are non-White, and live in large urban areas with access to rail systems. Transit walkers in large urban areas with a rail system were 72% more likely to transit walk 30 minutes or more per day than were those without a rail system. From 2001 to 2009, the estimated number of transit walkers rose from 7.5 million to 9.6 million (a 28% increase); those whose transit-associated walking time was 30 minutes or more increased from approximately 2.6 million to 3.4 million (a 31% increase). Conclusions. Transit walking contributes to meeting physical activity recommendations. Study results may contribute to transportation-related health impact assessment studies evaluating the impact of proposed transit systems on physical activity, potentially influencing transportation planning decisions. PMID:23327281

  17. The contribution of walking to work to adult physical activity levels: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To objectively examine the contribution to adult physical activity levels of walking to work. Methods Employees (n = 103; 36.3 ± 11.7 years) at 17 workplaces in south-west England, who lived within 2 miles (3.2 km) of their workplace, wore Actigraph accelerometers for seven days during waking hours and carried GPS receivers during the commute to and from work. Physical activity volume (accelerometer counts per minute (cpm)) and intensity (minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) were computed overall and during the walk to work. Results Total weekday physical activity was 45% higher in participants who walked to work compared to those travelling by car (524.6. ± 170.4 vs 364.6 ± 138.4 cpm) and MVPA almost 60% higher (78.1 ± 24.9 vs 49.8 ± 25.2 minutes per day). No differences were seen in weekend physical activity, and sedentary time did not differ between the groups. Combined accelerometer and GPS data showed that walking to work contributed 47.3% of total weekday MVPA. Conclusions Walking to work was associated with overall higher levels of physical activity in young and middle-aged adults. These data provide preliminary evidence to underpin the need for interventions to increase active commuting, specifically walking, in adults. PMID:24618001

  18. The tracking of active travel and its relationship with body composition in UK adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Catherine L.; Leary, Sam D.; Page, Angie S.; Cooper, Ashley R

    2015-01-01

    Background To examine the tracking of active travel through adolescence, and its association with body mass index (BMI) and fat mass at age 17 in a UK cohort. Methods We analysed data collected from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The analyses include all participants with self-reported travel mode to school at ages 12, 14 and 16 years, and measured height, weight and body composition at age 17 (n=2,026). Tracking coefficients were calculated for individual travel behaviours (including walking and cycling) through adolescence using Generalised Estimating Equations. Linear regression analyses examined associations between travel pattern (consistently passive, consistently active, active at two time points or active at one time point), BMI, and DXA-measured fat mass (expressed as internally derived standard deviation scores) at 17 years. Analyses were adjusted for height (where appropriate), sex, age, parental social class, and maternal education with interaction terms to assess sex differences. Results There was substantial tracking in active travel through adolescence, with 38.5% of males and 32.3% of females consistently walking or cycling to school. In males, a consistently or predominantly active travel pattern was associated with a lower BMI SD score at age 17 (consistently active: adjusted β=−0.23; 95% CI −0.40, −0.06; active at two time points: adjusted β−0.30; 95% CI −0.50, −0.10) compared to those with a consistently passive pattern. No associations were seen in females. Conclusions Maintenance of active travel behaviours throughout adolescence may help to protect against the development of excess BMI in males. In addition to encouraging the adoption of active travel to school, public health messages should aim to prevent drop out from active travel to promote good health in youth. PMID:26740922

  19. Using an agent-based model to simulate children’s active travel to school

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the multiple advantages of active travel to school, only a small percentage of US children and adolescents walk or bicycle to school. Intervention studies are in a relatively early stage and evidence of their effectiveness over long periods is limited. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the utility of agent-based models in exploring how various policies may influence children’s active travel to school. Methods An agent-based model was developed to simulate children’s school travel behavior within a hypothetical city. The model was used to explore the plausible implications of policies targeting two established barriers to active school travel: long distance to school and traffic safety. The percent of children who walk to school was compared for various scenarios. Results To maximize the percent of children who walk to school the school locations should be evenly distributed over space and children should be assigned to the closest school. In the case of interventions to improve traffic safety, targeting a smaller area around the school with greater intensity may be more effective than targeting a larger area with less intensity. Conclusions Despite the challenges they present, agent based models are a useful complement to other analytical strategies in studying the plausible impact of various policies on active travel to school. PMID:23705953

  20. Exploring Muscle Activation during Nordic Walking: A Comparison between Conventional and Uphill Walking

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Barbara; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Zoppirolli, Chiara; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Bacchi, Elisabetta; Figard-Fabre, Hélène; Schena, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Nordic Walking (NW) owes much of its popularity to the benefits of greater energy expenditure and upper body engagement than found in conventional walking (W). Muscle activation during NW is still understudied, however. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in muscle activation and physiological responses between NW and W in level and uphill walking conditions. Nine expert Nordic Walkers (mean age 36.8±11.9 years; BMI 24.2±1.8 kg/m2) performed 5-minute treadmill trials of W and NW at 4 km/h on inclines of 0% and 15%. The electromyographic activity of seven upper body and five leg muscles and oxygen consumption (VO2) were recorded and pole force during NW was measured. VO2 during NW was 22.3% higher at 0% and only 6.9% higher at 15% than during W, while upper body muscle activation was 2- to 15-fold higher under both conditions. Lower body muscle activation was similarly increased during NW and W in the uphill condition, whereas the increase in erector spinae muscle activity was lower during NW than W. The lack of a significant increase in pole force during uphill walking may explain the lower extra energy expenditure of NW, indicating less upper body muscle activation to lift the body against gravity. NW seemed to reduce lower back muscle contraction in the uphill condition, suggesting that walking with poles may reduce effort to control trunk oscillations and could contribute to work production during NW. Although the difference in extra energy expenditure between NW and W was smaller in the uphill walking condition, the increased upper body muscle involvement during exercising with NW may confer additional benefit compared to conventional walking also on uphill terrains. Furthermore, people with low back pain may gain benefit from pole use when walking uphill. PMID:26418339

  1. Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Waygood, E. Owen D.; Sun, Yilin; Letarte, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Active travel can contribute to physical activity achieved over a day. Previous studies have examined active travel associated with trips in various western countries, but few studies have examined this question for the Asian context. Japan has high levels of cycling, walking and public transport, similar to The Netherlands. Most studies have focused either on children or on adults separately, however, having children in a household will change the travel needs and wants of that household. Thus, here a household lifecycle stage approach is applied. Further, unlike many previous studies, the active travel related to public transport is included. Lastly, further to examining whether the built environment has an influence on the accumulation of active travel minutes, a binary logistic regression examines the built environment’s influence on the World Health Organization’s recommendations of physical activity. The findings suggest that there is a clear distinction between the urbanized centers and the surrounding towns and unurbanized areas. Further, active travel related to public transport trips is larger than pure walking trips. Females and children are more likely to achieve the WHO recommendations. Finally, car ownership is a strong negative influence. PMID:26694429

  2. Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Waygood, E Owen D; Sun, Yilin; Letarte, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    Active travel can contribute to physical activity achieved over a day. Previous studies have examined active travel associated with trips in various western countries, but few studies have examined this question for the Asian context. Japan has high levels of cycling, walking and public transport, similar to The Netherlands. Most studies have focused either on children or on adults separately, however, having children in a household will change the travel needs and wants of that household. Thus, here a household lifecycle stage approach is applied. Further, unlike many previous studies, the active travel related to public transport is included. Lastly, further to examining whether the built environment has an influence on the accumulation of active travel minutes, a binary logistic regression examines the built environment's influence on the World Health Organization's recommendations of physical activity. The findings suggest that there is a clear distinction between the urbanized centers and the surrounding towns and unurbanized areas. Further, active travel related to public transport trips is larger than pure walking trips. Females and children are more likely to achieve the WHO recommendations. Finally, car ownership is a strong negative influence. PMID:26694429

  3. Walking, Cycling and Driving to Work in the English and Welsh 2011 Census: Trends, Socio-Economic Patterning and Relevance to Travel Behaviour in General

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Increasing walking and cycling, and reducing motorised transport, are health and environmental priorities. This paper examines levels and trends in the use of different commute modes in England and Wales, both overall and with respect to small-area deprivation. It also investigates whether commute modal share can serve as a proxy for travel behaviour more generally. Methods 23.7 million adult commuters reported their usual main mode of travelling to work in the 2011 census in England and Wales; similar data were available for 1971–2001. Indices of Multiple Deprivation were used to characterise socio-economic patterning. The National Travel Survey (2002–2010) was used to examine correlations between commute modal share and modal share of total travel time. These correlations were calculated across 150 non-overlapping populations defined by region, year band and income. Results Among commuters in 2011, 67.1% used private motorised transport as their usual main commute mode (−1.8 percentage-point change since 2001); 17.8% used public transport (+1.8% change); 10.9% walked (−0.1% change); and 3.1% cycled (+0.1% change). Walking and, to a marginal extent, cycling were more common among those from deprived areas, but these gradients had flattened over the previous decade to the point of having essentially disappeared for cycling. In the National Travel Survey, commute modal share and total modal share were reasonably highly correlated for private motorised transport (r = 0.94), public transport (r = 0.96), walking (r = 0.88 excluding London) and cycling (r = 0.77). Conclusions England and Wales remain car-dependent, but the trends are slightly more encouraging. Unlike many health behaviours, it is more common for socio-economically disadvantaged groups to commute using physically active modes. This association is, however, weakening and may soon reverse for cycling. At a population level, commute modal share provides a reasonable proxy

  4. KidsWalk-to-School: A Guide To Promote Walking to School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA.

    This guide encourages people to create safe walking and biking routes to school, promoting four issues: physically active travel, safe and walkable routes to school, crime prevention, and health environments. The chapters include: "KidsWalk-to-School: A Guide to Promote Walking to School" (Is there a solution? Why is walking to school important?…

  5. Gender differences in personal, social and environmental influences on active travel to and from school for Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Eva; Kremer, Peter; Toumbourou, John W; Williams, Joanne W

    2010-11-01

    Active travel (walking or cycling for transport) is an important contributor to adolescents overall physical activity (PA). This study examines associations between personal, social and environmental variables and active travel to and from school using data from a large observational study to examine active travel in 2961 year 6 and 8 students (48.7% male), aged 10-14 years (M=11.4, SD=0.8yrs) from 231 schools. Participants completed an on-line survey and all reported living within 2km of school. Data collected included mode of travel to and from school, self-reported health, and PA variables. Social environmental variables included having playgrounds, parks or gyms close by, feeling safe to walk alone, barriers to walking in the neighbourhood (e.g. traffic, no footpaths), peer and family support for PA, existence of sports teams/scout groups, community disorder and perceived neighbourhood safety. Results showed that while more girls (44.3%) than boys (37.4%) walked to school, lower proportions rode bikes (8.3% vs 22.4%) and hence fewer were active travellers overall. Logistic regression models, adjusted for age, location and socio-economic status were conducted for active travel to/from school, separately for boys and girls. Predictors for boys and girls being 'active travellers' to/from school included recreational facilities close to home, higher perceived safety of the neighbourhood and higher community disorder. For boys, social support from friends, scout groups available and higher enjoyment of physical activity was also important. These findings suggest areas for future research and may be used to guide strategies to increase active travel to and from school. PMID:20594909

  6. Traveling and Resting Crystals in Active Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Andreas M.; Löwen, Hartmut

    2013-02-01

    A microscopic field theory for crystallization in active systems is proposed which unifies the phase-field-crystal model of freezing with the Toner—Tu theory for self-propelled particles. A wealth of different active crystalline states are predicted and characterized. In particular, for increasing strength of self-propulsion, a transition from a resting crystal to a traveling crystalline state is found where the particles migrate collectively while keeping their crystalline order. Our predictions, which are verifiable in experiments and in particle-resolved computer simulations, provide a starting point for the design of new active materials.

  7. Travel to School and Physical Activity Levels in 9–10 Year-Old UK Children of Different Ethnic Origin; Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Christopher G.; Nightingale, Claire M.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Ekelund, Ulf; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Travel to school may offer a convenient way to increase physical activity levels in childhood. We examined the association between method of travel to school and physical activity levels in urban multi-ethnic children. Methods and Findings 2035 children (aged 9–10 years in 2006–7) provided data on their usual method of travel to school and wore an Actigraph-GT1M activity monitor during waking hours. Associations between method of travel and mean level of physical activity (counts per minute [CPM], steps, time spent in light, moderate or vigorous activity per day) were examined in models adjusted for confounding variables. 1393 children (69%) walked or cycled to school; 161 (8%) used public transport and 481 (24%) travelled by car. White European children were more likely to walk/cycle, black African Caribbeans to travel by public transport and South Asian children to travel by car. Children travelling by car spent less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity (−7 mins, 95%CI-9,-5), and had lower CPM (−32 CPM, 95%CI-44,-19) and steps per day (−813 steps, 95%CI,-1043,-582) than walkers/cyclists. Pupils travelling by public transport had similar activity levels to walkers/cyclists. Lower physical activity levels amongst car travellers' were especially marked at travelling times (school days between 8–9 am, 3–5 pm), but were also evident on weekdays at other times and at weekends; they did not differ by gender or ethnic group. Conclusion Active travel to school is associated with higher levels of objectively measured physical activity, particularly during periods of travel but also at other times. If children travelling by car were to achieve physical activity levels (steps) similar to children using active travel, they would increase their physical activity levels by 9%. However, the population increase would be a modest 2%, because of the low proportion of car travellers in this urban population. PMID:22319596

  8. Walking at the preferred stride frequency minimizes muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Russell, Daniel M; Apatoczky, Dylan T

    2016-03-01

    This study determined whether walking at the preferred stride frequency minimizes muscle activity compared with other cadences at the same speed. Anthropometric measurements were recorded from 10 subjects and used to estimate their predicted resonant stride frequency. The preferred walking speed and stride frequency were determined from freely adopted walking on a treadmill. For the experimental trials the treadmill was set at each individual's preferred walking speed. Participants walked for 6 min at eight cadences prescribed by an auditory metronome: preferred stride frequency and -35, -25, -15, 0, +15, +25, +35% of predicted resonant stride frequency. Oxygen consumption was measured via gas analysis. Muscle activity of the right leg gastrocnemius (GA), tibialis anterior (TA), biceps femoris (BF) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles was recorded via electromyography (EMG). On average, participants preferred to walk with a stride frequency .07 Hz lower than their predicted resonant stride frequency, however a strong positive correlation was observed between these variables. Stride frequency had a significant and large quadratic effect on VO2 (RLR(2)=.76), and activity of the GA (RLR(2)=.66), TA (RLR(2)=.83), BF (RLR(2)=.70) and RF (RLR(2)=.78) muscles. VO2, GA and TA activity were all minimal at the preferred stride frequency and increased for faster or slower cadences. BF and RF activity were minimal across a broad range of slow frequencies including the preferred stride frequency and increased for faster frequencies. The preferred stride frequency that humans readily adopt during walking minimizes the activation of the GA, TA, BF and RF muscles, which in turn minimizes the overall metabolic cost. PMID:26979903

  9. Physical Activity and Walking Onset in Infants with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Meghann; Burghardt, Amy; Ulrich, Dale A.; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are described as being less active and they also experience significant delays in motor development. It is hypothesized that early infant physical activity may be influential for the acquisition of independent walking. Physical activity was monitored longitudinally in 30 infants with DS starting at an average age of…

  10. Walking with wider steps increases stance phase gluteus medius activity

    PubMed Central

    Kubinski, Samantha N.; McQueen, Christina A.; Sittloh, Keir A.; Dean, Jesse C.

    2014-01-01

    Increases in step width have been reported for several clinical populations, including older adults and stroke survivors. These populations often also exhibit decreased hip abductor strength, suggesting that walking with wider steps may be an adaptive response in order to reduce the mechanical demands on the hip abductors. The purpose of this study was to quantify the relationship between step width and gluteus medius (GM) activity during walking. Fourteen young, uninjured adults walked on a treadmill at 1.25 m/s for four step width conditions (Normal, Narrow, Medium, and Wide) while step width and stance phase GM electromyographic (EMG) activity were quantified. We also measured hip abduction torque and GM activity during maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) at three hip angles (neutral, abducted 10°, and abducted 20°). During walking trials, GM activity was significantly (p<0.0001) influenced by step width; compared to Normal walking, GM activity was 47% higher with Wide steps and 24% lower with Narrow steps. We also observed a weak positive correlation (r=0.18±0.14) between step width and GM activity during Normal walking, as GM activity was higher with wider steps. These results cannot be attributed to changes in GM conformation under the recording electrode, as GM activity was not influenced by hip angle during MVICs. The increased GM activity with wider steps does not support the proposal that increasing step width would be a beneficial adaptation to weakened hip abductors. A likely alternative explanation is that increased step width is a response to decreased gait balance. PMID:25300241

  11. Control of ankle extensor muscle activity in walking cats.

    PubMed

    Hatz, Kathrin; Mombaur, Katja; Donelan, J Maxwell

    2012-11-01

    Our objective was to gain insight into the relative importance of feedforward control and different proprioceptive feedback pathways to ongoing ankle extensor activity during walking in the conscious cat. We asked whether the modulation of stance phase muscle activity is due primarily to proprioceptive feedback and whether the same proprioceptive gains and feedforward commands can automatically generate the muscle activity required for changes in walking slope. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed previously collected muscle activity and mechanics data from cats with an isolated medial gastrocnemius muscle walking along a sloped pegway. Models of proprioceptor dynamics predicted afferent activity from the measured muscle mechanics. We modeled muscle activity as the weighted sum of the activity predicted from the different proprioceptive pathways and a simple model of central drive. We determined the unknown model parameters using optimization procedures that minimized the error between the predicted and measured muscle activity. We found that the modulation of muscle activity within the stance phase and across walking slopes is indeed well described by neural control that employs constant central drive and constant proprioceptive feedback gains. Furthermore, it is force feedback from Ib afferents that is primarily responsible for modulating muscle activity; group II afferent feedback makes a small contribution to tonic activity, and Ia afferent feedback makes no contribution. Force feedback combined with tonic central drive appears to provide a simple control mechanism for automatically compensating for changes in terrain without requiring different commands from the brain or even modification of central nervous system gains. PMID:22933727

  12. Neuromuscular activation patterns during treadmill walking after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, C. S.; McDonald, P. V.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    Astronauts adopt a variety of neuromuscular control strategies during space flight that are appropriate for locomoting in that unique environment, but are less than optimal upon return to Earth. We report here the first systematic investigation of potential adaptations in neuromuscular activity patterns associated with postflight locomotion. Astronaut-subjects were tasked with walking on a treadmill at 6.4 km/h while fixating a visual target 30 cm away from their eyes after space flights of 8-15 days. Surface electromyography was collected from selected lower limb muscles and normalized with regard to mean amplitude and temporal relation to heel strike. In general, high correlations (more than 0.80) were found between preflight and postflight activation waveforms for each muscle and each subject: however relative activation amplitude around heel strike and toe off was changed as a result of flight. The level of muscle cocontraction and activation variability, and the relationship between the phasic characteristics of the ankle musculature in preparation for toe off also were altered by space flight. Subjects also reported oscillopsia during treadmill walking after flight. These findings indicate that, after space flight, the sensory-motor system can generate neuromuscular-activation strategies that permit treadmill walking, but subtle changes in lower-limb neuromuscular activation are present that may contribute to increased lower limb kinematic variability and oscillopsia also present during postflight walking.

  13. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  14. Preparing active patients for international travel.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Carlos E

    2003-10-01

    The risk of acquiring an illness when traveling internationally depends mostly on the area of the world to be visited. Today, with so many transportation options, increasing numbers of athletes are traveling abroad for training and competition, and leisure travelers are enjoying physically challenging adventure vacations-thus exposing themselves to potential medical problems. Primary care, sports medicine, and team physicians must be able to provide travelers with up-to-date information on immunization and chemoprophylaxis requirements, as well as other preventive medicine recommendations. PMID:20086435

  15. Flyception: imaging brain activity in freely walking fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Grover, Dhruv; Katsuki, Takeo; Greenspan, Ralph J

    2016-07-01

    Genetically encoded calcium sensors have enabled monitoring of neural activity in vivo using optical imaging techniques. Linking neural activity to complex behavior remains challenging, however, as most imaging systems require tethering the animal, which can impact the animal's behavioral repertoire. Here, we report a method for monitoring the brain activity of untethered, freely walking Drosophila melanogaster during sensorially and socially evoked behaviors to facilitate the study of neural mechanisms that underlie naturalistic behaviors. PMID:27183441

  16. Impact of a walking school bus program on children's active commuting to school and physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Walking School Buses (WSB) are groups of students, led to and from school by adults, in which students are picked up at designated "bus stops". The impact of WSB programs on students' active commuting to school (walking/cycling to school, ACS), and moderate-to vigorous-physical activity (MVPA) has n...

  17. Low-intensity walking activity is associated with better health.

    PubMed

    Varma, Vijay R; Tan, Erwin J; Wang, Tao; Xue, Qian-Li; Fried, Linda P; Seplaki, Christopher L; King, Abby C; Seeman, Teresa E; Rebok, George W; Carlson, Michelle C

    2014-10-01

    Recommended levels of physical activity may represent challenging targets for many older adults at risk for disability, leading to the importance of evaluating whether low-intensity activity is associated with health benefits. We examined the cross-sectional association between low-intensity walking activity (<100 steps/min) and health and physical function in a group of older adults. Participants (N = 187; age = 66.8; 91.4% African American; 76.5% female) wore a StepWatch Activity Monitor to measure components of low-intensity walking activity. Only 7% of participants met physical activity guidelines and moderate-intensity activity (≥100 steps/min) contributed only 10% of the total steps/day and 2% of the total min/day. Greater amount, frequency, and duration of low-intensity activity were associated with better self-report and performance-based measures of physical function, better quality of life, and fewer depressive symptoms (ps < .05). The cross-sectional relationship between low-intensity activity and health outcomes important to independent function suggests that we further explore the longitudinal benefits of low-intensity activity. PMID:24652915

  18. Associations between Active Travel to Work and Overweight, Hypertension, and Diabetes in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Millett, Christopher; Agrawal, Sutapa; Sullivan, Ruth; Vaz, Mario; Kurpad, Anura; Bharathi, A. V.; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Kinra, Sanjay; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing active travel (walking, bicycling, and public transport) is promoted as a key strategy to increase physical activity and reduce the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) globally. Little is known about patterns of active travel or associated cardiovascular health benefits in low- and middle-income countries. This study examines mode and duration of travel to work in rural and urban India and associations between active travel and overweight, hypertension, and diabetes. Methods and Findings Cross-sectional study of 3,902 participants (1,366 rural, 2,536 urban) in the Indian Migration Study. Associations between mode and duration of active travel and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using random-effect logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, caste, standard of living, occupation, factory location, leisure time physical activity, daily fat intake, smoking status, and alcohol use. Rural dwellers were significantly more likely to bicycle (68.3% versus 15.9%; p<0.001) to work than urban dwellers. The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 50.0%, 37.6%, 24.2%, 24.9%; hypertension was 17.7%, 11.8%, 6.5%, 9.8%; and diabetes was 10.8%, 7.4%, 3.8%, 7.3% in participants who travelled to work by private transport, public transport, bicycling, and walking, respectively. In the adjusted analysis, those walking (adjusted risk ratio [ARR] 0.72; 95% CI 0.58–0.88) or bicycling to work (ARR 0.66; 95% CI 0.55–0.77) were significantly less likely to be overweight or obese than those travelling by private transport. Those bicycling to work were significantly less likely to have hypertension (ARR 0.51; 95% CI 0.36–0.71) or diabetes (ARR 0.65; 95% CI 0.44–0.95). There was evidence of a dose-response relationship between duration of bicycling to work and being overweight, having hypertension or diabetes. The main limitation of the study is the cross-sectional design, which limits causal inference for the associations found

  19. Can we use digital life-log images to investigate active and sedentary travel behaviour? Results from a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Active travel such as walking and cycling has potential to increase physical activity levels in sedentary individuals. Motorised car travel is a sedentary behaviour that contributes to carbon emissions. There have been recent calls for technology that will improve our ability to measure these travel behaviours, and in particular evaluate modes and volumes of active versus sedentary travel. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the potential efficacy of a new electronic measurement device, a wearable digital camera called SenseCam, in travel research. Methods Participants (n = 20) were required to wear the SenseCam device for one full day of travel. The device automatically records approximately 3,600 time-stamped, first-person point-of-view images per day, without any action required by the wearer. Participants also completed a self-report travel diary over the same period for comparison, and were interviewed afterwards to assess user burden and experience. Results There were a total of 105 confirmed journeys in this pilot. The new SenseCam device recorded more journeys than the travel diary (99 vs. 94). Although the two measures demonstrated an acceptable correlation for journey duration (r = 0.92, p < 0.001) self-reported journey duration was over-reported (mean difference 154 s per journey; 95% CI = 89 to 218 s; 95% limits of agreement = 154 ± 598 s (-444 to 752 s)). The device also provided visual data that was used for directed interviews about sources of error. Conclusions Direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images shows considerable potential in the field of travel research. Journey duration derived from direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images appears to suggest over-reporting of self-reported journey duration. PMID:21599935

  20. Non-equilibrium Phase Transitions: Activated Random Walks at Criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, M.; Rolla, L. T.; Sidoravicius, V.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we present rigorous results on the critical behavior of the Activated Random Walk model. We conjecture that on a general class of graphs, including , and under general initial conditions, the system at the critical point does not reach an absorbing state. We prove this for the case where the sleep rate is infinite. Moreover, for the one-dimensional asymmetric system, we identify the scaling limit of the flow through the origin at criticality. The case remains largely open, with the exception of the one-dimensional totally-asymmetric case, for which it is known that there is no fixation at criticality.

  1. Built Environment Predictors of Active Travel to School Among Rural Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Madeline A.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Drake, Keith M.; Gibson, Lucinda; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Swain, Karin; Xie, Haiyi; Owens, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Most studies of active travel to school (ATS) have been conducted in urban or suburban areas and focused on young children. Little is known about ATS among rural adolescents. Purpose Describe adolescent ATS in two predominantly rural states and determine if school neighborhood built environment characteristics (BECs) predict ATS after adjusting for school and individual characteristics. Methods Sixteen BECs were assessed through census data and onsite observations of 45 school neighborhoods in 2007. ATS and individual characteristics were assessed through telephone surveys with 1552 adolescents and their parents between 2007 and 2008. Active travelers were defined as those who walked/cycled to/from school >= 1 day/week. Hierarchic linear modeling was used for analysis, conducted in 2009. Results Slightly less than half (n=735) of the sample lived within 3 miles of school, of whom 388 (52.8%) were active travelers. ATS frequency varied by season, ranging from a mean of 1.7 (SD=2.0) days/week in the winter to 3.7 (SD=1.6) in the spring. Adolescents who attended schools in highly dense residential neighborhoods with sidewalks were most likely to be active travelers. ATS frequency was greater in school neighborhoods with high residential and intersection densities, on-street parking, food outlets, and taller and continuous buildings with small setbacks. Conclusions BECs that support safe travel may be necessary to allow for ATS, whereas ATS frequency among adolescents may be influenced by a wider variety of design characteristics. Additional strategies to promote ATS and physical activity are needed in rural areas due to long commuting distances for many students. PMID:21335262

  2. The Walking Classroom: Active Learning Is Just Steps Away!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kelly Mancini

    2016-01-01

    Walking is a viable and valuable form of exercise for young children that has both physical and mental health benefits. There is much evidence showing that school-age children are not getting the recommended 60 minutes of daily exercise. A school-wide walking program can be a great way to encourage walking in and out of school, can be aligned with…

  3. Enhanced Somatosensory Feedback Reduces Prefrontal Cortical Activity During Walking in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Christou, Evangelos A.; Ring, Sarah A.; Williamson, John B.; Doty, Leilani

    2014-01-01

    Background. The coordination of steady state walking is relatively automatic in healthy humans, such that active attention to the details of task execution and performance (controlled processing) is low. Somatosensation is a crucial input to the spinal and brainstem circuits that facilitate this automaticity. Impaired somatosensation in older adults may reduce automaticity and increase controlled processing, thereby contributing to deficits in walking function. The primary objective of this study was to determine if enhancing somatosensory feedback can reduce controlled processing during walking, as assessed by prefrontal cortical activation. Methods. Fourteen older adults (age 77.1±5.56 years) with mild mobility deficits and mild somatosensory deficits participated in this study. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy was used to quantify metabolic activity (tissue oxygenation index, TOI) in the prefrontal cortex. Prefrontal activity and gait spatiotemporal data were measured during treadmill walking and overground walking while participants wore normal shoes and under two conditions of enhanced somatosensation: wearing textured insoles and no shoes. Results. Relative to walking with normal shoes, textured insoles yielded a bilateral reduction of prefrontal cortical activity for treadmill walking (ΔTOI = −0.85 and −1.19 for left and right hemispheres, respectively) and for overground walking (ΔTOI = −0.51 and −0.66 for left and right hemispheres, respectively). Relative to walking with normal shoes, no shoes yielded lower prefrontal cortical activity for treadmill walking (ΔTOI = −0.69 and −1.13 for left and right hemispheres, respectively), but not overground walking. Conclusions. Enhanced somatosensation reduces prefrontal activity during walking in older adults. This suggests a less intensive utilization of controlled processing during walking. PMID:25112494

  4. Walking Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... daily activities, get around, and exercise. Having a problem with walking can make daily life more difficult. ... walk is called your gait. A variety of problems can cause an abnormal gait and lead to ...

  5. Extracting Kinematic Parameters for Monkey Bipedal Walking from Cortical Neuronal Ensemble Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Nathan A.; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Peikon, Ian D.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to walk may be critically impacted as the result of neurological injury or disease. While recent advances in brain–machine interfaces (BMIs) have demonstrated the feasibility of upper-limb neuroprostheses, BMIs have not been evaluated as a means to restore walking. Here, we demonstrate that chronic recordings from ensembles of cortical neurons can be used to predict the kinematics of bipedal walking in rhesus macaques – both offline and in real time. Linear decoders extracted 3D coordinates of leg joints and leg muscle electromyograms from the activity of hundreds of cortical neurons. As more complex patterns of walking were produced by varying the gait speed and direction, larger neuronal populations were needed to accurately extract walking patterns. Extraction was further improved using a switching decoder which designated a submodel for each walking paradigm. We propose that BMIs may one day allow severely paralyzed patients to walk again. PMID:19404411

  6. Gamification of active travel to school: A pilot evaluation of the Beat the Street physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Emma; Jones, Andy

    2016-05-01

    Beat the Street aims to get children more active by encouraging them to walk and cycle in their neighbourhood using tracking technology with a reward scheme. This pilot study evaluates the impact of Beat the Street on active travel to school in Norwich, UK. Eighty children 8-10 yrs were recruited via an intervention and control school. They wore an accelerometer for 7 days at baseline, mid-intervention and post-intervention (+20 weeks), and completed a travel diary. Physical activity overall was not higher at follow-up amongst intervention children compared to controls. However, there was a positive association between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during school commute times and the number of days on which children touched a Beat the Street sensor. This equated to 3.46min extra daily MVPA during commute times for children who touched a sensor on 14.5 days (the mean number of days), compared to those who did not engage. We also found weekly active travel increased at the intervention school (+10.0% per child) while it decreased at the control (-7.0%), p=0.056. Further work is needed to understand how improved engagement with the intervention might impact outcomes. PMID:26974232

  7. 26 CFR 1.513-7 - Travel and tour activities of tax exempt organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Travel and tour activities of tax exempt... Organizations § 1.513-7 Travel and tour activities of tax exempt organizations. (a) Travel tour activities that... with respect to that organization. Whether travel tour activities conducted by an organization...

  8. 26 CFR 1.513-7 - Travel and tour activities of tax exempt organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Travel and tour activities of tax exempt... Organizations § 1.513-7 Travel and tour activities of tax exempt organizations. (a) Travel tour activities that... with respect to that organization. Whether travel tour activities conducted by an organization...

  9. 26 CFR 1.513-7 - Travel and tour activities of tax exempt organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Travel and tour activities of tax exempt... Organizations § 1.513-7 Travel and tour activities of tax exempt organizations. (a) Travel tour activities that... with respect to that organization. Whether travel tour activities conducted by an organization...

  10. 26 CFR 1.513-7 - Travel and tour activities of tax exempt organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Travel and tour activities of tax exempt... Organizations § 1.513-7 Travel and tour activities of tax exempt organizations. (a) Travel tour activities that... with respect to that organization. Whether travel tour activities conducted by an organization...

  11. 26 CFR 1.513-7 - Travel and tour activities of tax exempt organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Travel and tour activities of tax exempt... Organizations § 1.513-7 Travel and tour activities of tax exempt organizations. (a) Travel tour activities that... with respect to that organization. Whether travel tour activities conducted by an organization...

  12. Happiness in Motion: Emotions, Well-Being, and Active School Travel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramanathan, Subha; O'Brien, Catherine; Faulkner, Guy; Stone, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background: A pan-Canadian School Travel Planning intervention promoted active school travel (AST). A novel component was exploring emotion, well-being, and travel mode framed by the concept of "sustainable happiness." Relationships between travel mode and emotions, parent perceptions of their child's travel mode on well-being, and…

  13. 78 FR 36035 - Proposed Information Collection Activity: [Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... beneficiary travel mileage reimbursement benefit in an efficient, convenient and accurate manner. VHA must... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection Activity: [Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application... to ``OMB Control No. 2900--NEW (Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application Form)'' in...

  14. Variability in baseline travel behaviour as a predictor of changes in commuting by active travel, car and public transport: a natural experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, Eva; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To strengthen our understanding of the impact of baseline variability in mode choice on the likelihood of travel behaviour change. Methods Quasi-experimental analyses in a cohort study of 450 commuters exposed to a new guided busway with a path for walking and cycling in Cambridge, UK. Exposure to the intervention was defined using the shortest network distance from each participant’s home to the busway. Variability in commuter travel behaviour at baseline was defined using the Herfindahl–Hirschman Index, the number of different modes of transport used over a week, and the proportion of trips made by the main (combination of) mode(s). The outcomes were changes in the share of commute trips (i) involving any active travel, (ii) involving any public transport, and (iii) made entirely by car. Variability and change data were derived from a self-reported seven-day record collected before (2009) and after (2012) the intervention. Separate multinomial regression models were estimated to assess the influence of baseline variability on behaviour change, both independently and as an interaction effect with exposure to the intervention. Results All three measures of variability predicted changes in mode share in most models. The effect size for the intervention was slightly strengthened after including variability. Commuters with higher baseline variability were more likely to increase their active mode share (e.g. for HHI: relative risk ratio [RRR] for interaction 3.34, 95% CI 1.41, 7.89) and decrease their car mode share in response to the intervention (e.g. for HHI: RRR 7.50, 95% CI 2.52, 22.34). Conclusions People reporting a higher level of variability in mode choice were more likely to change their travel behaviour following an intervention. Future research should consider such variability as a potential predictor and effect modifier of travel and physical activity behaviour change, and its significance for the design and targeting of interventions. PMID

  15. Towards a differentiated understanding of active travel behaviour: Using social theory to explore everyday commuting

    PubMed Central

    Guell, C.; Panter, J.; Jones, N.R.; Ogilvie, D.

    2012-01-01

    Fostering physical activity is an established public health priority for the primary prevention of a variety of chronic diseases. One promising population approach is to seek to embed physical activity in everyday lives by promoting walking and cycling to and from work (‘active commuting’) as an alternative to driving. Predominantly quantitative epidemiological studies have investigated travel behaviours, their determinants and how they may be changed towards more active choices. This study aimed to depart from narrow behavioural approaches to travel and investigate the social context of commuting with qualitative social research methods. Within a social practice theory framework, we explored how people describe their commuting experiences and make commuting decisions, and how travel behaviour is embedded in and shaped by commuters' complex social worlds. Forty-nine semi-structured interviews and eighteen photo-elicitation interviews with accompanying field notes were conducted with a subset of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort, based in the UK. The findings are discussed in terms of three particularly pertinent facets of the commuting experience. Firstly, choice and decisions are shaped by the constantly changing and fluid nature of commuters' social worlds. Secondly, participants express ambiguities in relation to their reasoning, ambitions and identities as commuters. Finally, commuting needs to be understood as an embodied and emotional practice. With this in mind, we suggest that everyday decision-making in commuting requires the tactical negotiation of these complexities. This study can help to explain the limitations of more quantitative and static models and frameworks in predicting travel behaviour and identify future research directions. PMID:22486840

  16. Through Rain, Sleet, Ice, and Snow, the Walking School Bus Still Must Go!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Kelli R.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the walking school bus--a physically active and safe method in which young learners can travel to and from school while accompanied by adult volunteers. The walking school bus provides a safe and healthy way for elementary-age children to travel to and from school. Many families who live within walking…

  17. Validity of PALMS GPS Scoring of Active and Passive Travel Compared to SenseCam

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Jankowska, Marta M.; Meseck, Kristin; Godbole, Suneeta; Natarajan, Loki; Raab, Fredric; Demchak, Barry; Patrick, Kevin; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess validity of the Personal Activity Location Measurement System (PALMS) for deriving time spent walking/running, bicycling, and in vehicle, using SenseCam as the comparison. Methods 40 adult cyclists wore a Qstarz BT-Q1000XT GPS data logger and SenseCam (camera worn around neck capturing multiple images every minute) for a mean of 4 days. PALMS used distance and speed between GPS points to classify whether each minute was part of a trip (yes/no), and if so, the trip mode (walking/running, bicycling, in vehicle). SenseCam images were annotated to create the same classifications (i.e., trip yes/no and mode). 2×2 contingency tables and confusion matrices were calculated at the minute-level for PALMS vs. SenseCam classifications. Mixed-effects linear regression models estimated agreement (mean differences and intraclass correlations [ICCs]) between PALMS and SenseCam with regards to minutes/day in each mode. Results Minute-level sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value were ≥88%, and positive predictive value was ≥75% for non mode-specific trip detection. 72–80% of outdoor walking/running minutes, 73% of bicycling minutes, and 74–76% of in-vehicle minutes were correctly classified by PALMS. For minutes/day, PALMS had a mean bias (i.e., amount of over or under estimation) of 2.4–3.1 minutes (11–15%) for walking/running, 2.3–2.9 minutes (7–9%) for bicycling, and 4.3–5 minutes (15–17%) for vehicle time. ICCs were ≥.80 for all modes. Conclusions PALMS has validity for processing GPS data to objectively measure time walking/running, bicycling, and in vehicle in population studies. Assessing travel patterns is one of many valuable applications of GPS in physical activity research that can improve our understanding of the determinants and health outcomes of active transportation as well as its impact on physical activity. PMID:25010407

  18. 78 FR 26649 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Trusted Traveler Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Trusted Traveler Programs AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 60-Day... assured of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to U.S. Customs and Border...

  19. 78 FR 41943 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Trusted Traveler Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (78 FR 26649) on May 7, 2013, allowing... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities; Trusted Traveler Programs AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 30-Day...

  20. Measurement of Perceived School Climate for Active Travel in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Ward, Dianne S.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the development of an original scale that measures perceived school climate for active travel in fourth- and fifth-grade girls and boys. Methods: The data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to provide evidence of factorial validity, factorial invariance, and construct validity. Results: The CFA supported…

  1. The Built Environment and Active Travel: Evidence from Nanjing, China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jianxi

    2016-01-01

    Background: An established relationship exists between the built environment and active travel. Nevertheless, the literature examining the impacts of different components of the built environment is limited. In addition, most existing studies are based on data from cities in the U.S. and Western Europe. The situation in Chinese cities remains largely unknown. Based on data from Nanjing, China, this study explicitly examines the influences of two components of the built environment—the neighborhood form and street form—on residents’ active travel. Methods: Binary logistic regression analyses examined the effects of the neighborhood form and street form on subsistence, maintenance and discretionary travel, respectively. For each travel purpose, three models are explored: a model with only socio-demographics, a model with variables of the neighborhood form and a complete model with all variables. Results: The model fit indicator, Nagelkerke’s ρ2, increased by 0.024 when neighborhood form variables are included and increased by 0.070 when street form variables are taken into account. A similar situation can be found in the models of maintenance activities and discretionary activities. Regarding specific variables, very limited significant impacts of the neighborhood form variables are observed, while almost all of the characteristics of the street form show significant influences on active transport. Conclusions: In Nanjing, street form factors have a more profound influence on active travel than neighborhood form factors. The focal point of the land use regulations and policy of local governments should shift from the neighborhood form to the street form to maximize the effects of policy interventions. PMID:27005645

  2. Robustness of Traveling Waves in Ongoing Activity of Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Nauhaus, Ian; Busse, Laura; Ringach, Dario L.; Carandini, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have revealed traveling waves of activity in sensory cortex, both following sensory stimulation and during ongoing activity. We contributed to this body of work by measuring the spike-triggered average of the local field potential (stLFP) at multiple concurrent locations (Nauhaus et al., 2009) in the visual cortex of anesthetized cats and macaques. We found the stLFP to be progressively delayed at increasing distances from the site of the triggering spikes, and interpreted this as a traveling wave of depolarization originating from that site. Our results were criticized, however, on two grounds. First, a study using the same recording techniques in the visual cortex of awake macaques reported an apparent lack of traveling waves, and proposed that traveling waves could arise artifactually from excessive filtering of the field potentials (Ray and Maunsell, 2011). Second, the interpretability of the stLFP was questioned (Kenneth Miller, personal communication), as the stLFP must reflect not only interactions between spike trains and field potentials, but also correlations within and across the spike trains. Here, we show that our data and interpretation are not imperiled by these criticisms. We reanalyzed our field potentials to remove any possible artifact due to filtering and to discount the effects of correlations within and across the triggering spike trains. In both cases, we found that the traveling waves were still present. In fact, closer inspection of Ray and Maunsell's (2011) data from awake cortex shows that they do agree with ours, as they contain clear evidence for traveling waves. PMID:22378881

  3. A spatial agent-based model for the simulation of adults' daily walking within a city.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Diez Roux, Ana V; Auchincloss, Amy H; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Brown, Daniel G

    2011-03-01

    Environmental effects on walking behavior have received attention in recent years because of the potential for policy interventions to increase population levels of walking. Most epidemiologic studies describe associations of walking behavior with environmental features. These analyses ignore the dynamic processes that shape walking behaviors. A spatial agent-based model (ABM) was developed to simulate people's walking behaviors within a city. Each individual was assigned properties such as age, SES, walking ability, attitude toward walking and a home location. Individuals perform different activities on a regular basis such as traveling for work, for basic needs, and for leisure. Whether an individual walks and the amount she or he walks is a function of distance to different activities and her/his walking ability and attitude toward walking. An individual's attitude toward walking evolves over time as a function of past experiences, walking of others along the walking route, limits on distances walked per day, and attitudes toward walking of the other individuals within her/his social network. The model was calibrated and used to examine the contributions of land use and safety to socioeconomic differences in walking. With further refinement and validation, ABMs may help to better understand the determinants of walking and identify the most promising interventions to increase walking. PMID:21335269

  4. A Spatial Agent-Based Model for the Simulation of Adults’ Daily Walking Within a City

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Roux, Ana V. Diez; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Rodriguez, Daniel A.; Brown, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental effects on walking behavior have received attention in recent years because of the potential for policy interventions to increase population levels of walking. Most epidemiologic studies describe associations of walking behavior with environmental features. These analyses ignore the dynamic processes that shape walking behaviors. A spatial agent-based model (ABM) was developed to simulate peoples’ walking behaviors within a city. Each individual was assigned properties such as age, SES, walking ability, attitude toward walking and a home location. Individuals perform different activities on a regular basis such as traveling for work, for shopping, and for recreation. Whether an individual walks and the amount she or he walks is a function distance to different activities and her or his walking ability and attitude toward walking. An individual’s attitude toward walking evolves over time as a function of past experiences, walking of others along the walking route, limits on distances walked per day, and attitudes toward walking of the other individuals within her/his social network. The model was calibrated and used to examine the contributions of land use and safety to socioeconomic differences in walking. With further refinement and validation, ABMs may help to better understand the determinants of walking and identify the most promising interventions to increase walking. PMID:21335269

  5. Physical Activity Resources and Changes in Walking in a Cohort of Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Perdue, Leslie A.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Marshall, Lynn M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the influence of physical activity resources and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (SES) on walking among community-dwelling older men. Methods. Participants reported time walked per day at baseline (2000–2002) and follow-up. Residential addresses were linked to a geographic information system database to assess proximity to parks, trails, and recreational facilities. Log-binomial regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that men living near physical activity resources were more likely to increase or maintain time walked. Results. Average time walked per day declined by 6 minutes between baseline and follow-up (P < .05). There was a significant interaction of neighborhood SES and physical activity with walking time (P < .1). Proximity to parks and proximity to trails, respectively, were associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.47) and 34% (95% CI = 1.16, 1.55) higher likelihood of maintaining or increasing walking time in high-SES neighborhoods, but there was no association in low-SES neighborhoods. Proximity to recreational facilities was not associated with walking. Conclusions. Uncovering reasons that proximity to parks and trails is not associated with maintenance of walking activity among men in low-SES neighborhoods could provide new insight into ways to promote physical activity. PMID:20167887

  6. Comparison of ankle plantar flexor activity between double-leg heel raise and walking.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroto; Nishiyama, Toru; Suzuki, Makoto

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] We aimed to evaluate the difference in the muscle activity between the double-leg heel raise (DHR) and treadmill walking. [Subjects] Thirty healthy males aged 21.5 ± 1.6 years (body mass 63.6 ± 9.3 kg, height 171.0 ± 4.5 cm) participated in the study. [Methods] Electromyograms were simultaneously recorded from both heads of the gastrocnemius and the soleus of the right side during the DHR and treadmill walking. The DHR conditions were maximum plantar flexion (MPF), 3/4 MPF, 2/4 MPF, and 1/4 MPF, and the walking speeds were 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 m/min. [Results] The muscle activity during the DHR and walking significantly increased with increments in the height of the heel raise and walking speed, respectively. Comparison of the muscle activity at MPF with that at each walking speed revealed that the muscle activity in the soleus and gastrocnemius medial head during walking exceeded that during the DHR in less than 3.3% of cases. [Conclusion] The DHR test is useful for evaluating the ankle plantar flexor activity necessary for walking. PMID:26157255

  7. Nordic Walking improves daily physical activities in COPD: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In patients with COPD progressive dyspnoea leads to a sedentary lifestyle. To date, no studies exist investigating the effects of Nordic Walking in patients with COPD. Therefore, the aim was to determine the feasibility of Nordic Walking in COPD patients at different disease stages. Furthermore we aimed to determine the short- and long-term effects of Nordic Walking on COPD patients' daily physical activity pattern as well as on patients exercise capacity. Methods Sixty COPD patients were randomised to either Nordic Walking or to a control group. Patients of the Nordic Walking group (n = 30; age: 62 ± 9 years; FEV1: 48 ± 19% predicted) underwent a three-month outdoor Nordic Walking exercise program consisting of one hour walking at 75% of their initial maximum heart rate three times per week, whereas controls had no exercise intervention. Primary endpoint: daily physical activities (measured by a validated tri-axial accelerometer); secondary endpoint: functional exercise capacity (measured by the six-minute walking distance; 6MWD). Assessment time points in both groups: baseline, after three, six and nine months. Results After three month training period, in the Nordic Walking group time spent walking and standing as well as intensity of walking increased (Δ walking time: +14.9 ± 1.9 min/day; Δ standing time: +129 ± 26 min/day; Δ movement intensity: +0.40 ± 0.14 m/s2) while time spent sitting decreased (Δ sitting time: -128 ± 15 min/day) compared to baseline (all: p < 0.01) as well as compared to controls (all: p < 0.01). Furthermore, 6MWD significantly increased compared to baseline (Δ 6MWD: +79 ± 28 meters) as well as compared to controls (both: p < 0.01). These significant improvements were sustained six and nine months after baseline. In contrast, controls showed unchanged daily physical activities and 6MWD compared to baseline for all time points. Conclusions Nordic Walking is a feasible, simple and effective physical training modality

  8. Reliability and Validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for Assessing Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Marshall, Alison L.; Craig, Cora; Hagstromer, Maria; Sjostrom, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The single most commonly reported physical activity in public health surveys is walking. As evidence accumulates that walking is important for preventing weight gain and reducing the risk of diabetes, there is increased need to capture this behavior in a valid and reliable manner. Although the disadvantages of a self-report methodology are well…

  9. Using an Activity to Simulate the Dangers of Multitasking with Technology while Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward J.; Xu, Renmei; Londt, Susan

    2012-01-01

    People are increasingly trying to multitask while walking. Text messaging while walking is a significant area for concern. The number of text messages sent is expected to be more than 8 trillion in 2012. Texting is becoming so commonplace that people use this technology while engaged in other activities. The dangers of multitasking have hit the…

  10. Perceived Effort of Walking: Relationship With Gait, Physical Function and Activity, Fear of Falling, and Confidence in Walking in Older Adults With Mobility Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Julius, Leslie M.; Brach, Jennifer S.; Wert, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although clinicians have a number of measures to use to describe walking performance, few, if any, of the measures capture a person's perceived effort in walking. Perceived effort of walking may be a factor in what a person does versus what he or she is able to do. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of perceived effort of walking with gait, function, activity, fear of falling, and confidence in walking in older adults with mobility limitations. Design This investigation was a cross-sectional, descriptive, relational study. Methods The study took place at a clinical research training center. The participants were 50 older adults (mean age=76.8 years, SD=5.5) with mobility limitations. The measurements used were the Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) for walking; gait speed; the Modified Gait Abnormality Rating Scale; energy cost of walking; Late Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) for total, basic, and advanced lower-extremity function and for disability limitations; activity and restriction subscales of the Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly (SAFFE); activity counts; SAFFE fear subscale; and Gait Efficacy Scale (GES). The relationship of the RPE of walking with gait, function, activity, fear, and confidence was determined by using Spearman rank order coefficients and an analysis of variance (adjusted for age and sex) for mean differences between groups defined by no exertion during walking and some exertion during walking. Results The RPE was related to confidence in walking (GES, R=−.326, P=.021) and activity (activity counts, R=.295, P=.044). The RPE groups (no exertion versus some exertion) differed in LLFDI scores for total (57.9 versus 53.2), basic (68.6 versus 61.4), and advanced (49.1 versus 42.6) lower-extremity function; LLFDI scores for disability limitations (74.9 versus 67.5); SAFFE fear subscale scores (0.346 versus 0.643); and GES scores (80.1 versus 67.8) (all P<.05

  11. Neighborhood walkability, physical activity, and walking behavior: the Swedish Neighborhood and Physical Activity (SNAP) study.

    PubMed

    Sundquist, Kristina; Eriksson, Ulf; Kawakami, Naomi; Skog, Lars; Ohlsson, Henrik; Arvidsson, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    More knowledge concerning the association between physical activity and objectively measured attributes of the built environment is needed. Previous studies on the association between objectively measured neighborhood walkability, physical activity, and walking have been conducted in the U.S. or Australia and research findings are available from only one country in Europe - Belgium. The first aim of this Swedish study of 2269 adults was to examine the associations between neighborhood walkability and walking for active transportation or leisure, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and whether these hypothesized associations are moderated by age, gender, income, marital status and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status. The second aim was to determine how much of the total variance of the walking and physical activity outcomes can be attributed to neighborhood-level differences. Neighborhood walkability was objectively measured by GIS methods. An index consisting of residential density, street connectivity, and land use mix was constructed to define 32 highly and less walkable neighborhoods in Stockholm City. MVPA was measured objectively during 7 days with an accelerometer and walking was assessed using the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Multilevel linear as well as logistic models (mixed-effects, mixed-distribution models) were used in the analysis. The statistically significant and "adjusted" results for individuals living in highly walkable neighborhoods, as compared to those living in less walkable neighborhoods, were: (1) 77% and 28% higher odds for walking for active transportation and walking for leisure, respectively, (2) 50 min more walking for active transportation/week, and (3) 3.1 min more MVPA/day. The proportion of the total variance at the neighborhood level was low and ranged between 0.0% and 2.1% in the adjusted models. The findings of the present study stress that future policies concerning the

  12. Differences in lower-extremity muscular activation during walking between healthy older and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Anne; Silder, Amy; Heiderscheit, Bryan; Mahoney, Jane; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have identified differences in gait kinetics between healthy older and young adults. However, the underlying factors that cause these changes are not well understood. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of age and speed on the activation of lower-extremity muscles during human walking. We recorded electromyography (EMG) signals of the soleus, gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, medial hamstrings, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris as healthy young and older adults walked over ground at slow, preferred and fast walking speeds. Nineteen healthy older adults (age, 73 ± 5 years) and 18 healthy young adults (age, 26 ± 3 years) participated. Rectified EMG signals were normalized to mean activities over a gait cycle at the preferred speed, allowing for an assessment of how the activity was distributed over the gait cycle and modulated with speed. Compared to the young adults, the older adults exhibited greater activation of the tibialis anterior and soleus during mid-stance at all walking speeds and greater activation of the vastus lateralis and medial hamstrings during loading and mid-stance at the fast walking speed, suggesting increased coactivation across the ankle and knee. In addition, older adults depend less on soleus muscle activation to push off at faster walking speeds. We conclude that age-related changes in neuromuscular activity reflect a strategy of stiffening the limb during single support and likely contribute to reduced push off power at fast walking speeds. PMID:19081734

  13. Prefrontal Cortex Activation While Walking Under Dual-Task Conditions in Stroke: A Multimodal Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Al-Yahya, Emad; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Kischka, Udo; Zarei, Mojtaba; Cockburn, Janet; Dawes, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Background Walking while performing another task (eg, talking) is challenging for many stroke survivors, yet its neural basis are not fully understood. Objective To investigate prefrontal cortex activation and its relationship to gait measures while walking under single-task (ST) and dual-task (DT) conditions (ie, walking while simultaneously performing a cognitive task) in stroke survivors. Methods We acquired near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) data from the prefrontal cortex during treadmill walking in ST and DT conditions in chronic stroke survivors and healthy controls. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and NIRS during simulated walking under these conditions. Results NIRS revealed increased oxygenated hemoglobin concentration in DT-walking compared with ST-walking for both groups. For simulated walking, NIRS showed a significant effect of group and group × task, being greater on both occasions, in stroke survivors. A greater increase in brain activation observed from ST to DT walking/ simulated walking was related to a greater change in motor performance in stroke survivors. fMRI revealed increased activity during DT relative to ST conditions in stroke patients in areas including the inferior temporal gyri, superior frontal gyri and cingulate gyri bilaterally, and the right precentral gyrus. The DT-related increase in fMRI activity correlated with DT-related change in behavior in stroke participants in the bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, left cingulate gyrus, and left frontal pole. Conclusion Our results provide novel evidence that enhanced brain activity changes relate to dual task motor decrements. PMID:26493732

  14. Nonequilibrium fluctuations, traveling waves, and instabilities in active membranes.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, S; Toner, J; Prost, J

    2000-04-10

    The stability of a flexible fluid membrane containing a distribution of mobile, active proteins (e.g., proton pumps) is shown to depend on the structure and functional asymmetry of the proteins. A stable active membrane is in a nonequilibrium steady state with height fluctuations whose statistical properties are governed by the protein activity. Disturbances are predicted to travel as waves at sufficiently long wavelength, with speed set by the normal velocity of the pumps. The unstable case involves a spontaneous, pump-driven undulation of the membrane, with clumping of the proteins in regions of high activity. PMID:11019123

  15. Projected Effect of Increased Active Travel in German Urban Regions on the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Brinks, Ralph; Hoyer, Annika; Kuss, Oliver; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background Future transportation policy is likely to reduce emissions in the cities and urban regions by strengthening active travel. Increased walking and cycling are known to have positive effects on health outcomes. This work estimates effects of increased active travel on type 2 diabetes in Germany, where 64% of the population live in urban regions. Methods Based on the effect size of an increased active travel scenario reported from a recent meta-analysis, we project the change in the life time risk, the proportion of prevented cases and the change in diabetes free life time in a German birth cohort (born 1985) compared to business as usual. Results The absolute risk reduction of developing type 2 diabetes before the age of 80 is 6.4% [95% confidence interval: 3.7-9.7%] for men and 4.7% [2.2-7.7%] for women, respectively. Compared to business as usual, the increased active travel scenario prevents 14.0% [8.1-21.2%] of the future cases of diabetes in men and 15.8% [9.3-23.1%] in women. Diabetes free survival increases by 1.7 [1.0-2.7] years in men and 1.4 [0.6-2.3] in women. Conclusions Our projection predicts a substantial impact of increased active travel on the future burden of type 2 diabetes. The most striking effect may be seen in the number of prevented cases. In all urban regions with an increased active travel transport policy, about one out of seven male and one out of six female cases can be prevented. PMID:25849819

  16. Dog ownership and dog walking to promote physical activity and health in patients.

    PubMed

    Epping, Jacqueline N

    2011-07-01

    Lack of physical activity is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases and conditions and is associated with significant medical costs. Approximately half of adults and more than a third of adolescents and youth in the United States do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Effective population-level strategies are needed to promote activities that are practical, accessible, and sustainable and that can reach a large proportion of the population. Dog walking may be such a strategy. Walking is popular, easy, and sustainable and has a low risk of injury. Owning dogs confers many health benefits, and dog walking, in particular, can help promote physical activity and improve health. Physicians and other health care providers can play a unique and integral role in promoting physical activity among patients by recommending dog walking both to dog owners and to non-dog owners as a purposeful, enjoyable, and sustainable form of regular physical activity. PMID:23531898

  17. Multilevel modelling of built environment characteristics related to neighbourhood walking activity in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, F.; Fisher, K; Brownson, R.; Bosworth, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relation between built environment factors (representing several dimensions of urban form of neighbourhoods) and walking activity at both the neighbourhood level and the resident level, in an older adult sample. Design, setting, participants: A cross sectional, multilevel design with neighbourhoods as the primary sampling unit and senior residents as the secondary unit. Five hundred and seventy seven residents (mean age = 74 years, SD = 6.3 years) participated in the survey, which was conducted among 56 city defined neighbourhoods in Portland, Oregon, USA. Neighbourhood level variables were constructed using geographical information systems. Resident level variables consisted of a mix of self reports and geocoded data on the built environment. Main outcome measure: Self reported neighbourhood walking. Main results: A positive relation was found between built environment factors (density of places of employment, household density, green and open spaces for recreation, number of street intersections) and walking activity at the neighbourhood level. At the resident level, perceptions of safety for walking and number of nearby recreational facilities were positively related to high levels of walking activity. A significant interaction was observed between number of street intersections and perceptions of safety from traffic. Conclusions: Certain neighbourhood built environment characteristics related to urban form were positively associated with walking activity in the neighbourhoods of senior residents. Public health promotion of walking activity/urban mobility and the design of interventions need to consider the contribution of neighbourhood level built environment influences. PMID:15965138

  18. Body stability and muscle and motor cortex activity during walking with wide stance.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Brad J; Bulgakova, Margarita A; Beloozerova, Irina N; Sirota, Mikhail G; Prilutsky, Boris I

    2014-08-01

    Biomechanical and neural mechanisms of balance control during walking are still poorly understood. In this study, we examined the body dynamic stability, activity of limb muscles, and activity of motor cortex neurons [primarily pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs)] in the cat during unconstrained walking and walking with a wide base of support (wide-stance walking). By recording three-dimensional full-body kinematics we found for the first time that during unconstrained walking the cat is dynamically unstable in the forward direction during stride phases when only two diagonal limbs support the body. In contrast to standing, an increased lateral between-paw distance during walking dramatically decreased the cat's body dynamic stability in double-support phases and prompted the cat to spend more time in three-legged support phases. Muscles contributing to abduction-adduction actions had higher activity during stance, while flexor muscles had higher activity during swing of wide-stance walking. The overwhelming majority of neurons in layer V of the motor cortex, 82% and 83% in the forelimb and hindlimb representation areas, respectively, were active differently during wide-stance walking compared with unconstrained condition, most often by having a different depth of stride-related frequency modulation along with a different mean discharge rate and/or preferred activity phase. Upon transition from unconstrained to wide-stance walking, proximal limb-related neuronal groups subtly but statistically significantly shifted their activity toward the swing phase, the stride phase where most of body instability occurs during this task. The data suggest that the motor cortex participates in maintenance of body dynamic stability during locomotion. PMID:24790167

  19. Body stability and muscle and motor cortex activity during walking with wide stance

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Brad J.; Bulgakova, Margarita A.; Beloozerova, Irina N.; Sirota, Mikhail G.

    2014-01-01

    Biomechanical and neural mechanisms of balance control during walking are still poorly understood. In this study, we examined the body dynamic stability, activity of limb muscles, and activity of motor cortex neurons [primarily pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs)] in the cat during unconstrained walking and walking with a wide base of support (wide-stance walking). By recording three-dimensional full-body kinematics we found for the first time that during unconstrained walking the cat is dynamically unstable in the forward direction during stride phases when only two diagonal limbs support the body. In contrast to standing, an increased lateral between-paw distance during walking dramatically decreased the cat's body dynamic stability in double-support phases and prompted the cat to spend more time in three-legged support phases. Muscles contributing to abduction-adduction actions had higher activity during stance, while flexor muscles had higher activity during swing of wide-stance walking. The overwhelming majority of neurons in layer V of the motor cortex, 82% and 83% in the forelimb and hindlimb representation areas, respectively, were active differently during wide-stance walking compared with unconstrained condition, most often by having a different depth of stride-related frequency modulation along with a different mean discharge rate and/or preferred activity phase. Upon transition from unconstrained to wide-stance walking, proximal limb-related neuronal groups subtly but statistically significantly shifted their activity toward the swing phase, the stride phase where most of body instability occurs during this task. The data suggest that the motor cortex participates in maintenance of body dynamic stability during locomotion. PMID:24790167

  20. Barriers to and Facilitators of Walking and Bicycling to School: Formative Results from the Non-Motorized Travel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlport, Kathryn N.; Linnan, Laura; Vaughn, Amber; Evenson, Kelly R.; Ward, Dianne S.

    2008-01-01

    Barriers to and facilitators of walking and bicycling to school were explored through 12 focus groups made up of fourth- and fifth-grade students and their parents who lived near their respective schools. The barriers and facilitators reported by parents and children generally fell into one of three categories: intrapersonal and interpersonal…

  1. Clinical Interest of Ambulatory Assessment of Physical Activity and Walking Capacity in Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    de Müllenheim, P-Y; Chaudru, S; Mahé, G; Prioux, J; Le Faucheur, A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the present review was to provide, for the first time, a comprehensive analysis and synthesis of the available studies that highlighted the clinical interest of the ambulatory assessment of either physical activity (PA) or walking capacity in patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). We identified 96 related articles published up to March 2015 through a computer-assisted search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases. Ambulatory-measured PA or related energy expenditure (EE) in PAD patients was performed in 87 of the 96 included studies. The main clinical interests of these measurements were (a) the assessment of PA/EE pattern; (b) the characterization of walking pattern; and (c) the control of training load during home-based walking programs. Ambulatory-measured walking capacity was performed in the remaining studies, using either Global Positioning System receivers or the Peripheral Arterial Disease Holter Control device. Highlighted clinical interests were (a) the assessment of community-based walking capacity; (b) the use of new outcomes to characterize walking capacity, besides the conventional absolute claudication distance; and (c) the association with the patient's self-perception of walking capacity. This review also provides for the clinicians step-by-step recommendations to specifically assess PA or walking capacity in PAD patients. PMID:26173488

  2. Walking while Performing Working Memory Tasks Changes the Prefrontal Cortex Hemodynamic Activations and Gait Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-I B.; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence suggests that walking while performing a concurrent task negatively influences gait performance. However, it remains unclear how higher-level cognitive processes and coordination of limb movements are altered in challenging walking environments. This study investigated the influence of cognitive task complexity and walking road condition on the neutral correlates of executive function and postural control in dual-task walking. Methods: Twenty-four healthy young adults completed a series of overground walks with three walking road conditions (wide, narrow, with obstacles) with and without the concurrent n-back working memory tasks of two complexity levels (1-back and 3-back). Prefrontal brain activation was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used simultaneously to measure gait performance and lower-extremity kinematics. Repeated measures analysis of variance were performed to examine the differences between the conditions. Results: In comparison with standing still, participants showed lower n-back task accuracy while walking, with the worst performance from the road with obstacles. Spatiotemporal gait parameters, lower-extremity joint movements, and the relative changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) concentration levels were all significantly different across the task complexity and walking path conditions. While dual-tasking participants were found to flex their hips and knees less, leading to a slower gait speed, longer stride time, shorter step length, and greater gait variability than during normal walking. For narrow-road walking, smaller ankle dorsiflexion and larger hip flexion were observed, along with a reduced gait speed. Obstacle negotiation was mainly characterized by increased gait variability than other conditions. HbO levels appeared to be lower during dual-task walking than normal walking. Compared to wide and obstacle conditions, walking on the narrow

  3. Comparison of Trunk Activity during Gait Initiation and Walking in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Christine; Cazalets, Jean-René

    2009-01-01

    To understand the role of trunk muscles in maintenance of dynamic postural equilibrium we investigate trunk movements during gait initiation and walking, performing trunk kinematics analysis, Erector spinae muscle (ES) recordings and dynamic analysis. ES muscle expressed a metachronal descending pattern of activity during walking and gait initiation. In the frontal and horizontal planes, lateroflexion and rotation occur before in the upper trunk and after in the lower trunk. Comparison of ES muscle EMGs and trunk kinematics showed that trunk muscle activity precedes corresponding kinematics activity, indicating that the ES drive trunk movement during locomotion and thereby allowing a better pelvis mobilization. EMG data showed that ES activity anticipates propulsive phases in walking with a repetitive pattern, suggesting a programmed control by a central pattern generator. Our findings also suggest that the programs for gait initiation and walking overlap with the latter beginning before the first has ended. PMID:19997606

  4. Reliability and Validity of Bilateral Ankle Accelerometer Algorithms for Activity Recognition and Walking Speed After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Bruce H.; Xu, Xiaoyu; Batalin, Maxim; Thomas, Seth; Kaiser, William

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Outcome measures of mobility for large stroke trials are limited to timed walks for short distances in a laboratory, step counters and ordinal scales of disability and quality of life. Continuous monitoring and outcome measurements of the type and quantity of activity in the community would provide direct data about daily performance, including compliance with exercise and skills practice during routine care and clinical trials. Methods Twelve adults with impaired ambulation from hemiparetic stroke and 6 healthy controls wore triaxial accelerometers on their ankles. Walking speed for repeated outdoor walks was determined by machine-learning algorithms and compared to a stopwatch calculation of speed for distances not known to the algorithm. The reliability of recognizing walking, exercise, and cycling by the algorithms was compared to activity logs. Results A high correlation was found between stopwatch-measured outdoor walking speed and algorithm-calculated speed (Pearson coefficient, 0.98; P=0.001) and for repeated measures of algorithm-derived walking speed (P=0.01). Bouts of walking >5 steps, variations in walking speed, cycling, stair climbing, and leg exercises were correctly identified during a day in the community. Compared to healthy subjects, those with stroke were, as expected, more sedentary and slower, and their gait revealed high paretic-to-unaffected leg swing ratios. Conclusions Test–retest reliability and concurrent and construct validity are high for activity pattern-recognition Bayesian algorithms developed from inertial sensors. This ratio scale data can provide real-world monitoring and outcome measurements of lower extremity activities and walking speed for stroke and rehabilitation studies. PMID:21636815

  5. Low-intensity daily walking activity is associated with hippocampal volume in older adults.

    PubMed

    Varma, Vijay R; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Harris, Gregory C; Tan, Erwin J; Carlson, Michelle C

    2015-05-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is associated with memory impairment and dementia and serves as a key biomarker in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity, one of the most promising behavioral interventions to prevent or delay cognitive decline, has been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume; specifically increased aerobic activity and fitness may have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus. The majority of older adults, however, are sedentary and have difficulty initiating and maintaining exercise programs. A modestly more active lifestyle may nonetheless be beneficial. This study explored whether greater objectively measured daily walking activity was associated with larger hippocampal volume. We additionally explored whether greater low-intensity walking activity, which may be related to leisure-time physical, functional, and social activities, was associated with larger hippocampal volume independent of exercise and higher-intensity walking activity. Segmentation of hippocampal volumes was performed using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain's Software Library (FSL), and daily walking activity was assessed using a step activity monitor on 92, nondemented, older adult participants. After controlling for age, education, body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the Mini Mental State Exam, we found that a greater amount, duration, and frequency of total daily walking activity were each associated with larger hippocampal volume among older women, but not among men. These relationships were specific to hippocampal volume, compared with the thalamus, used as a control brain region, and remained significant for low-intensity walking activity, independent of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity and self-reported exercise. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to explore the relationship between objectively measured daily walking activity and hippocampal volume in an older adult population. Findings

  6. A cross-sectional study of demographic, environmental and parental barriers to active school travel among children in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Promoting daily routine physical activities, such as active travel to school, may have important health implications. Practitioners and policy makers must understand the variety of factors that influence whether or not a child uses active school travel. Several reviews have identified both inhibitors and promoters of active school travel, but few studies have combined these putative characteristics in one analysis. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between elementary school children’s active school travel and variables hypothesized as correlates (demographics, physical environment, perceived barriers and norms). Methods The current project uses the dataset from the National Evaluation of Walk to School (WTS) Project, which includes data from 4th and 5th grade children and their parents from 18 schools across the US. Measures included monthly child report of mode of school travel during the previous week (n = 10,809) and perceived barriers and social norms around active school travel by parents (n = 1,007) and children (n = 1,219). Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) with log-link functions were used to assess bivariate and multivariate associations between hypothesized correlates and frequency of active school travel, assuming random school effect and controlling for the distance to school. Results The final model showed that the most relevant significant predictors of active school travel were parent’s perceived barriers, specifically child resistance (Estimate = −0.438, p < 0.0001) and safety and weather (Estimate = −0.0245, p < 0.001), as well as the school’s percentage of Hispanic students (Estimate = 0.0059, p < 0.001), after adjusting for distance and including time within school cluster as a random effect. Conclusions Parental concerns may be impacting children’s use of active school travel, and therefore, future interventions to promote active school travel should more actively

  7. Walking to School: Taking Research to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heelan, Kate A.; Unruh, Scott A.; Combs, H. Jason; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Sutton, Sarah; Abbey, Bryce M.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study that helped determine common barriers to active commuting to and from school, as well as the results of a Walking School Bus program that was implemented at two neighborhood elementary schools in Nebraska. While parental perceived barriers to active commuting may influence the travel choices of…

  8. Type 2 diabetes and dog walking: patients' longitudinal perspectives about implementing and sustaining physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Peel, Elizabeth; Douglas, Margaret; Parry, Odette; Lawton, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Background Physical activity is particularly important for people with type 2 diabetes, as evidence suggests that any reduction in sedentary time is good for metabolic health. Aim To explore type 2 diabetes patients' talk about implementing and sustaining physical activity. Design of study Longitudinal, qualitative study using repeat in-depth interviews with 20 patients over 4 years following clinical diagnosis. Setting Patients were recruited from 16 general practices and three hospitals across Lothian, Scotland. Results Discussion, and salience, of physical activity was marginal in patient accounts of their diabetes management. Patients claimed to have only received vague and non-specific guidance about physical activity from health professionals, and emphasised a perceived lack of interest and encouragement. Aside from walking, physical activities which were adopted tended to attenuate over time. Patients' accounts revealed how walking a dog assisted this kind of activity maintenance over time. Three main themes are highlighted in the analysis: 1) incidental walking; 2) incremental physical activity gains; and 3) augmenting physical activity maintenance. The problems arising from walking without a dog (for example, lack of motivation) are also examined. Conclusion Asking patients about pet preferences might seem tangential to medical interactions. However, encouraging dog walking or identifying another interest that promotes a regular commitment to undertake physical activity may yield long-term health benefits. PMID:20822690

  9. Experimental results using active control of traveling wave power flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Active structural control experiments conducted on a 24-ft pinned-free beam derived feedback compensators on the basis of a traveling-wave approach. A compensator is thus obtained which eliminates resonant behavior by absorbing all impinging power. A causal solution is derived for this noncausal compensator which mimics its behavior in a given frequency range, using the Wiener-Hopf. This optimal Wiener-Hopf compensator's structure-damping performance is found to exceed any obtainable by means of rate feedback. Performance limitations encompassed the discovery of frequencies above which the sensor and actuator were no longer dual and an inadvertent coupling of the control hardware to unmodeled structure torsion modes.

  10. Effect of increasing active travel in urban England and Wales on costs to the National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, James; Woodcock, James; Griffiths, Ulla K; Chalabi, Zaid; Edwards, Phil; Roberts, Ian; Haines, Andy

    2012-06-01

    Increased walking and cycling in urban areas and reduced use of private cars could have positive effects on many health outcomes. We estimated the potential effect of increased walking and cycling in urban England and Wales on costs to the National Health Service (NHS) for seven diseases--namely, type 2 diabetes, dementia, cerebrovascular disease, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, depression, and ischaemic heart disease--that are associated with physical inactivity. Within 20 years, reductions in the prevalences of type 2 diabetes, dementia, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and cancer because of increased physical activity would lead to savings of roughly UK£17 billion (in 2010 prices) for the NHS, after adjustment for an increased risk of road traffic injuries. Further costs would be averted after 20 years. Sensitivity analyses show that results are invariably positive but sensitive to assumptions about time lag between the increase in active travel and changes in health outcomes. Increasing the amount of walking and cycling in urban settings could reduce costs to the NHS, permitting decreased government expenditure on health or releasing resources to fund additional health care. PMID:22682466

  11. Effectiveness of Long and Short Bout Walking on Increasing Physical Activity in Women

    PubMed Central

    Serwe, Katrina M.; Swartz, Ann M.; Hart, Teresa L.; Strath, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The accumulation of physical activity (PA) throughout the day has been suggested as a means to increase PA behavior. It is not known, however, if accumulated PA results in equivalent increases in PA behavior compared with one continuous session. The purpose of this investigation was to compare changes in PA between participants assigned to walk daily in accumulated shorter bouts vs. one continuous session. Methods In this 8-week randomized controlled trial, 60 inactive women were randomly assigned to one of the following: (1) control group, (2) 30 minutes a day of walking 5 days a week in one continuous long bout (LB), or (3) three short 10-minute bouts (SB) of walking a day, all at a prescribed heart rate intensity. Walking was assessed by pedometer and self-reported walking log. Before and after measures were taken of average steps/day, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), resting heart rate (RHR), six-minute walk test (6MWT) distance, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and hip and waist circumference. Results Both walking groups significantly increased PA measured as steps/day compared to controls (p < 0.001), and no significant differences were found between LB and SB groups. The LB group demonstrated significant decreases in hip circumference and significant increases in 6MWT distance compared to the control group. Conclusions Both walking groups significantly increased PA participation. LB group participants completed more walking at a higher intensity than the SB and control groups, which resulted in significant increases in health benefits. PMID:21314449

  12. "Walking the Walk" with Teacher Education Candidates: Strategies for Promoting Active Engagement with Assigned Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Allier, Susan K.; Elish-Piper, Laurie

    2007-01-01

    Teacher educators can use active engagement strategies to help teacher candidates interact meaningfully with assigned readings for literacy methods courses. This approach to active engagement with required readings helps teacher candidates learn the content, concepts, and processes from text, and enables them to experience as learners the…

  13. Mind the bend: cerebral activations associated with mental imagery of walking along a curved path.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Judith; Stephan, Thomas; Kalla, Roger; Brückmann, Hartmut; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Jahn, Klaus

    2008-11-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine mental imagery of locomotion has become an attractive way to investigate supraspinal gait control in humans. Whereas cerebral activation patterns associated with walking along a straight line have already been investigated, data on activations associated with the initiation of turns and the maintenance of a curved path are sparse. Electrophysiological findings in animals show that electrical stimulation of the striatum induces a contraversive turn of eyes, head, and body. In the present study, fMRI was used to investigate brain activity in 12 healthy volunteers during mental imagery of walking along a curved path, walking straight ahead, and upright stance. The major findings were as follows: (1) A shift of activation to the hemisphere contralateral to the turn was found in the putamen, and-for initiation of the turn-in the caudate nucleus. These findings confirm the important role of the striatum in the initiation of movement and the execution of contraversive body turns. (2) Parahippocampal and fusiform gyri, known to be involved in visually guided navigation, showed more activity when walking along a curved path than when walking straight ahead. (3) Deactivations were found in the superior and medial temporal gyri, areas belonging to the multisensory and vestibular cortical network. This reduced activity may reflect the suppression of vestibular signal processing in favour of-potentially conflicting-visual input. (4) Mental imagery of walking along a curved path induced ipsiversive eye movements in most subjects, as did actually walking along a curve. These data complement earlier findings on the role of anticipatory eye movements during initiation of turns and suggest that there is a very close neurophysiologic relation between locomotion and its mental imagery. PMID:18696057

  14. 31 CFR 575.416 - Travel transactions for journalistic activity in Iraq.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel transactions for journalistic... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 575.416 Travel transactions for journalistic activity in Iraq. (a) Section 575.207 does not prohibit travel transactions in Iraq by persons regularly employed in...

  15. Shoe leather epidemiology: active travel and transport infrastructure in the urban landscape

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Building new transport infrastructure could help to promote changes in patterns of mobility, physical activity, and other determinants of population health such as economic development. However, local residents may not share planners' goals or assumptions about the benefits of such interventions. A particularly contentious example is the construction of major roads close to deprived residential areas. We report the qualitative findings of the baseline phase of a longitudinal mixed-method study of a new urban section of the M74 motorway in Glasgow, Scotland, that aims to combine quantitative epidemiological and spatial data with qualitative interview data from local residents. Methods We interviewed 12 residents purposively sampled from a larger study cohort of 1322 to include men and women, different age groups, and people with and without cars, all living within 400 metres of the proposed route of the new motorway. We elicited their views and experiences of the local urban environment and the likely impact of the new motorway using a topic guide based on seven key environmental constructs (aesthetics, green space, convenience of routes, access to amenities, traffic, road danger and personal danger) reflecting an overall ecological model of walking and cycling. Results Traffic was widely perceived to be heavy despite a low local level of car ownership. Few people cycled, and cycling on the roads was widely perceived to be dangerous for both adults and children. Views about the likely impacts of the new motorway on traffic congestion, pollution and the pleasantness of the local environment were polarised. A new motorway has potential to cause inequitable psychological or physical severance of routes to local amenities, and people may not necessarily use local walking routes or destinations such as parks and shops if these are considered undesirable, unsafe or 'not for us'. Public transport may have the potential to promote or discourage active travel in

  16. Associations of health, physical activity and weight status with motorised travel and transport carbon dioxide emissions: a cross-sectional, observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Motorised travel and associated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generate substantial health costs; in the case of motorised travel, this may include contributing to rising obesity levels. Obesity has in turn been hypothesised to increase motorised travel and/or CO2 emissions, both because heavier people may use motorised travel more and because heavier people may choose larger and less fuel-efficient cars. These hypothesised associations have not been examined empirically, however, nor has previous research examined associations with other health characteristics. Our aim was therefore to examine how and why weight status, health, and physical activity are associated with transport CO2 emissions. Methods 3463 adults completed questionnaires in the baseline iConnect survey at three study sites in the UK, reporting their health, weight, height and past-week physical activity. Seven-day recall instruments were used to assess travel behaviour and, together with data on car characteristics, were used to estimate CO2 emissions. We used path analysis to examine the extent to which active travel, motorised travel and car engine size explained associations between health characteristics and CO2 emissions. Results CO2 emissions were higher in overweight or obese participants (multivariable standardized probit coefficients 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25 for overweight vs. normal weight; 0.16, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.28 for obese vs. normal weight). Lower active travel and, particularly for obesity, larger car engine size explained 19-31% of this effect, but most of the effect was directly explained by greater distance travelled by motor vehicles. Walking for recreation and leisure-time physical activity were associated with higher motorised travel distance and therefore higher CO2 emissions, while active travel was associated with lower CO2 emissions. Poor health and illness were not independently associated with CO2 emissions. Conclusions Establishing the direction of causality

  17. Walking Activity, Body Composition and Blood Pressure in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disabilities engage in limited physical activity which places their health at risk. This study examined the walking activity, body composition and blood pressure of adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods: A group of male and female adults (n = 103) wore a pedometer for 7 days and were categorized…

  18. Activating and relaxing music entrains the speed of beat synchronized walking.

    PubMed

    Leman, Marc; Moelants, Dirk; Varewyck, Matthias; Styns, Frederik; van Noorden, Leon; Martens, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a theory of embodied music cognition, we investigate whether music can entrain the speed of beat synchronized walking. If human walking is in synchrony with the beat and all musical stimuli have the same duration and the same tempo, then differences in walking speed can only be the result of music-induced differences in stride length, thus reflecting the vigor or physical strength of the movement. Participants walked in an open field in synchrony with the beat of 52 different musical stimuli all having a tempo of 130 beats per minute and a meter of 4 beats. The walking speed was measured as the walked distance during a time interval of 30 seconds. The results reveal that some music is 'activating' in the sense that it increases the speed, and some music is 'relaxing' in the sense that it decreases the speed, compared to the spontaneous walked speed in response to metronome stimuli. Participants are consistent in their observation of qualitative differences between the relaxing and activating musical stimuli. Using regression analysis, it was possible to set up a predictive model using only four sonic features that explain 60% of the variance. The sonic features capture variation in loudness and pitch patterns at periods of three, four and six beats, suggesting that expressive patterns in music are responsible for the effect. The mechanism may be attributed to an attentional shift, a subliminal audio-motor entrainment mechanism, or an arousal effect, but further study is needed to figure this out. Overall, the study supports the hypothesis that recurrent patterns of fluctuation affecting the binary meter strength of the music may entrain the vigor of the movement. The study opens up new perspectives for understanding the relationship between entrainment and expressiveness, with the possibility to develop applications that can be used in domains such as sports and physical rehabilitation. PMID:23874469

  19. Aggregation and spatial analysis of walking activity in an urban area: results from the Halifax space-time activity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neatt, K.; Millward, H.; Spinney, J.

    2016-04-01

    This study examines neighborhood characteristics affecting the incidence of walking trips in urban and suburban areas of Halifax, Canada. We employ data from the Space-Time Activity Research (STAR) survey, conducted in 2007-8. Primary respondents completed a two- day time-diary survey, and their movements were tracked using a GPS data logger. Primary respondents logged a total of 5,005 walking trips, specified by 781,205 individual GPS points. Redundant and erroneous points, such as those with zero or excessive speed, were removed. Data points were then imported into ArcGIS, converted from points to linear features, visually inspected for data quality, and cleaned appropriately. From mapped walking tracks we developed hypotheses regarding variations in walking density. To test these, walking distances were aggregated by census tracts (CTs), and expressed as walking densities (per resident, per metre of road, and per developed area). We employed multivariate regression to examine which neighborhood (CT) variables are most useful as estimators of walking densities. Contrary to much of the planning literature, built-environment measures of road connectivity and dwelling density were found to have little estimating power. Office and institutional land uses are more useful estimators, as are the income and age characteristics of the resident population.

  20. School travel mode, parenting practices and physical activity among UK Year 5 and 6 children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background School travel mode and parenting practices have been associated with children’s physical activity (PA). The current study sought to examine whether PA parenting practices differ by school travel mode and whether school travel mode and PA parenting practices are associated with PA. Methods 469 children (aged 9-11) wore accelerometers from which mean weekday and after-school (3.30 to 8.30 pm) minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and counts per minute (CPM) were derived. Mode of travel to and from school (passive vs. active) and PA parenting practices (maternal and paternal logistic support and modelling behaviour) were child-reported. Results Children engaged in an average of 59.7 minutes of MVPA per weekday. Active travel to school by girls was associated with 5.9 more minutes of MVPA per day compared with those who travelled to school passively (p = 0.004). After-school CPM and MVPA did not differ by school travel mode. There was no evidence that physical activity parenting practices were associated with school travel mode. Conclusions For girls, encouraging active travel to school is likely to be important for overall PA. Further formative research may be warranted to understand how both parental logistic support and active travel decisions are operationalized in families as a means of understanding how to promote increased PA among pre-adolescent children. PMID:24739338

  1. Travel determinants and multi-scale transferability of national activity patterns to local populations

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, Kriste M; Gou; ias, Konstadinos G

    2010-11-30

    The ability to transfer national travel patterns to a local population is of interest when attempting to model megaregions or areas that exceed metropolitan planning organization (MPO) boundaries. At the core of this research are questions about the connection between travel behavior and land use, urban form, and accessibility. As a part of this process, a group of land use variables have been identified to define activity and travel patterns for individuals and households. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) participants are divided into categories comprised of a set of latent cluster models representing persons, travel, and land use. These are compared to two sets of cluster models constructed for two local travel surveys. Comparison of means statistical tests are used to assess differences among sociodemographic groups residing in localities with similar land uses. The results show that the NHTS and the local surveys share mean population activity and travel characteristics. However, these similarities mask behavioral heterogeneity that are shown when distributions of activity and travel behavior are examined. Therefore, data from a national household travel survey cannot be used to model local population travel characteristics if the goal to model the actual distributions and not mean travel behavior characteristics.

  2. Beta activity in the premotor cortex is increased during stabilized as compared to normal walking

    PubMed Central

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Van Dieën, Jaap H.; Daffertshofer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Walking on two legs is inherently unstable. Still, we humans perform remarkable well at it, mostly without falling. To gain more understanding of the role of the brain in controlling gait stability we measured brain activity using electro-encephalography (EEG) during stabilized and normal walking. Subjects walked on a treadmill in two conditions, each lasting 10 min; normal, and while being laterally stabilized by elastic cords. Kinematics of trunk and feet, electro-myography (EMG) of neck muscles, as well as 64-channel EEG were recorded. To assess gait stability the local divergence exponent, step width, and trunk range of motion were calculated from the kinematic data. We used independent component (IC) analysis to remove movement, EMG, and eyeblink artifacts from the EEG, after which dynamic imaging of coherent sources beamformers were determined to identify cortical sources that showed a significant difference between conditions. Stabilized walking led to a significant increase in gait stability, i.e., lower local divergence exponents. Beamforming analysis of the beta band activity revealed significant sources in bilateral pre-motor cortices. Projection of sensor data on these sources showed a significant difference only in the left premotor area, with higher beta power during stabilized walking, specifically around push-off, although only significant around contralateral push-off. It appears that even during steady gait the cortex is involved in the control of stability. PMID:26578937

  3. Detection of abnormal muscle activations during walking following spinal cord injury (SCI).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Low, K H; McGregor, Alison H; Tow, Adela

    2013-04-01

    In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI participants were given assistance from physiotherapists, if required, while they were walking. In agreement with other research, larger cadence and smaller step length and swing phase of SCI gait were observed as a result of muscle weakness and resultant gait instability. Muscle activation patterns of seven major leg muscles were collected. The EMG signal was processed by the RMS in frequency domain to represent the muscle activation power, and the distribution of muscle activation was compared between healthy and SCI participants. The alternations of muscle activation within the phases of the gait cycle are highlighted to facilitate our understanding of the underlying muscular activation following SCI. Key differences were observed (p-value=0.0006) in the reduced activation of tibialis anterior (TA) in single stance phase and rectus femoris (RF) in swing phase (p-value=0.0011). We can then conclude that the proposed assessment approach of gait provides valuable information that can be used to target and define therapeutic interventions and their evaluation; hence impacting the functional outcome of SCI individuals. PMID:23396198

  4. Activating and Relaxing Music Entrains the Speed of Beat Synchronized Walking

    PubMed Central

    Leman, Marc; Moelants, Dirk; Varewyck, Matthias; Styns, Frederik; van Noorden, Leon; Martens, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a theory of embodied music cognition, we investigate whether music can entrain the speed of beat synchronized walking. If human walking is in synchrony with the beat and all musical stimuli have the same duration and the same tempo, then differences in walking speed can only be the result of music-induced differences in stride length, thus reflecting the vigor or physical strength of the movement. Participants walked in an open field in synchrony with the beat of 52 different musical stimuli all having a tempo of 130 beats per minute and a meter of 4 beats. The walking speed was measured as the walked distance during a time interval of 30 seconds. The results reveal that some music is ‘activating’ in the sense that it increases the speed, and some music is ‘relaxing’ in the sense that it decreases the speed, compared to the spontaneous walked speed in response to metronome stimuli. Participants are consistent in their observation of qualitative differences between the relaxing and activating musical stimuli. Using regression analysis, it was possible to set up a predictive model using only four sonic features that explain 60% of the variance. The sonic features capture variation in loudness and pitch patterns at periods of three, four and six beats, suggesting that expressive patterns in music are responsible for the effect. The mechanism may be attributed to an attentional shift, a subliminal audio-motor entrainment mechanism, or an arousal effect, but further study is needed to figure this out. Overall, the study supports the hypothesis that recurrent patterns of fluctuation affecting the binary meter strength of the music may entrain the vigor of the movement. The study opens up new perspectives for understanding the relationship between entrainment and expressiveness, with the possibility to develop applications that can be used in domains such as sports and physical rehabilitation. PMID:23874469

  5. Feasible muscle activation ranges based on inverse dynamics analyses of human walking.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Cole S; Sohn, M Hongchul; Allen, Jessica L; Ting, Lena H

    2015-09-18

    Although it is possible to produce the same movement using an infinite number of different muscle activation patterns owing to musculoskeletal redundancy, the degree to which observed variations in muscle activity can deviate from optimal solutions computed from biomechanical models is not known. Here, we examined the range of biomechanically permitted activation levels in individual muscles during human walking using a detailed musculoskeletal model and experimentally-measured kinetics and kinematics. Feasible muscle activation ranges define the minimum and maximum possible level of each muscle's activation that satisfy inverse dynamics joint torques assuming that all other muscles can vary their activation as needed. During walking, 73% of the muscles had feasible muscle activation ranges that were greater than 95% of the total muscle activation range over more than 95% of the gait cycle, indicating that, individually, most muscles could be fully active or fully inactive while still satisfying inverse dynamics joint torques. Moreover, the shapes of the feasible muscle activation ranges did not resemble previously-reported muscle activation patterns nor optimal solutions, i.e. static optimization and computed muscle control, that are based on the same biomechanical constraints. Our results demonstrate that joint torque requirements from standard inverse dynamics calculations are insufficient to define the activation of individual muscles during walking in healthy individuals. Identifying feasible muscle activation ranges may be an effective way to evaluate the impact of additional biomechanical and/or neural constraints on possible versus actual muscle activity in both normal and impaired movements. PMID:26300401

  6. The social environment and walking behavior among low-income housing residents

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Caitlin E.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, SV; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald; Sorensen, Glorian

    2012-01-01

    Walking, both for leisure and for travel/errands, counts towards meeting physical activity recommendations. Both social and physical neighborhood environmental features may encourage or inhibit walking. This study examined social capital, perceived safety, and disorder in relation to walking behavior among a population of low-income housing residents. Social and physical disorder were assessed by systematic social observation in the area surrounding 20 low-income housing sites in greater-Boston. A cross-sectional survey of 828 residents of these housing sites provided data on walking behavior, socio-demographics, and individual-level social capital and perceived safety of the areas in and around the housing site. Community social capital and safety were calculated by aggregating individual scores to the level of the housing site. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios for walking less than 10 minutes per day for a) travel/errands, b) leisure and c) both travel/errands and leisure. 21.8% of participants walked for travel/ errands less than 10 minutes per day, 34.8% for leisure, and 16.8% for both kinds of walking. In fully adjusted models, those who reported low individual-level social capital and safety also reported less overall walking and less walking for travel/errands. Unexpectedly, those who reported low social disorder also reported less walking for leisure, and those who reported high community social capital also walked less for all outcomes. Physical disorder and community safety were not associated with walking behavior. For low-income housing residents, neighborhood social environmental variables are unlikely the most important factors in determining walking behavior. Researchers should carefully weigh the respective limitations of subjective and objective measures of the social environment when linking them to health outcomes. PMID:23312303

  7. Correlations between Muscle Activities and Strap Length and Types of School Bag during Walking.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Gyu

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between muscle activities and strap length and type of the school bag during walking. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy students. An 8-channel electromyograph (8-EMG) (Pocket EMG, BTS, Italy) was used to measure the muscle activities of the right upper trapezius, left upper trapezius, right erector spinae and left erector spinae during walking with the bag. The collected data were analyzed using Kendall's coefficient of concordance. [Results] The muscle activities of the right upper trapezius, left upper trapezius, right erector spinae and left erector spinae were significantly higher when walking with a shoulder bag than when walking with a backpack. No significant correlations were found between muscle activities and strap lengths of the bag. [Conclusion] While carrying a bag, the activities of the trunk muscles were influenced more by the type of the bag than by the strap length. These results indicate that a backpack is a better method of carrying a load than a shoulder bag. PMID:25540502

  8. Correlations between Muscle Activities and Strap Length and Types of School Bag during Walking

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between muscle activities and strap length and type of the school bag during walking. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy students. An 8-channel electromyograph (8-EMG) (Pocket EMG, BTS, Italy) was used to measure the muscle activities of the right upper trapezius, left upper trapezius, right erector spinae and left erector spinae during walking with the bag. The collected data were analyzed using Kendall’s coefficient of concordance. [Results] The muscle activities of the right upper trapezius, left upper trapezius, right erector spinae and left erector spinae were significantly higher when walking with a shoulder bag than when walking with a backpack. No significant correlations were found between muscle activities and strap lengths of the bag. [Conclusion] While carrying a bag, the activities of the trunk muscles were influenced more by the type of the bag than by the strap length. These results indicate that a backpack is a better method of carrying a load than a shoulder bag. PMID:25540502

  9. Powered hip exoskeletons can reduce the user's hip and ankle muscle activations during walking.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Tommaso; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Agrawal, Sunil K

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we study the human locomotor adaptation to the action of a powered exoskeleton providing assistive torque at the user's hip during walking. To this end, we propose a controller that provides the user's hip with a fraction of the nominal torque profile, adapted to the specific gait features of the user from Winter's reference data . The assistive controller has been implemented on the ALEX II exoskeleton and tested on ten healthy subjects. Experimental results show that when assisted by the exoskeleton, users can reduce the muscle effort compared to free walking. Despite providing assistance only to the hip joint, both hip and ankle muscles significantly reduced their activation, indicating a clear tradeoff between hip and ankle strategy to propel walking. PMID:23529105

  10. University of Louisville finds group walking programs help increase faculty and staff activity.

    PubMed

    Benson, Patricia; McKim, Paul; Ramsey, James R

    2008-03-01

    A self-insured institution, the University of Louisville implemented a faculty and staff wellness program in 2005 to help control the cost of health insurance to the university and to its employees by addressing the three primary lifestyle drivers of health care cost: stress, physical inactivity, and obesity. The program, Get Healthy Now, provides resources to help employees understand their health status and take corrective action where needed. One successful initiative within Get Healthy Now has been "Trek the Trail." Faculty and staff teams collectively walked the length of the Appalachian Trail over a 6-month period. After 19 weeks, and with 9 weeks to go, the 655 trek participants had walked more than 170,000 miles. Teams that had completed the trek continued to walk and to log their activity. PMID:18488969

  11. Prevalence and predictors of unsupervised walking and physical activity in a community population of women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    López-Roig, Sofía; Pastor, María-Ángeles; Peñacoba, Cecilia; Lledó, Ana; Sanz, Yolanda; Velasco, Lilian

    2016-08-01

    Physical exercise is recognized as a component of the evidence-based guidelines for treatment of fibromyalgia. Walking is a low-moderate intensity exercise easily adaptable to a fibromyalgia patient's situation. The present study aims to estimate the prevalence of unsupervised walking for exercise in women with fibromyalgia, to describe their level of physical activity and to identify their predictors among socio-demographic, symptom perception and medical advice to walk. A cross-sectional survey with 920 women (all members of fibromyalgia associations) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form and self-reported scales to assess symptom perception, walking, medical advice to walk and physical comorbidity. The prevalence of reported walking regularly as physical exercise was 30.8 % and it was predicted by medical advice (odds ratio, OR 1.876), age (OR 1.021) and fatigue intensity (OR 0.912). The prevalence of physical activity was 16 % for high-intensity activity, 40 % for moderate activity and 44 % for low activity. Predictors of low versus moderate and high physical activity were pain intensity (OR 1.171) and fatigue impact perception (OR 1.076). Evidence shows a low percentage of women with fibromyalgia walking regularly for physical exercise. Most reported low or moderate physical activity. The results indicate the importance of doctors' advice in promoting walking. Symptom perception and socio-demographic characteristics were weak predictors. Further work is required to examine other determinants of these low levels. PMID:27262713

  12. Increasing Children's Physical Activity: Individual, Social, and Environmental Factors Associated with Walking to and from School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapp, Georgina S. A.; Giles-Corti, Billie; Christian, Hayley E.; Bulsara, Max; Timperio, Anna F.; McCormack, Gavin R.; Villaneuva, Karen P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Efforts to increase the prevalence of children's active school transport require evidence to inform the development of comprehensive interventions. This study used a multilevel ecological framework to investigate individual, social, and environmental factors associated with walking to and from school among elementary school-aged…

  13. Encouraging overweight students with intellectual disability to actively perform walking activity using an air mouse combined with preferred stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Jui; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    This study continues the research on using an air mouse as a physical activity detector. An air mouse is embedded with a MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) gyro sensor, which can measure even the slightest movement in the air. The air mouse was strapped to one of each participant's calves to detect walking activity. This study was conducted to evaluate whether four students with intellectual disability who were overweight and disliked exercising could be motivated to engage in walking actively by linking the target response with preferred stimulation. Single-subject research with ABAB design was adopted in this study. The experimental data showed substantial increases in the participants' target responses (i.e. the performance of the activity of walking) during the intervention phases compared to the baseline phases. The practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:27037988

  14. Effects of combined exercise on changes of lower extremity muscle activation during walking in older women.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaehyun; Lee, Joongsook; Yang, Jeongok; Lee, Bomjin; Han, Dongwook

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of combined exercise for a period of 12 weeks on the changes in lower extremity muscle activation during walking in older women. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 22 elderly women who were 65 years of age or older and living in B-City. The subjects had no nervous system or muscular system diseases that might affect walking in the previous two years. [Methods] Muscle activation was measured by using surface EMG (QEMG-8, Laxtha, Daejeon, Republic of Korea). The subjects were asked to walk on an 8 m of footpath at a natural speed. In order to minimize the noise from the cable connecting the EMG measuring instrument to the electrodes, tape was used to affix the electrodes so that they would not fall off the subjects. The EMG data were analyzed by using the RMS. [Results] Muscle activation of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius was increased significantly after combined exercise for 12 weeks. However, no increase was observed in the left biceps femoris. [Conclusion] It was demonstrated that our exercise program, which includes aerobic walking exercises, senior-robics, and muscle strengthening exercises using elastic bands, is very effective for reorganizing the normal gait pattern in the cerebral cortex and improving muscle strength. PMID:26157253

  15. Changes in Tibiofemoral Forces due to Variations in Muscle Activity during Walking

    PubMed Central

    DeMers, Matthew S.; Pal, Saikat; Delp, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    Muscles induce large forces in the tibiofemoral joint during walking and thereby influence the health of tissues like articular cartilage and menisci. It is possible to walk with a wide variety of muscle coordination patterns, but the effect of varied muscle coordination on tibiofemoral contact forces remains unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of varied muscle coordination on tibiofemoral contact forces. We developed a musculoskeletal model of a subject walking with an instrumented knee implant. Using an optimization framework, we calculated the tibiofemoral forces resulting from muscle coordination that reproduced the subject’s walking dynamics. We performed a large set of optimizations in which we systematically varied the coordination of muscles to determine the influence on tibiofemoral force. Model-predicted tibiofemoral forces arising with minimum muscle activation matched in vivo forces measured during early stance, but were greater than in vivo forces during late stance. Peak tibiofemoral forces during late stance could be reduced by increasing the activation of the gluteus medius, uniarticular hip flexors, and soleus, and by decreasing the activation of the gastrocnemius and rectus femoris. These results suggest that retraining of muscle coordination could substantially reduce tibiofemoral forces during late stance. PMID:24615885

  16. Impact of a walking school bus program on children’s active commuting to school and physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Walking School Bus (WSB) pilot program was evaluated to determine the impact on student’s Active Commuting to School (ACS) and moderate-to vigorous- physical activity (MVPA). We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 8 low income, elementary schools in Houston, TX, USA. Students (n=149) wer...

  17. D.U.C.K. Walking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steller, Jenifer J.

    This manual presents a schoolwide walking program that includes aerobic fitness information, curriculum integration, and walking tours. "Discover and Understand Carolina Kids by Walking" is D.U.C.K. Walking. An aerobic walking activity, D.U.C.K. Walking has two major goals: (1) to promote regular walking as a way to exercise at any age; and (2) to…

  18. How do you learn to walk? Thousands of steps and dozens of falls per day.

    PubMed

    Adolph, Karen E; Cole, Whitney G; Komati, Meghana; Garciaguirre, Jessie S; Badaly, Daryaneh; Lingeman, Jesse M; Chan, Gladys L Y; Sotsky, Rachel B

    2012-01-01

    A century of research on the development of walking has examined periodic gait over a straight, uniform path. The current study provides the first corpus of natural infant locomotion derived from spontaneous activity during free play. Locomotor experience was immense: Twelve- to 19-month-olds averaged 2,368 steps and 17 falls per hour. Novice walkers traveled farther faster than expert crawlers, but had comparable fall rates, which suggests that increased efficiency without increased cost motivates expert crawlers to transition to walking. After walking onset, natural locomotion improved dramatically: Infants took more steps, traveled farther distances, and fell less. Walking was distributed in short bouts with variable paths--frequently too short or irregular to qualify as periodic gait. Nonetheless, measures of periodic gait and of natural locomotion were correlated, which indicates that better walkers spontaneously walk more and fall less. Immense amounts of time-distributed, variable practice constitute the natural practice regimen for learning to walk. PMID:23085640

  19. How Do You Learn to Walk? Thousands of Steps and Dozens of Falls Per Day

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Karen E.; Cole, Whitney G.; Komati, Meghana; Garciaguirre, Jessie S.; Badaly, Daryaneh; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Chan, Gladys; Sotsky, Rachel B.

    2013-01-01

    A century of research has described the development of walking based on periodic gait over a straight, uniform path. The current study provides the first corpus of natural infant locomotion based on spontaneous activity during free play. Locomotor experience was immense: 12- to 19-month-olds averaged 2368 steps and fell 17 times/hour. Novice walkers traveled farther faster than expert crawlers, but fall rates were comparable, suggesting that increased efficiency without increased cost motivates expert crawlers to transition to walking. After walking onset, natural locomotion dramatically improved: Infants took more steps, traveled farther distances, and fell less. Walking was distributed in short bouts with variable paths—frequently too short or irregular to qualify as periodic gait. Nonetheless, measures of periodic gait and natural locomotion were correlated, indicating that better walkers spontaneously walk more and fall less. Immense amounts of time-distributed, variable practice constitute the natural practice regimen for learning to walk. PMID:23085640

  20. Self-Selected Walking Speed is Predictive of Daily Ambulatory Activity in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Addie; Fulk, George D; Beets, Michael W; Herter, Troy M; Fritz, Stacy L

    2016-04-01

    Daily ambulatory activity is associated with health and functional status in older adults; however, assessment requires multiple days of activity monitoring. The objective of this study was to determine the relative capabilities of self-selected walking speed (SSWS), maximal walking speed (MWS), and walking speed reserve (WSR) to provide insight into daily ambulatory activity (steps per day) in community-dwelling older adults. Sixty-seven older adults completed testing and activity monitoring (age 80.39 [6.73] years). SSWS (R2 = .51), MWS (R2 = .35), and WSR calculated as a ratio (R2 = .06) were significant predictors of daily ambulatory activity in unadjusted linear regression. Cutpoints for participants achieving < 8,000 steps/day were identified for SSWS (≤ 0.97 m/s, 44.2% sensitivity, 95.7% specificity, 10.28 +LR, 0.58 -LR) and MWS (≤ 1.39 m/s, 60.5% sensitivity, 78.3% specificity, 2.79 +LR, 0.50 -LR). SSWS may be a feasible proxy for assessing and monitoring daily ambulatory activity in older adults. PMID:26371593

  1. Translating the Dutch Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires into German and assessing their concurrent validity with VAS measures of pain and activities in daily living

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Dutch Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires are three validated instruments to measure physical activity and limitations in daily living in patients with lower extremity disorders living at home of which no German equivalents are available. Our scope was to translate the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires into German and to verify its concurrent validity in the two domains pain and activities in daily living by comparing them with the corresponding measures on the Visual Analogue Scale. Methods We translated the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires according to published guidelines. Demographic data and validity were assessed in 52 consecutive patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 of the lower extremity. Information on age, duration of symptoms, type of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and type of initiating event were obtained. We assessed the concurrent validity in the two domains pain and activities in daily living by comparing them with the corresponding measures on the Visual Analogue Scale. Results We found that variability in the German Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires was largely explained by measures of pain and activities in daily living on the Visual Analogue Scale. Conclusion Our study shows that the domains pain and activities in daily living are properly represented in the German versions of the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Raising and Sitting Questionnaires. We would like to propagate their use in clinical practice and research alike. PMID:20515456

  2. Ebola active monitoring system for travelers returning from West Africa—Georgia, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Parham, Mary; Edison, Laura; Soetebier, Karl; Feldpausch, Amanda; Kunkes, Audrey; Smith, Wendy; Guffey, Taylor; Fetherolf, Romana; Sanlis, Kathryn; Gabel, Julie; Cowell, Alex; Drenzek, Cherie

    2015-04-10

    The Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa has so far produced approximately 25,000 cases, more than 40 times the number in any previously documented Ebola outbreak. Because of the risk for imported disease from infected travelers, in October 2014 CDC recommended that all travelers to the United States from Ebola-affected countries receive enhanced entry screening and postarrival active monitoring for Ebola signs or symptoms until 21 days after their departure from an Ebola-affected country. The state of Georgia began its active monitoring program on October 25, 2014. The Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) modified its existing, web-based electronic notifiable disease reporting system to create an Ebola Active Monitoring System (EAMS). DPH staff members developed EAMS from conceptualization to implementation in 6 days. In accordance with CDC recommendations, "low (but not zero) risk" travelers are required to report their daily health status to DPH, and the EAMS dashboard enables DPH epidemiologists to track symptoms and compliance with active monitoring. Through March 31, 2015, DPH monitored 1,070 travelers, and 699 (65%) used their EAMS traveler login instead of telephone or e-mail to report their health status. Medical evaluations were performed on 30 travelers, of whom three were tested for Ebola. EAMS has enabled two epidemiologists to monitor approximately 100 travelers daily, and to rapidly respond to travelers reporting signs and symptoms of potential Ebola virus infection. Similar electronic tracking systems might be useful for other jurisdictions. PMID:25856255

  3. User-Driven Control Increases Cortical Activity during Treadmill Walking: An EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Bulea, Thomas C.; Kim, Jonghyun; Damiano, Diane L.; Stanley, Christopher J.; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Treadmills provide a safe and efficient method for gait rehabilitation but treadmill based training paradigms have not been shown to create superior results when compared with traditional physical therapy methods such as overground training. One explanation for this may be that walking at a constant, fixed speed requires little mental engagement from the user, which has been postulated as a key factor in the success of motor learning. To increase mental engagement, we developed a user-driven treadmill control scheme. In this paper we use electroencephalography (EEG) to compare cortical activity during user-driven (active) walking with activity on a normal (passive) treadmill in nine healthy subjects. We used independent component analysis (ICA) to isolate brain activity from artifactual components. We fit equivalent dipole sources to each brain component and clustered these across subjects. Our analysis revealed that relative to the passive treadmill, active walking resulted in statistically significant decreases in spectral power, i.e. desynchronization, in the anterior cingulate, sensorimotor cortices, and posterior parietal lobe of the cortex. These results indicate that user-driven treadmills more fully engage the motor cortex and therefore could facilitate better training outcomes than a traditional treadmill. PMID:25570401

  4. Prefrontal, posterior parietal and sensorimotor network activity underlying speed control during walking

    PubMed Central

    Bulea, Thomas C.; Kim, Jonghyun; Damiano, Diane L.; Stanley, Christopher J.; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests cortical circuits may contribute to control of human locomotion. Here, noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) recorded from able-bodied volunteers during a novel treadmill walking paradigm was used to assess neural correlates of walking. A systematic processing method, including a recently developed subspace reconstruction algorithm, reduced movement-related EEG artifact prior to independent component analysis and dipole source localization. We quantified cortical activity while participants tracked slow and fast target speeds across two treadmill conditions: an active mode that adjusted belt speed based on user movements and a passive mode reflecting a typical treadmill. Our results reveal frequency specific, multi-focal task related changes in cortical oscillations elicited by active walking. Low γ band power, localized to the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices, was significantly increased during double support and early swing phases, critical points in the gait cycle since the active controller adjusted speed based on pelvis position and swing foot velocity. These phasic γ band synchronizations provide evidence that prefrontal and posterior parietal networks, previously implicated in visuo-spatial and somotosensory integration, are engaged to enhance lower limb control during gait. Sustained μ and β band desynchronization within sensorimotor cortex, a neural correlate for movement, was observed during walking thereby validating our methods for isolating cortical activity. Our results also demonstrate the utility of EEG recorded during locomotion for probing the multi-regional cortical networks which underpin its execution. For example, the cortical network engagement elicited by the active treadmill suggests that it may enhance neuroplasticity for more effective motor training. PMID:26029077

  5. Electromyographic and haemodynamic activities in lumbar muscles during bicycle ergometer exercise and walking.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Hirata, J; Ohtsuki, K; Watanabe, S

    2010-01-01

    Although bicycle ergometer exercise and walking are recommended as aerobic exercise for patients with lumbago, little research has been done to examine the muscular activities and circulatory dynamics during these exercises. In this study, we aimed at obtaining basic information on aerobic exercises effective for patients with lumbago by investigating the activities and circulatory dynamics of their lumbar muscles during bicycle ergometer exercise and walking. As subjects, we selected 10 healthy adults (23.7 +/- 3.4 years old) with no anamnestic history of lumbago. The measurement conditions were 4 types of exercise: walking (4.0 km/h); 25W, 50W and 75W bicycle ergometer exercises. The activities of the lumbar muscles during the exercises were measured by a surface electromyograph, and percent of MVC was calculated from the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). With regard to the circulatory dynamics of the lumbar muscles, we measured oxygenated hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Deoxy-Hb) before and after the exercises with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The change rates during the exercises were calculated based on the values before the exercises. Paired t test was employed to analyse the comparison of the circulatory dynamics of the lumbar muscles between, before and during the exercises. With respect to the comparison of the change rates of the muscular activities and circulatory dynamics among each of the exercises, we employed the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p < .05). The lumbar muscular activities during the walking were significantly higher than those during the bicycle ergometer exercise were at each load level. The Oxy-Hb increased significantly during the 25W and 50W bicycle ergometer exercises, as opposed to before the exercises. It showed a tendency to decrease during the 75W bicycle ergometer exercise and walking, but not significant. The change rate of the Oxy-Hb during the 25W bicycle ergometer exercise indicated a higher

  6. Correlates of distances traveled to use recreational facilities for physical activity behaviors

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Gavin R; Giles-Corti, Billie; Bulsara, Max; Pikora, Terri J

    2006-01-01

    Background Information regarding how far people are willing to travel to use destinations for different types of recreational physical activity behaviors is limited. This study examines the demographic characteristics, neighborhood opportunity and specific-physical activity behaviors associated with distances traveled to destinations used for recreational physical activity. Methods A secondary analysis was undertaken of data (n = 1006) from a survey of Western Australian adults. Road network distances between respondents' homes and 1) formal recreational facilities; 2) beaches and rivers; and 3) parks and ovals used for physical activity were determined. Associations between distances to destinations and demographic characteristics, neighborhood opportunity (number of destinations within 1600 meters of household), and physical activity behaviors were examined. Results Overall, 56.3% of respondents had used a formal recreational facility, 39.9% a beach or river, and 38.7% a park or oval. The mean distance traveled to all destinations used for physical activity was 5463 ± 5232 meters (m). Distances traveled to formal recreational facilities, beaches and rivers, and parks and ovals differed depending on the physical activity undertaken. Younger adults traveled further than older adults (7311.8 vs. 6012.6 m, p = 0.03) to use beaches and rivers as did residents of socio-economically disadvantaged areas compared with those in advantaged areas (8118.0 vs. 7311.8 m, p = 0.02). Club members traveled further than non-members to use parks and ovals (4156.3 vs. 3351.6 meters, p = 0.02). The type of physical activity undertaken at a destination and number of neighborhood opportunities were also associated with distance traveled for all destination types. Conclusion The distances adults travel to a recreational facility depends on the demographic characteristics, destination type, physical activity behavior undertaken at that destination, and number of neighborhood

  7. Sex Differences in Incline-Walking among Humans.

    PubMed

    Wall-Scheffler, Cara M

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has shown that people tend to walk around the speed that minimizes energy consumption when traveling a given distance. It has further been shown that men and women have different speeds that minimize energy and that women will choose slower speeds when the activity itself is a high-rate activity (e.g. carrying a load). Here we investigate what men and women will do when given a high rate walking activity, namely walking on an inclined surface. Fourteen people (nine men and five women) walked at four speeds on a level treadmill and four speeds on an inclined treadmill while their metabolic rate, kinematics and core temperature were monitored. Following the data collection, participants were asked to identify their ‘preferred’ walking speed at each of the conditions. Cost of transport (CoT) curves were calculated for each individual, and the delta between the preferred and the ‘optimal’ speeds were calculated. People chose to walk at slightly slower speeds on the level; there was minimal change in the cost to walk at these slower speeds. Women walked at absolutely slower speeds on the incline than men (P=0.06) and had significantly larger speed deltas (P=0.02), thus choosing to walk at slower rate speeds. Women also showed a significant relationship between the rate of activity and core temperature, whereas men did not. This is consistent with other research showing that women choose behavioral strategies to minimize body temperature changes. PMID:26901887

  8. Armchair Travels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1994-01-01

    Includes ideas and activities for school library media specialists relating to vacationing and traveling, including the use of maps, travel brochures, travel diaries, postcards, videos, slides, and guest speakers. An annotated bibliography of 75 pertinent sources of information, including picture books, intermediate level, nonfiction,…

  9. Effect of active arm swing to local dynamic stability during walking.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Li, Yue; Liu, An-Min; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Yin-Zhi; Hu, Fei; Chen, Jin-Ling; Dai, Ke-Rong; Gu, Dong-Yun

    2016-02-01

    Arm swing is an essential component in regulating dynamic stability of the whole body during walking, while the contribution of active arm swing to local dynamic stability of different motion segments remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of arm swing under natural arm swing condition and active arm swing condition on local dynamic stability and gait variability of the trunk segments (C7 and T10 joint) and lower extremity joints (hip, knee and ankle joint). The local divergence exponents (λs) and mean standard deviation over strides (MeanSD) of 24 young healthy adults were calculated while they were walking on treadmill with two arm swing conditions at their preferred walking speed (PWS). We found that in medial-lateral direction, both λs and MeanSD values of the trunk segments (C7 and T10 joint) in active arm swing condition were significantly lower than those in natural arm swing condition (p<0.05), while no significant difference of λs or MeanSD in lower extremity joints (hip, knee and ankle joint) was found between two arm swing conditions (p>0.05, respectively). In anterior-posterior and vertical direction, neither λs nor MeanSD values of all body segments showed significant difference between two arm swing conditions (p>0.05, respectively). These findings indicate that active arm swing may help to improve the local dynamic stability of the trunk segments in medial-lateral direction. PMID:26615477

  10. Cortical activation during visual illusory walking in persons with spinal cord injury: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Eick, John; Richardson, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the location of cortical activation during a visual illusion walking paradigm, a recently proposed treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI)-related neuropathic pain, in persons with SCI compared to able-bodied controls. Design Pilot experimental fMRI trial. Setting Outpatient rehabilitation clinic. Participants Three persons with paraplegia and five able bodied participants were included in this study. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Cortical activation as measured by blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) method of fMRI. Results During visually illusory walking, there was significant activation in the somatosensory cortex among those with SCI. In contrast, able-bodied participants showed little to no significant activation in this area, but rather, in the frontal and pre-motor areas. Conclusions Treatment modalities for SCI-related neuropathic pain that are based on sensory input paradigms such as virtual or visual illusory walking may work by targeting somatosensory cortex, an area that has been previously found to functionally reorganize following SCI. PMID:25461820

  11. Impact of New Transport Infrastructure on Walking, Cycling, and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Panter, Jenna; Heinen, Eva; Mackett, Roger; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Walking and cycling bring health and environmental benefits, but there is little robust evidence that changing the built environment promotes these activities in populations. This study evaluated the effects of new transport infrastructure on active commuting and physical activity. Study design Quasi-experimental analysis nested within a cohort study. Setting/participants Four hundred and sixty-nine adult commuters, recruited through a predominantly workplace-based strategy, who lived within 30 kilometers of Cambridge, United Kingdom and worked in areas of the city to be served by the new transport infrastructure. Intervention The Cambridgeshire Guided Busway opened in 2011 and comprised a new bus network and a traffic-free walking and cycling route. Exposure to the intervention was defined using the shortest distance from each participant’s home to the busway. Main outcome measures Change in weekly time spent in active commuting between 2009 and 2012, measured by validated 7-day recall instrument. Secondary outcomes were changes in total weekly time spent walking and cycling and in recreational and overall physical activity, measured using the validated Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed in 2014. Results In multivariable multinomial regression models—adjusted for potential sociodemographic, geographic, health, and workplace confounders; baseline active commuting; and home or work relocation—exposure to the busway was associated with a significantly greater likelihood of an increase in weekly cycle commuting time (relative risk ratio=1.34, 95% CI=1.03, 1.76) and with an increase in overall time spent in active commuting among the least active commuters at baseline (relative risk ratio=1.76, 95% CI=1.16, 2.67). The study found no evidence of changes in recreational or overall physical activity. Conclusions Providing new sustainable transport infrastructure was effective in promoting an increase in active commuting. These

  12. Effects of shoe type on lower extremity muscle activity during treadmill walking

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of different shoe types on lower extremity muscle activity in healthy young women by using electromyography. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy young women in their 20s were included in this single-group repeated measures study. The subjects were divided into three groups: Converse sneakers, rain boots, and combat boots. The subjects walked on a treadmill at 4 km/h for 30 min, during which six muscles were examined using electromyography: the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, semimembranosus, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and medial head of the gastrocnemius. Between switching shoe types, a 24-h rest period was instated to prevent the fatigue effect from treadmill walking. [Results] One-way analysis of variance used to compare electromyography results among the three groups showed that the main effect of group differed significantly for the vastus medialis. Vastus medialis activity was higher in the rain boots group than the Converse sneakers group, and it was higher in the combat boots group than rain boots group. [Conclusion] Shoe type affects lower extremity muscle activity. Our findings may help individuals choose the ideal shoes for daily walking. PMID:26834363

  13. Characteristics of Walking, Activity, Fear of Falling and Falls in Community Dwelling Older Adults by Residence

    PubMed Central

    Wert, David M.; Talkowski, Jaime B.; Brach, Jennifer; VanSwearingen, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research focusing on community dwelling older adults includes adults living in senior living residences (SLR) and independent community residences (ICR). Walking, physical activity, fear and falls may differ based on residence. Purpose We describe characteristics of walking, physical activity, fear of falling and fall history between community dwelling older adults by residence. Methods Participants of this secondary analysis included community dwelling older adults from independent living units within a senior life care community (SLR) and older adults recruited from the Pittsburgh community (ICR). Demographic information, physical (gait speed and physical activity), psychosocial (fear of falling and confidence in walking) and fall history measures were collected. Results Adults living in SLR compared to ICR were older, more likely to live alone and had greater disease burden. Compared to ICR, individuals in SLR reported less fear of falling (SAFFE fear .24 and .50 respectively). Fewer older adults in SLR compared to ICR reported falling in the past year. Discussion Older adults living in SLR compared to ICR had similar physical function but differed in report of fear of falling and fall history. Recognizing the possible differences in psychosocial function by place of residence is important for healthcare providers and researchers conducting interventions and studies for community-dwelling older adults. PMID:20503733

  14. Factors influencing whether children walk to school.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; McConnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2013-07-01

    Few studies have simultaneously evaluated multiple levels of influence on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4338 subjects from 10 communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

  15. Factors Influencing Whether Children Walk to School

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; Mcconnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated multiple levels of influence simultaneously on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4,338 subjects from ten communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

  16. Muscle activation patterns during walking from transtibial amputees recorded within the residual limb-prosthetic interface

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Powered lower limb prostheses could be more functional if they had access to feedforward control signals from the user’s nervous system. Myoelectric signals are one potential control source. The purpose of this study was to determine if muscle activation signals could be recorded from residual lower limb muscles within the prosthetic socket-limb interface during walking. Methods We recorded surface electromyography from three lower leg muscles (tibilias anterior, gastrocnemius medial head, gastrocnemius lateral head) and four upper leg muscles (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gluteus medius) of 12 unilateral transtibial amputee subjects and 12 non-amputee subjects during treadmill walking at 0.7, 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 m/s. Muscle signals were recorded from the amputated leg of amputee subjects and the right leg of control subjects. For amputee subjects, lower leg muscle signals were recorded from within the limb-socket interface and from muscles above the knee. We quantified differences in the muscle activation profile between amputee and control groups during treadmill walking using cross-correlation analyses. We also assessed the step-to-step inter-subject variability of these profiles by calculating variance-to-signal ratios. Results We found that amputee subjects demonstrated reliable muscle recruitment signals from residual lower leg muscles recorded within the prosthetic socket during walking, which were locked to particular phases of the gait cycle. However, muscle activation profile variability was higher for amputee subjects than for control subjects. Conclusion Robotic lower limb prostheses could use myoelectric signals recorded from surface electrodes within the socket-limb interface to derive feedforward commands from the amputee’s nervous system. PMID:22882763

  17. Effect of Forest Walking on Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Middle-Aged Hypertensive Individuals: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chorong; Ikei, Harumi; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Taue, Masao; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing attention on the therapeutic effects of the forest environment. However, evidence-based research that clarifies the physiological effects of the forest environment on hypertensive individuals is lacking. This study provides scientific evidence suggesting that a brief forest walk affects autonomic nervous system activity in middle-aged hypertensive individuals. Twenty participants (58.0 ± 10.6 years) were instructed to walk predetermined courses in forest and urban environments (as control). Course length (17-min walk), walking speed, and energy expenditure were equal between the forest and urban environments to clarify the effects of each environment. Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate were used to quantify physiological responses. The modified semantic differential method and Profile of Mood States were used to determine psychological responses. The natural logarithm of the high-frequency component of HRV was significantly higher and heart rate was significantly lower when participants walked in the forest than when they walked in the urban environment. The questionnaire results indicated that, compared with the urban environment, walking in the forest increased “comfortable”, “relaxed”, “natural” and “vigorous” feelings and decreased “tension-anxiety,” “depression,” “anxiety-hostility,” “fatigue” and “confusion”. A brief walk in the forest elicited physiological and psychological relaxation effects on middle-aged hypertensive individuals. PMID:25739004

  18. 31 CFR 575.207 - Prohibited transactions relating to travel to Iraq or to activities within Iraq.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... travel to Iraq or to activities within Iraq. 575.207 Section 575.207 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY IRAQI SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 575.207 Prohibited transactions relating to travel to... transaction relating to travel by any U.S. citizen or permanent resident alien to Iraq, or to activities...

  19. Synergistic Structure in the Speed Dependent Modulation of Muscle Activity in Human Walking

    PubMed Central

    Buurke, Tom J. W.; Lamoth, Claud J. C.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Rob den Otter, A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a modular organisation has been proposed to simplify control of the large number of muscles involved in human walking. Although previous research indicates that a single set of modular activation patterns can account for muscle activity at different speeds, these studies only provide indirect evidence for the idea that speed regulation in human walking is under modular control. Here, a more direct approach was taken to assess the synergistic structure that underlies speed regulation, by isolating speed effects through the construction of gain functions that represent the linear relation between speed and amplitude for each point in the time-normalized gait cycle. The activity of 13 muscles in 13 participants was measured at 4 speeds (0.69, 1.00, 1.31, and 1.61 ms-1) during treadmill walking. Gain functions were constructed for each of the muscles, and gain functions and the activity patterns at 1.00 ms-1 were both subjected to dimensionality reduction, to obtain modular gain functions and modular basis functions, respectively. The results showed that 4 components captured most of the variance in the gain functions (74.0% ± 1.3%), suggesting that the neuromuscular regulation of speed is under modular control. Correlations between modular gain functions and modular basis functions (range 0.58–0.89) and the associated synergistic muscle weightings (range 0.6–0.95) were generally high, suggesting substantial overlap in the synergistic control of the basic phasing of muscle activity and its modulation through speed. Finally, the combined set of modular functions and associated weightings were well capable of predicting muscle activity patterns obtained at a speed (1.31 ms-1) that was not involved in the initial dimensionality reduction, confirming the robustness of the presently used approach. Taken together, these findings provide direct evidence of synergistic structure in speed regulation, and may inspire further work on flexibility in the modular

  20. Muscular activity when walking in a non-anthropomorphic wearable robot.

    PubMed

    Tagliamonte, N L; Accoto, D; Sergi, F; Sudano, A; Formica, D; Guglielmelli, E

    2014-01-01

    Wearable robots should be designed not to alter human physiological motion. Perturbations introduced by a robot can be quantified by measuring EMG activity. This paper presents tests on the LENAR, an intrinsically back-drivable non-anthropomorphic lower limb wearable robot designed to provide hip and knee flexion/extension assistance. In previous works the robot was demonstrated to exhibit low mechanical impedance and to introduce minor alterations to human kinematic patterns during walking. In this paper muscular activity is assessed, demonstrating small alterations in the EMG patterns during the interaction with the robot, in both unpowered and assistive mode. PMID:25570640

  1. Generalized Hammersley Process and Phase Transition for Activated Random Walk Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolla, Leonardo T.

    2008-12-01

    * ACTIVATED RANDOM WALK MODEL * This is a conservative particle system on the lattice, with a Markovian continuous-time evolution. Active particles perform random walks without interaction, and they may as well change their state to passive, then stopping to jump. When particles of both types occupy the same site, they all become active. This model exhibits phase transition in the sense that for low initial densities the system locally fixates and for high densities it keeps active. Though extensively studied in the physics literature, the matter of giving a mathematical proof of such phase transition remained as an open problem for several years. In this work we identify some variables that are sufficient to characterize fixation and at the same time are stochastically monotone in the model's parameters. We employ an explicit graphical representation in order to obtain the monotonicity. With this method we prove that there is a unique phase transition for the one-dimensional finite-range random walk. Joint with V. Sidoravicius. * BROKEN LINE PROCESS * We introduce the broken line process and derive some of its properties. Its discrete version is presented first and a natural generalization to the continuum is then proposed and studied. The broken lines are related to the Young diagram and the Hammersley process and are useful for computing last passage percolation values and finding maximal oriented paths. For a class of passage time distributions there is a family of boundary conditions that make the process stationary and reversible. One application is a simple proof of the explicit law of large numbers for last passage percolation with exponential and geometric distributions. Joint with V. Sidoravicius, D. Surgailis, and M. E. Vares.

  2. Walking Safely in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... provide uneven footing. Often the vehicles on rural roads travel at much higher speeds than walkers are ... walking on or near the side of the road. Go4Life has the following safety tips for those ...

  3. Selective bilateral activation of leg muscles after cutaneous nerve stimulation during backward walking

    PubMed Central

    Massaad, Firas; Jansen, Karen; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Duysens, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    During human locomotion, cutaneous reflexes have been suggested to function to preserve balance. Specifically, cutaneous reflexes in the contralateral leg's muscles (with respect to the stimulus) were suggested to play an important role in maintaining stability during locomotor tasks where stability is threatened. We used backward walking (BW) as a paradigm to induce unstable gait and analyzed the cutaneous reflex activity in both ipsilateral and contralateral lower limb muscles after stimulation of the sural nerve at different phases of the gait cycle. In BW, the tibialis anterior (TA) reflex activity in the contralateral leg was markedly higher than TA background EMG activity during its stance phase. In addition, in BW a substantial reflex suppression was observed in the ipsilateral biceps femoris during the stance-swing transition in some participants, while for medial gastrocnemius the reflex activity was equal to background activity in both legs. To test whether the pronounced crossed responses in TA could be related to instability, the responses were correlated with measures of stability (short-term maximum Lyapunov exponents and step width). These measures were higher for BW compared with forward walking, indicating that BW is less stable. However, there was no significant correlation between these measures and the amplitude of the crossed TA responses in BW. It is therefore proposed that these crossed responses are related to an attempt to briefly slow down (TA decelerates the center of mass in the single-stance period) in the light of unexpected perturbations, such as provided by the sural nerve stimulation. PMID:22773779

  4. Walking as a Contributor to Physical Activity in Healthy Older Adults: 2 Week Longitudinal Study Using Accelerometry and the Doubly Labeled Water Method

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Alberto G; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity is recommended to promote healthy aging. Defining the importance of activities such as walking in achieving higher levels of physical activity might provide indications for interventions. Objective To describe the importance of walking in achieving higher levels of physical activity in older adults. Methods The study included 42 healthy subjects aged between 51 and 84 years (mean body mass index 25.6 kg/m2 [SD 2.6]). Physical activity, walking, and nonwalking activity were monitored with an accelerometer for 2 weeks. Physical activity was quantified by accelerometer-derived activity counts. An algorithm based on template matching and signal power was developed to classify activity counts into nonwalking counts, short walk counts, and long walk counts. Additionally, in a subgroup of 31 subjects energy expenditure was measured using doubly labeled water to derive physical activity level (PAL). Results Subjects had a mean PAL of 1.84 (SD 0.19, range 1.43-2.36). About 20% of the activity time (21% [SD 8]) was spent walking, which accounted for about 40% of the total counts (43% [SD 11]). Short bouts composed 83% (SD 9) of walking time, providing 81% (SD 11) of walking counts. A stepwise regression model to predict PAL included nonwalking counts and short walk counts, explaining 58% of the variance of PAL (standard error of the estimate=0.12). Walking activities produced more counts per minute than nonwalking activities (P<.001). Long walks produced more counts per minute than short walks (P=.001). Nonwalking counts were independent of walking counts (r=−.05, P=.38). Conclusions Walking activities are a major contributor to physical activity in older adults. Walking activities occur at higher intensities than nonwalking activities, which might prevent individuals from engaging in more walking activity. Finally, subjects who engage in more walking activities do not tend to compensate by limiting nonwalking activities. Trial Registration

  5. 78 FR 25478 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Walking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...; Walking-Working Surfaces Standard ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is submitting the..., ``Walking-Working Surfaces Standard,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval... INFORMATION: The information collection requirements in the Walking-Working Surfaces Standard protect...

  6. Detection of Abnormal Muscle Activations during Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ping; Low, K. H.; McGregor, Alison H.; Tow, Adela

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI…

  7. How Much Walking Is Needed to Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness? An Examination of the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Stephen D.; Duncan, Glenn E.; Limacher, Marian C.; Martin, Anthony D.; Perri, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) indicated that two approaches can be used to achieve the activity threshold needed to derive health benefits. Individuals may engage in either 150 min (2 hr 30 min) of moderate intensity activity (e.g., moderate-paced walking), or 75 min (1 hr…

  8. Associations of Weight Status, Social Factors, and Active Travel among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Melissa; Behrens, Timothy K.; Velecina, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active travel (AT) is associated with various health benefits and may help prevent the decline in physical activity during college years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of several factors with AT to campus by weight status. Methods: Students at a large northeastern US campus completed an online…

  9. Activity induces traveling waves, vortices and spatiotemporal chaos in a model actomyosin layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Jülicher, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Inspired by the actomyosin cortex in biological cells, we investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of a model describing a contractile active polar fluid sandwiched between two external media. The external media impose frictional forces at the interface with the active fluid. The fluid is driven by a spatially-homogeneous activity measuring the strength of the active stress that is generated by processes consuming a chemical fuel. We observe that as the activity is increased over two orders of magnitude the active polar fluid first shows spontaneous flow transition followed by transition to oscillatory dynamics with traveling waves and traveling vortices in the flow field. In the flow-tumbling regime, the active polar fluid also shows transition to spatiotemporal chaos at sufficiently large activities. These results demonstrate that level of activity alone can be used to tune the operating point of actomyosin layers with qualitatively different spatiotemporal dynamics.

  10. Activity induces traveling waves, vortices and spatiotemporal chaos in a model actomyosin layer

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Jülicher, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the actomyosin cortex in biological cells, we investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of a model describing a contractile active polar fluid sandwiched between two external media. The external media impose frictional forces at the interface with the active fluid. The fluid is driven by a spatially-homogeneous activity measuring the strength of the active stress that is generated by processes consuming a chemical fuel. We observe that as the activity is increased over two orders of magnitude the active polar fluid first shows spontaneous flow transition followed by transition to oscillatory dynamics with traveling waves and traveling vortices in the flow field. In the flow-tumbling regime, the active polar fluid also shows transition to spatiotemporal chaos at sufficiently large activities. These results demonstrate that level of activity alone can be used to tune the operating point of actomyosin layers with qualitatively different spatiotemporal dynamics. PMID:26877263

  11. Origami-inspired active graphene-based paper for programmable instant self-folding walking devices

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Jiuke; Hou, Chengyi; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang; Zhang, Qinghong; Zhu, Meifang

    2015-01-01

    Origami-inspired active graphene-based paper with programmed gradients in vertical and lateral directions is developed to address many of the limitations of polymer active materials including slow response and violent operation methods. Specifically, we used function-designed graphene oxide as nanoscale building blocks to fabricate an all-graphene self-folding paper that has a single-component gradient structure. A functional device composed of this graphene paper can (i) adopt predesigned shapes, (ii) walk, and (iii) turn a corner. These processes can be remote-controlled by gentle light or heating. We believe that this self-folding material holds potential for a wide range of applications such as sensing, artificial muscles, and robotics. PMID:26601135

  12. Walk Score®

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Scott C.; Pantin, Hilda; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Barrera-Allen, Lloyd; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    Background Walk Score® is a nationally and publicly available metric of neighborhood walkability based on proximity to amenities (e.g., retail, food, schools). However, few studies have examined the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior. Purpose To examine the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who overwhelmingly report little choice in their selection of neighborhood built environments when they arrive in the U.S. Methods Participants were 391 recent healthy Cuban immigrants (M age=37.1 years) recruited within 90 days of arrival in the U.S., and assessed within 4 months of arrival (M=41.0 days in the U.S.), who resided throughout Miami-Dade County FL. Data on participants’ addresses, walking and sociodemographics were collected prospectively from 2008 to 2010. Analyses conducted in 2011 examined the relationship of Walk Score for each participant’s residential address in the U.S. to purposive walking, controlling for age, gender, education, BMI, days in the U.S., and habitual physical activity level in Cuba. Results For each 10-point increase in Walk Score, adjusting for covariates, there was a significant 19% increase in the likelihood of purposive walking, a 26% increase in the likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations by walking, and 27% more minutes walked in the previous week. Conclusions Results suggest that Walk Score is associated with walking in a sample of recent immigrants who initially had little choice in where they lived in the U.S. These results support existing guidelines indicating that mixed land use (such as parks and restaurants near homes) should be included when designing walkable communities. PMID:23867028

  13. Active Travel to School: Views of 10-13 Year Old Schoolchildren in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Joanna; Inchley, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the views of Scottish schoolchildren on active travel to school and their ideas about promotion strategies for school-based interventions. Design/methodology/approach: Focus group discussions were conducted with 66 students from four primary and three secondary schools. Findings: The most common…

  14. Is Baseline Physical Activity a Determinant of Participation in Worksite Walking Clubs? Data From the HealthWorks Trial

    PubMed Central

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Harnack, Lisa J.; Stovitz, Steven D.; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Some evidence suggests that physical activity programs mainly attract employees who are already active. This study examined the degree to which baseline physical activity was associated with enrollment in worksite walking clubs. Methods All variables were measured at baseline. Walking club participation was measured over 2 years. There were 642 individuals from 3 worksites with complete data available for logistic regression analyses. Results Baseline physical activity [OR (95% CI) = 1.00 (0.99, 1.01)] was not a significant predictor of walking club participation. Participants who were older [OR = 1.03 (1.01, 1.04)] or indicated more social support for physical activity [OR = 1.13 (1.02, 1.25)] had significantly higher odds of participation relative to those who were younger or indicated less social support, respectively. In addition, men [OR = −0.25 (0.18, 0.36)] and employees from the second worksite [OR = −0.41 (0.25, 0.67)] had significantly lower odds of participation relative to women and employees from the first or third worksites, respectively. Sensitivity analyses arrived at similar conclusions. Conclusions Worksite walking clubs were appealing across varying levels of physical activity. Future research should improve marketing and program design to engage harder-to-reach segments of the workforce, particularly young men and those with limited social support. PMID:21952267

  15. Built environment characteristics and parent active transportation are associated with active travel to school in youth age 12–15

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jordan A; Sallis, James F; Kerr, Jacqueline; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relation of factors from multiple levels of ecological models (ie, individual, interpersonal and environmental) to active travel to/from school in an observational study of young adolescents. Methods Participants were 294 12–15-year olds living within two miles of their school. Demographic, psychosocial and perceived built environment characteristics around the home were measured by survey, and objective built environment factors around home and school were assessed in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Mixed effects multinomial regression models tested correlates of engaging in 1–4 (vs 0) and 5–10 (vs 0) active trips/week to/from school, adjusted for distance and other covariates. Results 64% of participants reported ≥1 active trip/ week to/from school. Significant correlates of occasional and/or habitual active travel to/from school included barriers (ORs=0.27 and 0.15), parent modelling of active travel (OR=3.27 for habitual), perceived street connectivity (OR=1.78 for occasional), perceived pedestrian safety around home (OR=2.04 for habitual), objective street connectivity around home (OR=0.97 for occasional), objective residential density around home (ORs=1.10 and 1.11) and objective residential density around school (OR=1.14 for habitual). Parent modelling interacted with pedestrian safety in explaining active travel to/from school. Conclusions Results supported multilevel correlates of adolescents active travel to school, consistent with ecological models. Correlates of occasional and habitual active travel to/from school were similar. Built environment attributes around schools, particularly residential density, should be considered when siting new schools and redeveloping neighbourhoods around existing schools. PMID:24659503

  16. Effects of Nordic walking on pelvis motion and muscle activities around the hip joints of adults with hip osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Daisuke; Jigami, Hirofumi; Sato, Naritoshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Increased compensatory pelvic movement is remarkable in limping patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). However, a method of improving limping has not been established. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of two types of Nordic walking by analyzing the pelvic movement and muscle activities of adults with hip OA. [Subjects and Methods] Ten patients with OA of the hip performed Japanese-style Nordic walking (JS NW), European-style Nordic walking (ES NW), and Ordinary walking (OW), and the muscle activities around the hip joint and pelvic movements were analyzed. [Results] The pelvic rotation angle was significantly larger in ES NW than in JS NW. In the stance phase, hip abductor muscle activity was significantly decreased in JS NW compared to both OW and ES NW. In the swing phase, rectus abdominis muscle activity was significantly increased in both JS NW and ES NW compared to OW and lumbar erector spinae activity was significantly lower in JS NW than in OW. [Conclusion] JS NW style may reduce the compensatory pelvic rotation in patients with hip OA. JS NW might be better for joint protection and prevention of secondary disorders of the hip in OA patients. PMID:27190455

  17. The Street Level Built Environment and Physical Activity and Walking: Results of a Predictive Validity Study for the Irvine Minnesota Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boarnet, Marlon G.; Forsyth, Ann; Day, Kristen; Oakes, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The Irvine Minnesota Inventory (IMI) was designed to measure environmental features that may be associated with physical activity and particularly walking. This study assesses how well the IMI predicts physical activity and walking behavior and develops shortened, validated audit tools. A version of the IMI was used in the Twin Cities Walking…

  18. Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking?

    PubMed

    Tainio, Marko; de Nazelle, Audrey J; Götschi, Thomas; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Rojas-Rueda, David; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Kelly, Paul; Woodcock, James

    2016-06-01

    Active travel (cycling, walking) is beneficial for the health due to increased physical activity (PA). However, active travel may increase the intake of air pollution, leading to negative health consequences. We examined the risk-benefit balance between active travel related PA and exposure to air pollution across a range of air pollution and PA scenarios. The health effects of active travel and air pollution were estimated through changes in all-cause mortality for different levels of active travel and air pollution. Air pollution exposure was estimated through changes in background concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), ranging from 5 to 200μg/m3. For active travel exposure, we estimated cycling and walking from 0 up to 16h per day, respectively. These refer to long-term average levels of active travel and PM2.5 exposure. For the global average urban background PM2.5 concentration (22μg/m3) benefits of PA by far outweigh risks from air pollution even under the most extreme levels of active travel. In areas with PM2.5 concentrations of 100μg/m3, harms would exceed benefits after 1h 30min of cycling per day or more than 10h of walking per day. If the counterfactual was driving, rather than staying at home, the benefits of PA would exceed harms from air pollution up to 3h 30min of cycling per day. The results were sensitive to dose-response function (DRF) assumptions for PM2.5 and PA. PA benefits of active travel outweighed the harm caused by air pollution in all but the most extreme air pollution concentrations. PMID:27156248

  19. 78 FR 19491 - Walking as a Way for Americans To Get the Recommended Amount of Physical Activity for Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ...To address the public health problem of physical inactivity, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) announces the opening of a docket to obtain information from the public on walking as an effective way to be sufficiently active for health. The information obtained will be used to frame an anticpated Surgeon General's call......

  20. Exergame and Balance Training Modulate Prefrontal Brain Activity during Walking and Enhance Executive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Eggenberger, Patrick; Wolf, Martin; Schumann, Martina; de Bruin, Eling D.

    2016-01-01

    Different types of exercise training have the potential to induce structural and functional brain plasticity in the elderly. Thereby, functional brain adaptations were observed during cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that correlated with improved cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate if exercise training induces functional brain plasticity during challenging treadmill walking and elicits associated changes in cognitive executive functions. Forty-two elderly participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either interactive cognitive-motor video game dancing (DANCE) or balance and stretching training (BALANCE). The 8-week intervention included three sessions of 30 min per week and was completed by 33 participants (mean age 74.9 ± 6.9 years). Prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during preferred and fast walking speed on a treadmill was assessed applying functional near infrared spectroscopy pre- and post-intervention. Additionally, executive functions comprising shifting, inhibition, and working memory were assessed. The results showed that both interventions significantly reduced left and right hemispheric PFC oxygenation during the acceleration of walking (p < 0.05 or trend, r = 0.25–0.36), while DANCE showed a larger reduction at the end of the 30-s walking task compared to BALANCE in the left PFC [F(1, 31) = 3.54, p = 0.035, r = 0.32]. These exercise training induced modulations in PFC oxygenation correlated with improved executive functions (p < 0.05 or trend, r = 0.31–0.50). The observed reductions in PFC activity may release cognitive resources to focus attention on other processes while walking, which could be relevant to improve mobility and falls prevention in the elderly. This study provides a deeper understanding of the associations between exercise training, brain function during walking, and cognition in older adults. PMID:27148041

  1. Exergame and Balance Training Modulate Prefrontal Brain Activity during Walking and Enhance Executive Function in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Eggenberger, Patrick; Wolf, Martin; Schumann, Martina; de Bruin, Eling D

    2016-01-01

    Different types of exercise training have the potential to induce structural and functional brain plasticity in the elderly. Thereby, functional brain adaptations were observed during cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that correlated with improved cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate if exercise training induces functional brain plasticity during challenging treadmill walking and elicits associated changes in cognitive executive functions. Forty-two elderly participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either interactive cognitive-motor video game dancing (DANCE) or balance and stretching training (BALANCE). The 8-week intervention included three sessions of 30 min per week and was completed by 33 participants (mean age 74.9 ± 6.9 years). Prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during preferred and fast walking speed on a treadmill was assessed applying functional near infrared spectroscopy pre- and post-intervention. Additionally, executive functions comprising shifting, inhibition, and working memory were assessed. The results showed that both interventions significantly reduced left and right hemispheric PFC oxygenation during the acceleration of walking (p < 0.05 or trend, r = 0.25-0.36), while DANCE showed a larger reduction at the end of the 30-s walking task compared to BALANCE in the left PFC [F (1, 31) = 3.54, p = 0.035, r = 0.32]. These exercise training induced modulations in PFC oxygenation correlated with improved executive functions (p < 0.05 or trend, r = 0.31-0.50). The observed reductions in PFC activity may release cognitive resources to focus attention on other processes while walking, which could be relevant to improve mobility and falls prevention in the elderly. This study provides a deeper understanding of the associations between exercise training, brain function during walking, and cognition in older adults. PMID:27148041

  2. Stumbling reactions during perturbed walking: Neuromuscular reflex activity and 3-D kinematics of the trunk - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Müller, Juliane; Müller, Steffen; Engel, Tilman; Reschke, Antje; Baur, Heiner; Mayer, Frank

    2016-04-11

    Reflex activity of the lower leg muscles involved when compensating for falls has already been thoroughly investigated. However, the trunk׳s role in this compensation strategy remains unclear. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to analyze the kinematics and muscle activity of the trunk during perturbed walking. Ten subjects (29±3yr;79±11cm;74±14kg) walked (1m/s) on a split-belt treadmill, while 5 randomly timed, right-sided perturbations (treadmill belt deceleration: 40m/s(2)) were applied. Trunk muscle activity was assessed with a 12-lead-EMG. Trunk kinematics were measured with a 3D-motion analysis system (12 markers framing 3 segments: upper thoracic area (UTA), lower thoracic area (LTA), lumbar area (LA)). The EMG-RMS [%] (0-200ms after perturbation) was analyzed and then normalized to the RMS of normal walking. The total range of motion (ROM;[°]) for the extension/flexion, lateral flexion and rotation of each segment were calculated. Individual kinematic differences between walking and stumbling [%; ROM] were also computed. Data analysis was conducted descriptively, followed by one- and two-way ANOVAs (α=0.05). Stumbling led to an increase in ROM, compared to unperturbed gait, in all segments and planes. These increases ranged between 107±26% (UTA/rotation) and 262±132% (UTS/lateral flexion), significant only in lateral flexion. EMG activity of the trunk was increased during stumbling (abdominal: 665±283%; back: 501±215%), without significant differences between muscles. Provoked stumbling leads to a measurable effect on the trunk, quantifiable by an increase in ROM and EMG activity, compared to normal walking. Greater abdominal muscle activity and ROM of lateral flexion may indicate a specific compensation pattern occurring during stumbling. PMID:26518368

  3. A comparative study of the electromyographic activities of lower extremity muscles during level walking and Pedalo riding

    PubMed Central

    Lee, DongGeon; Kim, YouJeong; Yun, JiHyeon; Jung, MiHye; Lee, GyuChang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To analyze the electromyographic (EMG) activities of several lower extremity muscles during ground walking and pedaling using the Pedalo Reha-Bar device. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy adults aged 20–29 year participated in this study. The subjects’ surface EMG signals while walking and Pedalo Reha-Bar riding were recorded. The subjects performed 20 steps on flat ground and 20 cycles on the Pedalo Reha-Bar. During the tasks, EMG signals of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, soleus, and gastrocnemius within a 20-second period were recorded. The mean EMG signals within the 10 seconds from 6 to 15 seconds were used for the data analysis. [Results] There was a significant increase in the bilateral use of the rectus femoris and a significant decrease in the use of the left tibialis anterior and left soleus in pedaling using the Pedalo Reha-Bar device compared to ground walking. [Conclusion] Level walking and the Pedalo Reha-Bar riding utilize different types of muscles activities. These results suggest that Pedalo Reha-Bar riding may be used for neuromuscular activation, especially of the rectus femoris. PMID:27313354

  4. The association between park visitation and physical activity measured with accelerometer, GPS, and travel diary.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Orion T; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Fesinmeyer, Megan D; Zhou, Chuan; Saelens, Brian E

    2016-03-01

    Public parks are promoted as places that support physical activity (PA), but evidence of how park visitation contributes to overall PA is limited. This study observed adults living in the Seattle metropolitan area (n=671) for one week using accelerometer, GPS, and travel diary. Park visits, measured both objectively (GPS) and subjectively (travel diary), were temporally linked to accelerometer-measured PA. Park visits occurred at 1.4 per person-week. Participants who visited parks at least once (n=308) had an adjusted average of 14.3 (95% CI: 8.9, 19.6)min more daily PA than participants who did not visit a park. Even when park-related activity was excluded, park visitors still obtained more minutes of daily PA than non-visitors. Park visitation contributes to a more active lifestyle, but is not solely responsible for it. Parks may best serve to complement broader public health efforts to encourage PA. PMID:26798965

  5. Phasic-to-tonic shift in trunk muscle activity relative to walking during low-impact weight bearing exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Nick; Gibbon, Karl; Hibbs, Angela; Evetts, Simon; Debuse, Dorothée

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an exercise device, designed to improve the function of lumbopelvic muscles via low-impact weight-bearing exercise, on electromyographic (EMG) activity of lumbopelvic, including abdominal muscles. Surface EMG activity was collected from lumbar multifidus (LM), erector spinae (ES), internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO) and rectus abdominis (RA) during overground walking (OW) and exercise device (EX) conditions. During walking, most muscles showed peaks in activity which were not seen during EX. Spinal extensors (LM, ES) were more active in EX. Internal oblique and RA were less active in EX. In EX, LM and ES were active for longer than during OW. Conversely, EO and RA were active for a shorter duration in EX than OW. The exercise device showed a phasic-to-tonic shift in activation of both local and global lumbopelvic muscles and promoted increased activation of spinal extensors in relation to walking. These features could make the exercise device a useful rehabilitative tool for populations with lumbopelvic muscle atrophy and dysfunction, including those recovering from deconditioning due to long-term bed rest and microgravity in astronauts.

  6. Change in active travel and changes in recreational and total physical activity in adults: longitudinal findings from the iConnect study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To better understand the health benefits of promoting active travel, it is important to understand the relationship between a change in active travel and changes in recreational and total physical activity. Methods These analyses, carried out in April 2012, use longitudinal data from 1628 adult respondents (mean age 54 years; 47% male) in the UK-based iConnect study. Travel and recreational physical activity were measured using detailed seven-day recall instruments. Adjusted linear regression models were fitted with change in active travel defined as ‘decreased’ (<−15 min/week), ‘maintained’ (±15 min/week) or ‘increased’ (>15 min/week) as the primary exposure variable and changes in (a) recreational and (b) total physical activity (min/week) as the primary outcome variables. Results Active travel increased in 32% (n=529), was maintained in 33% (n=534) and decreased in 35% (n=565) of respondents. Recreational physical activity decreased in all groups but this decrease was not greater in those whose active travel increased. Conversely, changes in active travel were associated with commensurate changes in total physical activity. Compared with those whose active travel remained unchanged, total physical activity decreased by 176.9 min/week in those whose active travel had decreased (adjusted regression coefficient −154.9, 95% CI −195.3 to −114.5) and was 112.2 min/week greater among those whose active travel had increased (adjusted regression coefficient 135.1, 95% CI 94.3 to 175.9). Conclusion An increase in active travel was associated with a commensurate increase in total physical activity and not a decrease in recreational physical activity. PMID:23445724

  7. Modifications in ankle dorsiflexor activation by applying a torque perturbation during walking in persons post-stroke: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Results obtained in a previous study (Gait Posture 34:358–363, 2011) have shown that, in non-disabled participants, a specific increase in ankle dorsiflexor (Tibialis anterior [TA]) activation can be induced by walking with a torque perturbation that plantarflexes the ankle during the swing phase. After perturbation removal, the increased TA activation persisted temporarily and was associated with a more dorsiflexed ankle during swing. The objective of the present case-series study was to verify if these results can be reproduced in persons post-stroke. Methods Six participants who sustained a stroke walked on a treadmill before, during and after exposure to a torque perturbation applied at the ankle by a robotized ankle-foot orthosis. Spatiotemporal gait parameters, ankle and knee kinematics, and the electromyographic activity of TA and Soleus were recorded. Mean amplitude of the TA burst located around toe off and peak ankle dorsiflexion angle during swing were compared across the 3 walking periods for each participant. Results At the end of the walking period with the perturbation, TA mean amplitude was significantly increased in 4 of the 6 participants. Among these 4 participants, modifications in TA activation persisted after perturbation removal in 3 of them, and led to a statistically significant increase in peak dorsiflexion during swing. Clinical implications This approach may be helpful to evaluate the residual adaptive capacity in the ankle dorsiflexors after a stroke and guide decision-making for the selection of optimal rehabilitation interventions. Future work will investigate the clinical impact of a multiple-session gait training based on this approach in persons presenting a reduced ankle dorsiflexion during the swing phase of walking. PMID:24912626

  8. Does the Dumbbell-Carrying Position Change the Muscle Activity in Split Squats and Walking Lunges?

    PubMed Central

    Lehnert, Michal; Zaatar, Amr M.Z.; Svoboda, Zdenek; Xaverova, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Stastny, P, Lehnert, M, Zaatar, AMZ, Svoboda, Z, and Xaverova, Z. Does the dumbbell-carrying position change the muscle activity in split squats and walking lunges? J Strength Cond Res 29(11): 3177–3187, 2015—The forward walking lunge (WL) and split squat (SSq) are similar exercises that have differences in the eccentric phase, and both can be performed in the ipsilateral or contralateral carrying conditions. This study aimed to determine the effects of dumbbell-carrying position on the kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) amplitudes of the gluteus medius (Gmed), vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris during WLs and SSqs. The resistance-trained (RT) and the non–resistance-trained (NT) groups (both n = 14) performed ipsilateral WLs, contralateral WLs, ipsilateral SSqs, and contralateral SSqs in a randomized order in a simulated training session. The EMG amplitude, expressed as a percentage of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC), and the kinematics, expressed as the range of motion (ROM) of the hip and knee, were measured during 5 repetition maximum for both legs. The repeated measure analyses of variance showed significant differences between the RT and NT groups. The NT group showed a smaller knee flexion ROM (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.36) during both types of WLs, whereas the RT group showed a higher eccentric Gmed amplitude (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.46) during all exercises and a higher eccentric VL amplitude (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.63) during contralateral WLs. Further differences were found between contralateral and ipsilateral WLs in both the RT (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.69) and NT groups (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.80), and contralateral WLs resulted in higher eccentric Gmed amplitudes. Contralateral WLs highly activated the Gmed (90% MVIC); therefore, this exercise can increase the Gmed maximal strength. The ipsilateral loading condition did not increase the Gmed or VM activity in the RT or NT group. PMID:25968228

  9. Active Commuting among K-12 Educators: A Study Examining Walking and Biking to Work

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, Melissa; Hastmann, Tanis J.; Norton, Alyssa N.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Walking and biking to work, active commuting (AC) is associated with many health benefits, though rates of AC remain low in the US. K-12 educators represent a significant portion of the workforce, and employee health and associated costs may have significant economic impact. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the current rates of AC and factors associated with AC among K-12 educators. Methods. A volunteer sample of K-12 educators (n = 437) was recruited to participate in an online survey. Participants responded about AC patterns and social ecological influences on AC (individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental factors). t-tests and ANOVAs examined trends in AC, and Pearson correlations examined the relationship between AC and dependent variables. Multiple regression analysis determined the relative influence of individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental levels on AC. Results. Participants actively commuted 0.51 ± 1.93 times/week. There were several individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental factors significantly related to AC. The full model explained 60.8% of the variance in AC behavior. Conclusions. This study provides insight on the factors that determine K-12 educators mode of commute and provide some insight for employee wellness among this population. PMID:24089620

  10. Student Travel: Policies - Regulations - Exhibits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Lorenzo A.; And Others

    The Jefferson County (Colorado) Public Schools' regulations and policies concerning student travel covers these forms of travel: student activity travel, extended student travel, district sponsored student travel, district authorized student travel, student exchange, and bonus learning trips. Issues and items addressed include: (1) authorization…

  11. Travellers' diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Charles D

    2003-02-01

    Risk of travellers' diarrhoea is about 7% in developed countries and 20-50% in the developing world. Options for prevention include education and chemoprophylaxis. Vaccination is a promising but incomplete option. Achieving behaviour modification of food and water choices among tourists is difficult. Bismuth subsalicylate (BSS)-containing compounds are about 62% effective in the prevention of travellers' diarrhoea. Antibiotics are about 84% effective in preventing travellers' diarrhoea. Routine prophylaxis of travellers' diarrhoea, especially with antibiotics, should be discouraged. Oral rehydration is generally important in the treatment of diarrhoea, but travellers' diarrhoea is only infrequently dehydrating in adults. The addition of oral rehydration solutions confers no additional benefit to loperamide in the treatment of travellers' diarrhoea in adults. Presently, the most active of the antibiotics routinely available for treatment are members of the fluoroquinolone group. Antibiotics that are not absorbed such as aztreonam and a rifampicin-like agent, rifaximin, are both effective. The latter might become a therapy of choice once it is routinely available, due to predictably less adverse reactions with a non-absorbed antibiotic. Preliminary results with azithromycin look very promising. Less severe disease can be treated with a variety of non-antibiotic agents (e.g. BSS-containing compounds, loperamide and a calmodulin inhibitor, zaldaride). The combination of an antibiotic and loperamide is superior to treatment with either agent alone in a several studies and is arguably the treatment of choice for distressing travellers' diarrhoea. PMID:12615374

  12. The Use of Kernel Density Estimation to Examine Associations between Neighborhood Destination Intensity and Walking and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    King, Tania L.; Thornton, Lukar E.; Bentley, Rebecca J.; Kavanagh, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Local destinations have previously been shown to be associated with higher levels of both physical activity and walking, but little is known about how the distribution of destinations is related to activity. Kernel density estimation is a spatial analysis technique that accounts for the location of features relative to each other. Using kernel density estimation, this study sought to investigate whether individuals who live near destinations (shops and service facilities) that are more intensely distributed rather than dispersed: 1) have higher odds of being sufficiently active; 2) engage in more frequent walking for transport and recreation. Methods The sample consisted of 2349 residents of 50 urban areas in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Destinations within these areas were geocoded and kernel density estimates of destination intensity were created using kernels of 400m (meters), 800m and 1200m. Using multilevel logistic regression, the association between destination intensity (classified in quintiles Q1(least)—Q5(most)) and likelihood of: 1) being sufficiently active (compared to insufficiently active); 2) walking≥4/week (at least 4 times per week, compared to walking less), was estimated in models that were adjusted for potential confounders. Results For all kernel distances, there was a significantly greater likelihood of walking≥4/week, among respondents living in areas of greatest destinations intensity compared to areas with least destination intensity: 400m (Q4 OR 1.41 95%CI 1.02–1.96; Q5 OR 1.49 95%CI 1.06–2.09), 800m (Q4 OR 1.55, 95%CI 1.09–2.21; Q5, OR 1.71, 95%CI 1.18–2.48) and 1200m (Q4, OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.18–2.45; Q5, OR 1.86 95%CI 1.28–2.71). There was also evidence of associations between destination intensity and sufficient physical activity, however these associations were markedly attenuated when walking was included in the models. Conclusions This study, conducted within urban Melbourne, found that those who lived

  13. Walking the walk

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, B.

    1994-12-31

    Earth Day, celebrated this April, brought out a spate of press conferences, fairs and media spots. The White House announced its plans to green itself by incorporating energy efficiency and recycling, and Vice President Gore and Energy Secretary O`Leary announced the President`s Executive Order, which mandates the use of energy efficiency in federal facilities with solar as a high-profile option. At the White House itself, however, no solar application has yet been selected for installation. Another Earth Day media spot showed how the nation`s utility companies have joined Secretary O`Leary`s Climate Challenge, an ambitious voluntary program to cut greenhouse-gas emissions. During Earth Day 1994, it became clear how many houses use solar water heating and how often photovoltaics is used to power road signs and sign boards, telephones and repeaters, and for cathodic protection and security lighting. Solar energy is expanding. But if it is to become a truly everyday technology, more institution, governments, businesses and individual consumers are going to have to walk the walk. This means that Earth Day will have to last longer, environmental concerns must become more genuine, and the focus of government and business decisions must be more long-term.

  14. Corticospinal and reciprocal inhibition actions on human soleus motoneuron activity during standing and walking

    PubMed Central

    Hanna-Boutros, Berthe; Sangari, Sina; Giboin, Louis-Solal; El Mendili, Mohamed-Mounir; Lackmy-Vallée, Alexandra; Marchand-Pauvert, Véronique; Knikou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal Ia inhibition constitutes a key segmental neuronal pathway for coordination of antagonist muscles. In this study, we investigated the soleus H-reflex and reciprocal inhibition exerted from flexor group Ia afferents on soleus motoneurons during standing and walking in 15 healthy subjects following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The effects of separate TMS or deep peroneal nerve (DPN) stimulation and the effects of combined (TMS + DPN) stimuli on the soleus H-reflex were assessed during standing and at mid- and late stance phases of walking. Subthreshold TMS induced short-latency facilitation on the soleus H-reflex that was present during standing and at midstance but not at late stance of walking. Reciprocal inhibition was increased during standing and at late stance but not at the midstance phase of walking. The effects of combined TMS and DPN stimuli on the soleus H-reflex significantly changed between tasks, resulting in an extra facilitation of the soleus H-reflex during standing and not during walking. Our findings indicate that corticospinal inputs and Ia inhibitory interneurons interact at the spinal level in a task-dependent manner, and that corticospinal modulation of reciprocal Ia inhibition is stronger during standing than during walking. PMID:25825912

  15. Body side-specific control of motor activity during turning in a walking animal

    PubMed Central

    Gruhn, Matthias; Rosenbaum, Philipp; Bockemühl, Till; Büschges, Ansgar

    2016-01-01

    Animals and humans need to move deftly and flexibly to adapt to environmental demands. Despite a large body of work on the neural control of walking in invertebrates and vertebrates alike, the mechanisms underlying the motor flexibility that is needed to adjust the motor behavior remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated optomotor-induced turning and the neuronal mechanisms underlying the differences between the leg movements of the two body sides in the stick insect Carausius morosus. We present data to show that the generation of turning kinematics in an insect are the combined result of descending unilateral commands that change the leg motor output via task-specific modifications in the processing of local sensory feedback as well as modification of the activity of local central pattern generating networks in a body-side-specific way. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the specificity of such modifications in a defined motor task. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13799.001 PMID:27130731

  16. Towards the run and walk activity classification through step detection--an android application.

    PubMed

    Oner, Melis; Pulcifer-Stump, Jeffry A; Seeling, Patrick; Kaya, Tolga

    2012-01-01

    Falling is one of the most common accidents with potentially irreversible consequences, especially considering special groups, such as the elderly or disabled. One approach to solve this issue would be an early detection of the falling event. Towards reaching the goal of early fall detection, we have worked on distinguishing and monitoring some basic human activities such as walking and running. Since we plan to implement the system mostly for seniors and the disabled, simplicity of the usage becomes very important. We have successfully implemented an algorithm that would not require the acceleration sensor to be fixed in a specific position (the smart phone itself in our application), whereas most of the previous research dictates the sensor to be fixed in a certain direction. This algorithm reviews data from the accelerometer to determine if a user has taken a step or not and keeps track of the total amount of steps. After testing, the algorithm was more accurate than a commercial pedometer in terms of comparing outputs to the actual number of steps taken by the user. PMID:23366305

  17. Opportunities for Increased Physical Activity in the Workplace: the Walking Meeting (WaM) Pilot Study, Miami, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Kling, Hannah E.; Yang, Xuan; Messiah, Sarah E.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Brannan, Debi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the positive impact walking has on human health, few opportunities exist for workers with largely sedentary jobs to increase physical activity while at work. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of using a Walking Meeting (WaM) protocol to increase the level of work-related physical activity among a group of sedentary white-collar workers. Methods White-collar workers at a large university were invited to participate in a newly developed WaM protocol. Workers who conducted weekly meetings in groups of 2 or 3 individuals were recruited for the pilot study (n = 18) that took place from January 2015 to August 2015. Seventeen participants wore an accelerometer to measure physical activity levels during 3 consecutive weeks (first week baseline, followed by 2 weeks of organized WaMs) and participated in focus groups conducted during week 3 to document experiences with the WaM protocol. Results The WaM protocol met study criteria on feasibility, implementation, and acceptability among study participants. The average number of minutes (standard deviation) participants engaged in combined work-related moderate/vigorous physical activity per week during the 3 weeks increased from an average of 107 (55) minutes during the baseline week to 114 (67) minutes at week 2 and to 117 (65) minutes at week 3. Conclusion White- collar workers were supportive of transforming regular seated meetings into walking meetings and increased their work-related physical activity levels. PMID:27337560

  18. Statistical parametric mapping applied to an autoradiographic study of cerebral activation during treadmill walking in rats.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Peter T; Holschneider, Daniel P; Maarek, Jean-Michel I; Yang, Jun; Mandelkern, Mark A

    2004-09-01

    Autoradiographs are conventionally analyzed by a region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. However, definition of ROIs on an image set is labor intensive, is subject to potential inter-rater bias, and is not well suited for anatomically variable structures that may not consistently correspond to specific ROIs. Most importantly, the ROI method is poorly suited for whole-brain analysis, where one wishes to detect all activations resulting from an experimental paradigm. A system developed for analysis of imaging data in humans, Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), avoids some of these limitations but has not previously been adapted as a tool for the analysis of autoradiographs. Here, we describe the application of SPM to an autoradiographic data set mapping cerebral activation in rats during treadmill walking. We studied freely moving, non-tethered rats that received injections of the cerebral blood flow tracer [14C]-iodoantipyrine, while they were performing a treadmill task (n = 7) or during a quiescent control condition (n = 6). Results obtained with SPM were compared to those previously reported using a standard ROI-based method of analysis [J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23(2003) 925]. The SPM method confirmed most areas detected as significant using the ROI approach. However, in the subcortex, SPM detected additional significant regions that, because of their irregular structures, fell short of statistical significance when analyzed by ROI. The SPM approach offers the ability to perform a semi-automated whole-brain analysis, and coupled with autoradiography, provides an effective means to globally localize functional activity in small animals. PMID:15325372

  19. Muscle activation patterns are bilaterally linked during split-belt treadmill walking in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ivanenko, Y. P.; Massaad, F.; Bruijn, S. M.; Duysens, J.; Lacquaniti, F.

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that human locomotion is controlled by flexibly combining a set of basic muscle activity patterns. To explore how these patterns are modified to cope with environmental constraints, 10 healthy young adults 1st walked on a split-belt treadmill at symmetric speeds of 4 and 6 km/h for 2 min. An asymmetric condition was then performed for 10 min in which treadmill speeds for the dominant (fast) and nondominant (slow) sides were 6 and 4 km/h, respectively. This was immediately followed by a symmetric speed condition of 4 km/h for 5 min. Gait kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded. Electromyography (EMG) was collected from 12 lower limb muscles on each side of the body. Nonnegative matrix factorization was applied to the EMG signals bilaterally and unilaterally to obtain basic activation patterns. A cross-correlation analysis was then used to quantify temporal changes in the activation patterns. During the early (1st 10 strides) and late (final 10 strides) phases of the asymmetric condition, the patterns related to ankle plantar flexor (push-off) of the fast limb and quadriceps muscle (contralateral heel contact) of the slow limb occurred earlier in the gait cycle compared with the symmetric conditions. Moreover, a bilateral temporal alignment of basic patterns between limbs was still maintained in the split-belt condition since a similar shift was observed in the unilateral patterns. The results suggest that the temporal structure of these locomotor patterns is shaped by sensory feedback and that the patterns are bilaterally linked. PMID:24478155

  20. Controlling Knee Swing Initiation and Ankle Plantarflexion With an Active Prosthesis on Level and Inclined Surfaces at Variable Walking Speeds

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Ann M.; Young, Aaron J.; Hargrove, Levi J.

    2014-01-01

    Improving lower-limb prostheses is important to enhance the mobility of amputees. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an impedance-based control strategy (consisting of four novel algorithms) for an active knee and ankle prosthesis and test its generalizability across multiple walking speeds, walking surfaces, and users. The four algorithms increased ankle stiffness throughout stance, decreased knee stiffness during terminal stance, as well as provided powered ankle plantarflexion and knee swing initiation through modifications of equilibrium positions of the ankle and knee, respectively. Seven amputees (knee disarticulation and transfemoral levels) walked at slow, comfortable, and hurried speeds on level and inclined (10°) surfaces. The prosthesis was tuned at their comfortable level ground walking speed. We further quantified trends in prosthetic knee and ankle kinematics, and kinetics across conditions. Subjects modulated their walking speed by ±25% (average) from their comfortable speeds. As speed increased, increasing ankle angles and velocities as well as stance phase ankle power and plantarflexion torque were observed. At slow and comfortable speeds, plantarflexion torque was increased on the incline. At slow and comfortable speeds, stance phase positive knee power was increased and knee torque more flexor on the incline. As speed increased, knee torque became less flexor on the incline. These algorithms were shown to generalize well across speed, produce gait mechanics that compare favorably with non-amputee data, and display evidence of scalable device function. They have the potential to reduce the challenge of clinically configuring such devices and increase their viability during daily use. PMID:27170878

  1. The 'Walking for Wellbeing in the West' randomised controlled trial of a pedometer-based walking programme in combination with physical activity consultation with 12 month follow-up: rationale and study design

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimons, Claire F; Baker, Graham; Wright, Annemarie; Nimmo, Myra A; Ward Thompson, Catharine; Lowry, Ruth; Millington, Catherine; Shaw, Rebecca; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Ogilvie, David; Inchley, Joanna; Foster, Charlie E; Mutrie, Nanette

    2008-01-01

    Background Scotland has a policy aimed at increasing physical activity levels in the population, but evidence on how to achieve this is still developing. Studies that focus on encouraging real world participants to start physical activity in their settings are needed. The Walking for Well-being in the West study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a pedometer-based walking programme in combination with physical activity consultation. The study was multi-disciplinary and based in the community. Walking for Well-being in the West investigated whether Scottish men and women, who were not achieving the current physical activity recommendation, increased and maintained walking behaviour over a 12 month period. This paper outlines the rationale and design of this innovative and pragmatic study. Methods Participants were randomised into two groups: Group 1: Intervention (pedometer-based walking programme combined with a series of physical activity consultations); Group 2: Waiting list control for 12 weeks (followed by minimal pedometer-based intervention). Physical activity (primary outcome) was measured using pedometer step counts (7 day) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version). Psychological processes were measured using questionnaires relating to the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change, mood (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and quality of life (Euroqol EQ-5D instrument). Physiological measures included anthropometric and metabolic outcomes. Environmental influences were assessed subjectively (Neighbourhood Quality of Life Survey) and objectively (neighbourhood audit tool and GIS mapping). The qualitative evaluation employed observation, semi-structured interviews and focus groups. A supplementary study undertook an economic evaluation. Discussion Data analysis is on-going. Walking for Well-being in the West will demonstrate if a pedometer based walking programme, in combination with physical activity consultation

  2. Does the Dumbbell-Carrying Position Change the Muscle Activity in Split Squats and Walking Lunges?

    PubMed

    Stastny, Petr; Lehnert, Michal; Zaatar, Amr M Z; Svoboda, Zdenek; Xaverova, Zuzana

    2015-11-01

    The forward walking lunge (WL) and split squat (SSq) are similar exercises that have differences in the eccentric phase, and both can be performed in the ipsilateral or contralateral carrying conditions. This study aimed to determine the effects of dumbbell-carrying position on the kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) amplitudes of the gluteus medius (Gmed), vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris during WLs and SSqs. The resistance-trained (RT) and the non-resistance-trained (NT) groups (both n = 14) performed ipsilateral WLs, contralateral WLs, ipsilateral SSqs, and contralateral SSqs in a randomized order in a simulated training session. The EMG amplitude, expressed as a percentage of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC), and the kinematics, expressed as the range of motion (ROM) of the hip and knee, were measured during 5 repetition maximum for both legs. The repeated measure analyses of variance showed significant differences between the RT and NT groups. The NT group showed a smaller knee flexion ROM (p < 0.001, η = 0.36) during both types of WLs, whereas the RT group showed a higher eccentric Gmed amplitude (p < 0.001, η = 0.46) during all exercises and a higher eccentric VL amplitude (p < 0.001, η = 0.63) during contralateral WLs. Further differences were found between contralateral and ipsilateral WLs in both the RT (p < 0.001, η = 0.69) and NT groups (p < 0.001, η = 0.80), and contralateral WLs resulted in higher eccentric Gmed amplitudes. Contralateral WLs highly activated the Gmed (90% MVIC); therefore, this exercise can increase the Gmed maximal strength. The ipsilateral loading condition did not increase the Gmed or VM activity in the RT or NT group. PMID:25968228

  3. Bone mineral density and body composition in a myelomeningocele children population: effects of walking ability and sport activity.

    PubMed

    Ausili, E; Focarelli, B; Tabacco, F; Fortunelli, G; Caradonna, P; Massimi, L; Sigismondi, M; Salvaggio, E; Rendeli, C

    2008-01-01

    Myelomeningocele causes serious locomotor disability, osteoporosis and pathologic fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, bone mineral density, walking ability and sport activity in myelomeningocele children. 60 patients aged between 5 and 14 yrs with myelomeningocele (22 ambulatory and 38 non-ambulatory), were studied. Fat mass and fat-free-mass were calculated by anthropometry. The bone mineral density at lumbar and femoral neck were evaluated. Bone mineral density at the lumbar and femoral neck was lower than in the normal population. In the non-ambulaty group, bone mineral density was approximately 1 SD lower than in the ambulatory one (p < 0.01). Fat mass was greater than expected but without significantly differences between walking group (mean 26%) and wheel-chair users (25%). Patients practised sport activity had a better bone mineral density and body fat compared with other patients with the same disability. Patients with myelomeningocele have decreased bone mineral density and are at higher risk of pathologic bone fractures. All subjects showed an excess of fat as percentage of body weight and are shorter than normal children. The measurement of bone mineral density may help to identify those patients at greatest risk of suffering of multiple fractures. Walk ability and sport activity, associated with the development of muscle mass, are important factors in promoting bone and body growth, to reduce the risk of obesity and of pathological fractures. PMID:19146196

  4. Noninvasive imaging of prefrontal activation during attention-demanding tasks performed while walking using a wearable optical topography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atsumori, Hirokazu; Kiguchi, Masashi; Katura, Takusige; Funane, Tsukasa; Obata, Akiko; Sato, Hiroki; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Maki, Atsushi; Koizumi, Hideaki; Kubota, Kisou

    2010-07-01

    Optical topography (OT) based on near-infrared spectroscopy is a noninvasive technique for mapping the relative concentration changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxy- and deoxy-Hb, respectively) in the human cerebral cortex. In our previous study, we developed a small and light wearable optical topography (WOT) system that covers the entire forehead for monitoring prefrontal activation. In the present study, we examine whether the WOT system is applicable to OT measurement while walking, which has been difficult with conventional OT systems. We conduct OT measurements while subjects perform an attention-demanding (AD) task of balancing a ping-pong ball on a small card while walking. The measured time course and power spectra of the relative concentration changes in oxy- and deoxy-Hb show that the step-related changes in the oxy- and deoxy-Hb signals are negligible compared to the task-related changes. Statistical assessment of the task-related changes in the oxy-Hb signals show that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and rostral prefrontal area are significantly activated during the AD task. These results suggest that our functional imaging technique with the WOT system is applicable to OT measurement while walking, and will be a powerful tool for evaluating brain activation in a natural environment.

  5. The Results of the “Positive Action for Today’s Health” (PATH) Trial for Increasing Walking and Physical Activity in Underserved African-American Communities

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dawn K.; Van Horn, M. Lee; Siceloff, E. Rebekah; Alia, Kassandra A.; St. George, Sara M.; Lawman, Hannah G.; Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Coulon, Sandra M.; Griffin, Sarah F.; Wandersman, Abraham; Egan, Brent; Colabianchi, Natalie; Forthofer, Melinda; Gadson, Barney

    2015-01-01

    Background The “Positive Action for Today’s Health” (PATH) trial tested an environmental intervention to increase walking in underserved communities. Methods Three matched communities were randomized to a police-patrolled walking plus social marketing, a police-patrolled walking-only, or a no-walking intervention. The 24-month intervention addressed safety and access for physical activity (PA) and utilized social marketing to enhance environmental supports for PA. African-Americans (N=434; 62 % females; aged 51±16 years) provided accelerometry and psychosocial measures at baseline and 12, 18, and 24 months. Walking attendance and trail use were obtained over 24 months. Results There were no significant differences across communities over 24 months for moderate-to-vigorous PA. Walking attendance in the social marketing community showed an increase from 40 to 400 walkers per month at 9 months and sustained ~200 walkers per month through 24 months. No change in attendance was observed in the walking-only community. Conclusions Findings support integrating social marketing strategies to increase walking in underserved African-Americans (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01025726). PMID:25385203

  6. Effects of wearing gumboots and leather lace-up boots on lower limb muscle activity when walking on simulated underground coal mine surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Steele, Julie R

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing two standard underground coal mining work boots (a gumboot and a leather lace-up boot) on lower limb muscle activity when participants walked across simulated underground coal mining surfaces. Quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis) and hamstring (biceps femoris, semitendinosus) muscle activity were recorded as twenty male participants walked at a self-selected pace around a circuit while wearing each boot type. The circuit consisted of level, inclined and declined surfaces composed of rocky gravel and hard dirt. Walking in a leather lace-up boot, compared to a gumboot, resulted in increased vastus lateralis and increased biceps femoris muscle activity when walking on sloped surfaces. Increased muscle activity appears to be acting as a slip and/or trip prevention strategy in response to challenging surfaces and changing boot features. PMID:25766420

  7. Analytically tractable studies of traveling waves of activity in integrate-and-fire neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Osan, Remus

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to other large-scale network models for propagation of electrical activity in neural tissue that have no analytical solutions for their dynamics, we show that for a specific class of integrate and fire neural networks the acceleration depends quadratically on the instantaneous speed of the activity propagation. We use this property to analytically compute the network spike dynamics and to highlight the emergence of a natural time scale for the evolution of the traveling waves. These results allow us to examine other applications of this model such as the effect that a nonconductive gap of tissue has on further activity propagation. Furthermore we show that activity propagation also depends on local conditions for other more general connectivity functions, by converting the evolution equations for network dynamics into a low-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations. This approach greatly enhances our intuition into the mechanisms of the traveling waves evolution and significantly reduces the simulation time for this class of models.

  8. Analytically tractable studies of traveling waves of activity in integrate-and-fire neural networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Osan, Remus

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to other large-scale network models for propagation of electrical activity in neural tissue that have no analytical solutions for their dynamics, we show that for a specific class of integrate and fire neural networks the acceleration depends quadratically on the instantaneous speed of the activity propagation. We use this property to analytically compute the network spike dynamics and to highlight the emergence of a natural time scale for the evolution of the traveling waves. These results allow us to examine other applications of this model such as the effect that a nonconductive gap of tissue has on further activity propagation. Furthermore we show that activity propagation also depends on local conditions for other more general connectivity functions, by converting the evolution equations for network dynamics into a low-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations. This approach greatly enhances our intuition into the mechanisms of the traveling waves evolution and significantly reduces the simulation time for this class of models. PMID:27300901

  9. Encouraging walking for transport and physical activity in children and adolescents: how important is the built environment?

    PubMed

    Giles-Corti, Billie; Kelty, Sally F; Zubrick, Stephen R; Villanueva, Karen P

    2009-01-01

    In the post-World War II era, there have been dramatic changes to the environment that appear to be having a detrimental impact on the lifestyles and incidental physical activities of young people. These changes are not trivial and have the potential to influence not only physical health, but also mental health and child development. However, the evidence of the impact of the built environment on physical activity to date is inconsistent. This review examines the evidence on the association between the built environment and walking for transport as well as physical activity generally, with a focus on methodological issues that may explain inconsistencies in the literature to date. It appears that many studies fail to measure behaviour-specific environmental correlates, and insufficient attention is being given to differences according to the age of study participants. Higher levels of out-of-school-hours physical activity and walking appear to be significantly associated with higher levels of urban density and neighbourhoods with mixed-use planning, especially for older children and adolescents. Proximate recreational facilities also appear to predict young people's level of physical activity. However, there are inconsistencies in the literature involving studies with younger children. Independent mobility increases with age. For younger children, the impact of the built environment is influenced by the decision-making of parents as the gatekeepers of their behaviour. Cross-cultural differences may also be present and are worthy of greater exploration. As children develop and are given more independent mobility, it appears that the way neighbourhoods are designed - particularly in terms of proximity and connectivity to local destinations, including schools and shopping centres, and the presence of footpaths - becomes a determinant of whether children are able, and are permitted by their parents, to walk and use destinations locally. If older children and

  10. Effectiveness of a Walking Group Intervention to Promote Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health in Predominantly Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic Urban Neighborhoods: Findings from the Walk Your Heart to Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Amy J.; Israel, Barbara A.; Mentz, Graciela B.; Bernal, Cristina; Caver, Deanna; DeMajo, Ricardo; Diaz, Gregoria; Gamboa, Cindy; Gaines, Causandra; Hoston, Bernadine; Opperman, Alisha; Reyes, Angela G.; Rowe, Zachary; Sand, Sharon L.; Woods, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the "Walk Your Heart to Health" ("WYHH") intervention, one component of the multilevel Community Approaches to Cardiovascular Health: Pathways to Heart Health (CATCH:PATH) intervention designed to promote physical activity and reduce cardiovascular risk…

  11. Cardiac Patients’ Walking Activity Determined by a Step Counter in Cardiac Telerehabilitation: Data From the Intervention Arm of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, John; Grønkjær, Mette; Andreasen, Jan Jesper; Nielsen, Gitte; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Dinesen, Birthe Irene

    2016-01-01

    Background Walking represents a large part of daily physical activity. It reduces both overall and cardiovascular diseases and mortality and is suitable for cardiac patients. A step counter measures walking activity and might be a motivational tool to increase and maintain physical activity. There is a lack of knowledge about both cardiac patients’ adherence to step counter use in a cardiac telerehabilitation program and how many steps cardiac patients walk up to 1 year after a cardiac event. Objective The purpose of this substudy was to explore cardiac patients’ walking activity. The walking activity was analyzed in relation to duration of pedometer use to determine correlations between walking activity, demographics, and medical and rehabilitation data. Methods A total of 64 patients from a randomized controlled telerehabilitation trial (Teledi@log) from Aalborg University Hospital and Hjoerring Hospital, Denmark, from December 2012 to March 2014 were included in this study. Inclusion criteria were patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, and coronary artery bypass grafting or valve surgery. In Teledi@log, the patients received telerehabilitation technology and selected one of three telerehabilitation settings: a call center, a community health care center, or a hospital. Monitoring of steps continued for 12 months and a step counter (Fitbit Zip) was used to monitor daily steps. Results Cardiac patients walked a mean 5899 (SD 3274) steps per day, increasing from mean 5191 (SD 3198) steps per day in the first week to mean 7890 (SD 2629) steps per day after 1 year. Adherence to step counter use lasted for a mean 160 (SD 100) days. The patients who walked significantly more were younger (P=.01) and continued to use the pedometer for a longer period (P=.04). Furthermore, less physically active patients weighed more. There were no significant differences in mean steps per day for patients in the three rehabilitation settings or in the

  12. Active Traveling and Its Associations with Self-Rated Health, BMI and Physical Activity: A Comparative Study in the Adult Swedish Population

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Erik; Lytsy, Per; Westerling, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Active traveling to a daily occupation means that an individual uses an active way of traveling between two destinations. Active travel to work or other daily occupations offers a convenient way to increase physical activity levels which is known to have positive effects on several health outcomes. Frequently used concepts in city planning and regional planning today are to create environments for active commuting and active living. Even then, little research has focused on traveling modes and subjective health outcomes such as self-rated health (SRH). This study aimed to explore and investigate associations between travel mode and health-related outcomes, such as self-rated health (SRH), body mass index (BMI) and overall physical activity, in an adult population in Sweden. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected population-based sample (n = 1786, age 45–75 years); the respondents completed a questionnaire about their regular travel mode, demographics, lifestyle, BMI and SRH. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions found that inactive traveling was associated with poor SRH, a greater risk of obesity or being overweight and overall physical inactivity. In addition, lifestyle factors, such as choice of food and smoking habits, were associated with SRH, BMI and overall physical activity. PMID:27136570

  13. Active Traveling and Its Associations with Self-Rated Health, BMI and Physical Activity: A Comparative Study in the Adult Swedish Population.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Erik; Lytsy, Per; Westerling, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Active traveling to a daily occupation means that an individual uses an active way of traveling between two destinations. Active travel to work or other daily occupations offers a convenient way to increase physical activity levels which is known to have positive effects on several health outcomes. Frequently used concepts in city planning and regional planning today are to create environments for active commuting and active living. Even then, little research has focused on traveling modes and subjective health outcomes such as self-rated health (SRH). This study aimed to explore and investigate associations between travel mode and health-related outcomes, such as self-rated health (SRH), body mass index (BMI) and overall physical activity, in an adult population in Sweden. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected population-based sample (n = 1786, age 45-75 years); the respondents completed a questionnaire about their regular travel mode, demographics, lifestyle, BMI and SRH. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions found that inactive traveling was associated with poor SRH, a greater risk of obesity or being overweight and overall physical inactivity. In addition, lifestyle factors, such as choice of food and smoking habits, were associated with SRH, BMI and overall physical activity. PMID:27136570

  14. Genome walking.

    PubMed

    Shapter, Frances M; Waters, Daniel L E

    2014-01-01

    Genome walking is a method for determining the DNA sequence of unknown genomic regions flanking a region of known DNA sequence. The Genome walking has the potential to capture 6-7 kb of sequence in a single round. Ideal for identifying gene promoter regions where only the coding region. Genome walking also has significant utility for capturing homologous genes in new species when there are areas in the target gene with strong sequence conservation to the characterized species. The increasing use of next-generation sequencing technologies will see the principles of genome walking adapted to in silico methods. However, for smaller projects, PCR-based genome walking will remain an efficient method of characterizing unknown flanking sequence. PMID:24243201

  15. The Jet Travel Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Airplane travelers are dismayed by the long lines and seemingly chaotic activities that precede boarding a full airplane. Surely, the one who can solve this problem is going to make many travelers happy. This article describes the Jet Travel Challenge, an activity that challenges students to create some alternatives to this now frustrating…

  16. Day Length and Weather Effects on Children’s Physical Activity and Participation in Play, Sports, and Active Travel

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Anna; Paskins, James; Mackett, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Background Children in primary school are more physically active in the spring/summer. Little is known about the relative contributions of day length and weather, however, or about the underlying behavioral mediators. Methods 325 British children aged 8 to 11 wore accelerometers as an objective measure of physical activity, measured in terms of mean activity counts. Children simultaneously completed diaries in which we identified episodes of out-of-home play, structured sports, and active travel. Our main exposure measures were day length, temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and wind speed. Results Overall physical activity was higher on long days (≥ 14 hours daylight), but there was no difference between short (< 9.5 hours) and medium days (10.2–12.6 hours). The effect of long day length was largest between 5 PM and 8 PM, and persisted after adjusting for rainfall, cloud cover, and wind. Up to half this effect was explained by a greater duration and intensity of out-of-home play on long days; structured sports and active travel were less affected by day length. Conclusions At least above a certain threshold, longer afternoon/evening daylight may have a causal role in increasing child physical activity. This strengthens the public health arguments for daylight saving measures such as those recently under consideration in Britain. PMID:22826506

  17. Walking Perception by Walking Observers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Alissa; Shiffrar, Maggie

    2005-01-01

    People frequently analyze the actions of other people for the purpose of action coordination. To understand whether such self-relative action perception differs from other-relative action perception, the authors had observers either compare their own walking speed with that of a point-light walker or compare the walking speeds of 2 point-light…

  18. Walking, bicycling, and urban landscapes: evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Cervero, Robert; Duncan, Michael

    2003-09-01

    Some claim that car-dependent cities contribute to obesity by discouraging walking and bicycling. In this article, we use household activity data from the San Francisco region to study the links between urban environments and nonmotorized travel. We used factor analysis to represent the urban design and land-use diversity dimensions of built environments. Combining factor scores with control variables, like steep terrain, that gauge impediments to walking and bicycling, we estimated discrete-choice models. Built-environment factors exerted far weaker, although not inconsequential, influences on walking and bicycling than control variables. Stronger evidence on the importance of urban landscapes in shaping foot and bicycle travel is needed if the urban planning and public health professions are to forge an effective alliance against car-dependent sprawl. PMID:12948966

  19. Natural and built environmental exposures on children's active school travel: A Dutch global positioning system-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Helbich, Marco; Emmichoven, Maarten J Zeylmans van; Dijst, Martin J; Kwan, Mei-Po; Pierik, Frank H; Vries, Sanne I de

    2016-05-01

    Physical inactivity among children is on the rise. Active transport to school (ATS), namely walking and cycling there, adds to children's activity level. Little is known about how exposures along actual routes influence children's transport behavior. This study examined how natural and built environments influence mode choice among Dutch children aged 6-11 years. 623 school trips were tracked with global positioning system. Natural and built environmental exposures were determined by means of a geographic information system and their associations with children's active/passive mode choice were analyzed using mixed models. The actual commuted distance is inversely associated with ATS when only personal, traffic safety, and weather features are considered. When the model is adjusted for urban environments, the results are reversed and distance is no longer significant, whereas well-connected streets and cycling lanes are positively associated with ATS. Neither green space nor weather is significant. As distance is not apparent as a constraining travel determinant when moving through urban landscapes, planning authorities should support children's ATS by providing well-designed cities. PMID:27010106

  20. Physical Activity and the Association With Self-Reported Impairments, Walking Limitations, Fear of Falling, and Incidence of Falls in Persons With Late Effects of Polio.

    PubMed

    Winberg, Cecilia; Brogårdh, Christina; Flansbjer, Ulla-Britt; Carlsson, Gunilla; Rimmer, James; Lexell, Jan

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between physical activity and self-reported disability in ambulatory persons with mild to moderate late effects of polio (N = 81, mean age 67 years). The outcome measures were: Physical Activity and Disability Survey (PADS), a pedometer, Self-Reported Impairments in Persons with Late Effects of Polio Scale (SIPP), Walking Impact Scale (Walk-12), Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I), and self-reported incidence of falls. The participants were physically active on average 158 min per day and walked 6,212 steps daily. Significant associations were found between PADS and Walk-12 (r = -.31, p < .001), and between the number of steps and SIPP, Walk-12, and FES-I (r = -.22 to -.32, p < .05). Walk-12 and age explained 14% of the variance in PADS and FES-I explained 9% of the variance in number of steps per day. Thus, physical activity was only weakly to moderately associated with self-reported disability. PMID:25268608

  1. Assessment of the variability of vastii myoelectric activity in young healthy females during walking: a statistical gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Di Nardo, Francesco; Maranesi, Elvira; Mengarelli, Alessandro; Ghetti, Giacomo; Burattini, Laura; Fioretti, Sandro

    2015-10-01

    The study was designed to assess the natural variability of the activation modalities of vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) during walking at a self-selected speed and cadence of 30 young, healthy, females. This was achieved by conducting statistical gait analysis on the surface electromyographic signals from hundreds of strides for each subject. Results revealed variability in the number of activations, occurrence frequency, and onset-offset instants across the thousands of strides analyzed. However, despite the variability, there was one activation occurrence which remained consistent across subjects for both VM and VL. This occurred from terminal swing to the following loading response (observed in 100% of strides). A second, less frequent, activation occurred between mid-stance up to pre-swing (observed in 39.3±22.4% of strides for VM and in 35.1±20.6% for VL). No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in the onset-offset instants or in the occurrence frequency, which suggest a simultaneous recruitment of VM and VL. This "normality" pattern represents the first attempt at developing a reference frame for vastii sEMG activity during walking, that is able to include the physiological variability of the phenomenon and control the confounding effects of age and gender. PMID:26198265

  2. Effects of ankle extensor muscle afferent inputs on hip abductor and adductor activity in the decerebrate walking cat.

    PubMed

    Bolton, D A E; Misiaszek, J E

    2012-12-01

    Electrical stimulation of the lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LGS) nerve at group I afferent strength leads to adaptations in the amplitude and timing of extensor muscle activity during walking in the decerebrate cat. Such afferent feedback in the stance leg might result from a delay in stance onset of the opposite leg. Concomitant adaptations in hip abductor and adductor activity would then be expected to maintain lateral stability and balance until the opposite leg is able to support the body. As many hip abductors and adductors are also hip extensors, we hypothesized that stimulation of the LGS nerve at group I afferent strength would produce increased activation and prolonged burst duration in hip abductor and adductor muscles in the premammillary decerebrate walking cat. LGS nerve stimulation during the extensor phase of the locomotor cycle consistently increased burst amplitude of the gluteus medius and adductor femoris muscles, but not pectineus or gracilis. In addition, LGS stimulation prolonged the burst duration of both gluteus medius and adductor femoris. Unexpectedly, long-duration LGS stimulus trains resulted in two distinct outcomes on the hip abductor and adductor bursting pattern: 1) a change of burst duration and timing similar to medial gastrocnemius; or 2) to continue rhythmically bursting uninterrupted. These results indicate that activation of muscle afferents from ankle extensors contributes to the regulation of activity of some hip abductor and adductor muscles, but not all. These results have implications for understanding the neural control of stability during locomotion, as well as the organization of spinal locomotor networks. PMID:22972967

  3. Effects of a new walking and cycling route on leisure-time physical activity of Brazilian adults: A longitudinal quasi-experiment.

    PubMed

    Pazin, Joris; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; Florindo, Alex Antonio; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Guimarães, Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo; Borgatto, Adriano Ferreti; Duarte, Maria de Fátima da Silva

    2016-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a new walking and cycling route on leisure-time physical activity (PA) (walking and moderate-to-vigorous PA) of adults. Furthermore, we also investigated the use, intention to use and barriers to use the new route for leisure-time PA. A longitudinal quasi-experiment was carried out. Three exposure groups were defined, based on the distance from home to the new route: 0-500m, 501-1000m and 1001-1500m. Telephone-based interviews were carried out in 2009 and 2012. Those living around the new walking and cycling route increased their leisure-time walking by 15min/week on average. Those residing up to 500m from the route increased leisure-time walking by 30min/week and walking plus moderate-to-vigorous PA by 50min/week. The proportion of people who started walking or practicing moderate-to-vigorous PA during leisure time and who reported intention to use the new route was higher among those living closer to it. Perceived distance was the most prevalent barrier to use the new route. PMID:26922514

  4. Mall Walking as a Physical Activity Option: Results of a Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culos-Reed, S. Nicole; Stephenson, Lynette; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K.; Dickinson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and benefits (fitness and quality of life) of an 8-week mall-walking program. A total of 52 participants ( n = 39 at post-testing) took part in the pilot project (mean age = 66.4; range 46-83 years), with an overall attendance rate of 62.4 per cent. Participants self-selected pace, time, and…

  5. Walking or Dancing: Patterns of Physical Activity by Cross-Sectional Age Among U.S. Women

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jessie X.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Wen, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify age differences in physical activity (PA) participation for women. Methods Data from 3,952 women 25+ from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to analyze participation patterns for 17 PA types. Results The top five leisure PAs by participation rate for all ages were walking (42%), dancing (20%), treadmill (15%), biking (11%), and yoga (10%). Participation in running, dancing, treadmill, and team sports declined around ages 35 to 44, and participation in household PA, walking, weightlifting, and hiking declined around ages 55 to 64. At age 75+ further substantial decline in most activities occurred. Nativity status was the most important moderator for age-related PA decline. Conclusions Total PA declines with age but significant decline does not occur until ages 55 to 64. Major decline in leisure PA participation starts earlier at ages 35 to 44. While age-related declining patterns differ for different activities, the top five most popular leisure activities are similar for all age groups. PMID:23867628

  6. A Walk in the Park: The Influence of Urban Parks and Community Violence on Physical Activity in Chelsea, MA

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Judy Y.; Levy, Jonathan I.; Peters, Junenette L.; Bongiovanni, Roseann; Garcia-Soto, Jovanna; Medina, Rafael; Scammell, Madeleine K.

    2016-01-01

    Proximity to a park does not necessarily imply access or use, and the social environment may positively or negatively influence the positive intentions of the built environment. To investigate parks, park use and physical activity, and their associations with exposure to community violence, we interviewed residents (n = 354) of a densely populated urban community. Our findings indicate that proximity to any park is not associated with physical activity. However, proximity to the preferred park reported by residents to be conducive for physical activity (with walking paths, large fields, playgrounds for children and tennis courts) was associated with physical activity. Conversely, knowledge of sexual assault or rape in the neighborhood is inversely associated with every type of physical activity (park-based, outdoor, and indoor). Our findings suggest that improvements to the built environment (parks, green spaces) may be hindered by adverse social environments and both are necessary for consideration in the design of public health interventions. PMID:26742051

  7. A Walk in the Park: The Influence of Urban Parks and Community Violence on Physical Activity in Chelsea, MA.

    PubMed

    Ou, Judy Y; Levy, Jonathan I; Peters, Junenette L; Bongiovanni, Roseann; Garcia-Soto, Jovanna; Medina, Rafael; Scammell, Madeleine K

    2016-01-01

    Proximity to a park does not necessarily imply access or use, and the social environment may positively or negatively influence the positive intentions of the built environment. To investigate parks, park use and physical activity, and their associations with exposure to community violence, we interviewed residents (n = 354) of a densely populated urban community. Our findings indicate that proximity to any park is not associated with physical activity. However, proximity to the preferred park reported by residents to be conducive for physical activity (with walking paths, large fields, playgrounds for children and tennis courts) was associated with physical activity. Conversely, knowledge of sexual assault or rape in the neighborhood is inversely associated with every type of physical activity (park-based, outdoor, and indoor). Our findings suggest that improvements to the built environment (parks, green spaces) may be hindered by adverse social environments and both are necessary for consideration in the design of public health interventions. PMID:26742051

  8. Neural activity in the medial temporal lobe reveals the fidelity of mental time travel.

    PubMed

    Kragel, James E; Morton, Neal W; Polyn, Sean M

    2015-02-18

    Neural circuitry in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is critically involved in mental time travel, which involves the vivid retrieval of the details of past experience. Neuroscientific theories propose that the MTL supports memory of the past by retrieving previously encoded episodic information, as well as by reactivating a temporal code specifying the position of a particular event within an episode. However, the neural computations supporting these abilities are underspecified. To test hypotheses regarding the computational mechanisms supported by different MTL subregions during mental time travel, we developed a computational model that linked a blood oxygenation level-dependent signal to cognitive operations, allowing us to predict human performance in a memory search task. Activity in the posterior MTL, including parahippocampal cortex, reflected how strongly one reactivates the temporal context of a retrieved memory, allowing the model to predict whether the next memory will correspond to a nearby moment in the study episode. A signal in the anterior MTL, including perirhinal cortex, indicated the successful retrieval of list items, without providing information regarding temporal organization. A hippocampal signal reflected both processes, consistent with theories that this region binds item and context information together to form episodic memories. These findings provide evidence for modern theories that describe complementary roles of the hippocampus and surrounding parahippocampal and perirhinal cortices during the retrieval of episodic memories, shaping how humans revisit the past. PMID:25698731

  9. Walking cycle control for an active ankle prosthesis with one degree of freedom monitored from a personal computer.

    PubMed

    Cordero Andrés, Guzhñay; Arévalo Luis, Calle; Abad Julio, Zambrano

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes a fuzzy control algorithm for human walking cycle of an active ankle prosthesis for people who have suffered amputation of the lower limb, the system has one degree of freedom in the sagittal plane. Also, a biomechanical analysis of foot and ankle is shown to define the phases of plantar support and swinging. The used actuator is an intelligent servomotor, Dynamixel MX-106T which has torque, current and position feedback, among others, allowing real-time telemetry of the prototype implemented in a microcontroller system. PMID:26737084

  10. Effectiveness of an Activity Tracker- and Internet-Based Adaptive Walking Program for Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Josée; Bennett, Wendy L; Jerome, Gerald J; Shah, Nina G; Lazo, Mariana; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Clark, Jeanne M

    2016-01-01

    Background The benefits of physical activity are well documented, but scalable programs to promote activity are needed. Interventions that assign tailored and dynamically adjusting goals could effect significant increases in physical activity but have not yet been implemented at scale. Objective Our aim was to examine the effectiveness of an open access, Internet-based walking program that assigns daily step goals tailored to each participant. Methods A two-arm, pragmatic randomized controlled trial compared the intervention to no treatment. Participants were recruited from a workplace setting and randomized to a no-treatment control (n=133) or to treatment (n=132). Treatment participants received a free wireless activity tracker and enrolled in the walking program, Walkadoo. Assessments were fully automated: activity tracker recorded primary outcomes (steps) without intervention by the participant or investigators. The two arms were compared on change in steps per day from baseline to follow-up (after 6 weeks of treatment) using a two-tailed independent samples t test. Results Participants (N=265) were 66.0% (175/265) female with an average age of 39.9 years. Over half of the participants (142/265, 53.6%) were sedentary (<5000 steps/day) and 44.9% (119/265) were low to somewhat active (5000-9999 steps/day). The intervention group significantly increased their steps by 970 steps/day over control (P<.001), with treatment effects observed in sedentary (P=.04) and low-to-somewhat active (P=.004) participants alike. Conclusions The program is effective in increasing daily steps. Participants benefited from the program regardless of their initial activity level. A tailored, adaptive approach using wireless activity trackers is realistically implementable and scalable. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02229409, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02229409 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6eiWCvBYe) PMID:26860434

  11. Gap Junctions Contribute to the Regulation of Walking-Like Activity in the Adult Mudpuppy (Necturus Maculatus).

    PubMed

    Lavrov, Igor; Fox, Lyle; Shen, Jun; Han, Yingchun; Cheng, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Although gap junctions are widely expressed in the developing central nervous system, the role of electrical coupling of neurons and glial cells via gap junctions in the spinal cord in adults is largely unknown. We investigated whether gap junctions are expressed in the mature spinal cord of the mudpuppy and tested the effects of applying gap junction blocker on the walking-like activity induced by NMDA or glutamate in an in vitro mudpuppy preparation. We found that glial and neural cells in the mudpuppy spinal cord expressed different types of connexins that include connexin 32 (Cx32), connexin 36 (Cx36), connexin 37 (Cx37), and connexin 43 (Cx43). Application of a battery of gap junction blockers from three different structural classes (carbenexolone, flufenamic acid, and long chain alcohols) substantially and consistently altered the locomotor-like activity in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, these blockers did not significantly change the amplitude of the dorsal root reflex, indicating that gap junction blockers did not inhibit neuronal excitability nonselectively in the spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggest that gap junctions play a significant modulatory role in the spinal neural networks responsible for the generation of walking-like activity in the adult mudpuppy. PMID:27023006

  12. Gap Junctions Contribute to the Regulation of Walking-Like Activity in the Adult Mudpuppy (Necturus Maculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Lavrov, Igor; Fox, Lyle; Shen, Jun; Han, Yingchun; Cheng, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Although gap junctions are widely expressed in the developing central nervous system, the role of electrical coupling of neurons and glial cells via gap junctions in the spinal cord in adults is largely unknown. We investigated whether gap junctions are expressed in the mature spinal cord of the mudpuppy and tested the effects of applying gap junction blocker on the walking-like activity induced by NMDA or glutamate in an in vitro mudpuppy preparation. We found that glial and neural cells in the mudpuppy spinal cord expressed different types of connexins that include connexin 32 (Cx32), connexin 36 (Cx36), connexin 37 (Cx37), and connexin 43 (Cx43). Application of a battery of gap junction blockers from three different structural classes (carbenexolone, flufenamic acid, and long chain alcohols) substantially and consistently altered the locomotor-like activity in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, these blockers did not significantly change the amplitude of the dorsal root reflex, indicating that gap junction blockers did not inhibit neuronal excitability nonselectively in the spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggest that gap junctions play a significant modulatory role in the spinal neural networks responsible for the generation of walking-like activity in the adult mudpuppy. PMID:27023006

  13. The effect of prosthetic ankle energy storage and return properties on muscle activity in below-knee amputee walking.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Jessica D; Klute, Glenn K; Neptune, Richard R

    2011-02-01

    In an effort to improve amputee gait, energy storage and return (ESAR) prosthetic feet have been developed to provide enhanced function by storing and returning mechanical energy through elastic structures. However, the effect of ESAR feet on muscle activity in amputee walking is not well understood. Previous studies have analyzed commercial prosthetic feet with a wide range of material properties and geometries, making it difficult to associate specific ESAR properties with changes in muscle activity. In contrast, prosthetic ankles offer a systematic way to manipulate ESAR properties while keeping the prosthetic heel and keel geometry intact. In the present study, ESAR ankles were added to a Seattle Lightfoot2 to carefully control the energy storage and return by altering the ankle stiffness and orientation in order to identify its effect on lower extremity muscle activity during below-knee amputee walking. A total of five foot conditions were analyzed: solid ankle (SA), stiff forward-facing ankle (FA), compliant FA, stiff reverse-facing ankle (RA) and compliant RA. The ESAR ankles decreased the activity of muscles that contribute to body forward propulsion and increased the activity of muscles that provide body support. The compliant ankles generally caused a greater change in muscle activity than the stiff ankles, but without a corresponding increase in energy return. Ankle orientation also had an effect, with RA generally causing a lower change in muscle activity than FA. These results highlight the influence of ESAR stiffness on muscle activity and the importance of prescribing appropriate prosthetic foot stiffness to improve rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:21145747

  14. Using agent based modeling to assess the effect of increased Bus Rapid Transit system infrastructure on walking for transportation.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Pablo D; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; Zambrano, Juan Manuel; Sarmiento, Olga L; Meisel, Jose D; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Zarama, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The effect of transport infrastructure on walking is of interest to researchers because it provides an opportunity, from the public policy point of view, to increase physical activity (PA). We use an agent based model (ABM) to examine the effect of transport infrastructure on walking. Particular relevance is given to assess the effect of the growth of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system in Bogotá on walking. In the ABM agents are assigned a home, work location, and socioeconomic status (SES) based on which they are assigned income for transportation. Individuals must decide between the available modes of transport (i.e., car, taxi, bus, BRT, and walking) as the means of reaching their destination, based on resources and needed travel time. We calibrated the model based on Bogota's 2011 mobility survey. The ABM results are consistent with previous empirical findings, increasing BRT access does indeed increase the number of minutes that individuals walk for transportation, although this effect also depends on the availability of other transport modes. The model indicates a saturation process: as more BRT lanes are added, the increment in minutes walking becomes smaller, and eventually the walking time decreases. Our findings on the potential contribution of the expansion of the BRT system to walking for transportation suggest that ABMs may prove helpful in designing policies to continue promoting walking. PMID:27012602

  15. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  16. New Walking and Cycling Routes and Increased Physical Activity: One- and 2-Year Findings From the UK iConnect Study

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Anna; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effects of providing new high-quality, traffic-free routes for walking and cycling on overall levels of walking, cycling, and physical activity. Methods. 1796 adult residents in 3 UK municipalities completed postal questionnaires at baseline (2010) and 1-year follow-up (2011), after the construction of the new infrastructure. 1465 adults completed questionnaires at baseline and 2-year follow-up (2012). Transport network distance from home to infrastructure defined intervention exposure and provided a basis for controlled comparisons. Results. Living nearer the infrastructure did not predict changes in activity levels at 1-year follow-up but did predict increases in activity at 2 years relative to those living farther away (15.3 additional minutes/week walking and cycling per km nearer; 12.5 additional minutes/week of total physical activity). The effects were larger among participants with no car. Conclusions. These new local routes may mainly have displaced walking or cycling trips in the short term but generated new trips in the longer term, particularly among those unable to access more distant destinations by car. These findings support the potential for walking and cycling infrastructure to promote physical activity. PMID:25033133

  17. A Qualitative Exploration of Factors Associated with Walking and Physical Activity in Community-Dwelling Older Latino Adults

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, David X.; Aguiñaga, Susan; Campa, Jeanine; Pinsker, Eve; Bustamante, Eduardo E.; Hernandez, Rosalba

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ethnic/racial minorities often live in neighborhoods that are not conducive to physical activity (PA) participation. We examined perceived factors related to walking/PA among Spanish- and English-speaking older Latinos in a low-income, multi-ethnic neighborhood. METHODS Exploratory focus group study with Latinos stratified by preferred language and gender: English speaking women (n=7, M age=74.6); English speaking men (n=3, M age=69.3); Spanish speaking women (n=5, M age=66.4); Spanish speaking men (n=5, M age=74.0). Focus group audio files were transcribed, and qualitative research software was used to code and analyze documents. RESULTS At the individual-level, reasons for exercising (improved health) and positive health outcome expectancies (weight loss and decreased knee pain) were discussed. Neighborhood/environmental factors of safety (fear of crime), neighborhood changes (lack of jobs and decreased social networks), weather, and destination walking were discussed. DISCUSSION Individual and environmental factors influence physical activity of older, urban Latinos, and should be taken into consideration in health promotion efforts. PMID:24832017

  18. Effectiveness of a walking group intervention to promote physical activity and cardiovascular health in predominantly non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic urban neighborhoods: Findings from the Walk Your Heart to Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Amy J.; Israel, Barbara A.; Mentz, Graciela B.; Bernal, Cristina; Caver, Deanna; DeMajo, Ricardo; Diaz, Gregoria; Gamboa, Cindy; Gaines, Causandra; Hosten, Bernadine; Opperman, Alisha; Reyes, Angela G.; Rowe, Zachary; Sand, Sharon L.; Woods, Sachiko

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Walk Your Heart to Health (WYHH) intervention, one component of the multilevel CATCH:PATH intervention designed to promote physical activity and reduce cardiovascular risk (CVR) among non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and Hispanic residents of Detroit, Michigan. The study was designed and implemented using a community-based participatory research approach that actively engaged community residents, health service providers and academic researchers. It was implemented between 2009–2012. Methods WYHH was a 32 week Community-Health Promoter (CHP)-facilitated walking group intervention. Groups met three times per week at community-based or faith-based organizations, and walked for 45–90 minutes (increasing over time). The study used a cluster randomized control design to evaluate effectiveness of WYHH, with participants randomized into intervention or lagged intervention (control) groups. Psychosocial, clinical, and anthropometric data were collected at baseline, 8 and 32 weeks, and pedometer step data tracked using uploadable peiso-electric pedometers. Results Participants in the intervention group increased steps significantly more during the initial 8 week intervention period, compared to the control group (β=2004.5, p=0.000). Increases in physical activity were associated with reductions in systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, waist circumference and BMI at 8 weeks, and maintained at 32 weeks. Conclusion The WYHH CHP-facilitated walking group intervention was associated with significant reductions in multiple indicators of CVR among predominantly Hispanic and NHB participants in a low-to-moderate income urban community. Such interventions can contribute to reductions in racial, ethnic and socioeconomic inequities in cardiovascular mortality. PMID:25819980

  19. Initial measurements of the angular velocity of walking humans using an active millimeter-wave correlation interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilevu, Kojo S.; Kammerman, Kelly L.; Nanzer, Jeffrey A.

    2013-05-01

    The design of a 29.5 GHz experimental active interferometer for the measurement of the angular velocity of moving humans is presented in this paper, as well as initial measurements of walking humans. Measurement of the angular motion of moving objects is a desirable function in remote security sensing applications. Doppler radar sensors are able to measure the signature of moving humans based on micro-Doppler analysis; however, a person moving with little to no radial velocity produces negligible Doppler returns. Measurement of the angular movement of humans can be done with traditional radar techniques however the process involves either continuous tracking with narrow beamwidth or angle-of arrival estimation algorithms. Recently, the authors presented a new method of measuring the angular velocity of moving objects using interferometry. The method measures the angular velocity of an object without tracking or complex processing. The frequency shift imparted on the signal response is proportional to the angular velocity of the object as it passes through the interferometer beam pattern. The experimental system consists of a transmitter and two separate receivers with two widely spaced antennas. The received signals in each of the two channels are downconverted and digitized, and post-processed offline. Initial results of a walking person passing through the interferometer beam pattern are presented, which verify the expected operation of the receiver derived from the initial theory.

  20. Examining the Impact of an Email Campaign to Promote Physical Activity and Walking in Adult Women Six-Weeks and One-Year Post-Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Julian A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the impact of an email intervention campaign to increase physical activity among women. Participants' activity levels were assessed at baseline, immediately following the intervention and one year post intervention. (N = 475) received weekly Walking Tips Intervention Emails (WTIE) for 6 weeks. Participants were primarily…

  1. Active Travel to School: Findings from the Survey of US Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yong; Ivey, Stephanie S.; Levy, Marian C.; Royne, Marla B.; Klesges, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas children's active travel to school (ATS) has confirmed benefits, only a few large national surveys of ATS exist. Methods: Using data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2009-2010 US survey, we conducted a logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratios of ATS and a linear regression model to estimate…

  2. High Point Walking for Health: Creating Built and Social Environments That Support Walking in a Public Housing Community

    PubMed Central

    Rabkin, Janice; Sharify, Denise; Song, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We implemented and evaluated multiple interventions to increase walking activity at a multicultural public housing site. Methods. A community-based participatory research partnership and community action teams assessed assets and barriers related to walking and developed multiple interventions to promote walking activity. Interventions included sponsoring walking groups, improving walking routes, providing information about walking options, and advocating for pedestrian safety. A pre–post study design was used to assess the changes in walking activity. Results. Self-reported walking activity increased among walking group participants from 65 to 109 minutes per day (P = .001). The proportion that reported being at least moderately active for at least 150 minutes per week increased from 62% to 81% (P = .018). Conclusions. A multicomponent intervention developed through participatory research methods that emphasized walking groups and included additional strategies to change the built and social environments increased walking activity at a public housing site in Seattle. PMID:19890163

  3. Quantum random walks without walking

    SciTech Connect

    Manouchehri, K.; Wang, J. B.

    2009-12-15

    Quantum random walks have received much interest due to their nonintuitive dynamics, which may hold the key to a new generation of quantum algorithms. What remains a major challenge is a physical realization that is experimentally viable and not limited to special connectivity criteria. We present a scheme for walking on arbitrarily complex graphs, which can be realized using a variety of quantum systems such as a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped inside an optical lattice. This scheme is particularly elegant since the walker is not required to physically step between the nodes; only flipping coins is sufficient.

  4. Neighbourhoods for Active Kids: study protocol for a cross-sectional examination of neighbourhood features and children's physical activity, active travel, independent mobility and body size

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Melody; McPhee, Julia; Carroll, Penelope; Ikeda, Erika; Mavoa, Suzanne; Mackay, Lisa; Kearns, Robin A; Kyttä, Marketta; Asiasiga, Lanuola; Garrett, Nicholas; Lin, Judy; Mackett, Roger; Zinn, Caryn; Moewaka Barnes, Helen; Egli, Victoria; Prendergast, Kate; Witten, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction New Zealand children's physical activity, including independent mobility and active travel, has declined markedly over recent decades. The Neighbourhoods for Active Kids (NfAK) study examines how neighbourhood built environments are associated with the independent mobility, active travel, physical activity and neighbourhood experiences of children aged 9–12 years in primary and intermediate schools across Auckland, New Zealand's largest city. Methods and analysis Child-specific indices of walkability, destination accessibility and traffic exposure will be constructed to measure the built environment in 8 neighbourhoods in Auckland. Interactive online-mapping software will be used to measure children's independent mobility and transport mode to destinations and to derive measures of neighbourhood use and perceptions. Physical activity will be measured using 7-day accelerometry. Height, weight and waist circumference will be objectively measured. Parent telephone interviews will collect sociodemographic information and parent neighbourhood perceptions. Interviews with school representative will capture supports and barriers for healthy activity and nutrition behaviours at the school level. Multilevel modelling approaches will be used to understand how differing built environment variables are associated with activity, neighbourhood experiences and health outcomes. Discussion We anticipate that children who reside in neighbourhoods considered highly walkable will be more physically active, accumulate more independent mobility and active travel, and be more likely to have a healthy body size. This research is timely as cities throughout New Zealand develop and implement plans to improve the liveability of intensifying urban neighbourhoods. Results will be disseminated to participants, local government agencies and through conventional academic avenues. PMID:27531740

  5. Take a Planet Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Dwight

    2008-01-01

    Physical models in the classroom "cannot be expected to represent the full-scale phenomenon with complete accuracy, not even in the limited set of characteristics being studied" (AAAS 1990). Therefore, by modifying a popular classroom activity called a "planet walk," teachers can explore upper elementary students' current understandings; create an…

  6. A Wasp Manipulates Neuronal Activity in the Sub-Esophageal Ganglion to Decrease the Drive for Walking in Its Cockroach Prey

    PubMed Central

    Gal, Ram; Libersat, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Background The parasitoid Jewel Wasp hunts cockroaches to serve as a live food supply for its offspring. The wasp stings the cockroach in the head and delivers a cocktail of neurotoxins directly inside the prey's cerebral ganglia. Although not paralyzed, the stung cockroach becomes a living yet docile ‘zombie’, incapable of self-initiating spontaneous or evoked walking. We show here that such neuro-chemical manipulation can be attributed to decreased neuronal activity in a small region of the cockroach cerebral nervous system, the sub-esophageal ganglion (SEG). A decrease in descending permissive inputs from this ganglion to thoracic central pattern generators decreases the propensity for walking-related behaviors. Methodology and Principal Findings We have used behavioral, neuro-pharmacological and electrophysiological methods to show that: (1) Surgically removing the cockroach SEG prior to wasp stinging prolongs the duration of the sting 5-fold, suggesting that the wasp actively targets the SEG during the stinging sequence; (2) injecting a sodium channel blocker, procaine, into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches reversibly decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, suggesting that the SEG plays an important role in the up-regulation of locomotion; (3) artificial focal injection of crude milked venom into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, as seen with naturally-stung cockroaches; and (4) spontaneous and evoked neuronal spiking activity in the SEG, recorded with an extracellular bipolar microelectrode, is markedly decreased in stung cockroaches versus non-stung controls. Conclusions and Significance We have identified the neuronal substrate responsible for the venom-induced manipulation of the cockroach's drive for walking. Our data strongly support previous findings suggesting a critical and permissive role for the SEG in the regulation of locomotion in insects. By injecting a venom cocktail directly into the SEG, the

  7. Influence of changing travel patterns on child death rates from injury: trend analysis.

    PubMed Central

    DiGuiseppi, C.; Roberts, I.; Li, L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in child mortality from unintentional injury between 1985 and 1992 and to find how changes in modes of travel contributed to these trends. DESIGN: Poisson regression modelling using data from death certificates, censuses, and national travel surveys. SETTING: England and Wales. SUBJECTS: Resident children aged 0-14. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths from unintentional injury and poisoning. RESULTS: Child deaths from injury declined by 34% (95% confidence interval 28% to 40%) per 100,000 population between 1985 and 1992. Substantial decreases in each of the leading causes of death from injury contributed to this overall decline. On average, children walked and cycled less distance and travelled substantially more miles by car in 1992 compared with 1985. Deaths from road traffic accidents declined for pedestrians by 24% per mile walked and for cyclists by 20% per mile cycled, substantially less than the declines per 100,000 population of 37% and 38% respectively. In contrast, deaths of occupants of motor vehicles declined by 42% per mile travelled by car compared with a 21% decline per 100,000 population. CONCLUSIONS: If trends in child mortality from injury continue the government's target to reduce the rate by 33% by the year 2005 will be achieved. A substantial proportion of the decline in pedestrian traffic and pedal cycling deaths, however, seems to have been achieved at the expense of children's walking and cycling activities. Changes in travel patterns may exact a considerable price in terms of future health problems. PMID:9116546

  8. Active Travel-Time Tomography using a Distributed Acoustic Sensing Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancelle, C.; Fratta, D.; Lord, N. E.; Wang, H. F.; Chalari, A.

    2015-12-01

    Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) is a sensor array used for monitoring ground motion by utilizing the interaction of light pulses with sections of a fiber-optic cable. In September 2013 a field test was conducted at the NEES@UCSB Garner Valley field site in Southern California incorporating DAS technology. A 762-meter-long fiber-optic cable was trenched to a depth of about 0.3 m in a rectangular design with two interior diagonal segments. The fiber was excited by a number of sources, including a 45 kN shear shaker and a smaller 450 N portable mass shaker, both of which were available through NEES@UCLA. In addition to these sources, signals were recorded from a minivib source and hammer blows on a steel plate, as well as 8 hours of overnight ambient noise recording. One goal of the field test was to evaluate the use of DAS for tomographic studies. The large number of measurement points inherent to DAS lends itself well to this type of study. Tomograms were constructed using two of the active-sources at multiple locations. There were 8 minivib locations within the array and 13 hammer locations along the boundary of the array. Travel-time data were collected with the DAS array. Two-dimensional velocity tomograms were constructed for different resolutions from the two active sources and compared. In all the images, the lowest velocities lie near the center of the array with higher velocities surrounding this area. The impact results, however, may contain an artifact due to multiple propagation modes. This research is part of the DOE's PoroTomo project.

  9. Directed random walks and constraint programming reveal active pathways in hepatocyte growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Kittas, Aristotelis; Delobelle, Aurélien; Schmitt, Sabrina; Breuhahn, Kai; Guziolowski, Carito; Grabe, Niels

    2016-01-01

    An effective means to analyze mRNA expression data is to take advantage of established knowledge from pathway databases, using methods such as pathway-enrichment analyses. However, pathway databases are not case-specific and expression data could be used to infer gene-regulation patterns in the context of specific pathways. In addition, canonical pathways may not always describe the signaling mechanisms properly, because interactions can frequently occur between genes in different pathways. Relatively few methods have been proposed to date for generating and analyzing such networks, preserving the causality between gene interactions and reasoning over the qualitative logic of regulatory effects. We present an algorithm (MCWalk) integrated with a logic programming approach, to discover subgraphs in large-scale signaling networks by random walks in a fully automated pipeline. As an exemplary application, we uncover the signal transduction mechanisms in a gene interaction network describing hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated cell migration and proliferation from gene-expression measured with microarray and RT-qPCR using in-house perturbation experiments in a keratinocyte-fibroblast co-culture. The resulting subgraphs illustrate possible associations of hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-Met nodes, differentially expressed genes and cellular states. Using perturbation experiments and Answer Set programming, we are able to select those which are more consistent with the experimental data. We discover key regulator nodes by measuring the frequency with which they are traversed when connecting signaling between receptors and significantly regulated genes and predict their expression-shift consistently with the measured data. The Java implementation of MCWalk is publicly available under the MIT license at: https://bitbucket.org/akittas/biosubg. PMID:26518250

  10. Travel medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  11. Flight and Walking in Locusts–Cholinergic Co-Activation, Temporal Coupling and Its Modulation by Biogenic Amines

    PubMed Central

    Rillich, Jan; Stevenson, Paul A.; Pflueger, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Walking and flying in locusts are exemplary rhythmical behaviors generated by central pattern generators (CPG) that are tuned in intact animals by phasic sensory inputs. Although these two behaviors are mutually exclusive and controlled by independent CPGs, leg movements during flight can be coupled to the flight rhythm. To investigate potential central coupling between the underlying CPGs, we used the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine and the amines octopamine and tyramine to initiate fictive flight and walking in deafferented locust preparations. Our data illustrate that fictive walking is readily evoked by comparatively lower concentrations of pilocarpine, whereas higher concentrations are required to elicit fictive flight. Interestingly, fictive flight did not suppress fictive walking so that the two patterns were produced simultaneously. Frequently, leg motor units were temporally coupled to the flight rhythm, so that each spike in a step cycle volley occurred synchronously with wing motor units firing at flight rhythm frequency. Similarly, tyramine also induced fictive walking and flight, but mostly without any coupling between the two rhythms. Octopamine in contrast readily evoked fictive flight but generally failed to elicit fictive walking. Despite this, numerous leg motor units were recruited, whereby each was temporarily coupled to the flight rhythm. Our results support the notion that the CPGs for walking and flight are largely independent, but that coupling can be entrained by aminergic modulation. We speculate that octopamine biases the whole motor machinery of a locust to flight whereas tyramine primarily promotes walking. PMID:23671643

  12. Cycling and walking to work in New Zealand, 1991-2006: regional and individual differences, and pointers to effective interventions

    PubMed Central

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Thornley, Simon; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2009-01-01

    Background Active commuting increases levels of physical activity and is more likely to be adopted and sustained than exercise programmes. Despite the potential health, environmental, social and economic benefits, cycling and walking are increasingly marginal modes of transport in many countries. This paper investigated regional and individual differences in cycling and walking to work in New Zealand over the 15-year period (1991-2006). Methods New Zealand Census data (collected every five years) were accessed to analyse self-reported information on the "main means of travel to work" from individuals aged 15 years and over who are usually resident and employed in New Zealand. This analysis investigated differences in patterns of active commuting to work stratified by region, age, gender and personal income. Results In 2006, over four-fifths of New Zealanders used a private vehicle, one in fourteen walked and one in forty cycled to work. Increased car use from 1991 to 2006 occurred at the expense of active means of travel as trends in public transport use remained unchanged during that period. Of the 16 regions defined at meshblock and area unit level, Auckland had the lowest prevalence of cycling and walking. In contrast to other regions, walking to work increased in Wellington and Nelson, two regions which have made substantial investments in local infrastructure to promote active transport. Nationally, cycling prevalence declined with age whereas a U-shaped trend was observed for walking. The numbers of younger people cycling to work and older people walking to work declined substantially from 1991 to 2006. Higher proportions of men compared with women cycled to work. The opposite was true for walking with an increasing trend observed in women aged under 30 years. Walking to work was less prevalent among people with higher income. Conclusion We observed a steady decline in cycling and walking to work from 1991 to 2006, with two regional exceptions. This together

  13. Walking indoors, walking outdoors: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Dalla Volta, Riccardo; Fasano, Fabrizio; Cerasa, Antonio; Mangone, Graziella; Quattrone, Aldo; Buccino, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    An observation/execution matching system for walking has not been assessed yet. The present fMRI study was aimed at assessing whether, as for object-directed actions, an observation/execution matching system is active for walking and whether the spatial context of walking (open or narrow space) recruits different neural correlates. Two experimental conditions were employed. In the execution condition, while being scanned, participants performed walking on a rolling cylinder located just outside the scanner. The same action was performed also while observing a video presenting either an open space (a country field) or a narrow space (a corridor). In the observation condition, participants observed a video presenting an individual walking on the same cylinder on which the actual action was executed, the open space video and the narrow space video, respectively. Results showed common bilateral activations in the dorsal premotor/supplementary motor areas and in the posterior parietal lobe for both execution and observation of walking, thus supporting a matching system for this action. Moreover, specific sectors of the occipital–temporal cortex and the middle temporal gyrus were consistently active when processing a narrow space versus an open one, thus suggesting their involvement in the visuo-motor transformation required when walking in a narrow space. We forward that the present findings may have implications for rehabilitation of gait and sport training. PMID:26483745

  14. Travelers' Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Citizens and Residents Living in Areas with Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission Guidelines for Travelers Visiting Friends and Family ... Vaccines. Medicines. Advice. Do you have questions about Zika virus or travel to the Olympics ? Destinations Who are ...

  15. Travelers' Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic Games in Brazil Olympics Freqently Asked Questions Find a ... Travelers Zika infographic: Enjoy Your Vacation Infographic: Olympic Games in Brazil Pack smart to prevent Zika Prevent ...

  16. Walk on the Bright Side: Physical Activity and Affect in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Jutta; Thompson, Renee J.; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2014-01-01

    Although prescribed exercise has been found to improve affect and reduce levels of depression, we do not know how self-initiated everyday physical activity influences levels of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in depressed persons. Fifty-three individuals diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 53 never-depressed controls participated in a seven-day experience sampling study. Participants were prompted randomly eight times per day and answered questions about their physical activity and affective state. Over the week, the two groups of participants did not differ in average level of physical activity. As expected, participants with MDD reported lower average PA and higher average NA than did never-depressed controls. Both participants with MDD and controls reported higher levels of PA at prompts after physical activity than at prompts after inactive periods; moreover, for both groups of participants, PA increased from a prompt after an inactive period to a subsequent prompt at which activity was reported. Depressed participants in particular showed a dose-response effect of physical activity on affect: longer duration and/or higher intensity of physical activity increased their PA significantly more than did short duration and/or lower intensity physical activity. Physical activity did not influence NA in either group. In contrast to previous treatment studies that examined the effects of prescribed structured exercise, this investigation showed that self-initiated physical activity influences PA. These findings also underscore the importance of distinguishing between PA and NA to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of physical activity on affect in MDD. PMID:21553939

  17. 77 FR 71432 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Travel Document, Form Number I-131...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... notice on December 28, 2011 published at 76 FR 81517, allowing for a 60-day public comment period; and, a notice on March 16, 2012 published at 77 FR 15787, allowing for a 30-day public comment period. USCIS did... for Travel Document, Form Number I-131; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION:...

  18. Traveling Psychology Fair: Learner-Centered Outreach Activities to Stimulate Interest in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew T.; Mandernach, B. Jean

    2006-01-01

    The Traveling Psychology Fair is designed to bridge the gap between secondary and college psychology education, encourage enthusiasm for the study of psychology, enhance teaching resources for high school psychology instructors, and promote a deeper understanding of psychological principles for psychology majors. Consisting of 24 outreach…

  19. Physical Activity Patterns of PETE Majors: Do They Walk the Talk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVine, Mary E.; Ray, Cortney

    2006-01-01

    It is well established and supported by research that regular physical activity has positive benefits to health. Currently, there is much concern about the decreasing amount of physical activity in adults and children with a corresponding increase in obesity and morbidity/ mortality rates. This study was designed to investigate the activity…

  20. Walking the Road between Libraries: Best Practices in School and Public Library Cooperative Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Gail

    2006-01-01

    The American Association of School Librarians (AASL)/Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC)/Young Adult Library Service Association (YALSA) Joint Task Force on School/Public Library Cooperative Activities has been collecting and disseminating information about cooperative activities around the country since the first meeting in January…

  1. Travelers' Health: Travel and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... providers should explain clearly to breastfeeding mothers the value of continuing breastfeeding during travel. For the first 6 months of life, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended. This is especially important during travel because exclusive breastfeeding means feeding only ...

  2. [Walking abnormalities in children].

    PubMed

    Segawa, Masaya

    2010-11-01

    Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional

  3. Perturbation spreading in many-particle systems: a random walk approach.

    PubMed

    Zaburdaev, V; Denisov, S; Hänggi, P

    2011-05-01

    The propagation of an initially localized perturbation via an interacting many-particle Hamiltonian dynamics is investigated. We argue that the propagation of the perturbation can be captured by the use of a continuous-time random walk where a single particle is traveling through an active, fluctuating medium. Employing two archetype ergodic many-particle systems, namely, (i) a hard-point gas composed of two unequal masses and (ii) a Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain, we demonstrate that the corresponding perturbation profiles coincide with the diffusion profiles of the single-particle Lévy walk approach. The parameters of the random walk can be related through elementary algebraic expressions to the physical parameters of the corresponding test many-body systems. PMID:21635077

  4. Perturbation Spreading in Many-Particle Systems: A Random Walk Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaburdaev, V.; Denisov, S.; Hänggi, P.

    2011-05-01

    The propagation of an initially localized perturbation via an interacting many-particle Hamiltonian dynamics is investigated. We argue that the propagation of the perturbation can be captured by the use of a continuous-time random walk where a single particle is traveling through an active, fluctuating medium. Employing two archetype ergodic many-particle systems, namely, (i) a hard-point gas composed of two unequal masses and (ii) a Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain, we demonstrate that the corresponding perturbation profiles coincide with the diffusion profiles of the single-particle Lévy walk approach. The parameters of the random walk can be related through elementary algebraic expressions to the physical parameters of the corresponding test many-body systems.

  5. The role of leg touchdown for the control of locomotor activity in the walking stick insect

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Joscha; Büschges, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    Much is known on how select sensory feedback contributes to the activation of different motoneuron pools in the locomotor control system of stick insects. However, even though activation of the stance phase muscles depressor trochanteris, retractor unguis, flexor tibiae and retractor coxae is correlated with the touchdown of the leg, the potential sensory basis of this correlation or its connection to burst intensity remains unknown. In our experiments, we are using a trap door setup to investigate how ground contact contributes to stance phase muscle activation and burst intensity in different stick insect species, and which afferent input is involved in the respective changes. While the magnitude of activation is changed in all of the above stance phase muscles, only the timing of the flexor tibiae muscle is changed if the animal unexpectedly steps into a hole. Individual and combined ablation of different force sensors on the leg demonstrated influence from femoral campaniform sensilla on flexor muscle timing, causing a significant increase in the latencies during control and air steps. Our results show that specific load feedback signals determine the timing of flexor tibiae activation at the swing-to-stance transition in stepping stick insects, but that additional feedback may also be involved in flexor muscle activation during stick insect locomotion. With respect to timing, all other investigated stance phase muscles appear to be under sensory control other than that elicited through touchdown. PMID:25652931

  6. Associations between the neighbourhood built environment and out of school physical activity and active travel: An examination from the Kids in the City study.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Melody; Mavoa, Suzanne; Badland, Hannah; Parker, Karl; Donovan, Phil; Kearns, Robin A; Lin, En-Yi; Witten, Karen

    2015-11-01

    This study's aim was to examine selected objectively-measured and child specific built environment attributes in relation to proportion of out-of-school time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA) and active travel in a group of ethnically and socio-economically diverse children (n=236) living in Auckland, New Zealand. Street connectivity and distance to school were related to the proportion of trips made by active modes. Ratio of high speed to low speed roads and improved streetscape for active travel were related to %MVPA on weekdays only. Inconsistent results were found for destination accessibility. Local destinations (particularly schools) along a safe street network may be important for encouraging children's activity behaviours. PMID:26432167

  7. Comparison of heart rate responses. Water walking versus treadmill walking.

    PubMed

    Whitley, J D; Schoene, L L

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare heart rate responses to water walking versus treadmill walking to determine whether the responses were of sufficient magnitude to elicit cardiorespiratory training effects. The heart rates of 12 healthy, female college students were measured immediately after walking in waist-deep water and on a treadmill at the same distance, durations, and speeds (2.55, 2.77, 3.02, and 3.31 km/hr). A significant increase in heart rate with increased speeds resulted from water walking (p less than .05); from rest to the fastest speed, it was 135% (96 bpm). For treadmill walking, the increase of 19% (13 bpm) was not significant. The heart rates for the water condition were significantly higher (p less than .05) at each speed. These findings indicate that water walking could serve as an effective exercise mode, for example, for cardiorespiratory fitness for individuals who are unable to perform such weight-bearing activities as jogging, fast walking, cycling, and dancing. PMID:3659133

  8. Comparison of muscle activity patterns of transfemoral amputees and control subjects during walking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Only few studies have looked at electromyography (EMG) during prosthetic gait. Differences in EMG between normal and prosthetic gait for stance and swing phase were never separately analyzed. These differences can give valuable information if and how muscle activity changes in prosthetic gait. Methods In this study EMG activity during gait of the upper leg muscles of six transfemoral amputees, measured inside their own socket, was compared to that of five controls. On and off timings for stance and swing phase were determined together with the level of co-activity and inter-subject variability. Results and conclusions Gait phase changes in amputees mainly consisted of an increased double support phase preceding the prosthetic stance phase. For the subsequent (pre) swing phase the main differences were found in muscle activity patterns of the prosthetic limb, more muscles were active during this phase and/or with prolonged duration. The overall inter-subject variability was larger in amputees compared to controls. PMID:23914785

  9. Walking to school and traffic exposure in Australian children.

    PubMed

    Carlin, J B; Stevenson, M R; Roberts, I; Bennett, C M; Gelman, A; Nolan, T

    1997-06-01

    Daily patterns of pedestrian activity in young children have important health implications, primarily because of the risk of road traffic injury, but also because they may reflect the commencement of exercise habits with long-term consequences. A cross-sectional survey in two Australian cities, Melbourne and Perth, aimed to collect, by parent self-administered questionnaire, population-based data on modes of travel, numbers of street crossings (both accompanied and unaccompanied by an adult), and sociodemographic factors for six- and nine-year-old children. Results indicate that 35 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 31 to 39 per cent) and 31 per cent (CI 28 to 34 per cent) walk to school in Melbourne and Perth respectively, while over 60 per cent are driven to school by car, with very small proportions riding bicycles or taking public transport. A higher level of walking was associated with lower levels of several indicators of socioeconomic status. Logistic regression analysis showed that the strongest predictor of walking activity was school type (government versus independent), and after adjusting for this, lesser car ownership, non-English-speaking background and lower occupational category were associated with walking to school, while a different set of predictors--age, sex and maternal education--was associated with the unaccompanied crossing of streets. There was little difference in overall walking levels between boys and girls, but boys were significantly more likely to cross streets unaccompanied (adjusted odds ratio 1.41, CI 1.14 to 1.72), providing a partial explanation of documented sex differences in injury rates. PMID:9270155

  10. From attitude to action: What shapes attitude toward walking to/from school and how does it influence actual behaviors?

    PubMed

    Yu, Chia-Yuan; Zhu, Xuemei

    2016-09-01

    Walking to/from school could promote children's physical activity and help combat childhood obesity. Parental attitudes have been identified as one of the important predictors. But it is unclear what factors shape parental attitudes, and how those in turn influence children's school travel. This study addresses this gap of knowledge by examining the mediating effect of parental attitudes for the relationships between personal, social, and built environmental factors and children's walking-to/from-school behaviors. Survey data (N=2597) were collected from 20 public elementary schools in Austin, Texas, measuring students' typical school travel mode; personal, social, and built environmental factors related to walking-to/from-school; and relevant parental attitudes. The analysis was conducted in M-plus 6.11 to test the proposed conceptual framework using a structural equation model (SEM). Parental attitudes showed significant mediating effects on walking-to/from-school behaviors. Older child, positive peer influence, walkable home-to-school distance, and favorable walking environments were associated with more enjoyment and lower attitudinal barriers, and in turn increased likelihood of walking to/from school. Being Hispanic, increased car ownership, and stronger traffic safety concerns reduced enjoyment and increased attitudinal barriers, and thus decreased likelihood of walking to/from school. This study highlighted the importance of using multilevel interventions to reduce attitudinal barriers and increase enjoyment of walking to/from school. Collaborations among different stakeholders are needed to address environmental issues (e.g., safety concerns) and social factors (e.g., peer influence), while being sensitive to personal factors (e.g., age, ethnicity, and car ownership). PMID:27374942

  11. Beam walking can detect differences in walking balance proficiency across a range of sensorimotor abilities.

    PubMed

    Sawers, Andrew; Ting, Lena H

    2015-02-01

    The ability to quantify differences in walking balance proficiency is critical to curbing the rising health and financial costs of falls. Current laboratory-based approaches typically focus on successful recovery of balance while clinical instruments often pose little difficulty for all but the most impaired patients. Rarely do they test motor behaviors of sufficient difficulty to evoke failures in balance control limiting their ability to quantify balance proficiency. Our objective was to test whether a simple beam-walking task could quantify differences in walking balance proficiency across a range of sensorimotor abilities. Ten experts, ten novices, and five individuals with transtibial limb loss performed six walking trials across three different width beams. Walking balance proficiency was quantified as the ratio of distance walked to total possible distance. Balance proficiency was not significantly different between cohorts on the wide-beam, but clear differences between cohorts on the mid and narrow-beams were identified. Experts walked a greater distance than novices on the mid-beam (average of 3.63±0.04m verus 2.70±0.21m out of 3.66m; p=0.009), and novices walked further than amputees (1.52±0.20m; p=0.03). Amputees were unable to walk on the narrow-beam, while experts walked further (3.07±0.14m) than novices (1.55±0.26m; p=0.0005). A simple beam-walking task and an easily collected measure of distance traveled detected differences in walking balance proficiency across sensorimotor abilities. This approach provides a means to safely study and evaluate successes and failures in walking balance in the clinic or lab. It may prove useful in identifying mechanisms underlying falls versus fall recoveries. PMID:25648493

  12. Treadmill Workstations: The Effects of Walking while Working on Physical Activity and Work Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ner, Avner; Hamann, Darla J.; Koepp, Gabriel; Manohar, Chimnay U.; Levine, James

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a 12-month-long experiment in a financial services company to study how the availability of treadmill workstations affects employees’ physical activity and work performance. We enlisted sedentary volunteers, half of whom received treadmill workstations during the first two months of the study and the rest in the seventh month of the study. Participants could operate the treadmills at speeds of 0–2 mph and could use a standard chair-desk arrangement at will. (a) Weekly online performance surveys were administered to participants and their supervisors, as well as to all other sedentary employees and their supervisors. Using within-person statistical analyses, we find that overall work performance, quality and quantity of performance, and interactions with coworkers improved as a result of adoption of treadmill workstations. (b) Participants were outfitted with accelerometers at the start of the study. We find that daily total physical activity increased as a result of the adoption of treadmill workstations. PMID:24586359

  13. Travelers' thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Raymond V; Hudson, Martin F

    2014-02-01

    The suggestion that venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with air travel has for several decades been the subject of both "media hype" and extensive debate in the medical literature. As emotion and anecdote is often a feature in this debate, it is therefore necessary to separate evidence from anecdote. "Travelers' thrombosis" is a more appropriate term because the evidence suggests that any form of travel involving immobility lasting more than 4 h can predispose to thrombosis. There is no unique factor in the air travel cabin environment that has been shown to have any effect on the coagulation cascade. Prevention of thrombosis in any form of travel, including air travel, requires being aware of the issue and making an adequate risk assessment together with appropriate prophylactic measures. PMID:24597166

  14. Correlations Between Gait Speed, 6-Minute Walk Distance, Physical Activity, and Self-Efficacy in Patients With Severe Chronic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    DePew, Zachary S; Karpman, Craig; Novotny, Paul J; Benzo, Roberto P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Four-meter gait speed (4MGS) has been associated with functional capacity and overall mortality in elderly patients, and may easily be translated to daily practice. We evaluated the association of 4MGS with meaningful outcomes. METHODS In 70 subjects we conducted the 4MGS, 6-min walk test (6MWT), objectively measured physical activity, and assessed dyspnea, quality of life, and self-efficacy for walking and routine physical activity. 4MGS was measured in 3 separate time epochs during the 6MWT, to explore 4MGS variability. RESULTS Diagnoses included COPD (51.4%), interstitial lung disease (38.6%), and other pulmonary conditions (10%). The mean ± SD values were: 4MGS 0.85 ± 0.21 m/s, 6-min walk distance (6MWD) 305 ± 115 m, and physical activity level 1.28 ± 0.17, which is consistent with severe physical inactivity. The gait speeds within the time epochs 1–2, 3–4, and 5–6 min during the 6MWT were not significantly different: 1.01 ± 0.29 m/s, 0.98 ± 0.31 m/s, and 1.00 ± 0.31 m/s, respectively. 4MGS had a significant correlation with 6MWD (r = 0.70, P < .001). 6MWD was the dominant variable for predicting 4MGS. Other significant predictors of 4MGS included dyspnea, self-efficacy, quality of life, and objectively measured physical activity. CONCLUSIONS 4MGS is significantly and independently associated with 6MWD, and may serve as a reasonable simple surrogate for 6MWD in subjects with chronic lung disease. Gait speed was remarkably stable throughout the 6MWT, which supports the validity of an abbreviated walk test such as 4MGS. PMID:23696689

  15. Anticipatory kinematics and muscle activity preceding transitions from level-ground walking to stair ascent and descent.

    PubMed

    Peng, Joshua; Fey, Nicholas P; Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2016-02-29

    The majority of fall-related accidents are during stair ambulation-occurring commonly at the top and bottom stairs of each flight, locations in which individuals are transitioning to stairs. Little is known about how individuals adjust their biomechanics in anticipation of walking-stair transitions. We identified the anticipatory stride mechanics of nine able-bodied individuals as they approached transitions from level ground walking to stair ascent and descent. Unlike prior investigations of stair ambulation, we analyzed two consecutive "anticipation" strides preceding the transitions strides to stairs, and tested a comprehensive set of kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) data from both the leading and trailing legs. Subjects completed ten trials of baseline overground walking and ten trials of walking to stair ascent and descent. Deviations relative to baseline were assessed. Significant changes in mechanics and EMG occurred in the earliest anticipation strides analyzed for both ascent and descent transitions. For stair descent, these changes were consistent with observed reductions in walking speed, which occurred in all anticipation strides tested. For stair ascent, subjects maintained their speed until the swing phase of the latest anticipation stride, and changes were found that would normally be observed for decreasing speed. Given the timing and nature of the observed changes, this study has implications for enhancing intent recognition systems and evaluating fall-prone or disabled individuals, by testing their abilities to sense upcoming transitions and decelerate during locomotion. PMID:26830440

  16. Traveler's Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Stanley L; Stevens, A Michal; Leung, Daniel T

    2016-03-01

    Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is the most common travel-related illness, and it can have a significant impact on the traveler. Pretravel consultation provides an excellent opportunity for the clinician to counsel the traveler and discuss strategies such as food and water hygiene, vaccinations, and medications for prophylaxis or self-treatment that may decrease the incidence and impact of TD. Postinfectious sequelae, such as postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, reactive arthritis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, may develop weeks or months after return. PMID:26900116

  17. Walking Programs to Promote Weight Loss among Obese and Overweight Individuals: Walking Buses for Adults

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Elizabeth H.; Milner, Adrienne N.; Campbell, Anthony D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the concept of a walking bus program is a viable option for increasing physical activity and weight loss among overweight and obese adults Methods A pilot study was conducted where 45overweight and obese participants were monitored over an 8 week period and their walking bus use and weight changes were measured longitudinally. Results Participants who utilized the walking bus were more likely than those who did not use the walking bus to lose weight. Black walking bus users were less likely to lose weight than non-black walking bus users. 98% of participants said they would likely participate in a walking bus program again. Conclusions Walking buses programs are a viable option to promote weight loss among overweight and obese adults. PMID:25940648

  18. Multi-day activity scheduling reactions to planned activities and future events in a dynamic model of activity-travel behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijland, Linda; Arentze, Theo; Timmermans, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Modeling multi-day planning has received scarce attention in activity-based transport demand modeling so far. However, new dynamic activity-based approaches are being developed at the current moment. The frequency and inflexibility of planned activities and events in activity schedules of individuals indicate the importance of incorporating those pre-planned activities in the new generation of dynamic travel demand models. Elaborating and combining previous work on event-driven activity generation, the aim of this paper is to develop and illustrate an extension of a need-based model of activity generation that takes into account possible influences of pre-planned activities and events. This paper describes the theory and shows the results of simulations of the extension. The simulation was conducted for six different activities, and the parameter values used were consistent with an earlier estimation study. The results show that the model works well and that the influences of the parameters are consistent, logical, and have clear interpretations. These findings offer further evidence of face and construct validity to the suggested modeling approach.

  19. Use of pedometer-driven walking to promote physical activity and improve health-related quality of life among meat processing workers: a feasibility trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Current evidence supports the use of pedometers as effective motivational tools to promote physical activity and improve health-related quality of life in the general population. The aims of this study are to examine whether a pedometer-driven walking programme can improve health-related quality of life, and increase ambulatory activity in a population of meat processing workers when compared to a control group receiving educational material alone. Methods/design A feasibility study employing a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design will collect data at three time points. A sample of up to 60 meat workers will be recruited and randomly assigned to either an intervention group N = 30 (12-week pedometer-driven walking program, brief intervention, and educational material), or control group N = 30 (educational material only). The primary outcomes of ambulatory activity, health-related quality of life, and functional capacity, will be evaluated at baseline, immediately following the 12-week intervention and then at three month post-intervention. Discussion This paper describes the design of a feasibility randomized controlled trial, which aims to assess the effectiveness of the introduction of a workplace pedometer-driven walking program compared to normal lifestyle advice in meat processing workers. Trial Registration Number (ANZCTR): 12613000087752. PMID:24175980

  20. A travel mode comparison of commuters' exposures to air pollutants in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Fruin, Scott; Westerdahl, Dane; Martinez, David; Ripoll, Anna; Kubesch, Nadine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Daily commutes may contribute disproportionately to overall daily inhalations of urban air contaminants. Understanding factors that explain variability of exposures during travel, and especially differences across transportation modes, is essential to accurately assess health impacts of traffic emissions and to develop effective mitigating measures. We evaluated exposures and inhaled doses of air pollution and assessed factors that contributed to their variability in different travel modes in Barcelona. Black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particle mass (PM2.5) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured and compared across walk, bike, bus, and car modes for a total of 172 trips made on two different round trip routes. On average, the car mode experienced highest concentrations for all contaminants. In pairwise t-tests between concurrent mode runs, statistically significant differences were found for cars compared to walking and biking. Car-to-walk or car-to-bike concentration ratios ranged from 1.3 for CO2 to 25 for CO and were 2-3 for PM2.5, BC, and UFP. In multivariate analyses, travel mode explained the greatest variability in travel exposures, from 8% for PM2.5 to 70% for CO. Different modal patterns emerged when estimating daily inhaled dose, with active commuters' two to three times greater total inhalation volume during travel producing about equal UFP and BC daily inhaled doses to car commuters and 33-50% higher UFP and BC doses compared to bus commuters. These findings, however, are specific to the bike and pedestrian lanes in this study being immediately adjacent to the roadways measured. Dedicated bike or pedestrian routes away from traffic would lead to lower active travel doses.

  1. The sexual health of travelers.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, S; Hart, G

    1998-06-01

    Sex and travel do not infrequently coincide as pleasurable occupations. This articles explores the possible risks of unsafe sexual activity in a travel-related context, gives guidelines on how to decrease risks for both partners, and outlines how to manage the exposed or infected traveler on his or her return home. Both sexually transmitted infections and contraception are covered. PMID:9658251

  2. Different synchronization characteristics of distinct types of traveling waves in a model of active medium with periodic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepelev, Igor A.; Slepnev, Andrei V.; Vadivasova, Tatiana E.

    2016-09-01

    The model of a one-dimensional active medium, which cells are the FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators, is studied for periodical boundary conditions. The medium possesses three different regimes in dependence on the parameter values. The regimes correspond to the self-sustained oscillations, excitable dynamics or bistability of the medium cells. Periodic boundary conditions provide the existence of traveling wave modes in all mentioned cases without any deterministic or stochastic excitation. The spatial waveforms and the character of oscillations in time can be similar in the different cases, but the properties of wave modes depend considerably on the medium regime. So, the dispersion characteristics and the synchronization phenomena are essentially different for bistable and excitable media on the one hand, and for the self-sustained oscillatory medium on the other hand. The local and distributed periodic influence on the medium are studied. The phenomenon of the traveling wave frequency locking is observed for all three regimes of the active medium. The comparison of synchronization effects in self-oscillatory, excitable and bistable regimes of the active medium is carried out.

  3. Complementarity and quantum walks

    SciTech Connect

    Kendon, Viv; Sanders, Barry C.

    2005-02-01

    We show that quantum walks interpolate between a coherent 'wave walk' and a random walk depending on how strongly the walker's coin state is measured; i.e., the quantum walk exhibits the quintessentially quantum property of complementarity, which is manifested as a tradeoff between knowledge of which path the walker takes vs the sharpness of the interference pattern. A physical implementation of a quantum walk (the quantum quincunx) should thus have an identifiable walker and the capacity to demonstrate the interpolation between wave walk and random walk depending on the strength of measurement.

  4. Assessing the Relative Contributions of Active Ankle and Knee Assistance to the Walking Mechanics of Transfemoral Amputees Using a Powered Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Ann M.; Hargrove, Levi J.

    2016-01-01

    Powered knee-ankle prostheses are capable of providing net-positive mechanical energy to amputees. Yet, there are limitless ways to deliver this energy throughout the gait cycle. It remains largely unknown how different combinations of active knee and ankle assistance affect the walking mechanics of transfemoral amputees. This study assessed the relative contributions of stance phase knee swing initiation, increasing ankle stiffness and powered plantarflexion as three unilateral transfemoral amputees walked overground at their self-selected walking speed. Five combinations of knee and ankle conditions were evaluated regarding the kinematics and kinetics of the amputated and intact legs using repeated measures analyses of variance. We found eliminating active knee swing initiation or powered plantarflexion was linked to increased compensations of the ipsilateral hip joint during the subsequent swing phase. The elimination of knee swing initiation or powered plantarflexion also led to reduced braking ground reaction forces of the amputated and intact legs, and influenced both sagittal and frontal plane loading of the intact knee joint. Gradually increasing prosthetic ankle stiffness influenced the shape of the prosthetic ankle plantarflexion moment, more closely mirroring the intact ankle moment. Increasing ankle stiffness also corresponded to increased prosthetic ankle power generation (despite a similar maximum stiffness value across conditions) and increased braking ground reaction forces of the amputated leg. These findings further our understanding of how to deliver assistance with powered knee-ankle prostheses and the compensations that occur when specific aspects of assistance are added/removed. PMID:26807889

  5. Assessing the Relative Contributions of Active Ankle and Knee Assistance to the Walking Mechanics of Transfemoral Amputees Using a Powered Prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Ingraham, Kimberly A; Fey, Nicholas P; Simon, Ann M; Hargrove, Levi J

    2016-01-01

    Powered knee-ankle prostheses are capable of providing net-positive mechanical energy to amputees. Yet, there are limitless ways to deliver this energy throughout the gait cycle. It remains largely unknown how different combinations of active knee and ankle assistance affect the walking mechanics of transfemoral amputees. This study assessed the relative contributions of stance phase knee swing initiation, increasing ankle stiffness and powered plantarflexion as three unilateral transfemoral amputees walked overground at their self-selected walking speed. Five combinations of knee and ankle conditions were evaluated regarding the kinematics and kinetics of the amputated and intact legs using repeated measures analyses of variance. We found eliminating active knee swing initiation or powered plantarflexion was linked to increased compensations of the ipsilateral hip joint during the subsequent swing phase. The elimination of knee swing initiation or powered plantarflexion also led to reduced braking ground reaction forces of the amputated and intact legs, and influenced both sagittal and frontal plane loading of the intact knee joint. Gradually increasing prosthetic ankle stiffness influenced the shape of the prosthetic ankle plantarflexion moment, more closely mirroring the intact ankle moment. Increasing ankle stiffness also corresponded to increased prosthetic ankle power generation (despite a similar maximum stiffness value across conditions) and increased braking ground reaction forces of the amputated leg. These findings further our understanding of how to deliver assistance with powered knee-ankle prostheses and the compensations that occur when specific aspects of assistance are added/removed. PMID:26807889

  6. Fire-walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willey, David

    2010-09-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently teaches Physics for the University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown, USA.

  7. Fire-Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  8. Walking School Buses as a Form of Active Transportation for Children--A Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Liz; Norgate, Sarah H.; Cherrett, Tom; Davies, Nigel; Winstanley, Christopher; Harding, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Background: Walking school buses (WSBs) offer a potentially healthier way for children to get to school while reducing traffic congestion. A number of pressing societal challenges make it timely to evaluate evidence of their value. Methods: Studies that focused solely on WSBs were identified through online and manual literature searches. Twelve…

  9. Adaptations of walking pattern on a compliant surface to regulate dynamic stability.

    PubMed

    MacLellan, Michael J; Patla, Aftab E

    2006-08-01

    Dynamic stability can be threatened by various travel surface changes that humans encounter on a daily basis. The central nervous system (CNS) must acquire appropriate information about upcoming surface changes and provide necessary proactive and reactive changes to maintain stability. The purpose of this study was to examine stability control by characterizing adaptations in step patterns, center of mass (COM) trajectory, and lower limb muscle activity when stepping onto and walking on a compliant surface. Eight young adults walked under two conditions: baseline ground walking and while walking on a large foam mat (compliant surface). Optotrak system was used to collect 3D-full body kinematics and electromyography was collected for the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, and soleus bilaterally. Vertical COM decreased on the compliant surface while medio-lateral COM was not affected. This lowering of the vertical COM peak would provide a more stable posture when walking on the surface. Toe trajectory during the swing phase was elevated to avoid tripping on the deformable compliant surface. Step width and length increased on the compliant surface which would increase base of support and provide better control of COM. Increases in gastrocnemius and soleus activity during push-off accounted for increases in step length seen on the compliant surface. Dynamic stability margin in the anterior-posterior direction demonstrated a constant overcompensation and subsequent correction in COM control. These proactive and reactive changes in motor patterns show how the CNS actively coordinates all body segments while traveling on a compliant surface in order to maximize stability. PMID:16491406

  10. [Adventure travel].

    PubMed

    Beck, Bernhard R

    2013-06-01

    Extreme travelling experiences appear to be a quite popular kick offered by tourist operators and sought by some travellers. But some travellers expose themselves to increased risk also during normal holidays, either voluntarily by booking hikes or tours leading them to adventurous locations or to unexpectedly encountering dangerous situations. In planned adventures, precise information in advance, good physical condition, careful planning, and profound medical preparation may contribute to a less hazardous adventure. Advising medical persons may need an expert consultation for specific topics in order to optimise the preparation. Based on three specific environmental situations (jungle, desert, and cave) the specific conditions, dangers and some medical aspects are outlined. PMID:23732454

  11. TRAVEL FORECASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E.

    1994-01-01

    Business travel planning within an organization is often a time-consuming task. Travel Forecaster is a menu-driven, easy-to-use program which plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost for business-related travel of a division or branch of an organization and compiles this information into a database to aid the travel planner. The program's ability to handle multiple trip entries makes it a valuable time-saving device. Travel Forecaster takes full advantage of relational data base properties so that information that remains constant, such as per diem rates and airline fares (which are unique for each city), needs entering only once. A typical entry would include selection with the mouse of the traveler's name and destination city from pop-up lists, and typed entries for number of travel days and purpose of the trip. Multiple persons can be selected from the pop-up lists and multiple trips are accommodated by entering the number of days by each appropriate month on the entry form. An estimated travel cost is not required of the user as it is calculated by a Fourth Dimension formula. With this information, the program can produce output of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for either organization or sub-entity of an organization; or produce outputs of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for international-only travel. It will also provide monthly and cumulative formats of planned vs. actual outputs in data or graph form. Travel Forecaster users can do custom queries to search and sort information in the database, and it can create custom reports with the user-friendly report generator. Travel Forecaster 1.1 is a database program for use with Fourth Dimension Runtime 2.1.1. It requires a Macintosh Plus running System 6.0.3 or later, 2Mb of RAM and a hard disk. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Travel Forecaster was developed in 1991. Macintosh is a registered trademark of

  12. Distinct and common cerebral activation changes during mental time travel in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Ernst, A; Noblet, V; Denkova, E; Blanc, F; De Seze, J; Gounot, D; Manning, L

    2016-03-01

    Mental time travel (MTT) entails the ability to mentally travel into autobiographical memory (AM) and episodic future thinking (EFT). While AM and EFT share common phenomenological and cerebral functional properties, distinctive characteristics have been documented in healthy and clinical populations. No report, to our knowledge, has informed on the functional underpinnings of MTT impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, hence the aim of this work. We studied 22 relapsing-remitting MS patients and 22 matched controls. Participants underwent an AM/EFT assessment using the Autobiographical Interview (Levine et al. 2002), followed by a functional MRI session. The latter consisted in AM and EFT tasks, distinguishing the construction and elaboration phases of events. The results showed impaired performance for AM and EFT in patients, accompanied by increased cerebral activations mostly located in the frontal regions, which extended to the parietal, lateral temporal and posterior regions during AM/EFT tasks, relative to healthy controls. Enhanced brain activations in MS patients were particularly evident during the EFT task and involved the hippocampus, frontal, external temporal, and cingulate regions. The construction phase required greater fronto-parieto-temporal activations in MS patients relative to both healthy controls, and the elaboration phase. Taking together, our results suggested the occurrence of cerebral activation changes in the context of MTT in MS patients, expressed by distinct and common mechanisms for AM and EFT. This study may provide new insights in terms of cerebral activation changes in brain lesion and their application to clinical settings, considering AM/EFT's central role in everyday life. PMID:25972116

  13. 38 CFR 21.7103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Bill-Active Duty) Counseling § 21.7103 Travel expenses. (a) Travel for veterans and servicemembers. (1... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.7103... travel to and from the place of counseling for individuals who are required to receive counseling if—...

  14. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider before travel. Passengers should practice good respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette. Passengers should report their respiratory ... from: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/ships/en/shipsancomp.pdf?ua=1 . Chapter 6 - ...

  15. The effects of hip external rotator exercises and toe-spread exercises on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking in subjects with pronated foot

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of toe-spread (TS) exercises and hip external rotator strengthening exercises for pronated feet on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy adults with no present or previous pain, no past history of surgery on the foot or the ankle, and no foot deformities. Ten subjects performed hip external rotator strengthening exercises and TS exercises and the remaining ten subjects performed only TS exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] Less change in navicular drop height occurred in the group that performed hip external rotator exercises than in the group that performed only TS exercises. The group that performed only TS exercises showed increased abductor hallucis muscle activity during both stair-climbing and -descending, and the group that performed hip external rotator exercises showed increased muscle activities of the vastus medialis and abductor hallucis during stair-climbing and increased muscle activity of only the abductor hallucis during stair-descending after exercise. [Conclusion] Stair-walking can be more effectively performed if the hip external rotator muscle is strengthened when TS exercises are performed for the pronated foot. PMID:27134364

  16. Active source monitoring of crosswell seismic travel time forstress induced changes

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, P.G.; Daley, T.M.; Niu, F.; Majer, E.L.

    2006-11-11

    We have conducted a series of cross-well experiments tocontinuously measure in situ temporal variations in seismic velocity attwo test sites: building 64 (B64) and Richmond Field Station (RFS) of theLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. A piezoelectricsource was used to generate highly repeatable signals, and a string of 24hydrophones was used to record the signals. The B64 experiment wasconducted utilizing two boreholes 17 m deep and 3 m apart for 160 h. AtRFS, we collected a 36-day continuous record in a cross-borehole facilityusing two 70-m-deep holes separated by 30 m. With signal enhancementtechniques we were able to achieve a precision of 6.0 nsec and 10 nsec indelay-time estimation from stacking of 1-hr records during the ?7- and?35-day observation periods at the B64 and RFS sites, which correspond to3 and 0.5 ppm of their travel times, respectively. Delay time measured atB64 has a variation of ?2 lsec in the 160-hr period and shows a strongand positive correlation with the barometric pressure change at the site.At RFS, after removal of a linear trend, we find a delay-time variationof 2.5 lsec, which exhibits a significant negative correlation withbarometric pressure. We attribute the observed correlations to stresssensitivity of seismic velocity known from laboratory studies. Thepositive and negative sign observed in the correlation is likely relatedto the expected near- and far-field effects of this stress dependence ina poroelastic medium. The stress sensitivity is estimated to be 10 6/Paand 10 7/Pa at the B64 and RFS site, respectively.

  17. The Miniguide: A New Electronic Travel Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jeremy; Black, John

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the Miniguide, a new electronic travel device that assists people in moving about in a range of environments. The Miniguide is held in the palm and is used to scan left to right when walking. It provides vibratory feedback to the hand when it detects an obstacle. (Contains 5 references.) (CR)

  18. Quantum walk computation

    SciTech Connect

    Kendon, Viv

    2014-12-04

    Quantum versions of random walks have diverse applications that are motivating experimental implementations as well as theoretical studies. Recent results showing quantum walks are “universal for quantum computation” relate to algorithms, to be run on quantum computers. We consider whether an experimental implementation of a quantum walk could provide useful computation before we have a universal quantum computer.

  19. Walk This Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Nick

    2007-01-01

    A generation ago, it was part of growing up for all kids when they biked or walked to school. But in the last 30 years, heavier traffic, wider roads and more dangerous intersections have made it riskier for students walking or pedaling. Today, fewer than 15 percent of kids bike or walk to school compared with more than 50 percent in 1969. In the…

  20. Walking Wellness. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetgall, Robert; Neeves, Robert

    This comprehensive student text and workbook, for grades four through eight, contains 16 workshop units focusing on walking field trips, aerobic pacing concepts, walking techniques, nutrition, weight control and healthy life-style planning. Co-ordinated homework assignments are included. The appendixes include 10 tips for walking, a calorie chart,…

  1. Stride Counting in Human Walking and Walking Distance Estimation Using Insole Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Phuc Huu; Lee, Jinwook; Kwon, Ae-Ran; Jeong, Gu-Min

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method of estimating walking distance based on a precise counting of walking strides using insole sensors. We use an inertial triaxial accelerometer and eight pressure sensors installed in the insole of a shoe to record walkers’ movement data. The data is then transmitted to a smartphone to filter out noise and determine stance and swing phases. Based on phase information, we count the number of strides traveled and estimate the movement distance. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method, we created two walking databases on seven healthy participants and tested the proposed method. The first database, which is called the short distance database, consists of collected data from all seven healthy subjects walking on a 16 m distance. The second one, named the long distance database, is constructed from walking data of three healthy subjects who have participated in the short database for an 89 m distance. The experimental results show that the proposed method performs walking distance estimation accurately with the mean error rates of 4.8% and 3.1% for the short and long distance databases, respectively. Moreover, the maximum difference of the swing phase determination with respect to time is 0.08 s and 0.06 s for starting and stopping points of swing phases, respectively. Therefore, the stride counting method provides a highly precise result when subjects walk. PMID:27271634

  2. Stride Counting in Human Walking and Walking Distance Estimation Using Insole Sensors.

    PubMed

    Truong, Phuc Huu; Lee, Jinwook; Kwon, Ae-Ran; Jeong, Gu-Min

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method of estimating walking distance based on a precise counting of walking strides using insole sensors. We use an inertial triaxial accelerometer and eight pressure sensors installed in the insole of a shoe to record walkers' movement data. The data is then transmitted to a smartphone to filter out noise and determine stance and swing phases. Based on phase information, we count the number of strides traveled and estimate the movement distance. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method, we created two walking databases on seven healthy participants and tested the proposed method. The first database, which is called the short distance database, consists of collected data from all seven healthy subjects walking on a 16 m distance. The second one, named the long distance database, is constructed from walking data of three healthy subjects who have participated in the short database for an 89 m distance. The experimental results show that the proposed method performs walking distance estimation accurately with the mean error rates of 4.8% and 3.1% for the short and long distance databases, respectively. Moreover, the maximum difference of the swing phase determination with respect to time is 0.08 s and 0.06 s for starting and stopping points of swing phases, respectively. Therefore, the stride counting method provides a highly precise result when subjects walk. PMID:27271634

  3. After Talking the Talk, Now Walk the Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes what his students are doing following the ATM Easter conference in Telford, where he was inspired by a workshop entitled "Vitamin D Maths," conducted by Jocelyn D'Arcy. He describes an activity that allows his Year 11 students to walk through angles drawn on the floors. This topic will now literally be given a…

  4. Health Impact Modelling of Active Travel Visions for England and Wales Using an Integrated Transport and Health Impact Modelling Tool (ITHIM)

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, James; Givoni, Moshe; Morgan, Andrei Scott

    2013-01-01

    Background Achieving health benefits while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transport offers a potential policy win-win; the magnitude of potential benefits, however, is likely to vary. This study uses an Integrated Transport and Health Impact Modelling tool (ITHIM) to evaluate the health and environmental impacts of high walking and cycling transport scenarios for English and Welsh urban areas outside London. Methods Three scenarios with increased walking and cycling and lower car use were generated based upon the Visions 2030 Walking and Cycling project. Changes to carbon dioxide emissions were estimated by environmental modelling. Health impact assessment modelling was used to estimate changes in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) resulting from changes in exposure to air pollution, road traffic injury risk, and physical activity. We compare the findings of the model with results generated using the World Health Organization's Health Economic Assessment of Transport (HEAT) tools. Results This study found considerable reductions in disease burden under all three scenarios, with the largest health benefits attributed to reductions in ischemic heart disease. The pathways that produced the largest benefits were, in order, physical activity, road traffic injuries, and air pollution. The choice of dose response relationship for physical activity had a large impact on the size of the benefits. Modelling the impact on all-cause mortality rather than through individual diseases suggested larger benefits. Using the best available evidence we found fewer road traffic injuries for all scenarios compared with baseline but alternative assumptions suggested potential increases. Conclusions Methods to estimate the health impacts from transport related physical activity and injury risk are in their infancy; this study has demonstrated an integration of transport and health impact modelling approaches. The findings add to the case for a move from car transport to

  5. The Effects of Bag Style on Muscle Activity of the Trapezius, Erector Spinae and Latissimus Dorsi During Walking in Female University Students

    PubMed Central

    Hardie, Rebecca; Haskew, Rachel; Harris, Joel; Hughes, Gerwyn

    2015-01-01

    Back pain is common in adolescents which has been associated with carrying a bag. However, there is little research examining the effects of bag style in female adolescents. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different bag conditions on muscle activity of the trapezius, erector spinae and latissimus dorsi muscles in female university students during walking. Twelve female university students walked on a treadmill for 5 minutes at 1.1 m/s during five conditions; control, 1 strapped rucksack, 2 strapped rucksack, ipsilateral shoulder strap and contralateral shoulder strap, each containing 10% bodyweight. Electromyography for the trapezius, erector spinae and latissimus dorsi was recorded for the last 30 s of each condition. Two-way ANOVA and paired t-tests were used to identify differences between right and left muscles and between bag conditions. Results showed that muscle activity of the left trapezius was significantly higher than the right trapezius during the 1 strap rucksack condition. For the left trapezius, the 2 strapped rucksack and the control condition had significantly lower muscle activity compared to the 1 strapped rucksack and the ipsilateral shoulder strap. For the left erector spinae muscle, there was significantly greater muscle activity when wearing the contralateral shoulder strap compared to the control. For the right erector spinae, significantly lower muscle activity was observed when wearing the 2 strapped rucksack compared to the ipsilateral shoulder strap and contralateral shoulder strap. There were no significant differences in muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi muscles between any of the bag conditions. These findings suggest that a two strapped rucksack should be used when carrying loads to reduce spinal muscle activity which may, in turn, reduce reports of back pain in female adolescents. PMID:25964808

  6. Successful Statewide Walking Program Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teran, Bianca Maria; Hongu, Nobuko

    2012-01-01

    Statewide Extension walking programs are making an effort to increase physical activity levels in America. An investigation of all 20 of these programs revealed that 14 use websites as marketing and educational tools, which could prove useful as the popularity of Internet communities continues to grow. Website usability information and an analysis…

  7. Relation Between Higher Physical Activity and Public Transit Use

    PubMed Central

    Vernez Moudon, Anne; Kang, Bumjoon; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We isolated physical activity attributable to transit use to examine issues of substitution between types of physical activity and potential confounding of transit-related walking with other walking. Methods. Physical activity and transit use data were collected in 2008 to 2009 from 693 Travel Assessment and Community study participants from King County, Washington, equipped with an accelerometer, a portable Global Positioning System, and a 7-day travel log. Physical activity was classified into transit- and non–transit-related walking and nonwalking time. Analyses compared physical activity by type between transit users and nonusers, between less and more frequent transit users, and between transit and nontransit days for transit users. Results. Transit users had more daily overall physical activity and more total walking than did nontransit users but did not differ on either non–transit-related walking or nonwalking physical activity. Most frequent transit users had more walking time than least frequent transit users. Higher physical activity levels for transit users were observed only on transit days, with 14.6 minutes (12.4 minutes when adjusted for demographics) of daily physical activity directly linked with transit use. Conclusions. Because transit use was directly related to higher physical activity, future research should examine whether substantive increases in transit access and use lead to more physical activity and related health improvements. PMID:24625142

  8. Effect of a Nutrition Supplement and Physical Activity Program on Pneumonia and Walking Capacity in Chilean Older People: A Factorial Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dangour, Alan D.; Albala, Cecilia; Allen, Elizabeth; Grundy, Emily; Walker, Damian G.; Aedo, Cristian; Sanchez, Hugo; Fletcher, Olivia; Elbourne, Diana; Uauy, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Background Ageing is associated with increased risk of poor health and functional decline. Uncertainties about the health-related benefits of nutrition and physical activity for older people have precluded their widespread implementation. We investigated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a national nutritional supplementation program and/or a physical activity intervention among older people in Chile. Methods and Findings We conducted a cluster randomized factorial trial among low to middle socioeconomic status adults aged 65–67.9 years living in Santiago, Chile. We randomized 28 clusters (health centers) into the study and recruited 2,799 individuals in 2005 (∼100 per cluster). The interventions were a daily micronutrient-rich nutritional supplement, or two 1-hour physical activity classes per week, or both interventions, or neither, for 24 months. The primary outcomes, assessed blind to allocation, were incidence of pneumonia over 24 months, and physical function assessed by walking capacity 24 months after enrolment. Adherence was good for the nutritional supplement (∼75%), and moderate for the physical activity intervention (∼43%). Over 24 months the incidence rate of pneumonia did not differ between intervention and control clusters (32.5 versus 32.6 per 1,000 person years respectively; risk ratio = 1.00; 95% confidence interval 0.61–1.63; p = 0.99). In intention-to-treat analysis, after 24 months there was a significant difference in walking capacity between the intervention and control clusters (mean difference 33.8 meters; 95% confidence interval 13.9–53.8; p = 0.001). The overall cost of the physical activity intervention over 24 months was US$164/participant; equivalent to US$4.84/extra meter walked. The number of falls and fractures was balanced across physical activity intervention arms and no serious adverse events were reported for either intervention. Conclusions Chile's nutritional supplementation program for older

  9. Traveling Apples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland Unified School District, Rowland Heights, CA.

    Teacher-developed materials for a basic computer literacy and utilization program for elementary students in grades 3-6 are included in this 4-part packet, which was originally prepared for use with or without the Apple IIe "traveling" microcomputers shared by 15 Rowland Unified School District elementary schools. Implementation procedures are…

  10. Community walking programs for treatment of peripheral artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Ryan J.; Rogers, R. Kevin; Hiatt, William R.; Regensteiner, Judith G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Supervised walking programs offered at medical facilities for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and intermittent claudication (IC), while effective, are often not utilized due to barriers including lack of reimbursement and the need to travel to specialized locations for the training intervention. Walking programs for PAD patients that occur in community settings, such as those outside of supervised settings, may be a viable treatment option, as they are convenient and potentially bypass the need for supervised walking. This review evaluated the various methodologies and outcomes of community walking programs for PAD. Methods A literature review using appropriate search terms was conducted within PubMed/Medline and the Cochrane databases to identify studies in the English language employing community walking programs to treat PAD patients with IC. Search results were reviewed, and relevant articles were identified that form the basis of this review. The primary outcome was peak walking performance on the treadmill. Results Randomized controlled trials (n=10) examining peak walking outcomes in 558 PAD patients demonstrated that supervised exercise programs were more effective than community walking studies that consisted of general recommendations for patients with IC to walk at home. Recent community trials that incorporated more advice and feedback for PAD patients in general resulted in similar outcomes with no differences in peak walking time compared to supervised walking exercise groups. Conclusions Unstructured recommendations for patients with symptomatic PAD to exercise in the community are not efficacious. Community walking programs with more feedback and monitoring offer improvements in walking performance for patients with claudication and may bypass some obstacles associated with facility-based exercise programs. PMID:24103409

  11. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews.

    PubMed

    Van Hecke, Linde; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Veitch, Jenny; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS) focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents' visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12-16 years, 64% boys) were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium). Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active) friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people), the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents' behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents' home or school may stimulate

  12. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Van Hecke, Linde; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Veitch, Jenny; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS) focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents’ visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12–16 years, 64% boys) were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium). Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active) friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people), the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents’ behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents’ home or school may

  13. Random-walk enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C →U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.

  14. Random-walk enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C → U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics. PMID:26465508

  15. Impact of travel mode shift and trip distance on active and non-active transportation in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Parra, Diana C.; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Background Changes in urban mobility play a major role in transforming metropolitan areas into healthier places. This study quantified the impact of changes in travel mode shift and trip distance on active and non-active transportation of working age adult population of São Paulo. Methods and findings Through different scenarios, we estimated the daily time spent in transportation per inhabitant (divided in active and non-active transportation time) and the proportion of inhabitants accumulating 30 min or more of daily active transportation. The replacement of individual for collective motorized modes in long distance trips (> 1000 m) in combination with the substitution of long for short trips positively impacted all outcomes. Compared to the current situation, there was an increase in the active transportation time (from 19.4 to 26.7 min/inhabitant), which also increased the proportion of adults active for transportation (from 27.6% to 35.4%). Additionally, the non-active transportation time decreased (from 67.0 to 26.2 min/inhabitant), which helped to reduce the total time spent in transportation (from 86.4 to 52.9 min/inhabitant). Conclusion Transport and urban planning policies to reduce individual motorized trips and the number of long trips might produce important health benefits, both by increasing population levels of active transportation and reducing the non-active and the total time of daily trips. PMID:26844071

  16. Traveling-wave pulse on a superconductive active transmission line using resonant tunneling diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klofaï, Yerima; Essimbi, B. Z.; Jäger, D.

    2013-10-01

    Analytic study and computer experiment investigations on a superconductive active transmission line using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) are discussed. It is shown, based on nonlinear wave propagation effects, that the line supports pulse propagation appearing as pairs of kink-antikink profiles. This behavior is due to compensation between the effects of amplification and dissipation along the network.

  17. Where do they go and how do they get there? Older adults' travel behaviour in a highly walkable environment.

    PubMed

    Winters, Meghan; Voss, Christine; Ashe, Maureen C; Gutteridge, Kaitlyn; McKay, Heather; Sims-Gould, Joanie

    2015-05-01

    Mobility-the ability to move about in one's neighbourhood and maintain independence-is essential for older adults' wellbeing. Neighbourhood environments support or hinder mobility especially as health declines and physical vulnerability increases with age. Linkages between mobility and planning and policy are key to designing age-friendly neighbourhoods with destinations that encourage older adults to get out and be physically active. We describe the mobility of older adults who live in a highly walkable neighbourhood. Specifically, we address the questions of 'where do older adults go?' (destinations) and 'how they get there?' (travel mode, physical activity). We recruited older adults (age 60+) who live in Vancouver's downtown core, an area acknowledged to be highly walkable (Walk Score(®): 94-97/100), and who leave their houses most days of the week. Participants (n = 184) recorded travel in diaries and wore an ActiGraph GT3X + accelerometer for 7 days during September to October 2012. We classified reported destinations according to the North American Industry Classification System, and analysed mobility [trip rates (overall and walking), steps, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA)] and associations between travel and physical activity-related mobility measures. Key destinations were grocery stores (13.6% of trips), restaurants (7.2%), malls/marketplaces (5.5%), and others' homes (5.4%). Participants made 4.6 (std: 2.5) one-way trips/day, took 7910.1 (3871.1) steps/day, and accrued 39.2 (32.9) minutes/day of MVPA. Two-thirds of trips were by active modes (62.8% walk, 3.2% bike) and 22.4% were by car. Trip rates were significantly associated with physical activity outcomes. Older adults living in highly walkable neighbourhoods were very mobile and frequently used active transportation. Travel destinations signify the importance of nearby commercial and social opportunities, even in a highly walkable environment. The high rates of active travel and

  18. Active Monitoring of Travelers Arriving from Ebola-Affected Countries - New York City, October 2014-April 2015.

    PubMed

    Millman, Alexander J; Chamany, Shadi; Guthartz, Seth; Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Porter, Michael; Schroeder, Andrew; Vora, Neil M; Varma, Jay K; Starr, David

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in West Africa has claimed approximately 11,300 lives (1), and the magnitude and course of the epidemic prompted many nonaffected countries to prepare for Ebola cases imported from affected countries. In October 2014, CDC and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) implemented enhanced entry risk assessment and management at five U.S. airports: John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in New York City (NYC), O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey, Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport in Atlanta, and Dulles International Airport in Virginia (2). Enhanced entry risk assessment began at JFK on October 11, 2014, and at the remaining airports on October 16 (3). On October 21, DHS exercised its authority to direct all travelers flying into the United States from an Ebola-affected country to arrive at one of the five participating airports. At the time, the Ebola-affected countries included Guinea, Liberia, Mali, and Sierra Leone. On October 27, CDC issued updated guidance for monitoring persons with potential Ebola virus exposure (4), including recommending daily monitoring of such persons to ascertain the presence of fever or symptoms for a period of 21 days (the maximum incubation period of Ebola virus) after the last potential exposure; this was termed "active monitoring." CDC also recommended "direct active monitoring" of persons with a higher risk for Ebola virus exposure, including health care workers who had provided direct patient care in Ebola-affected countries. Direct active monitoring required direct observation of the person being monitored by the local health authority at least once daily (5). This report describes the operational structure of the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's (DOHMH) active monitoring program during its first 6 months (October 2014-April 2015) of operation. Data collected on persons who required direct active monitoring

  19. Quantum walk on the line through potential barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.

    2016-02-01

    Quantum walks are well known for their ballistic dispersion, traveling Θ (t) away in t steps, which is quadratically faster than a classical random walk's diffusive spreading. In physical implementations of the walk, however, the particle may need to tunnel through a potential barrier to hop, and a naive calculation suggests that this could eliminate the ballistic transport. We show by explicit calculation, however, that such a loss does not occur. Rather, the Θ (t) dispersion is retained, with only the coefficient changing, which additionally gives a way to detect and quantify the hopping errors in experiments.

  20. Assessing Potential Energy Savings in Household Travel: Methodological and Empirical Considerations of Vehicle Capability Constraints and Multi-day Activity Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolon, Kevin M.

    The lack of multi-day data for household travel and vehicle capability requirements is an impediment to evaluations of energy savings strategies, since (1) travel requirements vary from day-to-day, and (2) energy-saving transportation options often have reduced capability. This work demonstrates a survey methodology and modeling system for evaluating the energy-savings potential of household travel, considering multi-day travel requirements and capability constraints imposed by the available transportation resources. A stochastic scheduling model is introduced---the multi-day Household Activity Schedule Estimator (mPHASE)---which generates synthetic daily schedules based on "fuzzy" descriptions of activity characteristics using a finite-element representation of activity flexibility, coordination among household members, and scheduling conflict resolution. Results of a thirty-household pilot study are presented in which responses to an interactive computer assisted personal interview were used as inputs to the mPHASE model in order to illustrate the feasibility of generating complex, realistic multi-day household schedules. Study vehicles were equipped with digital cameras and GPS data acquisition equipment to validate the model results. The synthetically generated schedules captured an average of 60 percent of household travel distance, and exhibited many of the characteristics of complex household travel, including day-to-day travel variation, and schedule coordination among household members. Future advances in the methodology may improve the model results, such as encouraging more detailed and accurate responses by providing a selection of generated schedules during the interview. Finally, the Constraints-based Transportation Resource Assignment Model (CTRAM) is introduced. Using an enumerative optimization approach, CTRAM determines the energy-minimizing vehicle-to-trip assignment decisions, considering trip schedules, occupancy, and vehicle capability

  1. Walking as a social practice: dispersed walking and the organisation of everyday practices.

    PubMed

    Harries, Tim; Rettie, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    This paper uses social practice theory to study the interweaving of walking into everyday practices and considers how greater awareness of everyday walking can influence its position within the organisation and scheduling of everyday life. Walking is of policy interest because of its perceived benefits for health. This paper asserts that increased awareness of everyday walking allows users to become more active without having to reschedule existing activities. Using Schatzki's distinction between dispersed and integrative practices, it argues that increasing awareness of dispersed walking can enlist walking into the teleoaffective organisation of some social practices and prompt the performance of new 'health practices' within everyday domains of life such as shopping and employment. While this analysis offers useful insights for the design of behaviour change strategies, it also points to some unintended consequences of using digital feedback to increase walking awareness. In directing the gaze of participants at one particular element of their daily practices, the paper suggests, digital walking feedback provides a 'partial' view of practices: by highlighting the exercise value of walking at the expense of other values it can prompt feedback recipients to pass moral judgements on themselves based on this partial view. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/WV7DUnKD5Mw. PMID:26853086

  2. Kinematic evaluation of virtual walking trajectories.

    PubMed

    Cirio, Gabriel; Olivier, Anne-Hélène; Marchal, Maud; Pettré, Julien

    2013-04-01

    Virtual walking, a fundamental task in Virtual Reality (VR), is greatly influenced by the locomotion interface being used, by the specificities of input and output devices, and by the way the virtual environment is represented. No matter how virtual walking is controlled, the generation of realistic virtual trajectories is absolutely required for some applications, especially those dedicated to the study of walking behaviors in VR, navigation through virtual places for architecture, rehabilitation and training. Previous studies focused on evaluating the realism of locomotion trajectories have mostly considered the result of the locomotion task (efficiency, accuracy) and its subjective perception (presence, cybersickness). Few focused on the locomotion trajectory itself, but in situation of geometrically constrained task. In this paper, we study the realism of unconstrained trajectories produced during virtual walking by addressing the following question: did the user reach his destination by virtually walking along a trajectory he would have followed in similar real conditions? To this end, we propose a comprehensive evaluation framework consisting on a set of trajectographical criteria and a locomotion model to generate reference trajectories. We consider a simple locomotion task where users walk between two oriented points in space. The travel path is analyzed both geometrically and temporally in comparison to simulated reference trajectories. In addition, we demonstrate the framework over a user study which considered an initial set of common and frequent virtual walking conditions, namely different input devices, output display devices, control laws, and visualization modalities. The study provides insight into the relative contributions of each condition to the overall realism of the resulting virtual trajectories. PMID:23428452

  3. The scaling laws of human travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockmann, D.; Hufnagel, L.; Geisel, T.

    2006-01-01

    The dynamic spatial redistribution of individuals is a key driving force of various spatiotemporal phenomena on geographical scales. It can synchronize populations of interacting species, stabilize them, and diversify gene pools. Human travel, for example, is responsible for the geographical spread of human infectious disease. In the light of increasing international trade, intensified human mobility and the imminent threat of an influenza A epidemic, the knowledge of dynamical and statistical properties of human travel is of fundamental importance. Despite its crucial role, a quantitative assessment of these properties on geographical scales remains elusive, and the assumption that humans disperse diffusively still prevails in models. Here we report on a solid and quantitative assessment of human travelling statistics by analysing the circulation of bank notes in the United States. Using a comprehensive data set of over a million individual displacements, we find that dispersal is anomalous in two ways. First, the distribution of travelling distances decays as a power law, indicating that trajectories of bank notes are reminiscent of scale-free random walks known as Lévy flights. Second, the probability of remaining in a small, spatially confined region for a time T is dominated by algebraically long tails that attenuate the superdiffusive spread. We show that human travelling behaviour can be described mathematically on many spatiotemporal scales by a two-parameter continuous-time random walk model to a surprising accuracy, and conclude that human travel on geographical scales is an ambivalent and effectively superdiffusive process.

  4. Database of Standardized Questionnaires About Walking & Bicycling

    Cancer.gov

    This database contains questionnaire items and a list of validation studies for standardized items related to walking and biking. The items come from multiple national and international physical activity questionnaires.

  5. Create a Traveling Literacy Trunk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromherz, Robin Wright

    2003-01-01

    Considers how the concept of Traveling Literacy Trunk was designed to reach all corners of the state of Oregon with compelling, student-centered, developmentally appropriate writing activities that could be shared with teaching professionals. Outlines 12 steps for developing a Traveling Literacy Trunk. Describes many benefits of the Literacy…

  6. Travel Medical Kit.

    PubMed

    Terry, Anne C; Haulman, N Jean

    2016-03-01

    "The traveler's medical kit is an essential tool for both the novice and expert traveler. It is designed to treat travel-related illness and injury and to ensure preexisting medical conditions are managed appropriately. Travelers are at increased risk for common gastrointestinal issues during travel. Respiratory illnesses make up approximately 8% of the ailments present in returned international travelers. Approximately 12% of travelers experience a travel-related skin condition. First aid treatment for minor injuries is essential to all travel medical kits. The complexity ranges from a small, simple case for the urban traveler to a larger, extensive case for wilderness travel." PMID:26900112

  7. Pulmonary artery location during microgravity activity: Potential impact for chest-mounted Doppler during space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadley, A. T., III; Conkin, J.; Waligora, J. M.; Horrigan, D. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Doppler, or ultrasonic, monitoring for pain manifestations of decompression sickness (the bends) is accomplished by placing a sensor on the chest over the pulmonary artery and listening for bubbles. Difficulties have arisen because the technician notes that the pulmonary artery seems to move with subject movement in a one-g field and because the sensor output is influenced by only slight degrees of sensor movement. This study used two subjects and mapped the position of the pulmonary artery in one-g, microgravity, and two-g environments using ultrasound. The results showed that the pulmonary artery is fixed in location in microgravity and not affected by subject position change. The optimal position corresponded to where the Doppler signal is best heard with the subject in a supine position in a one-g environment. The impact of this result is that a proposed multiple sensor array on the chest proposed for microgravity use may not be necessary to monitor an astronaut during extravehicular activities. Instead, a single sensor of approximately 1 inch diameter and mounted in the position described above may suffice.

  8. Not Just a Walk in the Park: Methodological Improvements for Determining Environmental Justice Implications of Park Access in New York City for the Promotion of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Keith K.; Maroko, Andrew R.; Grady, Kristen L.; Maantay, Juliana A.; Arno, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that access to parks in New York City is not equitable across racial and ethnic categories. It builds on previous research that has linked access to parks and open space with increased physical activity, which in turn may reduce the risk for adverse health outcomes related to obesity. Systematic patterns of uneven access to parks might help to explain disparities in these health outcomes across sociodemographic populations that are not fully explained by individual-level risk factors and health behaviors, and therefore access to parks becomes an environmental justice issue. This study is designed to shed light on the “unpatterned inequities” of park distributions identified in previous studies of New York City park access. It uses a combination of network analysis and a cadastral-based expert dasymetric system (CEDS) to estimate the racial/ethnic composition of populations within a reasonable walking distance of 400m from parks. The distance to the closest park, number of parks within walking distance, amount of accessible park space, and number of physical activity sites are then evaluated across racial/ethnic categories, and are compared to the citywide populations using odds ratios. The odds ratios revealed patterns that at first glance appear to contradict the notion of distributional inequities. However, discussion of the results points to the need for reassessing what is meant by “access” to more thoroughly consider the aspects of parks that are most likely to contribute to physical activity and positive health outcomes. PMID:21874148

  9. Walking Capacity of Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    PubMed Central

    King, WC; Engel, SG; Elder, KA; Chapman, WH; Eid, GM; Wolfe, BM; Belle, SH

    2011-01-01

    Background This study characterizes the walking limitations of bariatric surgery candidates by age and body mass index (BMI) and determines factors independently associated with walking capacity. Setting Multi-institutional at research university hospitals in the United States. Methods 2458 participants of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study (age: 18-78 y, BMI: 33-94 kg/m2) attended a pre-operative research visit. Walking capacity was measured via self-report and the 400 meter Long Distance Corridor Walk (LDCW). Results Almost two-thirds (64%) of subjects reported limitations walking several blocks, 48% had an objectively-defined mobility deficit, and 16% reported at least some walking aid use. In multivariable analysis, BMI, older age, lower income and greater bodily pain were independently associated (p<.05) with walking aid use, physical discomfort during the LDCW, inability to complete the LDCW, and slower time to complete the LDCW. Female sex, Hispanic ethnicity (but not race), higher resting heart rate, history of smoking, several comoribidities (history of stroke, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, asthma, sleep apnea, venous edema with ulcerations), and depressive symptoms were also independently related (p<.05) to at least one measure of reduced walking capacity. Conclusions Walking limitations are common in bariatric surgery candidates, even among the least severely obese and youngest patients. Physical activity counseling must be tailored to individuals' abilities. While several factors identified in this study (e.g., BMI, age, pain, comorbidities) should be considered, directly assessing walking capacity will facilitate appropriate goal-setting. PMID:21937285

  10. Plains Traveler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust devil traveling across a plain west-southwest of Schiaparelli Crater, in far eastern Sinus Meridiani. The dust devil is casting a shadow toward the northeast, just south (below) of an egg-shaped crater.

    Location near: 6.4oS, 349.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  11. Travel Schooling: Helping Children Learn through Travel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Deborah A.

    2001-01-01

    Provides information for teachers to help parents create rewarding and educational travel experiences for children. Examines the benefits of travel schooling, fundamental elements of a meaningful travel schooling experience, fostering cross cultural sensitivity through travel, and returning to the traditional classroom. (SD)

  12. Identifying Belief-Based Targets for the Promotion of Leisure-Time Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Ryan E.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Walking is the most common type of physical activity (PA) and the likely target of efforts to increase PA. No studies, however, have identified the belief-level correlates for walking using the theory of planned behavior. This study elicits salient beliefs about walking and evaluates beliefs that may be most important for walking-promotion…

  13. Treadmill Adaptation and Verification of Self-Selected Walking Speed: A Protocol for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amorim, Paulo Roberto S.; Hills, Andrew; Byrne, Nuala

    2009-01-01

    Walking is a common activity of daily life and researchers have used the range 3-6 km.h[superscript -1] as reference for walking speeds habitually used for transportation. The term self-selected (i.e., individual or comfortable walking pace or speed) is commonly used in the literature and is identified as the most efficient walking speed, with…

  14. The Effects of a 12-Week Walking Program on Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Shun-Ping; Tsai, Tzu-I; Lii, Yun-Kung; Yu, Shu; Chou, Chen-Liang; Chen, I-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Walking is a popular and easily accessible form of physical activity. However, walking instruction for older adults is based on the evidence gathered from younger populations. This study evaluated walking conditions, strength, balance, and subjective health status after a 12-week walking-training program in community-dwelling adults greater than…

  15. Travel counseling for the elderly traveler.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Kasey J

    2005-01-01

    As the baby boomer's generation retirees, many will have the time and money to travel abroad to see the world's exotic wonders or visit family and friends. When the travelers are elderly, they are particularly vulnerable to the effects of travel. Healthcare professionals are responsible for counseling elders on travel health based on their medical history, destination, method of transportation, and exposure risks. Important areas of travel counseling include preparing for travel, air travel, safety, sun and heat, insect precautions, food and water precautions, and vaccinations. PMID:16271122

  16. Sense of community and its relationship with walking and neighborhood design.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lisa; Frank, Lawrence D; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the association between sense of community, walking, and neighborhood design characteristics. The current study is based on a sub-sample of participants (n=609) from the US Atlanta SMARTRAQ study who completed a telephone survey capturing physical activity patterns, neighborhood perceptions, and social interactions. Objective measures of neighborhood form were also computed. Univariate and multivariate models (General Linear Models (GLM)) were used to examine the association between sense of community (SofC) and aspects of the built environment, physical activity, and neighborhood perceptions. In multivariate models the impact on SofC was examined with progressive adjustment for demographics characteristics followed by walking behavior, neighborhood design features, neighborhood perceptions and time spent traveling in a car. After adjustment, SofC was positively associated with leisurely walking (days/week), home ownership, seeing neighbors when walking and the presence of interesting sites. SofC was also associated with higher commercial floor space to land area ratios (FAR) - a proxy for walkable site design that captures the degree to which retail destinations are set back from the street, the amount of surface parking, and urban design of an area. Conversely the presence of more mixed use and perceptions of steep hills were inversely associated with SofC. SofC is enhanced by living in areas that encourage leisurely walking, hence it is associated with living in neighbourhoods with lower levels of land use mix, but higher levels of commercial FAR. Our results suggest that in terms of SofC, the presence of commercial destinations may inhibit social interaction among local residents unless urban design is used to create convivial pedestrian-friendly commercial areas, e.g., providing street frontage, rather than flat surface parking. This finding has policy implications and warrants further investigation. PMID:20189699

  17. Adult Active Transport in the Netherlands: An Analysis of Its Contribution to Physical Activity Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Elliot; Böcker, Lars; Helbich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling. Methods Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 – 2012), this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics. Results The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel. Conclusion The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of

  18. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    PubMed

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  19. Walking on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, G. A.; Willems, P. A.; Heglund, N. C.

    1998-06-01

    Sometime in the near future humans may walk in the reduced gravity of Mars. Gravity plays an essential role in walking. On Earth, the body uses gravity to `fall forwards' at each step and then the forward speed is used to restore the initial height in a pendulum-like mechanism. When gravity is reduced, as on the Moon or Mars, the mechanism of walking must change. Here we investigate the mechanics of walking on Mars onboard an aircraft undergoing gravity-reducing flight profiles. The optimal walking speed on Mars will be 3.4 km h-1 (down from 5.5 km h-1 on Earth) and the work done per unit distance to move the centre of mass will be half that on Earth.

  20. Anyonic quantum walks

    SciTech Connect

    Brennen, Gavin K.; Ellinas, Demosthenes; Kendon, Viv; Pachos, Jiannis K. Tsohantjis, Ioannis; Wang Zhenghan

    2010-03-15

    The one dimensional quantum walk of anyonic systems is presented. The anyonic walker performs braiding operations with stationary anyons of the same type ordered canonically on the line of the walk. Abelian as well as non-Abelian anyons are studied and it is shown that they have very different properties. Abelian anyonic walks demonstrate the expected quadratic quantum speedup. Non-Abelian anyonic walks are much more subtle. The exponential increase of the system's Hilbert space and the particular statistical evolution of non-Abelian anyons give a variety of new behaviors. The position distribution of the walker is related to Jones polynomials, topological invariants of the links created by the anyonic world-lines during the walk. Several examples such as the SU(2){sub k} and the quantum double models are considered that provide insight to the rich diffusion properties of anyons.

  1. Lévy walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaburdaev, V.; Denisov, S.; Klafter, J.

    2015-04-01

    Random walk is a fundamental concept with applications ranging from quantum physics to econometrics. Remarkably, one specific model of random walks appears to be ubiquitous across many fields as a tool to analyze transport phenomena in which the dispersal process is faster than dictated by Brownian diffusion. The Lévy-walk model combines two key features, the ability to generate anomalously fast diffusion and a finite velocity of a random walker. Recent results in optics, Hamiltonian chaos, cold atom dynamics, biophysics, and behavioral science demonstrate that this particular type of random walk provides significant insight into complex transport phenomena. This review gives a self-consistent introduction to Lévy walks, surveys their existing applications, including latest advances, and outlines further perspectives.

  2. See your GP, see the world – An activating course concept for fostering students' competence in performing vaccine and travel consultations

    PubMed Central

    Beltermann, Esther; Krane, Sibylla; Kiesewetter, Jan; Fischer, Martin R.; Schelling, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Performing vaccine and travel consultations is a crucial aspect of the daily routine in general medicine. However, medical education does not provide adequately and structured training for this future task of medical students. While existing courses mainly focus on theoretical aspects, we developed a course aiming to foster practical experience in performing vaccine and travel consultations. Project report: The course was implemented in the simulation clinic at the University of Munich in the summer 2011 semester using role-plays in a simulation-based learning environment. The course represents different disciplines involved in vaccine and travel medicine. Students’ learning is supported through active engagement in planning and conducting consultations of patients. Discussion and Summary: The course was implemented successfully and students’ acceptance was high. However, there is a need for structured teaching of theoretical basics in vaccine and travel medicine earlier in medical curriculum. The insights gained through our course are used for the development of the structured longitudinal curriculum “vaccine medicine”. PMID:26413166

  3. Numerical Simulations of Level-Ground Walking Based on Passive Walk for Planar Biped Robots with Torso by Hip Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narukawa, Terumasa; Takahashi, Masaki; Yoshida, Kazuo

    This study aims at a design technique of energy-efficient biped walking robots on level ground with simple mechanisms. To do this, we focus on the passive dynamic walkers which can walk stably down a shallow slope without actuators and controllers. On level ground, active walking should be studied because the mechanical energy is mainly lost through the swing-leg impacts with the ground. In this paper, numerical simulations show that planar biped robots with torso can walk efficiently on level ground over a wide range of speed by only using hip actuators. The hip actuators are used for a torso and swing-leg control based on passive-dynamic walking. The torso is used to generate active power replacing gravity used in the case of the passive walk. The swing-leg control is introduced to walk stably over a wide range of speed.

  4. WALK 2.0 - Using Web 2.0 applications to promote health-related physical activity: A randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is one of the leading modifiable causes of death and disease in Australia. National surveys indicate less than half of the Australian adult population are sufficiently active to obtain health benefits. The Internet is a potentially important medium for successfully communicating health messages to the general population and enabling individual behaviour change. Internet-based interventions have proven efficacy; however, intervention studies describing website usage objectively have reported a strong decline in usage, and high attrition rate, over the course of the interventions. Web 2.0 applications give users control over web content generated and present innovative possibilities to improve user engagement. There is, however, a need to assess the effectiveness of these applications in the general population. The Walk 2.0 project is a 3-arm randomised controlled trial investigating the effects of “next generation” web-based applications on engagement, retention, and subsequent physical activity behaviour change. Methods/design 504 individuals will be recruited from two sites in Australia, randomly allocated to one of two web-based interventions (Web 1.0 or Web 2.0) or a control group, and provided with a pedometer to monitor physical activity. The Web 1.0 intervention will provide participants with access to an existing physical activity website with limited interactivity. The Web 2.0 intervention will provide access to a website featuring Web 2.0 content, including social networking, blogs, and virtual walking groups. Control participants will receive a logbook to record their steps. All groups will receive similar educational material on setting goals and increasing physical activity. The primary outcomes are objectively measured physical activity and website engagement and retention. Other outcomes measured include quality of life, psychosocial correlates, and anthropometric measurements. Outcomes will be measured at baseline

  5. Moving human full body and body parts detection, tracking, and applications on human activity estimation, walking pattern and face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a new way for detection and tracking of human full-body and body-parts with color (intensity) patch morphological segmentation and adaptive thresholding for security surveillance cameras. An adaptive threshold scheme has been developed for dealing with body size changes, illumination condition changes, and cross camera parameter changes. Tests with the PETS 2009 and 2014 datasets show that we can obtain high probability of detection and low probability of false alarm for full-body. Test results indicate that our human full-body detection method can considerably outperform the current state-of-the-art methods in both detection performance and computational complexity. Furthermore, in this paper, we have developed several methods using color features for detection and tracking of human body-parts (arms, legs, torso, and head, etc.). For example, we have developed a human skin color sub-patch segmentation algorithm by first conducting a RGB to YIQ transformation and then applying a Subtractive I/Q image Fusion with morphological operations. With this method, we can reliably detect and track human skin color related body-parts such as face, neck, arms, and legs. Reliable body-parts (e.g. head) detection allows us to continuously track the individual person even in the case that multiple closely spaced persons are merged. Accordingly, we have developed a new algorithm to split a merged detection blob back to individual detections based on the detected head positions. Detected body-parts also allow us to extract important local constellation features of the body-parts positions and angles related to the full-body. These features are useful for human walking gait pattern recognition and human pose (e.g. standing or falling down) estimation for potential abnormal behavior and accidental event detection, as evidenced with our experimental tests. Furthermore, based on the reliable head (face) tacking, we have applied a super-resolution algorithm to enhance

  6. Quantum walks on simplicial complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsue, Kaname; Ogurisu, Osamu; Segawa, Etsuo

    2016-05-01

    We construct a new type of quantum walks on simplicial complexes as a natural extension of the well-known Szegedy walk on graphs. One can numerically observe that our proposing quantum walks possess linear spreading and localization as in the case of the Grover walk on lattices. Moreover, our numerical simulation suggests that localization of our quantum walks reflects not only topological but also geometric structures. On the other hand, our proposing quantum walk contains an intrinsic problem concerning exhibition of non-trivial behavior, which is not seen in typical quantum walks such as Grover walks on graphs.

  7. Uphill and Downhill Walking in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Samaei, Afshin; Hajihasani, Abdolhamid; Fatemi, Elham; Motaharinezhad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various exercise protocols have been recommended for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated the effects of uphill and downhill walking exercise on mobility, functional activities, and muscle strength in MS patients. Methods: Thirty-four MS patients were randomly allocated to either the downhill or uphill treadmill walking group for 12 sessions (3 times/wk) of 30 minutes' walking on a 10% negative slope (n = 17) or a 10% positive slope (n = 17), respectively. Measurements were taken before and after the intervention and after 4-week follow-up and included fatigue by Modified Fatigue Impact Scale; mobility by Modified Rivermead Mobility Index; disability by Guy's Neurological Disability Scale; functional activities by 2-Minute Walk Test, Timed 25-Foot Walk test, and Timed Up and Go test; balance indices by Biodex Balance System; and quadriceps and hamstring isometric muscles by torque of left and right knee joints. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to investigate the intervention effects on the measurements. Results: After the intervention, significant improvement was found in the downhill group versus the uphill group in terms of fatigue, mobility, and disability indices; functional activities; balance indices; and quadriceps isometric torque (P < .05). The results were stable at 4-week follow-up. Conclusions: Downhill walking on a treadmill may improve muscle performance, functional activity, and balance control in MS patients. These findings support the idea of using eccentric exercise training in MS rehabilitation protocols. PMID:26917996

  8. Walking dreams in congenital and acquired paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Saurat, Marie-Thérèse; Agbakou, Maité; Attigui, Patricia; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-12-01

    To test if dreams contain remote or never-experienced motor skills, we collected during 6 weeks dream reports from 15 paraplegics and 15 healthy subjects. In 9/10 subjects with spinal cord injury and in 5/5 with congenital paraplegia, voluntary leg movements were reported during dream, including feelings of walking (46%), running (8.6%), dancing (8%), standing up (6.3%), bicycling (6.3%), and practicing sports (skiing, playing basketball, swimming). Paraplegia patients experienced walking dreams (38.2%) just as often as controls (28.7%). There was no correlation between the frequency of walking dreams and the duration of paraplegia. In contrast, patients were rarely paraplegic in dreams. Subjects who had never walked or stopped walking 4-64 years prior to this study still experience walking in their dreams, suggesting that a cerebral walking program, either genetic or more probably developed via mirror neurons (activated when observing others performing an action) is reactivated during sleep. PMID:21704532

  9. Influenza Prevention: Information for Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... season and are traveling to parts of the world where influenza activity is ongoing should get a ... have been circulating in other parts of the world. People should get vaccinated at least 2 weeks ...

  10. Travel insurance and health.

    PubMed

    Leggat, P A; Carne, J; Kedjarune, U

    1999-12-01

    Travel insurance normally underwrites travel, medical, and dental expenses incurred by travelers abroad and arranges aeromedical evacuation of travelers under conditions specified by the travel insurance policy. Because of the costs of medical and dental treatment abroad and the high cost associated with aeromedical evacuation, all travelers should be advised of the need for comprehensive travel insurance and be advised to read their policies carefully to see what is covered and to check for any exclusions. In particular, those travelers who have known preexisting conditions, who are working overseas, or who are going to undertake any form of hazardous recreational pursuit may need to obtain a special travel insurance policy, which may attract a higher premium. Conservatively, it is estimated that between 30-50% of travelers become ill or injured whilst traveling. Relative estimated monthly incidence rates of various health problems have been compiled elsewhere. The risk of severe injury is thought to be greater for people when traveling abroad. These risks should be covered by travel insurance to protect the traveler, however it is not known what proportion of travel agents or airlines give advice routinely on travel insurance. Travel insurance is the most important safety net for travelers in the event of misadventure, and should be reinforced by travel health advisers. Although only 4% of general practitioners (GPs) in a late 1980's study in the United Kingdom would advise a traveler going to Turkey about travel insurance,4 more recent studies have shown about 60% of GPs in New Zealand and 39% of travel clinics worldwide usually advised travelers concerning travel insurance. In addition, 54% of GPs in New Zealand usually also advised travelers about finding medical assistance abroad, but only 19% of GPs recommended travel insurance companies as a source of medical assistance while traveling. PMID:10575173

  11. Multisensory integration in the estimation of walked distances.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jennifer L; Butler, John S; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2012-05-01

    When walking through space, both dynamic visual information (optic flow) and body-based information (proprioceptive and vestibular) jointly specify the magnitude of distance travelled. While recent evidence has demonstrated the extent to which each of these cues can be used independently, less is known about how they are integrated when simultaneously present. Many studies have shown that sensory information is integrated using a weighted linear sum, yet little is known about whether this holds true for the integration of visual and body-based cues for travelled distance perception. In this study using Virtual Reality technologies, participants first travelled a predefined distance and subsequently matched this distance by adjusting an egocentric, in-depth target. The visual stimulus consisted of a long hallway and was presented in stereo via a head-mounted display. Body-based cues were provided either by walking in a fully tracked free-walking space (Exp. 1) or by being passively moved in a wheelchair (Exp. 2). Travelled distances were provided either through optic flow alone, body-based cues alone or through both cues combined. In the combined condition, visually specified distances were either congruent (1.0×) or incongruent (0.7× or 1.4×) with distances specified by body-based cues. Responses reflect a consistent combined effect of both visual and body-based information, with an overall higher influence of body-based cues when walking and a higher influence of visual cues during passive movement. When comparing the results of Experiments 1 and 2, it is clear that both proprioceptive and vestibular cues contribute to travelled distance estimates during walking. These observed results were effectively described using a basic linear weighting model. PMID:22411581

  12. Application of Computational Lower Extremity Model to Investigate Different Muscle Activities and Joint Force Patterns in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients during Walking

    PubMed Central

    Nha, Kyung Wook; Shin, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong In; Kwon, Jae Ho; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Many experimental and computational studies have reported that osteoarthritis in the knee joint affects knee biomechanics, including joint kinematics, joint contact forces, and muscle activities, due to functional restriction and disability. In this study, differences in muscle activities and joint force patterns between knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and normal subjects during walking were investigated using the inverse dynamic analysis with a lower extremity musculoskeletal model. Extensor/flexor muscle activations and torque ratios and the joint contact forces were compared between the OA and normal groups. The OA patients had higher extensor muscle forces and lateral component of the knee joint force than normal subjects as well as force and torque ratios of extensor and flexor muscles, while the other parameters had little differences. The results explained that OA patients increased the level of antagonistic cocontraction and the adduction moment on the knee joint. The presented findings and technologies provide insight into biomechanical changes in OA patients and can also be used to evaluate the postoperative functional outcomes of the OA treatments. PMID:24302973

  13. Aging and space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  14. Walking: technology and biology.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Friedrich; Inoue, Hirochika

    2007-01-15

    If all the signs are to be believed, then the twenty-first century will technologically be characterized by machine walking and its relevant products, which possess all chances to become real bulk goods in the course of the next decades. With several university institutes and with Honda and Sony from the industrial side, Japan is today and without any doubt the leading nation in research and development of walking machines. The US and Europe follow at some distance. Walking machines will influence all areas of daily and industrial life and, with the fast evolution of artificial intelligence, will become a real partner of human beings. All relevant technologies are highly interdisciplinary, they will push the future technologies of all technical fields. The special issue on this topic gives a selection of walking machine research and development including some aspects from biology. PMID:17148046

  15. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity over 60% and ambient temperature of 25-30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10-14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acoustic buzzers, aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), doxycycline, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vaporising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines. PMID:19450348

  16. Travelers' Health: Water Disinfection for Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... be superior to tap water. Moreover, the plastic bottles create an ecological problem, since most developing countries do not recycle plastic bottles. All international travelers, especially long-term travelers or ...

  17. Early Walking of Geriatric Amputees

    PubMed Central

    Devas, M. B.

    1971-01-01

    After amputation geriatric patients have been enabled to get up and walk with the help of a prosthesis, an “early walking aid.” The physiotherapist measures the patient, fits the early walking aid, and instructs him in walking. The prosthesis is simple to make, easy to apply, and allows early walking with the use of a walking frame or sticks. Thus the geriatric amputee can walk as soon after operation as his general condition allows and the surgeon wishes. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:5100378

  18. Optimal walking speed following changes in limb geometry.

    PubMed

    Leurs, Françoise; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Bengoetxea, Ana; Cebolla, Ana-Maria; Dan, Bernard; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Cheron, Guy A

    2011-07-01

    The principle of dynamic similarity states that the optimal walking speeds of geometrically similar animals are independent of size when speed is normalized to the dimensionless Froude number (Fr). Furthermore, various studies have shown similar dimensionless optimal speed (Fr ∼0.25) for animals with quite different limb geometries. Here, we wondered whether the optimal walking speed of humans depends solely on total limb length or whether limb segment proportions play an essential role. If optimal walking speed solely depends on the limb length then, when subjects walk on stilts, they should consume less metabolic energy at a faster optimal speed than when they walk without stilts. To test this prediction, we compared kinematics, electromyographic activity and oxygen consumption in adults walking on a treadmill at different speeds with and without articulated stilts that artificially elongated the shank segment by 40 cm. Walking on stilts involved a non-linear reorganization of kinematic and electromyography patterns. In particular, we found a significant increase in the alternating activity of proximal flexors-extensors during the swing phase, despite significantly shorter normalized stride lengths. The minimal metabolic cost per unit distance walked with stilts occurred at roughly the same absolute speed, corresponding to a lower Fr number (Fr ∼0.17) than in normal walking (Fr ∼0.25). These findings are consistent with an important role of limb geometry optimization and kinematic coordination strategies in minimizing the energy expenditure of human walking. PMID:21653821

  19. The effects of cognitive activity combined with active extremity exercise on balance, walking activity, memory level and quality of life of an older adult sample with dementia.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung Eun; Lee, Suk Min; Lim, Hee Sung; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jeon, Ji Kyeng; Mun, Mee Hyang

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive activity combined with active physical exercise for a sample of older adults with dementia. [Subjects] A convenience sample of 30 patients with dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination score between 16 and 23) was used. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups: cognitive activity combined with physical exercise CAE, n=11), and only cognitive activity CA, n=9). [Methods] Both groups participated in a therapeutic exercise program for 30 minutes, three days a week for 12 weeks. The CAE group performed an additional exercise for 30 minutes a day, three days a week for 12 weeks. A Wii Balance Board (WBB, Nintendo, Japan) was used to evaluate postural sway as an assessment of balance. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES) were used to assess dynamic balance abilities. The Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG) was used to assess gait, and the Digit Span Test (DST) and 7 Minute Screening Test (7MST) were used to measure memory performance. The Mini-Mental Status Exam-Korean version (MMSE-K), Kenny Self-Care Evaluation (KSCE), and Short Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were used to assess quality of life (QOL). [Results] There were significant beneficial effects of the therapeutic program on balance (velocity in EOWB, path length in ECNB, BBS, and MMFE), QOL (MMSE-KC, GDS, KSCE), and memory performance (DSB) in the CAE group compared to CA group, and between pre-test and post-test. [Conclusion] A 12-week CAE program resulted in improvements in balance, memory and QOL. Therefore, some older adults with dementia have the ability to acquire effective skills relevant to daily living. PMID:24409029

  20. The Effects of Cognitive Activity Combined with Active Extremity Exercise on Balance, Walking Activity, Memory Level and Quality of Life of an Older Adult Sample with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung Eun; Lee, Suk Min; Lim, Hee Sung; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jeon, Ji Kyeng; Mun, Mee Hyang

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive activity combined with active physical exercise for a sample of older adults with dementia. [Subjects] A convenience sample of 30 patients with dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination score between 16 and 23) was used. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups: cognitive activity combined with physical exercise CAE, n=11), and only cognitive activity CA, n=9). [Methods] Both groups participated in a therapeutic exercise program for 30 minutes, three days a week for 12 weeks. The CAE group performed an additional exercise for 30 minutes a day, three days a week for 12 weeks. A Wii Balance Board (WBB, Nintendo, Japan) was used to evaluate postural sway as an assessment of balance. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES) were used to assess dynamic balance abilities. The Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG) was used to assess gait, and the Digit Span Test (DST) and 7 Minute Screening Test (7MST) were used to measure memory performance. The Mini-Mental Status Exam-Korean version (MMSE-K), Kenny Self-Care Evaluation (KSCE), and Short Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were used to assess quality of life (QOL). [Results] There were significant beneficial effects of the therapeutic program on balance (velocity in EOWB, path length in ECNB, BBS, and MMFE), QOL (MMSE-KC, GDS, KSCE), and memory performance (DSB) in the CAE group compared to CA group, and between pre-test and post-test. [Conclusion] A 12-week CAE program resulted in improvements in balance, memory and QOL. Therefore, some older adults with dementia have the ability to acquire effective skills relevant to daily living. PMID:24409029

  1. Walking for Health in Pregnancy: Assessment by Indirect Calorimetry and Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNallo, Jennifer M.; Le Masurier, Guy C.; Williams, Nancy I.; Downs, Danielle Symons

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine RT3 accelerometer activity counts and activity energy expenditure of 36 pregnant women at 20 and 32 weeks' gestation during treadmill walking and free-living conditions. During treadmill walking, oxygen consumption was collected, and activity energy expenditure was estimated for a 30-min walk at a…

  2. Walk Score, Transportation Mode Choice, and Walking Among French Adults: A GPS, Accelerometer, and Mobility Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Dustin T.; Méline, Julie; Kestens, Yan; Day, Kristen; Elbel, Brian; Trasande, Leonardo; Chaix, Basile

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have used GPS data to analyze the relationship between Walk Score, transportation choice and walking. Additionally, the influence of Walk Score is understudied using trips rather than individuals as statistical units. The purpose of this study is to examine associations at the trip level between Walk Score, transportation mode choice, and walking among Paris adults who were tracked with GPS receivers and accelerometers in the RECORD GPS Study. Methods: In the RECORD GPS Study, 227 participants were tracked during seven days with GPS receivers and accelerometers. Participants were also surveyed with a GPS-based web mapping application on their activities and transportation modes for all trips (6969 trips). Walk Score, which calculates neighborhood walkability, was assessed for each origin and destination of every trip. Multilevel logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to estimate associations between Walk Score and walking in the trip or accelerometry-assessed number of steps for each trip, after adjustment for individual/neighborhood characteristics. Results: The mean overall Walk Scores for trip origins were 87.1 (SD = 14.4) and for trip destinations 87.1 (SD = 14.5). In adjusted trip-level associations between Walk Score and walking only in the trip, we found that a walkable neighborhood in the trip origin and trip destination was associated with increased odds of walking in the trip assessed in the survey. The odds of only walking in the trip were 3.48 (95% CI: 2.73 to 4.44) times higher when the Walk Score for the trip origin was “Walker’s Paradise” compared to less walkable neighborhoods (Very/Car-Dependent or Somewhat Walkable), with an identical independent effect of trip destination Walk Score on walking. The number of steps per 10 min (as assessed with accelerometry) was cumulatively higher for trips both originating and ending in walkable neighborhoods (i.e., “Very Walkable”). Conclusions: Walkable

  3. Why older people engage in physical activity: an exploratory study of participants in a community-based walking program.

    PubMed

    Capalb, Darren J; O'Halloran, Paul; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2014-01-01

    While older people experience substantial physical and mental health benefits from regular physical activity, participation rates among older people are low. There is a need to gather more information about why older people do and do not engage in physical activity. This paper aims to examine the reasons why older men and women chose to engage in a community-based physical activity program. Specific issues that were examined included reasons why older people who had been involved in a community-based program on a regular basis: commenced the program; continued with the program; and recommenced the program after they had dropped out. Ten participants (eight females and two males) aged between 62 and 75 years, who had been participating in a community-based physical activity program for a minimum of 6 months, were individually interviewed. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Three major themes emerged, including 'time to bond: social interaction' with sub-themes 'bona fide friendships' and 'freedom from being isolated'; 'I want to be healthy: chronic disease management'; and 'new lease on life'. Two of the primary reasons why older people both commenced and recommenced the program were the promise of social interaction and to be able to better manage their chronic conditions. PMID:23241196

  4. “Not just another walking program”: Everyday Activity Supports You (EASY) model—a randomized pilot study for a parallel randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C; Winters, Meghan; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Dawes, Martin G; Gardiner, Paul A; Giangregorio, Lora M; Madden, Kenneth M; McAllister, Megan M; Wong, Gillian; Puyat, Joseph H; Singer, Joel; Sims-Gould, Joanie; McKay, Heather A

    2016-01-01

    Background Maintaining physical activity is an important goal with positive health benefits, yet many people spend most of their day sitting. Our Everyday Activity Supports You (EASY) model aims to encourage movement through daily activities and utilitarian walking. The primary objective of this phase was to test study feasibility (recruitment and retention rates) for the EASY model. Methods This 6-month study took place in Vancouver, Canada, from May to December 2013, with data analyses in February 2014. Participants were healthy, inactive, community-dwelling women aged 55–70 years. We recruited through advertisements in local community newspapers and randomized participants using a remote web service. The model included the following: group-based education and social support, individualized physical activity prescription (called Activity 4-1-1), and use of a Fitbit activity monitor. The control group received health-related information only. The main outcome measures were descriptions of study feasibility (recruitment and retention rates). We also collected information on activity patterns (ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers) and health-related outcomes such as body composition (height and weight using standard techniques), blood pressure (automatic blood pressure monitor), and psychosocial variables (questionnaires). Results We advertised in local community newspapers to recruit participants. Over 3 weeks, 82 participants telephoned; following screening, 68% (56/82) met the inclusion criteria and 45% (25/56) were randomized by remote web-based allocation. This included 13 participants in the intervention group and 12 participants in the control group (education). At 6 months, 12/13 (92%) intervention and 8/12 (67%) control participants completed the final assessment. Controlling for baseline values, the intervention group had an average of 2,080 [95% confidence intervals (CIs) 704, 4,918] more steps/day at 6 months compared with the control group. There was an

  5. Effects of the Residential Environment on Health in Japan Linked with Travel Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Perez Barbosa, David; Zhang, Junyi; Seya, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify how the residential environment is associated with overall health-related quality of life (QOL) via active travel (walking and cycling), by reflecting the influence of different trip purposes in Japan. The health-related QOL includes physical, mental, and social dimensions. For this study we implemented a questionnaire survey in 20 cities in Japan in 2010 and obtained valid answers from 1202 respondents. The residential environment is defined in terms of distances to and densities of different daily facilities extracted from both the survey and external GIS data. We found that the effects of residential environment on active travel behavior are mixed and limited, depending on types of trip makers. Unexpectedly, travel behavior has no direct effects on the health-related QOL. The residential environment, which is only observed indirectly via lifestyle habits for commuters, has limited effects on health. As for noncommuters, neither their travel behavior nor the residential environment influences their health-related QOL. PMID:26848676

  6. Effects of the Residential Environment on Health in Japan Linked with Travel Behavior.

    PubMed

    Perez Barbosa, David; Zhang, Junyi; Seya, Hajime

    2016-02-01

    This paper aims to clarify how the residential environment is associated with overall health-related quality of life (QOL) via active travel (walking and cycling), by reflecting the influence of different trip purposes in Japan. The health-related QOL includes physical, mental, and social dimensions. For this study we implemented a questionnaire survey in 20 cities in Japan in 2010 and obtained valid answers from 1202 respondents. The residential environment is defined in terms of distances to and densities of different daily facilities extracted from both the survey and external GIS data. We found that the effects of residential environment on active travel behavior are mixed and limited, depending on types of trip makers. Unexpectedly, travel behavior has no direct effects on the health-related QOL. The residential environment, which is only observed indirectly via lifestyle habits for commuters, has limited effects on health. As for noncommuters, neither their travel behavior nor the residential environment influences their health-related QOL. PMID:26848676

  7. Labyrinth walking in corrections.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Donna M; Sharma, Amy

    2012-02-01

    A 6 week labyrinth walking program was pilot tested in a correctional setting and goals were to: 1) determine the feasibility of a labyrinth walking curriculum; 2) pilot test measures of health related quality of life (QOL) (pre and post-surveys) and blood pressure; and 3) examine the influence of relationship-centered teaching on subject satisfaction. Relational communication was used as a framework for this study, emphasizing concepts of trust, competency and similarly in the teacher. A pretest/posttest descriptive design was used. The sample was 14 offenders at a Massachusetts county jail. The intervention included six 90 minute sessions, composed of a lecture, a labyrinth walk, and journal writing. Measures included a demographic survey; pre and post session walk blood pressures; pre and post program QOL measures; and a post program measure of satisfaction. The sample was 57% Caucasian, 36% Hispanic, and 7% African American, with an average age of 34, mostly high school educated and single. Drug of choice was alcohol with age of use at 12 and 1/2 years. Seventy-nine percent were previously incarcerated more than twice. QOL data were not changed pre to post. BP data trended in a healthy direction from weeks 1 to 6. Satisfaction with the teacher and the program was high. The labyrinth walking pilot program was proven feasible, low cost and satisfying for the participants. Recommendations for future studies are discussed. PMID:22468660

  8. Childhood and Travel Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, David

    If children are not present in most travel literature--precisely because the genre has most typically been the domain of solitary male travelers who are escaping domestic obligation, routine, the familiar, and the family--they nevertheless are an integral part of the genre. The traveler is in many ways a child, an innocent abroad. Traveler writers…

  9. Bicycling and Walking are Associated with Different Cortical Oscillatory Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Storzer, Lena; Butz, Markus; Hirschmann, Jan; Abbasi, Omid; Gratkowski, Maciej; Saupe, Dietmar; Schnitzler, Alfons; Dalal, Sarang S.

    2016-01-01

    Although bicycling and walking involve similar complex coordinated movements, surprisingly Parkinson’s patients with freezing of gait typically remain able to bicycle despite severe difficulties in walking. This observation suggests functional differences in the motor networks subserving bicycling and walking. However, a direct comparison of brain activity related to bicycling and walking has never been performed, neither in healthy participants nor in patients. Such a comparison could potentially help elucidating the cortical involvement in motor control and the mechanisms through which bicycling ability may be preserved in patients with freezing of gait. The aim of this study was to contrast the cortical oscillatory dynamics involved in bicycling and walking in healthy participants. To this end, EEG and EMG data of 14 healthy participants were analyzed, who cycled on a stationary bicycle at a slow cadence of 40 revolutions per minute (rpm) and walked at 40 strides per minute (spm), respectively. Relative to walking, bicycling was associated with a stronger power decrease in the high beta band (23–35 Hz) during movement initiation and execution, followed by a stronger beta power increase after movement termination. Walking, on the other hand, was characterized by a stronger and persisting alpha power (8–12 Hz) decrease. Both bicycling and walking exhibited movement cycle-dependent power modulation in the 24–40 Hz range that was correlated with EMG activity. This modulation was significantly stronger in walking. The present findings reveal differential cortical oscillatory dynamics in motor control for two types of complex coordinated motor behavior, i.e., bicycling and walking. Bicycling was associated with a stronger sustained cortical activation as indicated by the stronger high beta power decrease during movement execution and less cortical motor control within the movement cycle. We speculate this to be due to the more continuous nature of bicycling

  10. Travel-related illness.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Carol C

    2013-06-01

    Travel abroad for business and pleasure should be safe and meaningful for the traveler. To assure that safe experience, certain processes should be considered before travel. A thorough pretravel health assessment will offer patients and health care providers valuable information for anticipatory guidance before travel. The destination-based risk assessment will help determine the risks involved in travel to specific locations and guide in the development of contingency plans for all travelers, especially those with chronic conditions. Diseases are more prevalent overseas, and immunizations and vaccinations are all important considerations for persons traveling abroad. PMID:23692948

  11. Walks on SPR neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Caceres, Alan Joseph J; Castillo, Juan; Lee, Jinnie; St John, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    A nearest-neighbor-interchange (NNI)-walk is a sequence of unrooted phylogenetic trees, T1, T2, . . . , T(k) where each consecutive pair of trees differs by a single NNI move. We give tight bounds on the length of the shortest NNI-walks that visit all trees in a subtree-prune-and-regraft (SPR) neighborhood of a given tree. For any unrooted, binary tree, T, on n leaves, the shortest walk takes Θ(n²) additional steps more than the number of trees in the SPR neighborhood. This answers Bryant’s Second Combinatorial Challenge from the Phylogenetics Challenges List, the Isaac Newton Institute, 2011, and the Penny Ante Problem List, 2009. PMID:23702562

  12. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis). PMID:26350325

  13. The effect of weather on walking behavior in older adults.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Richard A; Shaw, W Douglass; Trousdale, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine how temperature and precipitation affect the probability that a retired American between the ages of 65 and 90 walks at least 2.5 hr/wk, using longitudinal data on walking frequency from the Consumption and Activities Mail Survey, a subpanel in the Health and Retirement Survey. Walking behavior is linked with monthly temperature and precipitation data from weather-station reports. The authors found that higher temperatures were associated with a higher probability of walking at least 2.5 hr/wk for women. In contrast, higher temperatures are associated with a lower probability of walking at least 2.5 hr/wk among men. Precipitation is not significantly associated with walking behavior for either gender. PMID:22190121

  14. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  15. Force-sharing between cat soleus and gastrocnemius muscles during walking: explanations based on electrical activity, properties, and kinematics.

    PubMed

    Prilutsky, B I; Herzog, W; Allinger, T L

    1994-10-01

    Studying force sharing between synergistic muscles can be useful for understanding the functional significance of musculoskeletal redundancy and the mechanisms underlying the control of synergistic muscles. The purpose of this study was to quantify and explain force sharing between cat soleus (SO) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscles, and changes in force sharing, as a function of integrated electrical activity (IEMG), contractile and mechanical properties, and kinematics of the muscles for a variety of locomotor conditions. Forces in SO and GA were measured using standard tendon force transducers of the 'buckle' type, and EMGs were recorded using bipolar, indwelling fine wire electrodes. Muscle tendon and fiber lengths, as well as the corresponding velocities, were derived from the hindlimb kinematics, anthropometric measurements, and a muscle model. In order to describe force- and IEMG-sharing between SO and GA, SO force vs GA force and SO IEMG vs GA IEMG plots were constructed. Force- and IEMG-sharing curves had a loop-like shape. Direction of formation of the loop was typically counterclockwise for forces and clockwise for IEMG; that is, forces of GA reached the maximum and then decreased faster relative to forces of SO, and IEMG of SO reached the maximum and then decreased faster relative to IEMG of GA. With increasing speeds of locomotion, the width of the force-sharing loops tended to decrease, and the width of the IEMG-sharing loops increased. Peak forces in GA muscle and peak IEMGs in SO and GA muscles tended to increase with increasing speeds of locomotion, whereas peak SO forces remained nearly constant for all activities. Because of these changes in the peak forces and IEMGs of SO and GA, the slope of the force-sharing loop decreased, and the slope of the IEMG-sharing loop did not change significantly with increasing speeds of locomotion. Length changes and velocities of SO and GA increased with the speed of locomotion and were similar in absolute magnitude

  16. Vaccination for the expatriate and long-term traveler.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Suzanne M; Shoff, William H

    2014-06-01

    Duration of travel is an important factor in addressing travel health safety due to cumulative risk of exposure to illness and injury. The diverse group of expatriate and long-term business and leisure travelers present a different spectrum of issues for the travel medicine practitioner to address during consultation than does the short-term traveler, due to changes in travel patterns and activities, lifestyle alterations, and increased interaction with local populations. Immunization provides one safe and reliable method of preventing infectious illness in this group. We review travel patterns and available data on illnesses that they may be exposed to, including the increased risk of certain vaccine-preventable illnesses. We review the pre-travel management of these travelers, particularly the increased risk of certain vaccine-preventable illnesses as it applies to routine vaccines, recommended travel vaccines and required travel vaccines. PMID:24785305

  17. Business travelers: vaccination considerations for this population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin H; Leder, Karin; Wilson, Mary E

    2013-04-01

    Illness in business travelers is associated with reduced productivity on the part of the employee as well as the employer. Immunizations offer a reliable method of preventing infectious diseases for international business travelers. The authors review the travel patterns of business travelers, available data on illnesses they encounter, their potential travel-associated risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and recommendations on immunizations for this population. Routine vaccines (e.g., measles, tetanus and influenza) should be reviewed to assure that they provide current coverage. The combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine with a rapid schedule offers options for those with time constraints. Other vaccine recommendations for business travelers need to focus on their destinations and activities and underlying health, taking into account the concept of cumulative risk for those with frequent travel, multiple trips or long stays. PMID:23560925

  18. Walking speed related joint kinetic alterations in trans-tibial amputees: impact of hydraulic 'ankle’ damping

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Passive prosthetic devices are set up to provide optimal function at customary walking speed and thus may function less effectively at other speeds. This partly explains why joint kinetic adaptations become more apparent in lower-limb amputees when walking at speeds other than customary. The present study determined whether a trans-tibial prosthesis incorporating a dynamic-response foot that was attached to the shank via an articulating hydraulic device (hyA-F) lessened speed-related adaptations in joint kinetics compared to when the foot was attached via a rigid, non-articulating attachment (rigF). Methods Eight active unilateral trans-tibial amputees completed walking trials at their customary walking speed, and at speeds they deemed to be slow-comfortable and fast-comfortable whilst using each type of foot attachment. Moments and powers at the distal end of the prosthetic shank and at the intact joints of both limbs were compared between attachment conditions. Results There was no change in the amount of intact-limb ankle work across speed or attachment conditions. As speed level increased there was an increase on both limbs in the amount of hip and knee joint work done, and increases on the prosthetic side were greater when using the hyA-F. However, because all walking speed levels were higher when using the hyA-F, the intact-limb ankle and combined joints work per meter travelled were significantly lower; particularly so at the customary speed level. This was the case despite the hyA-F dissipating more energy during stance. In addition, the amount of eccentric work done per meter travelled became increased at the residual knee when using the hyA-F, with increases again greatest at customary speed. Conclusions Findings indicate that a trans-tibial prosthesis incorporating a dynamic-response foot reduced speed-related changes in compensatory intact-limb joint kinetics when the foot was attached via an articulating hydraulic device compared to rigid

  19. Random walks on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Isaac

    Random walks on lattices are a well used model for diffusion on continuum. They have been to model subdiffusive systems, systems with forcing and reactions as well as a combination of the three. We extend the traditional random walk framework to the network to obtain novel results. As an example due to the small graph diameter, the early time behaviour of subdiffusive dynamics dominates the observed system which has implications for models of the brain or airline networks. I would like to thank the Australian American Fulbright Association.

  20. Characterizing the spatial and temporal activities of free-ranging cows from GPS data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electronic tracking provides a unique way to document animal behavior on a continuous basis. This manuscript describes how uncorrected 1 s GPS fixes can be used to characterize the rate of cow travel (m·s-1) into stationary, foraging and walking activities. Cows instrumented with GPS devices were ...

  1. Effects of Nordic Walking Compared to Conventional Walking and Band-Based Resistance Exercise on Fitness in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, Nobuo; Islam, Mohammod M.; Rogers, Michael E.; Rogers, Nicole L.; Sengoku, Naoko; Koizumi, Daisuke; Kitabayashi, Yukiko; Imai, Aiko; Naruse, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Nordic walking with conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on functional fitness, static balance and dynamic balance in older adults. Volunteers (n = 65) were divided into four groups: Nordic walking (NW), conventional walking (CW), resistance (RES), and control. Each group performed activity 50-70 min·day−1 (warm-up 10-15 min, main exercise 30-40, and cool down 10-15 min), 3 days·week−1 (NW and CW) or 2 day·week−1 (RES) for 12 wks. Upper-body strength improved (p < 0. 05) in the RES (22.3%) and the NW (11.6%) groups compared to the CW and control groups. Cardio- respiratory fitness improved more in the NW (10.9%) and CW (10.6%) groups compared to the RES and control groups. Upper- and lower-body flexibility also improved in all exercise groups compared to the control group. There were no improvements in balance measures in any group. While all modes of exercise improved various components of fitness, Nordic walking provided the best well-rounded benefits by improving upper-body strength, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility. Therefore, Nordic walking is recommended as an effective and efficient mode of concurrent exercise to improve overall functional fitness in older adults. Key Points Nordic walking, conventional walking, and resistance training are beneficial for older adults. Nordic walking and conventional walking both improve cardio-respiratory fitness while resistance training does not. Nordic walking provides additional benefits in upper-body muscular strength compared to conventional walking. Nordic walking is an effective and efficient mode of exercise to improve overall fitness in older adults. PMID:24149147

  2. In vitro activity of rifaximin against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and other enteropathogenic bacteria isolated from travellers returning to the UK.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Katie L; Mushtaq, Shazad; Richardson, Judith F; Doumith, Michel; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Cheasty, Tom; Wain, John; Livermore, David M; Woodford, Neil

    2014-05-01

    Rifaximin is licensed in the EU and USA for treating travellers' diarrhoea caused by non-invasive bacteria. Selection for resistance mechanisms of public health significance might occur if these are linked to rifamycin resistance. Rifaximin MICs were determined by agar dilution for 90 isolates each of Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica, typhoidal S. enterica and Campylobacter spp., an additional 60 E. coli with CTX-M ESBLs isolated from patients with travellers' diarrhoea, and 30 non-diarrhoeal carbapenemase-producing E. coli. Comparators were rifampicin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and doxycycline. Isolates with rifaximin MICs>32 mg/L were screened for arr genes, and critical rpoB regions were sequenced. Rifaximin was active at ≤32 mg/L against 436/450 (96.9%) diverse Enterobacteriaceae, whereas 81/90 (90%) Campylobacter spp. were resistant to rifaximin at ≥128 mg/L. Rifaximin MICs were ≥128 mg/L for two Shigella and five MDR E. coli producing NDM (n = 3), OXA-48 (n = 1) or CTX-M-15 (n = 1). Two of the five MDR E. coli had plasmids harbouring arr-2 together with bla(NDM), and two (one each with bla(NDM) and bla(CTX-M-15)) had His526Asn substitutions in RpoB. The rifamycin resistance mechanism remained undefined in one MDR E. coli isolate (with bla(OXA-48)) and the two Shigella isolates. Rifaximin showed good in vitro activity against diverse Enterobacteriaceae but was largely inactive against Campylobacter spp. Rifaximin has potential to co-select MDR E. coli in the gut flora, but much stronger associations were seen between ESBL and/or carbapenemase production and resistance to alternative treatments for travellers' diarrhoea, notably ciprofloxacin and azithromycin. PMID:24661532

  3. Integrated health impact assessment of travel behaviour: model exploration and application to a fuel price increase.

    PubMed

    Dhondt, Stijn; Kochan, Bruno; Beckx, Carolien; Lefebvre, Wouter; Pirdavani, Ali; Degraeuwe, Bart; Bellemans, Tom; Int Panis, Luc; Macharis, Cathy; Putman, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Transportation policy measures often aim to change travel behaviour towards more efficient transport. While these policy measures do not necessarily target health, these could have an indirect health effect. We evaluate the health impact of a policy resulting in an increase of car fuel prices by 20% on active travel, outdoor air pollution and risk of road traffic injury. An integrated modelling chain is proposed to evaluate the health impact of this policy measure. An activity-based transport model estimated movements of people, providing whereabouts and travelled kilometres. An emission- and dispersion model provided air quality levels (elemental carbon) and a road safety model provided the number of fatal and non-fatal traffic victims. We used kilometres travelled while walking or cycling to estimate the time in active travel. Differences in health effects between the current and fuel price scenario were expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY). A 20% fuel price increase leads to an overall gain of 1650 (1010-2330) DALY. Prevented deaths lead to a total of 1450 (890-2040) Years Life Gained (YLG), with better air quality accounting for 530 (180-880) YLG, fewer road traffic injuries for 750 (590-910) YLG and active travel for 170 (120-250) YLG. Concerning morbidity, mostly road safety led to 200 (120-290) fewer Years Lived with Disability (YLD), while air quality improvement only had a minor effect on cardiovascular hospital admissions. Air quality improvement and increased active travel mainly had an impact at older age, while traffic safety mainly affected younger and middle-aged people. This modelling approach illustrates the feasibility of a comprehensive health impact assessment of changes in travel behaviour. Our results suggest that more is needed than a policy rising car fuel prices by 20% to achieve substantial health gains. While the activity-based model gives an answer on what the effect of a proposed policy is, the focus on health may make

  4. Preparing patients to travel abroad safely. Part 1: Taking a travel history and identifying special risks.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present for family physicians without access to a travel clinic and the Internet the questions to ask about the medical history and itinerary of their patients traveling abroad. To suggest ways to identify and advise high-risk patients. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE searches from 1990 to November 1998 located 51 articles on travel and diabetes, 37 on travel and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 63 on travel and heart disease, 192 on travel and pregnancy, and 298 on travel with infants or children. Additional searches were undertaken in September 1999. The quality of evidence in most articles is level III (expert opinion). There are no randomized controlled trials of the best advice for family physicians to give travelers. MAIN MESSAGE: A history should include countries to be visited, planned activities, previous tropical travel, medical history, vaccination status, whether children are traveling, pregnancy status, and patients' opinions of the risks and precautions needed. Detailed advice should be given to reduce risks. The main causes of mortality abroad are existing cardiovascular conditions and accidents. High-risk conditions to be identified in travelers are cardiovascular illness, COPD, diabetes, immunodeficiency, pregnancy, and traveling with children. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cardiovascular illness or COPD should be advised to avoid too much exertion while traveling. Detailed instruction should be given to diabetic patients on how to maintain stable glucose levels, to pregnant women on avoiding malarial infection, and to parents on protecting their children from infections and accidents. PMID:10660795

  5. Walking: the Cheap, Easy Workout

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159582.html Walking: The Cheap, Easy Workout And it's a good way to start exercising, ... endurance. You can give your upper body a workout while walking by carrying one to five pound ...

  6. Effects of travel mode on exposures to particulate air pollution.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David J; de Hoogh, Kees; Morris, Chloe; Gulliver, John

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring was carried out of particulate concentrations whilst simultaneously walking and driving 48 routes in London, UK. Monitoring was undertaken during May and June 2005. Route lengths ranged from 601 to 1351 m, and most routes were travelled in both directions. Individual journey times ranged from 1.5 to 15 min by car (average 3.7 min) and 7.3 to 30 min (average 12.8 min) whilst walking; car trips were therefore repeated up to 5 times for each single walking trip and the results averaged for the route. Car trips were made with windows closed and the ventilation system on a moderate setting. Results show that mean exposures while walking are greatly in excess of those while driving, by a factor 4.7 for the coarse particle mass (PM10-PM2.5), 2.2 for the fine particle mass (PM2.5-PM1), 1.9 for the very fine particle mass (travel time involved in walking, these excesses are further increased: to factors of 15.6, 7.4, 6.5 and 4.4, respectively. Individuals who change their travel mode from car to walking in response to policies aimed at encouraging a modal shift in travel behavior are thus likely to experience considerably increased journey-time personal exposures to traffic-related air pollution. More effort is consequently needed to increase separation between road vehicles and pedestrians if negative effects of these policies are to be avoided. PMID:17688949

  7. Walking with a Slower Friend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Herb; Kalman, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Fay and Sam go for a walk. Sam walks along the left side of the street while Fay, who walks faster, starts with Sam but walks to a point on the right side of the street and then returns to meet Sam to complete one segment of their journey. We determine Fay's optimal path minimizing segment length, and thus maximizing the number of times they meet…

  8. Deterministic Walks with Choice

    SciTech Connect

    Beeler, Katy E.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Cooper, Joshua N.; Hunter, Meagan N.; Barr, Peter S.

    2014-01-10

    This paper studies deterministic movement over toroidal grids, integrating local information, bounded memory and choice at individual nodes. The research is motivated by recent work on deterministic random walks, and applications in multi-agent systems. Several results regarding passing tokens through toroidal grids are discussed, as well as some open questions.

  9. Walking in My Shoes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salia, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    The Walking in My Shoes curriculum at St. Thomas School in Medina, Washington, has been developed to deepen students' understanding of their own heritage and the cultural similarities and differences among their global peers. Exploring the rich diversity of the world's cultural heritage and the interactions of global migrations throughout history,…

  10. Tips for Leading Walks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriesberg, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Offers reminders and tips for improving interpretive walks, including having a theme, drawing on basic teaching methods, drawing on all senses rather than just talking, being a role model to show how learning can be fun, using picture books, using tools of the trade to encourage visitors to learn for themselves, and playing games. (PVD)

  11. The walking robot project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, P.; Sagraniching, E.; Bennett, M.; Singh, R.

    1991-01-01

    A walking robot was designed, analyzed, and tested as an intelligent, mobile, and a terrain adaptive system. The robot's design was an application of existing technologies. The design of the six legs modified and combines well understood mechanisms and was optimized for performance, flexibility, and simplicity. The body design incorporated two tripods for walking stability and ease of turning. The electrical hardware design used modularity and distributed processing to drive the motors. The software design used feedback to coordinate the system and simple keystrokes to give commands. The walking machine can be easily adapted to hostile environments such as high radiation zones and alien terrain. The primary goal of the leg design was to create a leg capable of supporting a robot's body and electrical hardware while walking or performing desired tasks, namely those required for planetary exploration. The leg designers intent was to study the maximum amount of flexibility and maneuverability achievable by the simplest and lightest leg design. The main constraints for the leg design were leg kinematics, ease of assembly, degrees of freedom, number of motors, overall size, and weight.

  12. Walking Out Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Ji

    2009-01-01

    In the Walking Out Graphs Lesson described here, students experience several types of representations used to describe motion, including words, sentences, equations, graphs, data tables, and actions. The most important theme of this lesson is that students have to understand the consistency among these representations and form the habit of…

  13. Walking On Air

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video features a series of time lapse sequences photographed by the Expedition 30 crew aboard the International Space Station. Set to the song “Walking in the Air,” by Howard Blake, the v...

  14. A Walk through Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfroe, Mark; Letendre, Wanda

    1996-01-01

    Describes a seventh-grade class project where students constructed a "time tunnel" (a walk-through display with models and exhibits illustrating various themes and eras). Beginning modestly, the tunnel grew over seven years to include 11 different display scenes. Discusses the construction of the project and benefits to the school. (MJP)

  15. Promoting Discussion in the Science Classroom Using Gallery Walks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francek, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A gallery walk is a discussion technique that gets students out of their chairs and actively involved in synthesizing important science concepts, writing, and public speaking. The technique also cultivates listening and team-building skills. This paper provides guidance for conducting, managing, and assessing gallery walks. (Contains 4 tables and…

  16. Chinese City Children and Youth's Walking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Minghui; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Wang, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although walking has been demonstrated as one of the best forms for promoting physical activity (PA), little is known about Chinese city children and youth's walking behavior. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess ambulatory PA behavior of Chinese city children and youth. Method: The daily steps of 2,751 children and…

  17. Optimal speeds for walking and running, and walking on a moving walkway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Manoj

    2009-06-01

    Many aspects of steady human locomotion are thought to be constrained by a tendency to minimize the expenditure of metabolic cost. This paper has three parts related to the theme of energetic optimality: (1) a brief review of energetic optimality in legged locomotion, (2) an examination of the notion of optimal locomotion speed, and (3) an analysis of walking on moving walkways, such as those found in some airports. First, I describe two possible connotations of the term "optimal locomotion speed:" that which minimizes the total metabolic cost per unit distance and that which minimizes the net cost per unit distance (total minus resting cost). Minimizing the total cost per distance gives the maximum range speed and is a much better predictor of the speeds at which people and horses prefer to walk naturally. Minimizing the net cost per distance is equivalent to minimizing the total daily energy intake given an idealized modern lifestyle that requires one to walk a given distance every day—but it is not a good predictor of animals' walking speeds. Next, I critique the notion that there is no energy-optimal speed for running, making use of some recent experiments and a review of past literature. Finally, I consider the problem of predicting the speeds at which people walk on moving walkways—such as those found in some airports. I present two substantially different theories to make predictions. The first theory, minimizing total energy per distance, predicts that for a range of low walkway speeds, the optimal absolute speed of travel will be greater—but the speed relative to the walkway smaller—than the optimal walking speed on stationary ground. At higher walkway speeds, this theory predicts that the person will stand still. The second theory is based on the assumption that the human optimally reconciles the sensory conflict between the forward speed that the eye sees and the walking speed that the legs feel and tries to equate the best estimate of the

  18. Random Walks on Random Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Colin; Frieze, Alan

    The aim of this article is to discuss some of the notions and applications of random walks on finite graphs, especially as they apply to random graphs. In this section we give some basic definitions, in Section 2 we review applications of random walks in computer science, and in Section 3 we focus on walks in random graphs.

  19. Mall Walking Program Environments, Features, and Participants: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Belza, Basia; Allen, Peg; Brolliar, Sarah; Brown, David R.; Cormier, Marc L.; Janicek, Sarah; Jones, Dina L.; King, Diane K.; Marquez, David X.; Rosenberg, Dori E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Walking is a preferred and recommended physical activity for middle-aged and older adults, but many barriers exist, including concerns about safety (ie, personal security), falling, and inclement weather. Mall walking programs may overcome these barriers. The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence on the health-related value of mall walking and mall walking programs. Methods We conducted a scoping review of the literature to determine the features, environments, and benefits of mall walking programs using the RE-AIM framework (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance). The inclusion criteria were articles that involved adults aged 45 years or older who walked in indoor or outdoor shopping malls. Exclusion criteria were articles that used malls as laboratory settings or focused on the mechanics of walking. We included published research studies, dissertations, theses, conference abstracts, syntheses, nonresearch articles, theoretical papers, editorials, reports, policy briefs, standards and guidelines, and nonresearch conference abstracts and proposals. Websites and articles written in a language other than English were excluded. Results We located 254 articles on mall walking; 32 articles met our inclusion criteria. We found that malls provided safe, accessible, and affordable exercise environments for middle-aged and older adults. Programmatic features such as program leaders, blood pressure checks, and warm-up exercises facilitated participation. Individual benefits of mall walking programs included improvements in physical, social, and emotional well-being. Limited transportation to the mall was a barrier to participation. Conclusion We found the potential for mall walking programs to be implemented in various communities as a health promotion measure. However, the research on mall walking programs is limited and has weak study designs. More rigorous research is needed to define best practices for mall walking

  20. Contrasts in active transport behaviour across four countries: How do they translate into public health benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Götschi, Thomas; Tainio, Marko; Maizlish, Neil; Schwanen, Tim; Goodman, Anna; Woodcock, James

    2015-01-01

    Objective Countries and regions vary substantially in transport related physical activity that people gain from walking and cycling and in how this varies by age and gender. This study aims to quantify the population health impacts of differences between four settings. Method The Integrated Transport and Health Model (ITHIM) was used to estimate health impacts from changes to physical activity that would arise if adults in urban areas in England and Wales adopted travel patterns of Switzerland, the Netherlands, and California. The model was parameterised with data from travel surveys from each setting and estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. Two types of scenarios were created, one in which the total travel time budget was assumed to be fixed and one where total travel times varied. Results Substantial population health benefits would accrue if people in England and Wales gained as much transport related physical activity as people in Switzerland or the Netherlands, whilst smaller but still considerable harms would occur if active travel fell to the level seen in California. The benefits from achieving the travel patterns of the high cycling Netherlands or high walking Switzerland were similar. Conclusion Differences between high income countries in how people travel have important implications for population health. PMID:25724106

  1. WALK 2.0: Examining the effectiveness of Web 2.0 features to increase physical activity in a ‘real world’ setting: an ecological trial

    PubMed Central

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Kolt, Gregory S; Savage, Trevor N; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Maeder, Anthony J; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Duncan, Mitch J; Van Itallie, Anetta; Tague, Rhys; Mummery, W Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low levels of health-enhancing physical activity require novel approaches that have the potential to reach broad populations. Web-based interventions are a popular approach for behaviour change given their wide reach and accessibility. However, challenges with participant engagement and retention reduce the long-term maintenance of behaviour change. Web 2.0 features present a new and innovative online environment supporting greater interactivity, with the potential to increase engagement and retention. In order to understand the applicability of these innovative interventions for the broader population, ‘real-world’ interventions implemented under ‘everyday conditions’ are required. The aim of this study is to investigate the difference in physical activity behaviour between individuals using a traditional Web 1.0 website with those using a novel Web 2.0 website. Methods and analysis In this study we will aim to recruit 2894 participants. Participants will be recruited from individuals who register with a pre-existing health promotion website that currently provides Web 1.0 features (http://www.10000steps.org.au). Eligible participants who provide informed consent will be randomly assigned to one of the two trial conditions: the pre-existing 10 000 Steps website (with Web 1.0 features) or the newly developed WALK 2.0 website (with Web 2.0 features). Primary and secondary outcome measures will be assessed by self-report at baseline, 3 months and 12 months, and include: physical activity behaviour, height and weight, Internet self-efficacy, website usability, website usage and quality of life. Ethics and dissemination This study has received ethics approval from the University of Western Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (Reference Number H8767) and has been funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council (Reference Number 589903). Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications, academic

  2. Swing- and support-related muscle actions differentially trigger human walk-run and run-walk transitions.

    PubMed

    Prilutsky, B I; Gregor, R J

    2001-07-01

    There has been no consistent explanation as to why humans prefer changing their gait from walking to running and from running to walking at increasing and decreasing speeds, respectively. This study examined muscle activation as a possible determinant of these gait transitions. Seven subjects walked and ran on a motor-driven treadmill for 40s at speeds of 55, 70, 85, 100, 115, 130 and 145% of the preferred transition speed. The movements of subjects were videotaped, and surface electromyographic activity was recorded from seven major leg muscles. Resultant moments at the leg joints during the swing phase were calculated. During the swing phase of locomotion at preferred running speeds (115, 130, 145%), swing-related activation of the ankle, knee and hip flexors and peaks of flexion moments were typically lower (P<0.05) during running than during walking. At preferred walking speeds (55, 70, 85%), support-related activation of the ankle and knee extensors was typically lower during stance of walking than during stance of running (P<0.05). These results support the hypothesis that the preferred walk-run transition might be triggered by the increased sense of effort due to the exaggerated swing-related activation of the tibialis anterior, rectus femoris and hamstrings; this increased activation is necessary to meet the higher joint moment demands to move the swing leg during fast walking. The preferred run-walk transition might be similarly triggered by the sense of effort due to the higher support-related activation of the soleus, gastrocnemius and vastii that must generate higher forces during slow running than during walking at the same speed. PMID:11507111

  3. Give your ideas some legs: the positive effect of walking on creative thinking.

    PubMed

    Oppezzo, Marily; Schwartz, Daniel L

    2014-07-01

    Four experiments demonstrate that walking boosts creative ideation in real time and shortly after. In Experiment 1, while seated and then when walking on a treadmill, adults completed Guilford's alternate uses (GAU) test of creative divergent thinking and the compound remote associates (CRA) test of convergent thinking. Walking increased 81% of participants' creativity on the GAU, but only increased 23% of participants' scores for the CRA. In Experiment 2, participants completed the GAU when seated and then walking, when walking and then seated, or when seated twice. Again, walking led to higher GAU scores. Moreover, when seated after walking, participants exhibited a residual creative boost. Experiment 3 generalized the prior effects to outdoor walking. Experiment 4 tested the effect of walking on creative analogy generation. Participants sat inside, walked on a treadmill inside, walked outside, or were rolled outside in a wheelchair. Walking outside produced the most novel and highest quality analogies. The effects of outdoor stimulation and walking were separable. Walking opens up the free flow of ideas, and it is a simple and robust solution to the goals of increasing creativity and increasing physical activity. PMID:24749966

  4. Influences on Neighborhood Walking in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Nancy Ambrose; Clarke, Philippa J.; Ronis, David L.; Cherry, Carol Loveland; Nyquist, Linda; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional survey study was to examine the influence of self-efficacy, outcome expectations and environment on neighborhood walking in older adults with (n=163, mean age=78.7, SD=7.96 years) and without (n=163, mean age=73.6, SD=7.93 years) mobility limitations (controlling for demographic characteristics). Measures included: Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire, Multidimensional Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale, Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, and self-efficacy scales. Multiple regression revealed that in mobility-limited older adults, demographic characteristics, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations explained 17.4% of variance in neighborhood walking, while environment (neighborhood destinations and design) explained 9.5%. Destinations, self-efficacy, gender, and outcome expectations influenced walking. In those without mobility limitations, demographic characteristics, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations explained 15.6% of the variance, while environment explained 5.7%. Self-efficacy, gender, and design influenced walking. Neighborhood walking interventions for older adults should include self-efficacy strategies tailored to mobility status and neighborhood characteristics. PMID:22998660

  5. Walking for Well-Being: Are Group Walks in Certain Types of Natural Environments Better for Well-Being than Group Walks in Urban Environments?

    PubMed Central

    Marselle, Melissa R.; Irvine, Katherine N.; Warber, Sara L.

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of walking in natural environments for well-being are increasingly understood. However, less well known are the impacts different types of natural environments have on psychological and emotional well-being. This cross-sectional study investigated whether group walks in specific types of natural environments were associated with greater psychological and emotional well-being compared to group walks in urban environments. Individuals who frequently attended a walking group once a week or more (n = 708) were surveyed on mental well-being (Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale), depression (Major Depressive Inventory), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and emotional well-being (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule). Compared to group walks in urban environments, group walks in farmland were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect, and greater mental well-being. Group walks in green corridors were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect. There were no significant differences between the effect of any environment types on depression or positive affect. Outdoor walking group programs could be endorsed through “green prescriptions” to improve psychological and emotional well-being, as well as physical activity. PMID:24173142

  6. Measuring walking within and outside the neighborhood in Chinese elders: reliability and validity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Walking is a preferred, prevalent and recommended activity for aging populations and is influenced by the neighborhood built environment. To study this influence it is necessary to differentiate whether walking occurs within or outside of the neighborhood. The Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ) collects information on setting-specific physical activity, including walking, inside and outside one's neighborhood. While the NPAQ has shown to be a reliable measure in adults, its reliability in older adults is unknown. Additionally its validity and the influence of type of neighborhood on reliability and validity have yet to be explored. Methods The NPAQ walking component was adapted for Chinese speaking elders (NWQ-CS). Ninety-six Chinese elders, stratified by social economic status and neighborhood walkability, wore an accelerometer and completed a log of walks for 7 days. Following the collection of valid data the NWQ-CS was interviewer-administered. Fourteen to 20 days (average of 17 days) later the NWQ-CS was re-administered. Test-retest reliability and validity of the NWQ-CS were assessed. Results Reliability and validity estimates did not differ with type of neighborhood. NWQ-CS measures of walking showed moderate to excellent reliability. Reliability was generally higher for estimates of weekly frequency than minutes of walking. Total weekly minutes of walking were moderately related to all accelerometry measures. Moderate-to-strong associations were found between the NWQ-CS and log-of-walks variables. The NWQ-CS yielded statistically significantly lower mean values of total walking, weekly minutes of walking for transportation and weekly frequency of walking for transportation outside the neighborhood than the log-of-walks. Conclusions The NWQ-CS showed measurement invariance across types of neighborhoods. It is a valid measure of walking for recreation and frequency of walking for transport. However, it may systematically

  7. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Visceral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Infected travelers should be advised to consult an infectious disease or tropical medicine specialist. Therapy for VL should ...

  8. Zika Travel Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Citizens and Residents Living in Areas with Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission Guidelines for Travelers Visiting Friends and Family ... with Zika . For the most current information about Zika virus, please visit CDC’s Zika website . Traveling soon? Get ...

  9. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... 448-4911 ( www.nccc.ucsf.edu ). HIV TESTING REQUIREMENTS FOR US TRAVELERS ENTERING FOREIGN COUNTRIES International travelers ... extended stay should review that country’s policies and requirements. This information is usually available from the consular ...

  10. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  11. Healthy Living Initiative: Running/Walking Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianou, Michalis; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Kloeppel, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This study was grounded in the public health literature and the call for schools to serve as physical activity intervention sites. Its purpose was twofold: (a) to examine the daily distance covered by students in a before-school running/walking club throughout 1 school year and (b) to gain insights on the teachers perspectives of the club.…

  12. Demand response to improved walking infrastructure: A study into the economics of walking and health behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Longo, Alberto; Hutchinson, W George; Hunter, Ruth F; Tully, Mark A; Kee, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Walking is the most common form of moderate-intensity physical activity among adults, is widely accessible and especially appealing to obese people. Most often policy makers are interested in valuing the effect on walking of changes in some characteristics of a neighbourhood, the demand response for walking, of infrastructure changes. A positive demand response to improvements in the walking environment could help meet the public health target of 150 min of at least moderate-intensity physical activity per week. We model walking in an individual's local neighbourhood as a 'weak complement' to the characteristics of the neighbourhood itself. Walking is affected by neighbourhood characteristics, substitutes, and individual's characteristics, including their opportunity cost of time. Using compensating variation, we assess the economic benefits of walking and how walking behaviour is affected by improvements to the neighbourhood. Using a sample of 1209 respondents surveyed over a 12 month period (Feb 2010-Jan 2011) in East Belfast, United Kingdom, we find that a policy that increased walkability and people's perception of access to shops and facilities would lead to an increase in walking of about 36 min/person/week, valued at £13.65/person/week. When focussing on inactive residents, a policy that improved the walkability of the area would lead to guidelines for physical activity being reached by only 12.8% of the population who are currently inactive. Additional interventions would therefore be needed to encourage inactive residents to achieve the recommended levels of physical activity, as it appears that interventions that improve the walkability of an area are particularly effective in increasing walking among already active citizens, and, among the inactive ones, the best response is found among healthier, younger and wealthier citizens. PMID:26347960

  13. The Walking Wellness Teacher's Guide. A Resource Book for Elementary & Middle School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetgall, Robert; Neeves, Robert

    This teacher's resource guide for implementing a "Walking Wellness" curriculum in grades four through eight offers 16 hands-on workshops. Activities focus on fitness walking, cardiovascular conditioning, nutrition and weight control, walking techniques and posture, stress control, tobacco-free living, and lifestyle planning. The student workbook…

  14. Traveling with children

    MedlinePlus

    ... airplane References Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Travelers' health: common travel health topics. Updated 10/23/2014. ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Traveler's Health Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  15. Air Travel Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  16. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  17. Relativistic Weierstrass random walks.

    PubMed

    Saa, Alberto; Venegeroles, Roberto

    2010-08-01

    The Weierstrass random walk is a paradigmatic Markov chain giving rise to a Lévy-type superdiffusive behavior. It is well known that special relativity prevents the arbitrarily high velocities necessary to establish a superdiffusive behavior in any process occurring in Minkowski spacetime, implying, in particular, that any relativistic Markov chain describing spacetime phenomena must be essentially Gaussian. Here, we introduce a simple relativistic extension of the Weierstrass random walk and show that there must exist a transition time t{c} delimiting two qualitative distinct dynamical regimes: the (nonrelativistic) superdiffusive Lévy flights, for tt{c} . Implications of this crossover between different diffusion regimes are discussed for some explicit examples. The study of such an explicit and simple Markov chain can shed some light on several results obtained in much more involved contexts. PMID:20866862

  18. Experiences of air travel in patients with chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Lee; Hobkirk, James; Damy, Thibaud; Nabb, Samantha; Clark, Andrew L.; Cleland, John G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To conduct a survey in a representative cohort of ambulatory patients with stable, well managed chronic heart failure (CHF) to discover their experiences of air travel. Methods An expert panel including a cardiologist, an exercise scientist, and a psychologist developed a series of survey questions designed to elicit CHF patients' experiences of air travel (Appendix 1). The survey questions, information sheets and consent forms were posted out in a self-addressed envelope to 1293 CHF patients. Results 464 patients (response rate 39%) completed the survey questionnaires. 54% of patients had travelled by air since their heart failure diagnosis. 20% of all patients reported difficulties acquiring travel insurance. 65% of patients who travelled by air experienced no health-related problems. 35% of patients who travelled by air experienced health problems, mainly at the final destination, going through security and on the aircraft. 27% of all patients would not travel by air in the future. 38% of patients would consider flying again if there were more leg room on the aeroplane, if their personal health improved (18%), if they could find cheaper travel insurance (19%), if there were less waiting at the airport (11%), or if there were less walking/fewer stairs to negotiate at the airport (7%). Conclusion For most patients in this sample of stable, well managed CHF, air travel was safe. PMID:21256607

  19. Travel Recommendations for the Nursing Mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Travel Recommendations for the ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  20. Walking with springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugar, Thomas G.; Hollander, Kevin W.; Hitt, Joseph K.

    2011-04-01

    Developing bionic ankles poses great challenges due to the large moment, power, and energy that are required at the ankle. Researchers have added springs in series with a motor to reduce the peak power and energy requirements of a robotic ankle. We developed a "robotic tendon" that reduces the peak power by altering the required motor speed. By changing the required speed, the spring acts as a "load variable transmission." If a simple motor/gearbox solution is used, one walking step would require 38.8J and a peak motor power of 257 W. Using an optimized robotic tendon, the energy required is 21.2 J and the peak motor power is reduced to 96.6 W. We show that adding a passive spring in parallel with the robotic tendon reduces peak loads but the power and energy increase. Adding a passive spring in series with the robotic tendon reduces the energy requirements. We have built a prosthetic ankle SPARKy, Spring Ankle with Regenerative Kinetics, that allows a user to walk forwards, backwards, ascend and descend stairs, walk up and down slopes as well as jog.

  1. Layout Improvement Study to Reduce Staff Walking Distance in a Large Health Care Facility: How to Not Walk an Extra 4740 Miles.

    PubMed

    Ley-Chavez, Adriana; Hmar-Lagroun, Tatiana; Douglas-Ntagha, Pamela; Cumbo, Charlotte L

    2016-01-01

    Inefficient facility layouts have been found to be a challenge in health care, with excessive walking adding to the demands of staff and creating delays, which can impact the quality of care. Minimizing unnecessary transportation during care delivery improves efficiency, reduces delays, and frees up resources for use on value-added activities. This article presents a methodology and application of facility design to improve responsiveness and efficiency at a large hospital. The approach described provides the opportunity to improve existing layouts in facilities in which the floor plan is already defined, but there is some flexibility to relocate key areas. The existing physical constraints and work flows are studied and taken into consideration, and the volume of traffic flow throughout the facility guides the decision of where to relocate areas for maximum efficiency. Details on the steps followed and general recommendations to perform the necessary process and data analyses are provided. We achieved a 34.8% reduction in distance walked (4740 miles saved per year) and a 30% reduction in floors traveled in elevators (344 931 floors, which translate to 842 hours spent using elevators) by relocating 4 areas in which frequently used resources are housed. PMID:27367214

  2. These Shoes Are Made for Walking: Sensitivity Performance Evaluation of Commercial Activity Monitors under the Expected Conditions and Circumstances Required to Achieve the International Daily Step Goal of 10,000 Steps

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Sandra; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Kelly, Lisa; Murphy, Elaine; Beirne, Sorcha; Burke, Niall; Kilgannon, Orlaith; Quinlan, Leo R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is a vitally important part of a healthy lifestyle, and is of major benefit to both physical and mental health. A daily step count of 10,000 steps is recommended globally to achieve an appropriate level of physical activity. Accurate quantification of physical activity during conditions reflecting those needed to achieve the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps is essential. As such, we aimed to assess four commercial activity monitors for their sensitivity/accuracy in a prescribed walking route that reflects a range of surfaces that would typically be used to achieve the recommended daily step count, in two types of footwear expected to be used throughout the day when aiming to achieve the recommended daily step count, and in a timeframe required to do so. Methods Four commercial activity monitors were worn simultaneously by participants (n = 15) during a prescribed walking route reflective of surfaces typically encountered while achieving the daily recommended 10,000 steps. Activity monitors tested were the Garmin Vivofit ™, New Lifestyles’ NL-2000 ™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2) ™, and Fitbit One ™. Results All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection over the variety of different surfaces tested (natural lawn grass, gravel, ceramic tile, tarmacadam/asphalt, linoleum), when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes. Conclusion All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection sensitivity and are valid monitors for physical activity quantification over the variety of different surfaces tested, when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes, and over a timeframe necessary for accumulating the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps. However, it is important to consider the accuracy of activity monitors, particularly when physical activity in the form of stepping activities is prescribed as an intervention in the

  3. Backward Walking in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, Madeleine E.; Earhart, Gammon M.

    2010-01-01

    We walk backward on a daily basis, such as when backing away from the kitchen sink or stepping back from a curb as a swiftly moving bus passes. This task may be particularly difficult for individuals with PD who often fall as a result of moving or being perturbed in the backward direction (Horak et al. 2005, Bloem et al 2004). The aim of this study was to assess backward walking in individuals with PD. Both forward and backward gait were assessed in 78 people with idiopathic PD (H&Y range: 0.5–3) in the ON state, and 74 age- and sex-matched controls. In forward walking, those with PD had significantly shorter strides, lower swing percents, higher stance percents and lower functional ambulation profiles than controls. Both groups walked significantly slower and with a wider base of support during backward walking than forward walking. Additionally, in backward walking those with PD walked significantly slower with shorter strides, lower swing percents, and higher double support and stance percents, and lower functional ambulation profiles compared to controls. Those with mild to moderate PD have impaired forward and backward walking, but differences between those with and without PD are more pronounced in backward walking. PMID:18951535

  4. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  5. Traveling-Wave Membrane Photomixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyss, R. A.; Martin, S. C.; Nakamura, B. J.; Neto, A.; Pasqualini, D.; Siegel, P. H.; Kadow, C.; Gossard, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    Traveling-wave photomixers have superior performance when compared with lumped area photomixers in the 1 to 3 THz frequency range. Their large active area and distributed gain mechanism assure high thermal damage threshold and elimination of the capacitive frequency roll-off. However, the losses experienced by the radio frequency wave traveling along the coplanar strips waveguide (due to underlying semi-infinite GaAs substrate) were a serious drawback. In this paper we present device designs and an experimental setup that make possible the realization of photomixers on membranes which eliminate the losses.

  6. Final Report Phase I Study to Characterize the Market Potential for Non-Motorized Travel

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Reuscher, Tim; Wilson, Daniel W; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2012-06-01

    The idea of livable communities suggests that people should have the option to utilize non-motorized travel (NMT), specifically walking and bicycling, to conduct their daily tasks. Forecasting personal travel by walk and bike is necessary as part of regional transportation planning, and requires fine detail not only about individual travel, but also on transportation and neighborhood infrastructure. In an attempt to characterize the 'market' potential for NMT, the Office of Planning, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) funded the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to conduct a study. The objectives of this effort were to identify factors that influence communities to walk and bike and to examine why, or why not, travelers walk and bike in their communities. This study relied on information collected under the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) as the major source of data, and was supplemented with data from the American Community Survey (ACS), educational survey, health, employment, and others. Initial statistical screening methods were applied to sort through over 400 potential predictor variables, and examined with various measures (e.g., walk trip per person, walk mileage per person, bike trip per person, bike mileage per person) as the dependent variables. The best geographic level of detail used in the modeling for this study was determined to be the Census block group level for walking and Census tract level for biking. The need for additional supplemental private data (i.e., Walk Scores and Nielsen employment data), and geospatial information that reflects land use and physical environments, became evident after an examination of findings from the initial screening models. To be feasible, in terms of costs and time, the geographic scale of the study region was scaled down to nine selected NHTS add-on regions. These regions were chosen based on various criteria including transit availability

  7. Comprehensive care of travelers.

    PubMed

    Pust, R E; Peate, W F; Cordes, D H

    1986-12-01

    Travel, especially if it is international, often means major changes for the family. Family physicians should assess the epidemiologic risk and psychosocial significance of travel or relocation in light of the family's life-cycle stage and antecedent health. Using core references, which are kept current in partnership with public health agencies, family physicians are able to provide comprehensive immunization, medications, and patient education for all travel risks. Families are given medical record summaries and recommended sources of care at their destination. Eight weeks after their return patients are reassessed for newly acquired illness and helped to integrate the perspectives gained during the travel into the family's future dynamics. Taking advantage of growing travel medicine opportunities, family medicine educators should base the care of travelers and teaching of residents on defined competence priorities. Travelers' health provides a mutually rewarding model of shared care with public health consultants in the community medicine curriculum. PMID:3537200

  8. Active Aging: Exploration into Self-Ratings of "Being Active," Out-of-Home Physical Activity, and Participation among Older Australian Adults Living in Four Different Settings.

    PubMed

    Aird, Rosemary L; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether self-ratings of "being active" among older people living in four different settings (major city high and lower density suburbs, a regional city, and a rural area) were associated with out-of-home participation and outdoor physical activity. A mixed-methods approach (survey, travel diary, and GPS tracking over a one-week period) was used to gather data from 48 individuals aged over 55 years. Self-ratings of "being active" were found to be positively correlated with the number of days older people spent time away from home but unrelated to time traveled by active means (walking and biking). No significant differences in active travel were found between the four study locations, despite differences in their respective built environments. The findings suggest that additional strategies to the creation of "age-friendly" environments are needed if older people are to increase their levels of outdoor physical activity. "Active aging" promotion campaigns may need to explicitly identify the benefits of walking outdoors to ambulatory older people as a means of maintaining their overall health, functional ability, and participation within society in the long-term and also encourage the development of community-based programs in order to facilitate regular walking for this group. PMID:26346381

  9. Promoting walking among older adults living in retirement communities.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Dori E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Sallis, James F; Norman, Gregory J; Calfas, Karen; Patrick, Kevin

    2012-07-01

    The authors tested the feasibility and acceptability, and explored the outcomes, of 2 walking interventions based on ecological models among older adults living in retirement communities. An enhanced intervention (EI) was compared with a standard walking intervention (SI) among residents in 4 retirement facilities (N = 87 at baseline; mean age = 84.1 yr). All participants received a walking intervention including pedometers, printed materials, and biweekly group sessions. EI participants also received phone counseling and environmental-awareness components. Measures included pedometer step counts, activities of daily living, environment-related variables, physical function, depression, cognitive function, satisfaction, and adherence. Results indicated improvements among the total sample for step counts, neighborhood barriers, cognitive function, and satisfaction with walking opportunities. Satisfaction and adherence were high. Both walking interventions were feasible to implement among facility-dwelling older adults. Future studies can build on this multilevel approach. PMID:22186798

  10. 78 FR 53507 - Agency Information Collection (Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application Form...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... for the beneficiary travel mileage reimbursement benefit in an efficient, convenient and accurate... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application Form) Activity..._submission@omb.eop.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900- NEW (Beneficiary Travel...

  11. Elastic coupling of limb joints enables faster bipedal walking

    PubMed Central

    Dean, J.C.; Kuo, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    The passive dynamics of bipedal limbs alone are sufficient to produce a walking motion, without need for control. Humans augment these dynamics with muscles, actively coordinated to produce stable and economical walking. Present robots using passive dynamics walk much slower, perhaps because they lack elastic muscles that couple the joints. Elastic properties are well known to enhance running gaits, but their effect on walking has yet to be explored. Here we use a computational model of dynamic walking to show that elastic joint coupling can help to coordinate faster walking. In walking powered by trailing leg push-off, the model's speed is normally limited by a swing leg that moves too slowly to avoid stumbling. A uni-articular spring about the knee allows faster but uneconomical walking. A combination of uni-articular hip and knee springs can speed the legs for improved speed and economy, but not without the swing foot scuffing the ground. Bi-articular springs coupling the hips and knees can yield high economy and good ground clearance similar to humans. An important parameter is the knee-to-hip moment arm that greatly affects the existence and stability of gaits, and when selected appropriately can allow for a wide range of speeds. Elastic joint coupling may contribute to the economy and stability of human gait. PMID:18957360

  12. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  13. Assessments of Motor Abnormalities on the Grid-Walking and Foot-Fault Tests From Undernutrition in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Horiquini Barbosa, Everton; Vallim, José Henrique; Lachat, João-José; de Castro, Vera Lucia S S

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to verify whether different lactation conditions influenced nervous system development. The authors used motor tasks to verify changes in exploratory activity and muscle strength of weaned rats from different litter sizes and evaluated the applicability of the grid-walking test for assessing motor abnormalities caused by undernutrition. Alterations in litter size during the suckling period perturbed the nutritional status of pups, which exhibited body weight differences between the groups. Large-litter (L) pups showed significant delays in achieving developmental milestones and neurological reflexes compared to the small-litter (S) and medium-litter (M) pups. The S, M, and L group pups exhibited similar exploratory responses and muscle strength. In the grid-walking and foot-fault tests, the L group pups traveled shorter distances and, consequently, had less footsteps. However, the percentages of foot faults in the L group were higher than S and M groups. These results reflect delayed maturation of structures responsible for sensorimotor responses, such as the cerebellum, because much cerebellar maturation takes place postnatally. This is the first study to report that early undernutrition in pups resulted in suboptimal performances on the grid-walking and foot-fault tests and that the former test was sensitive to alterations caused by nutritional deficiency. PMID:25923475

  14. Immunizations for foreign travel.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of preparing travelers for destinations throughout the world is providing them with immunizations. Before administering any vaccines, however, a careful health and immunization history and travel itinerary should be obtained in order to determine vaccine indications and contraindications. There are three categories of immunizations for foreign travel. The first category includes immunizations which are routinely recommended whether or not the individual is traveling. Many travelers are due for primary vaccination or boosting against tetanus-diphtheria, measles-mumps-rubella, pneumococcal pneumonia, and influenza, for example, and the pre-travel visit is an ideal time to administer these. The second category are immunizations which might be required by a country as a condition for entry; these are yellow fever and cholera. The final category contains immunizations which are recommended because there is a risk of acquiring a particular disease during travel. Typhoid fever, meningococcal disease, rabies, and hepatitis are some examples. Travelers who are pregnant or who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus require special consideration. Provision of appropriate immunizations for foreign travel is an important aspect of preventing illness in travelers. PMID:1337807

  15. Agile Walking Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.; Waldron, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed agile walking robot operates over rocky, sandy, and sloping terrain. Offers stability and climbing ability superior to other conceptual mobile robots. Equipped with six articulated legs like those of insect, continually feels ground under leg before applying weight to it. If leg sensed unexpected object or failed to make contact with ground at expected point, seeks alternative position within radius of 20 cm. Failing that, robot halts, examines area around foot in detail with laser ranging imager, and replans entire cycle of steps for all legs before proceeding.

  16. The 1991-1992 walking robot design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azarm, Shapour; Dayawansa, Wijesurija; Tsai, Lung-Wen; Peritt, Jon

    1992-01-01

    The University of Maryland Walking Machine team designed and constructed a robot. This robot was completed in two phases with supervision and suggestions from three professors and one graduate teaching assistant. Bob was designed during the Fall Semester 1991, then machined, assembled, and debugged in the Spring Semester 1992. The project required a total of 4,300 student hours and cost under $8,000. Mechanically, Bob was an exercise in optimization. The robot was designed to test several diverse aspects of robotic potential, including speed, agility, and stability, with simplicity and reliability holding equal importance. For speed and smooth walking motion, the footpath contained a long horizontal component; a vertical aspect was included to allow clearance of obstacles. These challenges were met with a leg design that utilized a unique multi-link mechanism which traveled a modified tear-drop footpath. The electrical requirements included motor, encoder, and voice control circuitry selection, manual controller manufacture, and creation of sensors for guidance. Further, there was also a need for selection of the computer, completion of a preliminary program, and testing of the robot.

  17. The 1991-1992 walking robot design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarm, Shapour; Dayawansa, Wijesurija; Tsai, Lung-Wen; Peritt, Jon

    The University of Maryland Walking Machine team designed and constructed a robot. This robot was completed in two phases with supervision and suggestions from three professors and one graduate teaching assistant. Bob was designed during the Fall Semester 1991, then machined, assembled, and debugged in the Spring Semester 1992. The project required a total of 4,300 student hours and cost under $8,000. Mechanically, Bob was an exercise in optimization. The robot was designed to test several diverse aspects of robotic potential, including speed, agility, and stability, with simplicity and reliability holding equal importance. For speed and smooth walking motion, the footpath contained a long horizontal component; a vertical aspect was included to allow clearance of obstacles. These challenges were met with a leg design that utilized a unique multi-link mechanism which traveled a modified tear-drop footpath. The electrical requirements included motor, encoder, and voice control circuitry selection, manual controller manufacture, and creation of sensors for guidance. Further, there was also a need for selection of the computer, completion of a preliminary program, and testing of the robot.

  18. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. PMID:26920587

  19. Traveling with breathing problems

    MedlinePlus

    If you have breathing problems and you: Are short of breath most of the time Get short of breath when you walk 150 ... or less Have been in the hospital for breathing problems recently Use oxygen at home, even if ...

  20. Schistosomiasis in Travelers and Expatriates.

    PubMed

    Jelinek; Nothdurft; Löscher

    1996-09-01

    Background: Several outbreaks of schistosomiasis among travelers, expatriates, and military serviceman have been reported in recent years. Methods: The travel histories and anamnestic and clinical features of 62 patients with schistosomiasis, who presented to a German outpatient clinic specializing in infectious and tropical diseases, were investigated to identify risk factors that could lead to infection in travelers and expatriates. Results: All patients remembered incidents that led to a likely exposure to cercariae of Schistosoma sp. Fifty nine patients (95%) acquired infection in Africa, two (3%) in South America, and one each (2% each) in Iraq and the Mekong River, respectively. The highest proportion of infection (45%) was imported from West Africa. Patients returning from West Africa reported either contact with tributaries of the Niger (including freshwater pools in the Dogon country, Mali) or with waters of the Volta River, notably Lake Volta and/or its delta. Six patients (10%) acquired infection in little-visited areas such as Central Africa and the Congo Basin. East Africa (especially Lake Victoria) and Lake Malawi contributed 14 patients (22%) to our study group; a further nine patients (14%) became infected after contact with waters of the Zambezi River. Conclusions: The most sensitive method for detection of possible infection with schistosomiasis appeared to be a combination of thorough travel history and serologic testing by indirect hemagglutination (IHA), immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most infections were acquired by travelers on lengthy and adventurous journeys or by expatriates venturing outside their normal areas of activity. Most patients knew that they had traveled in an area endemic for schistosomiasis, but were uninformed about behavioral risks they had taken in specific settings. PMID:9815445

  1. Environmental Conditions around Itineraries to Destinations as Correlates of Walking for Transportation among Adults: The RECORD Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Karusisi, Noëlla; Thomas, Frédérique; Méline, Julie; Brondeel, Ruben; Chaix, Basile

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Assessing the contextual factors that influence walking for transportation is important to develop more walkable environments and promote physical activity. To advance previous research focused on residential environments and overall walking for transportation, the present study investigates objective environmental factors assessed around the residence, the workplace, the home – work itinerary, and the home – supermarket itinerary, and considered overall walking for transportation but also walking to work and to shops. Methods Data from the RECORD Study involving 7290 participants recruited in 2007–2008, aged 30–79 years, and residing in the Paris metropolitan area were analyzed. Multilevel ordinal regression analyses were conducted to investigate environmental characteristics associated with self-reported overall walking for transportation, walking to work, and walking to shops. Results High individual education was associated with overall walking for transportation, with walking to work, and walking to shops. Among workers, a high residential neighborhood education was associated with increased overall walking for transportation, while a high workplace neighborhood education was related to an increased time spent walking to work. The residential density of destinations was positively associated with overall walking for transportation, with walking to work, and with walking to shops, while the workplace density of destinations was positively associated with overall walking for transportation among workers. Environmental factors assessed around the itineraries were not associated with walking to work or to the shops. Conclusion This research improves our understanding of the role of the environments on walking for transportation by accounting for some of the environments visited beyond the residential neighborhood. It shows that workers' walking habits are more influenced by the density of destinations around the workplace than around the

  2. Physical Activity Associated with Public Transport Use—A Review and Modelling of Potential Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Rissel, Chris; Curac, Nada; Greenaway, Mark; Bauman, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Active travel, particularly walking and cycling, has been recommended because of the health benefits associated with increased physical activity. Use of public transport generally involves some walking to bus stops or train stations. This paper is a systematic review of how much time is spent in physical activity among adults using public transport. It also explores the potential effect on the population level of physical activity if inactive adults in NSW, Australia, increased their walking through increased use of public transport. Of 1,733 articles, 27 met the search criteria, and nine reported on absolute measures of physical activity associated with public transport. A further 18 papers reported on factors associated with physical activity as part of public transport use. A range of 8–33 additional minutes of walking was identified from this systematic search as being attributable to public transport use. Using “bootstrapping” statistical modelling, if 20% of all inactive adults increased their walking by only 16 minutes a day for five days a week, we predict there would be a substantial 6.97% increase in the proportion of the adult population considered “sufficiently active”. More minutes walked per day, or a greater uptake of public transport by inactive adults would likely lead to significantly greater increases in the adult population considered sufficiently active. PMID:22851954

  3. Quantum stochastic walks: A generalization of classical random walks and quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, James D.; Rodríguez-Rosario, César A.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2010-02-01

    We introduce the quantum stochastic walk (QSW), which determines the evolution of a generalized quantum-mechanical walk on a graph that obeys a quantum stochastic equation of motion. Using an axiomatic approach, we specify the rules for all possible quantum, classical, and quantum-stochastic transitions from a vertex as defined by its connectivity. We show how the family of possible QSWs encompasses both the classical random walk (CRW) and the quantum walk (QW) as special cases but also includes more general probability distributions. As an example, we study the QSW on a line and the glued tree of depth three to observe the behavior of the QW-to-CRW transition.

  4. [Fever in returning travelers].

    PubMed

    Burchard, G

    2014-03-01

    Travel-related illness is most often due to gastrointestinal, febrile, and dermatologic diseases. Fever in a returned traveler demands prompt attention because it may be a manifestation of an infection that could be rapidly progressive and lethal. The approach to the febrile patient should be stepwise and consider travel and exposure history. Malaria is the most common cause of fever in patients returning from Sub-Saharan Africa, whereas dengue is more frequent in travelers from other tropical and subtropical areas. Other serious diseases are typhoid and paratyphoid fever, amebic liver abscess, visceral leishmaniasis, leptospirosis and-rarely-viral hemorrhagic fevers. PMID:24557143

  5. [Physical exposure by travelling].

    PubMed

    Lange, U

    2011-06-01

    Approximately 40 million Germans travel abroad every year. Air travel is the most frequently used mean of transportation followed by the automobile. During airplane flights rheumatic patients are subjected to numerous physical, biological and climatic factors which can cause stress and adverse effects on general health. Therefore, preventive strategies are helpful to protect against health damage, provided that there is general fitness for air travel. The present article focuses on physical and biological stress as well as psychological aspects during air travel and reviews prophylactic measures. PMID:21533614

  6. Walking the Walk: Understanding Nonverbal Communication through Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Vernon B., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is fundamental to any comprehensive examination of human interaction. This article presents an activity that can be easily applied by any instructor as a starting point for a discussion of nonverbal communication, or as a demonstration of learning points previously discussed. Instructors should have a slight background in…

  7. "Feeling younger, walking faster": subjective age and walking speed in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Walking speed is a key vital sign in older people. Given the implications of slower gait speed, a large literature has identified health-related, behavioral, cognitive, and biological factors that moderate age-related decline in mobility. The present study aims to contribute to existing knowledge by examining whether subjective age, how old or young individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, contributes to walking speed. Participants were drawn from the 2008 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 2970) and the 2011 and 2013 waves of the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS, N = 5423). In both the HRS and the NHATS, linear regression analysis revealed that a younger subjective age was associated with faster walking speed at baseline and with less decline over time, controlling for age, sex, education, and race. These associations were partly accounted for by depressive symptoms, disease burden, physical activity, cognition, body mass index, and smoking. Additional analysis revealed that feeling younger than one's age was associated with a reduced risk of walking slower than the frailty-related threshold of 0.6 m/s at follow-up in the HRS. The present study provides novel and consistent evidence across two large prospective studies for an association between the subjective experience of age and walking speed of older adults. Subjective age may help identify individuals at risk for mobility limitations in old age and may be a target for interventions designed to mitigate functional decline. PMID:26296609

  8. Pre-Travel Medical Preparation of Business and Occupational Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nomana M.; Jentes, Emily S.; Brown, Clive; Han, Pauline; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Hagmann, Stefan H.F.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to understand more about pre-travel preparations and itineraries of business and occupational travelers. Methods: De-identified data from 18 Global TravEpiNet clinics from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results: Of 23,534 travelers, 61% were non-occupational and 39% occupational. Business travelers were more likely to be men, had short times to departure and shorter trip durations, and commonly refused influenza, meningococcal, and hepatitis B vaccines. Most business travelers indicated that employers suggested the pre-travel health consultation, whereas non-occupational travelers sought consultations because of travel health concerns. Conclusions: Sub-groups of occupational travelers have characteristic profiles, with business travelers being particularly distinct. Employers play a role in encouraging business travelers to seek pre-travel consultations. Such consultations, even if scheduled immediately before travel, can identify vaccination gaps and increase coverage. PMID:26479857

  9. The scaling laws of human travel - A message from George

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockmann, Dirk

    2006-03-01

    In the light of increasing international trade, intensified human mobility and an imminent influenza A epidemic the knowledge of dynamical and statistical properties of human travel is of fundamental importance. Despite its crucial role, a quantitative assessment of these properties on geographical scales remains elusive and the assumption that humans disperse diffusively still prevails in models. I will report on a solid and quantitative assessment of human travelling statistics by analysing the circulation of bank notes in the United States. Based on a comprehensive dataset of over a million individual displacements we find that dispersal is anomalous in two ways. First, the distribution of travelling distances decays as a power law, indicating that trajectories of bank notes are reminiscent of scale free random walks known as L'evy flights. Secondly, the probability of remaining in a small, spatially confined region for a time T is dominated by algebraic tails which attenuate the superdiffusive spread. We show that human travel can be described mathematically on many spatiotemporal scales by a two parameter continuous time random walk model to a surprising accuracy and conclude that human travel on geographical scales is an ambivalent effectively superdiffusive process.

  10. Multi-Section Sensing and Vibrotactile Perception for Walking Guide of Visually Impaired Person

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Gu-Young; Yu, Kee-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Electronic Travel Aids (ETAs) improve the mobility of visually-impaired persons, but it is not easy to develop an ETA satisfying all the factors needed for reliable object detection, effective notification, and actual usability. In this study, the authors developed an easy-to-use ETA having the function of reliable object detection and its successful feedback to the user by tactile stimulation. Seven ultrasonic sensors facing in different directions detect obstacles in the walking path, while vibrators in the tactile display stimulate the hand according to the distribution of obstacles. The detection of ground drop-offs activates the electromagnetic brakes linked to the rear wheels. To verify the feasibility of the developed ETA in the outdoor environment, walking tests by blind participants were performed, and the evaluation of safety to ground drop-offs was carried out. From the experiment, the feasibility of the developed ETA was shown to be sufficient if the sensor ranges for hanging obstacle detection is improved and learning time is provided for the ETA. Finally, the light-weight and low cost ETA designed and assembled based on the evaluation of the developed ETA is introduced to show the improvement of portability and usability, and is compared with the previously developed ETAs. PMID:27420060

  11. Multi-Section Sensing and Vibrotactile Perception for Walking Guide of Visually Impaired Person.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gu-Young; Yu, Kee-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Electronic Travel Aids (ETAs) improve the mobility of visually-impaired persons, but it is not easy to develop an ETA satisfying all the factors needed for reliable object detection, effective notification, and actual usability. In this study, the authors developed an easy-to-use ETA having the function of reliable object detection and its successful feedback to the user by tactile stimulation. Seven ultrasonic sensors facing in different directions detect obstacles in the walking path, while vibrators in the tactile display stimulate the hand according to the distribution of obstacles. The detection of ground drop-offs activates the electromagnetic brakes linked to the rear wheels. To verify the feasibility of the developed ETA in the outdoor environment, walking tests by blind participants were performed, and the evaluation of safety to ground drop-offs was carried out. From the experiment, the feasibility of the developed ETA was shown to be sufficient if the sensor ranges for hanging obstacle detection is improved and learning time is provided for the ETA. Finally, the light-weight and low cost ETA designed and assembled based on the evaluation of the developed ETA is introduced to show the improvement of portability and usability, and is compared with the previously developed ETAs. PMID:27420060

  12. General Public Space Travel and Tourism. Volume 2; Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeil, D. (Compiler); Mankins, J. (Editor); Bekey, I. (Editor); Rogers, T. (Editor); Stallmer, E. (Editor); Piland, W. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Space Transportation Association and NASA conducted a General Public Space Travel study between 1996 and 1998. During the study, a workshop was held at Georgetown University. Participants included representatives from the travel, aerospace, and construction industries. This report is the proceedings from that workshop. Sections include infrastructure needs, travel packages, policy related issues, and potential near-term activities.

  13. The desert ant odometer: a stride integrator that accounts for stride length and walking speed.

    PubMed

    Wittlinger, Matthias; Wehner, Rüdiger; Wolf, Harald

    2007-01-01

    Desert ants, Cataglyphis, use path integration as a major means of navigation. Path integration requires measurement of two parameters, namely, direction and distance of travel. Directional information is provided by a celestial compass, whereas distance measurement is accomplished by a stride integrator, or pedometer. Here we examine the recently demonstrated pedometer function in more detail. By manipulating leg lengths in foraging desert ants we could also change their stride lengths. Ants with elongated legs ('stilts') or shortened legs ('stumps') take larger or shorter strides, respectively, and misgauge travel distance. Travel distance is overestimated by experimental animals walking on stilts, and underestimated by animals walking on stumps - strongly indicative of stride integrator function in distance measurement. High-speed video analysis was used to examine the actual changes in stride length, stride frequency and walking speed caused by the manipulations of leg length. Unexpectedly, quantitative characteristics of walking behaviour remained almost unaffected by imposed changes in leg length, demonstrating remarkable robustness of leg coordination and walking performance. These data further allowed normalisation of homing distances displayed by manipulated animals with regard to scaling and speed effects. The predicted changes in homing distance are in quantitative agreement with the experimental data, further supporting the pedometer hypothesis. PMID:17210957

  14. Endless self-avoiding walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clisby, Nathan

    2013-06-01

    We introduce a self-avoiding walk model for which end-effects are completely eliminated. We enumerate the number of these walks for various lattices in dimensions two and three, and use these enumerations to study the properties of this model. We find that endless self-avoiding walks have the same connective constant as self-avoiding walks, and the same Flory exponent ν. However, there is no power law correction to the exponential number growth for this new model, i.e. the critical exponent γ = 1 exactly in any dimension. In addition, the number growth has no analytic corrections to scaling, and we have convincing numerical evidence to support the conjecture that the amplitude for the number growth is a universal quantity. The technique by which end-effects are eliminated may be generalized to other models of polymers such as interacting self-avoiding walks.

  15. Providing a Less Restrictive Environment for Profoundly Retarded Persons by Teaching Independent Walking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Barbara; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Procedures were evaluated for teaching four institutionalized adult males with profound retardation necessary skills to increase their individual freedom of movement. Following baseline, a travel training program with a backward chaining format was implemented to teach each person to walk independently from his living area to school. (Author)

  16. Reaching, Crawling, Walking...Let's Get Moving: Orientation and Mobility for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Susan S.; Maida, Sharon O'Mara

    This booklet examines what Orientation and Mobility (O&M) is and how it can influence the independence of a child with visual impairment or blindness. The booklet is divided into four sections--Reaching, Crawling, Walking, and Cane Use. In each section, terminology used by O&M specialists is explained, including "senses,""environment,""travel,"…

  17. [Vaccination protection and advice to travellers. Statistical data on the activity of the International Vaccination Center of Bordeaux (France) in 1988].

    PubMed

    Raccurt, C P

    1989-01-01

    Most travellers to tropical countries are young adults aged between 25 and 44; they tend to be of average or high socioeconomic status, to have a university education and to live in urban areas. The number of countries visited is high (111). Half the travellers go to Senegal, Ivory Coast and French Guiana. Asian countries are underrepresented among the clients of the Bordeaux centre because they do not require yellow-fever vaccination. The main reasons for travel are pleasure (73%) and business (23%). The length of stay is closely correlated with the reason for travel. Considerably more people travel in the winter period. The most frequently performed vaccinations are yellow fever, tetanus and poliomyelitis, in roughly equal numbers. A major role of a vaccination centre in the eyes of the public is to provide travellers with information and advice. A specialist centre of this kind, kept regularly informed about epidemiological developments around the world, is best equipped to advise on effective malaria prophylaxis. The centre's health-education role extends to all risks associated with travelling, in particular the sexually transmitted diseases and specifically tropical diseases, and also the consequences of changes in climate or altitude and failure to take general hygiene precautions. Computerized data banks accessible to the general public are certainly an information medium for the future, but at present are still underused. PMID:2800559

  18. Quantum walks on quotient graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.

    2007-06-15

    A discrete-time quantum walk on a graph {gamma} is the repeated application of a unitary evolution operator to a Hilbert space corresponding to the graph. If this unitary evolution operator has an associated group of symmetries, then for certain initial states the walk will be confined to a subspace of the original Hilbert space. Symmetries of the original graph, given by its automorphism group, can be inherited by the evolution operator. We show that a quantum walk confined to the subspace corresponding to this symmetry group can be seen as a different quantum walk on a smaller quotient graph. We give an explicit construction of the quotient graph for any subgroup H of the automorphism group and illustrate it with examples. The automorphisms of the quotient graph which are inherited from the original graph are the original automorphism group modulo the subgroup H used to construct it. The quotient graph is constructed by removing the symmetries of the subgroup H from the original graph. We then analyze the behavior of hitting times on quotient graphs. Hitting time is the average time it takes a walk to reach a given final vertex from a given initial vertex. It has been shown in earlier work [Phys. Rev. A 74, 042334 (2006)] that the hitting time for certain initial states of a quantum walks can be infinite, in contrast to classical random walks. We give a condition which determines whether the quotient graph has infinite hitting times given that they exist in the original graph. We apply this condition for the examples discussed and determine which quotient graphs have infinite hitting times. All known examples of quantum walks with hitting times which are short compared to classical random walks correspond to systems with quotient graphs much smaller than the original graph; we conjecture that the existence of a small quotient graph with finite hitting times is necessary for a walk to exhibit a quantum speedup.

  19. You, too, can be an international medical traveler: reading medical travel guidebooks.

    PubMed

    Ormond, Meghann; Sothern, Matthew

    2012-09-01

    Drawing on literature on self-help and travel guide writing, this paper interrogates five international medical travel guidebooks aimed at encouraging American and British audiences to travel abroad to purchase medical care. These guidebooks articulate a three-step self-help "program" to produce a "savvy" international medical traveler. First, readers are encouraged to view their home healthcare system as dysfunctional. Second, they are encouraged to re-read destinations' healthcare landscapes as hosting excellent and accessible care. Finally, these texts explicitly enjoin readers to see themselves as active, cosmopolitan consumers whose pursuits are central to rectifying the dysfunction of their home healthcare systems. PMID:22809711

  20. Memoryless self-reinforcing directionality in endosomal active transport within living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kejia; Wang, Bo; Granick, Steve

    2015-06-01

    In contrast to Brownian transport, the active motility of microbes, cells, animals and even humans often follows another random process known as truncated Lévy walk. These stochastic motions are characterized by clustered small steps and intermittent longer jumps that often extend towards the size of the entire system. As there are repeated suggestions, although disagreement, that Lévy walks have functional advantages over Brownian motion in random searching and transport kinetics, their intentional engineering into active materials could be useful. Here, we show experimentally in the classic active matter system of intracellular trafficking that Brownian-like steps self-organize into truncated Lévy walks through an apparent time-independent positive feedback such that directional persistence increases with the distance travelled persistently. A molecular model that allows the maximum output of the active propelling forces to fluctuate slowly fits the experiments quantitatively. Our findings offer design principles for programming efficient transport in active materials.

  1. Pregnancy and travel

    MedlinePlus

    ... a cruise, it may not be the best time to go. Travel by sea may cause motion sickness or nausea. ... out of the country. Plan ahead to allow time for any shots or medicines you may need. When you travel, take a copy of your prenatal care record ...

  2. Illness in Returned Travellers

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, D.; Scappatura, P.; Gutman, E.

    1989-01-01

    Intercontinental travel is more common now than it has ever been before, and so are travel-related diseases. A thorough history and physical examination provide many clues to possible pathogens, particularly when combined with knowledge of the geographic distribution of specific diseases. Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment are imperative. PMID:21249095

  3. Information for Travellers' Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Allison, David J.; Blinco, Kimberley

    1990-01-01

    Physicians can obtain advice about international travel for their patients from many different sources of information. The authors review some of the most common sources based on their experience at the International Travellers' Clinic operated by the New Brunswick Department of Health and Community Services in Fredericton. They identify readily available handbooks and periodicals and compare two computer software programs. PMID:21233910

  4. Diffraction of walking droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Daniel M.; Pucci, Giuseppe; Bush, John W. M.

    2014-11-01

    We present results from our revisitation of the experiment of a walking droplet passing through a single slit, originally investigated by Couder & Fort (PRL, 2006). On each passage, the walker's trajectory is deviated as a result of the spatial confinement of its guiding wave. We explore the role of the droplet size and the bath's vibration amplitude on both the dynamics and statistics. We find the behavior to be remarkably sensitive to these control parameters. A complex physical picture emerges. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the NSF through Grant CMMI-1333242, DMH through the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program, and GP through the Programma Operativo Regionale (POR) Calabria - FSE 2007/2013.

  5. Water-walking devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, David L.; Prakash, Manu; Chan, Brian; Bush, John W. M.

    2007-11-01

    We report recent efforts in the design and construction of water-walking machines inspired by insects and spiders. The fundamental physical constraints on the size, proportion and dynamics of natural water-walkers are enumerated and used as design criteria for analogous mechanical devices. We report devices capable of rowing along the surface, leaping off the surface and climbing menisci by deforming the free surface. The most critical design constraint is that the devices be lightweight and non-wetting. Microscale manufacturing techniques and new man-made materials such as hydrophobic coatings and thermally actuated wires are implemented. Using high-speed cinematography and flow visualization, we compare the functionality and dynamics of our devices with those of their natural counterparts.

  6. Water-walking devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, David L.; Prakash, Manu; Chan, Brian; Bush, John W. M.

    We report recent efforts in the design and construction of water-walking machines inspired by insects and spiders. The fundamental physical constraints on the size, proportion and dynamics of natural water-walkers are enumerated and used as design criteria for analogous mechanical devices. We report devices capable of rowing along the surface, leaping off the surface and climbing menisci by deforming the free surface. The most critical design constraint is that the devices be lightweight and non-wetting. Microscale manufacturing techniques and new man-made materials such as hydrophobic coatings and thermally actuated wires are implemented. Using highspeed cinematography and flow visualization, we compare the functionality and dynamics of our devices with those of their natural counterparts.

  7. Path Integration: Effect of Curved Path Complexity and Sensory System on Blindfolded Walking

    PubMed Central

    Koutakis, Panagiotis; Mukherjee, Mukul; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Blanke, Daniel J.; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Path integration refers to the ability to integrate continuous information of the direction and distance travelled by the system relative to the origin. Previous studies have investigated path integration through blindfolded walking along simple paths such as straight line and triangles. However, limited knowledge exists regarding the role of path complexity in path integration. Moreover, little is known about how information from different sensory input systems (like vision and proprioception) contributes to accurate path integration. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how sensory information and curved path complexity affect path integration. Forty blindfolded participants had to accurately reproduce a curved path and return to the origin. They were divided into four groups that differed in the curved path, circle (simple) or figure-eight (complex), and received either visual (previously seen) or proprioceptive (previously guided) information about the path before they reproduced it. The dependent variables used were average trajectory error, walking speed, and distance travelled. The results indicated that (a) both groups that walked on a circular path and both groups that received visual information produced greater accuracy in reproducing the path. Moreover, the performance of the group that received proprioceptive information and later walked on a figure-eight path was less accurate than their corresponding circular group. The groups that had the visual information also walked faster compared to the group that had proprioceptive information. Results of the current study highlight the roles of different sensory inputs while performing blindfolded walking for path integration. PMID:22840893

  8. Using built environment characteristics to predict walking for exercise

    PubMed Central

    Lovasi, Gina S; Moudon, Anne V; Pearson, Amber L; Hurvitz, Philip M; Larson, Eric B; Siscovick, David S; Berke, Ethan M; Lumley, Thomas; Psaty, Bruce M

    2008-01-01

    Background Environments conducive to walking may help people avoid sedentary lifestyles and associated diseases. Recent studies developed walkability models combining several built environment characteristics to optimally predict walking. Developing and testing such models with the same data could lead to overestimating one's ability to predict walking in an independent sample of the population. More accurate estimates of model fit can be obtained by splitting a single study population into training and validation sets (holdout approach) or through developing and evaluating models in different populations. We used these two approaches to test whether built environment characteristics near the home predict walking for exercise. Study participants lived in western Washington State and were adult members of a health maintenance organization. The physical activity data used in this study were collected by telephone interview and were selected for their relevance to cardiovascular disease. In order to limit confounding by prior health conditions, the sample was restricted to participants in good self-reported health and without a documented history of cardiovascular disease. Results For 1,608 participants meeting the inclusion criteria, the mean age was 64 years, 90 percent were white, 37 percent had a college degree, and 62 percent of participants reported that they walked for exercise. Single built environment characteristics, such as residential density or connectivity, did not significantly predict walking for exercise. Regression models using multiple built environment characteristics to predict walking were not successful at predicting walking for exercise in an independent population sample. In the validation set, none of the logistic models had a C-statistic confidence interval excluding the null value of 0.5, and none of the linear models explained more than one percent of the variance in time spent walking for exercise. We did not detect significant

  9. [Vaccinations for the travellers].

    PubMed

    Gendrel, Dominique

    2004-03-15

    Immunisations for the traveller include, before specific vaccine, a correct immunisation schedule according to national recommendations with appropriate boosters and hepatitis B immunisation. The yellow fever vaccine is required to entry in countries of endemic area and quadrivalent ACYW135 meningococcal vaccine for entry in Saudi Arabia. Hepatitis A immunisation could be performed at 1 year of age and is recommended for travellers in tropical areas and children vaccination control the disease both in the patient and in the contacts. Meningococcal A+C vaccines are required for travellers in meningitis-prone areas of tropical Africa during the dry season (December to June), and quadrivalent ACYW135 is useful only in Burkina-Faso and Niger. Typhoid and rabies vaccines are required for ambulatory travellers in endemic areas, as Japanese encephalitis in south-west Asia. In central Europe, tick-borne encephalitis vaccination is recommended for patients travelling in forest areas during spring and summer. PMID:15176511

  10. Ageing effects on the attention demands of walking.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, W A; Bradshaw, Elizabeth J; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Tirosh, Oren

    2002-12-01

    Attention demands of walking were determined in six male and six female young adults (mean 26.3 yr) and 12 gender-matched healthy, active older adults (mean 71.1 yr) using a dual task procedure with a reaction time (RT) secondary task. In three conditions an auditory stimulus, a visual stimulus and both stimuli (auditory/visual) were presented. Relative to no-walking baselines, increased RT was found in all conditions revealing an attentional cost of normal walking. When participants traversed the laboratory walkway and also positioned one of their feet within a target area on the ground, attention demands were greater than in unconstrained walking. In the targeting task, RTs to the visual stimulus were longer than for the auditory stimulus due to the interference associated with viewing both the stimulus monitor and the foot-target. Older participants' RTs in the visual and auditory/visual conditions, but not in the auditory condition, were significantly longer than for the young group in both walking tasks but RTs for young and older adults were not different in no-walking baseline trials. Inspection of mean RT functions at time intervals following gait initiation (0-3000 ms from the first step) suggested a fluctuating attentional cost of walking with increased demands associated with contingencies requiring step length regulation. The findings have applied significance in demonstrating the possibility of increased falls and pedestrian accident risk in older individuals in dual task situations such as road crossing. PMID:12620728

  11. Simulation Studies of Bipedal Walking on the Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Narukawa, Terumasa; Takahashi, Masaki; Hase, Kimitaka; Liu, Meigen; Mukai, Chiaki

    In order to walk upright on the Moon or Mars without falling, a specific walking strategy to account for altered gravitational conditions must be verified. We have therefore been studying changes in the kinematics of walking at different gravitational loads using a body weight suspension system. Our simulation consisted of three gravitational conditions: 1 g (Earth); 1/3 g (Mars); and 1/6 g (the Moon). Surface EMG recordings were taken from the leg muscles of subjects walking on a treadmill. Cadence, stance phase duration, and step length were calculated from the walking velocity and steps. Subsequent experiments revealed that muscle activity and the duration of the double support phase decreased as simulated gravity was reduced. These changes are apparently caused not only by the direct effects of unloading but also by kinematic adaptations to the same. It can be said that humans walk slowly with a shortened stride and elongated stance phase in order to adjust to low gravitational conditions. One major limitation of our study that may have affected walking stability was the fact that the suspension system was fixed to an immovable frame. We have begun further studies using a newer movable body weight suspension system to achieve more realistic simulations.

  12. "Not easy at all but I am trying": barriers and facilitators to physical activity in a South African cohort of people living with HIV participating in a home-based pedometer walking programme.

    PubMed

    Roos, Ronel; Myezwa, Hellen; van Aswegen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The promotion of physical activity is encouraged in people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) as a means of promoting wellness and health. Adherence to programmes that promote exercise is often reduced, and home-based programmes are suggested to improve adherence. This study investigated the personal and environmental factors that cause barriers and facilitators of physical activity in a home-based pedometer walking programme as a means of highlighting adherence challenges. An observational study nested in a randomised controlled trial was conducted in a cohort of South African PLWHA on antiretroviral therapy over a six-month period. Descriptive analysis and qualitative content analysis of 42 participants who underwent physical activity modification assisted with data review. The mean age of the sample was 38.7 (±8.9) years, consisted mostly of women (n = 35; 83.3%) who were employed (n = 19; 45.2%) but earning very little (less than R500 per month) and often single or widowed (n = 23; 54.8%). Barriers to physical activity identified included physical complaints, e.g., low-energy levels; psychological complaints, e.g., stress levels; family responsibility, e.g., being primary caregivers; the physical environment, e.g., adverse weather conditions; social environment, e.g., domestic abuse and crime; and workplace, e.g., being in a sedentary job. Facilitators of physical activity included support and encouragement from friends and family, religious practices during worship and community environment, e.g., having access to parks and sport fields. The study is of benefit as it highlights personal and environmental factors that need to be considered when developing or implementing a home-based walking programme in PLWHA. PMID:25174986

  13. Travel and venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Alexander S; Goghlan, Douglas C

    2002-09-01

    Debate continues about whether and to what extent travel predisposes to venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (PE). Almost certainly, the strength of any association was greatly exaggerated in recent press reports. Conclusions from case-control studies vary, with some finding no excess of recent travel among patients with venous thromboembolism and others reporting a two-four fold excess. The strongest evidence that prolonged air travel predisposes to thrombosis comes from the travel history of people who present with PE immediately after landing. Two independent analyses suggest that the risk of early embolism increases exponentially with travel times beyond 6 hours and may reach 1:200,000 passengers traveling for more than 12 hours. The most likely explanation is venous stasis in the legs from prolonged sitting, and there is evidence (preliminary and controversial) that elastic support stockings may prevent deep vein thrombosis in people who travel long-distances. There is an urgent need for more and better studies to define the absolute hazard from travel-related thrombosis and the personal risk factors that may contribute. Without these, it is difficult to give a balanced account to people who intend to travel or to consider definitive prevention trials. Case reports suggest that in most cases, travel-related thrombosis has affected people who were also at risk because of previous thrombosis, recent injury, or other predispositions. This makes it sensible to target such "at risk" people with advice about hazards and precautions, at least until formal study validates some other approach. PMID:12172438

  14. Quantum stochastic walks: A generalization of classical random walks and quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2010-03-01

    We introduce the quantum stochastic walk (QSW), which determines the evolution of generalized quantum mechanical walk on a graph that obeys a quantum stochastic equation of motion. Using an axiomatic approach, we specify the rules for all possible quantum, classical and quantum-stochastic transitions from a vertex as defined by its connectivity. We show how the family of possible QSWs encompasses both the classical random walk (CRW) and the quantum walk (QW) as special cases, but also includes more general probability distributions. As an example, we study the QSW on a line, the QW to CRW transition and transitions to genearlized QSWs that go beyond the CRW and QW. QSWs provide a new framework to the study of quantum algorithms as well as of quantum walks with environmental effects.

  15. Visual Evoked Responses During Standing and Walking

    PubMed Central

    Gramann, Klaus; Gwin, Joseph T.; Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Ferris, Daniel P.; Makeig, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Human cognition has been shaped both by our body structure and by its complex interactions with its environment. Our cognition is thus inextricably linked to our own and others’ motor behavior. To model brain activity associated with natural cognition, we propose recording the concurrent brain dynamics and body movements of human subjects performing normal actions. Here we tested the feasibility of such a mobile brain/body (MoBI) imaging approach by recording high-density electroencephalographic (EEG) activity and body movements of subjects standing or walking on a treadmill while performing a visual oddball response task. Independent component analysis of the EEG data revealed visual event-related potentials that during standing, slow walking, and fast walking did not differ across movement conditions, demonstrating the viability of recording brain activity accompanying cognitive processes during whole body movement. Non-invasive and relatively low-cost MoBI studies of normal, motivated actions might improve understanding of interactions between brain and body dynamics leading to more complete biological models of cognition. PMID:21267424

  16. The 2015 C. H. McCloy Lecture: Road Trip Toward More Inclusive Physical Activity: Maps, Mechanics, Detours, and Traveling Companions.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    This essay stems from the 35th annual C. H. McCloy Research Lecture at the 2015 SHAPE America National Convention & Expo in Seattle, WA. The lecture series has 2 main aims. First, it provides an annual forum for a contemporary scholar to delve deeply into her/his work and to share that work with her/his peers. Second, it is an enduring tribute to the pioneering work and influential career of Charles Henry McCloy (March 30, 1886-September 18, 1959), research professor emeritus at the University of Iowa. This essay is composed of 6 sections: a prologue, a biography of McCloy, my autobiography, the fundamental premises and overarching aims of my work, a summary of my research contributions aimed at promoting inclusive physical activity, and an epilogue. The entire article is built around the construct of maps, mechanics, detours, and traveling companions. Paradigm shifts and insights are unraveled as the work unfolds and becomes increasingly integrated. Rarely does a scholar have the chance to provide a narrative of this nature, and it is hoped that this essay will inspire others to discover their own scholarly pathways and to contextualize and reflect on their contributions for the greater good of the field of kinesiology and society. PMID:26558637

  17. Walks4work: Rationale and study design to investigate walking at lunchtime in the workplace setting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Following recruitment of a private sector company, an 8 week lunchtime walking intervention was implemented to examine the effect of the intervention on modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors, and further to see if walking environment had any further effect on the cardiovascular disease risk factors. Methods For phase 1 of the study participants were divided into three groups, two lunchtime walking intervention groups to walk around either an urban or natural environment twice a week during their lunch break over an 8 week period. The third group was a waiting-list control who would be invited to join the walking groups after phase 1. In phase 2 all participants were encouraged to walk during their lunch break on self-selecting routes. Health checks were completed at baseline, end of phase 1 and end of phase 2 in order to measure the impact of the intervention on cardiovascular disease risk. The primary outcome variables of heart rate and heart rate variability were measured to assess autonomic function associated with cardiovascular disease. Secondary outcome variables (Body mass index, blood pressure, fitness, autonomic response to a stressor) related to cardiovascular disease were also measured. The efficacy of the intervention in increasing physical activity was objectively monitored throughout the 8-weeks using an accelerometer device. Discussion The results of this study will help in developing interventions with low researcher input with high participant output that may be implemented in the workplace. If effective, this study will highlight the contribution that natural environments can make in the reduction of modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors within the workplace. PMID:22830646

  18. EMG patterns during assisted walking in the exoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Sylos-Labini, Francesca; La Scaleia, Valentina; d'Avella, Andrea; Pisotta, Iolanda; Tamburella, Federica; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Molinari, Marco; Wang, Shiqian; Wang, Letian; van Asseldonk, Edwin; van der Kooij, Herman; Hoellinger, Thomas; Cheron, Guy; Thorsteinsson, Freygardur; Ilzkovitz, Michel; Gancet, Jeremi; Hauffe, Ralf; Zanov, Frank; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroprosthetic technology and robotic exoskeletons are being developed to facilitate stepping, reduce muscle efforts, and promote motor recovery. Nevertheless, the guidance forces of an exoskeleton may influence the sensory inputs, sensorimotor interactions and resulting muscle activity patterns during stepping. The aim of this study was to report the muscle activation patterns in a sample of intact and injured subjects while walking with a robotic exoskeleton and, in particular, to quantify the level of muscle activity during assisted gait. We recorded electromyographic (EMG) activity of different leg and arm muscles during overground walking in an exoskeleton in six healthy individuals and four spinal cord injury (SCI) participants. In SCI patients, EMG activity of the upper limb muscles was augmented while activation of leg muscles was typically small. Contrary to our expectations, however, in neurologically intact subjects, EMG activity of leg muscles was similar or even larger during exoskeleton-assisted walking compared to normal overground walking. In addition, significant variations in the EMG waveforms were found across different walking conditions. The most variable pattern was observed in the hamstring muscles. Overall, the results are consistent with a non-linear reorganization of the locomotor output when using the robotic stepping devices. The findings may contribute to our understanding of human-machine interactions and adaptation of locomotor activity patterns. PMID:24982628

  19. Neighborhood Design for Walking and Biking

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Barbara B.; Smith, Ken R.; Hanson, Heidi; Fan, Jessie X.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Zick, Cathleen D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Neighborhood designs often relate to physical activity and to BMI. Purpose Does neighborhood walkability/bikeability relate to BMI and obesity risk and does moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) account for some of the relationship? Methods Census 2000 provided walkability/bikeability measures—block group proportions of workers who walk or bike to work, housing age, and population density—and National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES 2003–2006) provided MVPA accelerometer measures. Regression analyses (2011–2012) adjusted for geographic clustering and multiple control variables. Results Greater density and older housing were associated with lower male BMI in bivariate analyses, but there were no density and housing age effects in multivariate models. For women, greater proportions of neighborhood workers who walk to work (M=0.02) and more MVPA was associated with lower BMI and lower obesity risk. For men, greater proportions of workers who bike to work (M=0.004) and more MVPA was associated with lower BMI and obesity risk. For both effects, MVPA partially mediated the relationships between walkability/bikeability and BMI. If such associations are causal, doubling walk and bike-to-work proportions (to 0.04 and 0.008) would have –0.3 and –0.33 effects on the average BMIs of adult women and men living in the neighborhood. This equates to 1.5 lbs for a 64” woman and 2.3 lbs for a 69” man. Conclusions Although walking/biking to work is rare in the U.S., greater proportions of such workers in neighborhoods relate to lower weight and higher MVPA. Bikeability merits greater attention as a modifiable activity-friendliness factor, particularly for men. PMID:23415119

  20. Sick man walking: Perception of health status from body motion.

    PubMed

    Sundelin, T; Karshikoff, B; Axelsson, E; Höglund, C Olgart; Lekander, M; Axelsson, J

    2015-08-01

    An ability to detect subtle signs of sickness in others would be highly beneficial, as it would allow for behaviors that help us avoid contagious pathogens. Recent findings suggest that both animals and humans are able to detect distinctive odor signals of individuals with activated innate immune responses. This study tested whether an innate immune response affects a person's walking speed and whether other people perceive that person as less healthy. 43 subjects watched films of persons who were experiencing experimental immune activation, and rated the walking individuals in the films with respect to health, tiredness, and sadness. Furthermore, the walking speed in the films was analyzed. After LPS injections, participants walked more slowly and were perceived as less healthy and more tired as compared to when injected with placebo. There was also a trend for the subjects to look sadder after LPS injection than after placebo. Furthermore, there were strong associations between walking speed and the appearance of health, tiredness, and sadness. These findings support the notion that walking speed is affected by an activated immune response, and that humans may be able to detect very early signs of sickness in others by merely observing their gait. This ability is likely to aid both a "behavioral immune system", by providing more opportunities for adaptive behaviors such as avoidance, and the anticipatory priming of biochemical immune responses. PMID:25801061

  1. Understanding taxi travel patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  2. Air travel and pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Cowl, Clayton T; Baqir, Misbah; Ryu, Jay H

    2014-04-01

    The number of medical emergencies onboard aircraft is increasing as commercial air traffic increases and the general population ages, becomes more mobile, and includes individuals with serious medical conditions. Travelers with respiratory diseases are at particular risk for in-flight events because exposure to lower atmospheric pressure in a pressurized cabin at cruising altitude may result in not only hypoxemia but also pneumothorax due to gas expansion within enclosed pulmonary parenchymal spaces based on Boyle's law. Risks of pneumothorax during air travel pertain particularly to those patients with cystic lung diseases, recent pneumothorax or thoracic surgery, and chronic pneumothorax. Currently available guidelines are admittedly based on sparse data and include recommendations to delay air travel for 1 to 3 weeks after thoracic surgery or resolution of the pneumothorax. One of these guidelines declares existing pneumothorax to be an absolute contraindication to air travel although there are reports of uneventful air travel for those with chronic stable pneumothorax. In this article, we review the available data regarding pneumothorax and air travel that consist mostly of case reports and retrospective surveys. There is clearly a need for additional data that will inform decisions regarding air travel for patients at risk for pneumothorax, including those with recent thoracic surgery and transthoracic needle biopsy. PMID:24687705

  3. [Thromboembolism in travelers].

    PubMed

    Bihari, I; Sándor, T

    2001-11-11

    The association between long haul travel and the risk of venous thromboembolism are suspected for long time. Mostly air travel related thrombosis series have been reported in the literature. Risk factors can be classified as: 1. travel related factors (coach position, immobilization, prolonged air travel, narrow seat and room, diuretic effect of alcohol, insufficient fluid intake, dehydration, direct pressure on leg veins, rare inspiration). 2. air plane related risk factors (low humidity, relative hypoxia, stress). 3. patient related factors (hereditary and acquired thrombophylia, previous deep venous thrombosis, age over 40, recent surgery or trauma, gravidity, puerperium, oestrogen containing pills, varicosity, chronic heart disease, obesity, fever, diarrhoea, vomiting, smoking). No patient related factors were found in some cases. To reduce the hazards air travellers are rightly concerned to know the level of the risk and the airlines should be responsible for this information. People should discuss with their physician what prophlylactic measures should be taken, such as compression stockings or low molecular weight heparin. Not only flight but car, bus and train travellers are also at risk of developing venous thromboembolism. Long haul travel alone is a separate risk factor for venous thromboembolism. PMID:11778354

  4. Revising the senior walking environmental assessment tool

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Yvonne L.; Keast, Erin M.; Chaudhury, Habib; Day, Kristen; Mahmood, Atiya; Sarte, Ann F.I.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Senior Walking Environmental Assessment Tool (SWEAT), an instrument for measuring built environmental features associated with physical activity of older adults, was revised to create an easier-to-use tool for use by practitioners and community members. Methods Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the modified instrument (SWEAT-R) was assessed in Portland, Oregon in 2007. Five trained observers audited street segments in 12 neighborhoods, resulting in 361 pairs of audits, including 63 repeated audits. Results Overall, 88% and 75% of items assessed had good or excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, respectively. The revised instrument required less time to complete than the original instrument, while obtaining more information. Conclusion SWEAT-R provides easy to gather, reliable data for use in community-based audits of built environment in relation to walking among older adults. PMID:19136025

  5. The effects of forward and backward walking according to treadmill inclination in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-hyo; Kim, Won-bok; Yun, Chang-kyo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of forward and backward walking using different treadmill incline positions on lower muscle activity in children with cerebral palsy, to provide baseline data for gait training intensity. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen subjects with cerebral palsy walked forward and backward at a self-selected pace on a treadmill with inclines of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%. Activation of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialisanterior, and lateral gastrocnemius was measured using surface electromyography during the stance phase. [Results] As treadmill incline increased during forward walking, muscle activation of the paralyzed lower limbs did not significantly change. However, as treadmill incline increased during backward walking, rectus femoris activation significantly increased and a significant difference was found between treadmill inclines of 0% and 10%. A comparison of backward and forward walking showed a significant difference in rectus femoris activation at treadmill inclines of 0%, 5%, and 10%. Activation of the tibialis anterior was only significantly higher for backward walking at the 10% gradient. [Conclusion] Backward walking may strengthen the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior in walking training for cerebral palsy. Gradient adjustment of the treadmill can be used to select the intensity of walking training. PMID:27313373

  6. The Effects of Inclination (Up and Down) of the Treadmill on the Electromyogram Activities of the Forelimb and Hind limb Muscles at a Walk and a Trot in Thoroughbred Horses

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; MATSUI, Akira; MUKAI, Kazutaka; OHMURA, Hajime; HIRAGA, Atsushi; AIDA, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is important to know the effects of the inclination of a slope on the activity of each muscle, because training by running on a sloped track is commonly used for Thoroughbred racehorses. The effects of incline (from −6 to +6%) on the forelimbs and hind limbs during walking and trotting on a treadmill were evaluated by an integrated electromyogram (iEMG). The muscle activities in the forelimbs (5 horses) and hind limbs (4 horses) were measured separately. Two stainless steel wires were inserted into each of the brachiocephalicus (Bc), biceps brachii (BB), splenius (Sp), and pectoralis descendens (PD) in the forelimb experiment and into the longissimus dorsi (LD), vastus lateralis (VL), gluteus medius (GM), and biceps femoris (BF) in the hind limb experiment. The EMG recordings were taken at a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz. At a walk, the iEMG values for the forelimb were not significantly different under any of the inclinations. In the hind limb, the iEMG values for the GM and BF significantly decreased as the inclination decreased. At a trot, the iEMG values for the Bc in the forelimb significantly decreased as the inclination of the treadmill decreased. In the hind limb, the iEMG values for the LD, GM, and BF significantly decreased as the inclination decreased. Uphill exercise increased the iEMG values for the Bc, LD, GM, and BF, while downhill exercise resulted in little increase in the iEMG values. It was concluded that the effects of inclination on the muscle activities were larger for the uphill exercises, and for the hind limb muscles compared with the forelimb muscles. PMID:25558180

  7. The Effects of Inclination (Up and Down) of the Treadmill on the Electromyogram Activities of the Forelimb and Hind limb Muscles at a Walk and a Trot in Thoroughbred Horses.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Matsui, Akira; Mukai, Kazutaka; Ohmura, Hajime; Hiraga, Atsushi; Aida, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    It is important to know the effects of the inclination of a slope on the activity of each muscle, because training by running on a sloped track is commonly used for Thoroughbred racehorses. The effects of incline (from -6 to +6%) on the forelimbs and hind limbs during walking and trotting on a treadmill were evaluated by an integrated electromyogram (iEMG). The muscle activities in the forelimbs (5 horses) and hind limbs (4 horses) were measured separately. Two stainless steel wires were inserted into each of the brachiocephalicus (Bc), biceps brachii (BB), splenius (Sp), and pectoralis descendens (PD) in the forelimb experiment and into the longissimus dorsi (LD), vastus lateralis (VL), gluteus medius (GM), and biceps femoris (BF) in the hind limb experiment. The EMG recordings were taken at a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz. At a walk, the iEMG values for the forelimb were not significantly different under any of the inclinations. In the hind limb, the iEMG values for the GM and BF significantly decreased as the inclination decreased. At a trot, the iEMG values for the Bc in the forelimb significantly decreased as the inclination of the treadmill decreased. In the hind limb, the iEMG values for the LD, GM, and BF significantly decreased as the inclination decreased. Uphill exercise increased the iEMG values for the Bc, LD, GM, and BF, while downhill exercise resulted in little increase in the iEMG values. It was concluded that the effects of inclination on the muscle activities were larger for the uphill exercises, and for the hind limb muscles compared with the forelimb muscles. PMID:25558180

  8. Quantum snake walk on graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Rosmanis, Ansis

    2011-02-15

    I introduce a continuous-time quantum walk on graphs called the quantum snake walk, the basis states of which are fixed-length paths (snakes) in the underlying graph. First, I analyze the quantum snake walk on the line, and I show that, even though most states stay localized throughout the evolution, there are specific states that most likely move on the line as wave packets with momentum inversely proportional to the length of the snake. Next, I discuss how an algorithm based on the quantum snake walk might potentially be able to solve an extended version of the glued trees problem, which asks to find a path connecting both roots of the glued trees graph. To the best of my knowledge, no efficient quantum algorithm solving this problem is known yet.

  9. Base Station Walk-Back

    NASA Video Gallery

    Train to improve your lung, heart, and other muscle endurance while walking a progressive, measured distance. The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to challenge stu...

  10. Walking Robot Locomotion System Conception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatova, D.; Abadjieva, E.; Abadjiev, V.; Vatzkitchev, Al.

    2014-09-01

    This work is a brief analysis on the application and perspective of using the walking robots in different areas in practice. The most common characteristics of walking four legs robots are presented here. The specific features of the applied actuators in walking mechanisms are also shown in the article. The experience of Institute of Mechanics - BAS is illustrated in creation of Spiroid and Helicon1 gears and their assembly in actuation of studied robots. Loading on joints reductors of robot legs is modelled, when the geometrical and the walking parameters of the studied robot are preliminary defined. The obtained results are purposed for designing the control of the loading of reductor type Helicon in the legs of the robot, when it is experimentally tested.

  11. Walking and jumping spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmottant, Philippe

    2012-02-01

    The Equisetum plants, more commonly called ``horsetail,'' emit 50-microns spores that are spherical in shape and present four hygroscopic arms. Under high humidity, the arms are retracted. But under lower humidity, less than 70%, the four arms deploy beautifully. With time-lapse image recordings, we show that under repeated cycles of dry and high humidity, the spores behave as random walkers, since they move by about their size in a different direction at every cycle. The process is apparently stochastic because of the complex shape of the arms and hysteretic friction of the arms on the ground. For some spores, a decrease in humidity level results in very fast jumps, the spores taking off at a typical velocity of a meter per second, as recorded on high-speed camera. With these jumps, they reach centimetric elevations, much larger than their size. The physical mechanism at the root of these ``Levy-flight'' jumps is still under investigation. The walking and jumping phenomena thus provide motility, which we believe is helpful for the understanding of the biological dispersion of the spores. It could also bring biomimetic inspiration to engineer new motile elastic structures.

  12. Quantum walk with jumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavička, H.; Potoček, V.; Kiss, T.; Lutz, E.; Jex, I.

    2011-09-01

    We analyze a special class of 1-D quantum walks (QWs) realized using optical multi-ports. We assume non-perfect multi-ports showing errors in the connectivity, i.e. with a small probability the multi-ports can connect not to their nearest neighbor but to another multi-port at a fixed distance - we call this a jump. We study two cases of QW with jumps where multiple displacements can emerge at one timestep. The first case assumes time-correlated jumps (static disorder). In the second case, we choose the positions of jumps randomly in time (dynamic disorder). The probability distributions of position of the QW walker in both instances differ significantly: dynamic disorder leads to a Gaussian-like distribution, while for static disorder we find two distinct behaviors depending on the parity of jump size. In the case of even-sized jumps, the distribution exhibits a three-peak profile around the position of the initial excitation, whereas the probability distribution in the odd case follows a Laplace-like discrete distribution modulated by additional (exponential) peaks for long times. Finally, our numerical results indicate that by an appropriate mapping a universal functional behavior of the variance of the long-time probability distribution can be revealed with respect to the scaled average of jump size.

  13. Motivations for active commuting: a qualitative investigation of the period of home or work relocation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Promoting walking or cycling to work (active commuting) could help to increase population physical activity levels. According to the habit discontinuity and residential self-selection hypotheses, moving home or workplace is a period when people (re)assess, and may be more likely to change, their travel behavior. Research in this area is dominated by the use of quantitative research methods, but qualitative approaches can provide in-depth insight into the experiences and processes of travel behavior change. This qualitative study aimed to explore experiences and motivations regarding travel behavior around the period of relocation, in an effort to understand how active commuting might be promoted more effectively. Methods Participants were recruited from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort in the UK. Commuters who had moved home, workplace or both between 2009 and 2010 were identified, and a purposive sample was invited to participate in semi-structured interviews regarding their experiences of, and travel behavior before and after, relocating. A grounded theory approach was taken to analysis. Results Twenty-six commuters participated. Participants were motivated by convenience, speed, cost and reliability when selecting modes of travel for commuting. Physical activity was not a primary motivation, but incidental increases in physical activity were described and valued in association with active commuting, the use of public transport and the use of park-and-ride facilities. Conclusions Emphasizing and improving the relative convenience, cost, speed and reliability of active commuting may be a more promising approach to promoting its uptake than emphasizing the health benefits, at least around the time of relocation. Providing good quality public transport and free car parking within walking or cycling distance of major employment sites may encourage the inclusion of active travel in the journey to work, particularly for people who live too

  14. Travelers' Health: Rubella

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  15. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... American Association for Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Recommendations for testing, managing, ...

  16. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis E

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  17. Travelers' Health: Cryptosporidiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  18. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  19. Travelers' Health: Japanese Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  20. Travelers' Health: Tickborne Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  1. Travelers' Health: Diphtheria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  2. Travelers' Health: Mumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  3. Travelers' Health: Giardiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Gabriel PS, Alonso M, et al. Prevalence of infectious diseases among internationally adopted children. Pediatrics. 2001 Sep 3; ...

  4. Travelers' Health: Varicella (Chickenpox)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy ...

  5. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  6. Travelers' Health: Pertussis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy ...

  7. Travelers' Health: Coccidioidomycosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  8. Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy ...

  9. Travelers' Health: Scabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy ...

  10. Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  11. Space Traveler Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes the winners of the Space Traveler Project, a contest jointly sponsored by Rockwell International, NASA, and this magazine to identify worthwhile elementary science programs relating to the Space Shuttle. (SJL)

  12. Traveling Space Museum

    NASA Video Gallery

    In an effort to inspire and motivate the next generation of space explorers, NASA’s Ames Research Center teamed up with the Traveling Space Museum to teach students the way astronauts are taughtâ...

  13. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.

    1993-12-14

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size. 4 figures.

  14. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  15. Travel during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of pregnancy. If you are planning an international flight, the cutoff point for traveling with international airlines ... up and stretch your legs during a long flight. Avoid gas-producing foods and carbonated drinks before ...

  16. Predictors of Independent Walking in Young Children With Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Gracely, Edward J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Orlin, Margo N.

    2016-01-01

    Background The attainment of walking is a focus of physical therapy intervention in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and may affect their independence in mobility and participation in daily activities. However, knowledge of determinants of independent walking to guide physical therapists' decision making is lacking. Objective The aim of this study was to identify child factors (postural control, reciprocal lower limb movement, functional strength, and motivation) and family factors (family support to child and support to family) that predict independent walking 1 year later in young children with CP at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels II and III. Design A secondary data analysis of an observational cohort study was performed. Methods Participants were 80 children with CP, 2 through 6 years of age. Child factors were measured 1 year prior to the walking outcome. Parent-reported items representing family factors were collected 7 months after study onset. The predictive model was analyzed using backward stepwise logistic regression. Results A measure of functional strength and dynamic postural control in a sit-to-stand activity was the only significant predictor of taking ≥3 steps independently. The positive likelihood ratio for predicting a “walker” was 3.26, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.74. The model correctly identified a walker or “nonwalker” 75% of the time. Limitations Prediction of walking ability was limited by the lack of specificity of child and family characteristics not prospectively selected and measurement of postural control, reciprocal lower limb movement, and functional strength 1 year prior to the walking outcome. Conclusions The ability to transfer from sitting to standing and from standing to sitting predicted independent walking in young children with CP. Prospective longitudinal studies are recommended to determine indicators of readiness for independent walking. PMID:26089044

  17. The role of series ankle elasticity in bipedal walking.

    PubMed

    Zelik, Karl E; Huang, Tzu-Wei P; Adamczyk, Peter G; Kuo, Arthur D

    2014-04-01

    The elastic stretch-shortening cycle of the Achilles tendon during walking can reduce the active work demands on the plantarflexor muscles in series. However, this does not explain why or when this ankle work, whether by muscle or tendon, needs to be performed during gait. We therefore employ a simple bipedal walking model to investigate how ankle work and series elasticity impact economical locomotion. Our model shows that ankle elasticity can use passive dynamics to aid push-off late in single support, redirecting the body's center-of-mass (COM) motion upward. An appropriately timed, elastic push-off helps to reduce dissipative collision losses at contralateral heelstrike, and therefore the positive work needed to offset those losses and power steady walking. Thus, the model demonstrates how elastic ankle work can reduce the total energetic demands of walking, including work required from more proximal knee and hip muscles. We found that the key requirement for using ankle elasticity to achieve economical gait is the proper ratio of ankle stiffness to foot length. Optimal combination of these parameters ensures proper timing of elastic energy release prior to contralateral heelstrike, and sufficient energy storage to redirect the COM velocity. In fact, there exist parameter combinations that theoretically yield collision-free walking, thus requiring zero active work, albeit with relatively high ankle torques. Ankle elasticity also allows the hip to power economical walking by contributing indirectly to push-off. Whether walking is powered by the ankle or hip, ankle elasticity may aid walking economy by reducing collision losses. PMID:24365635

  18. The role of series ankle elasticity in bipedal walking

    PubMed Central

    Zelik, Karl E.; Huang, Tzu-Wei P.; Adamczyk, Peter G.; Kuo, Arthur D.

    2014-01-01

    The elastic stretch-shortening cycle of the Achilles tendon during walking can reduce the active work demands on the plantarflexor muscles in series. However, this does not explain why or when this ankle work, whether by muscle or tendon, needs to be performed during gait. We therefore employ a simple bipedal walking model to investigate how ankle work and series elasticity impact economical locomotion. Our model shows that ankle elasticity can use passive dynamics to aid push-off late in single support, redirecting the body's center-of-mass (COM) motion upward. An appropriately timed, elastic push-off helps to reduce dissipative collision losses at contralateral heelstrike, and therefore the positive work needed to offset those losses and power steady walking. Thus, the model demonstrates how elastic ankle work can reduce the total energetic demands of walking, including work required from more proximal knee and hip muscles. We found that the key requirement for using ankle elasticity to achieve economical gait is the proper ratio of ankle stiffness to foot length. Optimal combination of these parameters ensures proper timing of elastic energy release prior to contralateral heelstrike, and sufficient energy storage to redirect the COM velocity. In fact, there exist parameter combinations that theoretically yield collision-free walking, thus requiring zero active work, albeit with relatively high ankle torques. Ankle elasticity also allows the hip to power economical walking by contributing indirectly to push-off. Whether walking is powered by the ankle or hip, ankle elasticity may aid walking economy by reducing collision losses. PMID:24365635

  19. Infections in travelers.

    PubMed

    Bomsztyk, Mayan; Arnold, Richard W

    2013-07-01

    Travel medicine continues to grow as international tourism and patient medical complexity increases. This article reflects the state of the current field, but new recommendations on immunizations, resistance patterns, and treatment modalities constantly change. The US Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization maintain helpful Web sites for both patient and physician. With thoughtful preparation and prevention, risks can be minimized and travel can continue as safely as possible. PMID:23809721

  20. Understanding the drive to escort: a cross-sectional analysis examining parental attitudes towards children’s school travel and independent mobility

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The declining prevalence of Active School Transportation (AST) has been accompanied by a decrease in independent mobility internationally. The objective of this study was to compare family demographics and AST related perceptions of parents who let their children walk unescorted to/from school to those parents who escort (walk and drive) their children to/from school. By comparing these groups, insight was gained into how we may encourage greater AST and independent mobility in youth living in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area, Canada. Methods This study involved a cross-sectional design, using data from a self-reported questionnaire (n =1,016) that examined parental perceptions and attitudes regarding AST. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to explore the differences between households where children travelled independently to school or were escorted. Results Findings revealed that unescorted children were: significantly older, the families spoke predominantly English at home, more likely to live within one kilometer from school, and their parents agreed to a greater extent that they chose to reside in the current neighborhood in order for their child to walk to/from school. The parents of the escorted children worried significantly more about strangers and bullies approaching their child as well as the traffic volume around school. Conclusions From both a policy and research perspective, this study highlights the value of distinguishing between mode (i.e., walking or driving) and travel independence. For policy, our findings highlight the need for planning decisions about the siting of elementary schools to include considerations of the impact of catchment size on how children get to/from school. Given the importance of age, distance, and safety issues as significant correlates of independent mobility, research and practice should focus on the development and sustainability of non-infrastructure programs that alleviate parental