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Sample records for active treatment arm

  1. Multi-objective optimization of an active constrained layer damping treatment for vibration control of a rotating flexible arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hau, L. C.; Fung, E. H. K.; Yau, D. T. W.

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the use of the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) to solve an integrated optimization problem of a rotating flexible arm with active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment. The arm is rotating in a horizontal plane with triangular velocity profiles. The ACLD patch is placed at the clamped end of the arm. The design objectives are to minimize the total treatment weight, the control voltage and the tip displacement of the arm, as well as to maximize the passive damping characteristic of the arm. Design variables include the control gains, the maximum angular velocity, the shear modulus of the viscoelastic layer, the thickness of the piezoelectric constraining and viscoelastic layers, and the length of the ACLD patch. In order to evaluate the effect of different combinations of design variables on the system, the finite element method, in conjunction with the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method, is employed to model the flexible arm with ACLD treatment to predict its dynamic behavior, in which the effects of centrifugal stiffening due to the rotation of flexible arm are taken into account. As a result of optimization, reasonable Pareto solutions are successfully obtained. It is shown that the MOGA is applicable to the present integrated optimization problem.

  2. Is Two Better than One? Limb Activation Treatment Combined with Contralesional Arm Vibration to Ameliorate Signs of Left Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Pitteri, Marco; Arcara, Giorgio; Passarini, Laura; Meneghello, Francesca; Priftis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of the Limb Activation Treatment (LAT) alone and in combination with the Contralateral Arm Vibration (CAV) on left neglect (LN) rehabilitation. We conceived them as techniques that both prompt the activation of the lesioned right hemisphere because of the activation (with the LAT as an active technique) and the stimulation (with the CAV as a passive technique) of the left hemibody. To test the effect of the simultaneous use of these two techniques (i.e., LAT and CAV) on visuo-spatial aspects of LN, we described the case of an LN patient (GR), who showed high intra-individual variability (IIV) in performance. Given the high IIV of GR, we used an ABAB repeated-measures design to better define the effectiveness of the combined application of LAT and CAV, as a function of time. The results showed an improvement of GR’s performance on the Bells test following the combined application of LAT and CAV, with respect to the application of LAT alone. We did not find, however, significant effects of treatment on two other LN tests (i.e., Line bisection and Picture scanning). We propose that the combined application of LAT and CAV can be beneficial for some aspects of LN. PMID:23966926

  3. Characteristics of daily arm activities in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Kenneth; Annegarn, Janneke; Lima Passos, Valéria; Savelberg, Hans H; Schols, Annemie M; Wouters, Emiel F; Spruit, Martijn A

    2014-06-01

    Arm activities are required for maintenance of self-care and independent living. This study aimed to investigate whether and to what extent arm activities of daily living (ADL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients differ compared to healthy controls and the extent to which they perform arm ADL at a relatively higher upper limb muscle effort. Daily arm and leg activities were assessed using accelerometers in the home environment (COPD: n=21, healthy: n=24; part 1). The relative efforts of the trapezius, deltoid and biceps muscles were studied using electromyography during domestic arm ADL in a laboratory setting (COPD: n=17, healthy: n=15; part 2). After correction for walking time, the time spent on arm ADL was similar between COPD patients and healthy control subjects (p=0.52), while the intensity of arm activities was lower in COPD patients (p=0.041). In the laboratory setting, arm ADL were performed at a lower intensity by COPD patients, while the trapezius muscle effort was significantly higher during several arm ADL compared to healthy control subjects (p<0.05). COPD patients have a similar duration of arm ADL compared to healthy subjects after correction for walking time, but perform arm activities at a lower intensity. Moreover, patients perform some arm ADL at a relatively higher muscle effort.

  4. Core Muscle Activation in One-Armed and Two-Armed Kettlebell Swing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Vidar; Fimland, Marius S; Gunnarskog, Aril; Jungård, Georg-Andrè; Slåttland, Roy-Andrè; Vraalsen, Øyvind F; Saeterbakken, Atle H

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the electromyographic activity of rectus abdominis, oblique external, and lower and upper erector spinae at both sides of the truncus in 1-armed and 2-armed kettlebell swing. Sixteen healthy men performed 10 repetitions of both exercises using a 16-kg kettlebell in randomized order. For the upper erector spinae, the activation of the contralateral side during 1-armed swing was 24% greater than that of the ipsilateral side during 1-armed swing (p < 0.001) and 11% greater during 2-armed swing (p = 0.026). Furthermore, the activation in 2-armed swing was 12-16% greater than for the ipsilateral side in 1-armed swing (p < 0.001). For rectus abdominis, however, 42% lower activation of the contralateral side was observed during 1-armed swing compared with ipsilateral sides during 2-armed swing (p = 0.038) and 48% compared with the ipsilateral side during 1-armed swing (p = 0.044). Comparing the different phases of the swing, most differences in the upper erector spinae were found in the lower parts of the movement, whereas for the rectus abdominis, the differences were found during the hip extension. In contrast, similar muscle activity in the lower erector spinae and external oblique between the different conditions was observed (p = 0.055-0.969). In conclusion, performing the kettlebell swing with 1 arm resulted in greater neuromuscular activity for the contralateral side of the upper erector spinae and ipsilateral side of the rectus abdominis, and lower activation of the opposite side of the respective muscles.

  5. Extravehicular activity translation arm (EVATA) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preiswerk, P. R.; Stammreich, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of a deployable Extravehicular Activity Translation Arm (EVATA) assembly which will allow an EVA crewman to perform tasks in the vicinity of the External TNK (ET) umbilical doors and to inspect most of the underside of the shuttle spacecraft is reported. The concept chosen for the boom structure was the Astro Extendable Support Structure (ESS) which formed the main structure for the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Antenna System on the SEASAT A spacecraft. This structure is a deployable triangular truss. A comparison of the EVATA and the SEASAT A ESS is shown. The development of status of the ESS is shown. The satellite configuration, the stowed truss load path, and the envelope deployment sequence for the ESS are also shown.

  6. A randomized clinical trial comparing advanced pneumatic truncal, chest, and arm treatment to arm treatment only in self-care of arm lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Ridner, Sheila H; Murphy, Barbara; Deng, Jie; Kidd, Nancy; Galford, Emily; Bonner, Candace; Bond, Stewart M; Dietrich, Mary S

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of the truncal lymphatics prior to treatment of the lymphedematous arm is an accepted, although not empirically tested, therapeutic intervention delivered during decongestive lymphatic therapy (DLT). Breast cancer survivors with arm lymphedema are encouraged to use these techniques when performing simple lymphatic drainage as part of their life-long lymphedema self-care. Self-massage is at times difficult and pneumatic compression devices are used by many patients to assist with self-care. One such device, the Flexitouch(®) System, replicates the techniques used during DLT; however, the need for application of pneumatic compression in unaffected truncal areas to improve self-care outcomes in arm only lymphedema is not established. The objective of this study was to compare the therapeutic benefit of truncal/chest/arm advanced pneumatic compression therapy (experimental group) verses arm only pneumatic compression (control group) in self-care for arm lymphedema without truncal involvement using the Flexitouch(®) System. Outcomes of interest were self-reported symptoms, function, arm impedance ratios, circumference, volume, and trunk circumference. Forty-two breast cancer survivors, (21 per group), with Stage II lymphedema completed 30 days of home self-care using the Flexitouch(®) System. Findings revealed a statistically significant reduction in both the number of symptoms and overall symptom burden within each group; however, there were no statistically significant differences in these outcomes between the groups. There was no statistically significant overall change or differential pattern of change between the groups in function. A statistically significant reduction in bioelectrical impedance and arm circumference within both of the groups was achieved; however, there was no statistically significant difference in reduction between groups. These findings indicate that both configurations are effective, but that there may be no added benefit to

  7. Analysis of scapular kinematics during active and passive arm elevation

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Yoshihiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Takei, Kazuto; Madokoro, Kazuya; Imura, Takeshi; Murata, Shin; Morihara, Toru; Shiba, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Early postoperative passive motion exercise after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair remains controversial. To better understand this issue, this study was aimed at evaluating scapular kinematics and muscle activities during passive arm elevation in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The dominant shoulders of 27 healthy subjects were examined. Electromagnetic sensors attached to the scapula, thorax, and humerus were used to determine three-dimensional scapular kinematics during active arm elevation with or without external loads and passive arm elevation. Simultaneously, the activities of seven shoulder muscles were recorded with surface and intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. [Results] Compared with active arm elevation, passive elevation between 30° and 100° significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and increased the glenohumeral elevation angle. However, no significant differences in scapular posterior tilt and external rotation were observed between active and passive arm elevation, and scapular plane kinematics were not affected by muscle activity. [Conclusion] Unlike active motion with or without an external load, passive arm elevation significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and significantly increased the mid-range glenohumeral elevation. These data, which suggest that passive arm elevation should be avoided during the early postoperative period, may expand the understanding of rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:27390438

  8. The cortical activation pattern during bilateral arm raising movements

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho; Seo, Jung Pyo; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Jin, Sang-Hyun; Yeo, Sang Seok

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral arm raising movements have been used in brain rehabilitation for a long time. However, no study has been reported on the effect of these movements on the cerebral cortex. In this study, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we attempted to investigate cortical activation generated during bilateral arm raising movements. Ten normal subjects were recruited for this study. fNIRS was performed using an fNIRS system with 49 channels. Bilateral arm raising movements were performed in sitting position at the rate of 0.5 Hz. We measured values of oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin in five regions of interest: the primary sensorimotor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex. During performance of bilateral arm raising movements, oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin values in the primary sensorimotor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, and prefrontal cortex were similar, but higher in these regions than those in the prefrontal cortex. We observed activation of the arm somatotopic areas of the primary sensorimotor cortex and premotor cortex in both hemispheres during bilateral arm raising movements. According to this result, bilateral arm raising movements appeared to induce large-scale neuronal activation and therefore arm raising movements would be good exercise for recovery of brain functions.

  9. Iatrogenic Pseudoaneurysm in the Upper Arm: Treatment by Transcatheter Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Maleux, Geert; Stockx, Luc; Brys, Peter; Lammens, Johan; Lacroix, Hendrik; Wilms, Guy; Marchal, Guy

    2000-03-15

    A 32-year-old woman presented with a pulsatile, painful mass in her left upper arm, originating several days after removal of an Ilizarov external fixation. The diagnosis of a pseudoaneurysm was made by medical history and by physical and ultrasonographic examination of the mass. Angiography confirmed the presence of the pseudoaneurysm, originating from a branch of the arteria profunda brachii, and definitive treatment was performed by transcatheter embolization. Clinical follow-up showed absence of pulsation and pain in the upper arm and a gradual volume decrease of the mass lesion.

  10. Arm and shoulder conditions, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    This analysis estimated the incidence and health care burden of acute and chronic conditions of the arm and shoulder among active component service members of the Armed Forces from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2012. There were 196,789 diagnosed incident cases of acute arm and shoulder conditions for a rate of 13.7 cases per 1,000 person-years. The annual incidence rates of sprains, the most common acute condition, nearly doubled during the period. Diagnoses of chronic conditions (overall rate of 28.8 per 1,000 person-years) increased 25 percent during the period, mainly associated with a doubling of the incidence of diagnoses of joint pain. Incidence rates of chronic disorders were progressively higher among successively older age groups of service members. The health care burden of all arm and shoulder conditions together steadily increased during the period, as indicated by numbers of health care encounters, individuals affected, and lost work time. The most commonly documented causes associated with acute and chronic conditions are described.

  11. Sensor-enabled RFID system for monitoring arm activity: reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Barman, Joydip; Uswatte, Gitendra; Ghaffari, Touraj; Sokal, Brad; Byrom, Ezekiel; Trinh, Eva; Brewer, Michael; Varghese, Christopher; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2012-11-01

    After stroke, capacity to complete tasks in the treatment setting with the more-affected arm is an unreliable index of actual use of that extremity in daily life. Available objective methods for monitoring real-world arm use rely on placing movement sensors on patients. These methods provide information on amount but not type of arm activity, e.g., functional versus nonfunctional movement. This paper presents an approach that places sensors on patients and household objects, overcoming this limitation. An accelerometer and the transmitter component of a radio-frequency proximity sensor are attached to objects; the receiver component is attached to the arm of interest. The receiver triggers an on-board radio-frequency identification tag to signal proximity when that arm is within 23 cm of an instrumented object. In benchmark testing, this system detected perfectly which arm was used to move the target object on 200 trials. In a laboratory study with 35 undergraduates, increasing the amount of time target objects were moved with the arm of interest resulted in a corresponding increase in system output . Moreover, measurement error was low ( ≤ 2.5%). The results support this system's reliability and validity in individuals with unimpaired movement; testing is now warranted in stroke patients.

  12. Modulation of cutaneous reflexes in human upper limb muscles during arm cycling is independent of activity in the contralateral arm.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Timothy J; Zehr, E Paul; Collins, David F

    2005-02-01

    The amplitudes and signs of cutaneous reflexes are modulated during rhythmic movements of the arms and legs (during walking and arm or leg cycling for instance). This reflex modulation is frequently independent of the background muscle activity and may involve central pattern generator (CPG) circuits. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the nature and degree of coupling between the upper limbs during arm cycling, with regard to the regulation of cutaneous reflexes. Responses to electrical stimulations of the right, superficial radial nerve (five 1 ms pulses, 300 Hz) were recorded bilaterally in six arm muscles of eight participants during arm cycling involving only the limb ipsilateral to the stimulation, only the limb contralateral to the stimulation, and bilateral movement when the limbs were both in-phase and 180 degrees out of phase. The pattern of cutaneous reflex modulation throughout the arm cycle was independent of the functional state of the limb contralateral to the recording site, irrespective of whether recordings were made ipsilateral or contralateral to the stimulation. Furthermore, cutaneous reflexes were significantly (p<0.05) modulated with arm position in only 8% of cases in which the limb containing the responding muscle was either stationary or being moved passively by the experimenter. The results show that there is relatively weak coupling between the arms with regard to the regulation of cutaneous reflexes during rhythmic, cyclical arm movements. This suggests a loose connection between the CPGs for each arm that regulate muscle activity and reflex amplitude during rhythmic movement.

  13. Sensor-enabled RFID system for monitoring arm activity in daily life.

    PubMed

    Barman, Joydip; Uswatte, Gitendra; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Ghaffari, Touraj; Sokal, Brad

    2011-01-01

    After stroke, capacity to carry out tasks in the treatment setting with the more-affected arm is a poor index of actual use of that extremity in daily life. However, objective methods currently available for monitoring real-world upper-extremity use only provide information on amount of activity. These methods, which rely on movement sensors worn by patients, do not provide information about type of activity (e.g., functional vs. nonfunctional movement). The benchmark testing reported here evaluated an approach that involves placing sensors on patients and objects. An accelerometer and the transmitter component of a prototype radio frequency proximity sensor were attached to household objects. The receiver component was placed on the experimenter's right arm. This device triggered an on-board radio frequency identification tag to signal proximity when that arm was within 23 cm of the objects. The system detected > 99% of 6 cm or greater movements of objects. When handling of objects by the right or left arm was determined randomly, 100% of right arm trials were detected. No signals were recorded when objects were at rest or moved by the left arm. Testing of this approach, which monitors manipulation of objects (i.e., functional movement), is now warranted in stroke patients.

  14. A common neural element receiving rhythmic arm and leg activity as assessed by reflex modulation in arm muscles.

    PubMed

    Sasada, Syusaku; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Futatsubashi, Genki; Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shinya; Zehr, E Paul; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Neural interactions between regulatory systems for rhythmic arm and leg movements are an intriguing issue in locomotor neuroscience. Amplitudes of early latency cutaneous reflexes (ELCRs) in stationary arm muscles are modulated during rhythmic leg or arm cycling but not during limb positioning or voluntary contraction. This suggests that interneurons mediating ELCRs to arm muscles integrate outputs from neural systems controlling rhythmic limb movements. Alternatively, outputs could be integrated at the motoneuron and/or supraspinal levels. We examined whether a separate effect on the ELCR pathways and cortico-motoneuronal excitability during arm and leg cycling is integrated by neural elements common to the lumbo-sacral and cervical spinal cord. The subjects performed bilateral leg cycling (LEG), contralateral arm cycling (ARM), and simultaneous contralateral arm and bilateral leg cycling (A&L), while ELCRs in the wrist flexor and shoulder flexor muscles were evoked by superficial radial (SR) nerve stimulation. ELCR amplitudes were facilitated by cycling tasks and were larger during A&L than during ARM and LEG. A low stimulus intensity during ARM or LEG generated a larger ELCR during A&L than the sum of ELCRs during ARM and LEG. We confirmed this nonlinear increase in single motor unit firing probability following SR nerve stimulation during A&L. Furthermore, motor-evoked potentials following transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation did not show nonlinear potentiation during A&L. These findings suggest the existence of a common neural element of the ELCR reflex pathway that is active only during rhythmic arm and leg movement and receives convergent input from contralateral arms and legs.

  15. Time Course of Mild Arm Lymphedema After Breast Conservation Treatment for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bar Ad, Voichita; Cheville, Andrea; Solin, Lawrence J.; Dutta, Pinaki; Both, Stefan; Harris, Eleanor

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: Arm lymphedema is a potential consequence of the treatment for breast carcinoma. The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize the progression of mild arm lymphedema after breast conservation treatment for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The study cohort was drawn from 1,713 consecutive Stage I or II breast cancer patients who underwent breast conservation therapy, including axillary staging followed by radiation. Arm lymphedema was documented in 266 (16%) of 1,713 patients. One hundred nine patients, 6% of the overall group and 40% of the patients with arm lymphedema, presented with mild arm lymphedema, defined as a difference of 2 cm or less between the measured circumferences of the affected and unaffected arms. Results: Among the 109 patients with mild arm lymphedema at the time of arm lymphedema diagnosis, the rate of freedom from progression to more severe lymphedema was 79% at 1 year, 66% at 3 years, and 52% at 5 years. The patients who were morbidly obese, had positive axillary lymph nodes, or received supraclavicular irradiation at the time of breast cancer treatment were at higher risk of progression from mild arm lymphedema to more severe edema. Conclusions: Mild arm lymphedema, generally considered to be a minor complication after breast conservation treatment for breast cancer, was associated with a risk of progression to a more severe grade of arm lymphedema in a substantial fraction of patients.

  16. Treatment of Glioma Using neuroArm Surgical System

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The use of robotic technology in the surgical treatment of brain tumour promises increased precision and accuracy in the performance of surgery. Robotic manipulators may allow superior access to narrow surgical corridors compared to freehand or conventional neurosurgery. This paper reports values and ranges of tool-tissue interaction forces during the performance of glioma surgery using an MR compatible, image-guided neurosurgical robot called neuroArm. The system, capable of microsurgery and stereotaxy, was used in the surgical resection of glioma in seven cases. neuroArm is equipped with force sensors at the end-effector allowing quantification of tool-tissue interaction forces and transmits force of dissection to the surgeon sited at a remote workstation that includes a haptic interface. Interaction forces between the tool tips and the brain tissue were measured for each procedure, and the peak forces were quantified. Results showed maximum and minimum peak force values of 2.89 N (anaplastic astrocytoma, WHO grade III) and 0.50 N (anaplastic oligodendroglioma, WHO grade III), respectively, with the mean of peak forces varying from case to case, depending on type of the glioma. Mean values of the peak forces varied in range of 1.27 N (anaplastic astrocytoma, WHO grade III) to 1.89 N (glioblastoma with oligodendroglial component, WHO grade IV). In some cases, ANOVA test failed to reject the null hypothesis of equality in means of the peak forces measured. However, we could not find a relationship between forces exerted to the pathological tissue and its size, type, or location. PMID:27314044

  17. [Organization of rehabilitation and treatment measures in the armed forces of foreign countries].

    PubMed

    Trishkin, D V; Malykh, A B; Ponomarenko, G N; Merzlikin, A V

    2015-07-01

    The authors present an analysis of current state of rehabilitation and treatment system in the armed forces of foreign countries, and main directions of its development. The authors summarize an experience in the field of organization and carrying out of rehabilitation and treatment measures in the armed forces of foreign countries, and also define possible ways of how to apply gained experience in organizing sanatorium-resort provision for servicemen of Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

  18. Cortical Spectral Activity and Connectivity during Active and Viewed Arm and Leg Movement

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Julia E.; Huang, Helen J.; Snyder, Kristine L.; Ferris, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Active and viewed limb movement activate many similar neural pathways, however, to date most comparison studies have focused on subjects making small, discrete movements of the hands and feet. The purpose of this study was to determine if high-density electroencephalography (EEG) could detect differences in cortical activity and connectivity during active and viewed rhythmic arm and leg movements in humans. Our primary hypothesis was that we would detect similar but weaker electrocortical spectral fluctuations and effective connectivity fluctuations during viewed limb exercise compared to active limb exercise due to the similarities in neural recruitment. A secondary hypothesis was that we would record stronger cortical spectral fluctuations for arm exercise compared to leg exercise, because rhythmic arm exercise would be more dependent on supraspinal control than rhythmic leg exercise. We recorded EEG data while ten young healthy subjects exercised on a recumbent stepper with: (1) both arms and legs, (2) just legs, and (3) just arms. Subjects also viewed video playback of themselves or another individual performing the same exercises. We performed independent component analysis, dipole fitting, spectral analysis, and effective connectivity analysis on the data. Cortical areas comprising the premotor and supplementary motor cortex, the anterior cingulate, the posterior cingulate, and the parietal cortex exhibited significant spectral fluctuations during rhythmic limb exercise. These fluctuations tended to be greater for the arms exercise conditions than for the legs only exercise condition, which suggests that human rhythmic arm movements are under stronger cortical control than rhythmic leg movements. We did not find consistent spectral fluctuations in these areas during the viewed conditions, but effective connectivity fluctuated at harmonics of the exercise frequency during both active and viewed rhythmic limb exercise. The right premotor and supplementary motor

  19. Effect of active arm swing to local dynamic stability during walking.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Li, Yue; Liu, An-Min; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Yin-Zhi; Hu, Fei; Chen, Jin-Ling; Dai, Ke-Rong; Gu, Dong-Yun

    2016-02-01

    Arm swing is an essential component in regulating dynamic stability of the whole body during walking, while the contribution of active arm swing to local dynamic stability of different motion segments remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of arm swing under natural arm swing condition and active arm swing condition on local dynamic stability and gait variability of the trunk segments (C7 and T10 joint) and lower extremity joints (hip, knee and ankle joint). The local divergence exponents (λs) and mean standard deviation over strides (MeanSD) of 24 young healthy adults were calculated while they were walking on treadmill with two arm swing conditions at their preferred walking speed (PWS). We found that in medial-lateral direction, both λs and MeanSD values of the trunk segments (C7 and T10 joint) in active arm swing condition were significantly lower than those in natural arm swing condition (p<0.05), while no significant difference of λs or MeanSD in lower extremity joints (hip, knee and ankle joint) was found between two arm swing conditions (p>0.05, respectively). In anterior-posterior and vertical direction, neither λs nor MeanSD values of all body segments showed significant difference between two arm swing conditions (p>0.05, respectively). These findings indicate that active arm swing may help to improve the local dynamic stability of the trunk segments in medial-lateral direction.

  20. The application of active side arm controllers in helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knorr, R.; Melz, C.; Faulkner, A.; Obermayer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Eurocopter Deutschland (ECD) started simulation trials to investigate the particular problems of Side Arm Controllers (SAC) applied to helicopters. Two simulation trials have been performed. In the first trial, the handling characteristics of a 'passive' SAC and the basic requirements for the application of an 'active' SAC were evaluated in pilot-in-the-loop simulations, performing the tasks in a realistic scenario representing typical phases of a transport mission. The second simulation trial investigated the general control characteristics of the 'active' in comparison to the 'passive' control principle. A description of the SACs developed by ECD and the principle of the 'passive' and 'active' control concept is given, as well as specific ratings for the investigated dynamic and ergonomic parameters effecting SAC characteristics. The experimental arrangements, as well as the trials procedures of both simulation phases, are described and the results achieved are discussed emphasizing the advantages of the 'active' as opposed to the 'passive' SAC concept. This also includes the presentation of some critical aspects still to be improved and proposals to solve them.

  1. Political Activities by Members of the Armed Forces on Active Duty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-15

    an election day. 13. Solicit or otherwise engage in fundraising activities in Federal offices or facilities, including military reservations, for a...actively promote, political dinners and similar fundraising events. 18. Attend partisan political events as an official representative of the Armed Forces

  2. Randomized Phase III Clinical Trial of Five Different Arms of Treatment in 332 Patients with Cancer Cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Macciò, Antonio; Madeddu, Clelia; Serpe, Roberto; Massa, Elena; Dessì, Mariele; Panzone, Filomena; Contu, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. A phase III, randomized study was carried out to establish the most effective and safest treatment to improve the primary endpoints of cancer cachexia—lean body mass (LBM), resting energy expenditure (REE), and fatigue—and relevant secondary endpoints: appetite, quality of life, grip strength, Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) and proinflammatory cytokines. Patients and Methods. Three hundred thirty-two assessable patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia syndrome were randomly assigned to one of five treatment arms: arm 1, medroxyprogesterone (500 mg/day) or megestrol acetate (320 mg/day); arm 2, oral supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid; arm 3, L-carnitine (4 g/day); arm 4, thalidomide (200 mg/day); and arm 5, a combination of the above. Treatment duration was 4 months. Results. Analysis of variance showed a significant difference between treatment arms. A post hoc analysis showed the superiority of arm 5 over the others for all primary endpoints. An analysis of changes from baseline showed that LBM (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and by L3 computed tomography) significantly increased in arm 5. REE decreased significantly and fatigue improved significantly in arm 5. Appetite increased significantly in arm 5; interleukin (IL)-6 decreased significantly in arm 5 and arm 4; GPS and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) score decreased significantly in arm 5, arm 4, and arm 3. Toxicity was quite negligible, and was comparable between arms. Conclusion. The most effective treatment in terms of all three primary efficacy endpoints and the secondary endpoints appetite, IL-6, GPS, and ECOG PS score was the combination regimen that included all selected agents. PMID:20156909

  3. Therapeutic synergism in the treatment of post-stroke arm paresis utilizing botulinum toxin, robotic therapy, and constraint-induced movement therapy.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Takashi; Amano, Satoru; Hanada, Keisuke; Umeji, Atsushi; Takahashi, Kayoko; Koyama, Tetsuo; Domen, Kazuhisa

    2014-11-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BtxA) injection, constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), and robotic therapy (RT) each represent promising approaches to enhance arm motor recovery after stroke. To provide more effective treatment for a 50-year-old man with severe left spastic hemiparesis, we attempted to facilitate CIMT with adaptive approaches to extend the wrist and fingers using RT for 10 consecutive weeks after BtxA injection. This combined treatment resulted in substantial improvements in arm function and the amount of arm use in activities of daily living, and may be effective for stroke patients with severe arm paresis. However, we were unable to sufficiently prove the efficacy of combined treatment based only on a single case. To fully elucidate the efficacy of the combined approach for patients with severe hemiparesis after stroke, future studies of a larger number of patients are needed.

  4. Successful treatment of invasive mucormycosis in a liver transplant patient by arm amputation.

    PubMed

    Iida, T; Sawada, N; Takahashi, M; Zendejas, I R; Kayler, L K; Magliocca, J F; Kim, R D; Hemming, A W; Fujita, S

    2010-09-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon but frequently fatal infectious complication after solid organ transplantation. We describe successful treatment of invasive mucormycosis in a liver transplant recipient by wound debridement, a right above-elbow arm amputation, and antifungal medications. Early recognition, prompt operative intervention, and initiation of an appropriate antifungal treatment are very important in the management of mucormycosis, a potentially life-threatening infection.

  5. Radiesse®: a novel rejuvenation treatment for the upper arms

    PubMed Central

    Amselem, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    Nonsurgical esthetic improvement of the upper arms is a desirable goal for many individuals. Radiesse® (calcium hydroxylapatite) is an effective dermal filler for a number of indications because of its volumizing effect and the ability to stimulate neocollagenesis. No studies have reported on its safety and effectiveness for the treatment of the upper arm. In a prospective, open-label study, 30 subjects seeking improvement in the esthetic appearance of their upper arms received injections with Radiesse® (1.5 mL/arm) at two separate visits, 1 month apart. Subjects returned for a follow-up visit 4 months after the second treatment. The primary endpoint was the degree of overall subject and evaluator (investigators and study nurses) satisfaction assessed using the 5-point Global Satisfaction Scale (ranging from “1” very dissatisfied to “5” very satisfied). Secondary endpoints included assessments of skin quality (flaccidity and volume distribution) using a new Visual Analog Scale for upper arms and overall assessment of treatment using the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale. All (100%) of both subjects and evaluators were “satisfied” or “very satisfied” with treatment. The mean Global Satisfaction Score for investigators and study nurses was 4.60 and for subjects 4.53 (satisfied to very satisfied). Assessments of flaccidity and volume improved significantly compared with baseline at the post-treatment visit and also between visits. Compared with baseline, 77% of subjects were rated as considerably improved (good or great improvement) by the investigator and study nurse; 73% of subjects rated themselves as considerably improved and 43% of these rated a “great improvement.” All stated they would repeat the treatment and recommend it to others. No adverse events were reported. Radiesse® is an effective minimally invasive treatment option for improving upper arm contours and was associated with a 100% satisfaction rate for both subjects and

  6. A bill to provide for the treatment of service as a member of the Alaska Territorial Guard during World War II as active service for purposes of retired pay for members of the Armed Forces.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Murkowski, Lisa [R-AK

    2009-01-28

    01/28/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Armed Services. (text of measure as introduced: CR S997) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Greater activation of secondary motor areas is related to less arm use after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kokotilo, Kristen J; Eng, Janice J; Boyd, Lara A; McKeown, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    Background Past studies have identified reorganization of brain activity in relation to motor outcome through standardized laboratory measures, which are quantifiable surrogates for arm use in real-life. In contrast, accelerometers can provide a real-life estimate of arm and hand usage. Methods Ten persons with chronic, subcortical stroke and ten healthy controls of similar age performed a squeeze motor task at 40% maximum voluntary contraction during fMRI. Use of the upper extremity was quantified over 3 consecutive days using wrist accelerometers. Correlations were performed between arm use and peak percent signal change (PSC) during grasp force production in six regions of interest (ROIs): bilateral primary motor cortex (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA) and premotor cortex (PM). Results Results demonstrate that in healthy controls, PSC across all ROIs did not show a relationship between arm use and brain activation during force production. In contrast, after stroke, contralesional PM and M1 showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) correlation between increasing activation and decreasing paretic arm use, while ipsilesional PM showed a significant correlation (P ≤ 0.05) between increasing activation and decreasing non-paretic arm use. Conclusions The results of this pilot study demonstrate a negative relationship between brain activation and actual arm use after stroke. Larger studies using accelerometers that can detect amount and types of movement may offer further insight into brain reorganization and rehabilitation interventions. PMID:19737873

  8. Arms Control and Nonproliferation Activities: A Catalog of Recent Events

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-19

    explosive yield of underground nuclear explosions to 150 kilotons ( TNT equivalent ). Both were ratified in 1990. CTBT negotiations began in 1994 in the...warheads. Yield: The amount of energy released by a nuclear explosion. Generally measured in equivalent tons of TNT . CRS-94 Appendix D: Arms Control...control or ban anti-personnel landmines . The fourth section of this report focus on multilateral nonproliferation efforts, such as the Nuclear

  9. The effect of an active arm action on heart rate and predicted VO(2max) during the Chester step test.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Dave; Abt, Grant; Barry, Tim

    2008-04-01

    This study examined whether the predictive outcomes of the Chester step test (CST) would be influenced by arm dynamics. Participants completed the CST on two separate occasions, once using active arms and once using passive arms. Results revealed that when compared to the passive arm protocol, the use of active arms led to a mean increase in heart rate of approximately 7 beats per minute across all of the incremental stages. However, this increase had little impact upon predicted VO(2max). Consequently, these results indicate that when performing the CST, participants are able to adopt an arm action that is compatible with personal preference.

  10. A dynamic model for generating actuator specifications for small arms barrel active stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Anupam; Brei, Diann; Luntz, Jonathan; Lavigna, Chris

    2006-03-01

    Due to stresses encountered in combat, it is known that soldier marksmanship noticeably decreases regardless of prior training. Active stabilization systems in small arms have potential to address this problem to increase soldier survivability and mission effectiveness. The key to success is proper actuator design, but this is highly dependent on proper specification which is challenging due to the human/weapon interaction. This paper presents a generic analytical dynamic model which is capable of defining the necessary actuation specifications for a wide range of small arms platforms. The model is unique because it captures the human interface--shoulder and arm--that introduces the jitter disturbance in addition to the geometry, inertial properties and active stabilization stiffness of the small arms platform. Because no data to date is available for actual shooter-induced disturbance in field conditions, a method is given using the model to back-solve from measured shooting range variability data the disturbance amplitude information relative to the input source (arm or shoulder). As examples of the applicability of the model to various small arms systems, two different weapon systems were investigated: the M24 sniper weapon and the M16 assault rifle. In both cases, model based simulations provided valuable insight into impact on the actuation specifications (force, displacement, phase, frequency) due to the interplay of the human-weapon-active stabilization interface including the effect of shooter-disturbance frequency, disturbance location (shoulder vs. arm), and system parameters (stiffness, barrel rotation).

  11. Many-to-one comparison after sample size reestimation for trials with multiple treatment arms and treatment selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jixian

    2010-09-01

    Sample size reestimation (SSRE) provides a useful tool to change the sample size when an interim look reveals that the original sample size is inadequate. To control the overall type I error, for testing one hypothesis, several approaches have been proposed to construct a statistic so that its distribution is independent to the SSRE under the null hypothesis. We considered a similar approach for comparisons between multiple treatment arms and placebo, allowing the change of sample sizes in all arms depending on interim information. A construction of statistics similar to that for a single hypothesis test is proposed. When the changes of sample sizes in different arms are proportional, we show that one-step and stepwise Dunnett tests can be used directly on statistics constructed in the proposed way. The approach can also be applied to clinical trials with SSRE and treatment selection at interim. The proposed approach is evaluated with simulations under different situations.

  12. [Medical support of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation: results of activity and tasks for 2016].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ya

    2016-01-01

    The author gives an analysis of activity of the medical service of the Armed Forces in 2015 concerning development of normative legal basis for the military health care, improvement of the level of operational and mobilization readiness of subunits of army group, and military-medical institutions, improvement of effectiveness of treatment and evacuation measures, health resort treatment, medical stuff training optimization, sanitary-and-epidemiologic support, material and technical support improvement, adoption of advanced scientific achievements focusing on medical care delivery to army group, active development and increase in medical information systems, telehealth. system. The author gives data characterizing state and level of development of medical service of the Armed Forces and its dynamics. Main tasks and parameters of development of the service in 2016 and up to 2020 are formulated.

  13. Integrating arm movement into bridge exercise: Effect on EMG activity of selected trunk muscles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moung-Jin; Oh, Duck-Won; Park, Hyun-Ju

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether incorporating arm movement into bridge exercise changes the electromyographic (EMG) activity of selected trunk muscles. Twenty healthy young men were recruited for this study. EMG data were collected for the rectus abdominis (RA), internal oblique (IO), erector spinae (ES), and multifidus (MF) muscles of the dominant side. During bridging, an experimental procedure was performed with two options: an intervention factor (with and without arm movement) and a bridging factor (on the floor and on a therapeutic ball). There were significant main effects for the intervention factor in the IO and ES and for the bridging factor in the IO. The RA and IO showed significant interaction between the intervention and bridge factors. Furthermore, IO/RA ratio during bridging on the floor (without arm movement, 2.05±2.61; with arm movement, 3.24±3.42) and bridging on the ball (without arm movement: 2.95±3.87; with arm movement: 5.77±4.85) showed significant main effects for, and significant interaction between the intervention and bridge factors. However, no significant main effects or interaction were found for the MF/ES ratio. These findings suggest that integrating arm movements during bridge exercises may be used to provide preferential loading to certain trunk muscle groups and that these effects may be better derived by performing bridge exercises on a therapeutic ball.

  14. Arm position influences the activation patterns of trunk muscles during trunk range-of-motion movements.

    PubMed

    Siu, Aaron; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Drake, Janessa Dm

    2016-10-01

    To understand the activation patterns of the trunk musculature, it is also important to consider the implications of adjacent structures such as the upper limbs, and the muscles that act to move the arms. This study investigated the effects of arm positions on the activation patterns and co-activation of the trunk musculature and muscles that move the arm during trunk range-of-motion movements (maximum trunk axial twist, flexion, and lateral bend). Fifteen males and fifteen females, asymptomatic for low back pain, performed maximum trunk range-of-motion movements, with three arm positions for axial twist (loose, crossed, abducted) and two positions for flexion and lateral bend (loose, crossed). Electromyographical data were collected for eight muscles bilaterally, and activation signals were cross-correlated between trunk muscles and the muscles that move the arms (upper trapezius, latissimus dorsi). Results revealed consistently greater muscle co-activation (higher cross-correlation coefficients) between the trunk muscles and upper trapezius for the abducted arm position during maximum trunk axial twist, while results for the latissimus dorsi-trunk pairings were more dependent on the specific trunk muscles (either abdominal or back) and latissimus dorsi muscle (either right or left side), as well as the range-of-motion movement. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of interactions between the upper limbs and trunk, and highlight the influence of arm positions on the trunk musculature. In addition, the comparison of the present results to those of individuals with back or shoulder conditions may ultimately aid in elucidating underlying mechanisms or contributing factors to those conditions.

  15. Assessment of habitual physical activity and paretic arm mobility among stroke survivors by accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Green, Liza B

    2007-01-01

    A major goal for many stroke survivors is a return to ambulatory activities, but there is not much known about the physical activity profiles of stroke survivors. Improved function in the paretic arm is also a major goal of rehabilitation, but there are few good measures of daily arm use. Accelerometers are devices that measure body movements in terms of acceleration. Accelerometers have been found to be useful indicators of movement in a number of studies involving different patient populations. They are able to detect habitual physical activity levels in subjects with low levels or activity and altered gait patterns. Different systems of multiple accelerometers have been used successfully to detect arm usage in individuals with hemiparesis from stroke, as well as with other disabilities that affect the upper extremities.

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of human IgG4 antibodies by dynamic Fab arm exchange.

    PubMed

    van der Neut Kolfschoten, Marijn; Schuurman, Janine; Losen, Mario; Bleeker, Wim K; Martínez-Martínez, Pilar; Vermeulen, Ellen; den Bleker, Tamara H; Wiegman, Luus; Vink, Tom; Aarden, Lucien A; De Baets, Marc H; van de Winkel, Jan G J; Aalberse, Rob C; Parren, Paul W H I

    2007-09-14

    Antibodies play a central role in immunity by forming an interface with the innate immune system and, typically, mediate proinflammatory activity. We describe a novel posttranslational modification that leads to anti-inflammatory activity of antibodies of immunoglobulin G, isotype 4 (IgG4). IgG4 antibodies are dynamic molecules that exchange Fab arms by swapping a heavy chain and attached light chain (half-molecule) with a heavy-light chain pair from another molecule, which results in bispecific antibodies. Mutagenesis studies revealed that the third constant domain is critical for this activity. The impact of IgG4 Fab arm exchange was confirmed in vivo in a rhesus monkey model with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. IgG4 Fab arm exchange is suggested to be an important biological mechanism that provides the basis for the anti-inflammatory activity attributed to IgG4 antibodies.

  17. Muscular Activity in the Arm during Lexical Retrieval: Implications for Gesture-Speech Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsella, Ezequiel; Krauss, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    The origin and functions of the hand and arm gestures that accompany speech production are poorly understood. It has been proposed that gestures facilitate lexical retrieval, but little is known about when retrieval is accompanied by gestural activity and how this activity is related to the semantics of the word to be retrieved. Electromyographic…

  18. Endurance time, muscular activity and the hand/arm tremor for different exertion forces of holding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of exertion force on endurance time, muscular activity and hand/arm tremor during holding. Fifteen healthy young males were recruited as participants. The independent variable was exertion force (20%, 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity). The dependent variables were endurance time, muscular activity and hand/arm tremor. The results showed that endurance time decreased with exertion force while muscular activity and hand/arm tremor increased with exertion force. Hand/arm tremor increased with holding time. Endurance time of 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity was approximately 22.7%, 12.0% and 5.6% of that of 20% maximum holding capacity, respectively. The rms (root mean square) acceleration of hand/arm tremor of the final phase of holding was 2.27-, 1.33-, 1.20- and 1.73-fold of that of the initial phase of holding for 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity, respectively.

  19. [Experience in using xeomin in the treatment of arm and hand spasticity in the early rehabilitation phase of stroke].

    PubMed

    Kostenko, E V; Petrova, L V; Ganzhula, P A; Lisenker, L N; Otcheskaia, O V; Khozova, A A; Boĭko, A N

    2012-01-01

    To reduce arm and hand spasticity, 28 patients in the early rehabilitation phase of ischemic hemisphere stroke received injections of the botulinum toxin A preparation xeomin in the content of complex rehabilitation programs. The following muscles: m. biceps brachii, m. flexor digitorum profundus, m. flexor digitorum superficialis, m. flexor carpi ulnaris, m. flexor carpi radialis were injected according to standard scheme. The total dose of drug was 200U in moderate (2-3 scores on the Ashworth scale) and 300U in marked (3-4 scores on the Ashworth scale) spasticity. Efficacy and safety of treatment was assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 weeks after injections. Xeomin significantly (p<0.05) reduced muscle tonus in patients with post-stroke spasticity of different severity. Clinical effect was seen 2 weeks after injection, it reached maximum at week 4 and then slowly decreased to week 16. The improved functional activity of the paretic arm (due to patient's and caregiver's reports) remained for to 12 weeks. The treatment was most effective in the group of patients with moderate spasticity. The correlation analysis confirmed that the severity of spasticity increased with the disease duration that reduced rehabilitation efficiency. The treatment with xeomin was safe, no serious side-effects were found.

  20. Reducing Disease Activity in Animal Models of MS by Activation of the Protective Arm of the Renin-Angiotensin System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    angiotensin metabolites. The regulatory arm of RAS was activated in an effort to stimulate repair once the immunological and pathological... immunological bias at the most efficacious dose of A(1-7). What was accomplished under these goals? Below is a summary of the statement of work that was...the regulatory arm of RAS there was a clear and dramatic loss of MAS receptor expression within 4 days of inoculation when innate components of the

  1. Syntheses and Characterization of Chiral Arm Liquid Crystals--Containing Active Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ying; Zhang, Fang-Di; He, Xiao-Zhi

    2016-05-01

    A new series of chiral two-arm dopant containg active group were first synthesized. Four precursors of C1~C4 were obtained at first and then were esterized separately with isosorbide and got four two-arm liquid crystals (MC1~MC4). The chemical structures and LC properties of the liquid crystalline molecule were measured by spectrum and thermal analysis techniques. XRD curves of MC1~MC4 samples only showed broad peaks at wide-angle, no sharp peak was seen for all the samples. The results showed that MC1~MC4 appeared cholesteric phase with oily streak texture or lined texture and finger print texture. Cholesteric phase was successfully induced by isosorbide. The different active group of two arm liquid crystal and chiral core had effects on their liquid crystalline properties.

  2. Lower arm electromyography (EMG) activity detection using local binary patterns.

    PubMed

    McCool, Paul; Chatlani, Navin; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos; Soraghan, John J; Menon, Radhika; Lakany, Heba

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new electromyography activity detection technique in which 1-D local binary pattern histograms are used to distinguish between periods of activity and inactivity in myoelectric signals. The algorithm is tested on forearm surface myoelectric signals occurring due to hand gestures. The novel features of the presented method are that: 1) activity detection is performed across multiple channels using few parameters and without the need for majority vote mechanisms, 2) there are no per-channel thresholds to be tuned, which makes the process of activity detection easier and simpler to implement and less prone to errors, 3) it is not necessary to measure the properties of the signal during a quiescent period before using the algorithm. The algorithm is compared to other offline single- and double-threshold activity detection methods and, for the data sets tested, it is shown to have a better overall performance with greater tolerance to the noise in the real data set used.

  3. Coordination of outer arm dynein activity along axonemal doublet microtubules.

    PubMed

    Seetharam, Raviraja N; Satir, Peter

    2008-07-01

    This study considers the mechanism by which ODA based sliding is produced and the relationship of that mechanism to the determination of beat frequency. Two models of activity have been examined: a stochastic model, where ODA activity is random and a metachronal model, where activity is sequentially triggered along a doublet. Inactivation of a few ODAs would have virtually no effect on stochastic activity, but would completely block metachronal activity. We (Seetharam and Satir [2005]: Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 60:96-103) previously demonstrated that ODAs produce high speed sliding of about 200 mum/s, followed by a pause. IDAs produce slow, 5 mum/s, continuous sliding. We have examined the effects of nM concentrations of vanadate on sliding, measuring velocity and extent of high speed sliding and pause distribution or sliding cessation. In 5 nM vanadate, where photocleavage experiments show about 16/270 ODAs per doublet are affected, no differences from control are seen, but at 10 and 25 nM vanadate, high speed velocity is greatly reduced and pause distribution changes. The results support a model, in which high speed sliding is produced by metachronal activity. Blockage of two or more heavy chains of one ODA or a small group of adjacent ODAs produces cessation of sliding, but cessation is only temporary, probably because IDA activity continues, allowing ODA activity re-initiation beyond the block. These conclusions are consistent with Sugino and Naitoh's [1982; Nature 295:609-611] proposal, whereby during each beat, every ODA along a doublet becomes activated in succession, with repetitive activation determining beat frequency.

  4. Altered activity of the serratus anterior during unilateral arm elevation in patients with cervical disorders.

    PubMed

    Helgadottir, H; Kristjansson, E; Einarsson, E; Karduna, A; Jonsson, H

    2011-12-01

    Altered activity in the axioscapular muscles is considered to be an important feature in patients with neck pain. The activity of the serratus anterior (SA) and trapezius muscles during arm elevation has not been investigated in these patients. The objectives of this study was to investigate whether there is a pattern of altered activity in the SA and trapezius in patients with insidious onset neck pain (IONP) (n=22) and whiplash associated disorders (WAD) (n=27). An asymptomatic group was selected for baseline measurements (n=23). Surface electromyography was used to measure the onset of muscle activation and duration of muscle activity of the SA as well as the upper, middle, and lower trapezius during unilateral arm elevation in the three subject groups. Both arms were tested. With no interaction, the main effect for the onset of muscle activation and duration of muscle activity for serratus anterior was statistically significant among the groups. Post hoc comparison revealed a significantly delayed onset of muscle activation and less duration of muscle activity in the IONP group, and in the WAD group compared to the asymptomatic group. There were no group main effects or interaction effects for upper, middle and lower trapezius. This finding may have implications for scapular stability in these patients because the altered activity in the SA may reflect inconsistent or poorly coordinated muscle activation that may reduce the quality of neuromuscular performance and induce an increased load on the cervical and the thoracic spine.

  5. Robotic-arm stereotactic radiosurgery as a definitive treatment for gelastic epilepsy associated with hypothalamic hamartoma.

    PubMed

    Susheela, Sridhar Papaiah; Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan J; Basavalingaiah, Ajaikumar

    2013-09-11

    Gelastic seizures, characterised by paroxysms of pathological laughter, are most often associated with an underlying hypothalamic hamartoma. This report describes the definitive treatment using stereotactic-radiosurgery for a teenaged child whose gelastic epilepsy was found refractory to various antiepileptic drugs. Since surgery was not consented to, the child was referred to us for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), which was delivered with robotic-arm -SRS to a dose of 30 Gy in five fractions in five consecutive days. A decrease in the frequency of seizures was noticeable as early as within a week, and at 12 months after the procedure, there has been a total cessation of seizures.

  6. Summary of the ARM activities at ECMWF from 2007-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Maike Ahlgrimm; Anton Beljaars

    2010-07-13

    The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), as one of the leading centres in numerical weather prediction, has been an active user of observations for model evaluation for many years. Many examples exist where detailed experimental studies have inspired model improvement. To establish a link between the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) research and ECMWF's model development, funding was provided for an \\u201cARM fellow\\u201d at ECMWF. Furthermore, ECMWF has been working closely with ARM related projects for many years. ECMWF provides operational analysis data for the ARM stations (permanent and mobile) as background meteorological information and ECMWF has implemented the Rapid Radiative Transport Model long wave and short wave schemes as radiation codes in the operational system. These codes were developed at Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc. with ARM support and were extensively evaluated using detailed ARM observations. This short report describes the history of the ARM-fellowship at ECMWF and summarizes the achievements over the last 3 years. The emphasis of the ARM funded work over the last 3 years has been on further development and evaluation of a new shallow convection scheme in the context of ECMWF's Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system. The shallow convection scheme is based on the DualM approach which combines Eddy Diffusion with a Dual Mass flux concept. One of the mass fluxes describes the dry updraughts, whereas the second updraught saturates at cloud base and penetrates into the cloud. The new scheme was optimized using single column cases from a wide range of climatological regimes. Further evaluation of the 3-dimensional model using Lidar data from space (CALIPSO) clearly indicates that the resulting cloud structures are much more realistic than the ones produced by the control model (Tiedtke mass flux scheme). Additionally, data from the ARM mobile facility in 2006 in Niamey has been used to evaluate the

  7. Muscular activation patterns of the bow arm in recurve archery.

    PubMed

    Ertan, Hayri

    2009-05-01

    In archery shooting, the archer should hold the bow in place using only the pressure produced through drawing back the bowstring. Most coaches discourage the archer from gripping the bow as this is believed to produce a sideways deflecting torque on the bow and arrow during the release. The purpose of this study was to compare the bow hand forearm muscular activation patterns of elite archers with beginners to define the muscular contraction-relaxation strategies in the bow hand forearm muscles during archery shooting and investigate the effects of performance level on these strategies. Electromyographic activity of the M. flexor digitorum superficialis and the M. extensor digitorum of 10 elite and 10 beginner archers were recorded together with a pulse synchronized with the clicker snap. Raw electromyographic records as 1s before and after the clicker pulse were rectified, integrated, and normalized. The data was then averaged for successive shots of each subject and later for both groups of archers. The main difference between the elite and beginner archers was that the elite archers had a greater activation of the M. extensor digitorum, which indicates that they avoid gripping the bow-handle not only relaxing the flexor muscles, but also contracting the extensor muscle groups. This muscular contraction strategy secures the archer to not interfere with the forward movement of the bow, which is the forward acceleration of the bow caused by the pushing power of the bowstring.

  8. Bacterial skin infections, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    From 2000 through 2012, health care records of the Military Health System documented 998,671 incident cases of bacterial skin infections among active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces. Most cases (97.3%) were identified from records of outpatient medical encounters rather than hospitalizations. Cellulitis accounted for half (50.9%) of all cases of bacterial skin infection but 96 percent of associated hospital bed days. Of all cases, 42.3 percent were "other" skin infections (i.e., folliculitis, impetigo, pyoderma, pyogenic granuloma, other and unspecified infections). The remainder were attributable to carbuncles/furuncles (6.6%) and erysipelas (0.1%). Rates of infection were higher among female service members except for "other" skin infections. In general, the highest rates were associated with youth, recruit trainee status, and junior enlisted rank; however, rates of erysipelas were highest among those 50 years and older. Annual incidence rates of all bacterial skin infections have increased greatly since 2000. During the entire period, such infections required more than 1.4 million health care encounters and 94,000 hospital bed-days (equivalent to 257 years of lost duty time). The prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of bacterial skin infections, particularly in high risk settings, deserve continued emphasis.

  9. Human cervical spinal cord circuitry activated by tonic input can generate rhythmic arm movements.

    PubMed

    Solopova, I A; Selionov, V A; Zhvansky, D S; Gurfinkel, V S; Ivanenko, Y

    2016-02-01

    The coordination between arms and legs during human locomotion shares many features with that in quadrupeds, yet there is limited evidence for the central pattern generator for the upper limbs in humans. Here we investigated whether different types of tonic stimulation, previously used for eliciting stepping-like leg movements, may evoke nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. The subject was lying on the side, the trunk was fixed, and all four limbs were suspended in a gravity neutral position, allowing unrestricted low-friction limb movements in the horizontal plane. The results showed that peripheral sensory stimulation (continuous muscle vibration) and central tonic activation (postcontraction state of neuronal networks following a long-lasting isometric voluntary effort, Kohnstamm phenomenon) could evoke nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements in most subjects. In ∼40% of subjects, tonic stimulation elicited nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements together with rhythmic movements of suspended legs. The fact that not all participants exhibited nonvoluntary limb oscillations may reflect interindividual differences in responsiveness of spinal pattern generation circuitry to its activation. The occurrence and the characteristics of induced movements highlight the rhythmogenesis capacity of cervical neuronal circuitries, complementing the growing body of work on the quadrupedal nature of human gait.

  10. Stepping Out of the Shade: Control of Neuronal Activity by the Scaffold Protein Kidins220/ARMS

    PubMed Central

    Scholz-Starke, Joachim; Cesca, Fabrizia

    2016-01-01

    The correct functioning of the nervous system depends on the exquisitely fine control of neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, which relies on an intricate network of protein-protein interactions and signaling that shapes neuronal homeostasis during development and in adulthood. In this complex scenario, Kinase D interacting substrate of 220 kDa/ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (Kidins220/ARMS) acts as a multi-functional scaffold protein with preferential expression in the nervous system. Engaged in a plethora of interactions with membrane receptors, cytosolic signaling components and cytoskeletal proteins, Kidins220/ARMS is implicated in numerous cellular functions including neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth and maturation and neuronal activity, often in the context of neurotrophin (NT) signaling pathways. Recent studies have highlighted a number of cell- and context-specific roles for this protein in the control of synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability, which are at present far from being completely understood. In addition, some evidence has began to emerge, linking alterations of Kidins220 expression to the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we present a concise summary of our fragmentary knowledge of Kidins220/ARMS biological functions, focusing on the mechanism(s) by which it controls various aspects of neuronal activity. We have tried, where possible, to discuss the available evidence in the wider context of NT-mediated regulation, and to outline emerging roles of Kidins220/ARMS in human pathologies. PMID:27013979

  11. Long Arm Casting for Treatment of Trigger Finger in Children: Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Saeed Banadaky, SH; Baghianimoghadam, B

    2012-01-01

    Trigger digit in children is rare. Triggering predominantly occurs in thumbs presenting a flexion deformity of interphalangeal joint of finger. In children, the disease usually presents with a remained finger in locked flexion, unlike the adults in whom triggering is more prevalent. The pathology of the disease includes locking of the tendon over A1 pulley. Some treatment modalities have been suggested to cure the trigger thumb, such as conservative therapy without any invasive approach, and surgery. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report about casting as a treatment method for trigger finger in children. Herein, we report three cases of patients with trigger finger, who were treated by using long arm casting. PMID:22574097

  12. Probability-based prediction of activity in multiple arm muscles: implications for functional electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Chad V; Fuglevand, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) involves artificial activation of muscles with implanted electrodes to restore motor function in paralyzed individuals. The range of motor behaviors that can be generated by FES, however, is limited to a small set of preprogrammed movements such as hand grasp and release. A broader range of movements has not been implemented because of the substantial difficulty associated with identifying the patterns of muscle stimulation needed to elicit specified movements. To overcome this limitation in controlling FES systems, we used probabilistic methods to estimate the levels of muscle activity in the human arm during a wide range of free movements based on kinematic information of the upper limb. Conditional probability distributions were generated based on hand kinematics and associated surface electromyographic (EMG) signals from 12 arm muscles recorded during a training task involving random movements of the arm in one subject. These distributions were then used to predict in four other subjects the patterns of muscle activity associated with eight different movement tasks. On average, about 40% of the variance in the actual EMG signals could be accounted for in the predicted EMG signals. These results suggest that probabilistic methods ultimately might be used to predict the patterns of muscle stimulation needed to produce a wide array of desired movements in paralyzed individuals with FES.

  13. Robotic-arm stereotactic radiosurgery as a definitive treatment for gelastic epilepsy associated with hypothalamic hamartoma

    PubMed Central

    Susheela, Sridhar Papaiah; Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan J; Basavalingaiah, Ajaikumar

    2013-01-01

    Gelastic seizures, characterised by paroxysms of pathological laughter, are most often associated with an underlying hypothalamic hamartoma. This report describes the definitive treatment using stereotactic-radiosurgery for a teenaged child whose gelastic epilepsy was found refractory to various antiepileptic drugs. Since surgery was not consented to, the child was referred to us for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), which was delivered with robotic-arm -SRS to a dose of 30 Gy in five fractions in five consecutive days. A decrease in the frequency of seizures was noticeable as early as within a week, and at 12 months after the procedure, there has been a total cessation of seizures. PMID:24027254

  14. Lever arm dysfunction in cerebral palsy gait.

    PubMed

    Theologis, Tim

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal structures act as lever arms during walking. Muscle activity and the ground reaction against gravity exert forces on the skeleton, which generate torque (moments) around joints. These lead to the sequence of movements which form normal human gait. Skeletal deformities in cerebral palsy (CP) affect the function of bones as lever arms and compromise gait. Lever arm dysfunction should be carefully considered when contemplating treatment to improve gait in children with CP.

  15. Domestic politics, citizen activism, and U. S. nuclear arms control policy

    SciTech Connect

    Knopf, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The author seeks to ascertain whether and how citizens' movements concerning nuclear arms control and disarmament affect US arms control policy. The author employs a comparative case study methodology. He examines cases of the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations during the period of protest against nuclear testing, and the Reagan Administration during the nuclear weapons freeze campaign and the subsequent campaign for a comprehensive test ban. He hows there are four mechanisms through which public advocacy efforts can influence arms control policy, identifies the conditions under which each can be effective, and details the type of impact each mechanism has. Domestic activism interacts with broader public opinion in a way that creates electoral pressure; with elite-level debates in a way that removes a consensus behind presidential policy or changes the winning coalition in Congress; with bureaucratic politics, by generating ideas that have utility for some agents within the Executive; or with the public diplomacy of foreign governments, especially the Soviet Union. Citizens' movements had an impact on policy in each of the cases studied. The type and extent of impact, and the mechanisms involved in giving activism influence, are different for each case.

  16. Tracking performance of unbalanced QPSK demodulators. II - Biphase Costas loop with active arm filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    In a Costas loop study for biphase modulation conducted by Simon and Lindsey (1977), it was demonstrated that considerable improvement in tracking performance could be obtained by employing active arm filters of the integrate-and-dump type as opposed to passive arm filters. An investigation is conducted concerning the possibility to obtain a similar performance improvement for an unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keying (QPSK) modulation. It is found that the biphase Costas loop can be used as an efficient demodulator of QPSK in cases in which the ratio of data rates is of the same order of magnitude as the inverse of the power ratio. These cases involve approximately equal signal energies in the two channels.

  17. Successful Treatment of a Symptomatic Discal Cyst by Percutaneous C-arm Guided Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hyun Jeong; Park, Chan Jin

    2016-01-01

    Although discal cysts are a rare cause of low back pain and radiculopathy. Currently, surgical excision is usually the first-line treatment for discal cysts. However, alternative treatment methods have been suggested, as in some cases symptoms have improved with interventional therapies. A 27-year-old man presented with an acute onset of severe pain, and was found to have a discal cyst after an open discectomy. The patient underwent cyst aspiration and steroid injection through the facet joint under C-arm guidance. After the procedure, the patient's pain improved to NRS 0-1. On outpatient physical examination 1 week, and 1 and 3 months later, no abnormal neurological symptoms were present, and pain did not persist; thus, follow-up observation was terminated. When a discal cyst is diagnosed, it is more appropriate to consider interventional management instead of surgery as a first-line treatment, while planning for surgical resection if the symptoms do not improve or accompanying neurologic deficits progress. PMID:27103969

  18. A Visual Analytics Approach to Structured Data Analysis to Enhance Nonproliferation and Arms Control Verification Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, David S.

    2014-08-07

    Analysis activities for Nonproliferation and Arms Control verification require the use of many types of data. Tabular structured data, such as Excel spreadsheets and relational databases, have traditionally been used for data mining activities, where specific queries are issued against data to look for matching results. The application of visual analytics tools to structured data enables further exploration of datasets to promote discovery of previously unknown results. This paper discusses the application of a specific visual analytics tool to datasets related to the field of Arms Control and Nonproliferation to promote the use of visual analytics more broadly in this domain. Visual analytics focuses on analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces (Wong and Thomas 2004). It promotes exploratory analysis of data, and complements data mining technologies where known patterns can be mined for. Also with a human in the loop, they can bring in domain knowledge and subject matter expertise. Visual analytics has not widely been applied to this domain. In this paper, we will focus on one type of data: structured data, and show the results of applying a specific visual analytics tool to answer questions in the Arms Control and Nonproliferation domain. We chose to use the T.Rex tool, a visual analytics tool developed at PNNL, which uses a variety of visual exploration patterns to discover relationships in structured datasets, including a facet view, graph view, matrix view, and timeline view. The facet view enables discovery of relationships between categorical information, such as countries and locations. The graph tool visualizes node-link relationship patterns, such as the flow of materials being shipped between parties. The matrix visualization shows highly correlated categories of information. The timeline view shows temporal patterns in data. In this paper, we will use T.Rex with two different datasets to demonstrate how interactive exploration of

  19. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-01-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  20. The information needs and media preferences of Canadian cancer specialists regarding breast cancer treatment related arm morbidity.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R M; Thomas, R

    2014-01-01

    The information needs and media preferences of Canadian cancer specialists regarding breast cancer treatment related arm morbidity. Breast cancer treatment related arm morbidity is a common but pernicious condition that is under-recognised, under-diagnosed, and can result in long-term impairment and disability. Despite the prevalence of this condition, little is known about breast cancer specialists' information needs and media preferences around this issue. In-depth telephone interviews with 14 Canadian cancer specialists were conducted, and were coded and analysed using a grounded theory approach. Findings revealed that cancer specialists were open to receiving all types of information about treatment related arm morbidity, and have preferences for particular types of media formats. However, barriers that could problematise the uptake of research findings into clinical practice were also noted and included gaps in specialists' knowledge of the complex nature of treatment related lymphoedema. Hence providing specialists with summary information about arm morbidity will not suffice, and an educational campaign around this condition, including the importance of physician vigilance in regularly monitoring patients for early and latent indications of this morbidity may be necessary.

  1. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  3. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  4. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  6. C-Arm Computed Tomography Compared With Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography for Treatment Planning Before Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Christoph Waggershauser, Tobias; Tiling, Reinhold; Weckbach, Sabine; Johnson, Thorsten; Meissner, Oliver; Klingenbeck-Regn, Klaus; Reiser, Maximilian; Hoffmann, Ralf Thorsten

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether rotational C-arm computed tomography (CT) allows visualization of liver metastases and adds relevant information for radioembolization (RE) treatment planning. Technetium angiography, together with C-arm CT, was performed in 47 patients to determine the feasibility for RE. C-arm CT images were compared with positron emission tomography (PET)/CT images for the detection of liver tumors. The images were also rated according one of the following three categories: (1) images that provide no additional information compared with DSA alone; (2) images that do provide additional information compared with DSA; and (2) images that had an impact on eligibility determination for and planning of the RE procedure. In all patients, 283 FDG-positive liver lesions were detected by PET. In venous contrast-phase CT, 221 (78.1%) and 15 (5.3%) of these lesions were either hypodense or hyperdense, respectively. In C-arm CT, 103 (36.4%) liver lesions were not detectable because they were outside of either the field of view or the contrast-enhanced liver segment. Another 25 (8.8%) and 98 (34.6%) of the liver lesions were either hyperdense or presented primarily as hypodense lesions with a rim enhancement, respectively. With PET/CT as the standard of reference, venous CT and C-arm CT failed to detect 47 (16.6%) and 57 (20.1%) of all liver lesions, respectively. For RE planning, C-arm CT provided no further information, provide some additional information, or had an impact on the procedure in 20 (42.5%), 15 (31.9%) and 12 (25.6%) of patients, respectively. We conclude that C-arm CT may add decisive information in patients scheduled for RE.

  7. Immobilization of pectinase on silica-based supports: Impacts of particle size and spacer arm on the activity.

    PubMed

    Alagöz, Dilek; Tükel, S Seyhan; Yildirim, Deniz

    2016-06-01

    The pectinase was separately immobilized onto Florisil and nano silica supports through both glutaraldehyde and 3-glyoxypropyltrietoxysilane spacer arms. The effects of spacer arm, particle size of support and ionic liquids on the activities of pectinase preparations were investigated. The immobilization of pectinase onto Florisil and nano silica through 3-glyoxypropyltrietoxysilane spacer arm completely led to inactivation of enzyme; however, 10 and 75% pectinase activity were retained when it was immobilized through glutaraldehyde spacer arm onto Florisil and nano silica, respectively. The pectinase immobilized onto nano silica through glutaraldehyde spacer arm showed 6.3-fold higher catalytic efficiency than that of the pectinase immobilized onto Florisil through same spacer arm. A 2.3-fold increase in thermal stability of pectinase was provided upon immobilization onto nano silica at 35°C. The effects of IL/buffer mixture and volume ratio of IL/buffer mixture on the catalytic activities of free and immobilized pectinase preparations were also tested. All the pectinase preparations showed highest activity in 10% (v/v) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate containing medium and their activities significantly affected from the concentration of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate.

  8. Self-Administered, Home-Based SMART (Sensorimotor Active Rehabilitation Training) Arm Training: A Single-Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Kathryn S; Neibling, Bridee A; Barker, Ruth N

    2015-01-01

    This single-case, mixed-method study explored the feasibility of self-administered, home-based SMART (sensorimotor active rehabilitation training) Arm training for a 57-yr-old man with severe upper-limb disability after a right frontoparietal hemorrhagic stroke 9 mo earlier. Over 4 wk of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training, the participant completed 2,100 repetitions unassisted. His wife provided support for equipment set-up and training progressions. Clinically meaningful improvements in arm impairment (strength), activity (arm and hand tasks), and participation (use of arm in everyday tasks) occurred after training (at 4 wk) and at follow-up (at 16 wk). Areas for refinement of SMART Arm training derived from thematic analysis of the participant's and researchers' journals focused on enabling independence, ensuring home and user friendliness, maintaining the motivation to persevere, progressing toward everyday tasks, and integrating practice into daily routine. These findings suggest that further investigation of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training is warranted for people with stroke who have severe upper-limb disability.

  9. Viral hepatitis A, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2011-08-01

    From 2000 to 2010, there were 214 incident diagnoses of acute hepatitis A among active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces; the crude overall incidence rate during the period was 1.37 per 100,000 person-years. Rates of incident diagnoses of acute hepatitis A were relatively low throughout the period and much lower than during the pre-vaccine era (1990-1996). There were disproportionate numbers of diagnoses of acute hepatitis A among service members born in countries endemic for the infection. The low rates of acute hepatitis A among U.S. military members overall reflect the widespread use of hepatitis A virus vaccine.

  10. Identification of laminin α5 short arm peptides active for endothelial cell attachment and tube formation.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Sugawara, Yumika; Harashima, Nozomi; Fujii, Shogo; Ikari, Kazuki; Kumai, Jun; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hozumi, Kentaro; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2017-02-21

    Laminin-511, a major component of endothelial basement membrane, consists of α5, β1, and γ1 chains. The short arm region of the α5 chain is a structural feature of endothelial laminins. In this study, we identified active sequences for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides. The short arm of the α5 chain contains three globular domains [laminin N-terminal globular domain, laminin 4 domain a, and laminin 4 domain b (LN, L4a, and L4b)] and three rod-like elements [laminin epidermal growth factor-like domain a, b, and c (LEa, LEb, and LEc)]. The cell attachment assay using recombinant proteins showed that RGD-independent cell attachment sites were localized in the α5LN-LEa domain. Further, we synthesized 70 peptides covering the amino acid sequences of the α5LN-LEa domain. Of the 70 peptides, A5-16 (mouse laminin α5 230-243: LENGEIVVSLVNGR) potently exhibited endothelial cell attachment activity. An active sequence analysis using N-terminally and C-terminally truncated A5-16 peptides showed that the nine-amino acid sequence IVVSLVNGR was critical for the endothelial cell attachment activity. Cell adhesion to the peptides was dependent on both cations and heparan sulfate. Further, the A5-16 peptide inhibited the capillary-like tube formation of HUVECs with the cells forming small clumps with short tubes. The eight-amino acid sequence EIVVSLVN in the A5-16 peptide was critical to inhibit HUVEC tube formation. This amino acid sequence could be useful for grafts and thus modulate endothelial cell behavior for vascular surgery. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Human force discrimination during active arm motion for force feedback design.

    PubMed

    Feyzabadi, Seyedshams; Straube, Sirko; Folgheraiter, Michele; Kirchner, Elsa Andrea; Kim, Su Kyoung; Albiez, Jan Christian

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the human ability of external force discrimination while actively moving the arm. With the approach presented here, we give an overview for the whole arm of the just-noticeable differences (JNDs) for controlled movements separately executed for the wrist, elbow, and shoulder joints. The work was originally motivated in the design phase of the actuation system of a wearable exoskeleton, which is used in a teleoperation scenario where force feedback should be provided to the subject. The amount of this force feedback has to be calibrated according to the human force discrimination abilities. In the experiments presented here, 10 subjects performed a series of movements facing an opposing force from a commercial haptic interface. Force changes had to be detected in a two-alternative forced choice task. For each of the three joints tested, perceptual thresholds were measured as absolute thresholds (no reference force) and three JNDs corresponding to three reference forces chosen. For this, we used the outcome of the QUEST procedure after 70 trials. Using these four measurements we computed the Weber fraction. Our results demonstrate that different Weber fractions can be measured with respect to the joint. These were 0.11, 0.13, and 0.08 for wrist, elbow, and shoulder, respectively. It is discussed that force perception may be affected by the number of muscles involved and the reproducibility of the movement itself. The minimum perceivable force, on average, was 0.04 N for all three joints.

  12. Social Support and Treatment Outcome in Alcohol Dependence Syndrome in Armed Forces

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinay Singh; Azad, Sudip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Social factors play vital role in unfolding of alcohol use disorders in any given population. Several factors beyond the confines of treatment settings influence treatment outcome in alcohol dependence syndrome. Social support has positive effect in treatment outcome of alcohol dependence syndrome. This has not been much studied in India in past. Therefore we decided to study the perception of social support in cases of alcohol dependence syndrome admitted in a busy hospital in armed forces. Aim The aim was to study the perception of social support across relapsed and abstinent group and see if it reached any statistical proportion and also to see if any socio-demographic variables also affected perception of social support. Materials and Methods Fifty five consecutive male patients of alcohol dependent syndrome without a co-morbid neurological/psychiatric diagnosis were assessed for their perception of social support after taking informed consent. They were explained the procedure and their alcoholic milestones were recorded in specially designed pro-forma. Subjects were then divided in abstinent and relapsed group. Subsequently they were assessed for their perception of social support by administering Social provision scale and Social support questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Data were tabulated and statistically analysed by using chi square test, Mann Whitney U-Test and Rank ANOVA test where applicable p-value <.05 was taken as significant. Results Results indicated that perception of social support across abstinent (n=18) and relapsed (n= 37) group reached significant statistical proportion as measured by social provision scale and social support questionnaire. Duration of use, dependence and family history of alcoholism did not influence perception of social support across patient population. There was inverse relationship between patients with alcohol related problem and their perception of social support. Professional and qualified soldiers

  13. Shoulder muscle activity in Parkinson's disease during multijoint arm movements across a range of speeds.

    PubMed

    Farley, Becky G; Sherman, Scott; Koshland, Gail F

    2004-01-01

    Bradykinesia is one of the primary symptoms of Parkinson disease and leads to significant functional limitations for patients. Single joint movement studies, that have investigated the mechanism of bradykinesia, suggest that several features of muscle activity are disrupted, including modulation of burst amplitude and duration, and the number of bursts. It has been proposed that it is the blending of these different burst deficits that collectively defines bradykinesia. This study adds two new approaches to the study of bradykinesia. First, we examined the features of shoulder muscle activities during multijoint arm movement in bradykinetic and control subjects, such that previously reported single joint hypotheses could be tested for generalized arm movement. Second, we directly manipulated speed while keeping distance constant for a large range of speeds. In this manner, we could compare individual trials of muscle activity between controls and subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) for movements matched for both speed and movement duration. Our results showed that while a multiple burst pattern of shoulder muscles was a common strategy for all subjects (young, elderly controls and PD), subjects with PD showed several burst abnormalities, including deficits in initial agonist burst amplitude and duration at both fast and slow speeds. Subjects with PD also (1) failed to produce a one-burst pattern at fast speeds and, instead, produced a predominance of multiple burst patterns and (2) showed a relationship between the number of burst deficits and the severity of disease. These results extend the findings of single joint studies to multi-joint and similarly indicate that a combination of burst modulation abnormalities correlate with bradykinesia and disease severity.

  14. The Resonating Arm Exerciser: design and pilot testing of a mechanically passive rehabilitation device that mimics robotic active assistance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Robotic arm therapy devices that incorporate actuated assistance can enhance arm recovery, motivate patients to practice, and allow therapists to deliver semi-autonomous training. However, because such devices are often complex and actively apply forces, they have not achieved widespread use in rehabilitation clinics or at home. This paper describes the design and pilot testing of a simple, mechanically passive device that provides robot-like assistance for active arm training using the principle of mechanical resonance. Methods The Resonating Arm Exerciser (RAE) consists of a lever that attaches to the push rim of a wheelchair, a forearm support, and an elastic band that stores energy. Patients push and pull on the lever to roll the wheelchair back and forth by about 20 cm around a neutral position. We performed two separate pilot studies of the device. In the first, we tested whether the predicted resonant properties of RAE amplified a user’s arm mobility by comparing his or her active range of motion (AROM) in the device achieved during a single, sustained push and pull to the AROM achieved during rocking. In a second pilot study designed to test the therapeutic potential of the device, eight participants with chronic stroke (35 ± 24 months since injury) and a mean, stable, initial upper extremity Fugl-Meyer (FM) score of 17 ± 8 / 66 exercised with RAE for eight 45 minute sessions over three weeks. The primary outcome measure was the average AROM measured with a tilt sensor during a one minute test, and the secondary outcome measures were the FM score and the visual analog scale for arm pain. Results In the first pilot study, we found people with a severe motor impairment after stroke intuitively found the resonant frequency of the chair, and the mechanical resonance of RAE amplified their arm AROM by a factor of about 2. In the second pilot study, AROM increased by 66% ± 20% (p = 0.003). The mean FM score increase was 8.5 ± 4 pts (p = 0

  15. Recovery of post stroke proximal arm function, driven by complex neuroplastic bilateral brain activation patterns and predicted by baseline motor dysfunction severity

    PubMed Central

    Pundik, Svetlana; McCabe, Jessica P.; Hrovat, Ken; Fredrickson, Alice Erica; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Feng, I Jung; Daly, Janis J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Neuroplastic changes that drive recovery of shoulder/elbow function after stroke have been poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between neuroplastic brain changes related to shoulder/elbow movement control in response to treatment and recovery of arm motor function in chronic stroke survivors.Methods: Twenty-three chronic stroke survivors were treated with 12 weeks of arm rehabilitation. Outcome measures included functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) for the shoulder/elbow components of reach and a skilled motor function test (Arm Motor Abilities Test, AMAT), collected before and after treatment.Results: We observed two patterns of neuroplastic changes that were associated with gains in motor function: decreased or increased task-related brain activation. Those with significantly better motor function at baseline exhibited a decrease in brain activation in response to treatment, evident in the ipsilesional primary motor and contralesional supplementary motor regions; in contrast, those with greater baseline motor impairment, exhibited increased brain activation in response to treatment. There was a linear relationship between greater functional gain (AMAT) and increased activation in bilateral primary motor, contralesional primary and secondary sensory regions, and contralesional lateral premotor area, after adjusting for baseline AMAT, age, and time since stroke.Conclusions: Recovery of functional reach involves recruitment of several contralesional and bilateral primary motor regions. In response to intensive therapy, the direction of functional brain change (i.e., increase or decrease in task-related brain recruitment) for shoulder/elbow reach components depends on baseline level of motor function and may represent either different phases of recovery or different patterns of neuroplasticity that drive functional recovery. PMID:26257623

  16. Arm Care. Relief and Prevention for Shoulder Tendonitis, Tennis Elbow, Bursitis and Wrist Sprain in Athletics and Other Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nirschl, Robert P.

    The book provides a practical and meaningful treatment program for athletes involved in sports which injure the arm or shoulder to a high degree, such as tennis, baseball, swimming, raquetball, pole vaulting, javelin throwing, and weight training. The book's chapters present information on: (1) symptoms of injury; (2) the anatomy of injury; (3)…

  17. Power considerations for trials of two experimental arms versus a standard active control or placebo.

    PubMed

    Hasselblad, Vic

    2016-10-01

    The power of the two-experimental arm trial depends on three choices: (1) when one arm is dropped (if at all); (2) the final testing procedure, assuming no dropping; and (3) the sampling ratio for the three arms. Multiple-arm designs require critical values which were calculated using Mathematica. Power calculations were exact based on probabilities from binomial distributions. The "drop the loser" strategy is optimal for the primary endpoint. The equal sized two treated arm trial gives reasonable power for the primary as well as good power to select the best treated arm. The best power was provided by the 3:3:4 sampling, but it was only marginally better.

  18. Treatment Barriers and Support for Male Ex-Armed Forces Personnel in Prison: Professional and Service User Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Verity; McDonnell, Sharon; Lennox, Charlotte; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2016-03-15

    Ex-armed forces personnel represent a potentially vulnerable group within the prison population. To provide support to this group, we need to understand their needs and help-seeking behavior. A focus group with professionals and semi-structured interviews with service users explored perspectives of the treatment barriers faced by this group and their support needs. Data were analyzed using constant comparison methods, and four primary themes were identified. The findings suggest ex-armed forces personnel consider prison an opportunity to access support but find it difficult to ask for help. Staff having an awareness of military issues was thought to encourage help-seeking, but the variability of provision across prison establishments was considered a barrier. Resettlement was a prominent concern, and access to support when preparing for, and after, release was felt by all participants to be important. Implications for the provision of support in prison are discussed along with recommendations for practice.

  19. Oscillatory activity in the subthalamic nucleus during arm reaching in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Joundi, Raed A; Brittain, John-Stuart; Green, Alex L; Aziz, Tipu Z; Brown, Peter; Jenkinson, Ned

    2012-08-01

    Oscillatory activities in the brain within the beta (15-30 Hz) and gamma (70-90 Hz) ranges have been implicated in the generation of voluntary movement. However, their roles remain unclear. Here, we record local field potential activity from the region of the subthalamic nucleus during movement of the contralateral limb in 11 patients with Parkinson's disease. Patients were on their normal dopaminergic medication and were cued to perform arm-reaching movements after a delay period at three different speeds: 'slow', 'normal', and 'fast'. Beta activity desynchronized earlier in response to the cue indicating an upcoming fast reach than to the cues for slow or normal speed movement. There was no difference in the degree of beta desynchronization between reaching speeds and beta desynchronization was established prior to movement onset in all cases. In contrast, synchronization in the gamma range developed during the reaching movement, and was especially pronounced during fast reaching. Thus the timing of suppression in the beta band depended on task demands, whereas the degree of increase in gamma oscillations depended on movement speed. These findings point to functionally segregated roles for different oscillatory frequencies in motor preparation and performance.

  20. Update: Exertional hyponatremia, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 1999-2013.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    From 1999 through 2013, there were 1,406 incident diagnoses of exertional hyponatremia among active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces. Annual incidence rates rose sharply from 2008 to 2010 but decreased by 59 percent from 2010 to 2013. In 2013, there were fewer incident cases (n=73) than in any of the previous 9 years. The recent decrease in overall rates reflects sharply declining rates in the Marine Corps and slight decreases in the other Services. Relative to their respective counterparts, crude incidence rates of exertional hyponatremia for the entire 15-year surveillance period were higher among females, those in the youngest age group, Marines, recruit trainees, and "other" military occupations. Service members (particularly recruit trainees) and their supervisors must be vigilant for early signs of heat-related illnesses and must be knowledgeable of the dangers of excessive water consumption and the prescribed limits for water intake during prolonged physical activity (e.g., field training exercises, personal fitness training, recreational activities) in hot, humid weather.

  1. Tuberculosis trends in the U.S. Armed Forces, active component, 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, James D; Aaron, Christopher L

    2013-05-01

    Members of the Armed Forces represent a segment of the U.S. population that may be at increased risk for tuberculosis (TB) infection, disease, and transmission due to overseas service in endemic areas and residence in congregate settings. The purpose of this study was to examine recent surveillance trends and risk factors associated with TB disease in the active component U.S. military. The rate of TB in the U.S. military -0.6 per 100,000 population (n=128) over the interval from 1998 to 2012 - was lower than the age-adjusted rate among the U.S. population (adjusted rate ratio=0.20) over the same time interval. During the last five years of the surveillance period, the most common factor associated with the diagnosis of TB disease during military service was latent infection at time of accession; also, as many as nine (24%) cases of TB were associated with deployment to Iraq or other military exposures. TB control activities should continue to mitigate unique military exposures such as crowding during recruit training and deployments to TB endemic areas.

  2. Active treatment for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kobernick, Aaron K; Burks, A Wesley

    2016-10-01

    Food allergy has grown in rapidly in prevalence, currently affecting 5% of adults and 8% of children. Management strategy is currently limited to 1) food avoidance and 2) carrying and using rescue intramuscular epinephrine/adrenaline and oral antihistamines in the case of accidental ingestion; there is no FDA approved treatment. Recently, oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy have been developed as active treatment of food allergy, though none have completed phase 3 study. Efficacy and safety studies of immunotherapy have been variable, though there is clearly signal that immunotherapy will be a viable option to desensitize patients. The use of bacterial adjuvants, anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies, and Chinese herbal formulations either alone or in addition to immunotherapy may hold promise as future options for active treatment. Active prevention of food allergy through early introduction of potentially offending foods in high-risk infants will be an important means to slow the rising incidence of sensitization.

  3. Us'em: the user-centered design of a device for motivating stroke patients to use their impaired arm-hand in daily life activities.

    PubMed

    Markopoulos, Panos; Timmermans, Annick A A; Beursgens, Luuk; van Donselaar, Rik; Seelen, Henk A M

    2011-01-01

    Stroke leaves the majority of its survivors with an impairment of the upper extremity that affects their ability to live independently and their quality of life. Rehabilitation research shows that practice of everyday life activities in a natural context may sustain or even improve arm-hand performance, even during chronic stages after stroke. Based on this insight we designed, developed and evaluated Us'em; this consists of two watch-like accelerometry devices that provide feedback to stroke patients regarding the usage of their impaired versus their non-affected upper extremity. System usability and treatment credibility/expectancy were evaluated positively by therapists and patients.

  4. Gastrointestinal infections, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    Acute gastroenteritis and other infectious disorders of the gastrointestinal system are common in civilian and military populations. During the years 2002 through 2012, there were 286,305 cases of gastrointestinal infection (GI) diagnosed among members of the active component of the U.S. Armed Forces. The distribution of presumed causes of these illnesses (as reported in administrative medical records) was bacterial (29%), viral (68%), and parasitic (3%). Most recorded diagnoses did not specify an etiologic agent. In addition, there were 379,509 other healthcare encounters in which the recorded diagnosis was simply "diarrhea." During the period, rates of hospitalization for Clostridium difficile and "ill-defined intestinal infection" increased greatly. In the outpatient setting, rates of GI diagnoses remained stable or declined, but rates of non-specific "diarrhea" increased steadily. Among reportable infectious causes of GI, rates of both campylobacteriosis and norovirus diagnoses increased steadily since 2009. Among deployed service members with GI during the period 2005 through 2012, viral agents were most often recorded as the underlying etiology (60%). Salmonellosis was the most frequent specific bacterial etiology diagnosed among deployed service members. Countermeasures against GI among service member should be emphasized in military education programs at all levels, during field training exercises, and particularly in deployment settings.

  5. Incident diagnoses of leishmaniasis, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 2001-2016.

    PubMed

    Stahlman, Shauna; Williams, Valerie F; Taubman, Stephen B

    2017-02-01

    During the surveillance period, there were 2,040 incident diagnoses/reports of leishmaniasis among members of the U.S. Armed Forces. Cutaneous leishmaniasis accounted for more than three-fifths (61.0%) of the total diagnoses/ reports among active component service members and for less than half (48.0%) of the total cases among reserve component members. The visceral form of leishmaniasis represented 1.2% of the total cases. Approximately two-fifths (40.6%) of the total diagnoses/reports were classified as "unspecified" with respect to the type of leishmaniasis. The lowest annual numbers of diagnoses/reports in the past decade were seen in 2011-2016 and reached a nadir of 11 cases in 2015. During the entire surveillance period, 71.7% of the total leishmaniasis cases were diagnosed or reported during the 7 months from early autumn to the beginning of spring (September-March) in the northern hemisphere. The majority of cases acquired in the Middle East (73.6%), South/Central America (87.5%), and other or unknown locations (64.5%) were diagnosed or reported during this 7-month interval.

  6. Using pilot data to size a two-arm randomized trial to find a nearly optimal personalized treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Laber, Eric B; Zhao, Ying-Qi; Regh, Todd; Davidian, Marie; Tsiatis, Anastasios; Stanford, Joseph B; Zeng, Donglin; Song, Rui; Kosorok, Michael R

    2016-04-15

    A personalized treatment strategy formalizes evidence-based treatment selection by mapping patient information to a recommended treatment. Personalized treatment strategies can produce better patient outcomes while reducing cost and treatment burden. Thus, among clinical and intervention scientists, there is a growing interest in conducting randomized clinical trials when one of the primary aims is estimation of a personalized treatment strategy. However, at present, there are no appropriate sample size formulae to assist in the design of such a trial. Furthermore, because the sampling distribution of the estimated outcome under an estimated optimal treatment strategy can be highly sensitive to small perturbations in the underlying generative model, sample size calculations based on standard (uncorrected) asymptotic approximations or computer simulations may not be reliable. We offer a simple and robust method for powering a single stage, two-armed randomized clinical trial when the primary aim is estimating the optimal single stage personalized treatment strategy. The proposed method is based on inverting a plugin projection confidence interval and is thereby regular and robust to small perturbations of the underlying generative model. The proposed method requires elicitation of two clinically meaningful parameters from clinical scientists and uses data from a small pilot study to estimate nuisance parameters, which are not easily elicited. The method performs well in simulated experiments and is illustrated using data from a pilot study of time to conception and fertility awareness.

  7. Using pilot data to size a two-arm randomized trial to find a nearly optimal personalized treatment strategy

    PubMed Central

    Laber, Eric B.; Zhao, Ying-Qi; Regh, Todd; Davidian, Marie; Tsiatis, Anastasios; Stanford, Joseph B.; Zeng, Donglin; Song, Rui; Kosorok, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    A personalized treatment strategy formalizes evidence-based treatment selection by mapping patient information to a recommended treatment. Personalized treatment strategies can produce better patient outcomes while reducing cost and treatment burden. Thus, among clinical and intervention scientists, there is a growing interest in conducting randomized clinical trials when one of the primary aims is estimation of a personalized treatment strategy. However, at present, there are no appropriate sample size formulae to assist in the design of such a trial. Furthermore, because the sampling distribution of the estimated outcome under an estimated optimal treatment strategy can be highly sensitive to small perturbations in the underlying generative model, sample size calculations based on standard (uncorrected) asymptotic approximations or computer simulations may not be reliable. We offer a simple and robust method for powering a single stage, two-armed randomized clinical trial when the primary aim is estimating the optimal single stage personalized treatment strategy. The proposed method is based on inverting a plugin projection confidence interval and is thereby regular and robust to small perturbations of the underlying generative model. The proposed method requires elicitation of two clinically-meaningful parameters from clinical scientists and uses data from a small pilot study to estimate nuisance parameters which are not easily elicited. The method performs well in simulated experiments and is illustrated using data from a pilot study of time to conception and fertility awareness. PMID:26506890

  8. Automated recording of rat activity in a 6-arm radial maze for routine evaluation of behaviour in subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, R E; Oettinger, R

    1987-10-01

    Using the 6-arm radial maze constructed by Bättig et al. and FitzGerald at el., the spatial locomotor activity of rats can be characterized during five-minute-sessions. Due to the complexity of the maze the rats keep patrolling the gangways without being rewarded for it. The optimal behaviour is reached by visiting all six arms successively until a visit is repeated. Hippocampal lesioned rats, with the according behavioural disturbances, show more reenterings than the control animals. Each arm of the maze is provided with a short blind alley and a long main gangway. After several trials, blind alley entries reach a low and stable level: the rat enters the main arm rather than the blind alley. The decision of entering the main alley depends on the "reference memory", of entering the alleys in the proper sequence, depends on the "working memory". Thus, correlates of long- and short-term memory can be studied. Rats learn to achieve the proper maze behaviour during five successive daily sessions each of a five minute term. By then they have reached a stable behaviour. The monitoring by photobeams of the rat-behaviour is reconstructed by a microprocessor and automatically evaluated.

  9. Nonsurgical Korean Integrative Treatments for Symptomatic Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Three-Armed Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kiok; Shin, Kyung-Min; Lee, Jun-Hwan; Seo, Bok-Nam; Jung, So-Young; Youn, Yousuk; Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Jaehong; Qu, Wenchun

    2016-01-01

    This is a study protocol for a pilot three-armed randomized controlled trial on nonsurgical integrative Korean medicinal treatment for symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Thirty-six participants who have been diagnosed with (LSS) and recommended for spinal surgery by neurosurgeons or orthopedics and have had spinal symptoms such as severe low back pain and neurological claudication regardless of at least three months of conservative treatments will be recruited. Participants will be randomly assigned to be one of the three intervention groups, including the Mokhuri treatment program group 1 or 2 or usual care group. All treatments will be administered in inpatient units over a period of 4 weeks. The primary outcomes are 0 to 100 Visual Analogue Scales for low back pain and leg pain and the secondary outcomes are Oswestry Disability Index; EQ-5D; Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire; Oxford Claudication Score; physical function test, including treadmill test, walking duration, and distance assessment for free leg pain; radiologic testing; and adverse events which will be assessed during the 4-week treatment period as well as after 3 and 6 months of follow-up. Then, we will assess the feasibility of the clinical trial design as well as a nonsurgical integrative treatment program. This trial is registered with CRIS registration number: KCT0001218. PMID:26941823

  10. Cortical activation during robotic therapy for a severely affected arm in a chronic stroke patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Satoru; Matsushima, Yasuyuki; Hachisuka, Kenji

    2008-06-01

    The use of robotic-aided therapy in a patient with residual damage from a previous stroke was an attempt to improve function in a moderate to severe hemiparetic arm. Cortical activities associated with motor recovery are not well documented and require investigation. A chronic stroke patient with a severely affected arm underwent a robotic-training program for 12 weeks. The robotic-aided therapy improved motor control and spasticity in the proximal upper-limb. An increased oxygenated hemoglobin level was observed at the motor-related area in the affected hemisphere. A 12-week robotic-aided training program used in a chronic stroke patient demonstrated elements of motor recovery, and was also associated with direct activation of the affected hemisphere.

  11. Evaluation of EMG, force and joystick as control interfaces for active arm supports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    findings we concluded that all the control interfaces considered in this study can be regarded as a candidate interface for the control of an active arm support. PMID:24746015

  12. Inspiratory muscle fatigue affects latissimus dorsi but not pectoralis major activity during arms only front crawl sprinting.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Mitch; Tasker, Louise; Bostanci, Ozgur

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) affects the muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major during maximal arms only front crawl swimming. Eight collegiate swimmers were recruited to perform 2 maximal 20-second arms only front crawl sprints in a swimming flume. Both sprints were performed on the same day, and IMF was induced 30 minutes after the first (control) sprint. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures (PImax and PEmax, respectively) were measured before and after each sprint. The median frequency (MDF) of the electromyographic signal burst was recorded from the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major during each 20-second sprint along with stroke rate and breathing frequency. Median frequency was assessed in absolute units (Hz) and then referenced to the start of the control sprint for normalization. After IMF inducement, stroke rate increased from 56 ± 4 to 59 ± 5 cycles per minute, and latissimus dorsi MDF fell from 67 ± 11 Hz at the start of the sprint to 61 ± 9 Hz at the end. No change was observed in the MDF of the latissimus dorsi during the control sprint. Conversely, the MDF of the pectoralis major shifted to lower frequencies during both sprints but was unaffected by IMF. As the latter induced fatigue in the latissimus dorsi, which was not otherwise apparent during maximal arms only control sprinting, the presence of IMF affects the activity of the latissimus dorsi during front crawl sprinting.

  13. Interferon β-1a for the treatment of Ebola virus disease: A historically controlled, single-arm proof-of-concept trial

    PubMed Central

    Konde, Mandy Kader; Baker, Darren P.; Traore, Fode Amara; Sow, Mamadou Saliou; Camara, Alioune; Barry, Alpha Amadou; Mara, Doussou; Barry, Abdoulaye; Cone, Moussa 3; Kaba, Ibrahima; Richard, Amento Ablam; Beavogui, Abdoul Habib; Günther, Stephan; Pintilie, Melania; Fish, Eleanor N.

    2017-01-01

    To date there are no approved antiviral drugs for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD). Based on our in vitro evidence of antiviral activity of interferon (IFN)-ß activity against Ebola virus, we conducted a single arm clinical study in Guinea to evaluate the safety and therapeutic efficacy of IFN β-1a treatment for EVD. Nine individuals infected with Ebola virus were treated with IFN β-1a and compared retrospectively with a matched cohort of 21 infected patients receiving standardized supportive care only during the same time period at the same treatment unit. Cognizant of the limitations of having treated only 9 individuals with EVD, the data collected are cautiously considered. When compared to supportive care only, IFN β-1a treatment seemed to facilitate viral clearance from the blood and appeared associated with earlier resolution of disease symptoms. Survival, calculated from the date of consent for those in the trial and date of admission from those in the control cohort, to the date of death, was 19% for those receiving supportive care only, compared to 67% for those receiving supportive care plus IFN β-1a. Given the differences in baseline blood viremia between the control cohort and the IFN-treated cohort, an additional 17 controls were included for a subset analysis, from other treatment units in Guinea, matched with the IFN-treated patients based on age and baseline blood viremia. Subset analyses using this expanded control cohort suggests that patients without IFN β-1a treatment were ~ 1.5–1.9 fold more likely to die than those treated. Viewed altogether the results suggest a rationale for further clinical evaluation of IFN β-1a. PMID:28225767

  14. The effects of horseback riding simulator exercises on the muscle activity of the lower extremities according to changes in arm posture

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong; Lee, Daehee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of horseback riding simulator exercise on the muscle activities of the lower extremities according to changes in arm posture. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 30 normal adult males and females. [Methods] The horseback riding simulator exercise used a horseback riding simulator device; two arm postures were used, posture 1 (holding the handle of the device) and posture 2 (crossing both arms, with both hands on the shoulders). Electromyography was used to compare the muscle activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and hip adductors in the lower extremities. [Results] Posture 2 had significantly higher muscle activity than posture 1. [Conclusion] Posture 2, which entailed crossing both arms with both hands on the shoulders, was an effective intervention for improved muscle activity in the hip adductors. PMID:26504280

  15. Valid and reliable instruments for arm-hand assessment at ICF activity level in persons with hemiplegia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Loss of arm-hand performance due to a hemiparesis as a result of stroke or cerebral palsy (CP), leads to large problems in daily life of these patients. Assessment of arm-hand performance is important in both clinical practice and research. To gain more insight in e.g. effectiveness of common therapies for different patient populations with similar clinical characteristics, consensus regarding the choice and use of outcome measures is paramount. To guide this choice, an overview of available instruments is necessary. The aim of this systematic review is to identify, evaluate and categorize instruments, reported to be valid and reliable, assessing arm-hand performance at the ICF activity level in patients with stroke or cerebral palsy. Methods A systematic literature search was performed to identify articles containing instruments assessing arm-hand skilled performance in patients with stroke or cerebral palsy. Instruments were identified and divided into the categories capacity, perceived performance and actual performance. A second search was performed to obtain information on their content and psychometrics. Results Regarding capacity, perceived performance and actual performance, 18, 9 and 3 instruments were included respectively. Only 3 of all included instruments were used and tested in both patient populations. The content of the instruments differed widely regarding the ICF levels measured, assessment of the amount of use versus the quality of use, the inclusion of unimanual and/or bimanual tasks and the inclusion of basic and/or extended tasks. Conclusions Although many instruments assess capacity and perceived performance, a dearth exists of instruments assessing actual performance. In addition, instruments appropriate for more than one patient population are sparse. For actual performance, new instruments have to be developed, with specific focus on the usability in different patient populations and the assessment of quality of use as well as

  16. Virtual reality compared with in vivo exposure in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: a three-arm randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Stéphane; Dumoulin, Stéphanie; Robillard, Geneviève; Guitard, Tanya; Klinger, Évelyne; Forget, Hélène; Loranger, Claudie; Roucaut, François Xavier

    2017-04-01

    BackgroundPeople with social anxiety disorder (SAD) fear social interactions and may be reluctant to seek treatments involving exposure to social situations. Social exposure conducted in virtual reality (VR), embedded in individual cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), could be an answer.AimsTo show that conducting VR exposure in CBT for SAD is effective and is more practical for therapists than conducting exposure in vivoMethodParticipants were randomly assigned to either VR exposure (n = 17), in vivo exposure (n = 22) or waiting list (n = 20). Participants in the active arms received individual CBT for 14 weekly sessions and outcome was assessed with questionnaires and a behaviour avoidance test. (Trial registration number ISRCTN99747069)ResultsImprovements were found on the primary (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale) and all five secondary outcome measures in both CBT groups compared with the waiting list. Conducting exposure in VR was more effective at post-treatment than in vivo on the primary outcome measure and on one secondary measure. Improvements were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. VR was significantly more practical for therapists than in vivo exposure.ConclusionsUsing VR can be advantageous over standard CBT as a potential solution for treatment avoidance and as an efficient, cost-effective and practical medium of exposure.

  17. Robotic arm

    DOEpatents

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  18. Electromyographic investigation of hypnotic arm levitation: differences between voluntary arm elevation and involuntary arm levitation.

    PubMed

    Peter, Burkhard; Schiebler, Philipp; Piesbergen, Christoph; Hagl, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-three volunteers were randomly exposed to 3 conditions: hypnotic arm levitation, holding up the arm voluntarily without hypnosis, and imagined arm lifting without hypnosis. Trapezius, deltoid, extensor digitorum, flexor digitorum profundus, biceps brachii, and triceps brachii muscles were measured. Strain and muscle activity during lifting and holding up the right arm for 3 minutes were used as dependent variables. During hypnotic arm levitation, the total muscle activity was lower than during holding it up voluntarily (p < .01); the activity in the deltoid was 27% lower (p < .001). Without hypnosis, the muscle activity showed a positive correlation with strain. However, there was no such correlation in the hypnotic condition. Apparently, it is possible to reduce strain and to objectively measure muscle activity in an uplifted arm through hypnotic arm levitation.

  19. ARM for Platform Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patte, Mathieu; Poupat, Jean-Luc; Le Meur, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The activities described in this paper are part of the CNES R&T “Study of a Cortex-R ARM based architecture” performed by Airbus DS Space System & Electronics in 2014. With the support of CNES, Airbus DS has performed the porting of a representative space application software on an ARM based demonstration platform. This paper presents the platform itself, the activities performed at software level and the first results on this evaluation study.

  20. The effects of arm movement on reaction time in patients with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Marzieh; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Maroufi, Nader; Ahmadi, Amir; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Emrani, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Myofascial pain syndrome is a significant source of mechanical pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of arm movement on reaction time in females with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point. Methods: In this interventional study, a convenience sample of fifteen women with one active MTP, fifteen women with one latent MTP in the upper trapezius, and fifteen normal healthy women were participated. Participants were asked to stand for 10 seconds in an erect standing position. Muscle reaction times were recorded including anterior deltoid (AD), cervical paraspinal (CP) lumbar paraspinal (LP), both of upper trapezius (UT), sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and medial head of gastrocnemius (GcM). Participants were asked to flex their arms in response to a sound stimulus preceded by a warning sound stimulus. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA Test. Results: There was significant differences in motor time and reaction time between active and control groups (p< 0.05) except for GcM. There was no significant difference in motor time between active and passive groups except for UT without MTP and SCM (p< 0.05). Also, there were no significant differences in motor times between latent MTP and control groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in premotor times between the three groups. Conclusion: The present study shows that patients with active MTP need more time to react to stimulus, but patients with latent MTP are similar to healthy subjects in the reaction time. Patients with active MTP had less compatibility with environmental stimulations, and they responded to a specific stimulation with variability in Surface Electromyography (SEMG). PMID:26913258

  1. Experimental Treatment of Ebola Virus Disease with TKM-130803: A Single-Arm Phase 2 Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rojek, Amanda; Gannon, Fiona; Carson, Gail; Idriss, Baimba; Massaquoi, Thomas; Gandi, Regina; Joseph, Sebatu; Osman, Hassan K.; Brooks, Timothy J. G.; Simpson, Andrew J. H.; Goodfellow, Ian; Thorne, Lucy; Arias, Armando; Merson, Laura; Castle, Lyndsey; Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Pardinaz-Solis, Raul; Hope-Gill, Benjamin; Ferri, Mauricio; Grove, Jennifer; Kowalski, Mark; Stepniewska, Kasia; Lang, Trudie; Whitehead, John; Olliaro, Piero; Samai, Mohammed; Horby, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Background TKM-130803, a small interfering RNA lipid nanoparticle product, has been developed for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD), but its efficacy and safety in humans has not been evaluated. Methods and Findings In this single-arm phase 2 trial, adults with laboratory-confirmed EVD received 0.3 mg/kg of TKM-130803 by intravenous infusion once daily for up to 7 d. On days when trial enrolment capacity was reached, patients were enrolled into a concurrent observational cohort. The primary outcome was survival to day 14 after admission, excluding patients who died within 48 h of admission. After 14 adults with EVD had received TKM-130803, the pre-specified futility boundary was reached, indicating a probability of survival to day 14 of ≤0.55, and enrolment was stopped. Pre-treatment geometric mean Ebola virus load in the 14 TKM-130803 recipients was 2.24 × 109 RNA copies/ml plasma (95% CI 7.52 × 108, 6.66 × 109). Two of the TKM-130803 recipients died within 48 h of admission and were therefore excluded from the primary outcome analysis. Of the remaining 12 TKM-130803 recipients, nine died and three survived. The probability that a TKM-130803 recipient who survived for 48 h will subsequently survive to day 14 was estimated to be 0.27 (95% CI 0.06, 0.58). TKM-130803 infusions were well tolerated, with 56 doses administered and only one possible infusion-related reaction observed. Three patients were enrolled in the observational cohort, of whom two died. Conclusions Administration of TKM-130803 at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg/d by intravenous infusion to adult patients with severe EVD was not shown to improve survival when compared to historic controls. Trial registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201501000997429 PMID:27093560

  2. Influence of CFH, HTRA1 and ARMS2 polymorphisms in the response to intravitreal ranibizumab treatment for wet age-related macular degeneration in a Spanish population

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Gonzalez, Fernando; Cabrillo-Estevez, Lucia; Rivero-Gutierrez, Vanesa; Sanchez-Jara, Ana; De Juan-Marcos, Lourdes; Gonzalez-Sarmiento, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine whether gene polymorphisms of the major genetic risk loci for age-related macular degeneration (AMD): ARMS2 (rs10490923), the complement factor H (CFH) (rs1410996) and HTRA1 (rs11200638) influence the response to a treatment regimen with ranibizumab for exudative AMD. METHODS This study included 100 patients (100 eyes) with exudative AMD. Patients underwent a treatment with ranibizumab injections monthly during three months. Reinjections were made when the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) decrease five letters (ETDRS) or central subfield retinal thickness gained 100 µm in optical coherence tomography image. Genotypes (rs10490923, rs1410996 and rs11200638) were analyzed using TaqMan probes or polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphisms analysis. RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences in allelic distribution of CFH (rs1410996), ARMS2 (rs10490923) and HTRA1 (rs11200638) polymorphisms regarding to response to ranibizumab treatment. CONCLUSION Ranibizumab treatment response is not related to CFH (rs1410996), ARMS2 (rs10490923) and HTRA1 (rs11200638) poymorphisms. PMID:27672596

  3. Arm in Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Backdropped against the blue and white Earth, Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low and (MS) Peter J.K. Wisoff, wearing Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs), simulate handling of large components in space. Above Endeavour's Payload Bay (PLB), Low, anchored by a Portable Foot Restraint (PFR) Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) end effector, maneuvers Wisoff, representing the mass of a large space component. This particular task was rehearsed with eyes toward the servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) or the assembly and maintenance of Space Station. This Extravehicular Activity (EVA), Detailed Test Objective (DTO) was conducted both with and without intentional disturbances from Endeavour's thrusters and movements of the RMS. The SPACEHAB-01 Commercial Middeck Augmentation Module (CMAM)) is visible in the foreground with the Superfluid Helium On Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) payload liquid helium dewar assembly and the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) only partially visible in the aft PLB shadows. The vertical stabilizer and Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods are silhouetted against the Earth's surface.

  4. The spacer arm length in cell-penetrating peptides influences chitosan/siRNA nanoparticle delivery for pulmonary inflammation treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Eun Ju; Choi, Moonhwan; Lee, Jangwook; Rhim, Taiyoun; Lee, Kuen Yong

    2015-11-01

    Although chitosan and its derivatives have been frequently utilized as delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), it is challenging to improve the gene silencing efficiency of chitosan-based nanoparticles. In this study, we hypothesized that controlling the spacer arm length between a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) and a nanoparticle could be critical to enhancing the cellular uptake as well as the gene silencing efficiency of conventional chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. A peptide consisting of nine arginine units (R9) was used as a CPP, and the spacer arm length was controlled by varying the number of glycine units between the peptide (R9Gn) and the nanoparticle (n = 0, 4, and 10). Various physicochemical characteristics of R9Gn-chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles were investigated in vitro. Increasing the spacing arm length did not significantly affect the complex formation between R9Gn-chitosan and siRNA. However, R9G10-chitosan was much more effective in delivering genes both in vitro and in vivo compared with non-modified chitosan (without the peptide) and R9-chitosan (without the spacer arm). Chitosan derivatives modified with oligoarginine containing a spacer arm can be considered as potential delivery vehicles for various genes.Although chitosan and its derivatives have been frequently utilized as delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), it is challenging to improve the gene silencing efficiency of chitosan-based nanoparticles. In this study, we hypothesized that controlling the spacer arm length between a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) and a nanoparticle could be critical to enhancing the cellular uptake as well as the gene silencing efficiency of conventional chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. A peptide consisting of nine arginine units (R9) was used as a CPP, and the spacer arm length was controlled by varying the number of glycine units between the peptide (R9Gn) and the nanoparticle (n = 0, 4, and 10). Various physicochemical characteristics of

  5. Activation of heat shock response to treat obese subjects with type 2 diabetes: a prospective, frequency-escalating, randomized, open-label, triple-arm trial

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Tatsuya; Goto, Rieko; Ono, Kaoru; Kitano, Sayaka; Suico, Mary Ann; Sato, Miki; Igata, Motoyuki; Kawashima, Junji; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Kai, Hirofumi; Araki, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    Activation of heat shock response (HSR) improves accumulated visceral adiposity and metabolic abnormalities in type 2 diabetes. To identify the optimal intervention strategy of the activation of the HSR provided by mild electrical stimulation (MES) with heat shock (HS) in type 2 diabetes. This study was a prospective, frequency-escalating, randomized, open-label, triple-arm trial in Japan. A total of 60 obese type 2 diabetes patients were randomized into three groups receiving two, four, or seven treatments per week for 12 weeks. No adverse events were identified. MES + HS treatment (when all three groups were combined), significantly improved visceral adiposity, glycemic control, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation, renal function, hepatic steatosis and lipid profile compared to baseline. The reduction in HbA1c was significantly greater among those treated four times per week (−0.36%) or seven times per week (−0.65%) than among those treated two times per week (−0.10%). The relative HbA1c levels in seven times per week group was significantly decreased when adjusted by two times per week group (−0.55%. p = 0.001). This research provides the positive impact of MES + HS to treat obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27759092

  6. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 in Psychiatric Facilities or Programs § 441.154 Active treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  7. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 in Psychiatric Facilities or Programs § 441.154 Active treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  8. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 in Psychiatric Facilities or Programs § 441.154 Active treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  9. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 in Psychiatric Facilities or Programs § 441.154 Active treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  10. Accounting for uncertainty in the historical response rate of the standard treatment in single-arm two-stage designs based on Bayesian power functions.

    PubMed

    Matano, Francesca; Sambucini, Valeria

    2016-11-01

    In phase II single-arm studies, the response rate of the experimental treatment is typically compared with a fixed target value that should ideally represent the true response rate for the standard of care therapy. Generally, this target value is estimated through previous data, but the inherent variability in the historical response rate is not taken into account. In this paper, we present a Bayesian procedure to construct single-arm two-stage designs that allows to incorporate uncertainty in the response rate of the standard treatment. In both stages, the sample size determination criterion is based on the concepts of conditional and predictive Bayesian power functions. Different kinds of prior distributions, which play different roles in the designs, are introduced, and some guidelines for their elicitation are described. Finally, some numerical results about the performance of the designs are provided and a real data example is illustrated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called ...

  12. Robotic Arm Manipulator Using Active Control for Sample Acquisition and Transfer, and Passive Mode for Surface Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jun; Underhill, Michael L.; Trease, Brian P.; Lindemann, Randel A.

    2010-01-01

    A robotic arm that consists of three joints with four degrees of freedom (DOF) has been developed. It can carry an end-effector to acquire and transfer samples by using active control and comply with surface topology in a passive mode during a brief surface contact. The three joints are arranged in such a way that one joint of two DOFs is located at the shoulder, one joint of one DOF is located at the elbow, and one joint of one DOF is located at the wrist. Operationally, three DOFs are moved in the same plane, and the remaining one on the shoulder is moved perpendicular to the other three for better compliance with ground surface and more flexibility of sample handling. Three out of four joints are backdriveable, making the mechanism less complex and more cost effective

  13. The spacer arm length in cell-penetrating peptides influences chitosan/siRNA nanoparticle delivery for pulmonary inflammation treatment.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eun Ju; Choi, Moonhwan; Lee, Jangwook; Rhim, Taiyoun; Lee, Kuen Yong

    2015-12-21

    Although chitosan and its derivatives have been frequently utilized as delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), it is challenging to improve the gene silencing efficiency of chitosan-based nanoparticles. In this study, we hypothesized that controlling the spacer arm length between a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) and a nanoparticle could be critical to enhancing the cellular uptake as well as the gene silencing efficiency of conventional chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. A peptide consisting of nine arginine units (R9) was used as a CPP, and the spacer arm length was controlled by varying the number of glycine units between the peptide (R9Gn) and the nanoparticle (n = 0, 4, and 10). Various physicochemical characteristics of R9Gn-chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles were investigated in vitro. Increasing the spacing arm length did not significantly affect the complex formation between R9Gn-chitosan and siRNA. However, R9G10-chitosan was much more effective in delivering genes both in vitro and in vivo compared with non-modified chitosan (without the peptide) and R9-chitosan (without the spacer arm). Chitosan derivatives modified with oligoarginine containing a spacer arm can be considered as potential delivery vehicles for various genes.

  14. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Active treatment. 441.154 Section 441.154 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  15. Activation and intermuscular coherence of distal arm muscles during proximal muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Wook; Landers, Katlin; Harris-Love, Michelle L

    2014-03-01

    In the human upper extremity (UE), unintended effects of proximal muscle activation on muscles controlling the hand could be an important aspect of motor control due to the necessary coordination of distal and proximal segments during functional activities. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of concurrent activation of elbow muscles on the coordination between hand muscles performing a grip task. Eleven healthy subjects performed precision grip tasks while a constant extension or flexion moment was applied to their elbow joints, inducing a sustained submaximal contraction of elbow muscles to counter the applied torque. Activation of four hand muscles was measured during each task condition using surface electromyography (EMG). When concurrent activation of elbow muscles was induced, significant changes in the activation levels of the hand muscles were observed, with greater effects on the extrinsic finger extensor (23.2 % increase under 30 % elbow extensor activation; p = 0.003) than extrinsic finger flexor (14.2 % increase under 30 % elbow flexor activation; p = 0.130). Elbow muscle activation also induced involuntary changes in the intrinsic thumb flexor activation (44.6 % increase under 30 % elbow extensor activation; p = 0.005). EMG-EMG coherence analyses revealed that elbow muscle activation significantly reduced intermuscular coherence between distal muscle pairs, with its greatest effects on coherence in the β-band (13-25 Hz) (average of 17 % decrease under 30 % elbow flexor activation). The results of this study provide evidence for involuntary, muscle-specific interactions between distal and proximal UE muscles, which may contribute to UE motor performance in health and disease.

  16. Prediction of arm trajectory from the neural activities of the primary motor cortex with modular connectionist architecture.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyuwan; Hirose, Hideaki; Sakurai, Yoshio; Iijima, Toshio; Koike, Yasuharu

    2009-11-01

    In our previous study [Koike, Y., Hirose, H., Sakurai, Y., Iijima T., (2006). Prediction of arm trajectory from a small number of neuron activities in the primary motor cortex. Neuroscience Research, 55, 146-153], we succeeded in reconstructing muscle activities from the offline combination of single neuron activities recorded in a serial manner in the primary motor cortex of a monkey and in reconstructing the joint angles from the reconstructed muscle activities during a movement condition using an artificial neural network. However, the joint angles during a static condition were not reconstructed. The difficulties of reconstruction under both static and movement conditions mainly arise due to muscle properties such as the velocity-tension relationship and the length-tension relationship. In this study, in order to overcome the limitations due to these muscle properties, we divided an artificial neural network into two networks: one for movement control and the other for posture control. We also trained the gating network to switch between the two neural networks. As a result, the gating network switched the modules properly, and the accuracy of the estimated angles improved compared to the case of using only one artificial neural network.

  17. Hello to Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer.

    The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red.

    As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light.

    The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far.

    Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own.

    The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  18. Look at my Arms!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image shows the hidden spiral arms that were discovered around the galaxy called NGC 4625 (top) by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. An armless companion galaxy called NGC 4618 is pictured below.

    Though the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light, they glow brightly in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light.

    The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far.

    Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own.

    Astronomers do not know why NGC 4618 lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  19. Lower Arm Muscle Activation during Indirect-Localized Vibration: The Influence of Skill Levels When Applying Different Acceleration Loads

    PubMed Central

    Padulo, Johnny; Di Giminiani, Riccardo; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Zagatto, Alessandro M.; Migliaccio, Gian M.; Grgantov, Zoran; Ardigò, Luca P.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the electromyographic response to synchronous indirect-localized vibration interventions in international and national table tennis players. Twenty-six male table tennis players, in a standing position, underwent firstly an upper arms maximal voluntary contraction and thereafter two different 30-s vibration interventions in random order: high acceleration load (peak acceleration = 12.8 g, frequency = 40 Hz; peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm), and low acceleration load (peak acceleration = 7.2 g, frequency = 30 Hz, peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm). Surface electromyography root mean square from brachioradialis, extensor digitorum, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor digitorum superficialis recorded during the two vibration interventions was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction recording. Normalized surface electromyography root mean square was higher in international table tennis players with respect to national ones in all the interactions between muscles and vibration conditions (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor carpi radialis (at low acceleration load, P > 0.05). The difference in normalized surface electromyography root mean square between international table tennis players and national ones increased in all the muscles with high acceleration load (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor digitorum superficialis (P > 0.05). The muscle activation during indirect-localized vibration seems to be both skill level and muscle dependent. These results can optimize the training intervention in table tennis players when applying indirect-localized vibration to lower arm muscles. Future investigations should discriminate between middle- and long-term adaptations in response to specific vibration loads. PMID:27378948

  20. Anticipatory control of center of mass and joint stability during voluntary arm movement from a standing posture: interplay between active and passive control.

    PubMed

    Patla, Aftab E; Ishac, Milad G; Winter, David A

    2002-04-01

    Anticipatory control of upright posture is the focus of this study that combines experimental and modeling work. Individuals were asked to raise or lower their arms from two initial postures such that the final posture of the arm was at 90 degrees with respect to the body. Holding different weights in the hand varied the magnitude of perturbation to postural stability generated by the arm movement. Whole body kinematics and ground reaction forces were measured. Inverse dynamic analysis was used to determine the internal joint moments at the shoulder, hip, knee and ankle, and reaction forces at the shoulder. Center of mass (COM) of the arm, posture (rest of the body without the arms) and whole body (net COM) were also determined. Changes in joint moment at the hip, knee and ankle revealed a significant effect of the direction of movement. The polarities of the joint moment response were appropriate for joint stabilization. Net COM change showed a systematic effect of the direction of movement even though the arm COM was displaced by the same amount and in the same direction for both arm raising and lowering conditions. In order to determine the effects of the passive forces and moments on the posture COM, the body was modeled as an inverted pendulum. The model was customized for each participant; the relevant model parameters were estimated from data obtained from each trial. The ankle joint stiffness and viscosity were adjusted to ensure postural equilibrium prior to arm movement. Joint reactive forces and moments generated by the arm movements were applied at the shoulder level of this inverted pendulum; these were the only inputs and no active control was included. The posture COM profile from the model simulation was calculated. Results show that simulated posture COM profile and measured posture COM profile are identical for about 200 ms following the onset of arm movement and then they deviate. Therefore, the initial control of COM is passive in nature and the

  1. Anticipatory postural muscle activity associated with bilateral arm flexion while standing in individuals with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Hidehito; Fukaya, Yoshiki; Honma, Shota; Ueda, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Yoshiji; Shionoya, Katsuyoshi

    2010-07-26

    Compared to automatic postural responses to external perturbation, little is known about anticipatory postural adjustments in individuals with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. In this study, we examined whether anticipatory activation of postural muscles would be observed before voluntary arm movement while standing in individuals with spastic diplegia. Seven individuals with spastic diplegia (SDCP(group), 12-22 years) and 7 age- and gender-matched individuals without disability (Control(group)) participated in this study. Participants performed bilateral arm flexion at maximum speed at their own timing while standing, during which electromyographic (EMG) activities of focal and postural muscles were recorded. In both groups, the erector spinae (ES) and medial hamstring (MH) muscles were activated in advance of the anterior deltoid muscle (AD), which is a focal muscle of arm flexion. Although start times of ES and MH with respect to AD were similar in the 2 groups, increases in EMG amplitudes of ES and MH in the anticipatory range from -150ms to +50ms, with respect to burst onset of AD, were significantly smaller in the SDCP(group) than in the Control(group). These findings suggest that individuals with spastic diplegia have the ability to anticipate the effects of disturbance of posture and equilibrium caused by arm movement and to activate postural muscles in advance of focal muscles. However, it is likely that the anticipatory increase in postural muscle activity is insufficient in individuals with spastic diplegia.

  2. Laparoscopic Surgical Treatment of Severe Obesity Combined with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Pilot Randomized Two-Arm Controlled Clinical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ospanov, Oral B.; Orekeshova, Akzhunis M.; Fursov, Roman A.; Yelemesov, Aset A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are serious medical, social, and economic problems of modern society. A pilot randomized two-arm controlled clinical study was conducted to compare laparoscopic plication of the greater gastric curvature combined with Nissen fundoplication (LFN+LGP) versus only Nissen fundoplication (LFN). The…

  3. Arm Chair Activism: Serious Games Usage by INGOs for Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Payal; Itu, Sorina

    2012-01-01

    The battle between educators and entertainers continues when it comes to gaming. While this is so, the edutainment battleground has expanded to include actors outside formal schooling agencies, namely International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs). These actors employ digital games with the aim to educate and activate towards specific social…

  4. Incidence of syphilis, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 1 January 2010 through 31 August 2015.

    PubMed

    Clark, Leslie L; Hunt, Devin J

    2015-09-01

    In 2014,the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported significant increases in cases of primary and secondary syphilis in the U.S.; among beneficiaries of the Military Health System, monthly surveillance reports tracking reportable medical events of syphilis have reflected similar increases. This analysis reports on incident cases and rates of syphilis among active component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces from 1 January 2010 through 31 August 2015. During the surveillance period, 2,976 cases of syphilis were diagnosed. Crude incidence rates increased from 30.9 cases per 100,000 person-years (p-yrs) in 2010 to 47.4 cases per 100,000 p-yrs in 2015. Males accounted for 88.7% of cases. Incidence rates of syphilis were highest among service members who were black, non-Hispanic or who were aged 20-29 years. About one-quarter of syphilis cases (24.4%; 727 cases) were diagnosed as HIV infected. Primary and secondary syphilis cases comprised 42% of all syphilis cases. Increasing rates of primary and secondary syphilis in active component service members reflect similar trends reported in the U.S. civilian population.

  5. Incidence and prevalence of select cardiovascular risk factors and conditions, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    This report provides estimates of the incidence of select risk factors for cardiovascular disease among members of the active component of the Armed Forces. The definitions of incident cases of each risk factor were based upon the documentation of relevant diagnostic codes in the electronic health records of service members. Numbers of service members with diagnoses of each of the factors were: hyperlipidemia (n=300,340), obesity (n=235,407), hypertension (n=230,564), abnormal blood glucose level (n=47,009), and diabetes (n=13,901). Incidence rates of all the risk factors of interest increased with advancing age. Rates of diagnoses of hypertension and obesity were higher among black, non-Hispanic service members than among other racial/ethnic groups. Asian/Pacific Islanders had the highest rates of hyperlipidemia, abnormal blood glucose level, and diabetes. Male service members had higher rates of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, but females had higher rates of obesity and abnormal blood glucose level. Of all active component service members included in this analysis (n=3,297,786), 18.5 percent (n=611,185) were diagnosed with at least one of the risk factors during the ten-year surveillance period.

  6. Update: Motor vehicle-related deaths, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 1999-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    From 1999 to 2012, there were 4,479 motor vehicle accident (MVA)-related deaths among members of the U.S. Armed Forces. Of these, the single most common underlying cause of death was motorcycle accidents (n=1,134; 25.6%). Among active component service members during the 14-year surveillance period, the annual number (n=355) and rate (25.1 per 100,000 person-years[p-yrs]) of MVA-related deaths peaked in 2004. Since then, a steady downward trend followed and the 2012 number (n=184) and rate (13.2 per 100,000 p-yrs) were the lowest of the entire period. For members of the reserve component, the annual number of deaths peaked in 2005 (n=86), but the number in 2012 (n=22) was the lowest of the period. In 2012, the number (n=90) and rate of deaths (6.5 per 100,000 p-yrs) related to motorcycle accidents among active component service members almost equaled the number (n=94) and rate of deaths (6.7 per 100,000 p-yrs) from all other types of motor vehicle accidents combined. During the entire period, numbers of fatal motor vehicle accidents tended to be higher in the warmer months of the year. After 2009, motor vehicle accidents were no longer the leading, non-war- related cause of death among U.S. service members.

  7. Kidins220/ARMS binds to the B cell antigen receptor and regulates B cell development and activation

    PubMed Central

    Fiala, Gina J.; Janowska, Iga; Prutek, Fabiola; Hobeika, Elias; Satapathy, Annyesha; Sprenger, Adrian; Plum, Thomas; Seidl, Maximilian; Dengjel, Jörn; Reth, Michael; Cesca, Fabrizia; Brummer, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling is critical for B cell development and activation. Using mass spectrometry, we identified a protein kinase D–interacting substrate of 220 kD (Kidins220)/ankyrin repeat–rich membrane-spanning protein (ARMS) as a novel interaction partner of resting and stimulated BCR. Upon BCR stimulation, the interaction increases in a Src kinase–independent manner. By knocking down Kidins220 in a B cell line and generating a conditional B cell–specific Kidins220 knockout (B-KO) mouse strain, we show that Kidins220 couples the BCR to PLCγ2, Ca2+, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) signaling. Consequently, BCR-mediated B cell activation was reduced in vitro and in vivo upon Kidins220 deletion. Furthermore, B cell development was impaired at stages where pre-BCR or BCR signaling is required. Most strikingly, λ light chain–positive B cells were reduced sixfold in the B-KO mice, genetically placing Kidins220 in the PLCγ2 pathway. Thus, our data indicate that Kidins220 positively regulates pre-BCR and BCR functioning. PMID:26324445

  8. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment is a physicochemical process that removes a wide variety of contaminants by adsorbing them from liquid and gas streams [1, p. 6-3]. This treatment is most commonly used to separate organic contaminants from water or air; however, it can b...

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Novel Armed Thiophene Derivatives and Petra/Osiris/Molinspiration (POM) Analyses.

    PubMed

    Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser; Alatibi, Fatima; El-Sayed, Nahed Nasser E; Al-Showiman, Salim; Kheder, Nabila Abdelshafy; Wadood, Abdul; Rauf, Abdur; Bawazeer, Saud; Hadda, Taibi Ben

    2016-02-17

    Tetrasubstituted 2-acetylthiophene derivative 5 was synthesized and then condensed with various nitrogen nucleophiles such as 5-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 2-aminobenzimidazole, aniline or p-chloroaniline to afford the corresponding iminothiophene derivatives 6-8a,b. Condensation of thiophene 5 with malononitrile as carbon nucleophile afforded compound 9, which underwent nucleophilic addition with DMF-DMA to afford compound 10. The newly synthesized products were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, MS, ¹H-(13)C-NMR and CHN analysis and then evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Results of the in vitro antibacterial activity showed that thiophene derivative 7 was found to be more potent than the standard drug gentamicin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Some of these compounds showed potential antimicrobial activities. Molecular docking and Osiris/Molinspiration analyses show the crucial role and impact of substituents on bioactivity and indicate the unfavorable structural parameters in actual drug design: more substitution with electronic donor group doesn't guarantee more effective bioactivity. This study should greatly help in an intelligent and a controlled pharmacomodulation of antibiotics.

  10. Characteristics of the Colombian armed conflict and the mental health of civilians living in active conflict zones

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that the Colombian armed conflict has continued for almost five decades there is still very little information on how it affects the mental health of civilians. Although it is well established in post-conflict populations that experience of organised violence has a negative impact on mental health, little research has been done on those living in active conflict zones. Médecins Sans Frontières provides mental health services in areas of active conflict in Colombia and using data from these services we aimed to establish which characteristics of the conflict are most associated with specific symptoms of mental ill health. Methods An analysis of clinical data from patients (N = 6,353), 16 years and over, from 2010–2011, who consulted in the Colombian departments (equivalent to states) of Nariño, Cauca, Putumayo and Caquetá. Risk factors were grouped using a hierarchical cluster analysis and the clusters were included with demographic information as predictors in logistic regressions to discern which risk factor clusters best predicted specific symptoms. Results Three clear risk factor clusters emerged which were interpreted as ‘direct conflict related violence’, ‘personal violence not directly conflict-related’ and ‘general hardship’. The regression analyses indicated that conflict related violence was more highly related to anxiety-related psychopathology than other risk factor groupings while non-conflict violence was more related to aggression and substance abuse, which was more common in males. Depression and suicide risk were represented equally across risk factor clusters. Conclusions As the largest study of its kind in Colombia it demonstrates a clear impact of the conflict on mental health. Among those who consulted with mental health professionals, specific conflict characteristics could predict symptom profiles. However, some of the highest risk outcomes, like depression, suicide risk and aggression, were more

  11. Flexible trial design in practice - stopping arms for lack-of-benefit and adding research arms mid-trial in STAMPEDE: a multi-arm multi-stage randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Systemic Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Prostate cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy (STAMPEDE) is a randomized controlled trial that follows a novel multi-arm, multi-stage (MAMS) design. We describe methodological and practical issues arising with (1) stopping recruitment to research arms following a pre-planned intermediate analysis and (2) adding a new research arm during the trial. Methods STAMPEDE recruits men who have locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer who are starting standard long-term hormone therapy. Originally there were five research and one control arms, each undergoing a pilot stage (focus: safety, feasibility), three intermediate ‘activity’ stages (focus: failure-free survival), and a final ‘efficacy’ stage (focus: overall survival). Lack-of-sufficient-activity guidelines support the pairwise interim comparisons of each research arm against the control arm; these pre-defined activity cut-off becomes increasingly stringent over the stages. Accrual of further patients continues to the control arm and to those research arms showing activity and an acceptable safety profile. The design facilitates adding new research arms should sufficiently interesting agents emerge. These new arms are compared only to contemporaneously recruited control arm patients using the same intermediate guidelines in a time-delayed manner. The addition of new research arms is subject to adequate recruitment rates to support the overall trial aims. Results (1) Stopping Existing Therapy: After the second intermediate activity analysis, recruitment was discontinued to two research arms for lack-of-sufficient activity. Detailed preparations meant that changes were implemented swiftly at 100 international centers and recruitment continued seamlessly into Activity Stage III with 3 remaining research arms and the control arm. Further regulatory and ethical approvals were not required because this was already included in the initial trial design. (2

  12. Use of treatment activities in occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, E; Manguno, J

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the treatment activities used most often by occupational therapists associated with the Louisiana State University Medical Center's (LSUMC's) occupational therapy program. The results of this study were used to make changes in the teaching of treatment activities in the program. Two samples of clinicians--83 fieldwork supervisors and 59 former LSUMC students, mainly from the southeastern region of the country--identified how frequently their clinics had used each of 67 listed treatment activities in the past year. The results showed that noncraft activities were ranked as being used more frequently than either major or minor craft activities. This was true in all settings and all specialty areas of practice. In both groups, across all areas of practice, self-care and social skills activities ranked among the top five positions of activities frequently used in practice. Therapists in physical disabilities settings used crafts less frequently than therapists in mental health settings. As a result of this study, changes have been made in the teaching of treatment activities at LSUMC: Those activities that were ranked in the study as frequently used have been emphasized, and those ranked as infrequently used have been given less emphasis or deleted from the curriculum.

  13. Mental Disorders and Mental Health Problems, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    301.83, 301.84, 301.89, 301.9 Schizophrenia 295.xx Other psychoses 293.81, 293.82, 297.0x-297.3x, 297.8, 297.9, 298.0. 298.1, 298.2, 298.3, 298.4, 298.8...Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). A case of schizophrenia was defi ned as an active component service member with at least one...hospitalization or four outpatient encounters that were documented with schizophrenia -specifi c diagnoses (ICD- 9-CM: 295). V-coded diagnoses indicative

  14. Injuries associated with combat sports, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The practice of combat sports creates a potential for training- and sports-related injuries among military members. During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 12,108 cases of injuries associated with combat sports among active component service members; the overall incidence rate was 21.0 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). The rates were higher among service members who were male, Hispanic, in the youngest age groups, in the Army, junior enlisted, and in combat-specific occupations. The rate among recruit/ trainees (779.4 per 10,000 p-yrs) was more than 165 times the rate among all other active component service members (non-recruits) (4.7 per 10,000 p-yrs). Sprains, strains, and contusions accounted for more than one-half of the primary (first-listed) diagnoses associated with combat sports cases. More serious conditions such as concussions/head injuries and skull/face fractures/intracranial injuries were reported among 3.9% and 2.1% of all cases and were more common among boxing-related cases. Hand/wrist fractures were also common among boxing cases. Wrestling had comparatively greater proportions of dislocations and open wounds. Although the combat sport training provides many physical and mental benefits to the individual, safety practices should be enforced to reduce the most frequent and serious injuries.

  15. An active contour method for bone cement reconstruction from C-arm x-ray images.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Blake C; Otake, Yoshito; Armand, Mehran; Taylor, Russell H

    2012-04-01

    A novel algorithm is presented to segment and reconstruct injected bone cement from a sparse set of X-ray images acquired at arbitrary poses. The sparse X-ray multi-view active contour (SxMAC-pronounced "smack") can 1) reconstruct objects for which the background partially occludes the object in X-ray images, 2) use X-ray images acquired on a noncircular trajectory, and 3) incorporate prior computed tomography (CT) information. The algorithm's inputs are preprocessed X-ray images, their associated pose information, and prior CT, if available. The algorithm initiates automated reconstruction using visual hull computation from a sparse number of X-ray images. It then improves the accuracy of the reconstruction by optimizing a geodesic active contour. Experiments with mathematical phantoms demonstrate improvements over a conventional silhouette based approach, and a cadaver experiment demonstrates SxMAC's ability to reconstruct high contrast bone cement that has been injected into a femur and achieve sub-millimeter accuracy with four images.

  16. LISA Long-Arm Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, James I.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of LISA Long-Arm Interferometry is presented. The contents include: 1) LISA Interferometry; 2) Constellation Design; 3) Telescope Design; 4) Constellation Acquisition; 5) Mechanisms; 6) Optical Bench Design; 7) Phase Measurement Subsystem; 8) Phasemeter Demonstration; 9) Time Delay Interferometry; 10) TDI Limitations; 11) Active Frequency Stabilization; 12) Spacecraft Level Stabilization; 13) Arm-Locking; and 14) Embarassment of Riches.

  17. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    34military activities, whether in the armed forces, their civilian sectors, or in the ’defence’ indus- try". In another paper Professor Carl Sagan ...spurring the development of new weapons. Star Wars is a case in point. As Carl Sagan puts it, the idea is doomed: "SDI is ruinously expensive, it can

  18. Malingering and factitious disorders and illnesses, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-07-01

    Malingering refers to the intentional fabrication or exaggeration of mental or physical symptoms by a person who is motivated by external incentives (e.g., avoiding military duty, work, or incarceration, obtaining financial compensation, or procuring drugs). Factitious disorders and illnesses are similar to malingering with respect to the fabrication of symptoms; however, these individuals seek to assume "sick roles" (e.g., hospitalization, medical evaluation, treatment). During the 15-year surveillance period, 5,311 service members had at least one health care encounter during which a provider recorded a diagnosis of malingering or factitious illness in the first diagnostic position of the administrative record of the encounter. Over 80 percent of the subject service members had only one such encounter and most (83.9%) of the diagnoses were for malingering. There were higher (unadjusted) rates of these diagnoses among recruit trainees, those under the age of 20, and junior enlisted service members. Trends in these diagnoses during the surveillance period and the small numbers of diagnoses made during deployment do not suggest a discernible correlation between malingering and factitious illness and deployment to combat theater.

  19. Cold weather injuries, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, July 2008-June 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    From July 2012 through June 2013, the number of active and reserve component service members treated for cold injuries (n=479) was the lowest of the last five cold seasons (2008-2013). Over the last five years hypothermia was the most common cold injury among service members in the Marine Corps and Coast Guard, while frostbite was the most common type of cold injury in the other three Services. Consistent with trends from previous cold seasons, service members who were female, less than 20 years old, or of black, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity tended to have higher cold injury rates than their respective counterparts. Among service members overall, Army personnel accounted for the majority (62%) of cold injuries.

  20. Incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Denise O; Oh, Gi-Taik; O'Donnell, Francis L; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-07-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition among adults that can cause symptoms such as frequent heartburn, substernal chest pain, and regurgitation of food. During 2005-2014, a total of 137,081 active component service members had an incident (first-ever) diagnosis of GERD (incidence rate: 101.3 per 10,000 person-years). Incidence rates were higher than their respective counterparts among females, black and white non-Hispanics, service members in the Coast Guard and Air Force, officers, and those in healthcare occupations. Rates increased monotonically with increasing age groups. Most GERD cases (79.2%) were uncomplicated GERD; however, 20.8% were identified as having a symptom or complication linked to their GERD diagnosis. Lifestyle changes, medication, and prevention of serious complications should be emphasized among individuals diagnosed with GERD, particularly those at risk for severe disease.

  1. A path towards uncertainty assignment in an operational cloud-phase algorithm from ARM vertically pointing active sensors

    DOE PAGES

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; ...

    2016-06-10

    Knowledge of cloud phase (liquid, ice, mixed, etc.) is necessary to describe the radiative impact of clouds and their lifetimes, but is a property that is difficult to simulate correctly in climate models. One step towards improving those simulations is to make observations of cloud phase with sufficient accuracy to help constrain model representations of cloud processes. In this study, we outline a methodology using a basic Bayesian classifier to estimate the probabilities of cloud-phase class from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) vertically pointing active remote sensors. The advantage of this method over previous ones is that it provides uncertainty informationmore » on the phase classification. We also test the value of including higher moments of the cloud radar Doppler spectrum than are traditionally used operationally. Using training data of known phase from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) field campaign, we demonstrate a proof of concept for how the method can be used to train an algorithm that identifies ice, liquid, mixed phase, and snow. Over 95 % of data are identified correctly for pure ice and liquid cases used in this study. Mixed-phase and snow cases are more problematic to identify correctly. When lidar data are not available, including additional information from the Doppler spectrum provides substantial improvement to the algorithm. This is a first step towards an operational algorithm and can be expanded to include additional categories such as drizzle with additional training data.« less

  2. Urinary tract infections, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common among young adults, especially women. During the 14-year surveillance period, 30.4 percent of females and 3.5 percent of males who served in the active component had a least one UTI diagnosed during a medical encounter. The incidence rate of first-time UTIs was 70.4 per 1,000 person-years (p-yrs) among females and 7.2 per 1,000 p-yrs among males. Among those who received a diagnosis of UTI, 41.3 percent of females and 13.0 percent of males had recurrences. Rates of UTIs were highest among the youngest age group among females and the youngest and oldest age groups among males. Service members in armor/motor transport occupations in both genders had the greatest incidence rates of UTI compared to other occupations while pilots and air crew had the lowest incidence rates. The rates of UTIs overall were 130.9 per 1,000 p-yrs among females and 8.5 per 1,000 p-yrs among males. The occurrence of a first-ever urinary tract infection may be an opportunity for a healthcare provider to educate the patient about the risk factors for UTI, strategies to prevent recurrent infection, and the appropriate response to the new onset of typical symptoms of UTI.

  3. Comparison between active sensor and radiosonde cloud boundaries over the ARM Southern Great Plains site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2003-02-01

    In order to test the strengths and limitations of cloud boundary retrievals from radiosonde profiles, 4 years of radar, lidar, and ceilometer data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements Southern Great Plains site from November 1996 through October 2000 are used to assess the retrievals of [1995] and [1996]. The lidar and ceilometer data yield lowest-level cloud base heights that are, on average, within approximately 125 m of each other when both systems detect a cloud. These quantities are used to assess the accuracy of coincident cloud base heights obtained from radar and the two radiosonde-based methods applied to 200 m resolution profiles obtained at the same site. The lidar/ceilometer and radar cloud base heights agree by 0.156 ± 0.423 km for 85.27% of the observations, while the agreement between the lidar/ceilometer and radiosonde-derived heights is at best -0.044 ± 0.559 km for 74.60% of all cases. Agreement between radar- and radiosonde-derived cloud boundaries is better for cloud base height than for cloud top height, being at best 0.018 ± 0.641 km for 70.91% of the cloud base heights and 0.348 ± 0.729 km for 68.27% of the cloud top heights. The disagreements between radar- and radiosonde-derived boundaries are mainly caused by broken cloud situations when it is difficult to verify that drifting radiosondes and fixed active sensors are observing the same clouds. In the case of the radar the presence of clutter (e.g., vegetal particles or insects) can affect the measurements from the surface up to approximately 3-5 km, preventing comparisons with radiosonde-derived boundaries. Overall, [1995] tend to classify moist layers that are not clouds as clouds and both radiosonde techniques report high cloud top heights that are higher than the corresponding heights from radar.

  4. Success rate and efficiency of activator treatment.

    PubMed

    Casutt, Christoph; Pancherz, Hans; Gawora, Manfred; Ruf, Sabine

    2007-12-01

    In a retrospective multicentre study, the success rate and efficiency of activator treatment were analysed. All patients from two University clinics (Giessen, Germany and Berne, Switzerland) that fulfilled the selection criteria (Class II division 1 malocclusion, activator treatment, no aplasia, no extraction of permanent teeth, no syndromes, no previous orthodontic treatment except transverse maxillary expansion, full available records) were included in the study. The subject material amounted to 222 patients with a mean age of 10.6 years. Patient records, lateral head films, and dental casts were evaluated. Treatment was classified as successful if the molar relationship improved by at least half to three-fourths cusp width depending on whether or not the leeway space was used during treatment. Group comparisons were carried out using Wilcoxon two-sample and Kruskal-Wallis tests. For discrete data, chi-square analysis was used and Fisher's exact test when the sample size was small. Stepwise logistic regression was also employed. The success rate was 64 per cent in Giessen and 66 per cent in Berne. The only factor that significantly (P < 0.001) influenced treatment success was the level of co-operation. In approximately 27 per cent of the patients at both centres, the post-treatment occlusion was an 'ideal' Class I. In an additional 38 per cent of the patients, marked improvements in occlusal relationships were found. In subjects with Class II division 1 malocclusions, in which orthodontic treatment is performed by means of activators, a marked improvement of the Class II dental arch relationships can be expected in approximately 65 per cent of subjects. Activator treatment is more efficient in the late than in the early mixed dentition.

  5. Modulation of motor unit activity in biceps brachii by neuromuscular electrical stimulation applied to the contralateral arm.

    PubMed

    Amiridis, Ioannis G; Mani, Diba; Almuklass, Awad; Matkowski, Boris; Gould, Jeffrey R; Enoka, Roger M

    2015-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) current intensity and pulse width applied to the right elbow flexors on the discharge characteristics of motor units in the left biceps brachii. Three NMES current intensities were applied for 5 s with either narrow (0.2 ms) or wide (1 ms) stimulus pulses: one at 80% of motor threshold and two that evoked contractions at either ∼10% or ∼20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force. The discharge times of 28 low-threshold (0.4-21.6% MVC force) and 16 high-threshold (31.7-56.3% MVC force) motor units in the short head of biceps brachii were determined before, during, and after NMES. NMES elicited two main effects: one involved transient deflections in the left-arm force at the onset and offset of NMES and the other consisted of nonuniform modulation of motor unit activity. The force deflections, which were influenced by NMES current intensity and pulse width, were observed only when low-threshold motor units were tracked. NMES did not significantly influence the discharge characteristics of tracked single-threshold motor units. However, a qualitative analysis indicated that there was an increase in the number of unique waveforms detected during and after NMES. The findings indicate that activity of motor units in the left elbow flexors can be modulated by NMES current and pulse width applied to right elbow flexors, but the effects are not distributed uniformly to the involved motor units.

  6. Coumarin-containing-star-shaped 4-arm-polyethylene glycol: targeted fluorescent organic nanoparticles for dual treatment of photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Moumita; Singh, Tanya; Behara, Krishna Kalyani; Karwa, S; Ghosh, S K; Singh, N D Pradeep

    2015-07-01

    Single component fluorescent organic polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized based on a star shaped 4-arm PEG containing coumarin chromophore for the concomitant employment of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chemotherapy synergistically to wipe out tumour cells with a high efficiency. Polymeric NPs are emerging as the most promising nanoparticulates in the area of drug delivery systems due to their ability to overcome the disadvantages like premature and imprecise control over the drug release, lack of loading capacity etc. Among polymeric NPs, star shaped branched polymers have attracted great attention mainly due to their multiple functionalization properties. Hence, herein we have made use of a multi-arm PEG, functionalized with a targeting unit biotin and a coumarin fluorophore for site-specific and image guided synergic treatment of cancer cells. The anticancer drug chlorambucil is released by the coumarin chromophore in a photocontrolled manner. In addition to that, coumarin also generated singlet oxygen upon irradiation with UV/vis light (≥365 nm) with a moderate quantum yield of ∼0.37. In vitro application of thus prepared organic polymeric nanoparticles (PEG-Bio-Cou-Cbl) in the HeLa cell line shows a reduction of cell viability by up to ∼5% in the case of a combined treatment of PDT and chemotherapy whereas analogous organic polymeric NPs without the chemotherapeutic drug (PEG-Bio-Cou) result in ∼49% cell viability by means of PDT process only.

  7. Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining Surface Radar and Satellite Data in Support of ARM SCM Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guosheng

    2013-03-15

    water contents in support of cloud modeling activities. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) area measurement. That is, the study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements (particularly cloud radar and microwave radiometer measurements) at the point of the ARM sites. We use the cloud ice water characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain a satellite retrieval algorithm, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the 3-D cloud ice water distributions within an 10° (latitude) x 10° (longitude) area. During the research period, we have developed, validated and improved our cloud ice water retrievals, and have produced and archived at ARM website as a PI-product of the 3-D cloud ice water contents using combined satellite high-frequency microwave and surface radar observations for SGP March 2000 IOP and TWP-ICE 2006 IOP over 10 deg. x 10 deg. area centered at ARM SGP central facility and Darwin sites. We have also worked on validation of the 3-D ice water product by CloudSat data, synergy with visible/infrared cloud ice water retrievals for better results at low ice water conditions, and created a long-term (several years) of ice water climatology in 10 x 10 deg. area of ARM SGP and TWP sites and then compared it with GCMs.

  8. Global circulation of the Earth's atmosphere at altitudes from 0 to 135 Km simulated with the ARM model. Consideration of the solar activity contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivolutsky, A. A.; Cherepanova, L. A.; Dement'eva, A. V.; Repnev, A. I.; Klyuchnikova, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    The results of simulations of the global circulation and temperature regime in the altitude range from the lower tropospheric layers to 135 km are presented. They were obtained with the Atmospheric Research Model (ARM), an advanced modification of a version of the Cologne Middle Atmosphere Model (COMMA). The ARM is characterized by higher spatial resolution and better parameterizations of the radiation sources and heat sinks. At the lower boundary of the model, wavy sources of perturbations, which are caused by internal gravity waves and planetary waves, are specified. The results of the modeling of the global temperature and wind fields for the mean solar activity level are presented, and their changes, which are caused by variations of the UV-radiation fluxes in the solar activity cycle and by solar proton flares, are also considered.

  9. Objective Determination of Cloud Heights and Radar Reflectivities Using a Combination of Active Remote Sensors at the ARM CART Sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Mace, Gerald G.; Moran, Kenneth P.; Marchand, Roger T.; Miller, Mark A.; Martner, Brooks E.

    2000-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is deploying sensitive, millimeter-wave cloud radars at its Cloud and Radiation Test Bed (CART) sites in Oklahoma, Alaska, and the tropical western Pacific Ocean. The radars complement optical devices, including a Belfort or Vaisala laser ceilometer and a micropulse lidar, in providing a comprehensive source of information on the vertical distribution of hydrometeors overhead at the sites. An algorithm is described that combines data from these active remote sensors to produce an objective determination of hydrometeor height distributions and estimates of their radar reflectivities, vertical velocities, and Doppler spectral widths, which are optimized for accuracy. These data provide fundamental information for retrieving cloud microphysical properties and assessing the radiative effects of clouds on climate. The algorithm is applied to nine months of data from the CART site in Oklahoma for initial evaluation. Much of the algorithm's calculations deal with merging and optimizing data from the radar's four sequential operating modes, which have differing advantages and limitations, including problems resulting from range sidelobes, range aliasing, and coherent averaging. Two of the modes use advanced phase-coded pulse compression techniques to yield approximately 10 and 15 dB more sensitivity than is available from the two conventional pulse modes. Comparison of cloud-base heights from the Belfort ceilometer and the micropulse lidar confirms small biases found in earlier studies, but recent information about the ceilometer brings the agreement to within 20-30 m. Merged data of the radar's modes were found to miss approximately 5.9% of the clouds detected by the laser systems. Using data from only the radar's two less-sensitive conventional pulse modes would increase the missed detections to 22%-34%. A significant remaining problem is that the radar's lower-altitude data are often

  10. A comparison of cloud layers from ground and satellite active remote sensing at the Southern Great Plains ARM site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Xia, Xiang'ao; Chen, Hongbin

    2017-03-01

    Using the data collected over the Southern Great Plains ARM site from 2006 to 2010, the surface Active Remote Sensing of Cloud (ARSCL) and CloudSat-CALIPSO satellite (CC) retrievals of total cloud and six specified cloud types [low, mid-low (ML), high-mid-low (HML), mid, high-mid (HM) and high] were compared in terms of cloud fraction (CF), cloud-base height (CBH), cloud-top height (CTH) and cloud thickness (CT), on different temporal scales, to identify their respective advantages and limitations. Good agreement between the two methods was exhibited in the total CF. However, large discrepancies were found between the cloud distributions of the two methods at a high (240-m) vertical grid spacing. Compared to the satellites, ARSCL retrievals detected more boundary layer clouds, while they underestimated high clouds. In terms of the six specific cloud types, more low- and mid-level clouds but less HML- and high-level clouds were detected by ARSCL than by CC. In contrast, the ARSCL retrievals of ML- and HM-level clouds agreed more closely with the estimations from the CC product. Lower CBHs tended to be reported by the surface data for low-, ML- and HML-level clouds; however, higher CTHs were often recorded by the satellite product for HML-, HM- and high-level clouds. The mean CTs for low- and ML-level cloud were similar between the two products; however, the mean CTs for HML-, mid-, HM- and high-level clouds from ARSCL were smaller than those from CC.

  11. Mystery Spiral Arms Explained?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    Using a quartet of space observatories, University of Maryland astronomers may have cracked a 45-year mystery surrounding two ghostly spiral arms in the galaxy M106. The Maryland team, led by Yuxuan Yang, took advantage of the unique capabilities of NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory, and data obtained almost a decade ago with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. NGC X-ray Image NGC 4258 X-ray Image M106 (also known as NGC 4258) is a stately spiral galaxy 23.5 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici. In visible-light images, two prominent arms emanate from the bright nucleus and spiral outward. These arms are dominated by young, bright stars, which light up the gas within the arms. "But in radio and X-ray images, two additional spiral arms dominate the picture, appearing as ghostly apparitions between the main arms," says team member Andrew Wilson of the University of Maryland. These so-called "anomalous arms" consist mostly of gas. "The nature of these anomalous arms is a long-standing puzzle in astronomy," says Yang. "They have been a mystery since they were first discovered in the early 1960s." By analyzing data from XMM-Newton, Spitzer, and Chandra, Yang, Bo Li, Wilson, and Christopher Reynolds, all at the University of Maryland at College Park, have confirmed earlier suspicions that the ghostly arms represent regions of gas that are being violently heated by shock waves. Previously, some astronomers had suggested that the anomalous arms are jets of particles being ejected by a supermassive black hole in M106's nucleus. But radio observations by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Long Baseline Array, and the Very Large Array in New Mexico, later identified another pair of jets originating in the core. "It is highly unlikely that an active galactic nucleus could have more than one pair of jets," says Yang. In 2001, Wilson, Yang, and Gerald Cecil

  12. Maintaining professional activity during breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Ganem, G; Antoine, E-C; Touboul, C; Naman, H; Dohollou, N; Facchini, T; Coscas, Y; Lortholary, A; Catala, S; Jacquot, S; Lhomel, C; Eisinger, F

    2016-05-01

    The question of returning to work and pursuing professional activity during cancer treatment is an increasingly important consideration. The present work focuses on factors affecting the feasibility of maintaining professional activity during treatment for breast cancer, for women who wished to do so. Written questionnaires were collected from 216 patients between March and November 2012. Since the onset of their treatment, 31.4% of the women (68/216) had not been on sick-leave. The main factors associated with the pursuit of professional activity were: considering the availability of their physician to answer questions as unimportant [OR = 18.83 (3.60-98.53); P ≤ 0.05]; considering the diagnosis of cancer as likely to have a weak impact on career perspectives [OR = 4.07 (2.49-6.64); P ≤ 0.05]; not having any children in the household [OR = 3.87 (2.38-6.28); P ≤ 0.05]; being in a managerial position [OR = 3.13 (1.88-5.21); P ≤ 0.05]. Negative predictive factors were: physician mentioning adverse effects of the treatment [OR = 0.31 (0.16-0.58); P ≤ 0.05], and patient rating workload as high [OR = 0.26 (0.15-0.46); P ≤ 0.05]. As a result of advances in therapeutic strategies, more patients will expect healthcare professionals, as well as employers and occupational health societies, to prioritise issues pertaining to the maintenance of professional activities during cancer treatment.

  13. The effect of swinging the arms on muscle activation and production of leg force during ski skating at different skiing speeds.

    PubMed

    Göpfert, Caroline; Lindinger, Stefan J; Ohtonen, Olli; Rapp, Walter; Müller, Erich; Linnamo, Vesa

    2016-06-01

    The study investigated the effects of arm swing during leg push-off in V2-alternate/G4 skating on neuromuscular activation and force production by the leg muscles. Nine skilled cross-country skiers performed V2-alternate skating without poles at moderate, high, and maximal speeds, both with free (SWING) and restricted arm swing (NOSWING). Maximal speed was 5% greater in SWING (P<0.01), while neuromuscular activation and produced forces did not differ between techniques. At both moderate and high speed the maximal (2% and 5%, respectively) and average (both 5%) vertical force and associated impulse (10% and 14%) were greater with SWING (all P<0.05). At high speed range of motion and angular velocity of knee flexion were 24% greater with SWING (both P<0.05), while average EMG of m. biceps femoris was 31% lower (all P<0.05) in SWING. In a similar manner, the average EMG of m. vastus medialis and m. biceps femoris were lower (17% and 32%, P<0.05) during the following knee extension. Thus, swinging the arms while performing V2-alternate can enhance both maximal speed and skiing economy at moderate and, in particularly, high speeds.

  14. Coat of Arms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Describes an activity, the "coat of arms," that can serve as an ice-breaker or warm-up for the first day of an English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language class, as a motivating start to the week, or act as an innovative segue between skill lessons. The technique can be adapted for students ranging from elementary school to adult language learners of all…

  15. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    effective measures to feelings of those Americans who are demanding effective measures to limit the arms race, Weinberger hypocritically said that the...way to conduct effective negotiations." Mr Weinberger knows very well that speaking the language of diktat to the Soviet Union is an activity with...the ABM Treaty"] [Text] The Soviet-American Treaty on the Limitation of ABM Systems, concluded in May 1972, has now been in effect for more than 13

  16. ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Daniel J. Stepan

    2000-07-01

    High concentrations of humate in surface water result in the formation of excess amounts of chlorinated byproducts during disinfection treatment. These precursors can be removed in water treatment prior to disinfection using powdered activated carbon. In the interest of developing a more cost-effective method for removal of humates in surface water, a comparison of the activities of carbons prepared from North Dakota lignites with those of commercial carbons was conducted. Previous studies indicated that a commercial carbon prepared from Texas lignite (Darco HDB) was superior to those prepared from bituminous coals for water treatment. That the high alkali content of North Dakota lignites would result in favorable adsorptive properties for the very large humate molecules was hypothesized, owing to the formation of larger pores during activation. Since no standard humate test has been previously developed, initial adsorption testing was performed using smaller dye molecules with various types of ionic character. With the cationic dye, methylene blue, a carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite (HSKRC) adsorbed more dye than the Darco HDB. The carbon from the low-sodium lignite was much inferior. With another cationic dye, malachite green, the Darco HDB was slightly better. With anionic dyes, methyl red and azocarmine-B, the results for the HSKRC and Darco HDB were comparable. A humate test was developed using Aldrich humic acid. The HSKRC and the Darco HDB gave equally high adsorption capacities for the humate (138 mg/g), consistent with the similarities observed in earlier tests. A carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite from a different mine showed an outstanding improvement (201 mg/g). The carbons prepared from the low-sodium lignites from both mines showed poor adsorption capacities for humate. Adsorption isotherms were performed for the set of activated carbons in the humate system. These exhibited a complex behavior interpreted as resulting from two types

  17. Efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A (Dysport) for the treatment of post-stroke arm spasticity: results of the German-Austrian open-label post-marketing surveillance prospective study.

    PubMed

    Jost, Wolfgang H; Hefter, Harald; Reissig, Andrea; Kollewe, Katja; Wissel, Joerg

    2014-02-15

    The current practice in Germany and Austria, and the safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A; Dysport) in the treatment of patients with post-stroke arm spasticity (with no fixed upper-limb contractures), were assessed in this observational prospective non-interventional study. One treatment cycle was documented with assessments at baseline, approximately week 4 (optional), and approximately week 12. Pattern of spasticity, treatment goal, safety and efficacy were recorded. Overall response and goal achievement was rated on a 4-point scale ('no goal achievement', 'goal achievement', 'good goal achievement', 'best goal achievement'). In total, 409 patients were included and 99% assigned to one of five arm-spasticity patterns. Therapy goals included reduced muscle tone (92.6%), physiotherapy or occupational therapy support (63.8%), increased range of motion (61.8%), pain reduction (58.9%), facilitation of care or hygiene (55.7%), and functional improvement (17.0%). Goals were achieved in 84% of patients. The following factors had the most potential as predictors of treatment outcome: pre-treatment; time since onset of spasticity; pattern of arm spasticity. Mean Dysport dose was 728 U and an inverse dose-response relationship was observed. Treatment was well tolerated. 500-1000 U was a safe and effective treatment for post-stroke arm spasticity in this post-marketing evaluation.

  18. Para-aminobenzamidine linked regenerated cellulose membranes for plasminogen activator purification: effect of spacer arm length and ligand density.

    PubMed

    Fasoli, Ezio; Reyes, Yiaslin Ruiz; Guzman, Osiris Martinez; Rosado, Alexandra; Cruz, Vivian Rodriguez; Borges, Amaris; Martinez, Edmarie; Bansal, Vibha

    2013-07-01

    Despite membrane-based separations offering superior alternative to packed bed chromatographic processes, there has been a substantial lacuna in their actual application to separation processes. One of the major reasons behind this is the lack of availability of appropriately modified or end-group modifiable membranes. In this paper, an affinity membrane was developed using a commercially available serine protease inhibitor, para-aminobenzamidine (pABA). The membrane modification was optimized for protein binding capacity by varying: (i) the length of the spacer arm (SA; 5-atoms, 7-atoms, and 14-atoms) linking the ligand to membrane surface; (ii) the affinity ligand (pABA) density on membrane surface (5-25nmol/cm(2)). Resulting membranes were tested for their ability to bind plasminogen activators (PAs) from mono- and multi-component systems in batch mode. The membrane containing pABA linked through 7-atoms SA but similar ligand density as in the case of 5- or 14-atoms long SA was found to bind up to 1.6-times higher amounts of PA per nmoles of immobilized ligand from conditioned HeLa cell culture media. However, membranes with similar ligand densities but different lengths of SA, showed comparable binding capacities in mono-component system. In addition, the length of SA did not affect the selectivity of the ligand for PA. A clear inverse linear correlation was observed between ligand density and binding capacity until the point of PA binding optima was reached (11±1.0nmol/cm(2)) in mono- and multi-component systems for 7- as well as 14-atoms SA. Up to 200-fold purification was achieved in a single step separation of PA from HeLa conditioned media using these affinity membranes. The issues of ligand leaching and reuse of the membranes were also investigated. An extensive regeneration procedure allowed the preservation of approximately 95% of the PA binding capacity of the membranes even after five cycles of use.

  19. The presence of outer arm fucose residues on the N-glycans of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 reduces its activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Ie; Saldova, Radka; Park, Jun Hyoung; Lee, Young Hun; Harvey, David J; Wormald, Mark R; Wynne, Kieran; Elia, Giuliano; Kim, Hwa-Jung; Rudd, Pauline M; Lee, Seung-Taek

    2013-08-02

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by binding at a 1:1 stoichiometry. Here we have shown the involvement of N-glycosylation in the MMP inhibitory ability of TIMP-1. TIMP-1, purified from HEK 293 cells overexpressing TIMP-1 (293 TIMP-1), showed less binding and inhibitory abilities to MMPs than TIMP-1 purified from fibroblasts or SF9 insect cells infected with TIMP-1 baculovirus. Following deglycosylation of TIMP-1, all forms of TIMP-1 showed similar levels of MMP binding and inhibition, suggesting that glycosylation is involved in the regulation of these TIMP-1 activities. Analysis of the N-glycan structures showed that SF9 TIMP-1 has the simplest N-glycan structures, followed by fibroblast TIMP-1 and 293 TIMP-1, in order of increasing complexity in their N-glycan structures. Further analyses showed that cleavage of outer arm fucose residues from the N-glycans of 293 TIMP-1 or knockdown of both FUT4 and FUT7 (which encode for fucosyltransferases that add outer arm fucose residues to N-glycans) enhanced the MMP-binding and catalytic abilities of 293 TIMP-1, bringing them up to the levels of the other TIMP-1. These results demonstrate that the ability of TIMP-1 to inhibit MMPs is at least in part regulated by outer arm fucosylation of its N-glycans.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. The North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site is a permanent site providing data about cloud and radiative processes at high latitudes. These data are being used to refine models and parameterizations as they relate to the Arctic. Centered at Barrow and extending to the south (to the vicinity of Atqasuk), west (to the vicinity of Wainwright), and east (towards Oliktok), the NSA site has become a focal point for atmospheric and ecological research activity on the North Slope. Approximately 300,000 NSA data sets from 1993 to the present reside in the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  1. Physiological and immunocytochemical evidence that glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in the activation of arm autotomy in the featherstar Antedon mediterranea (Echinodermata: Crinoidea).

    PubMed

    Wilkie, I C; Barbaglio, A; Maclaren, W M; Carnevali, M D Candia

    2010-06-15

    The crinoid echinoderm Antedon mediterranea autotomises its arms at specialised skeletal joints known as syzygies that occur at regular intervals along the length of each arm. Detachment is achieved through the nervously mediated destabilisation of ligament fibres at a particular syzygy. The aim of this investigation was to identify neurotransmitters that are involved in the autotomy response. Physiological experiments were conducted on isolated preparations of syzygial joints, which can be induced to undergo autotomy-like fracture by applying stimulatory agents such as elevated [K(+)](o). Initial experiments with elevated [K(+)](o) showed that the autotomy threshold (the minimum amount of stimulation required to provoke autotomy) is lowest in syzygies at the arm base and rises distally. Of a range of neurotransmitter agonists tested, only l-glutamate invoked syzygial destabilisation, as did its analogues l-aspartate, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) and kainate, but not l-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (l-AP4) or N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA). The implication that l-glutamate stimulates syzygial fracture through AMPA/kainate-like receptors was supported by the finding that the action of l-glutamate was inhibited by the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). Acetylcholine depressed the response of syzygial preparations to l-glutamate, suggesting a possible mechanism by which the autotomy threshold could be varied constitutively and facultatively. An immunocytochemical method employing a polyclonal antibody against l-glutamate conjugated to glutaraldehyde revealed l-glutamate-like immunoreactivity in all components of the putative neural pathway controlling the autotomy reflex, including the epidermis, brachial nerve, syzygial nerves and cellular elements close to the syzygial ligaments. We conclude that it is highly probable that l-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the activation of

  2. Unzipping mechanism of the double-stranded DNA unwinding by a hexameric helicase: the effect of the 3' arm and the stability of the dsDNA on the unwinding activity of the Escherichia coli DnaB helicase.

    PubMed

    Galletto, Roberto; Jezewska, Maria J; Bujalowski, Wlodzimierz

    2004-10-08

    The effect of two structural elements of a replication DNA fork substrate, the length of the 3' arm of the fork and the stability of the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) part, on the kinetics of the dsDNA unwinding by the Escherichia coli hexameric helicase DnaB protein has been examined under single turnover conditions using the rapid quench-flow technique. The length of the 3' arm of the replication fork, i.e. the number of nucleotides in the arm, is a major structural factor that controls the unwinding rate and processivity of the helicase. The data show the existence of an optimal length of the 3' arm where there is the highest unwinding rate and processivity, indicating that during the unwinding process, the helicase transiently interacts with the 3' arm at a specific distance on the arm with respect to the duplex part of the DNA. Moreover, the area on the enzyme that engages in interactions has also a discrete size. For DNA substrates with the 3' arm containing 14, or less, nucleotide residues, the DnaB helicase becomes a completely distributive enzyme. However, the 3' arm is not a "specific activating cofactor" in the unwinding reaction. Rather, the 3' arm plays a role as a mechanical fulcrum for the enzyme, necessary to provide support for the advancing large helicase molecule on the opposite strand of the DNA. Binding of ATP is necessary to engage the 3' arm with the DnaB helicase, but it does not change the initial distribution of complexes of the enzyme with the DNA fork substrate. Stability of the dsDNA has a significant effect on the unwinding rate and processivity. The unwinding rate constant is a decreasing linear function of the fractional content of GC base-pairs in the dsDNA, indicating that the activation of the unwinding step is proportional to the stability of the nucleic acid.

  3. Improvement in social and cognitive functioning associated with paliperidone extended-release treatment in patients with schizophrenia: a 24-week, single arm, open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chuan; Yao, Shu Qiao; Xu, Yi Feng; Shi, Jian Guo; Xu, Xiu Feng; Zhang, Cong Pei; Jin, Hua; Yu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This single-arm, open-label study aimed to explore the effects of extended-release paliperidone on social and cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Paliperidone extended-release (flexible dose ranging from 3 to 12 mg/day orally) was administered for 24 weeks in patients with schizophrenia. Patient function was assessed using the personal and social performance scale, measurement and treatment research to improve cognition in schizophrenia initiative-consensus cognitive battery, positive and negative syndrome scale, and clinical global impression-severity. Results Ninety patients were included in the full analysis set, while 72 patients were included in the per protocol set. The personal and social performance score was 54.3±14.3 at baseline, and significantly increased to 73.4±12.6 at week 24 (P<0.001). For the measurement and treatment research to improve cognition in schizophrenia initiative-consensus cognitive battery assessment, six of the nine individual subtests, six of the seven cognitive domains, and total cognitive scores improved significantly (P<0.05) between baseline and endpoint. positive and negative syndrome scale total scores and clinical global impression-severity scores decreased gradually (P<0.001) from week 4 to the conclusion of the study. Conclusion Paliperidone extended-release treatment significantly improves social and neurocognitive function as well as symptoms in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. PMID:27601904

  4. Post-refractive surgery complications and eye disease, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Blitz, Jason B; Hunt, Devin J; Cost, Angelia A

    2016-05-01

    Refractive surgery (RS) is a common procedure in the U.S. military population. This report provides an estimation of incident RS for vision correction purposes in the active component of the U.S. military from 1 January 2005 through 31 December 2014 and the prevalence of post-RS complications and eye disease in the 1-year period after RS. During the surveillance period, a total of 121,571 subjects without a diagnosis of eye disease other than hyperopia, myopia, or astigmatism in the previous year received a single incident RS procedure. In the 1-year period after RS, 5.3% of subjects with preoperative hyperopia or myopia had treatment-persistent (unresolved) hyperopia or myopia; 2.0% of subjects with preoperative astigmatism had treatment-persistent (unresolved) astigmatism; and 3.8% were diagnosed with tear film insufficiency. In general, most outcomes showed higher prevalences in Army and Air Force personnel versus Navy and Marine Corps personnel, in women versus men, in officer versus enlisted personnel, and in aviation and Special Forces personnel. A wide variation in outcome prevalences was noted by procedural military treatment facility.

  5. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of them are in your arm; the humerus, radius and ulna. Your arms are also made up of muscles, joints, tendons and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm can occur during sports, a fall or an accident. Types of arm injuries ...

  6. Septal serotonin depletion in rats facilitates working memory in the radial arm maze and increases hippocampal high-frequency theta activity.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, Miguel Ángel; López-Loeza, Elisa; Lajud Ávila, Naima; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca Erika; Hernández-Pérez, J Jesús; Reyes, Yoana Estrada; Olvera-Cortés, María Esther

    2014-07-05

    Hippocampal theta activity, which is strongly modulated by the septal medial/Broca׳s diagonal band neurons, has been linked to information processing of the hippocampus. Serotonin from the medial raphe nuclei desynchronises hippocampal theta activity, whereas inactivation or a lesion of this nucleus induces continuous and persistent theta activity in the hippocampus. Hippocampal serotonin depletion produces an increased expression of high-frequency theta activity concurrent with the facilitation of place learning in the Morris maze. The medial septum-diagonal band of Broca complex (MS/DBB) has been proposed as a key structure in the serotonin modulation of theta activity. We addressed whether serotonin depletion of the MS/DBB induces changes in the characteristics of hippocampal theta activity and whether the depletion is associated with learning in a working memory spatial task in the radial arm maze. Sprague Dawley rats were depleted of 5HT with the infusion of 5,7-dihydroxytriptamine (5,7-DHT) in MS/DBB and were subsequently trained in the standard test (win-shift) in the radial arm, while the CA1 EEG activity was simultaneously recorded through telemetry. The MS/DBB serotonin depletion induced a low level of expression of low-frequency (4.5-6.5Hz) and a higher expression of high-frequency (6.5-9.5Hz) theta activity concomitant to a minor number of errors committed by rats on the working memory test. Thus, the depletion of serotonin in the MS/DBB caused a facilitator effect on working memory and a predominance of high-frequency theta activity.

  7. Single-arm open-label study of Durolane (NASHA nonanimal hyaluronic acid) for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the thumb

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Eloisa; Ribera, Mª Victoria; Pi, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint of the thumb – also known as rhizarthrosis – is painful and has a significant impact on quality of life. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid may potentially meet the need for effective, minimally invasive intervention in patients not responding adequately to initial treatment. We aimed to confirm the safety and effectiveness of viscosupplementation with Durolane (NASHA nonanimal hyaluronic acid) in rhizarthrosis. Patients and methods This was a prospective, single-arm, multicenter, open-label study with a 6-month follow-up period. Eligible patients had Eaton–Littler grade II–III rhizarthrosis in one TMC joint with pain and visual analog scale (VAS) pain score ≥4 (scale: 0–10). A single injection of NASHA was administered to the affected TMC joint. The primary effectiveness variable was change from baseline in VAS pain score. Results Thirty-five patients (mean age 60.8 years; 85.7% female) received NASHA and completed the study. The least-squares mean change from baseline in VAS pain score over 6 months was −2.00, a reduction of 27.8% (p<0.001). The reduction in pain exceeded 25% as early as month 1 (26.5%), and gradual improvement was observed throughout the 6-month follow-up period. Secondary effectiveness parameters included QuickDASH (shortened version of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand [DASH]), Kapandji thumb opposition test, radial abduction, metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint flexion, and pinch (clamp) strength. Most of these measurements showed statistically significant improvements from baseline over 6 months. Five adverse events (injection site reactions) were reported in four patients (11.4%), and there were no serious or allergic reactions. Conclusion This study suggests that viscosupplementation using NASHA is effective and well tolerated in treating the symptoms of rhizarthrosis. PMID:28392718

  8. Languages of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Sherr, A.B.

    1985-11-01

    The author points out that the distinction between a component and subcomponent and a matter of Russian-English translation must be resolved if the Reagan-Gorbachev talks were to progress. The Reagan Administration did not create the problem of what is a component and what is a subcomponent; that was left unresolved in 1972. But the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization approach surely exacerbates it at a most inopportune time for arms control. US protestations that SDI does nothing to undermine the ABM Treaty ring hollow indeed when the professed aim of developing and testing various subcomponents is to arrive at a point of full systems development. If the Soviets were taking this same approach, no US arms control expert, in or out of government, would condone it once the activity had been identified by national technical means as probably ABM-related. The US would place the burden on the Soviets to explain, if they could, why it was not. The scope of the SDI program throws an entirely new factor into the equation. The price for pursuing SDI will be a stalemate in arms control negotiations for an indefinite future, increasing charges of cheating by both sides, and continuation of the chill in US-Soviet relations. Unless this prospect is reversed, good intentions and hopes for peace will be illusory. 7 references.

  9. Using Mid-Upper Arm Circumference to End Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition Leads to Higher Weight Gains in the Most Malnourished Children

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Nancy M.; Myatt, Mark; Prudhon, Claudine; Briend, André

    2013-01-01

    Objective The World Health Organization recommends discharging children admitted to nutrition programs treating severe acute malnutrition, with a low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC <115 mm) when weight gain is >15%. When this recommendation is followed, the most severely malnourished children receive a shorter treatment compared to children that are less severely malnourished. This study assesses whether using MUAC >125 mm as discharge criteria eliminates this effect. Methods and Findings Data from 753 children cured from a Médecins Sans Frontières outpatient nutrition program in Gedaref, North Sudan were analyzed. MUAC >125 mm was used as discharge criteria. Length of stay and percent weight gain of children were compared in relation to nutritional status on admission. Children with low MUAC on admission had a longer duration of treatment (p = 0.000) and also a higher percent weight gain (p = 0.000) than children with higher MUAC. Similar results with weight-for-height z-scores categories were shown with both duration of treatment (p = 0.000) and percent weight gain (p = 0.000). Conclusion This study shows that using MUAC as the discharge criteria eliminates the effect of shorter treatment in most severely malnourished children compared to least severely malnourished, as is observed with percent weight gain. The findings directly address the main concern that has been identified with the current WHO recommendation of using percent weight gain. MUAC could be used as discharge criteria, instead of percent weight gain, as having a longer duration of treatment and a higher percent weight gain for the most malnourished is highly desirable. PMID:23418442

  10. Arm Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... care. If you have a compressed nerve or repetitive strain injury, be consistent about therapy; maintain good posture; and take frequent breaks at work and during repetitive activities, such as playing an instrument or practicing ...

  11. Arm sway holds sway: locomotor-like modulation of leg reflexes when arms swing in alternation.

    PubMed

    Massaad, F; Levin, O; Meyns, P; Drijkoningen, D; Swinnen, S P; Duysens, J

    2014-01-31

    It has been argued that arm movements are important during human gait because they affect leg activity due to neural coupling between arms and legs. Consequently, one would expect that locomotor-like alternating arm swing is more effective than in-phase swing in affecting the legs' motor output. Other alternating movements such as trunk rotation associated to arm swing could also affect leg reflexes. Here, we assessed how locomotor-like movement patterns would affect soleus H-reflexes in 13 subjects performing arm swing in the sagittal plane (ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral in-phase versus locomotor-like anti-phase arm movements) and trunk rotation with the legs stationary, and leg stepping with the arms stationary. Findings revealed that soleus H-reflexes were suppressed for all arm, trunk or leg movements. However, a marked reflex modulation occurred during locomotor-like anti-phase arm swing, as was also the case during leg stepping, and this modulation flattened out during in-phase arm swing. This modulation had a peculiar bell shape and showed maximum suppression at a moment where the heel-strike would occur during a normal walking cycle. Furthermore, this modulation was independent from electromyographic activity, suggesting a spinal processing at premotoneuronal level. Therefore, trunk movement can affect legs' output, and a special neural coupling occurs between arms and legs when arms move in alternation. This may have implications for gait rehabilitation.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM data is collected both through permanent monitoring stations and field campaigns around the world. Airborne measurements required to answer science questions from researchers or to validate ground data are also collected. To find data from all categories of aerial operations, follow the links from the AAF information page at http://www.arm.gov/sites/aaf. Tables of information will provide start dates, duration, lead scientist, and the research site for each of the named campaigns. The title of a campaign leads, in turn, to a project description, contact information, and links to the data. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  13. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm

    PubMed Central

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A.; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T.; Lytton, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  14. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm.

    PubMed

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T; Lytton, William W

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  15. A comparison of ARMS and mutation specific IHC for common activating EGFR mutations analysis in small biopsy and cytology specimens of advanced non small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Guoqing; Hao, Yueyue; Xu, Yinhong; Zhang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    We have compared mutation analysis by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant-specific antibodies for their ability to detect two common activating EGFR mutations in a cohort of 115 advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including cytology material, core biopsy, and bronchoscopic biopsies. Assessment of EGFR mutation status was performed by using antibodies and ARMS assay specific to the two major forms of mutant EGFR, exon 19 deletion E746-A750 (c.2235_2249del15 or c.2236_2250del15, p. Glu746_Ala750 del) and exon 21 L858R point mutation (c.2573T>G, p.Leu858Arg). In this study the optimal buffer for antigen retrieval was sodium citrate (pH 6.0). Q score was used to evaluate the specific mutant EGFR proteins expression. Validation using clinical material showed deletions in exon 19 were detected in 19.1% and L858R mutation in 20% of all cases by ARMS assay. A cutoff value of score 1 was used as positive by IHC. No wild type cases were immuno-reactive. The antibodies performed well in cytology, core biopsies and bronchoscopic biopsies. There were only one false positive case using L858R IHC (sensitivity 100%, specificity 98.5%, positive predictive value 96%, negative predictive value 100%). All 23 E746-A750 exon 19 deletions identified by mutation analysis were positive by IHC. The sensitivity of exon 19 IHC for E746-A750 was 100%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 100%. The result of the IHC stains was finely correlated with mutations status determined by ARMS assay. Although inferior to molecular genetic analysis of the EGFR gene, IHC is highly specific and sensitive for the targeted EGFR mutations. The antibodies are likely to be of clinical value in cases especially where limited tumor material is available, or in situations where molecular genetic analysis is not readily available.

  16. Relations between suicide and traumatic brain injury, psychiatric diagnoses, and relationship problems, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2001-2009.

    PubMed

    Skopp, Nancy A; Trofimovich, Lily; Grimes, Jamie; Oetjen-Gerdes, Lynne; Gahm, Gregory A

    2012-02-01

    This retrospective case-control study of members of the active component of the U.S. Armed Forces compared those who died from suicide to controls matched by service, gender, race, age, date of entry into the active component, and years of service. Th e surveillance period was 2001 to 2009. The groups were compared with respect to numbers of deployments and documented diagnoses of traumatic brain injury (TBI), mood disorders, alcohol dependence, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), partner relationship problems, and family circumstance problems. Cases and controls were similar regarding frequencies and types of TBIs and numbers of deployments. In multivariate analyses, increased odds of suicide were associated with mood disorders, partner relationship problems, and family circumstance problems, but not with mild TBI, alcohol dependence, or PTSD. A separate analysis revealed that psychiatric comorbidities increased odds of suicide. Limitations are discussed, including the possibility that some controls with mild TBIs may have died from suicide after their military service.

  17. FINAL REPORT OF FY 1999, 2000, AND 2001 ACTIVITIES: CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED SOUNDING SYSTEM IN SUPPORT OF THE DOE/ARM EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Ed R. Westwater CIRES, University of Colorado /NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory 325 Broadway MS R/E/ET1 Boulder, Colorado 80305

    2002-04-30

    OAK B188 FINAL REPORT OF FY 1999, 2000, AND 2001 ACTIVITIES: CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED SOUNDING SYSTEM IN SUPPORT OF THE DOE/ARM EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM The basic goals of the research are to develop and test algorithms and deploy instruments that improve measurements of atmospheric quantities relevant to radiative transfer and climate research. Primary among these atmospheric variables are integrated amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid, as well as profiles of temperature, water vapor and cloud liquid. A primary thrust of this research is to combine data from instruments available to ARM to maximize their importance in radiative transfer and climate research. To gather data relevant to these studies, participation in field experiments, especially intensive operating periods, as well as the subsequent analysis and dissemination of collected data, is of primary importance. Examples of relevant experiments include several Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods at the Southern Great Plains Cloud And Radiation Testbed site, experiments in the Tropical Western Pacific such as PROBE and Nauru'99, and experiments at the North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean site. This final report describes our analyses of data taken during these field experiments.

  18. Evolution of robotic arms.

    PubMed

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  19. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-023 11 March 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ...ARMS Soviet Journal Reviews SIPRI Books on Arms Race in Outer Space (I. Kuznetsova, Yu. Orlov; Moscow INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, No 12, Dec 85) 1...Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 8 Feb 86) 59 TASS: INF Accord Possible Without Space Arms Connection (Moscow TASS, 7 Feb 86) 62 TASS: U.S. Officials

  20. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    on nuclear and space arms cannot be described as "equitable" even with most unrestrained imagination. ’Gray Hawk’ PM131006 Moscow IZVESTIYA in...WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ARMS Effectiveness of U.S. SDI Effort Downplayed ’ (Peter Bretschneider; Karl-Marx-Stadt...MEZHDUNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA, No 7, Jul 85) 53 - b - JPRS-TAO85-064 13 December 1985 SDI AND SPACE ARMS EFFECTIVENESS OF U.S. SDI EFFORT

  1. JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

  2. TCLS Arm for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Benoit; Helfers, Tim; Poupat, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-01

    The TCLS ARM FOR SPACE proposal was an answer to the H2020 topic “COMPET-6-2014: Bottom-up Space Technologies at low TRL”. This paper presents this H2020 TCLS ARM FOR SPACE initiative led by Airbus DS and which aims at fostering the use of European technology such as ARM processing for Space.

  3. Treatment of ichthyophthiriasis with photodynamically active chlorophyllin.

    PubMed

    Häder, D-P; Schmidl, J; Hilbig, R; Oberle, M; Wedekind, H; Richter, P R

    2016-04-01

    Water-soluble chlorophyll (chlorophyllin) exerts pronounced photodynamic activity on fish parasites. In order to determine its potential as a remedy against ectoparasites in fish carps were incubated in water with defined concentrations of chlorophyllin. The main focus of the experiments was on the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Fouquet) which is responsible for considerable losses in livestock in aquaculture. As malachite green, which in the past efficiently cured infected fishes, is banned because of its possible carcinogenicity; no effective remedy is presently available in aquaculture to treat ichthyophthiriasis. Using chlorophyllin, the number of trophonts was significantly reduced (more than 50 %) after 3 h incubation of infested fish at 2 and 4 mg/L and subsequent irradiation with simulated solar radiation. The lack of reinfection after light treatment indicates that also the remaining parasites have lost their multiplication capacity. In the controls (no chlorophyllin and no light, light but no chlorophyllin, or chlorophyllin but no light), no reduction of the I. multifiliis infection was observed. We propose that chlorophyllin (or other photodynamic substances) is a possible effective countermeasure against I. multifiliis and other ectoparasites in aquaculture.

  4. Early class III protraction facemask treatment reduces the need for orthognathic surgery: a multi-centre, two-arm parallel randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mandall, Nicky; Cousley, Richard; DiBiase, Andrew; Dyer, Fiona; Littlewood, Simon; Mattick, Rye; Nute, Spencer J.; Doherty, Barbara; Stivaros, Nadia; McDowall, Ross; Shargill, Inderjit; Worthington, Helen V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether patients who had received early class III protraction facemask treatment were less likely to need orthognathic surgery compared with untreated controls. This paper is a 6-year follow-up of a previous clinical trial. Design: Multi-centre 2-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Setting: Eight United Kingdom hospital orthodontic departments. Participants: Seventy three 7- to 9–year-old children. Method: Patients were randomly allocated, stratified for gender, into an early class III protraction facemask group (PFG) (n = 35) and a control/no treatment group (CG) (n = 38). The primary outcome, need for orthognathic surgery was assessed by panel consensus. Secondary outcomes were changed in skeletal pattern, overjet, Peer Assessment Rating (PAR), self-esteem and the oral aesthetic impact of malocclusion. The data were compared between baseline (DC1) and 6-year follow-up (DC4). A per-protocol analysis was carried out with n = 32 in the CG and n = 33 in the PFG. Results: Thirty six percent of the PFG needed orthognathic surgery, compared with 66% of the CG (P = 0.027). The odds of needing surgery was 3.5 times more likely when protraction facemask treatment was not used (odds ratio = 3.34 95% CI 1.21–9.24). The PFG exhibited a clockwise rotation and the CG an anti-clockwise rotation in the maxilla (regression coefficient 8.24 (SE 0.75); 95% CI 6.73–9.75; P < 0.001) and the mandible (regression coefficient 6.72 (SE 0.73); 95% CI 5.27–8.18; P < 0.001). Sixty eight per cent of the PFG maintained a positive overjet at 6-year follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences between the PFG and CG for skeletal/occlusal improvement, self-esteem or oral aesthetic impact. Conclusions: Early class III protraction facemask treatment reduces the need for orthognathic surgery. However, this effect cannot be explained by the maintenance of skeletal cephalometric change. PMID:27564126

  5. The role of anticipatory postural adjustments in interlimb coordination of coupled arm movements in the parasagittal plane: II. Postural activities and coupling coordination during cyclic flexion-extension arm movements, ISO- and ANTI-directionally coupled.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Fausto G; Esposti, Roberto

    2013-08-01

    When coupling cyclic adduction-abduction movements of the arms in the transverse (horizontal) plane, isodirectional (ISO) coupling is less stable than antidirectional (ANTI) coupling. We proposed that such deficiency stems from the disturbing action that anticipatory postural adjustments exert on ISO coupling. To ascertain if postural adjustments differentiate ISO versus ANTI coupling coordination in other types of cyclic arm movements, we examined flexion-extension oscillations in the parasagittal plane. Oscillations of the right arm alone elicited cyclic Postural Adjustments (PAs) in the left Anterior Deltoid and Posterior Deltoid, which replicated the excitation-inhibition pattern of the prime movers right Anterior Deltoid, right Posterior Deltoid. Cyclic PAs also developed symmetrically in Erector Spinae (RES and LES) and in phase opposition in Ischiocruralis (RIC and LIC), so as to discharge to the ground both an anteroposterior force, Fy, and a moment about the vertical axis, Tz. Oscillations of both arms in ISO coupling induced symmetric PAs in both ES and IC muscles, thus generating a large Fy but no Tz. In ANTI coupling, PAs in RES and LES remained symmetric but smaller in size, while PAs in RIC and LIC were large and opposite in phase, resulting in a large Tz and small Fy. Altogether, PAs would thus favour ISO and hamper ANTI parasagittal movements because (1) in the motor pathways to the prime movers of either arm, a convergence would occur between the voluntary commands and the commands for PAs linked to the movement of the other arm, the two commands having the same sign (excitatory or inhibitory) during ISO and an opposite sign during ANTI; (2) the postural effort of trunk and leg muscles would be higher for generating Tz in ANTI than Fy in ISO. These predictions fit with the finding that coupling stability was lower in ANTI than in ISO, i.e., opposite to horizontal movements. In conclusion, in both parasagittal and horizontal arm movements, the less

  6. Western Diet Chow Consumption in Rats Induces Striatal Neuronal Activation While Reducing Dopamine Levels without Affecting Spatial Memory in the Radial Arm Maze.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jason C D; Ali, Saher F; Kosari, Sepideh; Woodman, Owen L; Spencer, Sarah J; Killcross, A Simon; Jenkins, Trisha A

    2017-01-01

    Rats fed high fat diets have been shown to be impaired in hippocampal-dependent behavioral tasks, such as spatial recognition in the Y-maze and reference memory in the Morris water maze (MWM). It is clear from previous studies, however, that motivation and reward factor into the memory deficits associated with obesity and high-fat diet consumption, and that the prefrontal cortex and striatum and neurotransmitter dopamine play important roles in cognitive performance. In this series of studies we extend our research to investigate the effect of a high fat diet on striatal neurochemistry and performance in the delayed spatial win-shift radial arm maze task, a paradigm highly reliant on dopamine-rich brain regions, such as the striatum after high fat diet consumption. Memory performance, neuronal activation and brain dopaminergic levels were compared in rats fed a "Western" (21% fat, 0.15% cholesterol) chow diet compared to normal diet (6% fat, 0.15% cholesterol)-fed controls. Twelve weeks of dietary manipulation produced an increase in weight in western diet-fed rats, but did not affect learning and performance in the delayed spatial win-shift radial arm maze task. Concurrently, there was an observed decrease in dopamine levels in the striatum and a reduction of dopamine turnover in the hippocampus in western diet-fed rats. In a separate cohort of rats Fos levels were measured after rats had been placed in a novel arena and allowed to explore freely. In normal rats, this exposure to a unique environment did not affect neuronal activation. In contrast, rats fed a western diet were found to have significantly increased Fos expression in the striatum, but not prefrontal cortex or hippocampus. Our study demonstrates that while western diet consumption in rats produces weight gain and brain neuronal and neurotransmitter changes, it did not affect performance in the delayed spatial win-shift paradigm in the radial arm maze. We conclude that modeling the cognitive decline

  7. Western Diet Chow Consumption in Rats Induces Striatal Neuronal Activation While Reducing Dopamine Levels without Affecting Spatial Memory in the Radial Arm Maze

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jason C. D.; Ali, Saher F.; Kosari, Sepideh; Woodman, Owen L.; Spencer, Sarah J.; Killcross, A. Simon; Jenkins, Trisha A.

    2017-01-01

    Rats fed high fat diets have been shown to be impaired in hippocampal-dependent behavioral tasks, such as spatial recognition in the Y-maze and reference memory in the Morris water maze (MWM). It is clear from previous studies, however, that motivation and reward factor into the memory deficits associated with obesity and high-fat diet consumption, and that the prefrontal cortex and striatum and neurotransmitter dopamine play important roles in cognitive performance. In this series of studies we extend our research to investigate the effect of a high fat diet on striatal neurochemistry and performance in the delayed spatial win-shift radial arm maze task, a paradigm highly reliant on dopamine-rich brain regions, such as the striatum after high fat diet consumption. Memory performance, neuronal activation and brain dopaminergic levels were compared in rats fed a “Western” (21% fat, 0.15% cholesterol) chow diet compared to normal diet (6% fat, 0.15% cholesterol)-fed controls. Twelve weeks of dietary manipulation produced an increase in weight in western diet-fed rats, but did not affect learning and performance in the delayed spatial win-shift radial arm maze task. Concurrently, there was an observed decrease in dopamine levels in the striatum and a reduction of dopamine turnover in the hippocampus in western diet-fed rats. In a separate cohort of rats Fos levels were measured after rats had been placed in a novel arena and allowed to explore freely. In normal rats, this exposure to a unique environment did not affect neuronal activation. In contrast, rats fed a western diet were found to have significantly increased Fos expression in the striatum, but not prefrontal cortex or hippocampus. Our study demonstrates that while western diet consumption in rats produces weight gain and brain neuronal and neurotransmitter changes, it did not affect performance in the delayed spatial win-shift paradigm in the radial arm maze. We conclude that modeling the cognitive

  8. Dangling and Hydrolyzed Ligand Arms in [Mn3] and [Mn6] Coordination Assemblies: Synthesis, Characterization, and Functional Activity.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Krishna; Craig, Gavin A; Heras Ojea, María José; Pait, Moumita; Kundu, Animesh; Lee, Junseong; Murrie, Mark; Frontera, Antonio; Ray, Debashis

    2017-03-06

    Two flexible, branched, and sterically constrained di- and tripodal side arms around a phenol backbone were utilized in ligands H3L1 and H5L2 to isolate {Mn6} and {Mn3} coordination aggregates. 2,6-Bis{(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-ylimino)methyl}-4-methylphenol (H3L1) gave trinuclear complex [Mn3(μ-H2L1)2(μ1,3-O2CCH3)4(CH3OH)2](ClO4)2·4CH3OH (1), whereas 2,6-bis[{1-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)butan-2-ylimino}methyl]-4-methylphenol (H5L2) provided hexanuclear complex [Mn6(μ4-H2L2)2(μ-HL3)2(μ3-OH)2(μ1,3-O2CC2H5)4](ClO4)2·2H2O (2). Binding of acetates and coordination of {H2L1}(-) provided a linear Mn(III)Mn(II)Mn(III) arrangement in 1. A Mn(III)6 fused diadamantane-type assembly was obtained in 2 from propionate bridges, coordination of {H2L2}(3-), and in situ generated {HL3}(2-). The magnetic characterization of 1 and 2 revealed the properties dominated by intramolecular anti-ferromagnetic exchange interactions, and this was confirmed using density functional theory calculations. Complex 1 exhibited field-induced slow magnetic relaxation at 2 K due to the axial anisotropy of Mn(III) centers. Both the complexes show effective solvent-dependent catechol oxidation toward 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol in air. The catechol oxidation abilities are comparable from two complexes of different nuclearity and structure.

  9. Ergonomically neutral arm support system

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J; Chung, Jeffrey Y; Dellinges, Steven; Lafever, Robin E

    2005-08-02

    An ergonomic arm support system maintains a neutral position for the forearm. A mechanical support structure attached to a chair or other mounting structure supports the arms of a sitting or standing person. The system includes moving elements and tensioning elements to provide a dynamic balancing force against the forearms. The support structure is not fixed or locked in a rigid position, but is an active dynamic system that is maintained in equipoise by the continuous operation of the opposing forces. The support structure includes an armrest connected to a flexible linkage or articulated or pivoting assembly, which includes a tensioning element such as a spring. The pivoting assembly moves up and down, with the tensioning element providing the upward force that balances the downward force of the arm.

  10. Arm swing in human walking: what is their drive?

    PubMed

    Goudriaan, Marije; Jonkers, Ilse; van Dieen, Jaap H; Bruijn, Sjoerd M

    2014-06-01

    Although previous research has studied arm swing during walking, to date, it remains unclear what the contribution of passive dynamics versus active muscle control to arm swing is. In this study, we measured arm swing kinematics with 3D-motion analysis. We used a musculoskeletal model in OpenSim and generated dynamic simulations of walking with and without upper limb muscle excitations. We then compared arm swing amplitude and relative phase during both simulations to verify the extent to which passive dynamics contribute to arm swing. The results confirm that passive dynamics are partly responsible for arm swing during walking. However, without muscle activity, passive swing amplitude and relative phase decrease significantly (both p<0.05), the latter inducing a more in-phase swing pattern of the arms. Therefore, we conclude that muscle activity is needed to increase arm swing amplitude and modify relative phase during human walking to obtain an out-phase movement relative to the legs.

  11. 75 FR 54599 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the Knik Arm Crossing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... through effects on annual rates of recruitment or survival. Except with respect to certain activities not... patterns, including, but not limited to, migration, breathing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or...

  12. L-Malate dehydrogenase activity in the reductive arm of the incomplete citric acid cycle of Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Deutch, Charles E

    2013-11-01

    The autotrophic nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea does not synthesize 2-oxoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate) dehydrogenase under aerobic conditions and so has an incomplete citric acid cycle. L-malate (S-malate) dehydrogenase (MDH) from N. europaea was predicted to show similarity to the NADP(+)-dependent enzymes from chloroplasts and was separated from the NAD(+)-dependent proteins from most other bacteria or mitochondria. MDH activity in a soluble fraction from N. europaea ATCC 19718 was measured spectrophotometrically and exhibited simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics. In the reductive direction, activity with NADH increased from pH 6.0 to 8.5 but activity with NADPH was consistently lower and decreased with pH. At pH 7.0, the K m for oxaloacetate was 20 μM; the K m for NADH was 22 μM but that for NADPH was at least 10 times higher. In the oxidative direction, activity with NAD(+) increased with pH but there was very little activity with NADP(+). At pH 7.0, the K m for L-malate was 5 mM and the K m for NAD(+) was 24 μM. The reductive activity was quite insensitive to inhibition by L-malate but the oxidative activity was very sensitive to oxaloacetate. MDH activity was not strongly activated or inhibited by glycolytic or citric acid cycle metabolites, adenine nucleotides, NaCl concentrations, or most metal ions, but increased with temperature up to about 55 °C. The reductive activity was consistently 10-20 times higher than the oxidative activity. These results indicate that the L-malate dehydrogenase in N. europaea is similar to other NAD(+)-dependent MDHs (EC 1.1.1.37) but physiologically adapted for its role in a reductive biosynthetic sequence.

  13. Variability in spatio-temporal pattern of trapezius activity and coordination of hand-arm muscles during a sustained repetitive dynamic task.

    PubMed

    Samani, Afshin; Srinivasan, Divya; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Madeleine, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    The spatio-temporal distribution of muscle activity has been suggested to be a determinant of fatigue development. Pursuing this hypothesis, we investigated the pattern of muscular activity in the shoulder and arm during a repetitive dynamic task performed until participants' rating of perceived exertion reached 8 on Borg's CR-10 scale. We collected high-density surface electromyogram (HD-EMG) over the upper trapezius, as well as bipolar EMG from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, deltoideus anterior, serratus anterior, upper and lower trapezius from 21 healthy women. Root-mean-square (RMS) and mean power frequency (MNF) were calculated for all EMG signals. The barycenter of RMS values over the HD-EMG grid was also determined, as well as normalized mutual information (NMI) for each pair of muscles. Cycle-to-cycle variability of these metrics was also assessed. With time, EMG RMS increased for most of the muscles, and MNF decreased. Trapezius activity became higher on the lateral side than on the medial side of the HD-EMG grid and the barycenter moved in a lateral direction. NMI between muscle pairs increased with time while its variability decreased. The variability of the metrics during the initial 10 % of task performance was not associated with the time to task termination. Our results suggest that the considerable variability in force and posture contained in the dynamic task per se masks any possible effects of differences between subjects in initial motor variability on the rate of fatigue development.

  14. The arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, M.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive examination of the nature of the contemporary arms race, the forces that encourage arms competition, and the means by which these forces can be controlled. The author provides analyses of such specific issues as the viability of arms control agreements; the possibilities for nuclear disarmament; the means of deterrence, detection, and defense; and the methods of destruction themselves - nuclear, conventional, chemical, and space weapons.

  15. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-85-065 16 December 1985 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ARMS French...34U.S.-USSR Geneva Talks" for "European Conferences". JPRS-TAO85-065 16 December 1985 SDI AND SPACE ARMS FRENCH PRIME MINISTER DISCUSSES SDI...imbalances in conventional weapons can really be discussed. As far as space is concerned, we want to avoid the emergence of weapons which are highly

  16. Radial arm strike rail

    DOEpatents

    McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.

    1991-01-01

    The radial arm strike rail assembly is a system for measurement of bearings, directions, and stereophotography for geologic mapping, particularly where magnetic compasses are not appropriate. The radial arm, pivoting around a shaft axis, provides a reference direction determination for geologic mapping and bearing or direction determination. The centerable and levelable pedestal provide a base for the radial arm strike rail and the telescoping camera pedestal. The telescoping feature of the radial arm strike rail allows positioning the end of the rail for strike direction or bearing measurement with a goniometer.

  17. Selective Activation of Shoulder, Trunk, and Arm Muscles: A Comparative Analysis of Different Push-Up Variants

    PubMed Central

    Marcolin, Giuseppe; Petrone, Nicola; Moro, Tatiana; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Context The push-up is a widely used exercise for upper limb strengthening that can be performed with many variants. A comprehensive analysis of muscle activation during the ascendant phase (AP) and descendant phase (DP) in different variants could be useful for trainers and rehabilitators. Objective To obtain information on the effect of different push-up variants on the electromyography (EMG) of a large sample of upper limb muscles and to investigate the role of the trunk and abdomen muscles during the AP and DP. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Eight healthy, young volunteers without a history of upper extremity or spine injury. Intervention(s) Participants performed a set of 10 repetitions for each push-up variant: standard, wide, narrow, forward (FP), and backward (BP). Surface EMG of 12 selected muscles and kinematics data were synchronously recorded to describe the AP and DP. Main Outcome Measure(s) Mean EMG activity of the following muscles was analyzed: serratus anterior, deltoideus anterior, erector spinae, latissimus dorsi, rectus abdominis, triceps brachii caput longus, triceps brachii caput lateralis, obliquus externus abdominis, pectoralis major sternal head, pectoralis major clavicular head, trapezius transversalis, and biceps brachii. Results The triceps brachii and pectoralis major exhibited greater activation during the narrow-base variant. The highest activation of abdomen and back muscles was recorded for the FP and BP variants. The DP demonstrated the least electrical activity across all muscles, with less marked differences for the abdominal and erector spinae muscles because of their role as stabilizers. Conclusions Based on these findings, we suggest the narrow-base variant to emphasize triceps and pectoralis activity and the BP variant for total upper body strength conditioning. The FP and BP variants should be implemented carefully in participants with low back pain because of the

  18. 50 CFR 404.9 - Armed Forces actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Armed Forces actions. 404.9 Section 404.9... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.9 Armed Forces actions. (a) The prohibitions in this part do not apply to activities and exercises of the Armed Forces (including those carried out by the United States Coast...

  19. 50 CFR 404.9 - Armed Forces actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Armed Forces actions. 404.9 Section 404.9... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.9 Armed Forces actions. (a) The prohibitions in this part do not apply to activities and exercises of the Armed Forces (including those carried out by the United States Coast...

  20. The XBP1 Arm of the Unfolded Protein Response Induces Fibrogenic Activity in Hepatic Stellate Cells Through Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Rosa S.; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Goossens, Nicolas; Tsuchida, Takuma; Athwal, Varinder; Sun, Xiaochen; Robinson, Christopher L.; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Chou, Hsin-I; Zhang, David Y.; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Lee, Youngmin; Hoshida, Yujin; Friedman, Scott L.

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy and the unfolded protein response (UPR) both promote activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), however the link between the two stimuli remains unclear. Here we have explored the role of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), one of three UPR effector pathways and sought to establish the interdependence between autophagy and the UPR during HSC activation. XBP1 induction accompanied both culture-based HSC activation and ER stress induced by tunicamycin. Ectopic overexpression of XBP1 induced collagen 1-alpha expression in HSCs, which was inhibited by knockdown of ATG7, a critical autophagy mediator. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling indicated an upregulation of collagen synthesis pathways, but not of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-b pathway, a canonical fibrogenic driver, suggesting that XBP1 activates a specific subset of fibrogenesis pathways independent of TGF-β1. XBP1 target gene signatures were significantly induced in rodent liver fibrosis models (n = 3–5) and in human samples of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 72–135). Thus, XBP1-mediated UPR contributes to fibrogenic HSC activation and is functionally linked to cellular autophagy. PMID:27996033

  1. Behavioral Activation Is an Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier…

  2. Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Children Selected for Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition Using Mid Upper Arm Circumference and/or Weight-for-Height Z-Score

    PubMed Central

    Isanaka, Sheila; Guesdon, Benjamin; Labar, Amy S.; Hanson, Kerstin; Langendorf, Celine; Grais, Rebecca F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Debate for a greater role of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measures in nutritional programming continues, but a shift from therapeutic feeding programs admitting children using MUAC and/or weight-for-height Z (WHZ) to a new model admitting children using MUAC only remains complicated by limited information regarding the clinical profile and response to treatment of children selected by MUAC vs. WHZ. To broaden our understanding of how children identified for therapeutic feeding by MUAC and/or WHZ may differ, we aimed to investigate differences between children identified for therapeutic feeding by MUAC and/or WHZ in terms of demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory and treatment response characteristics. Methods Using secondary data from a randomized trial in rural Niger among children with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition, we compared children that would be admitted to a therapeutic feeding program that used a single anthropometric criterion of MUAC< 115 mm vs. children that are admitted under current admission criteria (WHZ< -3 and/or MUAC< 115 mm) but would be excluded from a program that used a single MUAC< 115 mm admission criterion. We assessed differences between groups using multivariate regression, employing linear regression for continuous outcomes and log-binomial regression for dichotomous outcomes. Results We found no difference in terms of clinical and laboratory characteristics and discharge outcomes evaluated between children that would be included in a MUAC< 115 mm therapeutic feeding program vs. children that are currently eligible for therapeutic feeding but would be excluded from a MUAC-only program. Conclusions A single anthropometric admission criterion of MUAC < 115 mm did not differentiate well between children in terms of clinical or laboratory measures or program outcomes in this context. If nutritional programming is to use a single MUAC-based criterion for admission to treatment, further research and

  3. The how and why of arm swing during human walking.

    PubMed

    Meyns, Pieter; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Duysens, Jacques

    2013-09-01

    Humans walk bipedally, and thus, it is unclear why they swing their arms. In this paper, we will review the mechanisms and functions of arm swinging in human gait. First, we discuss the potential advantages of having swinging arms. Second, we go into the detail on the debate whether arm swing is arising actively or passively, where we will conclude that while a large part of arm swinging is mechanically passive, there is an active contribution of muscles (i.e. an activity that is not merely caused by stretch reflexes). Third, we describe the possible function of the active muscular contribution to arm swinging in normal gait, and discuss the possibility that a Central Pattern Generator (CPG) generates this activity. Fourth, we discuss examples from pathological cases, in which arm swinging is affected. Moreover, using the ideas presented, we suggest ways in which arm swing may be used as a therapeutic aid. We conclude that (1) arm swing should be seen as an integral part of human bipedal gait, arising mostly from passive movements, which are stabilized by active muscle control, which mostly originates from locomotor circuits in the central nervous system (2) arm swinging during normal bipedal gait most likely serves to reduce energy expenditure and (3) arm swinging may be of therapeutic value.

  4. Changes in left ventricular relaxation after azelnidipine treatment in hypertensive patients with diabetes: subanalysis of a prospective single-arm multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Iwakura, Katsuomi; Ito, Hiroshi; Ishii, Katsuhisa; Date, Motoo; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Nagano, Toshihiko; Takiuchi, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We previously demonstrated that a calcium channel blocker, azelnidipine, improves left ventricular relaxation in patients with hypertension and diastolic dysfunction in a multicentre, Clinical impact of Azelnidipine on Left VentricuLar diastolic function and OutComes in patients with hypertension (CALVLOC) trial. The objectives of the present subanalysis were to investigate the differences in diastolic function in hypertensive patients with and without diabetes, and the efficacy of azelnidipine on diastolic function among them. Design Subanalysis of a prospective single-arm multicentre study. Participants 228 hypertensive patients with normal ejection fraction and impaired left ventricular relaxation (septal e′ velocity <8 cm/s on echocardiography) enrolled for CALVLOC trial. They were divided into two groups based on presence or absence of diabetes. Interventions Administration of 16 mg of azelnidipine for 8 months (range 6–10 months). Main outcome measures Septal e′ velocity before and at the end of the study. Results Whereas patients with diabetes (n=53, 23.2%) had lower systolic blood pressure (BP) than patients without diabetes (155±17 vs 161±16 mm Hg, p=0.03), they had lower e′ velocity (5.7±1.5 vs 6.1±1.4 cm/s, p=0.04) at baseline. Azelnidipine decreased BP and heart rate, and increased e′ velocity similarly in patients with diabetes (5.7±1.5 to 6.3±1.5 cm/s, p=0.0003) and without diabetes (6.1±1.4 to 6.9±1.4 cm/s, p<0.0001). Increase in e′ velocity was not influenced by presence of diabetes, and patients with diabetes still had lower e′ velocity after treatment (p=0.006). There was a significant correlation between increase in e′ velocity and decrease in systolic BP (R=0.25, p=0.0001), which was not influenced by diabetes. Conclusions Comorbid diabetes could impair left ventricular relaxation independently in patients with hypertension, which might not be improved solely by BP lowering. PMID:25270860

  5. Simultaneous structure-activity studies and arming of natural products by C-H amination reveal cellular targets of eupalmerin acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Cisar, Justin S.; Zhou, Cong-Ying; Vera, Brunilda; Williams, Howard; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Romo, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Natural products have a venerable history of, and enduring potential for the discovery of useful biological activity. To fully exploit this, the development of chemical methodology that can functionalize unique sites within these complex structures is highly desirable. Here, we describe the use of rhodium(II)-catalysed C-H amination reactions developed by Du Bois to carry out simultaneous structure-activity relationship studies and arming (alkynylation) of natural products at ‘unfunctionalized’ positions. Allylic and benzylic C-H bonds in the natural products undergo amination while olefins undergo aziridination, and tertiary amine-containing natural products are converted to amidines by a C-H amination-oxidation sequence or to hydrazine sulfamate zwitterions by an unusual N-amination. The alkynylated derivatives are ready for conversion into cellular probes that can be used for mechanism-of-action studies. Chemo- and site-selectivity was studied with a diverse library of natural products. For one of these—the marine-derived anticancer diterpene, eupalmerin acetate—quantitative proteome profiling led to the identification of several protein targets in HL-60 cells, suggesting a polypharmacological mode of action.

  6. Update: Cold weather injuries, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, July 2011-June 2016.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Francis L; Taubman, Stephen B

    2016-10-01

    From July 2015 through June 2016, a total of 447 members of the active (n=383) and reserve (n=64) components had at least one medical encounter with a primary diagnosis of cold injury. The numbers of affected individuals in both components were the lowest since the 2011-2012 cold season, when the total was 394. In the active component, the service-specific incidence rates for each of the four services were lower than the respective rates for the previous (2014-2015) cold season. Frostbite was the most common type of cold injury. During the five cold seasons in the surveillance period (2011-2016), rates tended to be higher among service members who were in the youngest age groups; female; black, non-Hispanic; or in the Army. The numbers of cold injuries associated with service in Iraq and Afghanistan have fallen precipitously in the past four cold seasons and included just 11 cases in the most recent year.

  7. Embedded ARM System for Volcano Monitoring in Remote Areas: Application to the Active Volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica)

    PubMed Central

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461

  8. Embedded ARM system for volcano monitoring in remote areas: application to the active volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-02

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis.

  9. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  10. Targeting RING domains of Mdm2-MdmX E3 complex activates apoptotic arm of the p53 pathway in leukemia/lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, W; Xu, C; Ling, X; Fan, C; Buckley, B P; Chernov, M V; Ellis, L; Li, F; Muñoz, I G; Wang, X

    2015-12-31

    Reactivation of tumor-suppressor p53 for targeted cancer therapy is an attractive strategy for cancers bearing wild-type (WT) p53. Targeting the Mdm2-p53 interface or MdmX ((MDM4), mouse double minute 4)-p53 interface or both has been a focus in the field. However, targeting the E3 ligase activity of Mdm2-MdmX really interesting new gene (RING)-RING interaction as a novel anticancer strategy has never been explored. In this report, we describe the identification and characterization of small molecule inhibitors targeting Mdm2-MdmX RING-RING interaction as a new class of E3 ligase inhibitors. With a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based E3 activity assay in high-throughput screening of a chemical library, we identified inhibitors (designated as MMRis (Mdm2-MdmX RING domain inhibitors)) that specifically inhibit Mdm2-MdmX E3 ligase activity toward Mdm2 and p53 substrates. MMRi6 and its analog MMRi64 are capable of disrupting Mdm2-MdmX interactions in vitro and activating p53 in cells. In leukemia cells, MMRi64 potently induces downregulation of Mdm2 and MdmX. In contrast to Nutlin3a, MMRi64 only induces the expression of pro-apoptotic gene PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) with minimal induction of growth-arresting gene p21. Consequently, MMRi64 selectively induces the apoptotic arm of the p53 pathway in leukemia/lymphoma cells. Owing to the distinct mechanisms of action of MMRi64 and Nutlin3a, their combination synergistically induces p53 and apoptosis. Taken together, this study reveals that Mdm2-MdmX has a critical role in apoptotic response of the p53 pathway and MMRi64 may serve as a new pharmacological tool for p53 studies and a platform for cancer drug development.

  11. [Medical Service of the Lithuanian Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Golota, A S; Ivanov, V V; Krassii, A B; Mironov, V G; Soldatov, E A; Shalakhin A A

    2016-01-01

    The article is a brief description of the current state of Lithuanian Armed Forces medical service and is based on the study of the open access foreign sources. At the beginning, the general information about Lithuania, its Armed Forces, and their, medical service is presented. Then the medical service particular features are described, with more detail, namely, the organization of the inpatient and outpatient treatment, medical supply, scientific research, combat medicine, medical staff education and training, medical service personnel income.

  12. [Medical Service of the Norwegian Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B; Morovikova, T V; Soldatov, E A

    2014-09-01

    The article is a brief description of the current state of the Norwegian Armed Forces medical service and is based on the study of the open access foreign sources. At the beginning, the general information about Norway, the Norwegian Armed Forces, and their medical service is presented: Then some particular features are described with more detail, namely, the organization of the inpatient and outpatient treatment, medical supply, scientific research, combat medicine, medical staff education and training, medical service personnel income.

  13. Pain-Related Brain Activity Evoked by Active and Dynamic Arm Movement: Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness as a Promising Model for Studying Movement-Related Pain in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Yoichi; Kan, Shigeyuki; Uematsu, Hironobu; Shibata, Masahiko; Fujino, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a suitable model for the study of movement-evoked pain, we attempted to identify brain regions specifically involved in pain evoked by active and dynamic movement under DOMS condition. Subject Twelve healthy volunteers Methods DOMS was induced in the left upper-arm flexor muscles by an eccentric elbow contraction exercise. Movement-evoked pain in the affected muscles was evaluated just before (day 0) and after (days 1–7 and 30) the exercise using a visual analog scale. Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans while performing repeated elbow flexion on day 2 (DOMS condition) and day 30 (painless condition). We compared brain activity between the DOMS and painless conditions. Results Movement-evoked pain reached peak intensity on day 2 and disappeared by day 30 in all subjects. No subject felt pain at rest on either of these days. Contralateral primary motor cortex (M1), parietal operculum and bilateral presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) showed greater activity during active and dynamic arm movement with DOMS than during the same movement without pain. There was no difference in activation of brain regions known collectively as the “pain matrix,” except for the parietal operculum, between the two conditions. Conclusion Active and dynamic movement with pain selectively evoked activation of M1, pre-SMA, and parietal operculum, as assessed using DOMS. Our results demonstrate that DOMS is a promising experimental model for the study of movement-evoked pain in humans. PMID:25929675

  14. Long-term efficacy and safety of incobotulinumtoxinA and conventional treatment of poststroke arm spasticity: a prospective, non-interventional, open-label, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Dressler, Dirk; Rychlik, Reinhard; Kreimendahl, Fabian; Schnur, Nicole; Lambert-Baumann, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of incobotulinumtoxinA with conventional antispastic therapy for poststroke arm spasticity in routine clinical practice over a 1-year period. Design Prospective, non-interventional, open-label, parallel-group study. Setting 47 centres in Germany. Participants Patients with poststroke arm spasticity; 108 receiving incobotulinumtoxinA, 110 conventional therapy. Intervention Conventional antispastic treatment including oral antispastic medications, physiotherapy and occupational therapy or 3-monthly incobotulinumtoxinA injections plus conventional therapy if required. Main outcome measures The main outcome measure was changes in muscle tone (Ashworth Scale) over the 1-year treatment period. Changes in functional disability (Disability Assessment Scale) and quality of life (Short-Form-12 Health Survey) were additionally assessed. Ratings for therapy outcome (Goal Attainment Scale), and efficacy and tolerability of treatment (Global Clinical Impression Scale) were also obtained. Results Muscle tone improved for all spasticity patterns with the Ashworth Scale responder rates between 63% and 86% (incobotulinumtoxinA) and 16–27% (conventional therapy). Median improvement in functional disability was –1.0 (incobotulinumtoxinA) and 0.0 (conventional measures) for all domains. Treatment goals were attained by 93% of incobotulinumtoxinA patients and 30% of patients under conventional therapy. Most physicians (93%) and patients (90%) rated efficacy as good or very good under incobotulinumtoxinA; the proportions were much lower under conventional therapy (36% and 37%). Tolerability under incobotulinumtoxinA was considered good or very good by 99% of physicians and patients (76% and 66%, respectively, under conventional therapy). Quality of life under incobotulinumtoxinA improved by 8.0 (physical score) and 10.8 (mental score) and by 0.8 and 5.7, respectively, under conventional therapy. Conclusions IncobotulinumtoxinA combined

  15. Summary of mental disorder hospitalizations, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-07-01

    Mental disorders are the leading cause of hospital bed days and the second leading cause of medical encounters for active component service members in the U.S. military. Mental disorder-related hospitalizations among military members have increased in both number and duration since 2006; mental disorders are the only illness/injury category for which hospitalization rates have markedly increased during the first 11 years of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Between 2000 and 2012, 159,107 active component service members experienced 192,317 mental disorder hospitalizations. There were approximately 87 percent more mental disorder-related hospitalizations in 2011 (n=21,646) than in 2000 (n=11,604); in 2012, this number declined slightly (n=21,360). The overall increase since 2006 was largely due to sharp increases in hospitalizations for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, alcohol abuse and dependence, and adjustment disorder (% increases in hospitalizations, 2006-2012: PTSD: 192%; depression: 66%; alcohol abuse and dependence: 110%; adjustment disorders: 52%). Similar rates of increase occured among members of the reserve component. The percentage of mental disorder hospitalization records with a second (concurrent) mental disorder diagnosis increased during the surveillance period; more than half of all service members hospitalized for a mental disorder have a second mental disorder diagnosis documented during the same hospitalization.

  16. Cortical activation and inter-hemispheric sensorimotor coherence in individuals with arm dystonia due to childhood stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kukke, Sahana N.; de Campos, Ana Carolina; Damiano, Diane; Alter, Katharine E.; Patronas, Nicholas; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective Dystonia is a disabling motor disorder often without effective therapies. To better understand the genesis of dystonia after childhood stroke, we analyzed electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings in this population. Methods Resting spectral power of EEG signals over bilateral sensorimotor cortices (Powrest), resting inter-hemispheric sensorimotor coherence (Cohrest), and task-related changes in power (TRPow) and coherence (TRCoh) during wrist extension were analyzed in individuals with dystonia (age 20±3 years) and healthy volunteers (age 17±5 years). Results Ipsilesional TRPow decrease was significantly lower in patients than controls during the more affected wrist task. Force deficits of the affected wrist correlated with reduced alpha TRPow decrease on the ipsilesional and not the contralesional hemisphere. Cohrest was significantly lower in patients than controls, and correlated with more severe dystonia and poorer hand function. Powrest and TRCoh were similar between groups. Conclusions The association between weakness and cortical activation during wrist extension highlights the importance of ipsilesional sensorimotor activation on function. Reduction of Cohrest in patients reflects a loss of inter-hemispheric connectivity that may result from structural changes and neuroplasticity, potentially contributing to the development of dystonia. Significance Cortical and motor dysfunction are correlated in patients with childhood stroke and may in part explain the genesis of dystonia. PMID:25499610

  17. The Application of High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (HRGS) to Nuclear Safeguards, Nonproliferation, and Arms Control Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Walter R.; Lemley, James R.; Forman, Leon

    1997-12-31

    While well-developed methodologies exist for the employment of high- resolution gamma ray spectrometry (HRGS) in determining the isotopic composition of plutonium samples, the potential capabilities of such measurements in determining the properties of nuclear materials otherwise remain largely unexploited. These measurements contain information sufficiently detailed such that not only can the isotopic composition of uranium and plutonium materials be determined, but the details of the spectrum obtained will depend reproducibly upon other factors including the total mass, density, chemical composition, and geometrical configuration of the material, and for certain materials, the elapsed time since chemical processing. The potential thus exists to obtain a `gamma-ray fingerprint` for typical containers or assemblies of nuclear material which will then serve to identify that class of item in a later confirmatory measurement. These measurements have the additional advantage that, by comparison with active interrogation techniques which usually require the introduction of some extraneous form of radiation or other intrusive activity, they are totally passive, and thus impose only minimal additional safety or regulatory burdens on the operators. In the application of these measurements to the verification of treaty-limited items, where the information acquired may be sensitive in nature, the use of the CIVET (Controlled Intrusiveness Verification Technique) approach, where a computer-based interface is employed to limit access to the information obtained, may be followed.

  18. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment

  19. The Healthy Activity Program lay counsellor delivered treatment for severe depression in India: systematic development and randomised evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Neerja; Anand, Arpita; Dimidjian, Sona; Shinde, Sachin; Weobong, Benedict; Balaji, Madhumitha; Hollon, Steven D.; Rahman, Atif; Wilson, G. Terence; Verdeli, Helena; Araya, Ricardo; King, Michael; Jordans, Mark J. D.; Fairburn, Christopher; Kirkwood, Betty; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing the global treatment gap for mental disorders requires treatments that are economical, effective and culturally appropriate. Aims To describe a systematic approach to the development of a brief psychological treatment for patients with severe depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary healthcare. Method The treatment was developed in three stages using a variety of methods: (a) identifying potential strategies; (b) developing a theoretical framework; and (c) evaluating the acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of the psychological treatment. Results The Healthy Activity Program (HAP) is delivered over 6–8 sessions and consists of behavioral activation as the core psychological framework with added emphasis on strategies such as problem-solving and activation of social networks. Key elements to improve acceptability and feasibility are also included. In an intention-to-treat analysis of a pilot randomised controlled trial (55 participants), the prevalence of depression (Beck Depression Inventory II ⩾19) after 2 months was lower in the HAP than the control arm (adjusted risk ratio = 0.55, 95% CI 0.32–0.94, P = 0.01). Conclusions Our systematic approach to the development of psychological treatments could be extended to other mental disorders. HAP is an acceptable and effective brief psychological treatment for severe depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary care. PMID:26494875

  20. Simultaneous structure-activity studies and arming of natural products by C–H amination reveal cellular targets of eupalmerin acetate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Cisar, Justin S.; Zhou, Congying; Vera, Brunilda; Williams, Howard; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Romo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    To fully exploit the inherent and enduring potential of natural products for fundamental cell biology and drug lead discovery, synthetic methods for functionalizing unique sites are highly desirable. Here we describe a strategy for the derivatization of natural products at ‘unfunctionalized’ positions via Rh(II)-catalyzed amination enabling simultaneous structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies and arming (alkynylation) of natural products. Employing Du Bois C–H amination, allylic and benzylic C–H bonds underwent amination and olefins underwent aziridination. With tertiary amine-containing natural products, amidines were produced via C–H amination/oxidation and unusual N-aminations provided hydrazine sulfamate inner salts. The alkynylated derivatives are readied for subsequent conjugation to access cellular probes for mechanism of action studies. Both chemo- and site-selectivity was studied by application to a diverse set of natural products including the marine-derived anticancer diterpene, eupalmerin acetate (EPA). Quantitative proteome profiling with an alkynyl EPA derivative obtained by site-selective, allylic C–H amination led to identification of several protein targets in HL-60 cells, including several known to be associated with cancer proliferation, suggestive of a polypharmacological mode of action for EPA. PMID:23695633

  1. Less-costly activated carbon for sewage treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingham, J. D.; Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Lignite-aided sewage treatment is based on absorption of dissolved pollutants by activated carbon. Settling sludge is removed and dried into cakes that are pyrolyzed with lignites to yield activated carbon. Lignite is less expensive than activated carbon previously used to supplement pyrolysis yield.

  2. Physical activity levels in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Sherry, David D

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is paramount in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia, although some interventions use indirect methods to increase activity levels rather than address physical dysfunction head-on. New research explores the effects of a psychotherapeutic approach on levels of physical activity in adolescents with fibromyalgia.

  3. Two-Armed Activation of Bone Mineral Deposition by the Flavones Baicalin and Baicalein, Encapsulated in Polyphosphate Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Hong; Guo, Yue-Wei; Tolba, Emad; Kokkinopoulou, Maria; Wiens, Matthias; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2017-04-02

    In this study, we investigated the effect of the two flavonoids, baicalin (baicalein 7-O-β-d-glucuronic acid) and its aglycone, baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), after encapsulation into amorphous calcium polyphosphate (Ca-polyP) microparticles on mineralization of primary human osteoblasts (phOSB). Both flavonoids, which come from root extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, and are nontoxic in cells up to a concentration of 3[Formula: see text]μg/ml. The morphogenetically active, energy-rich Ca-polyP particles with a stoichiometric P:Ca ratio of 1:2 are degraded by cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to ortho-phosphate used for bone hydroxyapatite formation. Here we show that the flavone-loaded Ca-polyP microparticles are readily taken up by phOSB, resulting in the accumulation of polyP around the nuclei and the formation of intracellular vesicles containing the ALP. In addition, we demonstrate that baicalin/baicalein causes a rise of the intracellular calcium [Ca[Formula: see text

  4. Three-arm noninferiority trials with a prespecified margin for inference of the difference in the proportions of binary endpoints.

    PubMed

    Hida, Eisuke; Tango, Toshiro

    2013-01-01

    The design of a three-arm trial including the experimental treatment, an active reference treatment, and a placebo is recommended as a useful approach to the assessment of noninferiority of the experimental treatment. The inclusion of the placebo arm enables the assessment of assay sensitivity and internal validation, in addition to testing the noninferiority of the experimental treatment to the reference. Generally, the acceptable noninferiority margin Δ has been defined as the maximum clinically irrelevant difference between treatments in many two-arm noninferiority trials. However, many articles have considered a design in which the noninferiority margin Δ is relatively defined as a prespecified fraction f of the unknown effect size of the reference treatment. Therefore, these methods cannot be applied to cases where the margin is defined as a prespecified difference between treatments. In this article, we propose score-based statistical procedures for a three-arm noninferiority trial with a prespecified margin Δ for inference of the difference in the proportions of binary endpoints. In addition, we derive the approximate sample size and optimal allocation to minimize the total sample size and that of the placebo arm. A randomized controlled trial on major depressive disorder based on the difference in the proportions of remission is used to demonstrate our proposed method.

  5. Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to

  6. The longevity of temporomandibular disorder improvements after active treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Steed, Pamela A

    2004-04-01

    Of concern to practitioners and patients alike are the long-term results following temporomandibular disorder/craniofacial pain (TMD/CP) treatments. This paper examines 270 patients who underwent active TMD/CP treatment and had follow-up an average of 41 months after the termination of treatment when the patients had reached maximum medical improvement (MMI). Data show that, notwithstanding a mild degree of recrudescence, overall levels remain significantly lower than initial baseline symptoms, indicating a long-term benefit from active treatment. It could not be determined whether the recrudescent symptom levels were related to the conditions for which patients initially sought treatment or to new pathological states. Possible considerations for relapse may be the function of aging, musculoskeletal structural adaptation, resorting to parafunctional habits, and/or a change in psychosocial status. No significant differences were found between males and females regarding symptom levels and outcomes. Clinical experience suggests that TMD/CP symptoms do not resolve spontaneously and generally require active treatment. Unfortunately, most studies to date have largely measured symptom changes immediately (or very shortly) after the completion of treatment. This article, however, finds that the benefits of appropriate active TMD treatments remain long after treatment completion.

  7. Baseline Brain Activity Predicts Response to Neuromodulatory Pain Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mark P.; Sherlin, Leslie H.; Fregni, Felipe; Gianas, Ann; Howe, Jon D.; Hakimian, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the associations between baseline electroencephalogram (EEG)-assessed brain oscillations and subsequent response to four neuromodulatory treatments. Based on available research, we hypothesized that baseline theta oscillations would prospectively predict response to hypnotic analgesia. Analyses involving other oscillations and the other treatments (meditation, neurofeedback, and both active and sham transcranial direct current stimulation) were viewed as exploratory, given the lack of previous research examining brain oscillations as predictors of response to these other treatments. Design Randomized controlled study of single sessions of four neuromodulatory pain treatments and a control procedure. Methods Thirty individuals with spinal cord injury and chronic pain had their EEG recorded before each session of four active treatments (hypnosis, meditation, EEG biofeedback, transcranial direct current stimulation) and a control procedure (sham transcranial direct stimulation). Results As hypothesized, more presession theta power was associated with greater response to hypnotic analgesia. In exploratory analyses, we found that less baseline alpha power predicted pain reduction with meditation. Conclusions The findings support the idea that different patients respond to different pain treatments and that between-person treatment response differences are related to brain states as measured by EEG. The results have implications for the possibility of enhancing pain treatment response by either 1) better patient/treatment matching or 2) influencing brain activity before treatment is initiated in order to prepare patients to respond. Research is needed to replicate and confirm the findings in additional samples of individuals with chronic pain. PMID:25287554

  8. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    by S. Kulik U.S. Commitment to Space Arms Reagan Cited Weinberger Hit on ABM Treaty SDI, ABM Testing Violates Accords Said to Undermine ABM Treaty...that the creation of a large scale ABM system with outer space based elements is "a justified approach" to arms control. Yet the implementation of...countries agree that this is a new, long-term round of the arms race, and that the development of ABM weapons and the defense" system as a whole will

  9. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-013 1 February 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ...ARMS LE SOIR on Possible European Space Defense (Pierre Lefevre; Brussels LE SOIR, 12 Dec 85) 1 SALT/START ISSUES USSR Hits U.S. Accusations of...PRS«TAO86*013 1 February 1986 SDI AND SPACE ARMS LE SOIR ON POSSIBLE EUROPEAN SPACE DEFENSE Brussels LE SOIR in French 12 Dec 85 p 8 [Article by

  10. MVACS Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; Noon, D.; Pixler, G.; Schenker, P.; Ton, T.; Tucker, C.; Zimmerman, W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  11. Antibacterial, DNA interaction and cytotoxic activities of pendant-armed polyamine macrocyclic dinuclear nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthi, P.; Haleel, A.; Srinivasan, P.; Prabhu, D.; Arulvasu, C.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2014-08-01

    A series of dinuclear nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes (1-6) of hexaaza macrocycles of 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol with three different benzoyl pendant-arms, 2,2‧-benzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L), 2,2‧-4-nitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L‧) and 2,2‧-3,5-dinitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L″) have been synthesized and characterized by spectral methods. The electrochemical studies of these complexes depict two irreversible one electron reduction processes around E1pc = -0.62 to -0.76 V and E2pc = -1.21 to -1.31, and nickel(II) complexes (1-3) exhibit two irreversible one electron oxidation processes around E1pa = 1.08 to 1.14 V and E2pa = 1.71 to 1.74 V. The room temperature magnetic moment values (μeff, 1.52-1.54 BM) indicate the presence of an antiferromagnetic interaction in the binuclear copper(II) complexes (4-6) which is also observed from the broad ESR spectra with a g value of 2.14-2.15. The synthesized complexes (1-6) were screened for their antibacterial activity. The results of DNA interaction studies indicate that the dinuclear complexes can bind to calf thymus DNA by intercalative mode and display efficient cleavage of plasmid DNA. Further, the cytotoxic activity of complexes 2, 5 and 6 on human liver adenocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line has been examined. Nuclear-chromatin cleavage has also been observed with PI staining and comet assays.

  12. Digital image processing and analysis for activated sludge wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Lee, Xue Yong; Nisar, Humaira; Ng, Choon Aun; Yeap, Kim Ho; Malik, Aamir Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Activated sludge system is generally used in wastewater treatment plants for processing domestic influent. Conventionally the activated sludge wastewater treatment is monitored by measuring physico-chemical parameters like total suspended solids (TSSol), sludge volume index (SVI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) etc. For the measurement, tests are conducted in the laboratory, which take many hours to give the final measurement. Digital image processing and analysis offers a better alternative not only to monitor and characterize the current state of activated sludge but also to predict the future state. The characterization by image processing and analysis is done by correlating the time evolution of parameters extracted by image analysis of floc and filaments with the physico-chemical parameters. This chapter briefly reviews the activated sludge wastewater treatment; and, procedures of image acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation and analysis in the specific context of activated sludge wastewater treatment. In the latter part additional procedures like z-stacking, image stitching are introduced for wastewater image preprocessing, which are not previously used in the context of activated sludge. Different preprocessing and segmentation techniques are proposed, along with the survey of imaging procedures reported in the literature. Finally the image analysis based morphological parameters and correlation of the parameters with regard to monitoring and prediction of activated sludge are discussed. Hence it is observed that image analysis can play a very useful role in the monitoring of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants.

  13. Arm-eye coordination test to objectively quantify motor performance and muscles activation in persons after stroke undergoing robot-aided rehabilitation training: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-Yu; Hu, Xiaoling; Li, Le; Sun, Rui

    2013-09-01

    This study designed an arm-eye coordination test to investigate the effectiveness of the robot-aided rehabilitation for persons after stroke. Six chronic poststroke subjects were recruited to attend a 20-session robot-aided rehabilitation training of elbow joint. Before and after the training program, subjects were asked to perform voluntary movements of elbow flection and extension by following sinusoidal trajectories at different velocities with visual feedback on their joint positions. The elbow angle and the electromyographic signal of biceps and triceps as well as clinical scores were evaluated together with the parameters. Performance was objectively quantified by root mean square error (RMSE), root mean square jerk (RMSJ), range of motion (ROM), and co-contraction index (CI). After 20 sessions, RMSE and ROM improved significantly in both the affected and the unaffected side based on two-way ANOVA (P < 0.05). There was significant lower RMSJ in the affected side at higher velocities (P < 0.05). There was significant negative correlation between average RMSE with different tracking velocities and Fugl-Meyer shoulder-elbow score (P < 0.05). There was also significant negative correlation between average RMSE and average ROM (P < 0.05), and moderate nonsignificant negative correlation with RMSJ, and CI. The characterization of velocity-dependent deficiencies, monitoring of training-induced improvement, and the correlation between quantitative parameters and clinical scales could enable the exploration of effects of different types of treatment and design progress-based training method to accelerate the processes of recovery.

  14. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the upper and lower ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  15. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-23

    GDR, handguns , ammunition, explo- sives, communications and pioneer technology, certain ships, and military supplies are produced. In 1989, 1...appointed by the interior minister, and the defense, trade, and foreign ministers can issue licenses for arms traders to sign contracts. In disputed...Impossible Thought The group of politicians, diplomats, and soldiers who want to use arms control and disarmament to further their Own concealed

  16. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ABM (Moscow TASS, 9, 10 Nov 85) 5 .U.S. ’New Interpretation’ 5 U.S. Posture Unchanged 5 PRAVDA 27 Oct Review of Week’s International Events...Space Arms Race (Beijing XINHUA, 8 Nov 85) ........................... 34 Briefs Senators Hit ABM Change 35 CSSR Representative Addresses UN...SDI AND SPACE ARMS TASS REPORTS NITZE NOVEMBER REMARKS ON SDI, ABM U.S. ’New Interpretation’ LD901421 Moscow TASS in English 1334 GMT 9 Nov 85

  17. Worldwide Report. Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    knowledgeable people and came to the conclusion that the Pentagon official who has taught his son from infancy to fear and hate the USSR has influenced...missile. The U.S. Administration fears that defeat of the. MX in Congress could undermine the U.S. position>at the arms talks here. The Soviet delegation...swaggering. Behind this there is not only the fear that the gigantic arms ex- penditure could bring about a deficit crisis of enormous proportions

  18. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    past 23 years, Senate President Jovito Salonga said yesterday. In an interview on government television, Salonga said the presence of nuclear arms...date and place not given] [Excerpts] The Bulgarian Government recently announced that it will reduce its armed forces by 10,000 soldiers, 200 tanks...unambiguous and does not leave any room for any kind of speculation, not even in Bonn’s government statement. Corresponding to the GDR’s peace

  19. Kinematically redundant arm formulations for coordinated multiple arm implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Robert W.; Quiocho, Leslie J.; Cleghorn, Timothy F.

    1990-01-01

    Although control laws for kinematically redundant robotic arms were presented as early as 1969, redundant arms have only recently become recognized as viable solutions to limitations inherent to kinematically sufficient arms. The advantages of run-time control optimization and arm reconfiguration are becoming increasingly attractive as the complexity and criticality of robotic systems continues to progress. A generalized control law for a spatial arm with 7 or more degrees of freedom (DOF) based on Whitney's resolved rate formulation is given. Results from a simulation implementation utilizing this control law are presented. Furthermore, results from a two arm simulation are presented to demonstrate the coordinated control of multiple arms using this formulation.

  20. A studentized permutation test for three-arm trials in the 'gold standard' design.

    PubMed

    Mütze, Tobias; Konietschke, Frank; Munk, Axel; Friede, Tim

    2017-03-15

    The 'gold standard' design for three-arm trials refers to trials with an active control and a placebo control in addition to the experimental treatment group. This trial design is recommended when being ethically justifiable and it allows the simultaneous comparison of experimental treatment, active control, and placebo. Parametric testing methods have been studied plentifully over the past years. However, these methods often tend to be liberal or conservative when distributional assumptions are not met particularly with small sample sizes. In this article, we introduce a studentized permutation test for testing non-inferiority and superiority of the experimental treatment compared with the active control in three-arm trials in the 'gold standard' design. The performance of the studentized permutation test for finite sample sizes is assessed in a Monte Carlo simulation study under various parameter constellations. Emphasis is put on whether the studentized permutation test meets the target significance level. For comparison purposes, commonly used Wald-type tests, which do not make any distributional assumptions, are included in the simulation study. The simulation study shows that the presented studentized permutation test for assessing non-inferiority in three-arm trials in the 'gold standard' design outperforms its competitors, for instance the test based on a quasi-Poisson model, for count data. The methods discussed in this paper are implemented in the R package ThreeArmedTrials which is available on the comprehensive R archive network (CRAN). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Safety and efficacy of nivolumab and standard chemotherapy drug combination in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a four arms phase Ib study

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, S.; Goto, K.; Shiraishi, H.; Kubo, E.; Tanaka, A.; Utsumi, H.; Sunami, K.; Kitazono, S.; Mizugaki, H.; Horinouchi, H.; Fujiwara, Y.; Nokihara, H.; Yamamoto, N.; Hozumi, H.; Tamura, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background The human IgG4 monoclonal antibody nivolumab targets programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and promotes antitumor response by blocking the interaction of PD-1 with its ligands. This single-center phase Ib study investigated the tolerability, safety, and pharmacokinetics of nivolumab combined with standard chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and methods Patients who had stage IIIB without indication for definitive radiotherapy, stage IV, or recurrent NSCLC were eligible. Regimens were nivolumab 10 mg/kg + gemcitabine/cisplatin (arm A), pemetrexed/cisplatin (arm B), paclitaxel/carboplatin/bevacizumab (arm C), or docetaxel (arm D). Regimens A, B, and D were repeated every 3 weeks for up to four cycles and regimen C was repeated for up to six cycles; nivolumab alone (arm A), with pemetrexed (arm B), bevacizumab (arm C), or docetaxel (arm D) was continued every 3 weeks as maintenance therapy until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was evaluated during the first treatment cycle. Results As of March 2014, six patients were enrolled in each arm. The combination of nivolumab 10 mg/kg and chemotherapy was well tolerated. DLT was observed in only one patient in arm A (alanine aminotransferase increased). Select adverse events (those with a potential immunologic cause) of any grade were observed in six, four, six, and five patients in arms A, B, C, and D, respectively. Three, three, six, and one patient achieved partial response while median progression-free survival was 6.28, 9.63 months, not reached, and 3.15 months in arms A, B, C, and D, respectively. Conclusions Combination of nivolumab 10 mg/kg and chemotherapy showed an acceptable toxicity profile and encouraging antitumor activity in patients with advanced NSCLC. Clinical trials number Japanese Pharmaceutical Information Center Clinical Trials Information (JapicCTI)-132071. PMID:27765756

  2. Acid-labile pHPMA modification of four-arm oligoaminoamide pDNA polyplexes balances shielding and gene transfer activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Beckert, Linda; Kostka, Libor; Kessel, Eva; Krhac Levacic, Ana; Kostkova, Hana; Etrych, Tomas; Lächelt, Ulrich; Wagner, Ernst

    2016-08-01

    We report novel pH-reversibly surface-shielded polyplexes with enhanced gene transfer activity upon systemic administration. A four-arm-structured sequence-defined cationic oligomer KK[HK[(H-Sph-K)3HC]2]2 was designed and synthesized on solid-phase, containing additional lysine residues not only for improved pDNA polyplex stability, but also providing attachment points for subsequent polyplex functionalization with amine-reactive shielding polymers. Herein, the surface of polyplexes was shielded with hydrophilic polymers, monovalent PEG or monovalent and multivalent pHPMA, optionally attached to the polyplex via the acid-labile linker AzMMMan. Overall, surface modification with PEG or pHPMA resulted in a decrease in the zeta potential of polyplexes, consistent with the degree of surface shielding. At pH 6.0, only polyplexes modified via the acid-labile linkage showed an increase in zeta potential, consistent with a "deshielding" in acidic environment, expected as beneficial for endosomal escape. Shielding was more efficient for multivalent pHPMA (20kDa, 30kDa) as compared to monovalent pHPMA (10kDa, 20kDa, 30kDa) or PEG (5kDa). In vitro transfection studies revealed higher gene expression by the polyplexes with the acid-labile shield as compared to their irreversibly shielded counterparts. Intravenous administration of AzMMMan-pHPMA modified polyplexes in an in vivo tumor mouse model mediated enhanced gene expression in the subcutaneous tumor and reduced undesirable expression in the liver.

  3. Brain activation to cocaine cues and motivation/treatment status.

    PubMed

    Prisciandaro, James J; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T

    2014-03-01

    Motivation to change is believed to be a key factor in therapeutic success in substance use disorders; however, the neurobiological mechanisms through which motivation to change impacts decreased substance use remain unclear. Existing research is conflicting, with some investigations supporting decreased and others reporting increased frontal activation to drug cues in individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. The present study investigated the relationship between motivation to change cocaine use and cue-elicited brain activity in cocaine-dependent individuals using two conceptualizations of 'motivation to change': (1) current treatment status (i.e. currently receiving versus not receiving outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence) and (2) self-reported motivation to change substance use, using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. Thirty-eight cocaine-dependent individuals (14 currently in treatment) completed a diagnostic assessment and an fMRI cocaine cue-reactivity task. Whole-brain analyses demonstrated that both treatment-seeking and motivated participants had lower activation to cocaine cues in a wide variety of brain regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal and cingulate cortices relative to non-treatment-seeking and less motivated participants. Future research is needed to explain the mechanism by which treatment and/or motivation impacts neural cue reactivity, as such work could potentially aid in the development of more effective therapeutic techniques for substance-dependent patients.

  4. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  5. An example of activity based costing of treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Alemi, Farrokh; Sullivan, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a new tool that can be used for estimating number, length of time, and nature of services patient receive in drug treatment programs. While the field has made significant progress in standardizing the collection of expenditure data, little progress has been made on creating a standard measure for estimating program activities and census. We report on a method of estimating program activities.

  6. Incident diagnoses of cancers in the active component and cancer-related deaths in the active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Lee, Terrence; Williams, Valerie F; Clark, Leslie L

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S., surpassed only by heart disease. It is estimated that approximately one of every four deaths in the U.S. is due to cancer. Between 2005 and 2014 among active component service members in the U.S. military, crude incidence rates of most cancer diagnoses have remained relatively stable. During this period, 8,973 active component members were diagnosed with at least one of the cancers of interest and no specific increasing or decreasing trends were evident. Cancers accounted for 1,054 deaths of service members on active duty during the 10-year surveillance period; this included 727 service members in the active component and 327 in the reserve component.

  7. Anammox biofilm in activated sludge swine wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Suto, Ryu; Ishimoto, Chikako; Chikyu, Mikio; Aihara, Yoshito; Matsumoto, Toshimi; Uenishi, Hirohide; Yasuda, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Yasuyuki; Waki, Miyoko

    2017-01-01

    We investigated anammox with a focus on biofilm in 10 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that use activated sludge treatment of swine wastewater. In three plants, we found red biofilms in aeration tanks or final sedimentation tanks. The biofilm had higher anammox 16S rRNA gene copy numbers (up to 1.35 × 10(12) copies/g-VSS) and higher anammox activity (up to 295 μmoL/g-ignition loss/h) than suspended solids in the same tank. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Planctomycetes accounted for up to 17.7% of total reads in the biofilm. Most of them were related to Candidatus Brocadia or Ca. Jettenia. The highest copy number and the highest proportion of Planctomycetes were comparable to those of enriched anammox sludge. Thus, swine WWTPs that use activated sludge treatment can fortuitously acquire anammox biofilm. Thus, concentrated anammox can be detected by focusing on red biofilm.

  8. Arms Industry limited

    SciTech Connect

    Wulf, H.

    1993-12-31

    The intent of this study is to give an overview of the present state of the world arms industry. It is an empirical account of the size of the industry and particularly its present problems. The authors examine the economic pressures that affect the international arms trade. Specifically, it raises the question of how dependent the industry is on weapons production and exports, and whether there are any alternatives. Export dependence of the major weapons producing countries is a major focus. The book focus`s on private industry as opposed to examination of national governments. Despite the passing of the Cold War and some brief post-Gulf War euphoria about the possibility of greater restrain on the part of weapons exporters, the conventional arms trade is alive and well, albeit with new variations.

  9. Gene knockout using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) reveals that human NDUFA9 protein is essential for stabilizing the junction between membrane and matrix arms of complex I.

    PubMed

    Stroud, David A; Formosa, Luke E; Wijeyeratne, Xiaonan W; Nguyen, Thanh N; Ryan, Michael T

    2013-01-18

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) represent a promising approach for targeted knock-out of genes in cultured human cells. We used TALEN-technology to knock out the nuclear gene encoding NDUFA9, a subunit of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I in HEK293T cells. Screening for the knock-out revealed a mixture of NDUFA9 cell clones that harbored partial deletions of the mitochondrial N-terminal targeting signal but were still capable of import. A cell line lacking functional copies of both NDUFA9 alleles resulted in a loss of NDUFA9 protein expression, impaired assembly of complex I, and cells incapable of growth in galactose medium. Cells lacking NDUFA9 contained a complex I subcomplex consisting of membrane arm subunits but not marker subunits of the matrix arm. Re-expression of NDUFA9 restored the defects in complex I assembly. We conclude that NDUFA9 is involved in stabilizing the junction between membrane and matrix arms of complex I, a late assembly step critical for complex I biogenesis and activity.

  10. Robotic Arm Unwrapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken shortly after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander touched down on the surface of Mars, shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier successfully unpeeled. The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm.

    The biobarrier is an extra precautionary measure for protecting Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

    Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm.

    After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy.

    The base of the lander's Meteorological Station can be seen in this picture on the upper left. Because only the base of the station is showing, this image tells engineers that the instrument deployed successfully.

    The image was taken on landing day, May 25, 2008, by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Parsing brain activity associated with acupuncture treatment in Parkinson's diseases.

    PubMed

    Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Hackjin; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Chang, Dae-Il; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Park, Hi-Joon

    2009-09-15

    Acupuncture, a common treatment modality within complementary and alternative medicine, has been widely used for Parkinson's disease (PD). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we explored the neural mechanisms underlying the effect of specific and genuine acupuncture treatment on the motor function in patients with PD. Three fMRI scans were performed in random order in a block design, one for verum acupuncture (VA) treatment, another one for a covert placebo (CP), and the third one for an overt placebo (OP) at the motor function implicated acupoint GB34 on the left foot of 10 patients with PD. We calculated the contrast that subtracts the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response for the acupuncture effect (VA vs. CP) and the placebo effect (CP vs. OP). We found a significant improvement in the motor function of the affected hand after acupuncture treatment. The putamen and the primary motor cortex were activated when patients with PD received the acupuncture treatment (VA vs. CP) and these activations correlated with individual enhanced motor function. Expectation towards acupuncture modality (CP vs. OP) elicited activation over the anterior cingulate gyrus, the superior frontal gyrus, and the superior temporal gyrus. These findings suggest that acupuncture treatment might facilitate improvement in the motor functioning of patients with PD via the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit.

  12. Control and function of arm swing in human walking and running.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Holloway, John H; Holloway, John H; Raichlen, David A; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2009-02-01

    We investigated the control and function of arm swing in human walking and running to test the hypothesis that the arms act as passive mass dampers powered by movement of the lower body, rather than being actively driven by the shoulder muscles. We measured locomotor cost, deltoid muscle activity and kinematics in 10 healthy adult subjects while walking and running on a treadmill in three experimental conditions: control; no arms (arms folded across the chest); and arm weights (weights worn at the elbow). Decreasing and increasing the moment of inertia of the upper body in no arms and arm weights conditions, respectively, had corresponding effects on head yaw and on the phase differences between shoulder and pelvis rotation, consistent with the view of arms as mass dampers. Angular acceleration of the shoulders and arm increased with torsion of the trunk and shoulder, respectively, but angular acceleration of the shoulders was not inversely related to angular acceleration of the pelvis or arm. Restricting arm swing in no arms trials had no effect on locomotor cost. Anterior and posterior portions of the deltoid contracted simultaneously rather than firing alternately to drive the arm. These results support a passive arm swing hypothesis for upper body movement during human walking and running, in which the trunk and shoulders act primarily as elastic linkages between the pelvis, shoulder girdle and arms, the arms act as passive mass dampers which reduce torso and head rotation, and upper body movement is primarily powered by lower body movement.

  13. 49 CFR 1562.29 - Armed security officer requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... coordination with the Federal Air Marshal Service, may establish in the Armed Security Officer Security Program..., in coordination with the Federal Air Marshal Service. (1) Active law enforcement officers. An active... flights conducted under this subpart. (g) Use of force. Each armed security officer authorized to carry...

  14. 49 CFR 1562.29 - Armed security officer requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... coordination with the Federal Air Marshal Service, may establish in the Armed Security Officer Security Program..., in coordination with the Federal Air Marshal Service. (1) Active law enforcement officers. An active... flights conducted under this subpart. (g) Use of force. Each armed security officer authorized to carry...

  15. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    means and ofI large-scale system of so-called ABM defense coupled with the buildup of strategic offensive arms is also aimed at smashing the strategic...strategic defense". On this basis they assert, firstly, that there is as yet no real threat of an all-embracing ABM system being deployed, and, se- PnlifUÜf...States is not violating any of its commitments on arms limitations, above all those envisaged under the ABM treaty. It is common knowledge that

  16. Worldwide Report Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-04

    GMT 4 Jan 87 LD] /9738 CSO: 5200/1128 11 U.S.«-USSR NUCLEAR AND SPACE ARMS TALKS GORBACHEV, REAGAN NEW YEAR MESSAGES ON DISARMAMENT Reagan to...Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 28 Dec 86 First Edition p 4 [Vitaliy Korionov "International Review"] [Excerpts] Only a few days remain until the New Year...105063 JPRS-TAC-87-OlO 4 FEBRUARY 1987 Worldwide Report ARMS CONTROL ’DUO QUALITY BFSPSSTEP * 19980515 022 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST■1NFORMAtlÖN

  17. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activities of Pendant Arm-Pyridyltetrazole Copper(II) Complexes: DNA Binding/Cleavage Activity and Cytotoxic Studies.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Shaik; Rao, Bommuluri Umamaheswara; Surendrababu, Manubolu Surya; Raju, Kalidindi Krishnam; Rao, Gollapalli Nageswara

    2015-10-01

    2-(1H-Tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine (L) has been reacted separately with Me2NCH2CH2Cl⋅HCl and ClCH2CH2OH to yield two regioisomers in each case, N,N-dimethyl-2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl]ethanamine (L1)/N,N-dimethyl-2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-2H-tetrazol-2-yl]ethanamine (L2) and 2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl]ethanol (L3)/2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-2H-tetrazol-2-yl]ethanol (L4), respectively. These ligands, L1-L4, have been coordinated with CuCl2 ⋅H2O in 1 : 1 composition to furnish the corresponding complexes 1-4. EPR Spectra of Cu complexes 1 and 3 were characteristic of square planar geometry, with nuclear hyperfine spin 3/2. Single X-ray crystallographic studies of 3 revealed that the Cu center has a square planar structure. DNA binding studies were carried out by UV/VIS absorption; viscosity and thermal denaturation studies revealed that each of these complexes are avid binders of calf thymus DNA. Investigation of nucleolytic cleavage activities of the complexes was carried out on double-stranded pBR322 circular plasmid DNA by using a gel electrophoresis experiment under various conditions, where cleavage of DNA takes place by oxidative free-radical mechanism (OH(⋅)). In vitro anticancer activities of the complexes against MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) cells revealed that the complexes inhibit the growth of cancer cells. The IC50 values of the complexes showed that Cu complexes exhibit comparable cytotoxic activities compared to the standard drug cisplatin.

  18. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  19. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-28

    Dec 85 [Text] Moscow, December 3 TASS —TASS political news analyst valerity Vavilov writes: The defence ministers of the twelve West European NATO...that during the second Taiwan crisis of 1958, the use of nuclear arms against China was very close to reality. (In August of that year, the U.S. 7th

  20. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-12

    thai, in the long run one cannot oven tell to willy frandi’and fgon fahr . ’r’ho Soviets arc thus evoking the suspicion that they are playing dirty...material resources and the knowledge of scientists in combatting diseases , if the resources were spent on it that are taken up by the arms race

  1. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Joint-Stock Company"] [Text] A constituent conference of the "Ural- Kosmos " closed joint-stock company [aktsionernoye obshchestvo zakrytogo tipa] has...due to be destroyed under arms cuts. Their warheads will be replaced by communications satellites. The founders of the "Ural- Kosmos " company note

  2. Robot arm system for automatic satellite capture and berthing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishida, Shinichiro; Toriu, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Masato; Kubo, Tomoaki; Miyata, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    Load control is one of the most important technologies for capturing and berthing free flying satellites by a space robot arm because free flying satellites have different motion rates. The performance of active compliance control techniques depend on the location of the force sensor and the arm's structural compliance. A compliance control technique for the robot arm's structural elasticity and a consideration for an end-effector appropriate for it are presented in this paper.

  3. Activated carbon testing for the 200 area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R.N.

    1997-01-17

    This report documents pilot and laboratory scale testing of activated carbon for use in the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility peroxide decomposer columns. Recommendations are made concerning column operating conditions and hardware design, the optimum type of carbon for use in the plant, and possible further studies.

  4. Direct observation therapy-highly active antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting: the use of community treatment support can be effective.

    PubMed

    Idoko, J A; Agbaji, O; Agaba, P; Akolo, C; Inuwa, B; Hassan, Zuweira; Akintunde, L; Badung, B; Muazu, M; Danang, M; Imade, G; Sankale, J Louis; Kanki, Phyllis

    2007-11-01

    This study examines the use of various direct observation therapy-HAART treatment support modalities in Jos, Nigeria. A 12-month observational study enrolling 175 antiretroviral naïve patients into four arms of direct observation therapy-HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy); daily observed therapy (DOT), twice weekly observed therapy (TWOT), weekly observed therapy (WOT) and self-administered therapy (SAT), examined community treatment support using family and community members. Treatment outcomes were much better in the treatment-supported groups compared with the control self-therapy group. CD4 cell increases were 218/microL (DOT), 267/microL (TWOT), 205/microL (WOT) versus 224/microL (SAT), whereas plasma HIV-1 RNA reached undetectable levels (<400 copies/mL) in 91%, 88%, 84% versus 79% of patients in the DOT, TWOT, WOT versus SAT groups, respectively, at 48 weeks. We, therefore, strongly support the use of treatment support in our settings.

  5. Scientific Infrastructure To Support Manned And Unmanned Aircraft, Tethered Balloons, And Related Aerial Activities At Doe Arm Facilities On The North Slope Of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, M.; Dexheimer, D.; Hardesty, J.; Lucero, D. A.; Helsel, F.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its scientific user facility, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facilities, provides scientific infrastructure and data to the international Arctic research community via its research sites located on the North Slope of Alaska. DOE has recently invested in improvements to facilities and infrastructure to support operations of unmanned aerial systems for science missions in the Arctic and North Slope of Alaska. A new ground facility, the Third ARM Mobile Facility, was installed at Oliktok Point Alaska in 2013. Tethered instrumented balloons were used to make measurements of clouds in the boundary layer including mixed-phase clouds. A new Special Use Airspace was granted to DOE in 2015 to support science missions in international airspace in the Arctic. Warning Area W-220 is managed by Sandia National Laboratories for DOE Office of Science/BER. W-220 was successfully used for the first time in July 2015 in conjunction with Restricted Area R-2204 and a connecting Altitude Reservation Corridor (ALTRV) to permit unmanned aircraft to operate north of Oliktok Point. Small unmanned aircraft (DataHawks) and tethered balloons were flown at Oliktok during the summer and fall of 2015. This poster will discuss how principal investigators may apply for use of these Special Use Airspaces, acquire data from the Third ARM Mobile Facility, or bring their own instrumentation for deployment at Oliktok Point, Alaska. The printed poster will include the standard DOE funding statement.

  6. Effect of minimizing arm swing while walking on the trunk and gluteal muscles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hee; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study used an alternative approach compared with previous studies by investigating the effect of minimizing arm swing while walking on the trunk and gluteal muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study included 13 adult males. [Results] The latissimus dorsi muscle activities during walking with a minimized arm swing were significantly decreased compared with those during walking with a full arm swing. The gluteus medius muscle activities during walking with a minimized arm swing were significantly increased compared with those during walking with a full arm swing. [Conclusion] Therefore, walking with minimized arm swing would be an effective exercise for selective strengthening of the gluteus medius muscle.

  7. Effect of minimizing arm swing while walking on the trunk and gluteal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-hee; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study used an alternative approach compared with previous studies by investigating the effect of minimizing arm swing while walking on the trunk and gluteal muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study included 13 adult males. [Results] The latissimus dorsi muscle activities during walking with a minimized arm swing were significantly decreased compared with those during walking with a full arm swing. The gluteus medius muscle activities during walking with a minimized arm swing were significantly increased compared with those during walking with a full arm swing. [Conclusion] Therefore, walking with minimized arm swing would be an effective exercise for selective strengthening of the gluteus medius muscle. PMID:28210044

  8. Is recombinant activated factor VII effective in the treatment of excessive bleeding after paediatric cardiac surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Okonta, Kelechi E.; Edwin, Frank; Falase, Bode

    2012-01-01

    A best evidence topic in paediatric cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether recombinant activated factor VII was effective for the treatment of excessive bleeding after paediatric cardiac surgery. Altogether 150 papers were found using the reported search; 13 papers were identified that provided the best evidence to answer the question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these studies were tabulated. A total of 311 children experienced excessive bleeding following cardiac surgery that was refractory to the conventional methods of achieving haemostasis. One hundred and ninety-two patients received the rFVIIa while 116 were in control arm from five studies. The primary end-point was on chest tube drainage, the plasma prothrombin time, the activated partial thromboplastin time after the administration of rFVIIa and the secondary end-point was reduction of blood products transfusion. Thrombosis was a complication in 8 patients (4.2%); three deaths (1.6%) but not attributable to thromboembolic events following the use of rFVIIa. Most of the studies failed to clearly state the doses but the extracted doses ranged between 30 and 180 µg/kg/dose, the interval between doses ranged between 15 and 120 min with a maximum of four doses. However, most of the patients had 180 µg/kg/dose with interval between dose of 2 h and maximum of two doses with dosage moderated with respect to weight, prior coagulopathy and responsiveness. There were two randomized studies with good sample size. One showed no significant differences in the secondary end points between the two arms and noted no adverse complications. However, the rFVIIa was used prophylactically. The other observed that there were no increase in thromboembolic events rather rFVIIa was effective in decreasing excessive bleeding that may complicate cardiac surgery in children

  9. Robotic Arm of Rover 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    JPL engineers examine the robotic arm of Mars Exploration Rover 1. The arm is modeled after a human arm, complete with joints, and holds four devices on its end, the Rock Abrasion Tool which can grind into Martian rocks, a microscopic imager, and two spectrometers for elemental and iron-mineral identification.

  10. Cardiac actomyosin ATPase activity after chronic doxorubicin treatment.

    PubMed

    Bergson, A; Inchiosa, M A

    1985-04-01

    Doxorubicin (Adriamycin), a potent antineoplastic drug, produces progressive cardiotoxicity which may lead to ultimate cardiac failure. The effects of chronic doxorubicin treatment on cardiac actomyosin ATPase were the principal focus of the present studies. This approach was based on the established correlation between cardiac contractility and contractile protein ATPase activity. Rabbits were injected intravenously with doxorubicin (4 mg/kg) at weekly intervals for 1-7 weeks. Body weight increase was attenuated in the treated animals; heart weight/body weight ratio was unchanged. Actomyosin and water contents of ventricular muscle were not different in doxorubicin-treated as compared with vehicle control animals. Cellular damage was detected histologically after one dose of doxorubicin (equivalent to a single clinical dose), and was extensive after 4-5 weeks of treatment. Animals which received 1-2 injections of doxorubicin demonstrated a 29% average increase in actomyosin ATPase activity as compared to vehicle controls; this difference was highly significant (p less than 0.001). Further treatment with doxorubicin tended to progressively decrease ATPase activity. It is suggested that the increased actomyosin ATPase activity seen with low total doses of doxorubicin may represent a compensatory mechanism for maintenance of contractility; this interpretation is supported by the clinical observation that the morphologic evidence of progressive doxorubicin toxicity is not associated with a parallel decrease in contractility, until severe cumulative toxicity has been induced.

  11. Extracellular enzyme activity in a willow sewage treatment system.

    PubMed

    Brzezinska, Maria Swiontek; Lalke-Porczyk, Elżbieta; Kalwasińska, Agnieszka

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on the activity of extra-cellular enzymes in soil-willow vegetation filter soil which is used in the post-treatment of household sewage in an onsite wastewater treatment system located in central Poland. Wastewater is discharged from the detached house by gravity into the onsite wastewater treatment system. It flows through a connecting pipe into a single-chamber septic tank and is directed by the connecting pipe to a control well to be further channelled in the soil-willow filter by means of a subsurface leaching system. Soil samples for the studies were collected from two depths of 5 cm and 1 m from three plots: close to the wastewater inflow, at mid-length of the plot and close to its terminal part. Soil samples were collected from May to October 2009. The activity of the extra-cellular enzymes was assayed by the fluorometric method using 4-methylumbelliferyl and 7-amido-4-methylcoumarin substrate. The ranking of potential activity of the assayed enzymes was the same at 5 cm and 1 m soil depths, i.e. esterase > phosphmomoesterase > leucine-aminopeptidase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase. The highest values of enzymatic activity were recorded in the surface layer of the soil at the wastewater inflow and decreased with increasing distance from that point.

  12. Dual Arm Work Module Development and Appplications

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, M.W.

    1999-04-25

    The dual arm work module (DAWM) was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) as a development test bed to study issues related to dual arm manipulation, including platform cotilguration, controls, automation, operations, and tooling. The original platform was based on two Schilling Titan II manipulators mounted to a 5-degree-of- freedom (DOF) base fabricated by RedZone Robotics, Inc. The 5-DOF articulation provided a center torso rotation, linear actuation to change the separation between the arms, and arm base rotation joints to provide "elbows up," elbows down," or "elbows out" orientation. A series of tests were conducted on operations, tooling, and task space scene analysis (TSSA)-driven robotics for overhead transporter- mounted and crane hook-deployed scenarios. A concept was developed for DAWM deployment from a large remote work vehicle, but the project was redirected to support dismantlement of the Chicago Pile #5 (CP-5) reactor at Argonne National Laboratory in fiscal year (FY) 1997. Support of CP-5 required a change in focus of the dual arm technology from that of a development test bed to a system focussed for a specific end user. ORNL teamed with the Idaho National Environmental ,Engineering Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and the Savannah River Technology Center to deliver a crane-deployed derivative of the DAWM, designated the dual arm work platform (DAWP). RTDP staff supported DAWP at CP-5 for one FY; Argonne staff continued operation through to dismantlement of the reactor internals. Lessons learned from this interaction were extensive. Beginning in FY 1999, dual arm development activities are again being pursued in the context of those lessons learned. This paper describes the progression of philosophy of the DAWM from initial test bed to lessons learned through interaction at CP-5 and to the present investigation of telerobotic assist of teleoperation and TSSA- driven robotics.

  13. ARM User Survey Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  14. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  15. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-12-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  16. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  17. Robot arm apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Nachbar, H.D.

    1990-12-31

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in ``x,`` ``y,`` and ``z`` directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  18. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of its missiles in Western Europe is a continuation of the policy of upsetting the established approximate equilibrium in the illusory hope of...measures in Europe. The Soviet Union advocates a sharp reduction in the level of medium-range nuclear means, with strict observance of equilibrium ...maintaining strategic equilibrium and its stability. But if this happens, the case in point will be a new round of the arms race. As is known, there were no

  19. Small arms ammunition

    DOEpatents

    Huerta, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    An elongate projectile for small arms use has a single unitary mass with a hollow nose cavity defined by a sharp rigid cutting edge adapted to make initial contact with the target surface and cut therethrough. The projectile then enters the target mass in an unstable flight mode. The projectile base is substantially solid such that the nose cavity, while relatively deep, does not extend entirely through the base and the projectile center of gravity is aft of its geometric center.

  20. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    negotiations on all weapons categories. He said on Sunday in the ZDF [second German television] program "Bonn Direkt " that German foreign policy has...JPRS-TAC-89-021 25 MAY 1989 fflflBBl FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— Arms Control A99S07A51® REPRODUCED BY U.S...Libyan Envoy Requests Meeting [THAI RAT 14 May] 16 Paper Criticizes U.S. Warning [MATICHON 13 May] 17 Foreign Minister Interviewed [Bangkok Radio

  1. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    19980715 176 REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED X Arms...South Korean authorities are not in a position, for some reasons, to respond to our proposal right now, they should take at least practical measures...prevented, he said, nuclear weapons and their delivery vehicles should be removed. But, if the United States is not prepared for this right now, we

  2. Robotic Arm End Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Image illustrates the tools on the end of the arm that are used to acquire samples, image the contents of the scoop, and perform science experiments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    have to be comprehensively reduced before NATo cuts back on its arms. Those in the West, who attribute all progress to Gor- bachev’s behavior , have...disarmament expert Werner Hoyer stressed that there should not be any delay in beginning negotiations on this, from the German point of view. All...information or assistance, call FBIS, (202) 338-6735,or write to PO Box 2604, Washington, D.C. 20013. Department of Defense consumers are required to

  4. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-30

    Viewed, by Tang Tianri 29 Issues Assessed, by Tang Xiushan 31 SPACE ARMS USSR: Reports, Comments on Bush Trip to Europe To Push SDI (Various...85) 99 Indian Prime Minister Criticizes ’Star Wars’ (Bombay THE TIMES OF INDIA, 7 Jun 85) 101 Briefs USSR: U.S. Laser Test Planned 103 TASS...a tangible political disagree- ment. The Norwegian defense minister does not think that an attack will come of out of the blue . The foreign

  5. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS-TAC-89-025 21 JUNE 1989 !■■■■■ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE -/P/? S #;# Arms Control \\ɘIÜ REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF...Compromise on SNF Issue [ S . Gjoka; ZERIIPOPULLIT 31 May] 11 U.S. Troop Reduction Proposals Critiqued [ S . Beqari; ZERI I POPULLIT 7 Jun] 12 BULGARIA...Petrov; RABOTNICHESKO DELO 7 Jun] 16 CZECHOSLOVAKIA Commentary Critiques Bush CFE, SNF Proposals [B. Zagar ; Bratislava PRAVDA 3 Jun] 18

  6. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    dangerous because the measure of control by central political organs of the state over conventional weapons and their military use is substan...It is always under the control and guidance of governments of the interested parties, it is the most manageable and has the least inertia. It...JPRS-TAC-89-001 10 JANUARY 1989 —JPRS Report— Arms Control nTSTRJBUTlON STATEMfcwTA Approved for public release; Distribution Unlimited n

  7. Sdi and arms control

    SciTech Connect

    DeWolf, H.G.

    1989-11-01

    President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative, or SDI, and the pursuit of defenses to protect against ballistic missile attack are issues of significant debate. Some praise the proposal, first made in a presidential address to the nation on 23 March 1983, as a grand vision that will abolish nuclear blackmail by adopting a totally defensive posture. Others condemn it as being destabilizing, a Pandora's box of strategic transition that could precipitate armed conflict.

  8. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment by internal micro-electrolysis--coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangle; Liu, Suiqing; Zhang, Qiang; He, Yiliang

    2009-12-01

    Treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater by the combined process of internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption was studied. Internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation served as the pretreatment for the wastewater before biological treatment to reduce the contaminants' toxicity to microbes and improve the biodegradability of wastewater to guarantee the smooth operation of the biological process. Biological treatment was the main body of the whole process which took an unparalleled role in removing COD (chemical oxygen demand). Activated carbon adsorption was adopted as the post-treatment process to further remove the remaining non-biodegradable particles. Results showed that the removal rates of COD and S2- (sulphide ion) by pretreatment were 66.9% and 98.9%, respectively, and the biodegradability, as measured by the ratio of biodegradable COD to initial COD, of the wastewater was greatly improved from 0.16 +/- 0.02 to 0.41 +/- 0.02. The overall removal rate of COD in the wastewater achieved by this combined treatment process was up to 96%, and the effluent COD met the Chinese tertiary discharge standard (GB 8978-1996).

  9. Error characterization of retrievals for active remote Sensing instruments in the ARM climate research facility at the Southern Great Plains site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekar, C. V.; Hardin, J. C.; Jensen, M. P.

    2012-12-01

    The ARM Climate Research Facility deploys a network of highly instrumented ground stations, including both mobile and aerial facilities to support the study of global climate change by the national and international research community. The Southern Great Plains facility (SGP) hosts a network of C, X, and K band radars; some are in scanning mode and some are in vertically pointing mode. As an example, the Mid-Latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) (Jensen, et al. 2011), was a joint DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and NASA Global Precipitation Measurements (GPM) field campaign which took place from April - June 2011 in Central Oklahoma centered at the ARM SGP site. This paper presents retrieval methodologies for the ARM instrument suite with a focus on the error characterization for the radar measurements and the retrievals. There is extensive literature on retrieval algorithms for precipitation and cloud parameters from single frequency, dual-polarization radar systems. Multiple radar deployments are becoming more common, and the MC3E is a text book example of such a deployment. Additionally, networked deployments are becoming more common (Chandrasekar, et al. 2010), resulting in networked retrievals, initially used for attenuation mitigation. Since then, networked retrievals have expanded to include DSDs from networked X-band or Ku-band radars (Yoshikawa, et al., 2012). The above retrieval methodologies were for homogeneous, single frequency systems; the multi frequency nature of the deployment during the MC3E program is the motivation for the integrated formulation and error characterization presented in this paper. The set of radars consists of the NASA NPOL radar at S-band, as well as the C and X-band radars from the ARM program, namely the C-SAPR and X-SAPR family. This paper presents a comprehensive integrated retrieval methodology focusing on error characterization to obtain microphysical retrieval including drop size

  10. [Influence of biological activated carbon dosage on landfill leachate treatment].

    PubMed

    Cui, Yan-Rui; Guo, Yan; Wu, Qing

    2014-08-01

    Effects of biological activated carbon (BAC) dosage on COD removal in landfill leachate treatment were compared. The COD removal efficiency of reactors with 0, 100 and 300 g activated carbon dosage per litre activated sludge was 12.9%, 19.6% and 27.7%, respectively. The results indicated that BAC improved the refractory organic matter removal efficiency and there was a positive correlation between COD removal efficiency and BAC dosage. The output of carbon dioxide after 8h of aeration in reactors was 109, 193 and 306 mg corresponding to the activated carbon dosages mentioned above, which indicated the amount of biodegradation and BAC dosage also had a positive correlation. The combination of adsorption and bioregeneration of BAC resulted in the positive correlation betweem organic matter removal efficiency and BAC dosage, and bioregeneration was the root cause for the microbial decomposition of refractory organics.

  11. Phoenix Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A vital instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is the robotic arm, which will dig into the icy soil and bring samples back to the science deck of the spacecraft for analysis. In September 2006 at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems clean room facility near Denver, spacecraft technician Billy Jones inspects the arm during the assembly phase of the mission.

    Using the robotic arm -- built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena -- the Phoenix mission will study the history of water and search for complex organic molecules in the ice-rich soil.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. The Arms Race and World Hunger. Facts for Action #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Jim

    Designed for high school global education classes, this document examines ways in which the arms race affects the poor. Military expenditures and foreign economic aid of the developed nations are compared with survival needs of developing nations. Statistics support five premises: the arms race (1) diverts resources from productive activity and…

  13. Armed conflict and child health

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Summary Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented. PMID:21393303

  14. Update: Routine screening for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, civilian applicants for U.S. military service and U.S. Armed Forces, active and reserve components, January 2011-June 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    This report contains an update through June 2016 of the results of routine screening for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among civilian applicants for military service and among members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces. During the surveillance period, annual seroprevalences among civilian applicants for military service peaked in 2015 (0.31 per 1,000 tested), up 29% from 2014 (0.24 per 1,000 tested). Seroprevalences among Marine Corps reservists, Navy active component service members, and Navy reservists also peaked in 2015. In the Army National Guard and the reserve component of the Marine Corps, full-year seroprevalences have trended upward since 2011. Overall (January 2011-June 2016) seroprevalences were highest for Army reservists, Army National Guard members, Navy active component members, and Navy reservists. Among active and reserve component service members, seroprevalences continue to be higher among Army and Navy members and males than their respective counterparts.

  15. Successful Targeted Treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome with Tofacitinib.

    PubMed

    Afrin, Lawrence B; Fox, Roger W; Zito, Susan L; Choe, Leo; Glover, Sarah C

    2017-04-06

    Mast cell (MC) activation syndrome (MCAS) is a collection of illnesses of inappropriate MC activation with little to no neoplastic MC proliferation, distinguishing it from mastocytosis. MCAS presents as chronic, generally inflammatory multisystem polymorbidity likely driven in most by heterogeneous patterns of constitutively activating mutations in MC regulatory elements, posing challenges for identifying optimal mutation-targeted treatment in individual patients. Targeting commonly affected downstream effectors may yield clinical benefit independent of upstream mutational profile. For example, both activated KIT and numerous cytokine receptors activate the Janus kinases (JAKs). Thus, JAK-inhibiting therapies may be useful against the downstream inflammatory effects of MCAS. The oral JAK1/JAK3 inhibitor, tofacitinib, is currently approved for rheumatoid arthritis and is in clinical trials for other chronic inflammatory disorders. Herein, we report two MCAS patients who rapidly gained substantial symptomatic response to tofacitinib. Their improvement suggests need for further evaluation of this class of drugs in MCAS treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Muscle motion and EMG activity in vibration treatment.

    PubMed

    Fratini, Antonio; La Gatta, Antonio; Bifulco, Paolo; Romano, Maria; Cesarelli, Mario

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to highlight the relationship between muscle motion, generated by whole body vibration, and the correspondent electromyographic (EMG) activity and to suggest a new method to customize the stimulation frequency. Simultaneous recordings of EMG and tri-axial accelerations of quadriceps rectus femoris from fifteen subjects undergoing vibration treatments were collected. Vibrations were delivered via a sinusoidal oscillating platform at different frequencies (10-45 Hz). Muscle motion was estimated by processing the accelerometer data. Large EMG motion artifacts were removed using sharp notch filters centred at the vibration frequency and its superior harmonics. EMG-RMS values were computed and analyzed before and after artifact suppression to assess muscular activity. Muscles acceleration amplitude increased with frequency. Muscle displacements revealed a mechanical resonant-like behaviour of the muscle. Resonance frequencies and dumping factors depended on subject. Moreover, RMS of artifact-free EMG was found well correlated (R(2)=0.82) to the actual muscle displacement, while the maximum of the EMG response was found related to the mechanical resonance frequency of muscle. Results showed that maximum muscular activity was found in correspondence to the mechanical resonance of the muscle itself. Assuming the hypothesis that muscle activation is proportional to muscle displacement, treatment optimization (i.e. to choose the best stimulation frequency) could be obtained by simply monitoring local acceleration (resonance), leading to a more effective muscle stimulation. Motion artifact produced an overestimation of muscle activity, therefore its removal was essential.

  17. Physical activity for the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Montesi, Luca; Moscatiello, Simona; Malavolti, Marcella; Marzocchi, Rebecca; Marchesini, Giulio

    2013-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome and its various features (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) are increasing worldwide and constitute a severe risk for the sustainability of the present universal Italian health care system. Lifestyle interventions should be the first therapeutic strategy to prevent/treat metabolic diseases, far before pharmacologic treatment. The role of diet and weight loss has been fully ascertained, whereas the role of physical activity is frequently overlooked both by physicians and by patients. Physical activity has favorable effects on all components of the metabolic syndrome and on the resulting cardiovascular risk, the cornerstone in the development of cardiometabolic diseases. The quantity and the frequency of physical activity necessary to produce beneficial effects has not been defined as yet, but brisk walking is considered particularly appropriate, as it can be practiced by a large number of individuals, without any additional cost, and has a low rate of injury. The effects of exercise and leisure time physical activity extend from prevention to treatment of the various components of the metabolic syndrome, as well as to mood and quality of life. Any effort should be done to favor adherence to protocols of physical activity in the community.

  18. Assessment of endotoxin activity in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Guizani, Mokhtar; Dhahbi, Mahmoud; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2009-07-01

    Endotoxic material, commonly associated to biological reactions, is thought to be one of the most important constituents in water. This has become a very important topic because of the common interest in microbial products governed by the possible shift to water reuse for drinking purposes. In this light, this study was conducted to provide an assessment of endotoxic activity in reclaimed wastewater. A bacterial endotoxin test (LAL test) was applied to water samples from several wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Sapporo, Japan keeping in view the seasonal variation. Samples were taken from several points in WWTP (influent, effluent, return sludge, advanced treatment effluent). The findings of this study indicated that wastewater shows high endotoxin activity. The value of Endotoxin (Endo) to COD ratio in the effluent is usually higher than that of the influent. Moreover, it is found that wastewater contains initially endotoxic active material. Some of those chemicals are biodegradable and but most of them are non-biodegradable. Batch scale activated sludge studies were undertaken to understand the origin of endotoxic active material in the effluent. This study showed that those chemicals are mainly produced during biological reactions, more precisely during decay process. Moreover, raw wastewater (RWW) contains high amounts of organic matter having endotoxicity which remains in the effluent.

  19. Risk of type II diabetes and hypertension associated with chronic insomnia among active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 1998-2013.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Paul E; Emasealu, Oseizame V; Rohrbeck, Patricia; Hu, Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Chronic insomnia is a common clinical complaint and its incidence in both U.S. military and civilian populations has increased. Several studies have evaluated the association between chronic insomnia and the development of other chronic diseases. This study estimates the incidence of chronic insomnia. In addition, this report examines the association between both hypertension and type II diabetes and chronic insomnia in active component military members. The Defense Medical Surveillance System was used to identify a cohort of individuals with chronic insomnia between 1998 and 2013 and to match them by age and gender with a cohort without insomnia. During 1998-2013, there were 205,740 incident cases of chronic insomnia among active component service members with an overall rate of 90.3 per 10,000 person-years. Individuals in the chronic insomnia cohort were at higher risk for type II diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.17 [95% CI, 1.75-2.69]) and hypertension (adjusted HR, 2.00 [95% CI, 1.85-2.16]). Sleep hygiene education along with evaluation and treatment of persistent symptoms are of public health importance in active duty service members.

  20. Colleges Grapple with the "Behavioral Broken Arm"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    After the fatal shootings at Virginia Tech last April, colleges went shopping for hardware. They bought sirens, mass-messaging systems, surveillance cameras, and door locks. Some colleges armed their police departments for the first time. Others added assault rifles to their arsenals. "Active shooter" drills happened everywhere. As administrators…

  1. Degradation characteristics of 17beta-estradiol by ozone treatment with activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Naohito; Ogata, Fumihiko; Yamaguchi, Isao; Tominaga, Hisato

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates (1) ozone treatment, (2) adsorption treatment using activated carbon treatment, and (3) ozone treatment with activated carbon for their efficacy in removing 17beta-estradiol (E2) present in an aqueous solution. Both ozone and activated carbon treatments for 20 min were effective in removing E2 (initial concentration, 100 mg/L). However, both treatments have been used for two processes, and the disposal time with these treatments is more than that of another treatment. In this study, ozone treatment with activated carbon was investigated with regard to the percentage of E2 removal, pH, and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The physical and chemical characteristics of the activated carbon surface were modified due to the ozone treatment: the surface was oxidized by ozone. The surface of activated carbon exhibited polarity groups and became porous after ozone treatment. The amount of E2 adsorbed onto the ozone-treated activated carbon surface was similar to that adsorbed onto the untreated activated carbon surface. The percentage of E2 removal by ozone treatment with activated carbon was greater than that by ozone treatment alone. Moreover, the rate of E2 removal by ozone treatment with activated carbon was higher than that by ozone or activated carbon treatments alone. Ozone with activated carbon treatment may be used for the removal of E2. However, this ozone treatment for the degradation of E2 may have a greater COD than that in the case of activated carbon treatment alone.

  2. The Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program: Adapting Behavioral Activation as a Treatment for Depression in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Elizabeth; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Schloredt, Kelly; Martell, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac; Hubley, Samuel; Dimidjian, Sona

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine implementation feasibility and initial treatment outcomes of a behavioral activation (BA) based treatment for adolescent depression, the Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program (A-BAP). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 60 clinically referred adolescents with a depressive disorder who were randomized to receive either 14 sessions of A-BAP or uncontrolled evidenced-based practice for depression. The urban sample was 64% female, predominantly Non-Hispanic White (67%), and had an average age of 14.9 years. Measures of depression, global functioning, activation, and avoidance were obtained through clinical interviews and/or through parent and adolescent self-report at preintervention and end of intervention. Intent-to-treat linear mixed effects modeling and logistic regression analysis revealed that both conditions produced statistically significant improvement from pretreatment to end of treatment in depression, global functioning, and activation and avoidance. There were no significant differences across treatment conditions. These findings provide the first step in establishing the efficacy of BA as a treatment for adolescent depression and support the need for ongoing research on BA as a way to enhance the strategies available for treatment of depression in this population.

  3. A Single-Arm, Proof-Of-Concept Trial of Lopimune (Lopinavir/Ritonavir) as a Treatment for HPV-Related Pre-Invasive Cervical Disease

    PubMed Central

    Masinde, Millicent S.; Oliver, Anthony W.; Batman, Gavin; He, Xiaotong; Desai, Minaxi; Okemwa, Parmenas M.; Stringfellow, Helen; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre; Mwaniki, Alex M.; Gichangi, Peter; Hampson, Ian N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the most common female malignancy in the developing nations and the third most common cancer in women globally. An effective, inexpensive and self-applied topical treatment would be an ideal solution for treatment of screen-detected, pre-invasive cervical disease in low resource settings. Methods Between 01/03/2013 and 01/08/2013, women attending Kenyatta National Hospital's Family Planning and Gynaecology Outpatients clinics were tested for HIV, HPV (Cervista®) and liquid based cervical cytology (LBC -ThinPrep®). HIV negative women diagnosed as high-risk HPV positive with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) were examined by colposcopy and given a 2 week course of 1 capsule of Lopimune (CIPLA) twice daily, to be self-applied as a vaginal pessary. Colposcopy, HPV testing and LBC were repeated at 4 and 12 weeks post-start of treatment with a final punch biopsy at 3 months for histology. Primary outcome measures were acceptability of treatment with efficacy as a secondary consideration. Results A total of 23 women with HSIL were treated with Lopimune during which time no adverse reactions were reported. A maximum concentration of 10 ng/ml of lopinavir was detected in patient plasma 1 week after starting treatment. HPV was no longer detected in 12/23 (52.2%, 95%CI: 30.6–73.2%). Post-treatment cytology at 12 weeks on women with HSIL, showed 14/22 (63.6%, 95%CI: 40.6–82.8%) had no dysplasia and 4/22 (18.2%, 95%CI: 9.9–65.1%) were now low grade demonstrating a combined positive response in 81.8% of women of which 77.8% was confirmed by histology. These data are supported by colposcopic images, which show regression of cervical lesions. Conclusions These results demonstrate the potential of Lopimune as a self-applied therapy for HPV infection and related cervical lesions. Since there were no serious adverse events or detectable post-treatment morbidity, this study indicates that further trials are clearly justified to

  4. An arm for a leg: Adapting a robotic arm for gait rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Giulia; Viereck, Ulrich; Platt, Robert; Yen, Sheng-Che; Hasson, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt a multipurpose robotic arm for gait rehabilitation. An advantage of this approach is versatility: a robotic arm can be attached to almost any point on the body to assist with lower- and upper-extremity rehabilitation. This may be more cost-effective than purchasing and training rehabilitation staff to use several specialized rehabilitation robots. Robotic arms also have a more human-like morphology, which may make them less intimidating or alien to patients. In this study a mechanical interface was developed that allows a fast, secure, and safe attachment between a robotic arm and a human limb. The effectiveness of this interface was assessed by having two healthy subjects walk on a treadmill with and without a robotic arm attached to their legs. The robot's ability to follow the subjects' swinging legs was evaluated at slow and fast walking speeds. Two different control schemes were evaluated: one using the standard manufacturer-provided control algorithm, and another using a custom algorithm that actively compensated for robot-human interaction forces. The results showed that both robot control schemes performed well for slow walking. There were negligible differences between subjects' gait kinematics with and without the robot. During fast walking with the robot, similar results were obtained for one subject; however, the second subject demonstrated noticeable gait modifications. Together, these results show the feasibility of adapting a multipurpose robotic arm for gait rehabilitation.

  5. Controller arm for a remotely related slave arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, J. K., Jr. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A segmented controller arm configured and dimensioned to form a miniature kinematic replica of a remotely related slave arm is disclosed. The arm includes: (1) a plurality of joints for affording segments of the arm simultaneous angular displacement about a plurality of pairs of intersecting axes, (2) a plurality of position sensing devices for providing electrical signals indicative of angular displacement imparted to corresponding segments of the controller shaft about the axes, and (3) a control signal circuit for generating control signals to be transmitted to the slave arm. The arm is characterized by a plurality of yokes, each being supported for angular displacement about a pair of orthogonally related axes and counterbalanced against gravitation by a cantilevered mass.

  6. The role of tactile support in arm levitation.

    PubMed

    Peter, Burkhard; Piesbergen, Christoph; Lucic, Kristina; Staudacher, Melina; Hagl, Maria

    2013-10-01

    How many persons need tactile support à la Milton H. Erickson to achieve arm levitation during hypnosis? How do these differ from those who do not need it? Hypnotic arm levitation was suggested three times consecutively to 30 medium suggestible students. Sixteen succeeded without any tactile support; 7 needed it one or two times; 5 needed it every time; and 2 achieved no arm levitation at all. Participants without any tactile support went more quickly into deeper hypnosis, experienced more involuntariness, less effort, and had higher electrodermal activity. This greater physiological activity seems necessary for hypnotic arm levitation as a form of "attentive hypnosis" in contrast to "relaxation hypnosis." A change in verbal suggestion from "imagine a helium balloon" to "leave levitation to your unconscious mind" revealed no differences. Several issues resulting from this exploratory arm levitation study are discussed. The idea of different proprioceptive-kinesthetic abilities is introduced and the profound need of co-creating an individual suggestion is emphasized.

  7. Cancer Prehabilitation for Patients Starting from Active Treatment to Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Shun, Shiow-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this brief summary is to introduce the concept of cancer prehabilitation and the role of oncology nurses in prehabilitation care. Cancer prehabilitation has been defined by Sliver and Baima (2013) as “a process on the cancer continuum of care that occurs between the time of cancer diagnosis and the beginning of acute treatment.” The evidence supports the notion that prehabilitation programs can improve physical and psychological health outcomes and decrease overall health care costs. The care model for cancer prehabilitation should include timely and efficient assessment throughout the care continuum with a focus on improving outcomes in cancer at every stage. During the cancer journey, three types of assessment with different aims are included: (1) prehabilitation assessment pretreatment, (2) rehabilitation assessment at early post treatment, and (3) health promotion assessment at the end of treatment. Specific prehabilitation assessment and interventions for treatment-related complications or major side-effects should be considered. Teaching, counseling, discharge planning, and coordination should also be part of an oncology nurse's role in cancer prehabilitation. It is suggested that cancer care managers or navigators be trained in the assessment of their patients’ physical and psychological status once the cancer diagnosis has been identified and the patient has decided to receive active treatment, especially for those waiting for surgery at home. Oncology nurses could increase their competence with prehabilitation care by gaining knowledge about cancer-related treatments and their outcomes for specific cancers and by strengthening the ability to assess the functional status and psychological distress of their patients. PMID:27981135

  8. ARM Data Integrator

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-06

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Integrator (ADI) streamlines the development of scientific algorithms and analysis of time-series NetCDF data, and improves the content and consistency of the output data products produced by these algorithms. The framework automates the process of retrieving and preparing data for analysis, and allows users to design output data products through a graphical interface. It also provides a modular, flexible software development architecture that scientists can use to generate C, Python, and IDL source code templates that embed the pre and post processing logic allowing the scientist to focus on only their science. The input data, preprocessing, and output data specifications of algorithms are defined through a graphical interface and stored in a database. ADI implements workflow for data integration and supports user access to data through a library of software modules. Data preprocess capabilities supported include automated retrieval of data from input files, merging the retrieved data into appropriately sized chunks, and transformation of the data onto a common coordinate system grid. Through the graphical interface, users can view the details of both their data products and those in the ARM catalog and allows developers to use existing data product to build new data products. Views of the output data products include an overlay of how the design meets ARM archive’s data standards providing the user with a visual cue indicating where their output violates an archive standard. The ADI libraries access the information provided through the GUI via a Postgres database. The ADI framework and its supporting components can significantly decrease the time and cost of implementing scientific algorithms while improving the ability of scientists to disseminate their results.

  9. Treatment of chronic pruritus with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors paroxetine and fluvoxamine: results of an open-labelled, two-arm proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Ständer, Sonja; Böckenholt, Barbara; Schürmeyer-Horst, Funda; Weishaupt, Carsten; Heuft, Gereon; Luger, Thomas A; Schneider, Gudrun

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pruritus is difficult to treat and requires the evaluation of new therapeutic modalities. We initiated an open-labelled, two-arm prospective, proof-of-concept study applying two selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors on a long-term basis. Paroxetine and fluvoxamine were tested in a total of 72 pruritic patients (27 men, 45 women, age range 28-88 years, mean age 59.2 years). The reduction in pruritus was evaluated by analysis of visual analogue scores and determination of the maximal antipruritic effect (maximal percentual reduction in pruritus). Forty-nine of 72 patients (68.0%) experienced a weak (n=9), good (n=16) or very good (n=24) antipruritic effect. Statistical analysis proved the efficacy of paroxetine and fluvoxamine with no significant difference. The best response was observed in patients with pruritus due to atopic dermatitis, systemic lymphoma and solid carcinoma. Chronic scratch lesions healed completely in 14/31 patients and partially in 17/31 patients. Adverse drug effects were observed in 70.8% of patients, resulting in discontinuation of treatment in 18 patients. These results support previous reports of high antipruritic potency of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, which are a good alternative treatment modality in chronic pruritus. This should be confirmed in future double-blind studies.

  10. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    n r JPRS-TAC-85-057 25 November 1985 Worldwide Report ARMS CONTROL f-—*lf^ S ;.řS », ;r%^V; ,*’ \\i.*? 19980728 ■£*V’:: FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST...why he had decided to extend a programme launched last year of aid to penetration techniques. He had asked the Atomic Energy Commisariat (CEA) for...ICBM s , i.e. for those systems which constitute the basis of the strategic potential of the USSR. No though restrictions are set for the systems in

  11. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson.

    This is the position the rasp will assume when it drills into the Martian soil to acquire an icy soil sample for analysis.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Structural Model of Dodecameric Heat-shock Protein Hsp21 - Flexible N-terminal Arms Interact with Client Proteins while C-terminal Tails Maintain the Dodecamer and Chaperone Activity.

    PubMed

    Rutsdottir, Gudrun; Härmark, Johan; Weide, Yoran; Hebert, Hans; Rasmussen, Morten Ib; Wernersson, Sven; Respondek, Michal; Akke, Mikael; Højrup, Peter; Koeck, Philip J B; Söderberg, Christopher A G; Emanuelsson, Cecilia

    2017-03-21

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) prevent aggregation of thermosensitive client proteins in a first line of defense against cellular stress. The mechanisms by which they perform this function have been hard to define due to limited structural information; currently there is only one high-resolution structure of a plant sHsp published, of the cytosolic Hsp16.9. We took interest in Hsp21, a chloroplast-localized sHsp crucial for plant stress resistance, which has even longer N-terminals arms than Hsp16.9, with a functionally important and conserved methionine-rich motif. To provide a framework for investigating structure-function relationships of Hsp21 and understanding these sequence variations, we developed a structural model of Hsp21 based on homology modeling, cryo-EM, crosslinking mass spectrometry, NMR and small angle X-ray scattering. Our data suggest a dodecameric arrangement of two trimer-of-dimer discs stabilized by the C-terminal tails, possibly through tail-to-tail interactions between the discs, mediated through extended IXVXI-motifs. Our model further suggests that six N-terminal arms are located on the outside of the dodecamer, accessible for interaction with client proteins, and distinct from previous undefined or inwardly-facing arms. To test the importance of the IXVXI motif, we created the point mutant V181A, which as expected disrupts the Hsp21 dodecamer and decreases chaperone activity. Finally, our data emphasize that sHsp chaperone efficiency depends on oligomerization and that client interactions can occur both with and without oligomer dissociation. These results provide a generalizable workflow to explore sHsps, expand our understanding of sHsp structural motifs, and provide a testable Hsp21 structure model to inform future investigations.

  13. The Atmospheric Radiation Monitoring (ARM) Education Program: An Integrated Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, F.; Marsh, L. K.; Springer, M.; Talus, C. E.; Haruta, A.; Kloesel, K.; Zak, B. D.; Clements, W. E.

    2001-12-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Education and Outreach program supports ARM Operations at all three CART sites (North Slope of Alaska, Tropical West Pacific, and Southern Great Plains) in ways that are relevant to the needs of the communities and regions that host the ARM program sites. The goal of the education and outreach program is to develop basic science awareness, critical thinking skills, and improve environmental science capacity building for communities, teachers and students in ARM host communities and regions. This year, the primary goal is to extend the existing program to cover all three sites and to coordinate activities among the sites. In order to achieve this goal, we: o Bring awareness of the ARM program to host communities through public education relevant to the culture of the region; o Aid capacity building and community involvement in developing and implementing ARM education at each site; o Promote a broader knowledge of regional and international climate concerns for teachers and students through integration of ARM education across sites; o Assist access to ARM data for educational programs as technical resources permit, and to provide real time research experiences for students; and o Increase the knowledge base for teachers and students in basic science and critical thinking skills using curriculum-based enrichment activities in climate, climate change, and climate change effects relevant to each region.

  14. "Armed" oncolytic herpes simplex viruses for brain tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Todo, Tomoki

    2008-01-01

    Genetically engineered, conditionally replicating herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) are promising therapeutic agents for brain tumors and other solid cancers. They can replicate in situ, spread and exhibit oncolytic activity via a direct cytocidal effect. One of the advantages of HSV-1 is the capacity to incorporate large and/or multiple transgenes within the viral genome. Oncolytic HSV-1 can therefore be "armed" to add certain functions. Recently, the field of armed oncolytic HSV-1 has drastically advanced, due to development of recombinant HSV-1 generation systems that utilize bacterial artificial chromosome and multiple DNA recombinases. Because antitumor immunity is induced in the course of oncolytic activities of HSV-1, transgenes encoding immunomodulatory molecules have been most frequently used for arming. Other armed oncolytic HSV-1 include those that express antiangiogenic factors, fusogenic membrane glycoproteins, suicide gene products, and proapoptotic proteins. Provided that the transgene product does not interfere with viral replication, such arming of oncolytic HSV-1 results in augmentation of antitumor efficacy. Immediate-early viral promoters are often used to control the arming transgenes, but strict-late viral promoters have been shown useful to restrict the expression in the late stage of viral replication when desirable. Some armed oncolytic HSV-1 have been created for the purpose of noninvasive in vivo imaging of viral infection and replication. Development of a wide variety of armed oncolytic HSV-1 will lead to an establishment of a new genre of therapy for brain tumors as well as other cancers.

  15. Effects of spiral arms on star formation in nuclear rings of barred-spiral galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Woong-Tae E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2014-09-01

    We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the effect of spiral arms on the star formation rate (SFR) in nuclear rings of barred-spiral galaxies. We find that spiral arms can be an efficient means of gas transport from the outskirts to the central parts, provided that the arms are rotating slower than the bar. While the ring star formation in models with no arms or corotating arms is active only during around the bar growth phase, arm-driven gas accretion both significantly enhances and prolongs the ring star formation in models with slow-rotating arms. The arm-enhanced SFR is larger by a factor of ∼3-20 than in the no-arm model, with larger values corresponding to stronger and slower arms. Arm-induced mass inflows also make dust lanes stronger. Nuclear rings in slow-arm models are ∼45% larger than in the no-arm counterparts. Star clusters that form in a nuclear ring exhibit an age gradient in the azimuthal direction only when the SFR is small, whereas no notable age gradient is found in the radial direction for models with arm-induced star formation.

  16. Control of the coupled motion of a 6 DoF robotic arm and a continuum manipulator for the treatment of pelvis osteolysis.

    PubMed

    Alambeigi, Farshid; Murphy, Ryan J; Basafa, Ehsan; Taylor, Russell H; Armand, Mehran

    2014-01-01

    The paper addresses the coupled motion of a 6 degree of freedom robot and a snake-like dexterous manipulator (SDM) designed for the treatment of bone defects behind the implant during total hip arthroplasty revision surgery. We have formulated the problem as a weighted, multi-objective constraint, linear optimization. A remote center of motion (RCM) acts as a virtual constraint for the robot. The coupled robot kinematics does not assume piecewise-constant curvature for the SDM. We have evaluated our method by simulating the coupled system inside a potential lesion area.

  17. Clinical application of asparaginase activity levels following treatment with pegaspargase.

    PubMed

    Bleyer, Archie; Asselin, Barbara L; Koontz, Susannah E; Hunger, Stephen P

    2015-06-01

    Asparaginase, an enzyme used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and related forms of nonHodgkin lymphoma, depletes asparagine, which leads to lymphoblast cell death. Unlike most chemotherapeutic agents, asparaginase is a foreign protein that can result in clinical allergy and/or silent hypersensitivity with production of neutralizing antibodies that inactivate asparaginase. In North America, asparaginase activity levels can now be obtained via a commercially available assay, for therapeutic drug monitoring and investigation of potential allergic reactions. Herein, we provide recommendations and a corresponding algorithm for the clinical application of this assay after treatment with pegaspargase to evaluate suspected hypersensitivity reactions and/or silent inactivation.

  18. Treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity using low-level laser therapy and 5% potassium nitrate: A randomized, controlled, three arm parallel clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ruchi; Koppolu, Pradeep; Kalakonda, Butchibabu; Lakshmi, Bolla Vijaya; Mishra, Ashank; Reddy, Pathakota Krishnajaneya; Bollepalli, Appaiah Chowdary

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The present randomized study was aimed to compare the efficacy 5% potassium nitrate (KNO3) toothpaste, low-level laser therapy (LLLT), and LLLT with 5% KNO3 toothpaste in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity (DH). Materials and Methods: Total of 45 patients complaining of DH with visual analog scale (VAS) score being ≥2 were recruited and were divided into three groups. Group A was treated with 5% KNO3 toothpaste, Group B using LLLT along with the application of 5% KNO3 toothpaste, and Group C using LLLT alone. VAS scores were recorded at the baseline, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd weeks by the examiner who is blinded toward the treatment. The sensitivity response was evaluated using air spray and tactile sensation (explorer). Results: A greater reduction of DH was recorded at the end of 3 weeks in Group C and Group B when compared to Group A. Better results were noted in Group C at the end of the 1st week when compared to Group B. According to this study, there was no additional benefit of using toothpaste along with LLLT. Conclusion: A greater reduction of DH was recorded at the end of 3 weeks in Group C and Group B when compared to Group A. Better results were noted in Group C at the end of the 1st week when compared to Group B. According to this study, there was no additional benefit of using toothpaste along with LLLT. PMID:28251111

  19. An active set algorithm for treatment planning optimization.

    PubMed

    Hristov, D H; Fallone, B G

    1997-09-01

    An active set algorithm for optimization of radiation therapy dose planning by intensity modulated beams has been developed. The algorithm employs a conjugate-gradient routine for subspace minimization in order to achieve a higher rate of convergence than the widely used constrained steepest-descent method at the expense of a negligible amount of overhead calculations. The performance of the new algorithm has been compared to that of the constrained steepest-descent method for various treatment geometries and two different objectives. The active set algorithm is found to be superior to the constrained steepest descent, both in terms of its convergence properties and the residual value of the cost functions at termination. Its use can significantly accelerate the design of conformal plans with intensity modulated beams by decreasing the number of time-consuming dose calculations.

  20. [Latest standards of muscle injury prophylactic activities, treatment and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Jaroszewski, Jacek; Bakowski, Paweł; Tabiszewski, Maciej

    2008-01-01

    Muscle injury represents the highest proportion of sport-linked contusions. Experimental and clinical studies aim at increasingly detailed recognition of muscle physiology and pathophysiology. It would allow to set up functional standards and permit to minimize risk of contusions associated with sport activities. In cases of such contusions it would restrict its sequele and would abbreviate the duration of treatment. In the study elements of prophylaxis, treatment and rehabilitation of injured muscles will be discussed, based on current scientific results. Review study includes data from studies investigating prophylactic activities, types of teratment and the effects of different rehabilitation strategy. Latest standards from First European Congress of Football Medicine, Munich 2004, were also taken into account. The prophylactic activities should focus on education attempting to popularize the knowledge of the role of warm-up activities which precede proper physical effort, muscle stretching and activities augmenting muscle strength. The treatment of muscle injury is related to the extent of their damage. First actions should be focused on the RICE principle (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation). In case of torn tissues, local injections of anesthetics, anti-inflammatory agents and regeneration-promoting agents used to be applied. Application of NSAIDs and anti-thrombotic prophylaxis is sound but due to their side effects it is recommended as frequently as it is counterindicated by physicians. A threshold in the therapy, not always noted by therapeutists, involves rapid mobilization of the injured tissue. This involves mobility exercises starting at 3-5 days post-trauma, with no load at the beginning, but starting at days 4 to 6 asssociated with appropriate loading. The recently conducted studies aim at stimulation of rapid muscle regeneration, inhibition of scar formation in the site of injury and elimination of already existing scars. The latter seems most

  1. Update: routine screening for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, civilian applicants for U.S. military service and U.S. Armed Forces, active and reserve components, January 2008-June 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    This report contains an update through June 2013 on the results of screening for HIV infection among civilian applicants for military service and among members of the active and reserve components of the Armed Forces. Among civilian applicants, annual rates of prevalence of HIV infection showed a continuing downward trend. Rates among black, non-Hispanic applicants were higher than other racial/ethnic groups but have declined sharply since 2008. Among service members, annual rates have varied by service and component, with higher rates in the Army and Navy and lower rates in the Marine Corps and Air Force. Members of the Army and Air Force Reserves have had consistently higher rates than members of their respective active components. For both civilian applicants and service members, rates among men are notably higher than among women. The possible roles of unprotected sex and pre-deployment behaviors and the associated challenges to prevention of HIV infection are discussed.

  2. 27 CFR 478.114 - Importation by members of the U.S. Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the U.S. Armed Forces. 478.114 Section 478.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Importation § 478.114 Importation by members of the U.S. Armed Forces. (a) The... to the place of residence of any military member of the U.S. Armed Forces who is on active...

  3. 26 CFR 20.2201-1 - Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Members of the Armed Forces dying during an... Miscellaneous § 20.2201-1 Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period. (a) The additional...) (see paragraph (b) of this section) and while in active service as a member of the Armed Forces of...

  4. 26 CFR 20.2201-1 - Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Members of the Armed Forces dying during an... Miscellaneous § 20.2201-1 Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period. (a) The additional...) (see paragraph (b) of this section) and while in active service as a member of the Armed Forces of...

  5. 27 CFR 478.114 - Importation by members of the U.S. Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the U.S. Armed Forces. 478.114 Section 478.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Importation § 478.114 Importation by members of the U.S. Armed Forces. (a) The... to the place of residence of any military member of the U.S. Armed Forces who is on active...

  6. The Effect of Restricted Arm Swing on Energy Expenditure in Healthy Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yizhar, Ziva; Boulos, Spiro; Inbar, Omri; Carmeli, Eli

    2009-01-01

    Arm swing in human walking is an active natural motion involving the upper extremities. Earlier studies have described the interrelationship between arms and legs during walking, but the effect of arm swing on energy expenditure and dynamic parameters during normal gait, is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of…

  7. 26 CFR 20.2201-1 - Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Members of the Armed Forces dying during an... Miscellaneous § 20.2201-1 Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period. (a) The additional...) (see paragraph (b) of this section) and while in active service as a member of the Armed Forces of...

  8. 26 CFR 20.2201-1 - Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Members of the Armed Forces dying during an... Miscellaneous § 20.2201-1 Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period. (a) The additional...) (see paragraph (b) of this section) and while in active service as a member of the Armed Forces of...

  9. 26 CFR 20.2201-1 - Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Members of the Armed Forces dying during an... Miscellaneous § 20.2201-1 Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period. (a) The additional...) (see paragraph (b) of this section) and while in active service as a member of the Armed Forces of...

  10. Two-Armed, Mobile, Sensate Research Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelberger, J. F.; Roberts, W. Nelson; Ryan, David J.; Silverthorne, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The Anthropomorphic Robotic Testbed (ART) is an experimental prototype of a partly anthropomorphic, humanoid-size, mobile robot. The basic ART design concept provides for a combination of two-armed coordination, tactility, stereoscopic vision, mobility with navigation and avoidance of obstacles, and natural-language communication, so that the ART could emulate humans in many activities. The ART could be developed into a variety of highly capable robotic assistants for general or specific applications. There is especially great potential for the development of ART-based robots as substitutes for live-in health-care aides for home-bound persons who are aged, infirm, or physically handicapped; these robots could greatly reduce the cost of home health care and extend the term of independent living. The ART is a fully autonomous and untethered system. It includes a mobile base on which is mounted an extensible torso topped by a head, shoulders, and two arms. All subsystems of the ART are powered by a rechargeable, removable battery pack. The mobile base is a differentially- driven, nonholonomic vehicle capable of a speed >1 m/s and can handle a payload >100 kg. The base can be controlled manually, in forward/backward and/or simultaneous rotational motion, by use of a joystick. Alternatively, the motion of the base can be controlled autonomously by an onboard navigational computer. By retraction or extension of the torso, the head height of the ART can be adjusted from 5 ft (1.5 m) to 6 1/2 ft (2 m), so that the arms can reach either the floor or high shelves, or some ceilings. The arms are symmetrical. Each arm (including the wrist) has a total of six rotary axes like those of the human shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints. The arms are actuated by electric motors in combination with brakes and gas-spring assists on the shoulder and elbow joints. The arms are operated under closed-loop digital control. A receptacle for an end effector is mounted on the tip of the wrist and

  11. Octopus-inspired multi-arm robotic swimming.

    PubMed

    Sfakiotakis, M; Kazakidi, A; Tsakiris, D P

    2015-05-13

    The outstanding locomotor and manipulation characteristics of the octopus have recently inspired the development, by our group, of multi-functional robotic swimmers, featuring both manipulation and locomotion capabilities, which could be of significant engineering interest in underwater applications. During its little-studied arm-swimming behavior, as opposed to the better known jetting via the siphon, the animal appears to generate considerable propulsive thrust and rapid acceleration, predominantly employing movements of its arms. In this work, we capture the fundamental characteristics of the corresponding complex pattern of arm motion by a sculling profile, involving a fast power stroke and a slow recovery stroke. We investigate the propulsive capabilities of a multi-arm robotic system under various swimming gaits, namely patterns of arm coordination, which achieve the generation of forward, as well as backward, propulsion and turning. A lumped-element model of the robotic swimmer, which considers arm compliance and the interaction with the aquatic environment, was used to study the characteristics of these gaits, the effect of various kinematic parameters on propulsion, and the generation of complex trajectories. This investigation focuses on relatively high-stiffness arms. Experiments employing a compliant-body robotic prototype swimmer with eight compliant arms, all made of polyurethane, inside a water tank, successfully demonstrated this novel mode of underwater propulsion. Speeds of up to 0.26 body lengths per second (approximately 100 mm s(-1)), and propulsive forces of up to 3.5 N were achieved, with a non-dimensional cost of transport of 1.42 with all eight arms and of 0.9 with only two active arms. The experiments confirmed the computational results and verified the multi-arm maneuverability and simultaneous object grasping capability of such systems.

  12. 45 CFR 506.13 - “Armed Forces of the United States” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false âArmed Forces of the United Statesâ defined. 506... Prisoners of War § 506.13 “Armed Forces of the United States” defined. Armed Forces of the United States... of the U.S. Public Health Service who were detailed for active duty with the Armed Forces of...

  13. A method to qualitatively assess arm use in stroke survivors in the home environment.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Kaspar; Gonzenbach, Roman; Wachter, Susanne; Luft, Andreas; Gassert, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Wearable sensor technology has enabled unobtrusive monitoring of arm movements of stroke survivors in the home environment. However, the most widely established method, based on activity counts, provides quantitative rather than qualitative information on arm without functional insights, and is sensitive to passive arm movements during ambulatory activities. We propose a method to quantify functionally relevant arm use in stroke survivors relying on a single wrist-worn inertial measurement unit. Orientation of the forearm during movements is measured in order identify gross arm movements. The method is validated in 10 subacute/chronic stroke survivors wearing inertial sensors at 5 anatomical locations for 48 h. Measurements are compared to conventional activity counts and to a test for gross manual dexterity. Duration of gross arm movements of the paretic arm correlated significantly better with the Box and Block Test ([Formula: see text]) than conventional activity counts when walking phases were included ([Formula: see text]), and similar results were found when comparing ratios of paretic and non-paretic arms for gross movements and activity counts. The proposed gross arm movement metric is robust against passive arm movements during ambulatory activities and requires only a single-sensor module placed at the paretic wrist for the assessment of functionally relevant arm use.

  14. Axonemal Dynein Arms.

    PubMed

    King, Stephen M

    2016-11-01

    Axonemal dyneins form the inner and outer rows of arms associated with the doublet microtubules of motile cilia. These enzymes convert the chemical energy released from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis into mechanical work by causing the doublets to slide with respect to each other. Dyneins form two major groups based on the number of heavy-chain motors within each complex. In addition, these enzymes contain other components that are required for assembly of the complete particles and/or for the regulation of motor function in response to phosphorylations status, ligands such as Ca(2+), changes in cellular redox state and which also apparently monitor and respond to the mechanical state or curvature in which any given motor finds itself. It is this latter property, which is thought to result in waves of motor function propagating along the axoneme length. Here, I briefly describe our current understanding of axonemal dynein structure, assembly, and organization.

  15. Global arms proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, D.

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that the United States delivered some US $11 billion of military hardware to Iran between 1969 and 1979, in the hopes of helping stabilize a volatile situation in the Middle East. That did not work. When Iran used the weapons against Iraq, the USSR, France, and a number of developing countries helped arm Iraq. It was this vast arsenal that Iraq deployed in its Kuwait-Persian Gulf War venture. Granted, those weapons were augmented by some U.S.-made equipment like TOW antitank missiles and Hawk antiaircraft missiles that were captured in the Iraqi attack on Kuwait. A report issued by the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) in June cited that chain of events to demonstrate that the U.S. and other major exporters are gradually losing control of the weapons transferred (to other countries) as well as the technology and industry necessary to produce and support them.

  16. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing.

    To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Experimental Treatment with Favipiravir for Ebola Virus Disease (the JIKI Trial): A Historically Controlled, Single-Arm Proof-of-Concept Trial in Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Sissoko, Daouda; Laouenan, Cedric; Folkesson, Elin; M’Lebing, Abdoul-Bing; Beavogui, Abdoul-Habib; Baize, Sylvain; Camara, Alseny-Modet; Maes, Piet; Shepherd, Susan; Danel, Christine; Carazo, Sara; Conde, Mamoudou N.; Gala, Jean-Luc; Colin, Géraldine; Savini, Hélène; Bore, Joseph Akoi; Le Marcis, Frederic; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Petitjean, Frédéric; Lamah, Marie-Claire; Diederich, Sandra; Tounkara, Alexis; Poelart, Geertrui; Berbain, Emmanuel; Dindart, Jean-Michel; Duraffour, Sophie; Lefevre, Annabelle; Leno, Tamba; Peyrouset, Olivier; Irenge, Léonid; Bangoura, N’Famara; Palich, Romain; Hinzmann, Julia; Kraus, Annette; Barry, Thierno Sadou; Berette, Sakoba; Bongono, André; Camara, Mohamed Seto; Chanfreau Munoz, Valérie; Doumbouya, Lanciné; Souley Harouna; Kighoma, Patient Mumbere; Koundouno, Fara Roger; Réné Lolamou; Loua, Cécé Moriba; Massala, Vincent; Moumouni, Kinda; Provost, Célia; Samake, Nenefing; Sekou, Conde; Soumah, Abdoulaye; Arnould, Isabelle; Komano, Michel Saa; Gustin, Lina; Berutto, Carlotta; Camara, Diarra; Camara, Fodé Saydou; Colpaert, Joliene; Delamou, Léontine; Jansson, Lena; Kourouma, Etienne; Loua, Maurice; Malme, Kristian; Manfrin, Emma; Maomou, André; Milinouno, Adele; Ombelet, Sien; Sidiboun, Aboubacar Youla; Verreckt, Isabelle; Yombouno, Pauline; Bocquin, Anne; Carbonnelle, Caroline; Carmoi, Thierry; Frange, Pierre; Mely, Stéphane; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim; Pannetier, Delphine; Taburet, Anne-Marie; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Kolie, Jacques; Moh, Raoul; Gonzalez, Minerva Cervantes; Kuisma, Eeva; Liedigk, Britta; Ngabo, Didier; Rudolf, Martin; Thom, Ruth; Kerber, Romy; Gabriel, Martin; Di Caro, Antonino; Wölfel, Roman; Badir, Jamal; Bentahir, Mostafa; Deccache, Yann; Dumont, Catherine; Durant, Jean-François; El Bakkouri, Karim; Gasasira Uwamahoro, Marie; Smits, Benjamin; Toufik, Nora; Van Cauwenberghe, Stéphane; Ezzedine, Khaled; Dortenzio, Eric; Pizarro, Louis; Etienne, Aurélie; Guedj, Jérémie; Fizet, Alexandra; Barte de Sainte Fare, Eric; Murgue, Bernadette; Tran-Minh, Tuan; Rapp, Christophe; Piguet, Pascal; Poncin, Marc; Draguez, Bertrand; Allaford Duverger, Thierry; Barbe, Solenne; Baret, Guillaume; Defourny, Isabelle; Carroll, Miles; Raoul, Hervé; Augier, Augustin; Eholie, Serge P.; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Levy-Marchal, Claire; Antierrens, Annick; Van Herp, Michel; Günther, Stephan; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Keïta, Sakoba; Mentre, France

    2016-01-01

    Background Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a highly lethal condition for which no specific treatment has proven efficacy. In September 2014, while the Ebola outbreak was at its peak, the World Health Organization released a short list of drugs suitable for EVD research. Favipiravir, an antiviral developed for the treatment of severe influenza, was one of these. In late 2014, the conditions for starting a randomized Ebola trial were not fulfilled for two reasons. One was the perception that, given the high number of patients presenting simultaneously and the very high mortality rate of the disease, it was ethically unacceptable to allocate patients from within the same family or village to receive or not receive an experimental drug, using a randomization process impossible to understand by very sick patients. The other was that, in the context of rumors and distrust of Ebola treatment centers, using a randomized design at the outset might lead even more patients to refuse to seek care. Therefore, we chose to conduct a multicenter non-randomized trial, in which all patients would receive favipiravir along with standardized care. The objectives of the trial were to test the feasibility and acceptability of an emergency trial in the context of a large Ebola outbreak, and to collect data on the safety and effectiveness of favipiravir in reducing mortality and viral load in patients with EVD. The trial was not aimed at directly informing future guidelines on Ebola treatment but at quickly gathering standardized preliminary data to optimize the design of future studies. Methods and Findings Inclusion criteria were positive Ebola virus reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) test, age ≥ 1 y, weight ≥ 10 kg, ability to take oral drugs, and informed consent. All participants received oral favipiravir (day 0: 6,000 mg; day 1 to day 9: 2,400 mg/d). Semi-quantitative Ebola virus RT-PCR (results expressed in “cycle threshold” [Ct]) and biochemistry tests were performed at day 0

  18. Effects of niacin on glucose levels, coronary stenosis progression, and clinical events in subjects with normal baseline glucose levels (<100 mg/dl): a combined analysis of the Familial Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (FATS), HDL-Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (HATS), Armed Forces Regression Study (AFREGS), and Carotid Plaque Composition by MRI during lipid-lowering (CPC) study.

    PubMed

    Phan, Binh An P; Muñoz, Luis; Shadzi, Pey; Isquith, Daniel; Triller, Michael; Brown, B Greg; Zhao, Xue-Qiao

    2013-02-01

    Although the effect of niacin on the glucose levels in subjects with diabetes mellitus has been investigated, niacin's effects on the glucose levels and atherosclerosis in subjects with normal glucose levels have not been well established. We examined the effect of niacin on the glucose levels, coronary stenosis progression using quantitative coronary angiography, and clinical events in 407 subjects who had a baseline glucose level <100 mg/dl and were enrolled in the Familial Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (FATS), HDL-Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (HATS), Armed Forces Regression Study (AFREGS), or Carotid Plaque Composition by MRI during lipid-lowering (CPC) study testing active niacin therapy. Although the fasting glucose levels increased significantly within 3 years in both subjects treated with niacin (from 85.6 ± 9.5 to 95.5 ± 19.7 mg/dl, p <0.001) and without niacin (from 85.2 ± 9.6 to 90 ± 17.9 mg/dl, p = 0.009), those treated with niacin had a significantly larger increase in glucose levels than those not taking niacin (9.88 vs 4.05 mg/dl, p = 0.002). Overall, 29% of subjects developed impaired fasting glucose within 3 years. Incident impaired fasting glucose was significantly more likely to be observed in subjects treated with niacin than in those who were not. However, the frequency of new-onset diabetes mellitus did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (5.6% vs 4.8%, p = 0.5). Niacin-treated subjects compared to untreated subjects had significantly less change in mean coronary stenosis (0.1 ± 0.3% vs 2 ± 12%, p <0.0001) and less major cardiovascular events (8% vs 21%, p = 0.001). In conclusion, the use of niacin for 3 years in subjects with normal baseline glucose levels was associated with an increase in blood glucose levels and the risk of developing impaired fasting glucose, but not diabetes mellitus, and was associated with a significantly reduced incidence of coronary stenosis progression and major cardiovascular events.

  19. The Neanderthal lower arm.

    PubMed

    De Groote, Isabelle

    2011-10-01

    Neanderthal forearms have been described as being very powerful. Different individual features in the lower arm bones have been described to distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans. In this study, the overall morphology of the radius and ulna is considered, and morphological differences among Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens and recent H. sapiens are described. Comparisons among populations were made using a combination of 3D geometric morphometrics and standard multivariate methods. Comparative material included all available complete radii and ulnae from Neanderthals, early H. sapiens and archaeological and recent human populations, representing a wide geographical and lifestyle range. There are few differences among the populations when features are considered individually. Neanderthals and early H. sapiens fell within the range of modern human variation. When the suite of measurements and shapes were analyzed, differences and similarities became apparent. The Neanderthal radius is more laterally curved, has a more medially placed radial tuberosity, a longer radial neck, a more antero-posteriorly ovoid head and a well-developed proximal interosseous crest. The Neanderthal ulna has a more anterior facing trochlear notch, a lower M. brachialis insertion, larger relative mid-shaft size and a more medio-lateral and antero-posterior sinusoidal shaft. The Neanderthal lower arm morphology reflects a strong cold-adapted short forearm. The forearms of H. sapiens are less powerful in pronation and supination. Many differences between Neanderthals and H. sapiens can be explained as a secondary consequence of the hyper-polar body proportions of the Neanderthals, but also as retentions of the primitive condition of other hominoids.

  20. How do octopuses use their arms?

    PubMed

    Mather, J A

    1998-09-01

    A taxonomy of the movement patterns of the 8 flexible arms of octopuses is constructed. Components consist of movements of the arm itself, the ventral suckers and their stalks, as well as the relative position of arms and the skin web between them. Within 1 arm, combinations of components result in a variety of behaviors. At the level of all arms, 1 group of behaviors is described as postures, on the basis of the spread of all arms and the web to make a 2-dimensional surface whose position differs in the 3rd dimension. Another group of arm behaviors is actions, more or less coordinated and involving several to all arms. Arm control appears to be based on radial symmetry, relative equipotentiality of all arms, relative independence of each arm, and separability of components within the arm. The types and coordination of arm behaviors are discussed with relationship to biomechanical limits, muscle structures, and neuronal programming.

  1. Effect of arm swing on single-step balance recovery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuangyou B; Huang, Yi-Chang; Kuo, Shih-Yu

    2014-12-01

    Balance recovery techniques are useful not only in preventing falls but also in many sports activities. The step strategy plays an important role especially under intense perturbations. However, relatively little is known about the effect of arm swing on stepping balance recovery although considerable arm motions have been observed. The purpose of this study was to examine how the arms influence kinematic and kinetic characteristics in single-step balance recovery. Twelve young male adults were released from three forward-lean angles and asked to regain balance by taking a single step under arm swing (AS) and arm constrained (AC) conditions. It was found that unconstrained arms had initial forward motion and later upward motion causing increased moment of inertia of the body, which decreased falling angular velocity and allowed more time for stepping. The lengthened total balance time included weight transfer and stepping time, although duration increase in the latter was significant only at the largest lean angle. In contrast, step length, step velocity, and vertical ground reaction forces on the stepping foot were unaffected by arm swing. Future studies are required to investigate optimal movement strategies for the arms to coordinate with other body segments in balance recovery and injury reduction.

  2. The Norma arm region Chandra survey catalog: X-ray populations in the spiral arms

    SciTech Connect

    Fornasini, Francesca M.; Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Krivonos, Roman A.; An, Hongjun; Rahoui, Farid; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Bauer, Franz E.; Stern, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey (NARCS), which covers a 2° × 0.°8 region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of ≈20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with ≥3σ confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that ∼50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arm, while 30% are more distant, in the proximity of the far Norma arm or beyond. We argue that a mixture of magnetic and nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables dominates the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arms, while intermediate polars and high-mass stars (isolated or in binaries) dominate the far Norma arm. We also present the cumulative number count distribution for sources in our survey that are detected in the hard energy band. A population of very hard sources in the vicinity of the far Norma arm and active galactic nuclei dominate the hard X-ray emission down to f{sub X} ≈ 10{sup –14} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, but the distribution curve flattens at fainter fluxes. We find good agreement between the observed distribution and predictions based on other surveys.

  3. Gynecologic disorders diagnosed during deployment to Southwest/Central Asia, active component females, U.S. Armed Forces, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    2014-08-01

    Service women in the U.S. Armed Forces face unique challenges that may lead to or exacerbate gynecologic disorders - particularly during deployment. This report documented that approximately one in 10 military women who served in Southwest/Central Asia were diagnosed with a gynecologic disorder at least once during deployment. In addition, gynecologic disorders accounted for approximately one of every 20 medical evacuations of female service members from the war zone. A majority of clinically significant gynecologic disorder cases were attributable to irregular menstruation/bleeding or unspecified inflammation or pain of the female genital organs. Incidence rates of gynecologic disorder diagnoses were higher among black, non-Hispanic service women, among younger women, and among those in the Army and in motor transport and communications/intelligence occupations. Approximately 50% of gynecologic disorder cases had received gynecologic care within 6 months prior to deployment and nearly 90% had received care within 2 years of deployment. Despite pre-deployment care, it is apparent from this report that service women need continuous access to gynecologic care during deployment, particularly if conditions during deployment lead to and exacerbate gynecologic disorders.

  4. EEG sLORETA functional imaging during hypnotic arm levitation and voluntary arm lifting.

    PubMed

    Cardeña, Etzel; Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L; Jönsson, Peter; Milz, Patricia; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Kochi, Kieko

    2012-01-01

    This study (N = 37 with high, medium, and low hypnotizables) evaluated depth reports and EEG activity during both voluntary and hypnotically induced left-arm lifting with sLORETA functional neuroimaging. The hypnotic condition was associated with higher activity in fast EEG frequencies in anterior regions and slow EEG frequencies in central-parietal regions, all left-sided. The voluntary condition was associated with fast frequency activity in right-hemisphere central-parietal regions and slow frequency activity in left anterior regions. Hypnotizability did not have a significant effect on EEG activity, but hypnotic depth correlated with left hemisphere increased anterior slow EEG and decreased central fast EEG activity. Hypnosis had a minimal effect on depth reports among lows, a moderate one among mediums, and a large one among highs. Because only left-arm data were available, the full role of the hemispheres remains to be clarified.

  5. Layers of Experience Using "Arms"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Laurinda; Coles, Alf; Ball, Derek; Morton, Pat; Coles, Matt; Ordman, Louise; Orr, Barry; Lam, Tung Ken

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the authors' personal accounts and their experiences in working on mathematics using "arms." "Arms" is an idea that first appeared as a program written by John Warwick and David Wooldridge in an ATM publication "Some Lessons in Mathematics with a Microcomputer," 1983. The introduction to…

  6. Arms control and the MX

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    By 1969, Soviet ballistic missile deployments led the United States to project the vulnerability of Minuteman Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) silos along with an imbalance in ICBM capabilities. The Nixon Administration planned two simultaneous responses: strategic arms negotiations, to limit the threat through mutually agreed restraints; and the Safeguard Anti-Ballistic Missile defense program, to defend, as necessary, the threatened ICBM force. The US succeeded in neither. The planned defense did not materialize, even though SALT failed to limit the growth of the Soviet threat. In the years after SALT I, the US planned, but again did not carry through, ICBM programs to enhance ICBM survivability and at the same time to approach essential equivalence with Soviet capabilities. This dissertation examines the relationship of the two US responses and how arms control affected the MX ICBM system. First, the effects of US arms control objectives and optimism on the MX are analyzed from the first MX systems study in 1974, supporting the new Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, to the deployment of MX in current Minuteman silos, supporting the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks. Here US arms control contributed to MX delays and highlighted ICBM capability over ICBM survivability. Second, the effect of specific arms control provisions are addressed topically for each strategic arms agreement. The framework they establish allowed ICBM capabilities to increase, but constrained ICBM survivability.

  7. Beyond Arms-Control Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanloz, Raymond; Fung, Inez; Bowyer, Ted W.; Wofsy, Steven

    2013-02-15

    Expanded monitoring of the environment, everywhere and at all times, can advance arms control around the world, enhancing transparency among nations. In particular, improved characterization of the atmosphere now offers powerful opportunities for global monitoring, with multiple societal benefits. It may be useful to think of environmental monitoring as a long-term objective of arms-control verification.

  8. [Medical rehabilitation in the Armed Forces: history, current state and prospects].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia; Shchegol'kov, A M; Iudin, V E; Ponomarenko, G N

    2014-08-01

    Authors analyzed history, current state and prospects of medical rehabilitation in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. Current system of medical rehabilitation in the Armed Forces provides all categories of military personnel and members of their families complete rehabilitative and remedial measures. An integration of rehabilitative experience of the medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation into the State system of medical rehabilitation, active participation of the medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in activity of National association of specialists of medical rehabilitation and regenerative medicine will allow to increase the effectiveness of the rehabilitation system of the Armed Forces.

  9. [Medical Service of the Latvian National Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Aleinikov, S I; Golota, A S; Krassii, A B; Soldatov, E A; Shalakhin, R A

    2015-08-01

    The article is a brief description of the current state of the Latvian National Armed Forces medical service and is based on the study of the open access foreign sources. At the beginning, the general information about Latvia, its Armed Forces, and their medical service is presented. Then the medical service particular features are described with more detail, namely, the organization of inpatient and outpatient treatment, medical supply, scientific research, combat medicine, medical staff education and training, medical service personnel income.

  10. [Defect fractures of the upper arm and their treatment in difficult circumstances. 3 case reports from Ethiopian and Somalian provincial hospitals].

    PubMed

    Mandrella, B; Abebaw, T H; Hersi, O N

    1997-02-01

    countries, the treatment of large bone defects can be successful, provided material and sometimes personnel support is, if necessary, given to the hospitals dealing with war and accident victims.

  11. Optically active surfaces formed by ion implantation and thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gea, L.A.; Boatner, L.A.; Evans, H.M.; Zuhr, R.

    1996-08-01

    Embedded VO{sub 2} precipitates have been formed in single-crystal sapphire by the ion co-implantation of vanadium and oxygen and subsequent thermal annealing. The embedded VO{sub 2} particles have been shown to exhibit an optical switching behavior that is comparable to that of continuous thin films. In this work, the mechanisms of formation of these optically active particles are investigated. It is shown that precipitation of the vanadium dioxide phase is favored when the thermal treatment is performed on an ion-damaged but still crystalline (rather than amorphized) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. The best optical switching behavior is observed in this case, and this behavior is apparently correlated with a more-favorable dispersion of VO{sub 2} small particles inside the matrix.

  12. The RhoE/ROCK/ARHGAP25 signaling pathway controls cell invasion by inhibition of Rac activity

    PubMed Central

    Thuault, Sylvie; Comunale, Franck; Hasna, Jessy; Fortier, Mathieu; Planchon, Damien; Elarouci, Nabila; De Reynies, Aurélien; Bodin, Stéphane; Blangy, Anne; Gauthier-Rouvière, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of skeletal muscle origin in children and adolescents. Among RMS subtypes, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), which is characterized by the presence of the PAX3-FOXO1A or PAX7-FOXO1A chimeric oncogenic transcription factor, is associated with poor prognosis and a strong risk of metastasis compared with the embryonal subtype (ERMS). To identify molecular pathways involved in ARMS aggressiveness, we first characterized the migratory behavior of cell lines derived from ARMS and ERMS biopsies using a three-dimensional spheroid cell invasion assay. ARMS cells were more invasive than ERMS cells and adopted an ellipsoidal morphology to efficiently invade the extracellular matrix. Moreover, the invasive potential of ARMS cells depended on ROCK activity, which is regulated by the GTPase RhoE. Specifically, RhoE expression was low in ARMS biopsies, and its overexpression in ARMS cells reduced their invasion potential. Conversely, ARHGAP25, a GTPase-activating protein for Rac, was up-regulated in ARMS biopsies. Moreover, we found that ARHGAP25 inhibits Rac activity downstream of ROCKII and is required for ARMS cell invasion. Our results indicate that the RhoE/ROCK/ARHGAP25 signaling pathway promotes ARMS invasive potential and identify these proteins as potential therapeutic targets for ARMS treatment. PMID:27413008

  13. Stabilized leachates: ozone-activated carbon treatment and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Rivas, F Javier; Beltrán, Fernando; Gimeno, Olga; Acedo, Benito; Carvalho, Fátima

    2003-12-01

    Ozone has been used as a pre-oxidation step for the treatment of stabilized leachates. Given the refractory nature of this type of effluents, the conversion of some wastewater quality parameters has been moderate after 1 h of ozonation (i.e. 30% chemical oxygen demand (COD) depletion). Ozone uptake was calculated in the interval 1.3-1.5 g of ozone per gram of COD degraded. An optimum dose of ozone has been experienced in terms of biodegradability of the processed effluent (60 min of treatment, 1 x 10(-3) mol L(-1) ozone inlet feeding concentration and 50 L h(-1) gas flow-rate). pH and other typical hydroxyl radical generator systems exerted no influence on the efficiency of the process, suggesting the negligible role played by the indirect route of oxidation (generation of hydroxyl radicals). The ozonated effluent was thereafter treated in a second adsorption stage by using a commercial activated carbon. Removal levels up to 90% of COD in approximately 120 h were experienced for adsorbent dosages of 30 g L(-1). Both steps, the single ozonation and the adsorption stage have been modelled by using different pseudoempirical models.

  14. Incidence of Salmonella infections among service members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces and among other beneficiaries of the Military Health System, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Clark, Leslie L; Daniele, Denise O; O'Donnell, Francis L

    2015-01-01

    This report reviews the incidence of cases of typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella infections based on diagnoses recorded in healthcare records and reported through the Armed Forces reportable medical event (RME) system. During 2000-2013, there were 1,815 incident cases of non-typhoidal Salmonella and 456 incident cases of typhoidal Salmonella diagnosed in the active component force. The crude incidence rate for non-typhoidal Salmonella was 0.91 cases per 10,000 person years (p-yrs) and the rate for typhoidal Salmonella was 0.23 cases per 10,000 p-yrs. Among retirees and family members, children under 5 years of age and those aged 75 years or older comprised the greatest number of non-typhoidal Salmonella cases. Preventive measures for reducing the risk of infection with Salmonella are discussed.

  15. Muscular activity may improve in edentulous patients after implant treatment.

    PubMed

    Afrashtehfar, Kelvin I; Schimmel, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Data sourcesMedline via Pubmed and the Cochrane Library were searched from January 1980 to September 2013. This was complemented by a manual search of the magazines Deutsche Zahnaerztliche Zeitung, Quintessenz, Zeitschrift für Zahnärztliche Implantologie, Schweizerische Monatszeitschrift and Implantologie. Additionally, the list of reference s of all selected full-text articles and related reviews were further scrutinised for potential included studies in English or German.Study selectionThree review authors independently searched for clinical trials that assessed the muscular activity in the intervention groups: edentulous patients treated with implant-overdentures (IODs) and implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (ISFDPs) and the comparison groups: dentates and edentulous patients treated with mucosa-borne complete removable dental prostheses (CRDPs).Data extraction and synthesisThe primary outcome was the muscular activity (measured by electromyography [EMG]) in masseter or temporalis muscle of the participants during clenching and chewing. The data extraction of each included study consisted of author, year, age range, treatment, number of participants, number of implants inserted, arch treated, opposite jaw, kind and side of the muscles that were measured. EMG gain or loss (unit measured: volt) was considered by using the effect size. For the meta-analyses only the studies that included masseter muscle measured separately from temporalis were considered. Concerning the side of measurement (right and left side measured together or right and left side measured separately), only the dominant type in each category was included.ResultsSixteen articles, out of the initial 646 retrieved abstracts, were analysed. The muscular activity of edentulous subjects increased after implant support therapy during clenching (effect size [ES]: 2.18 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14, 3.23]) and during chewing (ES: 1.45 [95 % CI: 1.21, 1.69]). In addition, the pooled EMG

  16. In vitro activation and differentiation of naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells into HCV core- and NS3-specific armed effector cells: a new role for CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Krishnadas, Deepa K; Li, Wen; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyrrell, Lorne J; Agrawal, Babita

    2009-01-01

    Viral clearance in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been correlated with strong, multi-specific and sustained T cell responses. The number of functionally active effector T cells determines the outcome of infection. Only a small number of antigen-specific naïve T cells are originally present. Upon infection, they undergo activation, clonal expansion and differentiation to become effector cells. In this study, we determined the ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to prime T cells in vitro to become effector cells upon stimulation with various TLR ligands or IFNalpha. T cell priming and activation was determined by proliferation and production of effector molecules, IFN-gamma and Granzyme B (GrB). HCV Core-specific T cells showed significant increase in proliferation, and the number of HCV Core-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IFN-gamma and GrB was higher than control or NS3-specific T cells. These in vitro-primed CD4+ and CD8+ T cells exhibit the phenotype of just-activated and/or armed effector lymphocytes confirming the transition of naïve T cells to effector cells. This is the first study demonstrating the activation of GrB+CD4+ T cells against antigen(s) derived from HCV. Our study suggests a novel role of CD4+ T cells in immunity against HCV.

  17. ARM KAZR-ARSCL Value Added Product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jensen, Michael

    2012-09-28

    The Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars (KAZRs) have replaced the long-serving Millimeter Cloud Radars, or MMCRs. Accordingly, the primary MMCR Value Added Product (VAP), the Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product, is being replaced by a KAZR-based version, the KAZR-ARSCL VAP. KAZR-ARSCL provides cloud boundaries and best-estimate time-height fields of radar moments.

  18. Bilateral arm training: Why and who benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Sandy McCombe; Whitall, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral arm training has emerged as an approach that leads to positive outcomes in addressing upper extremity paresis after stroke. However, studies have not demonstrated improvements in all patients using current outcome measures. Furthermore, the rationale for using this type of training has been incompletely explained. The purpose of this article was to first review the theoretical justifications for the use of bilateral arm training by examining motor control and neural mechanisms underlying arm function and neural recovery, and second, to discuss examples of clinical studies using a variety of bilateral training strategies to identify who may benefit most from this approach. We argue that bilateral arm training is a necessary adjunct to unilateral training because bilateral re-training is important and best served through bilateral not unilateral training, and also, that bilateral training may help unilateral skill recovery through alternative putative mechanisms. Our review of the empirical evidence suggests that individuals at all levels of severity can benefit in some manner from bilateral training, but that not all approaches are effective for all severity levels. In addition to requesting more randomized controlled trials and studies of neurophysiological mechanisms we conclude the following: 1) Bilateral training can improve unilateral paretic limb functions of the upper extremity after stroke, however, specific training approaches need to be matched to baseline characteristics of the patients; 2) Given the importance of bilateral activities in daily life, there is a need to recognize, train and assess the important contribution of supportive role functions of the paretic arm used on its own and as part of complementary bilateral functional skills; 3) An assessment of bilateral and unilateral functioning which includes bilateral task analysis, as well as, evaluations of interlimb coordination should be included in all studies that include bilateral

  19. Bilateral arm training: why and who benefits?

    PubMed

    McCombe Waller, Sandy; Whitall, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Bilateral arm training has emerged as an approach that leads to positive outcomes in addressing upper extremity paresis after stroke. However, studies have not demonstrated improvements in all patients using current outcome measures. Furthermore, the rationale for using this type of training has been incompletely explained. The purpose of this article was to first review the theoretical justifications for the use of bilateral arm training by examining motor control and neural mechanisms underlying arm function and neural recovery, and second, to discuss examples of clinical studies using a variety of bilateral training strategies to identify who may benefit most from this approach. We argue that bilateral arm training is a necessary adjunct to unilateral training because bilateral re-training is important and best served through bilateral not unilateral training, and also, that bilateral training may help unilateral skill recovery through alternative putative mechanisms. Our review of the empirical evidence suggests that individuals at all levels of severity can benefit in some manner from bilateral training, but that not all approaches are effective for all severity levels. In addition to requesting more randomized controlled trials and studies of neurophysiological mechanisms we conclude the following: 1) Bilateral training can improve unilateral paretic limb functions of the upper extremity after stroke, however, specific training approaches need to be matched to baseline characteristics of the patients; 2) Given the importance of bilateral activities in daily life, there is a need to recognize, train and assess the important contribution of supportive role functions of the paretic arm used on its own and as part of complementary bilateral functional skills; 3) An assessment of bilateral and unilateral functioning which includes bilateral task analysis, as well as, evaluations of interlimb coordination should be included in all studies that include bilateral

  20. Water treatment using activated carbon supporting silver and magnetite.

    PubMed

    Valušová, Eva; Vandžurová, Anna; Pristaš, Peter; Antalík, Marián; Javorský, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Recent efforts in water purification have led to the development of novel materials whose unique properties can offer effective biocidal capabilities with greater ease of use and at lower cost. In this study, we introduce a novel procedure for the preparation of activated carbon (charcoal) composite in which magnetite and silver are incorporated (MCAG); we also describe the use of this material for the disinfection of surface water. The formation process of magnetic MCAG composite was studied using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the high sorption efficiency of AgNO₃ to magnetic activated carbon. The antimicrobial capabilities of the prepared MCAG were examined and the results clearly demonstrate their inhibitory effect on total river water bacteria and on Pseudomonas koreensis and Bacillus mycoides cultures isolated from river water. The bacterial counts in river water samples were reduced by five orders of magnitude following 30 min of treatment using 1 g l⁻¹ of MCAG at room temperature. The removal of all bacteria from the surface water samples implies that the MCAG material would be a suitable disinfectant for such waters. In combination with its magnetic character, MCAG would be an excellent candidate for the simple ambulatory disinfection of surface water.

  1. The purposes, achievements, and priorities of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.S.

    1987-09-01

    Arms control purposes include strengthening the framework of deterrence and reducing the threat of the use of nuclear weapons, reducing the dangers of attack and accidental nuclear war, and allowing more resources for the civilian economy. The paper briefly describes achievements in arms control since World War II. These include the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABMT)-SALT I, SALT II, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), and Nuclear-Free Zones treaties. The author also discusses his views on what the priorities of arms control activities should be. (ACR)

  2. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  3. [Protection of medical personnel in contemporary armed conflicts].

    PubMed

    Goniewicz, Krzysztof; Goniewicz, Mariusz; Pawłowski, Witold

    2016-01-01

    International humanitarian law provides special protection devices and medical personnel during armed conflicts. In today's wars it became more frequent lack of respect for the protective emblems of the red cross and red crescent and the lack of respect for medical activities. The paper presents selected issues of humanitarian law with a particular emphasis on the rules concerning the protection of medical services and victims of armed conflicts. All countries that have ratified the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols, are required to comply in time of war the principles contained in them and their dissemination in peacetime. Education societies in the field of international humanitarian law can help to eliminate attacks on medical facilities and personnel and significantly improve the fate of the victims of armed conflict and mitigate the cruelty of war. Knowledge of humanitarian law does not prevent further wars, but it can cause all parties to any armed conflict will abide by its rules during such activities.

  4. Arm-use dependent lateralization of gamma and beta oscillations in primate medial motor areas.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Ryosuke; Nakajima, Toshi; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Mushiake, Hajime

    2015-02-01

    The neurons in the motor cortex show lateralization depending on the arm to use. To investigate if local field potential (LFP) oscillations change with contralateral and ipsilateral arm use, we analyzed the power of LFP in supplementary motor areas (SMA) and pre-SMA while animals performed a delayed-response arm use task under visual guidance and memory-based. LFP power changed with the laterality of the arm use, but it was frequency dependent. Specifically, power in the gamma range increased during contralateral arm use, while beta power increased with ipsilateral arm use. Subsequently, we confirmed that the frequency-dependent laterality was true also for the memory-driven movements. Our data therefore suggest that gamma oscillation is linked to the local neuronal activities in the contralateral hemisphere, and beta oscillation is related to withholding undesired arm movements by suppression of the local neuronal activities of the ipsilateral hemisphere.

  5. [Suppression of cycling activity in sheep using parenteral progestagen treatment].

    PubMed

    Janett, F; Camponovo, L; Lanker, U; Hässig, M; Thun, R

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two synthetic progestagen preparations Chlormadinone acetate (CAP, Chronosyn, Veterinaria AG Zürich) and Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, Nadigest, G Streuli & Co. Uznach) on cycling activity and fertility in sheep. A flock of 28 non pregnant white alpine sheep was randomly divided into three groups, A (n = 10), B (n = 9) and C (n = 9). During a period of 4 weeks the cycling activity was confirmed by blood progesterone analysis. Thereafter, the animals of group A were treated with 50 mg CAP, those of group B with 140 mg MPA and those of group C with physiological saline solution. All injections were given intramuscularly. Suppression of endogenous progesterone secretion lasted from 28 to 49 days (mean = 39 days) in group A and from 42 to 70 days (mean = 50 days) in group B. The synchronization effect of both preparations was unsatisfactory as the occurrence of first estrus was distributed over a period of 3 weeks in group A and 4 weeks in group B. These findings could also be confirmed by the lambing period which lasted 52 days in group A and 36 days in group B. Control animals lambed within 9 days due to the synchronizing effect of the ram. The first fertile estrus was observed 36 days (group A) and 45 days (group B) after the treatment. In group A all 10 animals and in groups B and C 8 of 9 ewes each became pregnant. Parenteral progestagen application with CAP and MPA is a simple, safe and reversible method of estrus suppression in the sheep. The minimal suppressive duration of 4 (CAP) and 5 weeks (MPA) is not sufficient when a period of 3 months (alpine pasture period) is desired.

  6. [Advanced Treatment of Effluent from Industrial Park Wastewater Treatment Plant by Ferrous Ion Activated Sodium Persulfate].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Song-mei; Zhou, Zhen; Gu, Ling-yun; Jiang, Hai-tao; Ren, Jia-min; Wang, Luo-chun

    2016-01-15

    Fe(II) activated sodium persulfate (PS) technology was used for advanced treatment of effluent from industrial park wastewater treatment plant. Separate and combined effects of PS/COD, Fe(II)/PS and pH on COD and TOC removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology. Variations of organic substances before and after Fe(II)-PS oxidation were characterized by UV-Vis spectrometry, gel chromatography and three-dimensional fluorescence. PS/COD and Fe(II)/PS had significant effect on COD removal, while all the three factors had significant effect on TOC removal. The combined effect of PS/COD and pH had significant effect on COD removal. COD and TOC removal efficiencies reached 50.7% and 60.6% under optimized conditions of PS/COD 3.47, Fe(II)/PS 3.32 and pH 6.5. Fe(II)-PS oxidation converted macromolecular organic substances to small ones, and reduced contents of protein-, humic- and fulvic-like substances.

  7. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    PubMed

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-04

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus.

  8. Exoskeletal technology. [teleoperator arm system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    Possible applications are considered of a master-sleeve teleoperator arm system, developed in exoskeletal space suit technology, as therapeutic aid, orthotic device, or for therapy on patients with neurological disorders.

  9. Arm transplantation: prospects and visions.

    PubMed

    Jones, N F; Schneeberger, S

    2009-03-01

    Based on the results of above-elbow replantation, it is possible that above-elbow arm transplantation will be successful and result in a superior functional outcome as defined by the Chen criteria. Above-elbow arm transplantation is probably technically simpler than distal forearm or wrist transplantation, especially since the macroanastomoses do not require microsurgical expertise. However, hand function depends on reinnervation of forearm muscles and the distance for nerves to regenerate for reinnervation of intrinsic muscles of the hand is significant. The vascularized bone marrow transplanted with the arm holds potential to induce chimerism and promote tolerance but could also make the recipient more susceptible to graft-versus-host disease. Prospective trials comparing the functional results after above-elbow arm transplantation with the functional results achieved by the best neuronal-controlled above-elbow prosthesis are warranted and will determine the gold standard of upper-extremity reconstruction.

  10. ARM Standards Policy Committee Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cialella, A; Jensen, M; Koontz, A; McFarlane, S; McCoy, R; Monroe, J; Palanisamy, G; Perez, R; Sivaraman, C

    2012-09-19

    Data and metadata standards promote the consistent recording of information and are necessary to ensure the stability and high quality of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility data products for scientific users. Standards also enable automated routines to be developed to examine data, which leads to more efficient operations and assessment of data quality. Although ARM Infrastructure agrees on the utility of data and metadata standards, there is significant confusion over the existing standards and the process for allowing the release of new data products with exceptions to the standards. The ARM Standards Policy Committee was initiated in March 2012 to develop a set of policies and best practices for ARM data and metadata standards.

  11. The metabolic cost of human running: is swinging the arms worth it?

    PubMed

    Arellano, Christopher J; Kram, Rodger

    2014-07-15

    Although the mechanical function is quite clear, there is no consensus regarding the metabolic benefit of arm swing during human running. We compared the metabolic cost of running using normal arm swing with the metabolic cost of running while restricting the arms in three different ways: (1) holding the hands with the arms behind the back in a relaxed position (BACK), (2) holding the arms across the chest (CHEST) and (3) holding the hands on top of the head (HEAD). We hypothesized that running without arm swing would demand a greater metabolic cost than running with arm swing. Indeed, when compared with running using normal arm swing, we found that net metabolic power demand was 3, 9 and 13% greater for the BACK, CHEST and HEAD conditions, respectively (all P<0.05). We also found that when running without arm swing, subjects significantly increased the peak-to-peak amplitudes of both shoulder and pelvis rotation about the vertical axis, most likely a compensatory strategy to counterbalance the rotational angular momentum of the swinging legs. In conclusion, our findings support our general hypothesis that swinging the arms reduces the metabolic cost of human running. Our findings also demonstrate that arm swing minimizes torso rotation. We infer that actively swinging the arms provides both metabolic and biomechanical benefits during human running.

  12. 38 CFR 3.359 - Determination of service connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. 3.359 Section 3.359 Pensions... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. Rating boards will determine whether or not the condition for which treatment is claimed by former members of the Armed Forces...

  13. 38 CFR 3.359 - Determination of service connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. 3.359 Section 3.359 Pensions... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. Rating boards will determine whether or not the condition for which treatment is claimed by former members of the Armed Forces...

  14. 38 CFR 3.359 - Determination of service connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. 3.359 Section 3.359 Pensions... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. Rating boards will determine whether or not the condition for which treatment is claimed by former members of the Armed Forces...

  15. 38 CFR 3.359 - Determination of service connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. 3.359 Section 3.359 Pensions... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. Rating boards will determine whether or not the condition for which treatment is claimed by former members of the Armed Forces...

  16. 38 CFR 3.359 - Determination of service connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. 3.359 Section 3.359 Pensions... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. Rating boards will determine whether or not the condition for which treatment is claimed by former members of the Armed Forces...

  17. Is Negotiated Arms Control Possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panofsky, W. K. H.

    2014-11-01

    I had a very difficult time deciding on the topic of this talk, since Viki's interests cover such a broad range of activities with which I am also concerned. You can hear next week about the recent exciting work with the SLAC storage rings, a description of the design principles of such rings, and their future promise for new physics through Professor Richter's Loeb Lectures at Harvard. Talking about inelastic lepton scattering during an M.I.T. conference would be bringing coals to Newcastle, since the local M.I.T. physicists are primary agents in these experiments. Broad problems in high energy physics policy, for instance such questions as the relation between University users and the large laboratories, are matters of current concern to Viki and his friends in high energy physics, but I doubt whether many would sit still for a one-hour talk on that subject. I would therefore like to use the opportunity to express some personal views on certain current issues in arms control, since I know that there exists a wide spectrum of involvement and also opinion on this subject in the local community...

  18. The arms race between fishers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Quirijns, Floor J.; HilleRisLambers, Reinier; De Wilde, Jan W.; Den Heijer, Willem M.

    An analysis of the changes in the Dutch demersal fishing fleet since the 1950s revealed that competitive interactions among vessels and gear types within the constraints imposed by biological, economic and fisheries management factors are the dominant processes governing the dynamics of fishing fleets. Double beam trawling, introduced in the early 1960s, proved a successful fishing method to catch deep burying flatfish, in particular sole. In less than 10 years, the otter trawl fleet was replaced by a highly specialised beam trawling fleet, despite an initial doubling of the loss rate of vessels due to stability problems. Engine power, size of the beam trawl, number of tickler chains and fishing speed rapidly increased and fishing activities expanded into previously lightly fished grounds and seasons. Following the ban on flatfish trawling within the 12 nautical mile zone for vessels of more than 300 hp in 1975 and with the restriction of engine power to 2000 hp in 1987, the beam trawl fleet bifurcated. Changes in the fleet capacity were related to the economic results and showed a cyclic pattern with a period of 6-7 years. The arms race between fishers was fuelled by competitive interactions among fishers: while the catchability of the fleet more than doubled in the ten years following the introduction of the beam trawl, a decline in catchability was observed in reference beam trawlers that remained the same. Vessel performance was not only affected by the technological characteristics but also by the number and characteristics of competing vessels.

  19. Selective glucocorticoid receptor-activating adjuvant therapy in cancer treatments

    PubMed Central

    Sundahl, Nora; Clarisse, Dorien; Bracke, Marc; Offner, Fritz; Berghe, Wim Vanden; Beck, Ilse M.

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse effects and glucocorticoid resistance cripple their chronic use, glucocorticoids form the mainstay therapy for acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, and play an important role in treatment protocols of both lymphoid malignancies and as adjuvant to stimulate therapy tolerability in various solid tumors. Glucocorticoid binding to their designate glucocorticoid receptor (GR), sets off a plethora of cell-specific events including therapeutically desirable effects, such as cell death, as well as undesirable effects, including chemotherapy resistance, systemic side effects and glucocorticoid resistance. In this context, selective GR agonists and modulators (SEGRAMs) with a more restricted GR activity profile have been developed, holding promise for further clinical development in anti-inflammatory and potentially in cancer therapies. Thus far, the research into the prospective benefits of selective GR modulators in cancer therapy limped behind. Our review discusses how selective GR agonists and modulators could improve the therapy regimens for lymphoid malignancies, prostate or breast cancer. We summarize our current knowledge and look forward to where the field should move to in the future. Altogether, our review clarifies novel therapeutic perspectives in cancer modulation via selective GR targeting. PMID:27713909

  20. Unequal-Arms Michelson Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Michelson interferometers allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the phase stability of the laser light injected into their two almost equal-length arms. If, however, the two arms are unequal, the laser fluctuations can not be removed by simply recombining the two beams. This is because the laser jitters experience different time delays in the two arms, and therefore can not cancel at the photo detector. We present here a method for achieving exact laser noise cancellation, even in an unequal-arm interferometer. The method presented in this paper requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam. By linearly combining the two data sets with themselves, after they have been properly time shifted, we show that it is possible to construct a new data set that is free of laser fluctuations. An application of this technique to future planned space-based laser interferometer detector3 of gravitational radiation is discussed.

  1. Unequal-Arms Michelson Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    Michelson interferometers allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the phase stability of the laser light injected into their two almost equal-length arms. If, however, the two arms are unequal, the laser fluctuations can not be removed by simply recombining the two beams. This is because the laser jitters experience different time delays in the two arms, and therefore can not cancel at the photo detector. We present here a method for achieving exact laser noise cancellation, even in an unequal-arm interferometer. The method presented in this paper requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam. By linearly combining the two data sets with themselves, after they have been properly time-shifted, we show that it is possible to construct a new data set that is free of laser fluctuations. An application of this technique to future planned space-based laser interferometer detectors of gravitational radiation is discussed.

  2. Naval arms control: The opposition

    SciTech Connect

    Blaker, J.R.

    1990-02-01

    The author observes that hope that naval arms control agreements might bolster Soviet mellowing and inhibit a return to confrontation must be balanced against the likelihood that whether or not the United States negotiates on naval arms control has little real effect on what happens in the Soviet Union and against the undesirability of being pinned down to a less advantageous military position if things go sour. The hope that U.S. willingness to formally limit and reduce American naval capabilities and options would compel the Soviets to reduce even further their potent land-based power on the Eurasian continent or their strategic nuclear power has to be balanced against the possibility that Soviet willingness to make such reductions is driven by factors that have very little to do with the naval relationship between the two nations. Ultimately, then, we are driven back to the dilemma faced by the professional military regarding naval arms control. Without compelling evidence that naval arms control proposals are beneficial in themselves, the author notes we need a clear exposition of how they fit with other negotiations to improve national security and a much better understanding of the role naval arms control negotiations should play in a comprehensive national arms control strategy.

  3. Motor Asymmetry Attenuation in Older Adults during Imagined Arm Movements.

    PubMed

    Paizis, Christos; Skoura, Xanthi; Personnier, Pascaline; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Laterality is an important feature of motor behavior. Several studies have shown that lateralization in right-handed young adults (i.e., right versus left arm superiority) emerges also during imagined actions, that is when an action is internally simulated without any motor output. Such information, however, is lacking for elderly people and it could be valuable to further comprehend the evolution of mental states of action in normal aging. Here, we evaluated the influence of age on motor laterality during mental actions. Twenty-four young (mean age: 24.7 ± 4.4 years) and 24 elderly (mean age: 72.4 ± 3.6 years) participants mentally simulated and actually executed pointing movements with either their dominant-right or non-dominant-left arm in the horizontal plane. We recorded and analyzed the time of actual and mental movements and looked for differences between groups and arms. In addition, electromyographic activity from arm muscle was recorded to quantify any enhancement in muscle activation during mental actions. Our findings indicated that both groups mentally simulated arm movements without activating the muscles of the right or the left arm above the baseline level. This finding suggests that young and, notably, elderly adults are able to generate covert actions without any motor output. We found that manual asymmetries (i.e., faster movements with the right arm) were preserved in young adults for both actual and mental movements. In elderly adults, manual asymmetries were observed for actual but not for mental movements (i.e., equal movement times for both arms). These findings clearly indicate an age-related reduction of motor laterality during mental actions.

  4. A review of assistive devices for arm balancing.

    PubMed

    Dunning, A G; Herder, J L

    2013-06-01

    Due to neuromuscular disorders (e.g., Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy) people often loose muscle strength and become wheelchair bound. It is important to use muscles as much as possible. To allow this, and to increase independency of patients, an arm orthosis can be used to perform activities of daily life. The orthosis compensates for the gravity force of the arm, allowing people to perform movements with smaller muscle forces. For patients, the aesthetics of the orthosis is one of the critical issues. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in passive and wearable active arm orthoses, and investigates how to proceed towards a suitable structure for a wearable passive arm orthosis, that is able to balance the arm within its natural range of motion and is inconspicuous; in the ideal case it fits underneath the clothes. Existing devices were investigated with respect to the body interface, the volume, and the workspace. According to these evaluation metrics it is investigated to what extent the devices are wearable and inconspicuous. Furthermore, the balancing principle of the devices, the architecture, force transmission through the devices, and alignment with the body joints are investigated. It appears that there is only one wearable passive orthosis presented in literature. This orthosis can perform throughout the natural workspace of the arm, but is still too bulky to be inconspicuous. The other passive orthoses were conspicuous and mounted to the wheelchair. Except one, the wearable active orthoses were all conspicuous and heavy due to a large backpack to enclose the actuators. They also could not achieve the entire natural workspace of the human arm. A future design of an inconspicuous, wearable, passive arm orthoses should stay close to the body, be comfortable to wear, and supports pronation and supination.

  5. 42 CFR 485.916 - Condition of participation: Treatment team, person-centered active treatment plan, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND.... The active treatment plan must take into consideration client recovery goals and the issues identified... addressing environmental factors such as housing and employment....

  6. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when in the downward position, shall extend across... clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm shall start its downward motion not less...

  7. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... SYSTEMS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when... maintained in a condition sufficient to be clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm...

  8. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... SYSTEMS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when... maintained in a condition sufficient to be clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm...

  9. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when in the downward position, shall extend across... clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm shall start its downward motion not less...

  10. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... SYSTEMS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when... maintained in a condition sufficient to be clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm...

  11. Algorithms for Unequal-Arm Michelson Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giampieri, Giacomo; Hellings, Ronald W.; Tinto, Massimo; Bender, Peter L.; Faller, James E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of data acquisition and data analysis is described in which the performance of Michelson-type interferometers with unequal arms can be made nearly the same as interferometers with equal arms. The method requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam.

  12. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  13. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  14. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  15. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  16. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  17. The Risk of Mental Health Disorders Among U.S. Military Personnel Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    service members are more likely than those with other chronic sexually transmitted infections (e.g., her- pes simplex virus [HSV2]) to receive MHD... herpes ” (ICD-9-CM 054.1 with any fi ft h digit) in any diagnostic position. Incidence rates of MHD were com- pared between three groups of active com

  18. Plasma drug activity assay for treatment optimization in tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Heysell, Scott K; Mtabho, Charles; Mpagama, Stellah; Mwaigwisya, Solomon; Pholwat, Suporn; Ndusilo, Norah; Gratz, Jean; Aarnoutse, Rob E; Kibiki, Gibson S; Houpt, Eric R

    2011-12-01

    Low antituberculosis (TB) drug levels are common, but their clinical significance remains unclear, and methods of measurement are resource intensive. Subjects initiating treatment for sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB were enrolled from Kibong'oto National TB Hospital, Tanzania, and levels of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide were measured at the time of typical peak plasma concentration (C(2 h)). To evaluate the significance of the effect of observed drug levels on Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth, a plasma TB drug activity (TDA) assay was developed using the Bactec MGIT system. Time to detection of plasma-cocultured M. tuberculosis versus time to detection of control growth was defined as a TDA ratio. TDA assays were later performed using the subject's own M. tuberculosis isolate and C(2 h) plasma from the Tanzanian cohort and compared to drug levels and clinical outcomes. Sixteen subjects with a mean age of 37.8 years ± 10.7 were enrolled. Fourteen (88%) had C(2 h) rifampin levels and 11 (69%) had isoniazid levels below 90% of the lower limit of the expected range. Plasma spiked with various concentrations of antituberculosis medications found TDA assay results to be unaffected by ethambutol or pyrazinamide. Yet with a range of isoniazid and rifampin concentrations, TDA exhibited a statistically significant correlation with drug level and drug MIC, and a TDA of ~1.0 indicated the presence of multidrug-resistant TB. In Tanzania, low (≤ 2.0) TDA was significantly associated with both lower isoniazid and rifampin C(2 h) levels, and very low (≤ 1.5) TDA corresponded to a trend toward lack of cure. Study of TDA compared to additional clinical outcomes and as a therapeutic management tool is warranted.

  19. Residual vibration suppression of flexible arms using ER adaptive structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Kexiang; Meng, Guang; Tang, Huanqing; Liu, Yingchun

    2007-07-01

    In the past decades, there have been a number of research activities to control unwanted vibration of flexible robot arms. The electrorheological (ER) adaptive structures, which behave as viscoelastic damping structures with controllable shear modulus, are used to suppress the residual vibrations of the rotating flexible arm in this study. The flexible arm is designed as an ER sandwich structures, in which ER fluids is sandwiched between two elastic surface layers. Experimental tests are conducted. The vibration response performances of the beam subjected to different electric field intensity and motion conditions are demonstrated and evaluated. The experimental results obtained indicate that significant vibration attenuation is achieved at different operating conditions by applying an electric field to the rotating flexible arm.

  20. Darwin : The Third DOE ARM TWP ARCS Site /

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, William E.; Jones, L. A.; Baldwin, T.; Nitschke, K.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program began operations in its Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale in October 1996 when the first Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS) began collecting data on Manus Island in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Two years later, in November 1998, a second ARCS began operations on the island of Nauru in the Central Pacific. Now a third ARCS has begun collecting data in Darwin, Australia. The Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites are operated through collaborative agreements with the PNG National Weather Service, The Nauru Department of Industry and Economic Development (IED), and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's (BOM) Special Services Unit (SSU) respectively. All ARM TWP activities in the region are coordinated with the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) based in Apia, Samoa. The Darwin ARM site and its role in the ARM TWP Program are discussed.

  1. Update: Routine screening for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, civilian applicants for U.S. military service and U.S. Armed Forces, active and reserve components, January 2009-June 2014.

    PubMed

    2014-08-01

    This report contains an update through June 2014 of the results of routine screening for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among civilian applicants for military service and among members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces. Seroprevalences among civilian applicants in 2013 and the first half of 2014 (0.19 and 0.15 per 1,000 tested, respectively) were markedly lower than in 2012 (0.27 per 1,000 tested). In nearly every component of every service, seroprevalences in 2013 and 2014 were either similar or lower than in prior years; however, in the Army National Guard, seroprevalences increased each year and approximately doubled from 2010 (0.18 per 1,000 tested) to 2013-2014 (0.35-0.41 per 1,000 tested). Among active and reserve component service members, seroprevalences continue to be higher among Army and Navy members and males than their respective counterparts.

  2. Update: routine screening for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, civilian applicants for U.S. military service and U.S. Armed Forces, active and reserve components, January 2010-June 2015.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    This report contains an update through June 2015 of the results of routine screening for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among civilian applicants for military service and among members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces. Seroprevalences among civilian applicants in 2014 and the first half of 2015 (0.21 and 0.22 per 1,000 tested, respectively) were markedly lower than in 2012 (0.28 per 1,000 tested). In nearly every component of every military service, seroprevalences in 2014 and 2015 were either lower than, or relatively similar to, prevalences in prior years; however, in the Army National Guard, seroprevalences increased each year and approximately doubled from 2010 (0.18 per 1,000 tested) to 2014-2015 (0.36-0.39 per 1,000 tested). Among active and reserve component service members, seroprevalences continue to be higher among Army and Navy members and males than their respective counterparts.

  3. Incidence of Campylobacter infections among service members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces and among other beneficiaries of the Military Health System, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    This report reviews the incidence of illness due to Campylobacter bacteria based on diagnoses recorded in healthcare records and reported through the Armed Forces reportable medical event (RME) system. During 2000-2013, incident cases of Campylobacter infection were diagnosed in 1,393 active component service members, 188 members of the reserve component, and 3,891 retirees and family members. Among members of the active component, incidence rates tended to be higher among females, those aged 40 years or older, members of the Army and Air Force, and offi cers. Incidence rates declined from 2002 through 2007 but have risen steadily since, especially from 2010 through 2013. Among retirees and family members, the highest numbers of cases were diagnosed among those aged 5 years or younger and those aged 75 years or older. Cases identifi ed through RME reports (n=2,938) showed the highest numbers of cases in May-August, especially July, and that cases reported from Fort Shafter, HI, accounted for 20% of all cases. Measures and precautions important in preventing Campylobacter infections as well as other food- and waterborne infections are discussed.

  4. Malaria control strategies in French armed forces.

    PubMed

    Migliani, R; Pradines, B; Michel, R; Aoun, O; Dia, A; Deparis, X; Rapp, C

    2014-01-01

    Each year, 40,000 French soldiers deploy or travel through malaria-endemic areas. Despite the effective control measures that were successively implemented, malaria remains a public health concern in French armed forces with several important outbreaks and one lethal case every two years. This article describes the malaria control strategy in French armed forces which is based on three combined strategies: i) Anopheles vector control to prevent infection with the implementation of personal protection against vectors (PPAV) adapted to the field living conditions of the troops. ii) Chemoprophylaxis (CP) to prevent the disease based on prescription of effective and well tolerated doxycycline. iii) Management of cases through early diagnosis and appropriate treatment to prevent death. In isolated conditions in endemic areas, rapid diagnosis tests (RDT) are used as first-line tests by military doctors. Treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria is based either on the piperaquine tetraphosphate-dihydroartemisinin association since 2013, or on the atovaquone-proguanil association. First-line treatment of severe P. falciparum malaria is based on IV artesunate. These measures are associated with constant education of the military, epidemiological surveillance of malaria cases and monitoring of parasite chemosensitivity.

  5. Continuum robot arms inspired by cephalopods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Ian D.; Dawson, Darren M.; Flash, Tamar; Grasso, Frank W.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Hochner, Binyamin; Kier, William M.; Pagano, Christopher C.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Qiming M.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent results in the development of a new class of soft, continuous backbone ("continuum") robot manipulators. Our work is strongly motivated by the dexterous appendages found in cephalopods, particularly the arms and suckers of octopus, and the arms and tentacles of squid. Our ongoing investigation of these animals reveals interesting and unexpected functional aspects of their structure and behavior. The arrangement and dynamic operation of muscles and connective tissue observed in the arms of a variety of octopus species motivate the underlying design approach for our soft manipulators. These artificial manipulators feature biomimetic actuators, including artificial muscles based on both electro-active polymers (EAP) and pneumatic (McKibben) muscles. They feature a "clean" continuous backbone design, redundant degrees of freedom, and exhibit significant compliance that provides novel operational capacities during environmental interaction and object manipulation. The unusual compliance and redundant degrees of freedom provide strong potential for application to delicate tasks in cluttered and/or unstructured environments. Our aim is to endow these compliant robotic mechanisms with the diverse and dexterous grasping behavior observed in octopuses. To this end, we are conducting fundamental research into the manipulation tactics, sensory biology, and neural control of octopuses. This work in turn leads to novel approaches to motion planning and operator interfaces for the robots. The paper describes the above efforts, along with the results of our development of a series of continuum tentacle-like robots, demonstrating the unique abilities of biologically-inspired design.

  6. Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms.

    PubMed

    Beom, Jaewon; Koh, Sukgyu; Nam, Hyung Seok; Kim, Wonshik; Kim, Yoonjae; Seo, Han Gil; Oh, Byung-Mo; Chung, Sun Gun; Kim, Sungwan

    2016-08-15

    Mirror therapy has been performed as effective occupational therapy in a clinical setting for functional recovery of a hemiplegic arm after stroke. It is conducted by eliciting an illusion through use of a mirror as if the hemiplegic arm is moving in real-time while moving the healthy arm. It can facilitate brain neuroplasticity through activation of the sensorimotor cortex. However, conventional mirror therapy has a critical limitation in that the hemiplegic arm is not actually moving. Thus, we developed a real-time 2-axis mirror robot system as a simple add-on module for conventional mirror therapy using a closed feedback mechanism, which enables real-time movement of the hemiplegic arm. We used 3 Attitude and Heading Reference System sensors, 2 brushless DC motors for elbow and wrist joints, and exoskeletal frames. In a feasibility study on 6 healthy subjects, robotic mirror therapy was safe and feasible. We further selected tasks useful for activities of daily living training through feedback from rehabilitation doctors. A chronic stroke patient showed improvement in the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale and elbow flexor spasticity after a 2-week application of the mirror robot system. Robotic mirror therapy may enhance proprioceptive input to the sensory cortex, which is considered to be important in neuroplasticity and functional recovery of hemiplegic arms. The mirror robot system presented herein can be easily developed and utilized effectively to advance occupational therapy.

  7. Design and implementation of a training strategy in chronic stroke with an arm robotic exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Frisoli, Antonio; Sotgiu, Edoardo; Procopio, Caterina; Bergamasco, Massimo; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2011-01-01

    The distinguishing features of active exoskeletons are the capability of guiding arm movement at the level of the full kinematic chain of the human arm, and training full 3D spatial movements. We have specifically developed a PD sliding mode control for upper limb rehabilitation with gain scheduling for providing "assistance as needed", according to the force capability of the patient, and an automatic measurement of the impaired arm joint torques, to evaluate the hypertonia associated to the movement during the execution of the training exercise. Two different training tasks in Virtual Reality were devised, that make use of the above control, and allow to make a performance based evaluation of patient's motor status. The PERCRO L-Exos (Light-Exoskeleton) was used to evaluate the proposed algorithms and training exercises in two clinical case studies of patients with chronic stroke, that performed 6 weeks of robotic assisted training. Clinical evaluation (Fugl-Meyer Scale, Modified Ashworth Scale, Bimanual Activity Test) was conducted before and after treatment and compared to the scores and the quantitative indices, such as task time, position/joint error and resistance torques, associated to the training exercises.

  8. Updates: Routine screening for antibodies to HIV-1, civilian applicants for U.S. military service and U.S. Armed Forces, active and reserve components.

    PubMed

    2011-08-01

    During routine testing of civilian applicants for U.S. military service, the overall seroprevalence of antibodies to HIV-1 was lower in 2010 than in any year since 1990. Among members of the active components of the U.S. Army and Air Force, HIV-1 seroprevalences were higher in 2008-2010 than in recent prior years. Among members of the active components of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps, the Marine Corps Reserve, and the Army National Guard, HIV-1 seroprevalences have slightly declined or remained relatively stable for at least ten years. In the reserve components of most of the service branches, it is difficult to discern long-term trends because of instability of seroprevalences observed in the relatively small numbers of reserve component members tested each year.

  9. Relations between Suicide and Traumatic Brain Injury, Psychiatric Diagnoses, and Relationship Problems, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2001-2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    the Defense Medical Surveil- lance System (DMSS).23 Th e study population consisted of indi- viduals who had served in the active com- ponent of the...categories and V-codes 1, 2001 and December 31, 2009. Cases (n=1,764) were suicides that were identifi ed through the Department of Defense (DoD...associations, if any, with suicide risk are indicated. Author affi liations: National Center for Tele- health and Technology, Defense Center of

  10. Regional brain activity change predicts responsiveness to treatment for stuttering in adults.

    PubMed

    Ingham, Roger J; Wang, Yuedong; Ingham, Janis C; Bothe, Anne K; Grafton, Scott T

    2013-12-01

    Developmental stuttering is known to be associated with aberrant brain activity, but there is no evidence that this knowledge has benefited stuttering treatment. This study investigated whether brain activity could predict progress during stuttering treatment for 21 dextral adults who stutter (AWS). They received one of two treatment programs that included periodic H2(15)O PET scanning (during oral reading, monologue, and eyes-closed rest conditions). All participants successfully completed an initial treatment phase and then entered a phase designed to transfer treatment gains; 9/21 failed to complete this latter phase. The 12 pass and 9 fail participants were similar on speech and neural system variables before treatment, and similar in speech performance after the initial phase of their treatment. At the end of the initial treatment phase, however, decreased activation within a single region, L. putamen, in all 3 scanning conditions was highly predictive of successful treatment progress.

  11. Computing Relative Joint Positions of Robot Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.

    1986-01-01

    Vector-algebra method developed for extracting Denavit-Hartenberg parameters for any assembled robot arm. Method for extracting relative joint geometry of robot arms useful to researchers who need data for existing robot arms for either validation of mathematical models or for studies involving actual control of these devices. Method, does not require robot arm to be disassembled, also useful in recalibration of misalined or bent robot arm and becomes useful industrial procedure. Merit of method is errors not propagated.

  12. Proprioceptive Interaction between the Two Arms in a Single-Arm Pointing Task.

    PubMed

    Kigawa, Kazuyoshi; Izumizaki, Masahiko; Tsukada, Setsuro; Hakuta, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Proprioceptive signals coming from both arms are used to determine the perceived position of one arm in a two-arm matching task. Here, we examined whether the perceived position of one arm is affected by proprioceptive signals from the other arm in a one-arm pointing task in which participants specified the perceived position of an unseen reference arm with an indicator paddle. Both arms were hidden from the participant's view throughout the study. In Experiment 1, with both arms placed in front of the body, the participants received 70-80 Hz vibration to the elbow flexors of the reference arm (= right arm) to induce the illusion of elbow extension. This extension illusion was compared with that when the left arm elbow flexors were vibrated or not. The degree of the vibration-induced extension illusion of the right arm was reduced in the presence of left arm vibration. In Experiment 2, we found that this kinesthetic interaction between the two arms did not occur when the left arm was vibrated in an abducted position. In Experiment 3, the vibration-induced extension illusion of one arm was fully developed when this arm was placed at an abducted position, indicating that the brain receives increased proprioceptive input from a vibrated arm even if the arm was abducted. Our results suggest that proprioceptive interaction between the two arms occurs in a one-arm pointing task when the two arms are aligned with one another. The position sense of one arm measured using a pointer appears to include the influences of incoming information from the other arm when both arms were placed in front of the body and parallel to one another.

  13. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA's plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  14. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  15. Novel treatment strategy with autologous activated and expanded natural killer cells plus anti-myeloma drugs for multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Leivas, Alejandra; Perez-Martinez, Antonio; Blanchard, María Jesús; Martín-Clavero, Estela; Fernández, Lucía; Lahuerta, Juan José; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This proof-of-concept single-arm open-label phase I clinical trial (NCT02481934) studied the safety and efficacy of multiple infusions of activated and expanded natural killer (NKAE) cells in combination with anti-myeloma drugs in multiple myeloma patients. It included five patients with relapsed or refractory MM who had received two to seven prior lines of therapy; NK cells were expanded for 3 weeks with K562-mb15-41BBL cells. Patients received four cycles of pharmacological treatment with two infusions of 7.5 × 106 NKAEs/kg per cycle. NKAE generation, expansion, and NK monitoring was assessed using flow cytometry. Eighteen clinical-grade NKAE cell GMP-grade products were generated to obtain 627 × 106 NKAEs (range: 315–919 × 106) for the first infusion and 943 × 106 (range: 471–1481 × 106) for the second infusion with 90% (±7%) purity. Neutropenia grade II occurred in two patients and was related to chemotherapy. Of the five patients, four showed disease stabilization before the end of NKAE treatment, and two showed a 50% reduction in bone marrow infiltration and a long-term (>1 y) response. The NKAE cells had a highly cytotoxic phenotype and high cytotoxicity in vitro. Infused NKAE cells were detected in bone marrow and peripheral blood after infusions. Ex vivo expansion of autologous NK cells is feasible, NKAE cells are clinically active and the multiple infusions are well tolerated in patients with relapsed or refractory myeloma. PMID:28123890

  16. Activated Sludge. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Owen K.; Klopping, Paul H.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. Topic areas addressed in the lessons include: (1) activated sludge concepts and components (including aeration tanks, aeration systems, clarifiers, and sludge pumping systems); (2) activated sludge variations and modes; (3) biological nature of activated…

  17. Risk of Mental Health Disorders Following an Initial Diagnosis of Postpartum Depression, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 1998-2010.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kasi M; Emasealu, Oseizame V; Hu, Zheng; O'Donnell, Francis L; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is one of the most common psychiatric conditions of the postpartum period. Several studies have found an association between PPD and other mental health disorders. The Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) was used to identify a cohort of primiparous service women with PPD between 1998 and 2010 and match them by month of delivery to a cohort of women without PPD. During the surveillance period, there were 5,203 incident cases of PPD with a crude rate of 44.9 per 1,000 person-years. Individuals in the PPD cohort, when compared to their matched controls, were at higher risk for subsequent depressive disorders (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 7.3 [95% CI: 5.2-10.3]), anxiety disorders (adjusted HR: 3.2 [95% CI: 2.5-4.0]), and bipolar disorders (adjusted HR: 4.7 [95% CI: 1.9-11.9]). There were higher rates of these mental health diagnoses among individuals who eventually left service. Early screening, support, and treatment are essential during this vulnerable postpartum time frame to preserve the female fighting force.

  18. Effects of the Alternate Combination of “Error-Enhancing” and “Active Assistive” Robot-Mediated Treatments on Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cesqui, Benedetta; Monaco, Vito; Aliboni, Sara; Posteraro, Federico; Micera, Silvestro

    2013-01-01

    This paper aimed at investigating the effects of a novel robotic-aided rehabilitation treatment for the recovery of the upper limb related capabilities in chronic post stroke patients. Eighteen post-stroke patients were enrolled in a six-week therapy program and divided into two groups. They were all required to perform horizontal pointing movements both in the presence of a robot-generated divergent force field (DF) that pushed their hands proportional to the trajectory error and perpendicular to the direction of motion, and according to the typical active assistive (AA) approach used in robotic therapy. We used a crossover experimental paradigm where the two groups switched from one therapy treatment to the other. The hypothesis underlying this paper was that the use of the destabilizing scenario forced the patient to keep the end-point position as close as possible to the ideal path, hence requiring a more active control of the arm with respect to the AA approach. Our findings confirmed this hypothesis. In addition, when the DF treatment was provided in the first therapy cycle, patients also showed straighter and smoother paths during the subsequent AA therapy cycle, while this was not true in the opposite case. In conclusion, the results herein reported provide evidence that the use of an unstable DF field can lead to better recovery outcomes, and therefore it potentially more effective than solely active assistance therapy alone. PMID:27170850

  19. Arm-domain interactions in AraC.

    PubMed

    Saviola, B; Seabold, R; Schleif, R F

    1998-05-08

    N-terminal deletions extending beyond the sixth amino acid of the Escherichia coli regulator of the l-arabinose operon, AraC, were found to generate constitutive regulatory behavior of the promoter pBAD. Mutagenesis of the DNA coding for the first 20 amino acids of the protein and screening for constitutives yielded mutants across the region whereas screening for mutants that cannot induce pBAD, even in the presence of arabinose, yielded none. These results indicate that the N-terminal arm is not essential for transcription activation, but that it plays an important and active role in holding the system in a non-activating state. Despite the fact that arabinose binds to the N-terminal domain of AraC, mutations were found in the C-terminal domain that weaken the binding of arabinose to the protein. The effects of the mutations could be suppressed by specific mutation in the N-terminal arm or by deletion of the arm. These results, in conjunction with the crystal structures of the N-terminal domain determined in the presence and absence of arabinose, indicate that in the absence of arabinose, the N-terminal arms of the protein bind to the C-terminal DNA binding domains to hold them in a state where the protein prefers to loop. When arabinose is added, the arms are pulled off the C-terminal domains, thereby releasing them to bind to adjacently located DNA half-sites and activate transcription.

  20. Arms Control past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T.R.

    1991-12-01

    I am going to talk today about Arms Control. First, I want to go over the recent history of the process. Five years ago, the pace of arms control changed dramatically. From an outsider it probably didn't appear that way -- but those working it, the shift from the historic glacial speed normally associated with this process to one of pressures -- political and economic -- national and global -- to actually conclude meaningful, verifiable agreements was a major change. Then, I want to spend a few minutes covering the future of arms control new that we have lost our enemy, and it is no longer a bipolar world. I also want to leave time for easy questions.

  1. Arms Control past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T.R.

    1991-12-01

    I am going to talk today about Arms Control. First, I want to go over the recent history of the process. Five years ago, the pace of arms control changed dramatically. From an outsider it probably didn`t appear that way -- but those working it, the shift from the historic glacial speed normally associated with this process to one of pressures -- political and economic -- national and global -- to actually conclude meaningful, verifiable agreements was a major change. Then, I want to spend a few minutes covering the future of arms control new that we have lost our enemy, and it is no longer a bipolar world. I also want to leave time for easy questions.

  2. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  3. Poisoning-related hospitalizations and risk factors for self-inflicted poisoning in the active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Elisabeth

    2011-11-01

    Self-inflicted poisoning is a common method of suicide but results in many more injuries than deaths. During 2001-2010 there were 14,979 poisoning-related hospitalizations among 13,971 active component military members. Medications for pain and psychiatric conditions were the causal agents of two-thirds of all poisoning hospitalizations. Rates of hospitalization for poisoning were relatively stable during the period; the highest rates were among females, teenaged service members, and Army members. Of all poisoning-related hospitalizations, approximately two-thirds (67.5%) were estimated as intentionally self-inflicted (based on reported "external cause of injury" codes and relevant comorbid mental disorder diagnoses).

  4. Welcome to the U. S. arms superstore

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, W.D. )

    1993-09-01

    After the 1991 Gulf War, the [open quotes]Big Five[close quotes]--the United States, France, Britain, the Soviet Union, and China--initiated talks on limiting the flow of arms to the Middle East and the United Nations established an arms register as a way to promote a more open international dialogue concerning the problem of conventional arms proliferation. Two and a half years later, the promises about arms controls have been forgotten in favor of a policy to sell arms to any nation possessing sufficient cash to purchase them. The promises to curb the weapons trade may have been forgotten because of the new dynamics that are driving the arms trade in the post-Cold War era. This article seeks to define these dynamics and to suggest means of getting the arms control process back on track. The rationale behind the commercialization of arms and means of combatting the arms exportation problem are emphasized. 18 refs.

  5. Natural Resource Extraction, Armed Violence, and Environmental Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Liam; Bonds, Eric; Clark, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this article is to demonstrate that environmental sociologists cannot fully explain the relationship between humans and the natural world without theorizing a link between natural resource extraction, armed violence, and environmental degradation. The authors begin by arguing that armed violence is one of several overlapping mechanisms that provide powerful actors with the means to (a) prevail over others in conflicts over natural resources and (b) ensure that natural resources critical to industrial production and state power continue to be extracted and sold in sufficient quantities to promote capital accumulation, state power, and ecological unequal exchange. The authors then identify 10 minerals that are critical to the functioning of the U.S. economy and/or military and demonstrate that the extraction of these minerals often involves the use of armed violence. They further demonstrate that armed violence is associated with the activities of the world’s three largest mining companies, with African mines that receive World Bank funding, and with petroleum and rainforest timber extraction. The authors conclude that the natural resource base on which industrial societies stand is constructed in large part through the use and threatened use of armed violence. As a result, armed violence plays a critical role in fostering environmental degradation and ecological unequal exchange. PMID:21909231

  6. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  7. Changes in hormone and stress-inducing activities of municipal wastewater in a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wojnarowicz, Pola; Yang, Wenbo; Zhou, Hongde; Parker, Wayne J; Helbing, Caren C

    2014-12-01

    Conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants do not efficiently remove contaminants of emerging concern, and so are primary sources for contaminant release into the aquatic environment. Although these contaminants are present in effluents at ng-μg/L concentrations (i.e. microcontaminants), many compounds can act as endocrine disrupting compounds or stress-inducing agents at these levels. Chemical fate analyses indicate that additional levels of wastewater treatment reduce but do not always completely remove all microcontaminants. The removal of microcontaminants from wastewater does not necessarily correspond to a reduction in biological activity, as contaminant metabolites or byproducts may still be biologically active. To evaluate the efficacy of conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants to remove biological activity, we examined the performance of a full scale conventional activated sludge municipal wastewater treatment plant located in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. We assessed reductions in levels of conventional wastewater parameters and thyroid hormone disrupting and stress-inducing activities in wastewater at three phases along the treatment train using a C-fin assay. Wastewater treatment was effective at reducing total suspended solids, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, and stress-inducing bioactivity. However, only minimal reduction was observed in thyroid hormone disrupting activities. The present study underscores the importance of examining multiple chemical and biological endpoints in evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of wastewater treatment for removal of microcontaminants.

  8. Depression and suicidality during the postpartum period after first time deliveries, active component service women and dependent spouses, U.S. Armed Forces, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Do, Tai; Hu, Zheng; Otto, Jean; Rohrbeck, Patricia

    2013-09-01

    Although suicide is a leading cause of death among new mothers during the postpartum period, there has been limited research on self-harm in the postpartum period and associated risk factors. One potential risk factor for suicidality (completed suicides, suicide attempts, and suicide ideation including thoughts of self harm) during the postpartum period is postpartum depression (PPD). In this study of women who gave birth for the first time between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011, 5,267 (9.9% of all who delivered) active component service women and 10,301 (8.2%) dependent spouses received incident PPD diagnoses during the one year postpartum period; 213 (0.4%) service women and 221 (0.2%) dependent spouses were diagnosed with incident suicidality. After adjusting for the effects of other covariates, service women with PPD had 42.2 times the odds to be diagnosed with suicidality in the postpartum period compared to service women without PPD; dependent spouses with PPD had 14.5 times the odds compared to those without PPD. The findings of this report suggest that a history of mental disorders was common among service women and dependent spouses with PPD in the postpartum period, and, in turn, PPD was a strong predictor for suicidality in the postpartum period. These results emphasize the importance of PPD screening during the postpartum period. They also suggest that additional focused screening for suicidal behavior among those already diagnosed with PPD may be warranted.

  9. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    their involvement in local crises. Foreign policy activ- ity was not always geared to the removal of the political causes of contradictions. JPRS-TAC...mankind. The difficult problem of preventing a world nuclear war cannot be tackled either outside of planetary thinking or outside of planetary action...there arc several eastern European countries— Poland , Hungary, Czecho- slovakia and East Germany—where Communism was imposed by the Soviets. While

  10. Assessment of the bacteriological activity associated with granular activated carbon treatment of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Stewart, M H; Wolfe, R L; Means, E G

    1990-12-01

    Bacteriological analyses were performed on the effluent from a conventional water treatment pilot plant in which granular activated carbon (GAC) had been used as the final process to assess the impact of GAC on the microbial quality of the water produced. Samples were collected twice weekly for 160 days from the effluents of six GAC columns, each of which used one of four different empty-bed contact times (7.5, 15, 30, and 60 min). The samples were analyzed for heterotrophic plate counts and total coliforms. Effluent samples were also exposed to chloramines and free chlorine for 60 min (pH 8.2, 23 degrees C). Bacterial identifications were performed on the disinfected and nondisinfected effluents. Additional studies were conducted to assess the bacteriological activity associated with released GAC particles. The results indicated that heterotrophic plate counts in the effluents from all columns increased to 10(5) CFU/ml within 5 days and subsequently stabilized at 10(4) CFU/ml. The heterotrophic plate counts did not differ at different empty-bed contact times. Coliforms (identified as Enterobacter spp.) were recovered from the nondisinfected effluent on only two occasions. The disinfection results indicated that 1.5 mg of chloramines per liter inactivated approximately 50% more bacteria than did 1.0 mg of free chlorine per liter after 1 h of contact time. Chloramines and chlorine selected for the development of different bacterial species--Pseudomonas spp. and Flavobacterium spp., respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. A single-arm, open-label, phase 2 clinical trial evaluating disease response following treatment with BI-505, a human anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 monoclonal antibody, in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Wichert, Stina; Juliusson, Gunnar; Johansson, Åsa; Sonesson, Elisabeth; Teige, Ingrid; Wickenberg, Anna Teige; Frendeus, Björn; Korsgren, Magnus; Hansson, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Background Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an indolent disease stage, considered to represent the transition phase from the premalignant MGUS (Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance) state towards symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM). Even though this diagnosis provides an opportunity for early intervention, few treatment studies have been done and the current standard of care is observation until progression. BI-505, a monoclonal antibody directed against intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) with promising anti-myeloma activity in preclinical trials, is a possible treatment approach for this patient category with potential to eliminate tumor cells with minimal long-term side effects. BI-505 was well tolerated in an earlier phase 1 trial. Methods and findings In this phase 2 trial the effects of BI-505 in patients with SMM were studied. Four patients were enrolled and three of them completed the first cycle of treatment defined as 5 doses of BI-505, a total of 43 mg/kg BW, over a 7-week period. In the three evaluable patients, BI-505 showed a benign safety profile. None of the patients achieved a response as defined per protocol. EudraCT number: 2012-004884-29. Conclusions The study was conducted to assess the efficacy, safety and pharmacodynamics of BI-505 in patients with SMM. BI-505 showed no clinically relevant efficacy on disease activity in these patients with SMM, even if well tolerated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01838369. PMID:28158311

  12. Treatment of chrome plating wastewater (Cr+6) using activated alumina.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sudipta; Gupta, Anirban

    2003-01-01

    Suitability of activated alumina for removal of hexavalent chromium from electroplating wastewater has been investigated. Activated alumina exhibited good sorption capacity for hexavalent chromium and pH has no pronounced effect on the sorption capacity. Both batch and column adsorption studies have been carried out and an adsorption column design indicated reasonable depth of column for practical application.

  13. Self-moved target eye tracking in control and deafferented subjects: roles of arm motor command and proprioception in arm-eye coordination.

    PubMed

    Vercher, J L; Gauthier, G M; Guédon, O; Blouin, J; Cole, J; Lamarre, Y

    1996-08-01

    1. When a visual target is moved by the subject's hand (self-moved target tracking), smooth pursuit (SP) characteristics differ from eye-alone tracking: SP latency is shorter and maximal eye velocity is higher in self-moved target tracking than in eye-alone tracking. The aim of this study was to determine which signals (motor command and/or proprioception) generated during arm motion are responsible for the decreased time interval between arm and eye motion onsets in self-moved target tracking. 2. Six control subjects tracked a visual target whose motion was generated by active or passive movements of the observer's arm in order to determine the role played by arm proprioception in the arm-eye coordination. In a second experiment, the participation of two subjects suffering complete loss of proprioception allowed us to assess the contribution of arm motor command signals. 3. In control subjects, passive movement of the arm led to eye latencies significantly longer (130 ms) than when the arm was actively self-moved (-5 ms:negative values meaning that the eyes actually started to move before the target) but slightly shorter than in eye-alone tracking (150 ms). These observations indicate that active movement of the arm is necessary to trigger short-latency SP of self-moved targets. 4. Despite the lack of proprioceptive information about arm motion, the two deafferented subjects produced early SP (-8 ms on average) when they actively moved their arms. In this respect they did not differ from control subjects. Active control of the arm is thus sufficient to trigger short-latency SP. However, in contrast with control subjects, in deafferented subjects SP gain declined with increasing target motion frequency more rapidly in self-moved target tracking than in eye-alone tracking. 5. The deafferented subjects also tracked a self-moved target while the relationship between arm and target motions was altered either by introducing a delay between arm motion and target motion

  14. Ten Year Revision of the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression: Revised Treatment Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejuez, C. W.; Hopko, Derek R.; Acierno, Ron; Daughters, Stacey B.; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2011-01-01

    Following from the seminal work of Ferster, Lewinsohn, and Jacobson, as well as theory and research on the Matching Law, Lejuez, Hopko, LePage, Hopko, and McNeil developed a reinforcement-based depression treatment that was brief, uncomplicated, and tied closely to behavioral theory. They called this treatment the brief behavioral activation…

  15. Hand/Wrist/Arm Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor right away.Start OverDiagnosisYou may have TENDINITIS, inflammation of a tendon.Self CareUse an over- ... OverDiagnosisYour may have TENNIS ELBOW, a type of TENDINITIS.Self CareRest the arm, apply ice packs to ...

  16. Minorities in the Armed Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Anthony

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the findings of the Congressional Black Caucus and the specially formed task force; reports that high ranking officers have pledged to attack racial discrimination; and describes an association of minority officers whose purpose is to enhance the image of the armed forces within the minority community. (Author/JM)

  17. Gravitoinertial force level influences arm movement control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisk, J.; Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1993-01-01

    1. The ability to move the forearm between remembered elbow joint angles immediately after rapid increases or decreases of the background gravitoinertial force (G) level was measured. The movements had been well-practiced in a normal 1G environment before the measurements in high-(1.8G) and low-force (0G) environments. The forearm and upper arm were always unsupported to maximize the influence of altered G-loading and to minimize extraneous cues about arm position. 2. Horizontal and vertical movement planes were studied to measure the effects of varying the G load in the movement plane within a given G background. Rapid and slow movements were studied to assess the role of proprioceptive feedback. 3. G level did not affect the amplitude of rapid movements, indicating that subjects were able to plan and to generate appropriate motor commands for the new G loading of the arm. The amplitude of slow movements was affected by G level, indicating that proprioceptive feedback is influenced by G level. 4. The effects of G level were similar for horizontal and vertical movements, indicating that proprioceptive information from supporting structures, such as the shoulder joint and muscles, had a role in allowing generation of the appropriate motor commands. 5. The incidence and size of dynamic overshoots were greater in 0G and for rapid movements. This G-related change in damping suggests a decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G. A decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G and an increase in 1.8G are consistent with the results of our prior studies on the tonic vibration reflex, locomotion, and perception of head movement trajectory in varying force backgrounds.

  18. Comparing Active Pediatric Obesity Treatments Using Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilles, Allyson; Cassano, Michael; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Higgins, Diana; Hecker, Jeffrey E.; Nangle, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    The current meta-analysis reviews research on the treatment of pediatric obesity focusing on studies that have been published since 1994. Eleven studies (22 comparisons, 115 effect sizes, N = 447) were included in the present meta-analysis. Results indicated that comprehensive behavioral interventions may be improved in at least two ways:…

  19. Clinical effects of prior trastuzumab on combination eribulin mesylate plus trastuzumab as first-line treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer: results from a Phase II, single-arm, multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Puhalla, Shannon; Wilks, Sharon; Brufsky, Adam M; O’Shaughnessy, Joyce; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Berrak, Erhan; Song, James; Vahdat, Linda

    2016-01-01

    .3% vs 25.8%), febrile neutropenia (14.3% vs 3.2%), fatigue (9.5% vs 6.5%), nausea (9.5% vs 0%), vomiting (9.5% vs 3.2%), and leukopenia (9.5% vs 3.2%). In patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive metastatic breast cancer, first-line eribulin/trastuzumab treatment demonstrated substantial antitumor activity and was well tolerated, regardless of prior neo/adjuvant trastuzumab treatment. PMID:27994483

  20. REPEATED REDUCTIVE AND OXIDATIVE TREATMENTS ON GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenton oxidation and Fenton oxidation preceded by reduction solutions were applied to granular activated carbon (GAC) to chemically regenerate the adsorbent. No adsorbate was present on the GAC so physicochemical effects from chemically aggressive regeneration of the carbon coul...

  1. Direct imaging of macrophage activation during PDT treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.; Xing, Da

    2012-03-01

    Mounting evidence describes a more complex progress of macrophage activation during photodynamic therapy (PDT), which performing distinct immunological functions and different physiologies on surrounding cells and tissues. Macrophage-targeted PDT has been applied in the selective killing of cells involved in inflammation and tumor. We have previously shown that PDT-mediated tumor cells apoptosis can induce a higher level immune response than necrosis, and enhance the macrophage activation. However, the molecular mechanism of macrophage activation during PDT-induced apoptotic cells (AC) still unclear. Here, we use confocal microscopy to image the phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages. We also observed that PDT-treated AC can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are present on macrophages surface. Besides, the increase in nitric oxide (NO) formation in macrophages was detected in real time by a laser scanning microscopy. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

  2. Direct imaging of macrophage activation during PDT treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.; Xing, Da

    2011-11-01

    Mounting evidence describes a more complex progress of macrophage activation during photodynamic therapy (PDT), which performing distinct immunological functions and different physiologies on surrounding cells and tissues. Macrophage-targeted PDT has been applied in the selective killing of cells involved in inflammation and tumor. We have previously shown that PDT-mediated tumor cells apoptosis can induce a higher level immune response than necrosis, and enhance the macrophage activation. However, the molecular mechanism of macrophage activation during PDT-induced apoptotic cells (AC) still unclear. Here, we use confocal microscopy to image the phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages. We also observed that PDT-treated AC can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are present on macrophages surface. Besides, the increase in nitric oxide (NO) formation in macrophages was detected in real time by a laser scanning microscopy. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

  3. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    will regulating th7 nonprolifSon ofIZ^^ ° f the international system of ovurcort~^ ?it^.^.Xl^uoS^^tT^*"^ t0 PlaCe «"" IAEA...DromLf*™Cle!? «*ivlty in our country will, monitoring by this 1^^"^ ° f ^ ■»<" ° f ä^I^t^irTl^JJr ""V* inst"utions of IAEA are situated, the...agency for the purpose of’workTn* f ^A**10ŗ between the USSR and governing7 IAEA guarantees wit^re^ecf t’o o^rt ^"A0" ° f "" agreement activity in

  4. Dissemination activities: a critical new role for substance abuse treatment organizations.

    PubMed

    Fields, Dail; Blum, Terry C; Roman, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for integration of substance abuse treatment into medical care via medical homes and continuing specialty care. For this integration to occur in the substance abuse treatment field, substantial sharing and dissemination of information by treatment providers is required. This study explored the determinants of organizational activities directed at disseminating evidence-based practices (EBPs) undertaken by 193 community treatment programs who are members of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network. Using factor analysis, the research identified two generic categories reflecting different motivations for dissemination activities and explored both treatment center leadership and organizational characteristics as determinants of these different types of dissemination activities. Organizational characteristics predicting treatment center dissemination activities included size, previous involvement in research protocols, linkages with other providers, and having non-profit status. The treatment center leader's membership in professional organizations was also a significant determinant. Organization variables account for a larger portion of the variance in treatment center dissemination activities. The results suggest that the willingness of treatment providers to help disseminate EBPs within the industry may be heavily influenced through shared network connections with other treatment organizations.

  5. Dissemination Activities: A Critical New Role for Substance Abuse Treatment Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Terry C.; Roman, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for integration of substance abuse treatment into medical care via medical homes and continuing specialty care. For this integration to occur in the substance abuse treatment field, substantial sharing and dissemination of information by treatment providers is required. This study explored the determinants of organizational activities directed at disseminating evidence-based practices (EBP) undertaken by 193 community treatment programs who are members of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network. Using factor analysis, the research identified two generic categories reflecting different motivations for dissemination activities, and explored both treatment center leadership and organizational characteristics as determinants of these different types of dissemination activities. Organizational characteristics predicting treatment center dissemination activities included size, previous involvement in research protocols, linkages with other providers, and having non-profit status. The treatment center leader's membership in professional organizations was also a significant determinant. Organization variables account for a larger portion of the variance in treatment center dissemination activities. The results suggest that the willingness of treatment providers to help disseminate EBPs within the industry may be heavily influenced through shared network connections with other treatment organizations. PMID:24722825

  6. Patterns of metabolic activity in the treatment of schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, J.D.; Christman, D.R.; Corona, J.F.; Fowler, J.S.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Jaeger, J.; Micheels, P.A.; Rotrosen, J.; Russell, J.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Wikler, A.

    1984-04-01

    Six patients with chronic schizophrenia were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) before and after neuroleptic treatment, using fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose. After treatment, the mean whole-slice glucose metabolic rate at the level of the basal ganglia showed a 25% increase. However, patterns of frontal hypometabolism observed with the schizophrenic patients were not altered by medication. Pattern analysis using the fast Fourier transform was applied to a set of 422 images from a mixed group of normal, depressed, and schizophrenic subjects. Reconstruction of the images with low-frequency coefficients was excellent, reducing considerably the number of variables needed to characterize each image. Hierarchical cluster analysis categorized the transformed images according to anatomical level and subject group (patient versus control). The results suggest the utility of this procedure for the classification and characterization of metabolic PET images from psychiatric patients. 8 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  7. Cytokine treatment of macrophage suppression of T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Daniel; Bucknum, Amanda; Kozlowski, Megan; Matlack, Robin; Riggs, James

    2010-01-01

    High Mphi:T cell ratios suppress the immune response to the retroviral superantigen Mls by IFNgamma-triggered production of the arg- and trp-consuming enzymes iNOS and IDO. Attempts to reverse suppression by treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokines revealed that IL-6 improved the T cell response to Mls and the pro-hematopoietic cyokines IL-3 and GM-CSF increased suppression. GM-CSF treatment increased Mphi expression of CD80, a ligand for the immune suppressive B7H1 and CTLA-4 receptors. These results illustrate potential strategies for reversing the suppression of cell-mediated immunity characteristic of the high Mphi:T cell ratios found in many tumors.

  8. Tailored Granular Activated Carbon Treatment of Perchlorate in Drinking Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Lead Bed) reduced perchlorate concentrations below 6 µg/ L for ~15,000 BVs. The tailoring agent was not detectable after the guard bed. Achieved...United States, state standards or advisory levels are still evolving, and currently range from 1 to 18 micrograms per liter (µg/ L ) (http...United States, state standards or advisory levels are still evolving, and currently range from 1 to 18 µg/ L . The need for cost effective treatment is

  9. New technologies and the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Schaerf, C.; Reid, B.H.; Carlton, D.

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the International Conference on Technology, the Arms Race and Arms Control. Topics covered include: Cosmic space and the role of Europe and Non-military justification for investments in military technologies.

  10. Does Octopus vulgaris have preferred arms?

    PubMed

    Byrne, Ruth A; Kuba, Michael J; Meisel, Daniela V; Griebel, Ulrike; Mather, Jennifer A

    2006-08-01

    Previous behavioral studies in Octopus vulgaris revealed lateralization of eye use. In this study, the authors expanded the scope to investigate arm preferences. The octopus's generalist hunting lifestyle and the structure of their arms suggest that these animals have no need to designate specific arms for specific tasks. However, octopuses also show behaviors, like exploration, in which only single or small groups of arms are involved. Here the authors show that octopuses had a strong preference for anterior arm use to reach for and explore objects, which points toward a task division between anterior and posterior arms. Four out of 8 subjects also showed a lateral bias. In addition, octopuses had a preference for a specific arm to reach into a T maze to retrieve a food reward. These findings give evidence for limb-specialization in an animal whose 8 arms were believed to be equipotential.

  11. Low-cost robotic arm control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John R.

    2008-04-01

    A low-cost robotic arm and controller system is presented. The controller is a desktop model of the robotic arm with the same degrees of freedom whose joints are equipped with sensors. Manipulating the controller by hand causes the robotic arm to mimic the movement in maser-slave fashion. The system takes advantage of the low cost and wide availability of hobby radio control components and uses a low-cost, easy-to-program microprocessor. The system is implemented with a video camera on the robotic arm, and the arm is mounted on an unmanned omnidirectional vehicle inspection robot. With a camera on the end of a robot arm, the vehicle inspection system can reach difficult to-access regions of the vehicle underbody. Learning to manipulate the robot arm with this controller is faster than learning with a traditional joystick. Limitations of the microcontroller are discussed, and suggestions for further development of the robot arm and control are made.

  12. Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Byun, Yoon Woo; Zhuang, Katie Z; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2015-07-09

    Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.

  13. Assessment of the bacteriological activity associated with granular activated carbon treatment of drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, M H; Wolfe, R L; Means, E G

    1990-01-01

    Bacteriological analyses were performed on the effluent from a conventional water treatment pilot plant in which granular activated carbon (GAC) had been used as the final process to assess the impact of GAC on the microbial quality of the water produced. Samples were collected twice weekly for 160 days from the effluents of six GAC columns, each of which used one of four different empty-bed contact times (7.5, 15, 30, and 60 min). The samples were analyzed for heterotrophic plate counts and total coliforms. Effluent samples were also exposed to chloramines and free chlorine for 60 min (pH 8.2, 23 degrees C). Bacterial identifications were performed on the disinfected and nondisinfected effluents. Additional studies were conducted to assess the bacteriological activity associated with released GAC particles. The results indicated that heterotrophic plate counts in the effluents from all columns increased to 10(5) CFU/ml within 5 days and subsequently stabilized at 10(4) CFU/ml. The heterotrophic plate counts did not differ at different empty-bed contact times. Coliforms (identified as Enterobacter spp.) were recovered from the nondisinfected effluent on only two occasions. The disinfection results indicated that 1.5 mg of chloramines per liter inactivated approximately 50% more bacteria than did 1.0 mg of free chlorine per liter after 1 h of contact time. Chloramines and chlorine selected for the development of different bacterial species--Pseudomonas spp. and Flavobacterium spp., respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2082828

  14. The ARM program in the Tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, W.E.; Barnes, F.J.; Ackerman, T.P.; Mather, J.H.

    1998-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 as part of the US Global Change Research Program to improve the treatment of atmospheric radiative and cloud processes in computer models used to predict climate change. The overall goal of the ARM program is to develop and test parameterizations of important atmospheric processes, particularly cloud and radiative processes, for use in atmospheric models. This goal is being achieved through a combination of field measurements and modeling studies. Three primary locales were chosen for extensive field measurement facilities. These are the Southern Great Plains of the United States, the Tropical Western Pacific, and the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean. This paper describes the ARM program in the Tropical Western Pacific locale.

  15. Overcoming Robot-Arm Joint Singularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Houck, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Kinematic equations allow arm to pass smoothly through singular region. Report discusses mathematical singularities in equations of robotarm control. Operator commands robot arm to move in direction relative to its own axis system by specifying velocity in that direction. Velocity command then resolved into individual-joint rotational velocities in robot arm to effect motion. However, usual resolved-rate equations become singular when robot arm is straightened.

  16. [Physical activity in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Mirat, Jure

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent the leading health problem of the modern age. They are the first cause of mortality in developed as well as in transition countries. Physical activity has a beneficial impact on the cardiovascular system, both directly by improving endothelial function and indirectly by normalizing risk factors of atherosclerosis, such as dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, obesity and by positive effects on coagulation mechanism. The impact of physical activity on the cardiovascular system is manifested by immediate changes in hemodynamics, blood pressure and heart rate during physical training. After some time, consequences of continuous training are manifested as a decrease in the basal heart rate, blood pressure and heart rate responsiveness to physical activity stress, which indicates good conditioning i.e. increased physical capacity. Prospective epidemiological studies have shown that sedentary style of life has a twice-higher risk of sudden death and cardiovascular mortality. Physical activity should be permanent to have positive effects on the cardiovascular system; it means 4 to 5 times weekly depending on duration and intensity of exercises. In case of exercises 60-75% of the maximum, duration should be 30 to 45 minutes. Evidence based data show a 20-25 % lower mortality rate after myocardial infarction in the patients submitted to rehabilitation program of physical exercises. Physical activity in patients with coronary artery disease must be individualized, quantified and under control. In subjects with impaired function of the heart muscle, physical activity is limited with characteristic symptoms - dyspnea and stenocardia. These patients are classified into groups with mild, moderate and high risk, and based on this the allowed intensity of their physical activity is assessed, as well as the grade of its control. Physical exercises must be without range of tolerance and must not exceed this limit of symptoms. The aim of physical

  17. Arm-in-Arm Response Regulator Dimers Promote Intermolecular Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Anna W.; Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Moreno Morales, Neydis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteriophytochrome photoreceptors (BphPs) and their cognate response regulators make up two-component signal transduction systems which direct bacteria to mount phenotypic responses to changes in environmental light quality. Most of these systems utilize single-domain response regulators to transduce signals through unknown pathways and mechanisms. Here we describe the photocycle and autophosphorylation kinetics of RtBphP1, a red light-regulated histidine kinase from the desert bacterium Ramlibacter tataouinensis. RtBphP1 undergoes red to far-red photoconversion with rapid thermal reversion to the dark state. RtBphP1 is autophosphorylated in the dark; this activity is inhibited under red light. The RtBphP1 cognate response regulator, the R. tataouinensis bacteriophytochrome response regulator (RtBRR), and a homolog, AtBRR from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, crystallize unexpectedly as arm-in-arm dimers, reliant on a conserved hydrophobic motif, hFWAhL (where h is a hydrophobic M, V, L, or I residue). RtBRR and AtBRR dimerize distinctly from four structurally characterized phytochrome response regulators found in photosynthetic organisms and from all other receiver domain homodimers in the Protein Data Bank. A unique cacodylate-zinc-histidine tag metal organic framework yielded single-wavelength anomalous diffraction phases and may be of general interest. Examination of the effect of the BRR stoichiometry on signal transduction showed that phosphorylated RtBRR is accumulated more efficiently than the engineered monomeric RtBRR (RtBRRmon) in phosphotransfer reactions. Thus, we conclude that arm-in-arm dimers are a relevant signaling intermediate in this class of two-component regulatory systems. IMPORTANCE BphP histidine kinases and their cognate response regulators comprise widespread red light-sensing two-component systems. Much work on BphPs has focused on structural understanding of light sensing and on enhancing the natural infrared fluorescence of these

  18. Conservative treatment of retinoblastoma: a prospective phase II randomized trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by local treatments and chemothermotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lumbroso-Le Rouic, L; Aerts, I; Hajage, D; Lévy-Gabriel, C; Savignoni, A; Algret, N; Cassoux, N; Bertozzi, A-I; Esteve, M; Doz, F; Desjardins, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intraocular retinoblastoma treatments often combine chemotherapy and focal treatments. A first prospective protocol of conservative treatments in our institution showed the efficacy of the use of two courses of chemoreduction with etoposide and carboplatin, followed by chemothermotherapy using carboplatin as a single agent and diode laser. In order to decrease the possible long-term toxicity of chemotherapy due to etoposide, a randomized neoadjuvant phase II protocol was conducted using vincristine–carboplatin vs etoposide–carboplatin. Patients and methods The study was proposed when initial tumor characteristics did not allow front-line local treatments. Patients included in this phase II noncomparative randomized study of neoadjuvant chemotherapy received vincristin–carboplatin (new arm) vs etoposide–carboplatin (our reference arm). They were subsequently treated by local treatments and chemothermotherapy. Primary end point was the need for secondary enucleation or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) not exceeding 40% at 2 years. Results A total of 65 eyes in 55 children were included in the study (May 2004 to August 2009). Of these, 32 eyes (27 children) were treated in the arm etoposide–carboplatin and 33 eyes (28 children) in the arm vincristin–carboplatin. At 2 years after treatment, 23/33 (69.7%) eyes were treated and salvaged without EBRT or enucleation in the arm vincristin–carboplatin and 26/32 (81.2%) in the arm etoposide–carboplatin. Conclusion Even if the two treatment arms could be considered as sufficiently active according to the study decision rules, neoadjuvant chemotherapy by two cycles of vincristine–carboplatin followed by chemothermotherapy appear to offer less optimal local control than the etoposide–carboplatin combination. PMID:26427984

  19. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  20. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  1. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  2. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  3. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  4. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  5. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  6. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  7. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  8. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  9. 77 FR 30875 - Armed Forces Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8823 of May 18, 2012 Armed Forces Day, 2012 By the President of the United... circumstances. On Armed Forces Day, we pay tribute to the unparalleled service of our Armed Forces and recall... Day. I direct the Secretary of Defense on behalf of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps,...

  10. Arm Tremor, Tardive Dyskinesia, and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Emmerik, R. E. A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The arm tremor of adults (n=32) diagnosed as having mental retardation and/or tardive dyskinesia was examined through an analysis of the acceleration properties of several arm postures. The degree of arm acceleration was increased in all subjects compared to a control group without mental retardation. Effects of neuroleptic medication were noted.…

  11. Spirality: Spiral arm pitch angle measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Douglas W.; Boe, Benjamin; Pfountz, Casey; Davis, Benjamin L.; Hartley, Matthew; Pour Imani, Hamed; Slade, Zac; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia

    2015-12-01

    Spirality measures spiral arm pitch angles by fitting galaxy images to spiral templates of known pitch. Written in MATLAB, the code package also includes GenSpiral, which produces FITS images of synthetic spirals, and SpiralArmCount, which uses a one-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform to count the spiral arms of a galaxy after its pitch is determined.

  12. Activated Sludge. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Owen K.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials needed to teach a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. These materials include an overview of the unit, lesson plans, lecture outlines (keyed to slides designed for use with the lessons), student worksheets for each of the seven lessons (with answers), and two copies of a final quiz (with and…

  13. Incorporating Nondrug Social & Recreational Activities in Outpatient Chemical Dependency Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siporin, Sheldon; Baron, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    "Contingency Management programs (CMP) and non-drug social and recreational activities (NDSRA) are interventions premised on behavior theory that rely on external sources of reinforcement alternative to drug-based forms to decrease drug use. CMP usually employs vouchers as reinforcement for negative toxicologies. Despite research support, CMP…

  14. HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION IN THE NEAR AND FAR 3 kpc ARMS

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J. A.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Caswell, J. L.; Voronkov, M. A.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Fuller, G. A.; Quinn, L.

    2009-05-10

    We report on the presence of 6.7 GHz methanol masers, known tracers of high-mass star formation, in the 3 kpc arms of the inner Galaxy. We present 49 detections from the Methanol Multibeam Survey, the largest Galactic plane survey for 6.7 GHz methanol masers, which coincide in longitude, latitude, and velocity with the recently discovered far-side 3 kpc arm and the well-known near-side 3 kpc arm. The presence of these masers is significant evidence for high-mass star formation actively occurring in both 3 kpc arms.

  15. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  16. Cold warriors target arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, J.

    1995-09-01

    While disagreements over the conflict in Bosnia have strained US relations with Western Europe and Russia, these divisions will pale in comparison to the tensions that will arise if recent congressional arms control decisions become law. If the Republicans who dominate Congress are successful, a series of arms control agreements painstakingly negotiated by Republican and Democratic presidents could be consigned to the ash heap. This list includes the Start I and Start II nuclear reduction agreements, the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and the ongoing negotiations to achieve a comprehensive test ban (CTB) by 1996. US leadership in the post-Cold War era will undermined as the international community, already skeptical about this country`s direction, will question the ability of the executive branch to surmount isolantionist impulses.

  17. Activated carbon treatment of municipal solid waste incineration flue gas.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shengyong; Ji, Ya; Buekens, Alfons; Ma, Zengyi; Jin, Yuqi; Li, Xiaodong; Yan, Jianhua

    2013-02-01

    Activated carbon injection is widely used to control dioxins and mercury emissions. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to its modelling. This paper proposes an expansion of the classical Everaerts-Baeyens model, introducing the expression of fraction of free adsorption sites, f (s), and asserting the significant contribution of fly ash to dioxins removal. Moreover, the model monitors dioxins partitioning between vapour and particulate phase, as well as removal efficiency for each congener separately. The effects of the principal parameters affecting adsorption are analysed according to a semi-analytical, semi-empirical model. These parameters include temperature, contact time during entrained-flow, characteristics (grain-size, pore structure, specific surface area) and dosage of activated carbon, lignite cokes or mineral adsorbent, fly ash characteristics and concentration, and type of incinerator plant.

  18. Enhancing methane production from waste activated sludge using a novel indigenous iron activated peroxidation pre-treatment process.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu; Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming

    2015-04-01

    Methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor methane potential of WAS. This study presents a novel pre-treatment strategy based on indigenous iron (in WAS) activated peroxidation to enhance methane production from WAS. Pre-treatment of WAS for 30 min at 50mg H2O2/g total solids (dry weight) and pH 2.0 (iron concentration in WAS was 7 mg/g TS) substantially enhanced WAS solubilization. Biochemical methane potential tests demonstrated that methane production was improved by 10% at a digestion time of 16d after incorporating the indigenous iron activated peroxidation pre-treatment. Model-based analysis indicated that indigenous iron activated peroxidation pre-treatment improved the methane potential by 13%, whereas the hydrolysis rate was not significantly affected. The economic analysis showed that the proposed pre-treatment method can save the cost by $112,000 per year in a treatment plant with a population equivalent of 300,000.

  19. Dual arm master controller development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuban, D. P.; Perkins, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed to human factor design and performance tradeoffs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented.

  20. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  1. Treating fibromyalgia with mindfulness-based stress reduction: results from a 3-armed randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stefan; Grossman, Paul; Schwarzer, Barbara; Jena, Susanne; Naumann, Johannes; Walach, Harald

    2011-02-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a structured 8-week group program teaching mindfulness meditation and mindful yoga exercises. MBSR aims to help participants develop nonjudgmental awareness of moment-to-moment experience. Fibromyalgia is a clinical syndrome with chronic pain, fatigue, and insomnia as major symptoms. Efficacy of MBSR for enhanced well-being of fibromyalgia patients was investigated in a 3-armed trial, which was a follow-up to an earlier quasi-randomized investigation. A total of 177 female patients were randomized to one of the following: (1) MBSR, (2) an active control procedure controlling for nonspecific effects of MBSR, or (3) a wait list. The major outcome was health-related quality of life (HRQoL) 2 months post-treatment. Secondary outcomes were disorder-specific quality of life, depression, pain, anxiety, somatic complaints, and a proposed index of mindfulness. Of the patients, 82% completed the study. There were no significant differences between groups on primary outcome, but patients overall improved in HRQoL at short-term follow-up (P=0.004). Post hoc analyses showed that only MBSR manifested a significant pre-to-post-intervention improvement in HRQoL (P=0.02). Furthermore, multivariate analysis of secondary measures indicated modest benefits for MBSR patients. MBSR yielded significant pre-to-post-intervention improvements in 6 of 8 secondary outcome variables, the active control in 3, and the wait list in 2. In conclusion, primary outcome analyses did not support the efficacy of MBSR in fibromyalgia, although patients in the MBSR arm appeared to benefit most. Effect sizes were small compared to the earlier, quasi-randomized investigation. Several methodological aspects are discussed, e.g., patient burden, treatment preference and motivation, that may provide explanations for differences. In a 3-armed randomized controlled trial in female patients suffering from fibromyalgia, patients benefited modestly from a mindfulness

  2. Antimicrobial activity of different filling pastes for deciduous tooth treatment.

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, Bruna Feltrin; Pires, Carine Weber; Bresolin, Carmela Rampazzo; Weiss, Rita Niederauer; Praetzel, Juliana Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Guedes-Pinto paste is the filling material most employed in Brazil for endodontic treatment of deciduous teeth; however, the Rifocort® ointment has been removed. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial potential of filling pastes, by proposing three new pharmacological associations to replace Rifocort® ointment with drugs of already established antimicrobial power: Nebacetin® ointment, 2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate gel, and Maxitrol® ointment. A paste composed of Iodoform, Rifocort® ointment and Camphorated Paramonochlorophenol (CPC) was employed as the gold standard (G1). The other associations were: Iodoform, Nebacetin® ointment and CPC (G2); Iodoform, 2% Chlorhexidine Digluconate gel and CPC (G3); Iodoform, Maxitrol® ointment and CPC (G4). The associations were tested for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Streptococcus oralis (S. oralis), Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), using the methods of dilution on solid medium - orifice agar - and broth dilution. The results were tested using statistical analysis ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis. They showed that all the pastes had a bacteriostatic effect on all the microorganisms, without any statistically significant difference, compared with G1. S. aureus was statistically significant (multiple comparison test of Tukey), insofar as G2 and G3 presented the worst and the best performance, respectively. All associations were bactericidal for E. coli, S. aureus, S. mutans and S. oralis. Only G3 and G4 were bactericidal for E. faecalis, whereas no product was bactericidal for B. subtilis. Thus, the tested pastes have antimicrobial potential and have proved acceptable for endodontic treatment of primary teeth.

  3. A survey of treatment modalities used by mental health clinicians and activity therapists.

    PubMed

    Gibson, G L

    1975-07-01

    An art therapist conducted a survey of 150 mental health clinicians and activity therapists to find which of ten treatment modalities they preferred to use with ten types of psychiatric patients. The final sample consisted of 68 respondents: 34 clinicians, 17 activity therapists, and 17 art therapists. The three respondent groups agreed on the same optimum treatment modality for five patient groups. Art therapists felt art therapy was most effective in treating the youthful drug abuser, the child with educational problems, and the moderately depressed patient. Clinicians and activity therapists agreed on other treatment modalities for those patients.

  4. Hand-arm vibration syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shixin (Cindy); House, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide family physicians with an understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis, and management of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), an important and common occupational disease in Canada. Sources of information A MEDLINE search was conducted for research and review articles on HAVS. A Google search was conducted to obtain gray literature relevant to the Canadian context. Additional references were obtained from the articles identified. Main message Hand-arm vibration syndrome is a prevalent occupational disease affecting workers in multiple industries in which vibrating tools are used. However, it is underdiagnosed in Canada. It has 3 components—vascular, in the form of secondary Raynaud phenomenon; sensorineural; and musculoskeletal. Hand-arm vibration syndrome in its more advanced stages contributes to substantial disability and poor quality of life. Its diagnosis requires careful history taking, in particular occupational history, physical examination, laboratory tests to rule out alternative diagnoses, and referral to an occupational medicine specialist for additional investigations. Management involves reduction of vibration exposure, avoidance of cold conditions, smoking cessation, and medication. Conclusion To ensure timely diagnosis of HAVS and improve prognosis and quality of life, family physicians should be aware of this common occupational disease and be able to elicit the relevant occupational history, refer patients to occupational medicine clinics, and appropriately initiate compensation claims. PMID:28292796

  5. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Data

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, S.; Jensen, M.; McCoy, R. B.; Klein, S. A.; Cederwall, R. T.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Clothiaux, E. E.; Gaustad, K. L.; Golaz, J.-C.; Hall, S.; Johnson, K. L.; Lin, Y.; Long, C. N.; Mather, J. H.; McCord, R. A.; McFarlane, S. A.; Palanisamy, G.; Shi, Y.; Turner, D. D.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (www.arm.gov) was created in 1989 to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. A central activity is the acquisition of detailed observations of clouds and radiation, as well as related atmospheric variables for climate model evaluation and improvement. Since 1992, ARM has established six permanent ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) sites and deployed an ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) in diverse climate regimes around the world (Fig. 1) to perform long-term continuous field measurements. The time record of ACRF data now exceeds a decade at most ACRF fixed sites and ranges from several months to one year for AMF deployments. Billions of measurements are currently stored in millions of data files in the ACRF Data Archive. The long-term continuous ACRF data provide invaluable information to improve our understanding of the interaction between clouds and radiation, and an observational basis for model validation and improvement and climate studies. Given the huge number of data files and current diversity of archived ACRF data structures, however, it can be difficult for an outside user such as a climate modeler to quickly find the ACRF data product(s) that best meets their research needs. The required geophysical quantities may exist in multiple data streams, and over the history of ACRF operations, the measurements could be obtained by a variety of instruments, reviewed with different levels of data quality assurance, or derived using different algorithms. In addition, most ACRF data are stored in daily-based files with a temporal resolution that ranges from a few seconds to a few minutes, which is much finer than that sought by some users. Therefore, it is not as convenient for data users to perform quick comparisons over large spans of data, and this

  6. Detection Technologies, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Third/fourth quarters 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G; Stull, S; Talaber, C; Moulthrop, P

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is another in a series of issues about specific means for detecting and identifying proliferation and other suspect activities outside the realm of arms control treaties. All the projects discussed are funded by the Office of Research and Development of the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  7. 26 CFR 1.112-1 - Combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (and members of the Armed Forces are described) in section 7701(a)(15). (4) Military compensation only... States or by an international organization to a member of the Armed Forces whose military active duty... supplement the member's military compensation or is labeled by the employer as compensation for...

  8. 26 CFR 1.112-1 - Combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (and members of the Armed Forces are described) in section 7701(a)(15). (4) Military compensation only... States or by an international organization to a member of the Armed Forces whose military active duty... supplement the member's military compensation or is labeled by the employer as compensation for...

  9. 26 CFR 1.112-1 - Combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (and members of the Armed Forces are described) in section 7701(a)(15). (4) Military compensation only... States or by an international organization to a member of the Armed Forces whose military active duty... supplement the member's military compensation or is labeled by the employer as compensation for...

  10. 26 CFR 1.112-1 - Combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (and members of the Armed Forces are described) in section 7701(a)(15). (4) Military compensation only... States or by an international organization to a member of the Armed Forces whose military active duty... supplement the member's military compensation or is labeled by the employer as compensation for...

  11. 26 CFR 1.112-1 - Combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (and members of the Armed Forces are described) in section 7701(a)(15). (4) Military compensation only... States or by an international organization to a member of the Armed Forces whose military active duty... supplement the member's military compensation or is labeled by the employer as compensation for...

  12. 76 FR 32224 - Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces AGENCY: Fish and... birds during approved military readiness activities without violating the Migratory Bird Treaty Act... the Armed Forces to incidentally take migratory birds. The Authorization Act also stated that...

  13. High precision detector robot arm system

    DOEpatents

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  14. NRF2 Activation as Target to Implement Therapeutic Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocci, Velio; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    A chronic increase of oxidative stress is typical of serious pathologies such as myocardial infarction, stroke, chronic limb ischemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), type II-diabetes, age-related macular degeneration leads to an epic increase of morbidity and mortality in all countries of the world. The initial inflammation followed by an excessive release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) implies a diffused cellular injury that needs to be corrected by an inducible expression of the innate detoxifying and antioxidant system. The transcription factor Nrf2, when properly activated, is able to restore a redox homeostasis and possibly improve human health.

  15. Nrf2 activation as target to implement therapeutic treatments

    PubMed Central

    Bocci, Velio; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    A chronic increase of oxidative stress is typical of serious pathologies such as myocardial infarction, stroke, chronic limb ischemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), type II-diabetes, age-related macular degeneration leads to an epic increase of morbidity and mortality in all countries of the world. The initial inflammation followed by an excessive release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) implies a diffused cellular injury that needs to be corrected by an inducible expression of the innate detoxifying and antioxidant system. The transcription factor Nrf2, when properly activated, is able to restore a redox homeostasis and possibly improve human health. PMID:25699252

  16. Fingerprints of nucleosynthesis in the local spiral arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoedlseder, J.; Bennett, K.; Bloemen, H.; Diehl, R.; Hermsen, W.; Oberlack, U.; Ryan, J.; Schoenfelder, V.; vonBallmoos, P.

    1997-01-01

    The local spiral arm with its inherent massive star population is a natural site of recent nucleosynthesis activity. The features found in 1.8 MeV observation of candidate Al-26 sources situated in this structure are discussed. The emphasis is on Loop 1, a nearby superbubble which is possibly the site of a recent supernova explosion.

  17. The Effect of Playing Different Musical Instruments on Arm Asymmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, E. Erdem

    2015-01-01

    Between the two hemispheres of the brain, structural and functional differences are called cerebral lateralization that can affect the skill performance of both arms in a different way, which is called handedness. Approximately 90% of people are right-handed and they use the right hand for most skillful activities. Interestingly, recent studies…

  18. A potential treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with SIRT1 activators.

    PubMed

    Colak, Yasar; Yesil, Atakan; Mutlu, Hasan Huseyin; Caklili, Ozge Telci; Ulasoglu, Celal; Senates, Ebubekir; Takir, Mumtaz; Kostek, Osman; Yilmaz, Yusuf; Yilmaz Enc, Feruze; Tasan, Guralp; Tuncer, Ilyas

    2014-09-01

    Sirtuins (SIRTs) are members of the silent information regulator-2 family and act as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent histone/protein deacetylases. The de-acetylation of proteins and histones results in an up- or down-regulation of gene transcription and protein function. In recent years, the regulatory action of the deacetylation activity of SIRT1 has been shown to have a positive impact on the pathophysiological mechanisms of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Among the effects of SIRT1 are: its healing activity on insulin sensitivity, thereby ameliorating glycemic regulation; its mimetic activity on calorie restriction; its antihyperlipidemic activity on lipid homeostasis via the liver, adipose tissues and skeletal muscles; its anti-inflammatory activities; its protective effects against cardiovascular events and endothelial dysfunction; its positive influence on autophagy, apoptosis and cancer; and finally, its anti-aging activity. The current approach for the treatment of NAFLD involves the treatment of etiological factors and recommendation of life-style changes including more physical activity and a low-calorie diet. However, there is no specific medical treatments for NAFLD. The therapeutic potential of SIRT1 activity in the treatment of NAFLD discovered in humans has been presented in this article. In this review, the potential effects of SIRT1 activation on NAFLD-related pathophysiological mechanisms and on the treatment of NAFLD are discussed.

  19. Robot arm force control through system linearization by nonlinear feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarn, T. J.; Bejczy, A. K.; Yun, Xiaoping

    1988-01-01

    Based on a differential geometric feedback linearization technique for nonlinear time-varying systems, a dynamic force control method for robot arms is developed. It uses active force-moment measurements at the robot wrist. The controller design fully incorporate the robot-arm dynamics and is so general that it can be reduced to pure position control, hybrid position/force control, pure force control. The controller design is independent of the tasks to be performed. Computer simulations show that the controller improves the position error by a factor of ten in cases in which position errors generate force measurements. A theorem on linearization of time-varying system is also presented.

  20. Evolving Arms Transfer Rationales: The Case of Italy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    began to 5 Libro Bianco-La Difesa, 1977, 57-92. 6 1bid. 23 reconstitute and reequip her armed forces. The 1950’s were tumultuous for the activity in...discussion of the early arms trade in Italy. 8 La Difesa-- Libro Bianco, Ministero della Difesa d’Italia, 1985. 74. 24 in recognizing the problem, the... Libro Bianco, p.xiv. This quote is a portion of the introduction to the White Book written by the Minister of Defense, Giovanni Spadolini. 31 however