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Sample records for active treatment arm

  1. Is Two Better than One? Limb Activation Treatment Combined with Contralesional Arm Vibration to Ameliorate Signs of Left Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Pitteri, Marco; Arcara, Giorgio; Passarini, Laura; Meneghello, Francesca; Priftis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of the Limb Activation Treatment (LAT) alone and in combination with the Contralateral Arm Vibration (CAV) on left neglect (LN) rehabilitation. We conceived them as techniques that both prompt the activation of the lesioned right hemisphere because of the activation (with the LAT as an active technique) and the stimulation (with the CAV as a passive technique) of the left hemibody. To test the effect of the simultaneous use of these two techniques (i.e., LAT and CAV) on visuo-spatial aspects of LN, we described the case of an LN patient (GR), who showed high intra-individual variability (IIV) in performance. Given the high IIV of GR, we used an ABAB repeated-measures design to better define the effectiveness of the combined application of LAT and CAV, as a function of time. The results showed an improvement of GR’s performance on the Bells test following the combined application of LAT and CAV, with respect to the application of LAT alone. We did not find, however, significant effects of treatment on two other LN tests (i.e., Line bisection and Picture scanning). We propose that the combined application of LAT and CAV can be beneficial for some aspects of LN. PMID:23966926

  2. Use of complementary health approaches at military treatment facilities, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Williams, Valerie F; Clark, Leslie L; McNellis, Mark G

    2016-07-01

    Survey-based research has demonstrated the increasing use and acceptance of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in general and military populations. This report summarizes the use of three CAM procedures (chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation, acupuncture, and biofeedback) among active component service members from 2010 through 2015. Findings document a marked increase in the use of chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation and acupuncture procedures since 2010. The majority of the 240 military installations in this analysis provided chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation; more than three-quarters provided acupuncture; and approximately one-third provided biofeedback procedures. "Other and unspecified disorders of the back" was the most frequent condition for which chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation and acupuncture were used. "Non-allopathic lesions not elsewhere classified" was the second most frequent diagnosis during chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation-related visits. The second and third most frequent diagnoses during acupuncture-related visits were "acute and chronic pain" and "adjustment reaction," respectively. "Adjustment reaction" was the second most frequent diagnosis associated with biofeedback. Continued research is needed to gain a better understanding of why military personnel are using CAM and the role these procedures play in their health care. PMID:27501938

  3. Core Muscle Activation in One-Armed and Two-Armed Kettlebell Swing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Vidar; Fimland, Marius S; Gunnarskog, Aril; Jungård, Georg-Andrè; Slåttland, Roy-Andrè; Vraalsen, Øyvind F; Saeterbakken, Atle H

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the electromyographic activity of rectus abdominis, oblique external, and lower and upper erector spinae at both sides of the truncus in 1-armed and 2-armed kettlebell swing. Sixteen healthy men performed 10 repetitions of both exercises using a 16-kg kettlebell in randomized order. For the upper erector spinae, the activation of the contralateral side during 1-armed swing was 24% greater than that of the ipsilateral side during 1-armed swing (p < 0.001) and 11% greater during 2-armed swing (p = 0.026). Furthermore, the activation in 2-armed swing was 12-16% greater than for the ipsilateral side in 1-armed swing (p < 0.001). For rectus abdominis, however, 42% lower activation of the contralateral side was observed during 1-armed swing compared with ipsilateral sides during 2-armed swing (p = 0.038) and 48% compared with the ipsilateral side during 1-armed swing (p = 0.044). Comparing the different phases of the swing, most differences in the upper erector spinae were found in the lower parts of the movement, whereas for the rectus abdominis, the differences were found during the hip extension. In contrast, similar muscle activity in the lower erector spinae and external oblique between the different conditions was observed (p = 0.055-0.969). In conclusion, performing the kettlebell swing with 1 arm resulted in greater neuromuscular activity for the contralateral side of the upper erector spinae and ipsilateral side of the rectus abdominis, and lower activation of the opposite side of the respective muscles. PMID:26473519

  4. The efficacy of cryolipolysis treatment on arms and inner thighs.

    PubMed

    Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Sathaworawong, Angkana; Manuskiatti, Woraphong

    2015-11-01

    Cryolipolysis has emerged as a new non-invasive body contouring method using controlled cooling to selectively destroy fat cells. Previous studies demonstrated the safety and efficacy of cryolipolysis for the reduction of localized subcutaneous fat on abdomen and flanks. Recently, the new flat cup vacuum applicator has been developed to treat localized subcutaneous fat on arms and inner thighs. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of non-invasive cryolipolysis for body contouring with a flat cup vacuum applicator on arms and inner thighs. Twenty females with excess localized subcutaneous fat on arms or inner thighs received a single cryolipolysis treatment. Forty treatment areas have been treated including 10 arms and 30 inner thighs. Subjects were evaluated using standardized photographs and measurements of body weight and circumference of arms or inner thighs at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up visits. Physicians' evaluation and patient's satisfaction of clinical improvement were also measured. Of all 20 subjects, 17 (10 arms and 24 inner thighs) completed the treatment protocol and attended all follow-up visits. Three subjects were withdrawn from the study, 1 subject could not complete the treatment session due to pain and numbness during treatment, 1 subject became pregnant after treatment, and the other subject could not attend all required follow-up visits. There was significant circumference reduction of 0.41 and 0.72 cm at 3-month and 6-month follow-up visits (p = 0.017), respectively. Most of the patients were rated to have 1-25% improvement at 6 months after treatment and were satisfied with the treatment outcome. The new cryolipolysis flat cup vacuum applicator provided beneficial effects for circumferential reduction of arms and inner thighs. PMID:26100004

  5. Extravehicular activity translation arm (EVATA) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preiswerk, P. R.; Stammreich, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of a deployable Extravehicular Activity Translation Arm (EVATA) assembly which will allow an EVA crewman to perform tasks in the vicinity of the External TNK (ET) umbilical doors and to inspect most of the underside of the shuttle spacecraft is reported. The concept chosen for the boom structure was the Astro Extendable Support Structure (ESS) which formed the main structure for the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Antenna System on the SEASAT A spacecraft. This structure is a deployable triangular truss. A comparison of the EVATA and the SEASAT A ESS is shown. The development of status of the ESS is shown. The satellite configuration, the stowed truss load path, and the envelope deployment sequence for the ESS are also shown.

  6. Analysis of scapular kinematics during active and passive arm elevation

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Yoshihiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Takei, Kazuto; Madokoro, Kazuya; Imura, Takeshi; Murata, Shin; Morihara, Toru; Shiba, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Early postoperative passive motion exercise after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair remains controversial. To better understand this issue, this study was aimed at evaluating scapular kinematics and muscle activities during passive arm elevation in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The dominant shoulders of 27 healthy subjects were examined. Electromagnetic sensors attached to the scapula, thorax, and humerus were used to determine three-dimensional scapular kinematics during active arm elevation with or without external loads and passive arm elevation. Simultaneously, the activities of seven shoulder muscles were recorded with surface and intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. [Results] Compared with active arm elevation, passive elevation between 30° and 100° significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and increased the glenohumeral elevation angle. However, no significant differences in scapular posterior tilt and external rotation were observed between active and passive arm elevation, and scapular plane kinematics were not affected by muscle activity. [Conclusion] Unlike active motion with or without an external load, passive arm elevation significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and significantly increased the mid-range glenohumeral elevation. These data, which suggest that passive arm elevation should be avoided during the early postoperative period, may expand the understanding of rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:27390438

  7. Analysis of scapular kinematics during active and passive arm elevation.

    PubMed

    Kai, Yoshihiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Takei, Kazuto; Madokoro, Kazuya; Imura, Takeshi; Murata, Shin; Morihara, Toru; Shiba, Naoto

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Early postoperative passive motion exercise after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair remains controversial. To better understand this issue, this study was aimed at evaluating scapular kinematics and muscle activities during passive arm elevation in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The dominant shoulders of 27 healthy subjects were examined. Electromagnetic sensors attached to the scapula, thorax, and humerus were used to determine three-dimensional scapular kinematics during active arm elevation with or without external loads and passive arm elevation. Simultaneously, the activities of seven shoulder muscles were recorded with surface and intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. [Results] Compared with active arm elevation, passive elevation between 30° and 100° significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and increased the glenohumeral elevation angle. However, no significant differences in scapular posterior tilt and external rotation were observed between active and passive arm elevation, and scapular plane kinematics were not affected by muscle activity. [Conclusion] Unlike active motion with or without an external load, passive arm elevation significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and significantly increased the mid-range glenohumeral elevation. These data, which suggest that passive arm elevation should be avoided during the early postoperative period, may expand the understanding of rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:27390438

  8. Patterns of arm muscle activation involved in octopus reaching movements.

    PubMed

    Gutfreund, Y; Flash, T; Fiorito, G; Hochner, B

    1998-08-01

    The extreme flexibility of the octopus arm allows it to perform many different movements, yet octopuses reach toward a target in a stereotyped manner using a basic invariant motor structure: a bend traveling from the base of the arm toward the tip (Gutfreund et al., 1996a). To study the neuronal control of these movements, arm muscle activation [electromyogram (EMG)] was measured together with the kinematics of reaching movements. The traveling bend is associated with a propagating wave of muscle activation, with maximal muscle activation slightly preceding the traveling bend. Tonic activation was occasionally maintained afterward. Correlation of the EMG signals with the kinematic variables (velocities and accelerations) reveals that a significant part of the kinematic variability can be explained by the level of muscle activation. Furthermore, the EMG level measured during the initial stages of movement predicts the peak velocity attained toward the end of the reaching movement. These results suggest that feed-forward motor commands play an important role in the control of movement velocity and that simple adjustment of the excitation levels at the initial stages of the movement can set the velocity profile of the whole movement. A simple model of octopus arm extension is proposed in which the driving force is set initially and is then decreased in proportion to arm diameter at the bend. The model qualitatively reproduces the typical velocity profiles of octopus reaching movements, suggesting a simple control mechanism for bend propagation in the octopus arm. PMID:9671683

  9. Quality of life following liposuction and conservative treatment of arm lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Brorson, H; Ohlin, K; Olsson, G; Långström, G; Wiklund, I; Svensson, H

    2006-03-01

    Arm lymphedema can produce an additional burden from a psychosocial point of view. Although edema reduction through treatment can be an advantage in terms of reduced weight of the arm and simplified clothing needs, the purpose of the present study was to register changes in psychosocial parameters during one year after treatment. Thirty-five patients underwent liposuction combined with postoperative CCT (Controlled Compression Therapy), while 14 received CCT alone. Edema volume and range of motion in the shoulder joint were measured and effects on quality of life were assessed with various questionnaires. Liposuction+CCT removed the arm lymphedema completely, whereas CCT alone reduced it by half. The treatments improved range of motion in the shoulder joint and patients' quality of life in relationship to the volume reduction. Liposuction+CCT improves patients' quality of life, particularly qualities related to the volume reduction and hence qualities associated with everyday activities. CCT is beneficial too, but the effect is less obvious than when combined with surgery, probably because the edema reduction is less. The consequences of arm lymphedema for more psychologically oriented qualities and social life in general seem to be less serious and we found few notable effects of treatment in these domains. PMID:16724506

  10. Influence of vibration on mechanical power and electromyogram activity in human arm flexor muscles.

    PubMed

    Bosco, C; Cardinale, M; Tsarpela, O

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of vibration on the mechanical properties of arm flexors. A group of 12 international level boxers, all members of the Italian national team, voluntarily participated in the experiment: all were engaged in regular boxing training. At the beginning of the study they were tested whilst performing forearm flexion with an extra load equal to 5% of the subjects' body mass. Following this. one arm was given the experimental treatment (E; mechanical vibration) and the other was the control (no treatment). The E treatment consisted of five repetitions lasting 1-min each of mechanical vibration applied during arm flexion in isometric conditions with 1 min rest between them. Further tests were performed 5 min immediately after the treatment on both limbs. The results showed statistically significant enhancement of the average power in the arm treated with vibrations. The root mean square electromyogram (EMGrms) had not changed following the treatment but, when divided by mechanical power, (P) as an index of neural efficiency, it showed statistically significant increases. It was concluded that mechanical vibrations enhanced muscle P and decreased the related EMG/P relationship in elite athletes. Moreover, the analysis of EMGrms recorded before the treatment and during the treatment itself showed an enormous increase in neural activity during vibration up to more than twice the baseline values. This would indicate that this type of treatment is able to stimulate the neuromuscular system more than other treatments used to improve neuromuscular properties. PMID:10090628

  11. Time Course of Mild Arm Lymphedema After Breast Conservation Treatment for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bar Ad, Voichita; Cheville, Andrea; Solin, Lawrence J.; Dutta, Pinaki; Both, Stefan; Harris, Eleanor

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: Arm lymphedema is a potential consequence of the treatment for breast carcinoma. The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize the progression of mild arm lymphedema after breast conservation treatment for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The study cohort was drawn from 1,713 consecutive Stage I or II breast cancer patients who underwent breast conservation therapy, including axillary staging followed by radiation. Arm lymphedema was documented in 266 (16%) of 1,713 patients. One hundred nine patients, 6% of the overall group and 40% of the patients with arm lymphedema, presented with mild arm lymphedema, defined as a difference of 2 cm or less between the measured circumferences of the affected and unaffected arms. Results: Among the 109 patients with mild arm lymphedema at the time of arm lymphedema diagnosis, the rate of freedom from progression to more severe lymphedema was 79% at 1 year, 66% at 3 years, and 52% at 5 years. The patients who were morbidly obese, had positive axillary lymph nodes, or received supraclavicular irradiation at the time of breast cancer treatment were at higher risk of progression from mild arm lymphedema to more severe edema. Conclusions: Mild arm lymphedema, generally considered to be a minor complication after breast conservation treatment for breast cancer, was associated with a risk of progression to a more severe grade of arm lymphedema in a substantial fraction of patients.

  12. A common neural element receiving rhythmic arm and leg activity as assessed by reflex modulation in arm muscles.

    PubMed

    Sasada, Syusaku; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Futatsubashi, Genki; Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shinya; Zehr, E Paul; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Neural interactions between regulatory systems for rhythmic arm and leg movements are an intriguing issue in locomotor neuroscience. Amplitudes of early latency cutaneous reflexes (ELCRs) in stationary arm muscles are modulated during rhythmic leg or arm cycling but not during limb positioning or voluntary contraction. This suggests that interneurons mediating ELCRs to arm muscles integrate outputs from neural systems controlling rhythmic limb movements. Alternatively, outputs could be integrated at the motoneuron and/or supraspinal levels. We examined whether a separate effect on the ELCR pathways and cortico-motoneuronal excitability during arm and leg cycling is integrated by neural elements common to the lumbo-sacral and cervical spinal cord. The subjects performed bilateral leg cycling (LEG), contralateral arm cycling (ARM), and simultaneous contralateral arm and bilateral leg cycling (A&L), while ELCRs in the wrist flexor and shoulder flexor muscles were evoked by superficial radial (SR) nerve stimulation. ELCR amplitudes were facilitated by cycling tasks and were larger during A&L than during ARM and LEG. A low stimulus intensity during ARM or LEG generated a larger ELCR during A&L than the sum of ELCRs during ARM and LEG. We confirmed this nonlinear increase in single motor unit firing probability following SR nerve stimulation during A&L. Furthermore, motor-evoked potentials following transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation did not show nonlinear potentiation during A&L. These findings suggest the existence of a common neural element of the ELCR reflex pathway that is active only during rhythmic arm and leg movement and receives convergent input from contralateral arms and legs. PMID:26961103

  13. Treatment of Glioma Using neuroArm Surgical System

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The use of robotic technology in the surgical treatment of brain tumour promises increased precision and accuracy in the performance of surgery. Robotic manipulators may allow superior access to narrow surgical corridors compared to freehand or conventional neurosurgery. This paper reports values and ranges of tool-tissue interaction forces during the performance of glioma surgery using an MR compatible, image-guided neurosurgical robot called neuroArm. The system, capable of microsurgery and stereotaxy, was used in the surgical resection of glioma in seven cases. neuroArm is equipped with force sensors at the end-effector allowing quantification of tool-tissue interaction forces and transmits force of dissection to the surgeon sited at a remote workstation that includes a haptic interface. Interaction forces between the tool tips and the brain tissue were measured for each procedure, and the peak forces were quantified. Results showed maximum and minimum peak force values of 2.89 N (anaplastic astrocytoma, WHO grade III) and 0.50 N (anaplastic oligodendroglioma, WHO grade III), respectively, with the mean of peak forces varying from case to case, depending on type of the glioma. Mean values of the peak forces varied in range of 1.27 N (anaplastic astrocytoma, WHO grade III) to 1.89 N (glioblastoma with oligodendroglial component, WHO grade IV). In some cases, ANOVA test failed to reject the null hypothesis of equality in means of the peak forces measured. However, we could not find a relationship between forces exerted to the pathological tissue and its size, type, or location. PMID:27314044

  14. Cortical Spectral Activity and Connectivity during Active and Viewed Arm and Leg Movement

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Julia E.; Huang, Helen J.; Snyder, Kristine L.; Ferris, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Active and viewed limb movement activate many similar neural pathways, however, to date most comparison studies have focused on subjects making small, discrete movements of the hands and feet. The purpose of this study was to determine if high-density electroencephalography (EEG) could detect differences in cortical activity and connectivity during active and viewed rhythmic arm and leg movements in humans. Our primary hypothesis was that we would detect similar but weaker electrocortical spectral fluctuations and effective connectivity fluctuations during viewed limb exercise compared to active limb exercise due to the similarities in neural recruitment. A secondary hypothesis was that we would record stronger cortical spectral fluctuations for arm exercise compared to leg exercise, because rhythmic arm exercise would be more dependent on supraspinal control than rhythmic leg exercise. We recorded EEG data while ten young healthy subjects exercised on a recumbent stepper with: (1) both arms and legs, (2) just legs, and (3) just arms. Subjects also viewed video playback of themselves or another individual performing the same exercises. We performed independent component analysis, dipole fitting, spectral analysis, and effective connectivity analysis on the data. Cortical areas comprising the premotor and supplementary motor cortex, the anterior cingulate, the posterior cingulate, and the parietal cortex exhibited significant spectral fluctuations during rhythmic limb exercise. These fluctuations tended to be greater for the arms exercise conditions than for the legs only exercise condition, which suggests that human rhythmic arm movements are under stronger cortical control than rhythmic leg movements. We did not find consistent spectral fluctuations in these areas during the viewed conditions, but effective connectivity fluctuated at harmonics of the exercise frequency during both active and viewed rhythmic limb exercise. The right premotor and supplementary motor

  15. Effect of active arm swing to local dynamic stability during walking.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Li, Yue; Liu, An-Min; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Yin-Zhi; Hu, Fei; Chen, Jin-Ling; Dai, Ke-Rong; Gu, Dong-Yun

    2016-02-01

    Arm swing is an essential component in regulating dynamic stability of the whole body during walking, while the contribution of active arm swing to local dynamic stability of different motion segments remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of arm swing under natural arm swing condition and active arm swing condition on local dynamic stability and gait variability of the trunk segments (C7 and T10 joint) and lower extremity joints (hip, knee and ankle joint). The local divergence exponents (λs) and mean standard deviation over strides (MeanSD) of 24 young healthy adults were calculated while they were walking on treadmill with two arm swing conditions at their preferred walking speed (PWS). We found that in medial-lateral direction, both λs and MeanSD values of the trunk segments (C7 and T10 joint) in active arm swing condition were significantly lower than those in natural arm swing condition (p<0.05), while no significant difference of λs or MeanSD in lower extremity joints (hip, knee and ankle joint) was found between two arm swing conditions (p>0.05, respectively). In anterior-posterior and vertical direction, neither λs nor MeanSD values of all body segments showed significant difference between two arm swing conditions (p>0.05, respectively). These findings indicate that active arm swing may help to improve the local dynamic stability of the trunk segments in medial-lateral direction. PMID:26615477

  16. Therapeutic synergism in the treatment of post-stroke arm paresis utilizing botulinum toxin, robotic therapy, and constraint-induced movement therapy.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Takashi; Amano, Satoru; Hanada, Keisuke; Umeji, Atsushi; Takahashi, Kayoko; Koyama, Tetsuo; Domen, Kazuhisa

    2014-11-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BtxA) injection, constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), and robotic therapy (RT) each represent promising approaches to enhance arm motor recovery after stroke. To provide more effective treatment for a 50-year-old man with severe left spastic hemiparesis, we attempted to facilitate CIMT with adaptive approaches to extend the wrist and fingers using RT for 10 consecutive weeks after BtxA injection. This combined treatment resulted in substantial improvements in arm function and the amount of arm use in activities of daily living, and may be effective for stroke patients with severe arm paresis. However, we were unable to sufficiently prove the efficacy of combined treatment based only on a single case. To fully elucidate the efficacy of the combined approach for patients with severe hemiparesis after stroke, future studies of a larger number of patients are needed. PMID:24880058

  17. The application of active side arm controllers in helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knorr, R.; Melz, C.; Faulkner, A.; Obermayer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Eurocopter Deutschland (ECD) started simulation trials to investigate the particular problems of Side Arm Controllers (SAC) applied to helicopters. Two simulation trials have been performed. In the first trial, the handling characteristics of a 'passive' SAC and the basic requirements for the application of an 'active' SAC were evaluated in pilot-in-the-loop simulations, performing the tasks in a realistic scenario representing typical phases of a transport mission. The second simulation trial investigated the general control characteristics of the 'active' in comparison to the 'passive' control principle. A description of the SACs developed by ECD and the principle of the 'passive' and 'active' control concept is given, as well as specific ratings for the investigated dynamic and ergonomic parameters effecting SAC characteristics. The experimental arrangements, as well as the trials procedures of both simulation phases, are described and the results achieved are discussed emphasizing the advantages of the 'active' as opposed to the 'passive' SAC concept. This also includes the presentation of some critical aspects still to be improved and proposals to solve them.

  18. Radiesse®: a novel rejuvenation treatment for the upper arms

    PubMed Central

    Amselem, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    Nonsurgical esthetic improvement of the upper arms is a desirable goal for many individuals. Radiesse® (calcium hydroxylapatite) is an effective dermal filler for a number of indications because of its volumizing effect and the ability to stimulate neocollagenesis. No studies have reported on its safety and effectiveness for the treatment of the upper arm. In a prospective, open-label study, 30 subjects seeking improvement in the esthetic appearance of their upper arms received injections with Radiesse® (1.5 mL/arm) at two separate visits, 1 month apart. Subjects returned for a follow-up visit 4 months after the second treatment. The primary endpoint was the degree of overall subject and evaluator (investigators and study nurses) satisfaction assessed using the 5-point Global Satisfaction Scale (ranging from “1” very dissatisfied to “5” very satisfied). Secondary endpoints included assessments of skin quality (flaccidity and volume distribution) using a new Visual Analog Scale for upper arms and overall assessment of treatment using the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale. All (100%) of both subjects and evaluators were “satisfied” or “very satisfied” with treatment. The mean Global Satisfaction Score for investigators and study nurses was 4.60 and for subjects 4.53 (satisfied to very satisfied). Assessments of flaccidity and volume improved significantly compared with baseline at the post-treatment visit and also between visits. Compared with baseline, 77% of subjects were rated as considerably improved (good or great improvement) by the investigator and study nurse; 73% of subjects rated themselves as considerably improved and 43% of these rated a “great improvement.” All stated they would repeat the treatment and recommend it to others. No adverse events were reported. Radiesse® is an effective minimally invasive treatment option for improving upper arm contours and was associated with a 100% satisfaction rate for both subjects and

  19. A bill to provide for the treatment of service as a member of the Alaska Territorial Guard during World War II as active service for purposes of retired pay for members of the Armed Forces.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Murkowski, Lisa [R-AK

    2009-01-28

    01/28/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Armed Services. (text of measure as introduced: CR S997) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. 75 FR 54599 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the Knik Arm Crossing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Specified Activities; Construction of the Knik Arm Crossing, Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... received a request from the Knik Arm Bridge Toll Authority (KABATA), in coordination with the Department of... construction of a bridge across Knik Arm, named the Knik Arm Crossing, Alaska, over the course of...

  1. Patterns of motor activity in the isolated nerve cord of the octopus arm.

    PubMed

    Gutfreund, Yoram; Matzner, Henry; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2006-12-01

    The extremely flexible octopus arm provides a unique opportunity for studying movement control in a highly redundant motor system. We describe a novel preparation that allows analysis of the peripheral nervous system of the octopus arm and its interaction with the muscular and mechanosensory elements of the arm's intrinsic muscular system. First we examined the synaptic responses in muscle fibers to identify the motor pathways from the axial nerve cord of the arm to the surrounding musculature. We show that the motor axons project to the muscles via nerve roots originating laterally from the arm nerve cord. The motor field of each nerve is limited to the region where the nerve enters the arm musculature. The same roots also carry afferent mechanosensory information from the intrinsic muscle to the axial nerve cord. Next, we characterized the pattern of activity generated in the dorsal roots by electrically stimulating the axial nerve cord. The evoked activity, although far reaching and long lasting, cannot alone account for the arm extension movements generated by similar electrical stimulation. The mismatch between patterns of activity in the isolated cord and in an intact arm may stem from the involvement of mechanosensory feedback in natural arm extension. PMID:17179381

  2. Tinnitus activities treatment.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Richard S; Gogel, Stephanie A; Gehringer, Anne K

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus Activities Treatment includes counseling of the whole person, and considers individual differences and needs. We consider four areas: thoughts and emotions, hearing and communication, sleep, and concentration. We typically use Partial Masking Sound Therapy, with a noise or music set to the lowest level that provides relief. A picture-based approach facilitates engagement of the patient, and provides thorough and structured counseling. We engage the patient by including homework and activities to demonstrate understanding and facilitate progress. PMID:17956807

  3. [Medical support of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation: results of activity and tasks for 2016].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ya

    2016-01-01

    The author gives an analysis of activity of the medical service of the Armed Forces in 2015 concerning development of normative legal basis for the military health care, improvement of the level of operational and mobilization readiness of subunits of army group, and military-medical institutions, improvement of effectiveness of treatment and evacuation measures, health resort treatment, medical stuff training optimization, sanitary-and-epidemiologic support, material and technical support improvement, adoption of advanced scientific achievements focusing on medical care delivery to army group, active development and increase in medical information systems, telehealth. system. The author gives data characterizing state and level of development of medical service of the Armed Forces and its dynamics. Main tasks and parameters of development of the service in 2016 and up to 2020 are formulated. PMID:27120950

  4. Loss, adaptation and new directions: The impact of arm morbidity on leisure activities following breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Roanne; Hack, Thomas F; Quinlan, Elizabeth; Tatemichi, Sue; Towers, Anna; Kwan, Winkle; Miedema, Baukje; Tilley, Andrea; Hamoline, Rita; Morrison, Tricia

    2015-01-01

    The impact of arm morbidity on leisure and quality of life is an understudied area in cancer survivorship. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively describe the impact of breast cancer-related arm morbidity on leisure participation in Canadian women. A grounded theory approach was used to generate thematic categories and a model. Drawing on participants from a larger cohort study (n = 740), 40 women with arm morbidity symptoms were purposively sampled and interviewed. Three themes emerged: a sense of loss, adapting participation, and new directions. Women with arm morbidity may experience an abrupt loss of previously enjoyed leisure activities and engage in a process of adapting to discover new meanings and directions. Comprehensive, person-centred cancer survivorship programs may assist with adaptation to arm morbidity. PMID:26642494

  5. A dynamic model for generating actuator specifications for small arms barrel active stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Anupam; Brei, Diann; Luntz, Jonathan; Lavigna, Chris

    2006-03-01

    Due to stresses encountered in combat, it is known that soldier marksmanship noticeably decreases regardless of prior training. Active stabilization systems in small arms have potential to address this problem to increase soldier survivability and mission effectiveness. The key to success is proper actuator design, but this is highly dependent on proper specification which is challenging due to the human/weapon interaction. This paper presents a generic analytical dynamic model which is capable of defining the necessary actuation specifications for a wide range of small arms platforms. The model is unique because it captures the human interface--shoulder and arm--that introduces the jitter disturbance in addition to the geometry, inertial properties and active stabilization stiffness of the small arms platform. Because no data to date is available for actual shooter-induced disturbance in field conditions, a method is given using the model to back-solve from measured shooting range variability data the disturbance amplitude information relative to the input source (arm or shoulder). As examples of the applicability of the model to various small arms systems, two different weapon systems were investigated: the M24 sniper weapon and the M16 assault rifle. In both cases, model based simulations provided valuable insight into impact on the actuation specifications (force, displacement, phase, frequency) due to the interplay of the human-weapon-active stabilization interface including the effect of shooter-disturbance frequency, disturbance location (shoulder vs. arm), and system parameters (stiffness, barrel rotation).

  6. Adding a treatment arm to an ongoing clinical trial: a review of methodology and practice.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Dena R; Todd, Susan; Gregory, Walter M; Brown, Julia M

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating an emerging therapy as a new randomisation arm in a clinical trial that is open to recruitment would be desirable to researchers, regulators and patients to ensure that the trial remains current, new treatments are evaluated as quickly as possible, and the time and cost for determining optimal therapies is minimised. It may take many years to run a clinical trial from concept to reporting within a rapidly changing drug development environment; hence, in order for trials to be most useful to inform policy and practice, it is advantageous for them to be able to adapt to emerging therapeutic developments. This paper reports a comprehensive literature review on methodologies for, and practical examples of, amending an ongoing clinical trial by adding a new treatment arm. Relevant methodological literature describing statistical considerations required when making this specific type of amendment is identified, and the key statistical concepts when planning the addition of a new treatment arm are extracted, assessed and summarised. For completeness, this includes an assessment of statistical recommendations within general adaptive design guidance documents. Examples of confirmatory ongoing trials designed within the frequentist framework that have added an arm in practice are reported; and the details of the amendment are reviewed. An assessment is made as to how well the relevant statistical considerations were addressed in practice, and the related implications. The literature review confirmed that there is currently no clear methodological guidance on this topic, but that guidance would be advantageous to help this efficient design amendment to be used more frequently and appropriately in practice. Eight confirmatory trials were identified to have added a treatment arm, suggesting that trials can benefit from this amendment and that it can be practically feasible; however, the trials were not always able to address the key statistical considerations

  7. Muscular Activity in the Arm during Lexical Retrieval: Implications for Gesture-Speech Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsella, Ezequiel; Krauss, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    The origin and functions of the hand and arm gestures that accompany speech production are poorly understood. It has been proposed that gestures facilitate lexical retrieval, but little is known about when retrieval is accompanied by gestural activity and how this activity is related to the semantics of the word to be retrieved. Electromyographic…

  8. Endurance time, muscular activity and the hand/arm tremor for different exertion forces of holding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of exertion force on endurance time, muscular activity and hand/arm tremor during holding. Fifteen healthy young males were recruited as participants. The independent variable was exertion force (20%, 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity). The dependent variables were endurance time, muscular activity and hand/arm tremor. The results showed that endurance time decreased with exertion force while muscular activity and hand/arm tremor increased with exertion force. Hand/arm tremor increased with holding time. Endurance time of 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity was approximately 22.7%, 12.0% and 5.6% of that of 20% maximum holding capacity, respectively. The rms (root mean square) acceleration of hand/arm tremor of the final phase of holding was 2.27-, 1.33-, 1.20- and 1.73-fold of that of the initial phase of holding for 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity, respectively. PMID:26655224

  9. The influence of body posture, arm movement, and work stress on trapezius activity during computer work.

    PubMed

    Mork, Paul Jarle; Westgaard, Rolf H

    2007-11-01

    The study aimed to determine the influence of arm posture and movement on trapezius activity of computer workers, considering the full workday. A second aim was to investigate if work periods perceived as stressful were associated with elevated or more sustained muscle activity pattern. Twenty-six computer workers performing call-center (n=11), help desk (n=7), or secretarial (n=8) work tasks participated. Bilateral trapezius surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity and heart rate was recorded throughout the workday. Simultaneous inclinometer recordings from left thigh and upper arms identified periods with sitting, standing, and walking, as well as arm posture and movement. Perceived work stress and tension were recorded on visual analog scales (VAS) every hour. Trapezius sEMG activity was low in seated posture [group median 1.8 and 0.9% of activity at maximal voluntary contraction (%EMGmax) for dominant and non-dominant side] and was elevated in standing (3.0 and 2.5% EMGmax) and walking (3.9 and 3.4% EMGmax). In seated posture (mean duration 79% of workday) arm movement consistently influenced trapezius activity, accounting for approximately 20% of intra-individual variation in trapezius activity. Arm elevation was on average not associated with trapezius activity when seated; however, considerable individual variation was observed. There was no indication of increase in trapezius activity or more sustained activity pattern, nor in heart rate, in high-stress versus low-stress periods, comparing periods with seated posture for the subjects reporting contrasts of at least two VAS units in stress (n=16) or tension (n=14) score. PMID:17653757

  10. A Novel Armed Oncolytic Measles Vaccine Virus for the Treatment of Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Sebastian; Lampe, Johanna; Bossow, Sascha; Zimmermann, Martina; Neubert, Wolfgang; Bitzer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is curable only in early stages by complete surgical resection. Thus, in advanced disease stages in which a complete removal of the tumor mass is no longer possible and palliative chemotherapy achieves only modest success, therapeutics employing new methods of action are desperately needed. Oncolytic viruses employed in clinical studies have been shown to spread preferentially in cancer cells. Beyond that, virotherapeutic cell killing can be enhanced by virus-based expression of suicide genes. We engineered a measles vaccine virus (MeV) vector expressing super cytosine deaminase (SCD), a fusion protein of yeast cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase, which converts the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and subsequently to 5-fluorouridine-monophosphate. This novel vector was evaluated using three different human-derived CC cell lines. In vitro, all CC cell lines were found to be permissive to MeV infection. Partial blocking of MeV-mediated oncolysis could be overcome by employment of the SCD transgene together with administration of 5-FC. In vivo, intratumoral application of SCD-armed MeV together with a systemic 5-FC treatment showed a significant reduction in tumor size in a TFK-1 xenograft mouse model when compared with virus-only treatment. In a second animal experiment employing a HuCCT1 xenograft tumor model, an enhanced SCD-armed MeV vector, in which the SCD transgene was expressed from a different genomic position, led not only to reduced tumor volumes, but also to a significant survival benefit. On the basis of these encouraging preclinical data on employment of SCD-armed MeV for the virotherapeutic treatment of chemotherapy-resistant CC, a clinical virotherapy trial is set up currently. PMID:23550539

  11. A novel armed oncolytic measles vaccine virus for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lange, Sebastian; Lampe, Johanna; Bossow, Sascha; Zimmermann, Martina; Neubert, Wolfgang; Bitzer, Michael; Lauer, Ulrich M

    2013-05-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is curable only in early stages by complete surgical resection. Thus, in advanced disease stages in which a complete removal of the tumor mass is no longer possible and palliative chemotherapy achieves only modest success, therapeutics employing new methods of action are desperately needed. Oncolytic viruses employed in clinical studies have been shown to spread preferentially in cancer cells. Beyond that, virotherapeutic cell killing can be enhanced by virus-based expression of suicide genes. We engineered a measles vaccine virus (MeV) vector expressing super cytosine deaminase (SCD), a fusion protein of yeast cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase, which converts the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and subsequently to 5-fluorouridine-monophosphate. This novel vector was evaluated using three different human-derived CC cell lines. In vitro, all CC cell lines were found to be permissive to MeV infection. Partial blocking of MeV-mediated oncolysis could be overcome by employment of the SCD transgene together with administration of 5-FC. In vivo, intratumoral application of SCD-armed MeV together with a systemic 5-FC treatment showed a significant reduction in tumor size in a TFK-1 xenograft mouse model when compared with virus-only treatment. In a second animal experiment employing a HuCCT1 xenograft tumor model, an enhanced SCD-armed MeV vector, in which the SCD transgene was expressed from a different genomic position, led not only to reduced tumor volumes, but also to a significant survival benefit. On the basis of these encouraging preclinical data on employment of SCD-armed MeV for the virotherapeutic treatment of chemotherapy-resistant CC, a clinical virotherapy trial is set up currently. PMID:23550539

  12. Prospective multi-arm evaluation of surgical treatments for vocal fold scar and pathologic sulcus vocalis

    PubMed Central

    Welham, Nathan V.; Choi, Seong Hee; Dailey, Seth H.; Ford, Charles N.; Jiang, Jack J.; Bless, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness of type I thyroplasty, injection laryngoplasty and graft implantation for the treatment of vocal fold scar and pathologic sulcus vocalis. Study Design Prospective, multi-arm, quasi-experimental research design. Methods Twenty-eight patients with newly diagnosed vocal fold scar and/or pathologic sulcus vocalis were assigned to one of three treatment modalities: Type I thyroplasty (n = 9), injection laryngoplasty (n = 9) and graft implantation (n = 10). Psychosocial, auditory-perceptual, acoustic, aerodynamic and videostroboscopic data were collected pre-treatment and at 1, 6, 12 and 18 months post-treatment. Results Type I thyroplasty and graft implantation both resulted in reduced voice handicap with no concomitant improvement in auditory-perceptual, acoustic, aerodynamic or vocal fold physiologic performance. Injection laryngoplasty resulted in no improvement on any vocal function index. Patients who underwent graft implantation exhibited the slowest improvement trajectory across the 18 month follow-up period. Conclusions A persistent challenge in this area is that no single treatment modality is successful for the majority of patients, and there is no evidence-based decision algorithm for matching a given treatment to a given patient. Progress therefore requires the identification and categorization of predictive clinical features that can drive evidence-based treatment assignment. PMID:21557241

  13. Summary of the ARM activities at ECMWF from 2007-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Maike Ahlgrimm; Anton Beljaars

    2010-07-13

    The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), as one of the leading centres in numerical weather prediction, has been an active user of observations for model evaluation for many years. Many examples exist where detailed experimental studies have inspired model improvement. To establish a link between the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) research and ECMWF's model development, funding was provided for an \\u201cARM fellow\\u201d at ECMWF. Furthermore, ECMWF has been working closely with ARM related projects for many years. ECMWF provides operational analysis data for the ARM stations (permanent and mobile) as background meteorological information and ECMWF has implemented the Rapid Radiative Transport Model long wave and short wave schemes as radiation codes in the operational system. These codes were developed at Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc. with ARM support and were extensively evaluated using detailed ARM observations. This short report describes the history of the ARM-fellowship at ECMWF and summarizes the achievements over the last 3 years. The emphasis of the ARM funded work over the last 3 years has been on further development and evaluation of a new shallow convection scheme in the context of ECMWF's Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system. The shallow convection scheme is based on the DualM approach which combines Eddy Diffusion with a Dual Mass flux concept. One of the mass fluxes describes the dry updraughts, whereas the second updraught saturates at cloud base and penetrates into the cloud. The new scheme was optimized using single column cases from a wide range of climatological regimes. Further evaluation of the 3-dimensional model using Lidar data from space (CALIPSO) clearly indicates that the resulting cloud structures are much more realistic than the ones produced by the control model (Tiedtke mass flux scheme). Additionally, data from the ARM mobile facility in 2006 in Niamey has been used to evaluate the

  14. Bacterial skin infections, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    From 2000 through 2012, health care records of the Military Health System documented 998,671 incident cases of bacterial skin infections among active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces. Most cases (97.3%) were identified from records of outpatient medical encounters rather than hospitalizations. Cellulitis accounted for half (50.9%) of all cases of bacterial skin infection but 96 percent of associated hospital bed days. Of all cases, 42.3 percent were "other" skin infections (i.e., folliculitis, impetigo, pyoderma, pyogenic granuloma, other and unspecified infections). The remainder were attributable to carbuncles/furuncles (6.6%) and erysipelas (0.1%). Rates of infection were higher among female service members except for "other" skin infections. In general, the highest rates were associated with youth, recruit trainee status, and junior enlisted rank; however, rates of erysipelas were highest among those 50 years and older. Annual incidence rates of all bacterial skin infections have increased greatly since 2000. During the entire period, such infections required more than 1.4 million health care encounters and 94,000 hospital bed-days (equivalent to 257 years of lost duty time). The prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of bacterial skin infections, particularly in high risk settings, deserve continued emphasis. PMID:24428536

  15. Lower arm electromyography (EMG) activity detection using local binary patterns.

    PubMed

    McCool, Paul; Chatlani, Navin; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos; Soraghan, John J; Menon, Radhika; Lakany, Heba

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new electromyography activity detection technique in which 1-D local binary pattern histograms are used to distinguish between periods of activity and inactivity in myoelectric signals. The algorithm is tested on forearm surface myoelectric signals occurring due to hand gestures. The novel features of the presented method are that: 1) activity detection is performed across multiple channels using few parameters and without the need for majority vote mechanisms, 2) there are no per-channel thresholds to be tuned, which makes the process of activity detection easier and simpler to implement and less prone to errors, 3) it is not necessary to measure the properties of the signal during a quiescent period before using the algorithm. The algorithm is compared to other offline single- and double-threshold activity detection methods and, for the data sets tested, it is shown to have a better overall performance with greater tolerance to the noise in the real data set used. PMID:24802139

  16. Stepping Out of the Shade: Control of Neuronal Activity by the Scaffold Protein Kidins220/ARMS

    PubMed Central

    Scholz-Starke, Joachim; Cesca, Fabrizia

    2016-01-01

    The correct functioning of the nervous system depends on the exquisitely fine control of neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, which relies on an intricate network of protein-protein interactions and signaling that shapes neuronal homeostasis during development and in adulthood. In this complex scenario, Kinase D interacting substrate of 220 kDa/ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (Kidins220/ARMS) acts as a multi-functional scaffold protein with preferential expression in the nervous system. Engaged in a plethora of interactions with membrane receptors, cytosolic signaling components and cytoskeletal proteins, Kidins220/ARMS is implicated in numerous cellular functions including neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth and maturation and neuronal activity, often in the context of neurotrophin (NT) signaling pathways. Recent studies have highlighted a number of cell- and context-specific roles for this protein in the control of synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability, which are at present far from being completely understood. In addition, some evidence has began to emerge, linking alterations of Kidins220 expression to the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we present a concise summary of our fragmentary knowledge of Kidins220/ARMS biological functions, focusing on the mechanism(s) by which it controls various aspects of neuronal activity. We have tried, where possible, to discuss the available evidence in the wider context of NT-mediated regulation, and to outline emerging roles of Kidins220/ARMS in human pathologies. PMID:27013979

  17. Human cervical spinal cord circuitry activated by tonic input can generate rhythmic arm movements.

    PubMed

    Solopova, I A; Selionov, V A; Zhvansky, D S; Gurfinkel, V S; Ivanenko, Y

    2016-02-01

    The coordination between arms and legs during human locomotion shares many features with that in quadrupeds, yet there is limited evidence for the central pattern generator for the upper limbs in humans. Here we investigated whether different types of tonic stimulation, previously used for eliciting stepping-like leg movements, may evoke nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. The subject was lying on the side, the trunk was fixed, and all four limbs were suspended in a gravity neutral position, allowing unrestricted low-friction limb movements in the horizontal plane. The results showed that peripheral sensory stimulation (continuous muscle vibration) and central tonic activation (postcontraction state of neuronal networks following a long-lasting isometric voluntary effort, Kohnstamm phenomenon) could evoke nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements in most subjects. In ∼40% of subjects, tonic stimulation elicited nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements together with rhythmic movements of suspended legs. The fact that not all participants exhibited nonvoluntary limb oscillations may reflect interindividual differences in responsiveness of spinal pattern generation circuitry to its activation. The occurrence and the characteristics of induced movements highlight the rhythmogenesis capacity of cervical neuronal circuitries, complementing the growing body of work on the quadrupedal nature of human gait. PMID:26683072

  18. Arm hand skilled performance in cerebral palsy: activity preferences and their movement components

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of arm-hand use is very important in children with cerebral palsy (CP) who encounter arm-hand problems. To determine validity and reliability of new instruments to assess actual performance, a set of standardized test situations including activities of daily living (ADL) is required. This study gives information with which such a set for upper extremity skill research may be fine-tuned, relative to a specific research question. Aim of this study is to a) identify upper extremity related ADL children with CP want to improve on, b) determine the 10 most preferred goals of children with CP, and c) identify movement components of all goals identified. Method The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was used to identify upper extremity-related ADL preferences (goals) of 53 children with CP encountering arm-hand problems (mean age 9 ± 4.5 year). Goals were ranked based on importance attributed to each goal and the number of times a goal was mentioned, resulting in a gross list with goals. Additionally, two studies were performed, i.e. study A to determine the 10 most preferred goals for 3 age groups (2.5-5 years; 6-11 years, 12-19 years), based on the total preference score, and study B to identify movement components, like reaching and grasping, of all goals identified for both the leading and the assisting arm-hand. Results Seventy-two goals were identified. The 10 most preferred goals differed with age, changing from dressing and leisure-related goals in the youngest children to goals regarding personal care and eating for children aged 6-11 years. The oldest children preferred goals regarding eating, personal care and computer use. The movement components ‘positioning’, ‘reach’, ‘grasp’, and ‘hold’ were present in most tasks. ‘Manipulating’ was more important for the leading arm-hand, whereas ‘fixating’ was more important for the assisting arm-hand. Conclusion This study gave insight into the preferences regarding

  19. Successful Treatment of a Symptomatic Discal Cyst by Percutaneous C-arm Guided Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hyun Jeong; Park, Chan Jin

    2016-01-01

    Although discal cysts are a rare cause of low back pain and radiculopathy. Currently, surgical excision is usually the first-line treatment for discal cysts. However, alternative treatment methods have been suggested, as in some cases symptoms have improved with interventional therapies. A 27-year-old man presented with an acute onset of severe pain, and was found to have a discal cyst after an open discectomy. The patient underwent cyst aspiration and steroid injection through the facet joint under C-arm guidance. After the procedure, the patient's pain improved to NRS 0-1. On outpatient physical examination 1 week, and 1 and 3 months later, no abnormal neurological symptoms were present, and pain did not persist; thus, follow-up observation was terminated. When a discal cyst is diagnosed, it is more appropriate to consider interventional management instead of surgery as a first-line treatment, while planning for surgical resection if the symptoms do not improve or accompanying neurologic deficits progress. PMID:27103969

  20. Domestic politics, citizen activism, and U. S. nuclear arms control policy

    SciTech Connect

    Knopf, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The author seeks to ascertain whether and how citizens' movements concerning nuclear arms control and disarmament affect US arms control policy. The author employs a comparative case study methodology. He examines cases of the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations during the period of protest against nuclear testing, and the Reagan Administration during the nuclear weapons freeze campaign and the subsequent campaign for a comprehensive test ban. He hows there are four mechanisms through which public advocacy efforts can influence arms control policy, identifies the conditions under which each can be effective, and details the type of impact each mechanism has. Domestic activism interacts with broader public opinion in a way that creates electoral pressure; with elite-level debates in a way that removes a consensus behind presidential policy or changes the winning coalition in Congress; with bureaucratic politics, by generating ideas that have utility for some agents within the Executive; or with the public diplomacy of foreign governments, especially the Soviet Union. Citizens' movements had an impact on policy in each of the cases studied. The type and extent of impact, and the mechanisms involved in giving activism influence, are different for each case.

  1. Tracking performance of unbalanced QPSK demodulators. II - Biphase Costas loop with active arm filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    In a Costas loop study for biphase modulation conducted by Simon and Lindsey (1977), it was demonstrated that considerable improvement in tracking performance could be obtained by employing active arm filters of the integrate-and-dump type as opposed to passive arm filters. An investigation is conducted concerning the possibility to obtain a similar performance improvement for an unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keying (QPSK) modulation. It is found that the biphase Costas loop can be used as an efficient demodulator of QPSK in cases in which the ratio of data rates is of the same order of magnitude as the inverse of the power ratio. These cases involve approximately equal signal energies in the two channels.

  2. Effects of task-oriented robot training on arm function, activity, and quality of life in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over fifty percent of stroke patients experience chronic arm hand performance problems, compromising independence in daily life activities and quality of life. Task-oriented training may improve arm hand performance after stroke, whereby augmented therapy may lead to a better treatment outcome. Technology-supported training holds opportunities for increasing training intensity. However, the effects of robot-supported task-oriented training with real life objects in stroke patients are not known to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness and added value of the Haptic Master robot combined with task-oriented arm hand training in chronic stroke patients. Methods In a single-blind randomized controlled trial, 22 chronic stroke patients were randomly allocated to receive either task-oriented robot-assisted arm-hand training (experimental group) or task-oriented non-robotic arm-hand training (control group). For training, the T-TOAT (Technology-supported Task-Oriented Arm Training) method was applied. Training was provided during 8 weeks, 4 times/week, 2× 30 min/day. Results A significant improvement after training on the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) was demonstrated in the experimental group (p = 0.008). Results were maintained until 6 months after cessation of the training. On the perceived performance measure (Motor Activity Log (MAL)), both, the experimental and control group improved significantly after training (control group p = 0.008; experimental group p = 0.013). The improvements on MAL in both groups were maintained until 6 months after cessation of the training. With regard to quality of life, only in the control group a significant improvement after training was found (EuroQol-5D p = 0.015, SF-36 physical p = 0.01). However, the improvement on SF-36 in the control group was not maintained (p = 0.012). No between-group differences could be demonstrated on any of the outcome measures

  3. C-Arm Computed Tomography Compared With Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography for Treatment Planning Before Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Christoph Waggershauser, Tobias; Tiling, Reinhold; Weckbach, Sabine; Johnson, Thorsten; Meissner, Oliver; Klingenbeck-Regn, Klaus; Reiser, Maximilian; Hoffmann, Ralf Thorsten

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether rotational C-arm computed tomography (CT) allows visualization of liver metastases and adds relevant information for radioembolization (RE) treatment planning. Technetium angiography, together with C-arm CT, was performed in 47 patients to determine the feasibility for RE. C-arm CT images were compared with positron emission tomography (PET)/CT images for the detection of liver tumors. The images were also rated according one of the following three categories: (1) images that provide no additional information compared with DSA alone; (2) images that do provide additional information compared with DSA; and (2) images that had an impact on eligibility determination for and planning of the RE procedure. In all patients, 283 FDG-positive liver lesions were detected by PET. In venous contrast-phase CT, 221 (78.1%) and 15 (5.3%) of these lesions were either hypodense or hyperdense, respectively. In C-arm CT, 103 (36.4%) liver lesions were not detectable because they were outside of either the field of view or the contrast-enhanced liver segment. Another 25 (8.8%) and 98 (34.6%) of the liver lesions were either hyperdense or presented primarily as hypodense lesions with a rim enhancement, respectively. With PET/CT as the standard of reference, venous CT and C-arm CT failed to detect 47 (16.6%) and 57 (20.1%) of all liver lesions, respectively. For RE planning, C-arm CT provided no further information, provide some additional information, or had an impact on the procedure in 20 (42.5%), 15 (31.9%) and 12 (25.6%) of patients, respectively. We conclude that C-arm CT may add decisive information in patients scheduled for RE.

  4. A Visual Analytics Approach to Structured Data Analysis to Enhance Nonproliferation and Arms Control Verification Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, David S.

    2014-08-07

    Analysis activities for Nonproliferation and Arms Control verification require the use of many types of data. Tabular structured data, such as Excel spreadsheets and relational databases, have traditionally been used for data mining activities, where specific queries are issued against data to look for matching results. The application of visual analytics tools to structured data enables further exploration of datasets to promote discovery of previously unknown results. This paper discusses the application of a specific visual analytics tool to datasets related to the field of Arms Control and Nonproliferation to promote the use of visual analytics more broadly in this domain. Visual analytics focuses on analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces (Wong and Thomas 2004). It promotes exploratory analysis of data, and complements data mining technologies where known patterns can be mined for. Also with a human in the loop, they can bring in domain knowledge and subject matter expertise. Visual analytics has not widely been applied to this domain. In this paper, we will focus on one type of data: structured data, and show the results of applying a specific visual analytics tool to answer questions in the Arms Control and Nonproliferation domain. We chose to use the T.Rex tool, a visual analytics tool developed at PNNL, which uses a variety of visual exploration patterns to discover relationships in structured datasets, including a facet view, graph view, matrix view, and timeline view. The facet view enables discovery of relationships between categorical information, such as countries and locations. The graph tool visualizes node-link relationship patterns, such as the flow of materials being shipped between parties. The matrix visualization shows highly correlated categories of information. The timeline view shows temporal patterns in data. In this paper, we will use T.Rex with two different datasets to demonstrate how interactive exploration of

  5. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-06-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  6. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-01-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  7. Immobilization of pectinase on silica-based supports: Impacts of particle size and spacer arm on the activity.

    PubMed

    Alagöz, Dilek; Tükel, S Seyhan; Yildirim, Deniz

    2016-06-01

    The pectinase was separately immobilized onto Florisil and nano silica supports through both glutaraldehyde and 3-glyoxypropyltrietoxysilane spacer arms. The effects of spacer arm, particle size of support and ionic liquids on the activities of pectinase preparations were investigated. The immobilization of pectinase onto Florisil and nano silica through 3-glyoxypropyltrietoxysilane spacer arm completely led to inactivation of enzyme; however, 10 and 75% pectinase activity were retained when it was immobilized through glutaraldehyde spacer arm onto Florisil and nano silica, respectively. The pectinase immobilized onto nano silica through glutaraldehyde spacer arm showed 6.3-fold higher catalytic efficiency than that of the pectinase immobilized onto Florisil through same spacer arm. A 2.3-fold increase in thermal stability of pectinase was provided upon immobilization onto nano silica at 35°C. The effects of IL/buffer mixture and volume ratio of IL/buffer mixture on the catalytic activities of free and immobilized pectinase preparations were also tested. All the pectinase preparations showed highest activity in 10% (v/v) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate containing medium and their activities significantly affected from the concentration of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate. PMID:26964525

  8. Self-Administered, Home-Based SMART (Sensorimotor Active Rehabilitation Training) Arm Training: A Single-Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Kathryn S; Neibling, Bridee A; Barker, Ruth N

    2015-01-01

    This single-case, mixed-method study explored the feasibility of self-administered, home-based SMART (sensorimotor active rehabilitation training) Arm training for a 57-yr-old man with severe upper-limb disability after a right frontoparietal hemorrhagic stroke 9 mo earlier. Over 4 wk of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training, the participant completed 2,100 repetitions unassisted. His wife provided support for equipment set-up and training progressions. Clinically meaningful improvements in arm impairment (strength), activity (arm and hand tasks), and participation (use of arm in everyday tasks) occurred after training (at 4 wk) and at follow-up (at 16 wk). Areas for refinement of SMART Arm training derived from thematic analysis of the participant's and researchers' journals focused on enabling independence, ensuring home and user friendliness, maintaining the motivation to persevere, progressing toward everyday tasks, and integrating practice into daily routine. These findings suggest that further investigation of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training is warranted for people with stroke who have severe upper-limb disability. PMID:26114456

  9. Pain in an era of armed conflicts: Prevention and treatment for warfighters and civilian casualties.

    PubMed

    George, E; Elman, I; Becerra, L; Berg, Sheri; Borsook, D

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain is a common squealae of military- and terror-related injuries. While its pathophysiology has not yet been fully elucidated, it may be potentially related to premorbid neuropsychobiological status, as well as to the type of injury and to the neural alterations that it may evoke. Accordingly, optimized approaches for wounded individuals should integrate primary, secondary and tertiary prevention in the form of thorough evaluation of risk factors along with specific interventions to contravene and mitigate the ensuing chronicity. Thus, Premorbid Events phase may encompass assessments of psychological and neurobiological vulnerability factors in conjunction with fostering preparedness and resilience in both military and civilian populations at risk. Injuries per se phase calls for immediate treatment of acute pain in the field by pharmacological agents that spare and even enhance coping and adaptive capabilities. The key objective of the Post Injury Events is to prevent and/or reverse maladaptive peripheral- and central neural system's processes that mediate transformation of acute to chronic pain and to incorporate timely interventions for concomitant mental health problems including post-traumatic stress disorder and addiction We suggest that the proposed continuum of care may avert more disability and suffering than the currently employed less integrated strategies. While the requirements of the armed forces present a pressing need for this integrated continuum and a framework in which it can be most readily implemented, this approach may be also instrumental for the care of civilian casualties. PMID:27084355

  10. Blood pressure self-measurement in upper arm and in wrist for treatment control of arterial hypertension compared to ABPM.

    PubMed

    Eckert, S; Gleichmann, S; Gleichmann, U

    1996-01-01

    Automatic 24 h Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) has become an established method in the diagnosis and treatment control of arterial hypertension. Fully automatic blood pressure devices for blood pressure self-measurement (BPSM) in the upper arm and in the wrist using the oscillometric measuring technique have been available in Germany for several years. After evaluating the blood pressure devices boso Oscillomat (upper arm) and Omron HEM-601 (wrist) by means of simultaneous invasive measurements, we studied the suitability of this new method for the control of treated hypertension. Using the device Space Labs 90207, we had ABPM carried out in 100 men (aged 58 +/- 8 years) with mild to moderate hypertension. They recorded hourly blood pressure measurements in the wrist between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m., in the same arm as the blood pressure monitoring using the device Omron HEM-601, or in the other arm using the device boso Oscillomat. The values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured using both methods. Since the random samples probably consisted of non-standard distribution differences, we applied the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test for statistical analysis. No significant differences were recorded between the daily mean systolic (p < .07) and diastolic (p < .97) blood pressure values determined by ABPM and by frequent blood pressure self-measurement. Multiple blood pressure readings obtained using blood pressure self-measurement in the upper arm as well as in the wrist are an alternative to the established, automatic 24-h, ambulatory blood pressure measurement for the treatment control of arterial hypertension, that nightly blood pressure measurement can be omitted. It has advantage of unrestricted and desired frequent use under standardized conditions. PMID:8896310

  11. Lever-arm and mini-implant system for anterior torque control during retraction in lingual orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ryoon-Ki; Heo, Jung-Min; Ha, Young-Ki

    2005-01-01

    Anterior torque control during retraction is difficult to achieve with lingual orthodontic treatment. This article describes the use of a lever-arm and mini-implant system as absolute anchorage for controlled retraction of the anterior teeth during lingual orthodontic treatment and evaluates 2 protrusion cases treated with this system. Various clinical situations are discussed and analyzed from a biomechanical standpoint. Mini-implants are needed to control the point of force application in the posterior area and produce en masse retraction with no anchorage loss. When the length of the lever-arm is adjusted to the position of the mini-implant, the desired line of action of the retraction force with respect to the center of resistance of the anterior segment is selected. Controlled retraction of the anterior teeth was achieved with no loss of anchorage. The mini-implant, in conjunction with the lever-arm, is useful not only for absolute anchorage but also for anterior torque control during retraction in lingual orthodontic treatment. PMID:15747828

  12. Social Support and Treatment Outcome in Alcohol Dependence Syndrome in Armed Forces

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinay Singh; Azad, Sudip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Social factors play vital role in unfolding of alcohol use disorders in any given population. Several factors beyond the confines of treatment settings influence treatment outcome in alcohol dependence syndrome. Social support has positive effect in treatment outcome of alcohol dependence syndrome. This has not been much studied in India in past. Therefore we decided to study the perception of social support in cases of alcohol dependence syndrome admitted in a busy hospital in armed forces. Aim The aim was to study the perception of social support across relapsed and abstinent group and see if it reached any statistical proportion and also to see if any socio-demographic variables also affected perception of social support. Materials and Methods Fifty five consecutive male patients of alcohol dependent syndrome without a co-morbid neurological/psychiatric diagnosis were assessed for their perception of social support after taking informed consent. They were explained the procedure and their alcoholic milestones were recorded in specially designed pro-forma. Subjects were then divided in abstinent and relapsed group. Subsequently they were assessed for their perception of social support by administering Social provision scale and Social support questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Data were tabulated and statistically analysed by using chi square test, Mann Whitney U-Test and Rank ANOVA test where applicable p-value <.05 was taken as significant. Results Results indicated that perception of social support across abstinent (n=18) and relapsed (n= 37) group reached significant statistical proportion as measured by social provision scale and social support questionnaire. Duration of use, dependence and family history of alcoholism did not influence perception of social support across patient population. There was inverse relationship between patients with alcohol related problem and their perception of social support. Professional and qualified soldiers

  13. Recovery of post stroke proximal arm function, driven by complex neuroplastic bilateral brain activation patterns and predicted by baseline motor dysfunction severity

    PubMed Central

    Pundik, Svetlana; McCabe, Jessica P.; Hrovat, Ken; Fredrickson, Alice Erica; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Feng, I Jung; Daly, Janis J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Neuroplastic changes that drive recovery of shoulder/elbow function after stroke have been poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between neuroplastic brain changes related to shoulder/elbow movement control in response to treatment and recovery of arm motor function in chronic stroke survivors.Methods: Twenty-three chronic stroke survivors were treated with 12 weeks of arm rehabilitation. Outcome measures included functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) for the shoulder/elbow components of reach and a skilled motor function test (Arm Motor Abilities Test, AMAT), collected before and after treatment.Results: We observed two patterns of neuroplastic changes that were associated with gains in motor function: decreased or increased task-related brain activation. Those with significantly better motor function at baseline exhibited a decrease in brain activation in response to treatment, evident in the ipsilesional primary motor and contralesional supplementary motor regions; in contrast, those with greater baseline motor impairment, exhibited increased brain activation in response to treatment. There was a linear relationship between greater functional gain (AMAT) and increased activation in bilateral primary motor, contralesional primary and secondary sensory regions, and contralesional lateral premotor area, after adjusting for baseline AMAT, age, and time since stroke.Conclusions: Recovery of functional reach involves recruitment of several contralesional and bilateral primary motor regions. In response to intensive therapy, the direction of functional brain change (i.e., increase or decrease in task-related brain recruitment) for shoulder/elbow reach components depends on baseline level of motor function and may represent either different phases of recovery or different patterns of neuroplasticity that drive functional recovery. PMID:26257623

  14. Hand-Arm Coordinated Manipulation Using Active Body-Environment Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugaiwa, Taisuke; Iwata, Hiroyasu; Sugano, Shigeki

    Human-symbiotic humanoid robots that can perform tasks dexterously with their hands are needed in our homes, welfare facilities, and other places. To improve their performance of tasks, we propose a scheme of controlling motion aimed at appropriately coordinated hand and arm motions. By observing human manual tasks, we identify an active body-environment contact as a kind of human manual skills and devise a motion control scheme based on it. We also analyze the effectiveness of the combination of the active body-environment contact and our proposed scheme in example tasks of the adding/removing constraint task. We validate our motion control scheme through actual tests on a prototype human-symbiotic humanoid robot.

  15. The Resonating Arm Exerciser: design and pilot testing of a mechanically passive rehabilitation device that mimics robotic active assistance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Robotic arm therapy devices that incorporate actuated assistance can enhance arm recovery, motivate patients to practice, and allow therapists to deliver semi-autonomous training. However, because such devices are often complex and actively apply forces, they have not achieved widespread use in rehabilitation clinics or at home. This paper describes the design and pilot testing of a simple, mechanically passive device that provides robot-like assistance for active arm training using the principle of mechanical resonance. Methods The Resonating Arm Exerciser (RAE) consists of a lever that attaches to the push rim of a wheelchair, a forearm support, and an elastic band that stores energy. Patients push and pull on the lever to roll the wheelchair back and forth by about 20 cm around a neutral position. We performed two separate pilot studies of the device. In the first, we tested whether the predicted resonant properties of RAE amplified a user’s arm mobility by comparing his or her active range of motion (AROM) in the device achieved during a single, sustained push and pull to the AROM achieved during rocking. In a second pilot study designed to test the therapeutic potential of the device, eight participants with chronic stroke (35 ± 24 months since injury) and a mean, stable, initial upper extremity Fugl-Meyer (FM) score of 17 ± 8 / 66 exercised with RAE for eight 45 minute sessions over three weeks. The primary outcome measure was the average AROM measured with a tilt sensor during a one minute test, and the secondary outcome measures were the FM score and the visual analog scale for arm pain. Results In the first pilot study, we found people with a severe motor impairment after stroke intuitively found the resonant frequency of the chair, and the mechanical resonance of RAE amplified their arm AROM by a factor of about 2. In the second pilot study, AROM increased by 66% ± 20% (p = 0.003). The mean FM score increase was 8.5 ± 4 pts (p = 0

  16. Arm Care. Relief and Prevention for Shoulder Tendonitis, Tennis Elbow, Bursitis and Wrist Sprain in Athletics and Other Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nirschl, Robert P.

    The book provides a practical and meaningful treatment program for athletes involved in sports which injure the arm or shoulder to a high degree, such as tennis, baseball, swimming, raquetball, pole vaulting, javelin throwing, and weight training. The book's chapters present information on: (1) symptoms of injury; (2) the anatomy of injury; (3)…

  17. CCL21/IL21-armed oncolytic adenovirus enhances antitumor activity against TERT-positive tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Li, Yi-Fei; Si, Chong-Zhan; Zhu, Yu-Hui; Jin, Yan; Zhu, Tong-Tong; Liu, Ming-Yuan; Liu, Guang-Yao

    2016-07-15

    Multigene-armed oncolytic adenoviruses are capable of efficiently generating a productive antitumor immune response. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) binds to CCR7 on naïve T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) to promote their chemoattraction to the tumor and resultant antitumor activity. Interleukin 21 (IL21) promotes survival of naïve T cells while maintaining their CCR7 surface expression, which increases their capacity to transmigrate in response to CCL21 chemoattraction. IL21 is also involved in NK cell differentiation and B cell activation and proliferation. The generation of effective antitumor immune responses is a complex process dependent upon coordinated interactions of various subsets of effector cells. Using the AdEasy system, we aimed to construct an oncolytic adenovirus co-expressing CCL21 and IL21 that could selectively replicate in TERTp-positive tumor cells (Ad-CCL21-IL21 virus). The E1A promoter of these oncolytic adenoviruses was replaced by telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (TERTp). Ad-CCL21-IL21 was constructed from three plasmids, pGTE-IL21, pShuttle-CMV-CCL21 and AdEasy-1 and was homologously recombined and propagated in the Escherichia coli strain BJ5183 and the packaging cell line HEK-293, respectively. Our results showed that our targeted and armed oncolytic adenoviruses Ad-CCL21-IL21 can induce apoptosis in TERTp-positive tumor cells to give rise to viral propagation, in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, we confirm that these modified oncolytic adenoviruses do not replicate efficiently in normal cells even under high viral loads. Additionally, we investigate the role of Ad-CCL21-IL21 in inducing antitumor activity and tumor specific cytotoxicity of CTLs in vitro. This study suggests that Ad-CCL21-IL21 is a promising targeted tumor-specific oncolytic adenovirus. PMID:27157859

  18. Bevacizumab and radiotherapy for the treatment of glioblastoma: brothers in arms or unholy alliance?

    PubMed Central

    Niyazi, Maximilian; Harter, Patrick N.; Hattingen, Elke; Rottler, Maya; von Baumgarten, Louisa; Proescholdt, Martin; Belka, Claus; Lauber, Kirsten; Mittelbronn, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) represents the most frequent primary brain tumor in adults and carries a dismal prognosis despite aggressive, multimodal treatment regimens involving maximal resection, radiochemotherapy, and maintenance chemotherapy. Histologically, GBMs are characterized by a high degree of VEGF-mediated vascular proliferation. In consequence, new targeted anti-angiogenic therapies, such as the monoclonal anti-VEGF-A antibody bevacizumab, have proven effective in attenuating tumor (neo)angiogenesis and were shown to possess therapeutic activity in several phase II trials. However, the role of bevacizumab in the context of multimodal therapy approaches appears to be rather complex. This review will give insights into current concepts, limitations, and controversies regarding the molecular mechanisms and the clinical benefits of bevacizumab treatment in combination with radio(chemo)therapy - particularly in face of the results of recent phase III trials, which failed to demonstrate convincing improvements in overall survival (OS). PMID:26575171

  19. Using pilot data to size a two-arm randomized trial to find a nearly optimal personalized treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Laber, Eric B; Zhao, Ying-Qi; Regh, Todd; Davidian, Marie; Tsiatis, Anastasios; Stanford, Joseph B; Zeng, Donglin; Song, Rui; Kosorok, Michael R

    2016-04-15

    A personalized treatment strategy formalizes evidence-based treatment selection by mapping patient information to a recommended treatment. Personalized treatment strategies can produce better patient outcomes while reducing cost and treatment burden. Thus, among clinical and intervention scientists, there is a growing interest in conducting randomized clinical trials when one of the primary aims is estimation of a personalized treatment strategy. However, at present, there are no appropriate sample size formulae to assist in the design of such a trial. Furthermore, because the sampling distribution of the estimated outcome under an estimated optimal treatment strategy can be highly sensitive to small perturbations in the underlying generative model, sample size calculations based on standard (uncorrected) asymptotic approximations or computer simulations may not be reliable. We offer a simple and robust method for powering a single stage, two-armed randomized clinical trial when the primary aim is estimating the optimal single stage personalized treatment strategy. The proposed method is based on inverting a plugin projection confidence interval and is thereby regular and robust to small perturbations of the underlying generative model. The proposed method requires elicitation of two clinically meaningful parameters from clinical scientists and uses data from a small pilot study to estimate nuisance parameters, which are not easily elicited. The method performs well in simulated experiments and is illustrated using data from a pilot study of time to conception and fertility awareness. PMID:26506890

  20. Using pilot data to size a two-arm randomized trial to find a nearly optimal personalized treatment strategy

    PubMed Central

    Laber, Eric B.; Zhao, Ying-Qi; Regh, Todd; Davidian, Marie; Tsiatis, Anastasios; Stanford, Joseph B.; Zeng, Donglin; Song, Rui; Kosorok, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    A personalized treatment strategy formalizes evidence-based treatment selection by mapping patient information to a recommended treatment. Personalized treatment strategies can produce better patient outcomes while reducing cost and treatment burden. Thus, among clinical and intervention scientists, there is a growing interest in conducting randomized clinical trials when one of the primary aims is estimation of a personalized treatment strategy. However, at present, there are no appropriate sample size formulae to assist in the design of such a trial. Furthermore, because the sampling distribution of the estimated outcome under an estimated optimal treatment strategy can be highly sensitive to small perturbations in the underlying generative model, sample size calculations based on standard (uncorrected) asymptotic approximations or computer simulations may not be reliable. We offer a simple and robust method for powering a single stage, two-armed randomized clinical trial when the primary aim is estimating the optimal single stage personalized treatment strategy. The proposed method is based on inverting a plugin projection confidence interval and is thereby regular and robust to small perturbations of the underlying generative model. The proposed method requires elicitation of two clinically-meaningful parameters from clinical scientists and uses data from a small pilot study to estimate nuisance parameters which are not easily elicited. The method performs well in simulated experiments and is illustrated using data from a pilot study of time to conception and fertility awareness. PMID:26506890

  1. Differential effects of mental load on proximal and distal arm muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Bloemsaat, Jules G; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J; Van Galen, Gerard P

    2005-12-01

    Work-related upper extremity disorders (WRUEDs) that result from keyboarding tasks are prevalent and costly. Although the precise mechanisms causing the disorder are not yet fully understood, several risk factors have been proposed. These include the repetitive nature of the motor task and the associated sustained static working postures, but also more psychological factors such as mental load. Epidemiological surveys have shown that WRUEDs are more prone to develop in the postural muscles of the neck/shoulder area than in the executive muscles controlling the hand. The present study investigated whether the activation patterns of these two muscle types are differentially affected by an additional mental load during the performance of a repetitive tapping task. Participants tapped various keying patterns with their dominant index finger at two prescribed tempi. Mental load was manipulated by means of an auditory short-term memory task. We recorded the EMG activity of two neck/shoulder muscles (trapezius and deltoid), two upper arm muscles (biceps and triceps), and four forearm muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis, extensor digitorum, extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi ulnaris) and analyzed the kinematics and impact forces of the index finger. The results confirmed that the upper limb has two functions. Specifically, activity of the executive distal musculature was increased during tapping at the higher pace, while the activity of the postural upper limb musculature was elevated due to the memory task. We argue that continuously increased muscular activity can lead to fatigue and thus eventually cause musculoskeletal complaints. The results are discussed with respect to biomechanical adaptation strategies that deal with the consequences of increased noise in the neuromotor system due to enhanced mental processing. PMID:16078028

  2. Active-Arm Passive-Leg Exercise Improves Cardiovascular Function in Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    West, Christopher R; Currie, Katharine D; Gee, Cameron; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Borisoff, Jaimie

    2015-11-01

    In a 43-yr-old male subject with a chronic T3 AIS A spinal cord injury, the acute cardiorespiratory responses to active upper-extremity exercise alone and combined active-arm passive-leg exercise (AAPLE) were investigated, along with the cardiorespiratory, cardiac, vascular, and body composition responses to a 6-wk AAPLE interval training intervention. AAPLE elicited superior acute maximal cardiorespiratory responses compared with upper-extremity exercise alone. In response to a 6-wk interval training regimen, AAPLE caused a 25% increase in peak oxygen uptake, a 10% increase in resting stroke volume, and a 4-fold increase in brachial artery blood flow. Conversely, there were no changes in femoral arterial function, body composition, or bone mineral density in response to training. As a potential clinical intervention, AAPLE may be advantageous over other forms of currently available exercise, owing to the minimal setup time and cost involved and the nonreliance on specialized equipment that is required for other exercise modalities. PMID:26259052

  3. Treatment of postburn ear defect with expanded upper arm flap and consequent expansion without skin grafting.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jintian; Liu, Tun; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Yong-Biao; Zhang, Qingguo

    2014-04-01

    Total ear reconstruction in the postburn auricle is one of the most challenging procedures for plastic surgeons. Adverse factors associated with these procedures include reduced or damaged blood supply, poor elasticity of scar tissue, increased risk of infection, and the possible destruction of skin, temporoparietal fascia, or retroauricular fascia. In cases where patients are severely burned, free flaps, such as radial forearm flaps, contralateral temporoparietal fascial flaps, or omental flaps, can be used as framework envelopes. In this work, we introduced a novel method of expanded upper arm flap transfer, followed by an expansion method of total ear reconstruction without skin grafting. PMID:24589517

  4. The Pediatric Motor Activity Log-Revised: Assessing Real-world Arm Use in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Uswatte, Gitendra; Taub, Edward; Griffin, Angi; Vogtle, Laura; Rowe, Jan; Barman, Joydip

    2012-01-01

    Objective Widely accepted models of disability suggest that actual use of an impaired upper-extremity in everyday life frequently deviates from its motor capacity, as measured by laboratory tests. Yet, direct measures of real-world use of an impaired upper-extremity are rare in pediatric neurorehabilitation. This paper examines how well the Pediatric Motor Activity Log-Revised (PMAL-R) measures this parameter, when the PMAL-R is administered as a structured interview as originally designed. Design Parents of sixty children between 2–8 years with upper-extremity hemiparesis due to cerebral palsy (CP) completed the PMAL-R twice. Additionally, the children were videotaped during play structured to elicit spontaneous arm use. More-affected arm use was scored by masked raters; it was thought to reflect everyday activity since no cues were given about which arm to employ. Testing sessions were separated by 3 weeks, during which 29 children received upper-extremity rehabilitation and 31 did not. Results The PMAL-R had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .93) and test-retest reliability (r = .89). Convergent validity was supported by a strong correlation between changes in PMAL-R scores and more-affected arm use during play, r(53) = .5, p < .001. Conclusions The PMAL-R interview is a reliable and valid measure of upper-extremity pediatric neurorehabilitation outcome. PMID:22686553

  5. Nonsurgical Korean Integrative Treatments for Symptomatic Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Three-Armed Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kiok; Shin, Kyung-Min; Lee, Jun-Hwan; Seo, Bok-Nam; Jung, So-Young; Youn, Yousuk; Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Jaehong; Qu, Wenchun

    2016-01-01

    This is a study protocol for a pilot three-armed randomized controlled trial on nonsurgical integrative Korean medicinal treatment for symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Thirty-six participants who have been diagnosed with (LSS) and recommended for spinal surgery by neurosurgeons or orthopedics and have had spinal symptoms such as severe low back pain and neurological claudication regardless of at least three months of conservative treatments will be recruited. Participants will be randomly assigned to be one of the three intervention groups, including the Mokhuri treatment program group 1 or 2 or usual care group. All treatments will be administered in inpatient units over a period of 4 weeks. The primary outcomes are 0 to 100 Visual Analogue Scales for low back pain and leg pain and the secondary outcomes are Oswestry Disability Index; EQ-5D; Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire; Oxford Claudication Score; physical function test, including treadmill test, walking duration, and distance assessment for free leg pain; radiologic testing; and adverse events which will be assessed during the 4-week treatment period as well as after 3 and 6 months of follow-up. Then, we will assess the feasibility of the clinical trial design as well as a nonsurgical integrative treatment program. This trial is registered with CRIS registration number: KCT0001218. PMID:26941823

  6. Nonsurgical Korean Integrative Treatments for Symptomatic Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Three-Armed Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial Protocol.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiok; Shin, Kyung-Min; Lee, Jun-Hwan; Seo, Bok-Nam; Jung, So-Young; Youn, Yousuk; Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Jaehong; Qu, Wenchun; Kim, Tae-Hun

    2016-01-01

    This is a study protocol for a pilot three-armed randomized controlled trial on nonsurgical integrative Korean medicinal treatment for symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Thirty-six participants who have been diagnosed with (LSS) and recommended for spinal surgery by neurosurgeons or orthopedics and have had spinal symptoms such as severe low back pain and neurological claudication regardless of at least three months of conservative treatments will be recruited. Participants will be randomly assigned to be one of the three intervention groups, including the Mokhuri treatment program group 1 or 2 or usual care group. All treatments will be administered in inpatient units over a period of 4 weeks. The primary outcomes are 0 to 100 Visual Analogue Scales for low back pain and leg pain and the secondary outcomes are Oswestry Disability Index; EQ-5D; Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire; Oxford Claudication Score; physical function test, including treadmill test, walking duration, and distance assessment for free leg pain; radiologic testing; and adverse events which will be assessed during the 4-week treatment period as well as after 3 and 6 months of follow-up. Then, we will assess the feasibility of the clinical trial design as well as a nonsurgical integrative treatment program. This trial is registered with CRIS registration number: KCT0001218. PMID:26941823

  7. Relationship between stretch reflex thresholds and voluntary arm muscle activation in patients with spasticity.

    PubMed

    Musampa, Nadine K; Mathieu, Pierre A; Levin, Mindy F

    2007-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that deficits in agonist-antagonist muscle activation in the single-joint elbow system in patients with spastic hemiparesis are directly related to limitations in the range of regulation of the thresholds of muscle activation. We extended these findings to the double-joint, shoulder-elbow system in these patients. Ten non-disabled individuals and 11 stroke survivors with spasticity in upper limb muscles participated. Stroke survivors had sustained a single unilateral stroke 6-36 months previously, had full pain-free passive range of motion of the affected shoulder and elbow and had some voluntary control of the arm. EMG activity from four elbow and two shoulder muscles was recorded during quasi-static (<5 degrees /s) stretching of elbow flexors/extensors and during slow voluntary elbow flexion/extension movement through full range. Stretches and active movements were initiated from full elbow flexion or extension with the shoulder in three different initial positions (60 degrees , 90 degrees , 145 degrees horizontal abduction). SRTs were defined as the elbow angle at which EMG signals began to exceed 2SD of background noise. SRT angles obtained by passive muscle stretch were compared with the angles at which the respective muscles became activated during voluntary elbow movements. SRTs in elbow flexors were correlated with clinical spasticity scores. SRTs of elbow flexors and extensors were within the biomechanical range of the joint and varied with changes in the shoulder angle in all subjects with hemiparesis but could not be reached in this range in all healthy subjects when muscles were initially relaxed. In patients, limitations in the regulation of SRTs resulted in a subdivision of all-possible shoulder-elbow arm configurations into two areas, one in which spasticity was present ("spatial spasticity zone") and another in which it was absent. Spatial spasticity zones were different for different muscles in different patients but

  8. Making music after stroke: using musical activities to enhance arm function.

    PubMed

    van Wijck, Frederike; Knox, Don; Dodds, Colin; Cassidy, Gianna; Alexander, Gillian; MacDonald, Raymond

    2012-04-01

    A common long-term consequence of stroke is impaired arm function, which affects independence and quality of life in a considerable proportion of stroke survivors. There is a growing need for self-management strategies that enable stroke survivors to continue their recovery after rehabilitation has ceased. Interventions with high-intensity, repetitive task training and feedback are most likely to improve function. Achieving the required amount of self-practice is challenging, however. Innovative approaches are required to translate therapies into rewarding activities that can be undertaken independently. This paper describes the key principles and development of a novel intervention that integrates individuals' preferred music with game technology in upper limb rehabilitation. The "tap tempo" paradigm, which uses rhythmic auditory cueing, provides repetitive upper limb task training, which can be tailored to individual goals and progress (e.g., in terms of movement range and complexity), while providing sensitive quantitative feedback to promote skill acquisition and enhance self-management. PMID:22524372

  9. Simultaneous treatment of anterior vaginal wall prolapse and stress urinary incontinence by using transobturator four arms polypropylene mesh

    PubMed Central

    Sharifiaghdas, Farzaneh; Mirzaei, Mahboubeh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the medium-term efficacy and safety of transobturator four-arm polypropylene mesh in the treatment of high-stage anterior vaginal wall prolapse and concomitant stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Materials and Methods Between September 2010 and August 2013, a prospective single-center trial was performed to evaluate women with stage≥3 anterior vaginal wall prolapse with or without SUI who presented to Labbafinejad Hospital, Teheran, Iran, and underwent anterior vaginal wall repair with polypropylene mesh. Pre- and postoperative evaluation included history; physical examination using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system and cough stress test, both before and after reduction of prolapsed structures; Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ); urinalysis and culture; and a postvoid residual assessment. Complications were reported at a mean of 2 years of follow-up. Results A total of 71 patients underwent cystocele repair with the transobturator four-arm polypropylene mesh. Seven of the patients were lost to follow-up. There were no perioperative complications. The anatomical success rate was 87.5%. The subjective success rate was 92.1%. The PFDI and PFIQ were significantly improved after surgery (p<0.001). Among those with the simultaneous complaint of SUI, 82% were cured without any additional procedure. Three patients (4.6%) experienced vaginal mesh extrusion. Two patients (3.1%) reported worsening of dyspareunia after surgery. Conclusions The four arms polypropylene mesh is an effective device for simultaneous correction of anterior vaginal wall prolapse and SUI with a low complication rate at a medium-term follow-up. The majority of the subgroup with concomitant SUI were cured without a second simultaneous procedure. PMID:26682021

  10. Correlation of primate red nucleus discharge with muscle activity during free-form arm movements.

    PubMed

    Miller, L E; van Kan, P L; Sinkjaer, T; Andersen, T; Harris, G D; Houk, J C

    1993-09-01

    1. We recorded from 239 neurons located in the magnocellular division of the red nucleus of four alert macaque monkeys. At the same time, we recorded electromyographic (EMG) signals from as many as twenty electrodes chronically implanted on muscles of the shoulder, arm, forearm and hand. We recorded EMG signals for periods ranging from several months to a year. 2. The monkeys were trained to perform three free-form food retrieval tasks, each of which activated all of the recorded muscles and most of the neurons. The 'prehension' task required simply that the monkey grasp a piece of food from a fixed point in space. The 'barrier' task required the monkey to reach around a small barrier to obtain the food, and the 'Kluver' task required that food be removed from small holes. During the prehension task, we found approximately equal numbers of neurons that were strongly active while the hand was being moved toward the target (70% of units), and while the food was being grasped (60%). Relatively few units were active as the hand was returned to the mouth (15%). 3. Data files of 1-2 min duration were collected while the monkey performed a single behavioural task. Whenever possible, we recorded files for all three tasks from each neuron. For each file we calculated long time-span analog cross-correlations (+/- 1.28 s) between instantaneous neuronal firing rate and each of the full-wave rectified, low-pass filtered EMG signals. We used the peak correlation and the time of the peak as two summary measures of the functional relation between modulation of neuronal activity and EMG. 4. The magnitude of the strongest correlations was between 0.4 and 0.5 (normalized to a perfect correlation of +/- 1.0). Distal muscles were the most frequently correlated, and extensors were more frequently correlated than flexors. For all monkeys, the lags for well correlated muscles were distributed broadly about a uni-modal value near 0 ms. Eighty five per cent of the correlations larger than

  11. [The Activation of Interlimb Interactions Increase the Motor Output in Legs in Healthy Subjects under the Conditions of Arm and Leg Unloading].

    PubMed

    Selionov, V A; Solopova, I A; Zhvansky, D S

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effect of arm movements and movements of separate arm joints on the electrophysiological and kinematic characteristics of voluntary and vibration-triggered stepping-like leg movements under the conditions of horizontal support of upper and lower limbs. The horizontal support of arms provided a significantly increase in the rate of activation of locomotor automatism by non-invasive impact on tonic sensory inputs. The addition of active arm movements during involuntary rhytmic stepping-like leg movements led to an increase in EMG activity of hip muscles and was accompanied by an increase in the amplitude of hip and shin movements. Passive arm movements had the same effect on induced leg movements. The movement of the shoulder joints led to an increase in the activity of hip muscles and an increase in the amplitude of movements of the knee and hip joints. At the same time, the movement of forearms. and wrists had similar facilitating effect on electrophysiological and kinematic characteristics of rhytmic stepping-like movements, but influenced the distal segments of legs to a greater extent. Under the conditions of sub-threshold vibration of leg muscles, voluntary arm movements led to the activation of involuntary rhytmic stepping movements. During voluntary leg movements, the addition of arm movements had a significantly smaller impact on the parameters of rhytmic stepping than during involuntary leg movements. Thus, the simultaneous movements of upper and lower limbs are an effective method of activation of neural networks connecting the rhythm generators of arms and legs. Under the conditions of arm and leg unloading, the interactions between the cervical and lumbosacral segments of the spinal cord seem to play the major role in the impact of arm movements on the patterns of leg movements. The described methods of activation of interlimb interactions can be used in the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients and patients with spinal cord injuries

  12. Low back pain associates with altered activity of the cerebral cortex prior to arm movements that require postural adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Jesse V.; Henry, Sharon M.; Nagle, Keith J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether low back pain (LBP) associates with altered postural stabilization and concomitant changes in cerebrocortical motor physiology. Methods: Ten participants with LBP and 10 participants without LBP performed self-initiated, voluntary arm raises. Electromyographic onset latencies of the bilateral internal oblique and erector spinae muscles were analyzed relative to that of the deltoid muscle as measures of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Amplitudes of alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD) and of Bereitschaftspotentials (BP) were calculated from scalp electroencephalography as measures of cerebrocortical motor physiology. Results: The APA was first evident in the trunk muscles contralateral to the arm raise for both groups. Significant alpha ERD was evident bilaterally at the central and parietal electrodes for participants with LBP but only at the electrodes contralateral and midline to the arm raise for those without LBP. The BP amplitudes negatively correlated with APA onset latencies for participants with (but not for those without) LBP. Conclusions: Cerebrocortical activity becomes altered prior to arm movements requiring APAs for individuals with chronic LBP. Significance: These results support a theoretical model that altered central motor neurophysiology associates with LBP, thereby implying that rehabilitation strategies should address these neuromotor impairments. PMID:20071225

  13. “Buy one get one free:” armed viruses for the treatment of cancer cells and their microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Balveen; Cripe, Timothy P; Chiocca, E. Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Oncolytic viral therapy is a promising biological therapy for the treatment of cancer. Recent advances in genetic engineering have facilitated the construction of custom-built oncolytic viruses that can be exquisitely targeted to tumors by exploiting each cancer’s unique biology and their efficacy can be further enhanced by “arming” them with additional therapeutic genes. Such an approach allows the virus to unload its “therapeutic cargo” at the tumor site, thereby enhancing its anti-neoplastic properties. While several clever strategies have been recently described using genes that can induce cellular apoptosis/suicide and/or facilitate tumor/virus imaging, viruses armed with genes that also affect the tumor microenvironment present an exciting and promising approach to therapy. In this review we discuss recently developed oncolytic viruses armed with genes encoding for angiostatic factors, inflammatory cytokines, or proteases that modulate the extracellular matrix to regulate tumor vascularization, anti-tumor immune responses and viral spread throughout the solid tumor. PMID:19860649

  14. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Active treatment. 441.154 Section 441.154 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  15. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Active treatment. 441.154 Section 441.154 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  16. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Active treatment. 441.154 Section 441.154 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  17. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Active treatment. 441.154 Section 441.154 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  18. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Active treatment. 441.154 Section 441.154 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  19. Efficacy of RetroNectin-activated cytokine-induced killer cell therapy in the treatment of advanced hepatocelluar carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LI, WEI; WANG, YAOMEI; KELLNER, DANIEL B.; ZHAO, LINGDI; XU, LINPING; GAO, QUANLI

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of RetroNectin-activated cytokine-induced killer cell (R-CIK) therapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients as compared with conventional chemotherapy, a comparison that has not yet been thoroughly studied. From January 2010 to October 2013, 74 patients with an initial diagnosis of advanced hepatocelluar carcinoma were enrolled in the study. Patients were assigned to one of two treatment arms: patients in arm 1 (n=37) received R-CIK treatment as the first line therapy, whereas those in arm 2 (n=37) received chemotherapy as the first line treatment. The primary end point measured in this study was median overall survival (mOS). Median progression-free survival time (mPFS) and 1- and 2-year survival rates were recorded as secondary end points. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed on all mOS and mPFS data, and treatment hazard ratios were established using the Cox proportional hazards model. The 1-year survival rate in treatment arm 1 was 42.47% vs. 24.89% in arm 2 (95% CI, 24.91–59.01% vs. 12.10–40.02%, P=0.066); the 2-year survival rates were 21.24 and 5.53% (95% CI, 4.60–45.86 vs. 0.46–21.06%, P=0.106) in arms 1 and 2, respectively; the mPFS in arm 1 was 4.37 vs. 3.90 (x2=0.182, P=0.670) in arm 2; and the mOS in arm 1 was 14.03 months vs. 9.46 months(x2=4.406, P=0.036) in arm 2. Calculations of univariate analyses of arm 1, R-CIK cycles ≥6, KPS >70, AFP ≤400 ng/ml, and findings of no vascular invasion and no extra-hepatic metastasis were potential predictive factors (P<0.05). Calculations from multivariate analyses similarly identified these factors as potentially having predictive value (P<0.05). The main adverse effects of R-CIK therapy included fever and headache pain. R-CIK treatment may prolong mOS in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients compared with conventional chemotherapy. Patients who underwent ≥6 cycles of R-CIK, had KPS scores >70, AFP ≤400 ng/ml, displayed no evidence of

  20. Pomalidomide Is Active in the Treatment of Anemia Associated With Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tefferi, Ayalew; Verstovsek, Srdan; Barosi, Giovanni; Passamonti, Francesco; Roboz, Gail J.; Gisslinger, Heinz; Paquette, Ronald L.; Cervantes, Francisco; Rivera, Candido E.; Deeg, H. Joachim; Thiele, Juergen; Kvasnicka, Hans M.; Vardiman, James W.; Zhang, Yanming; Bekele, B. Nebiyou; Mesa, Ruben A.; Gale, Robert P.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Thalidomide and lenalidomide can alleviate anemia in myelofibrosis. However, their value is undermined by their respective potential to cause peripheral neuropathy and myelosuppression. We therefore evaluated the safety and therapeutic activity of another immunomodulatory drug, pomalidomide. Methods In a phase II randomized, multicenter, double-blind, adaptive design study, four treatment arms were evaluated: pomalidomide (2 mg/d) plus placebo, pomalidomide (2 mg/d) plus prednisone, pomalidomide (0.5 mg/d) plus prednisone, and prednisone plus placebo. Pomalidomide was administered for up to 12 28-day treatment cycles. Prednisone (30 mg/d) was given in a tapering dose schedule during the first three cycles. Response was assessed by International Working Group criteria. Results Eighty-four patients with myelofibrosis-associated anemia were randomly assigned to the aforementioned treatment arms: 22, 19, 22, and 21, respectively. Response in anemia was documented in 20 patients, including 15 who became transfusion independent. Response rates in the four treatment arms were 23% (95% CI, 5% to 41%), 16% (95% CI, 0% to 33%), 36% (95% CI, 16% to 56%), and 19% (95% CI, 2% to 36%). The corresponding figures for patients receiving ≥ 3 cycles of treatment (n = 62) were 38%, 23%, 40%, and 25%. Response to pomalidomide with or without prednisone was durable (range, 3.2 to 16.9+ months) and significantly better in the absence of leukocytosis (37% v 8%; P = .01); JAK2V617F or cytogenetic status did not affect response. Grade ≥ 3 toxicities were infrequent and included (in each treatment arm) neutropenia (9%; 16%; 5%; 5%), thrombocytopenia (14%; 16%; 9%; 5%), and thrombosis (9%; 5%; 0%; 0%). Conclusion Pomalidomide therapy at 0.5 or 2 mg/d with or without an abbreviated course of prednisone is well tolerated in patients with myelofibrosis and active in the treatment of anemia. PMID:19652059

  1. The effects of task-oriented versus repetitive bilateral arm training on upper limb function and activities of daily living in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gui Bin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of task-oriented bilateral arm training and repetitive bilateral arm training on upper limb function and activities of daily living in stroke patients. [Subjects] Forty patients with hemiplegia resulting from stroke were divided into a task orientied bilateral arm training group (n=20) and a repetitive bilateral arm training group (n=20). [Methods] The task-oriented group underwent bilateral arm training with 5 functional tasks, and the repetitive group underwent bilateral arm training with rhythmin auditory cueing for 30 minutes/day, 5 times/week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The upper limb function and the ability to perform activities of daily living improved significantly in both groups. Although there were significant differences between the groups, the task-oriented group showed greater improvement in upper limb function and activities of daily living. [Conclusion] We recommend bilateral arm training as well as adding functional task training as a clinical intervention to improve upper limb function activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia. PMID:26157217

  2. Inspiratory muscle fatigue affects latissimus dorsi but not pectoralis major activity during arms only front crawl sprinting.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Mitch; Tasker, Louise; Bostanci, Ozgur

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) affects the muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major during maximal arms only front crawl swimming. Eight collegiate swimmers were recruited to perform 2 maximal 20-second arms only front crawl sprints in a swimming flume. Both sprints were performed on the same day, and IMF was induced 30 minutes after the first (control) sprint. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures (PImax and PEmax, respectively) were measured before and after each sprint. The median frequency (MDF) of the electromyographic signal burst was recorded from the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major during each 20-second sprint along with stroke rate and breathing frequency. Median frequency was assessed in absolute units (Hz) and then referenced to the start of the control sprint for normalization. After IMF inducement, stroke rate increased from 56 ± 4 to 59 ± 5 cycles per minute, and latissimus dorsi MDF fell from 67 ± 11 Hz at the start of the sprint to 61 ± 9 Hz at the end. No change was observed in the MDF of the latissimus dorsi during the control sprint. Conversely, the MDF of the pectoralis major shifted to lower frequencies during both sprints but was unaffected by IMF. As the latter induced fatigue in the latissimus dorsi, which was not otherwise apparent during maximal arms only control sprinting, the presence of IMF affects the activity of the latissimus dorsi during front crawl sprinting. PMID:24402450

  3. [Prospective planning of activity of the Medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ya; Kalachev, O V; Redkin, E E; Bershev, M A; Murzo, A V

    2016-04-01

    The article reflects the characteristics of the Plan of activities of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020--an important long-term planning document of the Armed Forces. It stressed the need for synchronization of activities for chain of command and deadline. Presented structure of the Medical Service Plan Military District operations (fleet) military medical organization. The attention is focused on the content of its sections. For example, a military hospital layouts presented an action plan and a schedule of events. Reflecting the requirements of the Minister of Defense for the development and adjustment plans, indicators of their performance. PMID:27416714

  4. Scapular and rotator cuff muscle activity during arm elevation: A review of normal function and alterations with shoulder impingement

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, V; Camargo, PR; Ludewig, PM

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this manuscript is to review current knowledge of how muscle activation and force production contribute to shoulder kinematics in healthy subjects and persons with shoulder impingement. Results The middle and lower serratus anterior muscles produce scapular upward rotation, posterior tilting, and external rotation. Upper trapezius produces clavicular elevation and retraction. The middle trapezius is primarily a medial stabilizer of the scapula. The lower trapezius assists in medial stabilization and upward rotation of the scapula. The pectoralis minor is aligned to resist normal rotations of the scapula during arm elevation. The rotator cuff is critical to stabilization and prevention of excess superior translation of the humeral head, as well as production of glenohumeral external rotation during arm elevation. Alterations in activation amplitude or timing have been identified across various investigations of subjects with shoulder impingement as compared to healthy controls. These include decreased activation of the middle or lower serratus anterior and rotator cuff, delayed activation of middle and lower trapezius, and increased activation of the upper trapezius and middle deltoid in impingement subjects. In addition, subjects with a short resting length of the pectoralis minor exhibit altered scapular kinematic patterns similar to those found in persons with shoulder impingement. Conclusion These normal muscle functional capabilities and alterations in patient populations should be considered when planning exercise approaches for the rehabilitation of these patients. PMID:20411160

  5. Valid and reliable instruments for arm-hand assessment at ICF activity level in persons with hemiplegia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Loss of arm-hand performance due to a hemiparesis as a result of stroke or cerebral palsy (CP), leads to large problems in daily life of these patients. Assessment of arm-hand performance is important in both clinical practice and research. To gain more insight in e.g. effectiveness of common therapies for different patient populations with similar clinical characteristics, consensus regarding the choice and use of outcome measures is paramount. To guide this choice, an overview of available instruments is necessary. The aim of this systematic review is to identify, evaluate and categorize instruments, reported to be valid and reliable, assessing arm-hand performance at the ICF activity level in patients with stroke or cerebral palsy. Methods A systematic literature search was performed to identify articles containing instruments assessing arm-hand skilled performance in patients with stroke or cerebral palsy. Instruments were identified and divided into the categories capacity, perceived performance and actual performance. A second search was performed to obtain information on their content and psychometrics. Results Regarding capacity, perceived performance and actual performance, 18, 9 and 3 instruments were included respectively. Only 3 of all included instruments were used and tested in both patient populations. The content of the instruments differed widely regarding the ICF levels measured, assessment of the amount of use versus the quality of use, the inclusion of unimanual and/or bimanual tasks and the inclusion of basic and/or extended tasks. Conclusions Although many instruments assess capacity and perceived performance, a dearth exists of instruments assessing actual performance. In addition, instruments appropriate for more than one patient population are sparse. For actual performance, new instruments have to be developed, with specific focus on the usability in different patient populations and the assessment of quality of use as well as

  6. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Ali; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Ring, David

    2013-01-01

    Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness. PMID:25207288

  7. A self-centering active probing technique for kinematic parameter identification and verification of articulated arm coordinate measuring machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santolaria, J.; Brau, A.; Velázquez, J.; Aguilar, J. J.

    2010-05-01

    A crucial task in the procedure of identifying the parameters of a kinematic model of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) or robot arm is the process of capturing data. In this paper a capturing data method is analyzed using a self-centering active probe, which drastically reduces the capture time and the required number of positions of the gauge as compared to the usual standard and manufacturer methods. The mathematical models of the self-centering active probe and AACMM are explained, as well as the mathematical model that links the AACMM global reference system to the probe reference system. We present a self-calibration method that will allow us to determine a homogeneous transformation matrix that relates the probe's reference system to the AACMM last reference system from the probing of a single sphere. In addition, a comparison between a self-centering passive probe and self-centering active probe is carried out to show the advantages of the latter in the procedures of kinematic parameter identification and verification of the AACMM.

  8. Elastic activator for treatment of open bite.

    PubMed

    Stellzig, A; Steegmayer-Gilde, G; Basdra, E K

    1999-06-01

    This article presents a modified activator for treatment of open bite cases. The intermaxillary acrylic of the lateral occlusal zones is replaced by elastic rubber tubes. By stimulating orthopaedic gymnastics (chewing gum effect), the elastic activator intrudes upper and lower posterior teeth. A noticeable counterclockwise rotation of the mandible was accomplished by a decrease of the gonial angle. Besides the simple fabrication of the device and uncomplicated replacement of the elastic rubber tubes, treatment can be started even in mixed dentition when affixing plates may be difficult. PMID:10420241

  9. ARM for Platform Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patte, Mathieu; Poupat, Jean-Luc; Le Meur, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The activities described in this paper are part of the CNES R&T “Study of a Cortex-R ARM based architecture” performed by Airbus DS Space System & Electronics in 2014. With the support of CNES, Airbus DS has performed the porting of a representative space application software on an ARM based demonstration platform. This paper presents the platform itself, the activities performed at software level and the first results on this evaluation study.

  10. Experimental Treatment of Ebola Virus Disease with TKM-130803: A Single-Arm Phase 2 Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rojek, Amanda; Gannon, Fiona; Carson, Gail; Idriss, Baimba; Massaquoi, Thomas; Gandi, Regina; Joseph, Sebatu; Osman, Hassan K.; Brooks, Timothy J. G.; Simpson, Andrew J. H.; Goodfellow, Ian; Thorne, Lucy; Arias, Armando; Merson, Laura; Castle, Lyndsey; Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Pardinaz-Solis, Raul; Hope-Gill, Benjamin; Ferri, Mauricio; Grove, Jennifer; Kowalski, Mark; Stepniewska, Kasia; Lang, Trudie; Whitehead, John; Olliaro, Piero; Samai, Mohammed; Horby, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Background TKM-130803, a small interfering RNA lipid nanoparticle product, has been developed for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD), but its efficacy and safety in humans has not been evaluated. Methods and Findings In this single-arm phase 2 trial, adults with laboratory-confirmed EVD received 0.3 mg/kg of TKM-130803 by intravenous infusion once daily for up to 7 d. On days when trial enrolment capacity was reached, patients were enrolled into a concurrent observational cohort. The primary outcome was survival to day 14 after admission, excluding patients who died within 48 h of admission. After 14 adults with EVD had received TKM-130803, the pre-specified futility boundary was reached, indicating a probability of survival to day 14 of ≤0.55, and enrolment was stopped. Pre-treatment geometric mean Ebola virus load in the 14 TKM-130803 recipients was 2.24 × 109 RNA copies/ml plasma (95% CI 7.52 × 108, 6.66 × 109). Two of the TKM-130803 recipients died within 48 h of admission and were therefore excluded from the primary outcome analysis. Of the remaining 12 TKM-130803 recipients, nine died and three survived. The probability that a TKM-130803 recipient who survived for 48 h will subsequently survive to day 14 was estimated to be 0.27 (95% CI 0.06, 0.58). TKM-130803 infusions were well tolerated, with 56 doses administered and only one possible infusion-related reaction observed. Three patients were enrolled in the observational cohort, of whom two died. Conclusions Administration of TKM-130803 at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg/d by intravenous infusion to adult patients with severe EVD was not shown to improve survival when compared to historic controls. Trial registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201501000997429 PMID:27093560

  11. The effects of arm movement on reaction time in patients with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Marzieh; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Maroufi, Nader; Ahmadi, Amir; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Emrani, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Myofascial pain syndrome is a significant source of mechanical pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of arm movement on reaction time in females with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point. Methods: In this interventional study, a convenience sample of fifteen women with one active MTP, fifteen women with one latent MTP in the upper trapezius, and fifteen normal healthy women were participated. Participants were asked to stand for 10 seconds in an erect standing position. Muscle reaction times were recorded including anterior deltoid (AD), cervical paraspinal (CP) lumbar paraspinal (LP), both of upper trapezius (UT), sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and medial head of gastrocnemius (GcM). Participants were asked to flex their arms in response to a sound stimulus preceded by a warning sound stimulus. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA Test. Results: There was significant differences in motor time and reaction time between active and control groups (p< 0.05) except for GcM. There was no significant difference in motor time between active and passive groups except for UT without MTP and SCM (p< 0.05). Also, there were no significant differences in motor times between latent MTP and control groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in premotor times between the three groups. Conclusion: The present study shows that patients with active MTP need more time to react to stimulus, but patients with latent MTP are similar to healthy subjects in the reaction time. Patients with active MTP had less compatibility with environmental stimulations, and they responded to a specific stimulation with variability in Surface Electromyography (SEMG). PMID:26913258

  12. Some possible applications of measurements on mu mesons to nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation, and arms control activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, W.R.; Vanier, P.E.

    1997-10-01

    In the nuclear safeguards and arms control areas, well-developed methodologies exist for determining the properties of nuclear materials via measurements of the gamma rays and neutrons emitted from these materials, or in the arms control area, by the use of radiography. In certain favorable instances, it may by feasible to perform comparable measurements with the use of a ubiquitous, naturally-occurring radiation--cosmic ray mu mesons (muons). At the earth`s surface these charged particles have a broad energy distribution peaking at about 500 MeV with a flux of approximately 10{sup {minus}2}/cm{sup 2}-sec-steradian. In traversing matter, muons lose energy at a rate of approximately 2 MeV/gram almost independent of atomic number. Muons can readily be detected by either plastic scintillators or wire planes. While the flux is small, a scintillator of one meter area, for example, will register about 20,000 events/min. these particles should have utility in the detection and imaging of objects with sectional densities of a few hundred grams/cm{sup 2}. The degree of intrusiveness of the imaging can be controlled through the detector configuration. Some possible applications include: (1) mass measurements on large UF{sub 6} cylinders, (2) determination of the size of treaty-limited objects, e.g., missiles, in rail cars or other containment; (3) verification of single or multiple warheads or components; (4) the detection of concealed, underground cavities. Examples will be presented.

  13. Robotic arm

    SciTech Connect

    Kwech, H.

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube is disclosed. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel. 23 figs.

  14. Robotic arm

    SciTech Connect

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  15. The spacer arm length in cell-penetrating peptides influences chitosan/siRNA nanoparticle delivery for pulmonary inflammation treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Eun Ju; Choi, Moonhwan; Lee, Jangwook; Rhim, Taiyoun; Lee, Kuen Yong

    2015-11-01

    Although chitosan and its derivatives have been frequently utilized as delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), it is challenging to improve the gene silencing efficiency of chitosan-based nanoparticles. In this study, we hypothesized that controlling the spacer arm length between a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) and a nanoparticle could be critical to enhancing the cellular uptake as well as the gene silencing efficiency of conventional chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. A peptide consisting of nine arginine units (R9) was used as a CPP, and the spacer arm length was controlled by varying the number of glycine units between the peptide (R9Gn) and the nanoparticle (n = 0, 4, and 10). Various physicochemical characteristics of R9Gn-chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles were investigated in vitro. Increasing the spacing arm length did not significantly affect the complex formation between R9Gn-chitosan and siRNA. However, R9G10-chitosan was much more effective in delivering genes both in vitro and in vivo compared with non-modified chitosan (without the peptide) and R9-chitosan (without the spacer arm). Chitosan derivatives modified with oligoarginine containing a spacer arm can be considered as potential delivery vehicles for various genes.Although chitosan and its derivatives have been frequently utilized as delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), it is challenging to improve the gene silencing efficiency of chitosan-based nanoparticles. In this study, we hypothesized that controlling the spacer arm length between a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) and a nanoparticle could be critical to enhancing the cellular uptake as well as the gene silencing efficiency of conventional chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. A peptide consisting of nine arginine units (R9) was used as a CPP, and the spacer arm length was controlled by varying the number of glycine units between the peptide (R9Gn) and the nanoparticle (n = 0, 4, and 10). Various physicochemical characteristics of

  16. Maintaining professional activity during breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Ganem, G; Antoine, E-C; Touboul, C; Naman, H; Dohollou, N; Facchini, T; Coscas, Y; Lortholary, A; Catala, S; Jacquot, S; Lhomel, C; Eisinger, F

    2016-05-01

    The question of returning to work and pursuing professional activity during cancer treatment is an increasingly important consideration. The present work focuses on factors affecting the feasibility of maintaining professional activity during treatment for breast cancer, for women who wished to do so. Written questionnaires were collected from 216 patients between March and November 2012. Since the onset of their treatment, 31.4% of the women (68/216) had not been on sick-leave. The main factors associated with the pursuit of professional activity were: considering the availability of their physician to answer questions as unimportant [OR = 18.83 (3.60-98.53); P ≤ 0.05]; considering the diagnosis of cancer as likely to have a weak impact on career perspectives [OR = 4.07 (2.49-6.64); P ≤ 0.05]; not having any children in the household [OR = 3.87 (2.38-6.28); P ≤ 0.05]; being in a managerial position [OR = 3.13 (1.88-5.21); P ≤ 0.05]. Negative predictive factors were: physician mentioning adverse effects of the treatment [OR = 0.31 (0.16-0.58); P ≤ 0.05], and patient rating workload as high [OR = 0.26 (0.15-0.46); P ≤ 0.05]. As a result of advances in therapeutic strategies, more patients will expect healthcare professionals, as well as employers and occupational health societies, to prioritise issues pertaining to the maintenance of professional activities during cancer treatment. PMID:26891443

  17. How ‘arm-twisting’ by the inducer triggers activation of the MalT transcription factor, a typical signal transduction ATPase with numerous domains (STAND)

    PubMed Central

    Danot, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Signal transduction ATPases with numerous domains (STAND) get activated through inducer-dependent assembly into multimeric platforms. This switch relies on the conversion of their nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) from a closed, ADP-bound form to an open, ATP-bound form. The NOD closed form is stabilized by contacts with the arm, a domain that connects the NOD to the inducer-binding domain called the sensor. How the inducer triggers NOD opening remains unclear. Here, I pinpointed the NOD-arm interface of the MalT STAND transcription factor, and I generated a MalT variant in which this interface can be covalently locked on demand, thereby trapping the NOD in the closed state. By characterizing this locked variant, I found that the inducer is recognized in two steps: it first binds to the sole sensor with low affinity, which then triggers the recruitment of the arm to form a high-affinity arm-sensor inducer-binding site. Strikingly, this high-affinity binding step was incompatible with arm-NOD contacts maintaining the NOD closed. Through this toggling between two mutually exclusive states reminiscent of a single-pole double-throw switch, the arm couples inducer binding to NOD opening, shown here to precede nucleotide exchange. This scenario likely holds for other STANDs like mammalian NLR innate immunity receptors. PMID:25740650

  18. ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Daniel J. Stepan

    2000-07-01

    High concentrations of humate in surface water result in the formation of excess amounts of chlorinated byproducts during disinfection treatment. These precursors can be removed in water treatment prior to disinfection using powdered activated carbon. In the interest of developing a more cost-effective method for removal of humates in surface water, a comparison of the activities of carbons prepared from North Dakota lignites with those of commercial carbons was conducted. Previous studies indicated that a commercial carbon prepared from Texas lignite (Darco HDB) was superior to those prepared from bituminous coals for water treatment. That the high alkali content of North Dakota lignites would result in favorable adsorptive properties for the very large humate molecules was hypothesized, owing to the formation of larger pores during activation. Since no standard humate test has been previously developed, initial adsorption testing was performed using smaller dye molecules with various types of ionic character. With the cationic dye, methylene blue, a carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite (HSKRC) adsorbed more dye than the Darco HDB. The carbon from the low-sodium lignite was much inferior. With another cationic dye, malachite green, the Darco HDB was slightly better. With anionic dyes, methyl red and azocarmine-B, the results for the HSKRC and Darco HDB were comparable. A humate test was developed using Aldrich humic acid. The HSKRC and the Darco HDB gave equally high adsorption capacities for the humate (138 mg/g), consistent with the similarities observed in earlier tests. A carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite from a different mine showed an outstanding improvement (201 mg/g). The carbons prepared from the low-sodium lignites from both mines showed poor adsorption capacities for humate. Adsorption isotherms were performed for the set of activated carbons in the humate system. These exhibited a complex behavior interpreted as resulting from two types

  19. Serum antimuscarinic activity during clozapine treatment.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Jose; Odom-White, Aruby; Josiassen, Richard C; Diaz, Francisco J; Cooper, Thomas B; Simpson, George M

    2003-08-01

    This study attempts: (1) to verify that serum antimuscarinic activity is related to clozapine dose, and more importantly to clozapine plasma concentrations; (2) to explore whether norclozapine has serum antimuscarinic activity; (3) to explore whether antimuscarinic activity is related to clozapine side effects; and (4) to compare the serum antimuscarinic activities of clozapine with those of antiparkinsonian drugs and other antipsychotics. In 39 patients participating in a double-blind clozapine study, the [3H]QNB assay was used to measure serum antimuscarinic activity: (1) on baseline medications; (2) after a 4-week haloperidol trial; (3) after a 16-week clozapine trial of either 100, 300, or 600 mg/d; and (4) after 1 or 2 consecutive 16-week clozapine trials with remaining doses in nonresponders. Clozapine levels predicted serum antimuscarinic activity better than clozapine dose. At the end of the 1st clozapine trial, the correlation with the levels explained 69% of the variance of serum antimuscarinic activity (r = 0.83, P < 0.001, N = 34). Clozapine levels were good predictors of serum antimuscarinic activity only in patients taking 300 or 600 mg/d. After correcting for clozapine levels, the within-subject correlation between norclozapine levels and serum antimuscarinic activity was relatively high and significant (r = 0.54, F = 26.7, df = 1.65, P < 0.001). Constipation was significantly associated with higher serum antimuscarinic activity during the 1st clozapine trial. Clozapine was associated with clearly higher antimuscarinic activity than other antipsychotics or low doses of antiparkinsonians. In vitro studies and new clinical studies are needed to verify whether norclozapine may significantly contribute to antimuscarinic activity during clozapine treatment. PMID:12920408

  20. The spacer arm length in cell-penetrating peptides influences chitosan/siRNA nanoparticle delivery for pulmonary inflammation treatment.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eun Ju; Choi, Moonhwan; Lee, Jangwook; Rhim, Taiyoun; Lee, Kuen Yong

    2015-12-21

    Although chitosan and its derivatives have been frequently utilized as delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), it is challenging to improve the gene silencing efficiency of chitosan-based nanoparticles. In this study, we hypothesized that controlling the spacer arm length between a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) and a nanoparticle could be critical to enhancing the cellular uptake as well as the gene silencing efficiency of conventional chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. A peptide consisting of nine arginine units (R9) was used as a CPP, and the spacer arm length was controlled by varying the number of glycine units between the peptide (R9Gn) and the nanoparticle (n = 0, 4, and 10). Various physicochemical characteristics of R9Gn-chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles were investigated in vitro. Increasing the spacing arm length did not significantly affect the complex formation between R9Gn-chitosan and siRNA. However, R9G10-chitosan was much more effective in delivering genes both in vitro and in vivo compared with non-modified chitosan (without the peptide) and R9-chitosan (without the spacer arm). Chitosan derivatives modified with oligoarginine containing a spacer arm can be considered as potential delivery vehicles for various genes. PMID:26568525

  1. Robotic Arm Manipulator Using Active Control for Sample Acquisition and Transfer, and Passive Mode for Surface Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jun; Underhill, Michael L.; Trease, Brian P.; Lindemann, Randel A.

    2010-01-01

    A robotic arm that consists of three joints with four degrees of freedom (DOF) has been developed. It can carry an end-effector to acquire and transfer samples by using active control and comply with surface topology in a passive mode during a brief surface contact. The three joints are arranged in such a way that one joint of two DOFs is located at the shoulder, one joint of one DOF is located at the elbow, and one joint of one DOF is located at the wrist. Operationally, three DOFs are moved in the same plane, and the remaining one on the shoulder is moved perpendicular to the other three for better compliance with ground surface and more flexibility of sample handling. Three out of four joints are backdriveable, making the mechanism less complex and more cost effective

  2. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    PubMed

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones. PMID:26378390

  3. Flexible trial design in practice - stopping arms for lack-of-benefit and adding research arms mid-trial in STAMPEDE: a multi-arm multi-stage randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Systemic Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Prostate cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy (STAMPEDE) is a randomized controlled trial that follows a novel multi-arm, multi-stage (MAMS) design. We describe methodological and practical issues arising with (1) stopping recruitment to research arms following a pre-planned intermediate analysis and (2) adding a new research arm during the trial. Methods STAMPEDE recruits men who have locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer who are starting standard long-term hormone therapy. Originally there were five research and one control arms, each undergoing a pilot stage (focus: safety, feasibility), three intermediate ‘activity’ stages (focus: failure-free survival), and a final ‘efficacy’ stage (focus: overall survival). Lack-of-sufficient-activity guidelines support the pairwise interim comparisons of each research arm against the control arm; these pre-defined activity cut-off becomes increasingly stringent over the stages. Accrual of further patients continues to the control arm and to those research arms showing activity and an acceptable safety profile. The design facilitates adding new research arms should sufficiently interesting agents emerge. These new arms are compared only to contemporaneously recruited control arm patients using the same intermediate guidelines in a time-delayed manner. The addition of new research arms is subject to adequate recruitment rates to support the overall trial aims. Results (1) Stopping Existing Therapy: After the second intermediate activity analysis, recruitment was discontinued to two research arms for lack-of-sufficient activity. Detailed preparations meant that changes were implemented swiftly at 100 international centers and recruitment continued seamlessly into Activity Stage III with 3 remaining research arms and the control arm. Further regulatory and ethical approvals were not required because this was already included in the initial trial design. (2

  4. Lower Arm Muscle Activation during Indirect-Localized Vibration: The Influence of Skill Levels When Applying Different Acceleration Loads

    PubMed Central

    Padulo, Johnny; Di Giminiani, Riccardo; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Zagatto, Alessandro M.; Migliaccio, Gian M.; Grgantov, Zoran; Ardigò, Luca P.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the electromyographic response to synchronous indirect-localized vibration interventions in international and national table tennis players. Twenty-six male table tennis players, in a standing position, underwent firstly an upper arms maximal voluntary contraction and thereafter two different 30-s vibration interventions in random order: high acceleration load (peak acceleration = 12.8 g, frequency = 40 Hz; peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm), and low acceleration load (peak acceleration = 7.2 g, frequency = 30 Hz, peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm). Surface electromyography root mean square from brachioradialis, extensor digitorum, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor digitorum superficialis recorded during the two vibration interventions was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction recording. Normalized surface electromyography root mean square was higher in international table tennis players with respect to national ones in all the interactions between muscles and vibration conditions (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor carpi radialis (at low acceleration load, P > 0.05). The difference in normalized surface electromyography root mean square between international table tennis players and national ones increased in all the muscles with high acceleration load (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor digitorum superficialis (P > 0.05). The muscle activation during indirect-localized vibration seems to be both skill level and muscle dependent. These results can optimize the training intervention in table tennis players when applying indirect-localized vibration to lower arm muscles. Future investigations should discriminate between middle- and long-term adaptations in response to specific vibration loads. PMID:27378948

  5. Lower Arm Muscle Activation during Indirect-Localized Vibration: The Influence of Skill Levels When Applying Different Acceleration Loads.

    PubMed

    Padulo, Johnny; Di Giminiani, Riccardo; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Gian M; Grgantov, Zoran; Ardigò, Luca P

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the electromyographic response to synchronous indirect-localized vibration interventions in international and national table tennis players. Twenty-six male table tennis players, in a standing position, underwent firstly an upper arms maximal voluntary contraction and thereafter two different 30-s vibration interventions in random order: high acceleration load (peak acceleration = 12.8 g, frequency = 40 Hz; peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm), and low acceleration load (peak acceleration = 7.2 g, frequency = 30 Hz, peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm). Surface electromyography root mean square from brachioradialis, extensor digitorum, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor digitorum superficialis recorded during the two vibration interventions was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction recording. Normalized surface electromyography root mean square was higher in international table tennis players with respect to national ones in all the interactions between muscles and vibration conditions (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor carpi radialis (at low acceleration load, P > 0.05). The difference in normalized surface electromyography root mean square between international table tennis players and national ones increased in all the muscles with high acceleration load (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor digitorum superficialis (P > 0.05). The muscle activation during indirect-localized vibration seems to be both skill level and muscle dependent. These results can optimize the training intervention in table tennis players when applying indirect-localized vibration to lower arm muscles. Future investigations should discriminate between middle- and long-term adaptations in response to specific vibration loads. PMID:27378948

  6. Hello to Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer.

    The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red.

    As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light.

    The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far.

    Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own.

    The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  7. Kidins220/ARMS binds to the B cell antigen receptor and regulates B cell development and activation

    PubMed Central

    Fiala, Gina J.; Janowska, Iga; Prutek, Fabiola; Hobeika, Elias; Satapathy, Annyesha; Sprenger, Adrian; Plum, Thomas; Seidl, Maximilian; Dengjel, Jörn; Reth, Michael; Cesca, Fabrizia; Brummer, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling is critical for B cell development and activation. Using mass spectrometry, we identified a protein kinase D–interacting substrate of 220 kD (Kidins220)/ankyrin repeat–rich membrane-spanning protein (ARMS) as a novel interaction partner of resting and stimulated BCR. Upon BCR stimulation, the interaction increases in a Src kinase–independent manner. By knocking down Kidins220 in a B cell line and generating a conditional B cell–specific Kidins220 knockout (B-KO) mouse strain, we show that Kidins220 couples the BCR to PLCγ2, Ca2+, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) signaling. Consequently, BCR-mediated B cell activation was reduced in vitro and in vivo upon Kidins220 deletion. Furthermore, B cell development was impaired at stages where pre-BCR or BCR signaling is required. Most strikingly, λ light chain–positive B cells were reduced sixfold in the B-KO mice, genetically placing Kidins220 in the PLCγ2 pathway. Thus, our data indicate that Kidins220 positively regulates pre-BCR and BCR functioning. PMID:26324445

  8. Characteristics of the Colombian armed conflict and the mental health of civilians living in active conflict zones

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that the Colombian armed conflict has continued for almost five decades there is still very little information on how it affects the mental health of civilians. Although it is well established in post-conflict populations that experience of organised violence has a negative impact on mental health, little research has been done on those living in active conflict zones. Médecins Sans Frontières provides mental health services in areas of active conflict in Colombia and using data from these services we aimed to establish which characteristics of the conflict are most associated with specific symptoms of mental ill health. Methods An analysis of clinical data from patients (N = 6,353), 16 years and over, from 2010–2011, who consulted in the Colombian departments (equivalent to states) of Nariño, Cauca, Putumayo and Caquetá. Risk factors were grouped using a hierarchical cluster analysis and the clusters were included with demographic information as predictors in logistic regressions to discern which risk factor clusters best predicted specific symptoms. Results Three clear risk factor clusters emerged which were interpreted as ‘direct conflict related violence’, ‘personal violence not directly conflict-related’ and ‘general hardship’. The regression analyses indicated that conflict related violence was more highly related to anxiety-related psychopathology than other risk factor groupings while non-conflict violence was more related to aggression and substance abuse, which was more common in males. Depression and suicide risk were represented equally across risk factor clusters. Conclusions As the largest study of its kind in Colombia it demonstrates a clear impact of the conflict on mental health. Among those who consulted with mental health professionals, specific conflict characteristics could predict symptom profiles. However, some of the highest risk outcomes, like depression, suicide risk and aggression, were more

  9. Arm in Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Backdropped against the blue and white Earth, Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low and (MS) Peter J.K. Wisoff, wearing Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs), simulate handling of large components in space. Above Endeavour's Payload Bay (PLB), Low, anchored by a Portable Foot Restraint (PFR) Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) end effector, maneuvers Wisoff, representing the mass of a large space component. This particular task was rehearsed with eyes toward the servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) or the assembly and maintenance of Space Station. This Extravehicular Activity (EVA), Detailed Test Objective (DTO) was conducted both with and without intentional disturbances from Endeavour's thrusters and movements of the RMS. The SPACEHAB-01 Commercial Middeck Augmentation Module (CMAM)) is visible in the foreground with the Superfluid Helium On Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) payload liquid helium dewar assembly and the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) only partially visible in the aft PLB shadows. The vertical stabilizer and Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods are silhouetted against the Earth's surface.

  10. Active muscle response using feedback control of a finite element human arm model.

    PubMed

    Östh, Jonas; Brolin, Karin; Happee, Riender

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical human body models (HBMs) are important research tools that are used to study the human response in car crash situations. Development of automotive safety systems requires the implementation of active muscle response in HBM, as novel safety systems also interact with vehicle occupants in the pre-crash phase. In this study, active muscle response was implemented using feedback control of a nonlinear muscle model in the right upper extremity of a finite element (FE) HBM. Hill-type line muscle elements were added, and the active and passive properties were assessed. Volunteer tests with low impact loading resulting in elbow flexion motions were performed. Simulations of posture maintenance in a gravity field and the volunteer tests were successfully conducted. It was concluded that feedback control of a nonlinear musculoskeletal model can be used to obtain posture maintenance and human-like reflexive responses in an FE HBM. PMID:21294008

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Novel Armed Thiophene Derivatives and Petra/Osiris/Molinspiration (POM) Analyses.

    PubMed

    Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser; Alatibi, Fatima; El-Sayed, Nahed Nasser E; Al-Showiman, Salim; Kheder, Nabila Abdelshafy; Wadood, Abdul; Rauf, Abdur; Bawazeer, Saud; Hadda, Taibi Ben

    2016-01-01

    Tetrasubstituted 2-acetylthiophene derivative 5 was synthesized and then condensed with various nitrogen nucleophiles such as 5-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 2-aminobenzimidazole, aniline or p-chloroaniline to afford the corresponding iminothiophene derivatives 6-8a,b. Condensation of thiophene 5 with malononitrile as carbon nucleophile afforded compound 9, which underwent nucleophilic addition with DMF-DMA to afford compound 10. The newly synthesized products were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, MS, ¹H-(13)C-NMR and CHN analysis and then evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Results of the in vitro antibacterial activity showed that thiophene derivative 7 was found to be more potent than the standard drug gentamicin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Some of these compounds showed potential antimicrobial activities. Molecular docking and Osiris/Molinspiration analyses show the crucial role and impact of substituents on bioactivity and indicate the unfavorable structural parameters in actual drug design: more substitution with electronic donor group doesn't guarantee more effective bioactivity. This study should greatly help in an intelligent and a controlled pharmacomodulation of antibiotics. PMID:26901173

  12. LISA Long-Arm Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, James I.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of LISA Long-Arm Interferometry is presented. The contents include: 1) LISA Interferometry; 2) Constellation Design; 3) Telescope Design; 4) Constellation Acquisition; 5) Mechanisms; 6) Optical Bench Design; 7) Phase Measurement Subsystem; 8) Phasemeter Demonstration; 9) Time Delay Interferometry; 10) TDI Limitations; 11) Active Frequency Stabilization; 12) Spacecraft Level Stabilization; 13) Arm-Locking; and 14) Embarassment of Riches.

  13. Coumarin-containing-star-shaped 4-arm-polyethylene glycol: targeted fluorescent organic nanoparticles for dual treatment of photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Moumita; Singh, Tanya; Behara, Krishna Kalyani; Karwa, S; Ghosh, S K; Singh, N D Pradeep

    2015-07-01

    Single component fluorescent organic polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized based on a star shaped 4-arm PEG containing coumarin chromophore for the concomitant employment of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chemotherapy synergistically to wipe out tumour cells with a high efficiency. Polymeric NPs are emerging as the most promising nanoparticulates in the area of drug delivery systems due to their ability to overcome the disadvantages like premature and imprecise control over the drug release, lack of loading capacity etc. Among polymeric NPs, star shaped branched polymers have attracted great attention mainly due to their multiple functionalization properties. Hence, herein we have made use of a multi-arm PEG, functionalized with a targeting unit biotin and a coumarin fluorophore for site-specific and image guided synergic treatment of cancer cells. The anticancer drug chlorambucil is released by the coumarin chromophore in a photocontrolled manner. In addition to that, coumarin also generated singlet oxygen upon irradiation with UV/vis light (≥365 nm) with a moderate quantum yield of ∼0.37. In vitro application of thus prepared organic polymeric nanoparticles (PEG-Bio-Cou-Cbl) in the HeLa cell line shows a reduction of cell viability by up to ∼5% in the case of a combined treatment of PDT and chemotherapy whereas analogous organic polymeric NPs without the chemotherapeutic drug (PEG-Bio-Cou) result in ∼49% cell viability by means of PDT process only. PMID:26066468

  14. A path towards uncertainty assignment in an operational cloud-phase algorithm from ARM vertically pointing active sensors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Holmes, Aimee; Luke, Edward

    2016-06-10

    Knowledge of cloud phase (liquid, ice, mixed, etc.) is necessary to describe the radiative impact of clouds and their lifetimes, but is a property that is difficult to simulate correctly in climate models. One step towards improving those simulations is to make observations of cloud phase with sufficient accuracy to help constrain model representations of cloud processes. In this study, we outline a methodology using a basic Bayesian classifier to estimate the probabilities of cloud-phase class from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) vertically pointing active remote sensors. The advantage of this method over previous ones is that it provides uncertainty informationmore » on the phase classification. We also test the value of including higher moments of the cloud radar Doppler spectrum than are traditionally used operationally. Using training data of known phase from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) field campaign, we demonstrate a proof of concept for how the method can be used to train an algorithm that identifies ice, liquid, mixed phase, and snow. Over 95 % of data are identified correctly for pure ice and liquid cases used in this study. Mixed-phase and snow cases are more problematic to identify correctly. When lidar data are not available, including additional information from the Doppler spectrum provides substantial improvement to the algorithm. This is a first step towards an operational algorithm and can be expanded to include additional categories such as drizzle with additional training data.« less

  15. A path towards uncertainty assignment in an operational cloud-phase algorithm from ARM vertically pointing active sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Holmes, Aimee; Luke, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of cloud phase (liquid, ice, mixed, etc.) is necessary to describe the radiative impact of clouds and their lifetimes, but is a property that is difficult to simulate correctly in climate models. One step towards improving those simulations is to make observations of cloud phase with sufficient accuracy to help constrain model representations of cloud processes. In this study, we outline a methodology using a basic Bayesian classifier to estimate the probabilities of cloud-phase class from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) vertically pointing active remote sensors. The advantage of this method over previous ones is that it provides uncertainty information on the phase classification. We also test the value of including higher moments of the cloud radar Doppler spectrum than are traditionally used operationally. Using training data of known phase from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) field campaign, we demonstrate a proof of concept for how the method can be used to train an algorithm that identifies ice, liquid, mixed phase, and snow. Over 95 % of data are identified correctly for pure ice and liquid cases used in this study. Mixed-phase and snow cases are more problematic to identify correctly. When lidar data are not available, including additional information from the Doppler spectrum provides substantial improvement to the algorithm. This is a first step towards an operational algorithm and can be expanded to include additional categories such as drizzle with additional training data.

  16. Leptin and Leptin Receptor Genetic Variants Associate with Habitual Physical Activity and the Arm Body Composition Response to Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, S; Haddad, CJ; Kostek, MA; Angelopoulos, TJ; Clarkson, PM; Gordon, PM; Moyna, NM; Visich, PS; Zoeller, RF; Seip, RL; Bilbie, S; Thompson, PD; Devaney, J; Gordish-Dressman, H; Hoffman, EP; Price, Thomas B.; Pescatello, LS

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE We investigated the influence of Leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) SNPs on habitual physical activity (PA) and body composition response to a unilateral, upper body resistance training (RT) program. METHODS European-derived American volunteers (men=111, women=131, 23.4±5.4 yr, 24.4±4.6 kg·m−2) were genotyped for LEP 19 G>A (rs2167270), and LEPR 326 A>G (rs1137100), 668 A>G (rs1137101), 3057 G>A (rs1805096), and 1968 G>C (rs8179183). They completed the Paffenbarger PA Questionnaire. Arm muscle and subcutaneous fat volumes were measured before and after 12wk of supervised RT with MRI. Multivariate and repeated measures ANCOVA tested differences among phenotypes by genotype and gender with age and body mass index as covariates. RESULTS Adults with the LEP 19 GG genotype reported more kcal/wk in vigorous intensity PA (1273.3±176.8, p=0.017) and sports/recreation (1922.8±226.0, p<0.04) than A allele carriers (718.0±147.2, 1328.6±188.2, respectively). Those with the LEP 19 GG genotype spent more hr/wk in light intensity PA (39.7±1.6) than A allele carriers (35.0±1.4, p=0.03). In response to RT, adults with the LEPR 668 G allele gained greater arm muscle volume (67687.05±3186.7 vs. 52321.87±5125.05 mm3, p=0.01) and subcutaneous fat volume (10599.89±3683.57 vs. −5224.73±5923.98 mm3, p=0.02) than adults with the LEPR 668 AA genotype, respectively. CONCLUSION LEP19 G>A and LEPR 668 A>G associated with habitual PA and the body composition response to RT. These LEP and LEPR SNPs are located in coding exons likely influencing LEP and LEPR function. Further investigation is needed to confirm our findings and establish mechanisms for LEP and LEPR genotype and PA and body composition associations we observed. PMID:22975643

  17. Injuries associated with combat sports, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The practice of combat sports creates a potential for training- and sports-related injuries among military members. During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 12,108 cases of injuries associated with combat sports among active component service members; the overall incidence rate was 21.0 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). The rates were higher among service members who were male, Hispanic, in the youngest age groups, in the Army, junior enlisted, and in combat-specific occupations. The rate among recruit/ trainees (779.4 per 10,000 p-yrs) was more than 165 times the rate among all other active component service members (non-recruits) (4.7 per 10,000 p-yrs). Sprains, strains, and contusions accounted for more than one-half of the primary (first-listed) diagnoses associated with combat sports cases. More serious conditions such as concussions/head injuries and skull/face fractures/intracranial injuries were reported among 3.9% and 2.1% of all cases and were more common among boxing-related cases. Hand/wrist fractures were also common among boxing cases. Wrestling had comparatively greater proportions of dislocations and open wounds. Although the combat sport training provides many physical and mental benefits to the individual, safety practices should be enforced to reduce the most frequent and serious injuries. PMID:24885879

  18. Incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Denise O; Oh, Gi-Taik; O'Donnell, Francis L; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-07-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition among adults that can cause symptoms such as frequent heartburn, substernal chest pain, and regurgitation of food. During 2005-2014, a total of 137,081 active component service members had an incident (first-ever) diagnosis of GERD (incidence rate: 101.3 per 10,000 person-years). Incidence rates were higher than their respective counterparts among females, black and white non-Hispanics, service members in the Coast Guard and Air Force, officers, and those in healthcare occupations. Rates increased monotonically with increasing age groups. Most GERD cases (79.2%) were uncomplicated GERD; however, 20.8% were identified as having a symptom or complication linked to their GERD diagnosis. Lifestyle changes, medication, and prevention of serious complications should be emphasized among individuals diagnosed with GERD, particularly those at risk for severe disease. PMID:26207411

  19. Cold weather injuries, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, July 2008-June 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    From July 2012 through June 2013, the number of active and reserve component service members treated for cold injuries (n=479) was the lowest of the last five cold seasons (2008-2013). Over the last five years hypothermia was the most common cold injury among service members in the Marine Corps and Coast Guard, while frostbite was the most common type of cold injury in the other three Services. Consistent with trends from previous cold seasons, service members who were female, less than 20 years old, or of black, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity tended to have higher cold injury rates than their respective counterparts. Among service members overall, Army personnel accounted for the majority (62%) of cold injuries. PMID:24191768

  20. Thyroid disorders among active component military members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    2012-10-01

    During 2002-2011, among active component U.S. military members, the rates of idiopathic hypothyroidism were 39.7 and 7.8 per 10,000 person-years among females and males, respectively. Unadjusted rates of idiopathic hypothyroidism and chronic thyroiditis (e.g., Hashimoto's disease) were at least twice as high among white, non-Hispanic as black, non-Hispanic service members. However, black, non-Hispanic service members had higher rates of goiter and thyrotoxicosis. Increasing rates of thyroid disorders during the period were accompanied by increases in numbers of screening tests for thyroid function recorded during outpatient visits. Increased thyroid function testing since the beginning of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan may reflect increased testing of military members with mental disorders (e.g., depression, irritability, PTSD), musculoskeletal pain, sleep disorders, menstrual/fertility abnormalities, obesity, and other conditions which have sharply increased in prevalence over the same period. PMID:23121006

  1. JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

  2. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... Mosby; 2013:chap 57. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  3. Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining Surface Radar and Satellite Data in Support of ARM SCM Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guosheng

    2013-03-15

    water contents in support of cloud modeling activities. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) area measurement. That is, the study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements (particularly cloud radar and microwave radiometer measurements) at the point of the ARM sites. We use the cloud ice water characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain a satellite retrieval algorithm, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the 3-D cloud ice water distributions within an 10° (latitude) x 10° (longitude) area. During the research period, we have developed, validated and improved our cloud ice water retrievals, and have produced and archived at ARM website as a PI-product of the 3-D cloud ice water contents using combined satellite high-frequency microwave and surface radar observations for SGP March 2000 IOP and TWP-ICE 2006 IOP over 10 deg. x 10 deg. area centered at ARM SGP central facility and Darwin sites. We have also worked on validation of the 3-D ice water product by CloudSat data, synergy with visible/infrared cloud ice water retrievals for better results at low ice water conditions, and created a long-term (several years) of ice water climatology in 10 x 10 deg. area of ARM SGP and TWP sites and then compared it with GCMs.

  4. Sunburn among active component service members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    Sunburn is caused by acute overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation directly from the sun or from artificial UV sources. Service members are at risk of excessive exposure to sunlight due to the nature of their military duties, which often involve working and training outdoors, and deployment to environments where UV radiation is more intense. From January 2002 through December 2013, a total of 19,172 incident cases of clinically significant sunburn were diagnosed among active component service members. Most of the cases (80.2%) were first degree sunburn. The incidence rates of sunburn diagnoses were higher among females, white non-Hispanics, younger age groups, individuals in the Marine Corps or Army, and among enlisted service members. Additionally, the rate among recruits was more than 3.5 times the rate for non-recruits. Sixty-one percent of all diagnosed cases occurred from May through July. Sunburn cases occurred in all areas of the U.S., particularly near major recruit and combat training locations. Service members are strongly advised to practice sun safety as a part of heat illness prevention, including properly using broad-spectrum sunscreen, finding or constructing shade during work and rest, wearing protective clothing and military combat eye protection items, and avoiding tanning booths and sun lamps. PMID:25080329

  5. Septicemia diagnosed during hospitalizations, active component service members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    During the period 2000 through 2012, the records of 3,360 hospitalized active component service members contained a diagnosis of septicemia. Most of these cases were identified via diagnoses recorded in the first and second diagnostic positions and the numbers and rates of such cases increased dramatically during the period. Rates were higher among women than men and in the oldest and youngest age groups. The most frequent co-occurring diagnoses were pneumonia and infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. For the majority of cases of septicemia, no specific etiologic agent was indicated by ICD-9 codes in the record. The most commonly specified agents were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Most service members were returned to duty after discharge. The overall mortality associated with hospitalized septicemia cases was 4 percent, but was 5.1 percent for septicemia attributed to gram negative bacteria. Possible reasons why the mortality rate in service members was lower than the rates associated with septicemia in the general population are discussed. PMID:24011371

  6. A sorrow shared is a sorrow halved? A three-arm randomized controlled trial comparing internet-based clinician-guided individual versus group treatment for social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Ava; Stolz, Timo; Vincent, Alessia; Krieger, Tobias; Andersson, Gerhard; Berger, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that internet-based cognitive behavioural treatments (ICBT) are effective to treat social anxiety disorder (SAD). Whereas the efficacy of clinician-guided ICBT has been established, ICBT in a group format has not yet been systematically investigated. This three-arm RCT compared the efficacy of clinician-guided group ICBT (GT) with clinician guided individual ICBT (IT) and a wait-list (WL). A total of 149 individuals meeting the diagnostic criteria for SAD were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Primary endpoints were self-report measures of SAD and diagnostic status taken at baseline, after the twelve-week intervention and at six-month follow-up. Secondary endpoints were symptoms of depression, interpersonal problems and general symptomatology. At post-treatment, both active conditions showed superior outcome regarding SAD symptoms (GT vs. WL: d = 0.84-0.74; IT vs. WL: d = 0.94-1.22). The two active conditions did not differ significantly in symptom reduction (d = 0.12-0.26, all ps > 0.63), diagnostic response rate or attrition. Treatment gains were maintained at follow-up. The group format reduced weekly therapist time per participant by 71% (IT: 17 min, GT: 5 min). Findings indicate that a clinician-guided group format is a promising approach in treating SAD. PMID:27423374

  7. Global circulation of the Earth's atmosphere at altitudes from 0 to 135 Km simulated with the ARM model. Consideration of the solar activity contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivolutsky, A. A.; Cherepanova, L. A.; Dement'eva, A. V.; Repnev, A. I.; Klyuchnikova, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    The results of simulations of the global circulation and temperature regime in the altitude range from the lower tropospheric layers to 135 km are presented. They were obtained with the Atmospheric Research Model (ARM), an advanced modification of a version of the Cologne Middle Atmosphere Model (COMMA). The ARM is characterized by higher spatial resolution and better parameterizations of the radiation sources and heat sinks. At the lower boundary of the model, wavy sources of perturbations, which are caused by internal gravity waves and planetary waves, are specified. The results of the modeling of the global temperature and wind fields for the mean solar activity level are presented, and their changes, which are caused by variations of the UV-radiation fluxes in the solar activity cycle and by solar proton flares, are also considered.

  8. Treatment of ichthyophthiriasis with photodynamically active chlorophyllin.

    PubMed

    Häder, D-P; Schmidl, J; Hilbig, R; Oberle, M; Wedekind, H; Richter, P R

    2016-04-01

    Water-soluble chlorophyll (chlorophyllin) exerts pronounced photodynamic activity on fish parasites. In order to determine its potential as a remedy against ectoparasites in fish carps were incubated in water with defined concentrations of chlorophyllin. The main focus of the experiments was on the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Fouquet) which is responsible for considerable losses in livestock in aquaculture. As malachite green, which in the past efficiently cured infected fishes, is banned because of its possible carcinogenicity; no effective remedy is presently available in aquaculture to treat ichthyophthiriasis. Using chlorophyllin, the number of trophonts was significantly reduced (more than 50 %) after 3 h incubation of infested fish at 2 and 4 mg/L and subsequent irradiation with simulated solar radiation. The lack of reinfection after light treatment indicates that also the remaining parasites have lost their multiplication capacity. In the controls (no chlorophyllin and no light, light but no chlorophyllin, or chlorophyllin but no light), no reduction of the I. multifiliis infection was observed. We propose that chlorophyllin (or other photodynamic substances) is a possible effective countermeasure against I. multifiliis and other ectoparasites in aquaculture. PMID:26693716

  9. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. 31.3401(a)(1)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES...

  10. Para-aminobenzamidine linked regenerated cellulose membranes for plasminogen activator purification: Effect of spacer arm length and ligand density

    PubMed Central

    Fasoli, Ezio; Reyes, Yiaslin Ruiz; Guzman, Osiris Martinez; Rosado, Alexandra; Cruz, Vivian Rodriguez; Borges, Amaris; Martinez, Edmarie; Bansal, Vibha

    2013-01-01

    Despite membrane-based separations offering superior alternative to packed bed chromatographic processes, there has been a substantial lacuna in their actual application to separation processes. One of the major reasons behind this is the lack of availability of appropriately modified or end-group modifiable membranes. In this paper, an affinity membrane was developed using a commercially available serine protease inhibitor, para-aminobenzamidine (pABA). The membrane modification was optimized for protein binding capacity by varying: i) the length of the spacer arm (SA; 5-atoms, 7-atoms, and 14-atoms) linking the ligand to membrane surface; ii) the affinity ligand (pABA) density on membrane surface (5–25 nmoles per cm2). Resulting membranes were tested for their ability to bind plasminogen activators (PAs) from mono- and multi- component systems in batch mode. The membrane containing pABA linked through 7-atoms SA but similar ligand density as in the case of 5- or 14- atoms long SA was found to bind up to 1.6-times higher amounts of PA per nmole of immobilized ligand from conditioned HeLa cell culture media. However, membranes with similar ligand densities but different lengths of SA, showed comparable binding capacities in monocomponent system. In addition, the length of SA did not affect the selectivity of the ligand for PA. A clear inverse linear correlation was observed between ligand density and binding capacity until the point of PA binding optima was reached (11±1.0 nmoles per cm2) in mono- and multi- component systems for 7- as well as 14- atoms SA. Up to 200-fold purification was achieved in a single step separation of PA from HeLa conditioned media using these affinity membranes. The issues of ligand leaching and reuse of the membranes were also investigated. An extensive regeneration procedure allowed the preservation of approximately 95% of the PA binding capacity of the membranes even after five cycles of use. PMID:23703544

  11. Anomalous Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In this composite image of spiral galaxy M106 (NGC 4258), optical data from the Digitized Sky Survey is shown as yellow, radio data from the Very Large Array appears as purple, X-ray data from Chandra is coded blue, and infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope appears red. Two anomalous arms, which aren't visible at optical wavelengths, appear as purple and blue emission.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. The North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site is a permanent site providing data about cloud and radiative processes at high latitudes. These data are being used to refine models and parameterizations as they relate to the Arctic. Centered at Barrow and extending to the south (to the vicinity of Atqasuk), west (to the vicinity of Wainwright), and east (towards Oliktok), the NSA site has become a focal point for atmospheric and ecological research activity on the North Slope. Approximately 300,000 NSA data sets from 1993 to the present reside in the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  13. Development and evaluation of the Active Treatment Client Rights Checklist.

    PubMed

    Gross, E J; Maguire, K B; Shepard, S M; Piersel, W C

    1994-01-01

    The role of active treatment has been recognized as vital to the habilitation of persons with mental retardation; however, evaluating the provision of active treatment has been difficult. This study describes the development of the Active Treatment Client Rights checklist (ATCR), which was designed to facilitate the assessment, monitoring, and implementation of readily observable client active treatment services. This investigation provides an explanation of item content, initial reliability data (Phase I), and the results of implementation of the ATCR over a 2-year period in an ICF/MR facility with 29 living units serving nearly 500 clients (Phase II). The ATCR is highly reliable, valid, and useful in enhancing staff provision of active treatment. The most sensitive indicator of active treatment was shown to be related to frequency of functional interactions between clients and staff. PMID:8190969

  14. The effect of swinging the arms on muscle activation and production of leg force during ski skating at different skiing speeds.

    PubMed

    Göpfert, Caroline; Lindinger, Stefan J; Ohtonen, Olli; Rapp, Walter; Müller, Erich; Linnamo, Vesa

    2016-06-01

    The study investigated the effects of arm swing during leg push-off in V2-alternate/G4 skating on neuromuscular activation and force production by the leg muscles. Nine skilled cross-country skiers performed V2-alternate skating without poles at moderate, high, and maximal speeds, both with free (SWING) and restricted arm swing (NOSWING). Maximal speed was 5% greater in SWING (P<0.01), while neuromuscular activation and produced forces did not differ between techniques. At both moderate and high speed the maximal (2% and 5%, respectively) and average (both 5%) vertical force and associated impulse (10% and 14%) were greater with SWING (all P<0.05). At high speed range of motion and angular velocity of knee flexion were 24% greater with SWING (both P<0.05), while average EMG of m. biceps femoris was 31% lower (all P<0.05) in SWING. In a similar manner, the average EMG of m. vastus medialis and m. biceps femoris were lower (17% and 32%, P<0.05) during the following knee extension. Thus, swinging the arms while performing V2-alternate can enhance both maximal speed and skiing economy at moderate and, in particularly, high speeds. PMID:27031075

  15. Onset, longevity, and patient satisfaction with incobotulinumtoxinA for the treatment of glabellar frown lines: a single-arm, prospective clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Prager, Welf; Bee, Eva K; Havermann, Isabel; Zschocke, Ina

    2013-01-01

    Background IncobotulinumtoxinA (Bocouture®) is free from complexing proteins and effective for treating glabellar frown lines. Purpose To determine the efficacy, onset, and duration of action of incobotulinumtoxinA for the treatment of glabellar frown lines. Patients and methods In this single-arm, prospective, proof-of-concept study, 23 patients were treated with 25 U incobotulinumtoxinA, equally split between five injection sites in the glabella. Severity of glabellar frown lines was rated by an independent rater from standardized photographs using the validated Merz 5-point scale at several visits over 5 months following treatment. To assess patient satisfaction, patients completed a questionnaire before and 2 weeks after treatment. Results The percentage of responders at maximum frown 2–4 days after treatment was 95.2% and 85.0% when responders were defined as patients with ≥1-point and ≥2-point improvement on the 5-point scale compared with baseline, respectively. At this time point, 84% of the maximum effect had occurred. The responder rate at maximum frown, according to both definitions, was 100% for at least the next two visits (days 8 ± 1 and 14 ± 2). At all visits, the change from baseline in the mean glabellar frown-line score at maximum frown was statistically significant, with on average an almost 1-point improvement from baseline 5 months after treatment. Conclusion IncobotulinumtoxinA is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for glabellar frown lines, with a rapid onset of action and a long duration of effect lasting for more than 5 months. PMID:23650444

  16. Improvement in social and cognitive functioning associated with paliperidone extended-release treatment in patients with schizophrenia: a 24-week, single arm, open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chuan; Yao, Shu Qiao; Xu, Yi Feng; Shi, Jian Guo; Xu, Xiu Feng; Zhang, Cong Pei; Jin, Hua; Yu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This single-arm, open-label study aimed to explore the effects of extended-release paliperidone on social and cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Paliperidone extended-release (flexible dose ranging from 3 to 12 mg/day orally) was administered for 24 weeks in patients with schizophrenia. Patient function was assessed using the personal and social performance scale, measurement and treatment research to improve cognition in schizophrenia initiative-consensus cognitive battery, positive and negative syndrome scale, and clinical global impression-severity. Results Ninety patients were included in the full analysis set, while 72 patients were included in the per protocol set. The personal and social performance score was 54.3±14.3 at baseline, and significantly increased to 73.4±12.6 at week 24 (P<0.001). For the measurement and treatment research to improve cognition in schizophrenia initiative-consensus cognitive battery assessment, six of the nine individual subtests, six of the seven cognitive domains, and total cognitive scores improved significantly (P<0.05) between baseline and endpoint. positive and negative syndrome scale total scores and clinical global impression-severity scores decreased gradually (P<0.001) from week 4 to the conclusion of the study. Conclusion Paliperidone extended-release treatment significantly improves social and neurocognitive function as well as symptoms in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. PMID:27601904

  17. Association between variants A69S in ARMS2 gene and response to treatment of exudative AMD: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zizhong; Xie, Ping; Ding, Yuzhi; Yuan, Dongqing; Liu, Qinghuai

    2015-05-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the association between A69S in age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) and the response to anti-angiogenesis treatment in exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A literature-based meta-analysis was performed of studies relevant to A69S and the response to anti-angiogenesis treatment. PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Sinomed databases were used to retrieve articles up to July 2014. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using fixed and random effects models in Stata V.9.0. Q-statistic testing was used to assess heterogeneity. Twelve articles comprising 2389 cases were included in the final meta-analysis. The analysis of the overall population indicated a statistically significant association between A69S and the response to anti-angiogenesis treatment in exudative AMD (GG vs TT: OR 1.34 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.77), p=0.039; GT vs TT: OR 1.58 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.31), p=0.018; GG+GT vs TT: OR 1.74 (95% CI 1.19 to 2.52), p=0.004). In subgroup analysis, A69S appeared more likely to be a predictor for anti-angiogenic response in the East Asian population (GG vs TT: OR 1.65 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.68), p=0.042; GT vs TT: OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.17 to 2.37), p=0.005; GG+GT vs TT: OR 1.82 (95% CI 1.07 to 3.10), p=0.027; G vs T: OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.41)). However, no statistical significance was found in the Caucasian subgroup analysis. This study shows an association between A69S polymorphism in the ARMS2 gene and the anti-angiogenesis treatment response. A69S could be considered predictive of the anti-angiogenic effects, especially in Asian populations. PMID:25185256

  18. Using Mid-Upper Arm Circumference to End Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition Leads to Higher Weight Gains in the Most Malnourished Children

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Nancy M.; Myatt, Mark; Prudhon, Claudine; Briend, André

    2013-01-01

    Objective The World Health Organization recommends discharging children admitted to nutrition programs treating severe acute malnutrition, with a low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC <115 mm) when weight gain is >15%. When this recommendation is followed, the most severely malnourished children receive a shorter treatment compared to children that are less severely malnourished. This study assesses whether using MUAC >125 mm as discharge criteria eliminates this effect. Methods and Findings Data from 753 children cured from a Médecins Sans Frontières outpatient nutrition program in Gedaref, North Sudan were analyzed. MUAC >125 mm was used as discharge criteria. Length of stay and percent weight gain of children were compared in relation to nutritional status on admission. Children with low MUAC on admission had a longer duration of treatment (p = 0.000) and also a higher percent weight gain (p = 0.000) than children with higher MUAC. Similar results with weight-for-height z-scores categories were shown with both duration of treatment (p = 0.000) and percent weight gain (p = 0.000). Conclusion This study shows that using MUAC as the discharge criteria eliminates the effect of shorter treatment in most severely malnourished children compared to least severely malnourished, as is observed with percent weight gain. The findings directly address the main concern that has been identified with the current WHO recommendation of using percent weight gain. MUAC could be used as discharge criteria, instead of percent weight gain, as having a longer duration of treatment and a higher percent weight gain for the most malnourished is highly desirable. PMID:23418442

  19. Behavioral Activation Is an Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier…

  20. Coat of Arms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Describes an activity, the "coat of arms," that can serve as an ice-breaker or warm-up for the first day of an English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language class, as a motivating start to the week, or act as an innovative segue between skill lessons. The technique can be adapted for students ranging from elementary school to adult language learners of all…

  1. Post-refractive surgery complications and eye disease, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Blitz, Jason B; Hunt, Devin J; Cost, Angelia A

    2016-05-01

    Refractive surgery (RS) is a common procedure in the U.S. military population. This report provides an estimation of incident RS for vision correction purposes in the active component of the U.S. military from 1 January 2005 through 31 December 2014 and the prevalence of post-RS complications and eye disease in the 1-year period after RS. During the surveillance period, a total of 121,571 subjects without a diagnosis of eye disease other than hyperopia, myopia, or astigmatism in the previous year received a single incident RS procedure. In the 1-year period after RS, 5.3% of subjects with preoperative hyperopia or myopia had treatment-persistent (unresolved) hyperopia or myopia; 2.0% of subjects with preoperative astigmatism had treatment-persistent (unresolved) astigmatism; and 3.8% were diagnosed with tear film insufficiency. In general, most outcomes showed higher prevalences in Army and Air Force personnel versus Navy and Marine Corps personnel, in women versus men, in officer versus enlisted personnel, and in aviation and Special Forces personnel. A wide variation in outcome prevalences was noted by procedural military treatment facility. PMID:27255946

  2. Korean arms control: Arms control policies of the two Koreas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the arms control proposals suggested by South and North Korea since the end of the Korean War and suggests some arms control measures that would be applied to the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang has persistently proposed arms reduction measures since 1953, but Seoul has refused to discuss the issue because it suspected the North's true motive. The study points out that the objective reality of the two Koreas does not show any strong possibility of a war on the Peninsula. The most destabilizing factor in the South-North military relations is the possibility of misperception and miscalculation about the military capabilities and intentions of the other side. The study recommends that Seoul government not entirely adhere to the European CSBM model centered on the transparency of military activities. There are many other policy options for Seoul. The area between Seoul and Pyongyang can be made into a [open quotes]limited forces area[close quotes] as experienced by Egypt and Israel on the Sinai Peninsula. The study notes the utility of applying Charles Osgood's GRIT strategy to the Korean situation, a unilateral arms control approach. Among the structural arms control issues, the withdrawal of the US forces and its nuclear weapons are the most important ones which have to be dealt with before seriously negotiating arms reductions between the two Koreas. Considering the increasing capability of the South Korean armed forces and the availability of the US air and naval forces in and around South Korea, the US ground forces and the nuclear weapons would best be withdrawn from the South. Although these withdrawals cannot be used as bargaining chips by the South in the arms control negotiations with the North, these can be effectively utilized as GRIT measures. The South needs to persuade the North to reduce its redundant offensive weapons including chemical weapons and SCUD missiles as priority targets for arms reduction.

  3. Progress report of FY 1998 activities: Continued development of an integrated sounding system in support of the DOE/ARM experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Edgeworth R. Westwater; Yong Han; Vladimir Leuskiy

    1998-09-06

    Both during September 15-30, 1996 and September 15-October 5, 1997, the Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) participated in an experiment at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site that was designed to study many of the ways that ARM is measuring water vapor. These experiments, called the Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods (WVIOPs), produced some results of significant importance to ARM water vapor measurements. We have spent the major portion of this years activities in analyzing results of these experiments, and improving algorithms for improving the measurement of precipitable water vapor (PWV) from instruments available at ARM. The most important ARM instrument for this measurement continues to be the Microwave Radiometer (MWR). Measurements of water vapor at the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) CART site in Barrow, Alaska, area potential problem because of the difficulty of radiosondes to measure low amounts of vapor during cold and extremely dry conditions. The applicability of MWR scaling to radiosondes is questionable because of the low sensitivity of these instrument during dry conditions. It has been suggested by the ARM Instantaneous Radiative Flux Working Group and others that measurements of brightness temperature around 183 GHz could be used to scale during the coldest and driest periods. However, the millimeter wavelengths are vulnerable to cloud effects from both liquid and ice. We have participated in the planning and will participate in the Millimeter wave Arctic Experiment that will evaluate microwave and millimeter wave radiometers during extremely cold conditions. ETL has tested, both in an experiment at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory and during the two Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods in 1996 and 1997, a 5-mm scanning radiometer that measures low-altitude temperature profiles; both profiles of lapse rate and absolute temperature can be measured with the instrument

  4. ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF KRAFT BLEACHING EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The removal of color and organic contaminants by adsorption on activated carbon from the effluent of a kraft pulp bleaching plant was investigated in a pilot plant. The caustic bleach effluent, which contains 80% of the color from pulp bleaching, was decolorized successfully when...

  5. Treatment of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation Using C-Arm Fluoroscopy Guided Target Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xu-Li; Xu, Yong-Guang; Zhao, Xue-Jun; Song, Wen-Ge; Zheng, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the safety and therapeutic efficacy of target percutaneous laser disc decompression (T-PLDD) for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Background data: PLDD using the Nd:YAG laser has been regarded as an effective alternative treatment for disc herniation. However, all the previous studies were concentrated on vaporizing the nucleus pulposus in the intervertebral space. We hypothesize that insertion of the needle into the extruded part of the nucleus pulposus will decrease its volume and provide superior clinical effects compared to therapies that decrease the volume of the intradiscal nucleus pulposus. Materials and methods: A total of 25 patients suffering from posterolateral extruded but nonsequestered lumbar intervertebral disc herniation were treated with T-PLDD. After treatment, the patients were followed up and the therapeutic effect was assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months using the modified MacNab criteria. Results: The success rate was 80.0% (18 of 25), 88.0% (22 of 25), 92.0% (23 of 25), and 92.0% (23 of 25) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months respectively. No serious complications occurred in any of the patients. Furthermore, we did not observe any neurological sequelae. Conclusions: T-PLDD can significantly decrease pain and improve function of patients who have extruded but nonsequestered lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. PMID:22150064

  6. Less-costly activated carbon for sewage treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingham, J. D.; Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Lignite-aided sewage treatment is based on absorption of dissolved pollutants by activated carbon. Settling sludge is removed and dried into cakes that are pyrolyzed with lignites to yield activated carbon. Lignite is less expensive than activated carbon previously used to supplement pyrolysis yield.

  7. Fortifying the Treatment of Prostate Cancer with Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Champ, Colin E.; Francis, Lanie; Klement, Rainer J.; Dickerman, Roger; Smith, Ryan P.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, significant data have shown that obese men experience a survival detriment after treatment for prostate cancer. While methods to combat obesity are of utmost importance for the prostate cancer patient, newer data reveal the overall metabolic improvements that accompany increased activity levels and intense exercise beyond weight loss. Along these lines, a plethora of data have shown improvement in prostate cancer-specific outcomes after treatment accompanied with these activity levels. This review discusses the metabolic mechanisms in which increased activity levels and exercise can help improve both outcomes for men treated for prostate cancer while lowering the side effects of treatment. PMID:26977321

  8. Fortifying the Treatment of Prostate Cancer with Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Champ, Colin E; Francis, Lanie; Klement, Rainer J; Dickerman, Roger; Smith, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, significant data have shown that obese men experience a survival detriment after treatment for prostate cancer. While methods to combat obesity are of utmost importance for the prostate cancer patient, newer data reveal the overall metabolic improvements that accompany increased activity levels and intense exercise beyond weight loss. Along these lines, a plethora of data have shown improvement in prostate cancer-specific outcomes after treatment accompanied with these activity levels. This review discusses the metabolic mechanisms in which increased activity levels and exercise can help improve both outcomes for men treated for prostate cancer while lowering the side effects of treatment. PMID:26977321

  9. Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) in the treatment of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis: results of a 1-year, phase IIa, single-arm, open-label clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Spiera, Robert F; Gordon, Jessica K; Mersten, Jamie N; Magro, Cynthia M; Mehta, Mansi; Wildman, Horatio F; Kloiber, Stacey; Kirou, Kyriakos A; Lyman, Stephen; Crow, Mary K

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety and effectiveness of imatinib mesylate in the treatment of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc). Methods In this phase IIa, open-label, single-arm clinical trial, 30 patients with dcSSc were treated with imatinib 400 mg daily. Patients were monitored monthly for safety assessments. Modified Rodnan skin scores (MRSS) were assessed every 3 months. Pulmonary function testing, chest radiography, echocardiography and skin biopsies were performed at baseline and after 12 months of treatment. Results Twenty-four patients completed 12 months of therapy. 171 adverse events (AE) with possible relation to imatinib were identified; 97.6% were grade 1 or 2. Twenty-four serious AE were identified, two of which were attributed to study medication. MRSS decreased by 6.6 points or 22.4% at 12 months (p=0.001). This change was evident starting at the 6-month time point (Δ=−4.5; p<0.001) and was seen in patients with both early and late-stage disease. Forced vital capacity (FVC) improved by 6.4% predicted (p=0.008), and the diffusion capacity remained stable. The improvement in FVC was significantly greater in patients without interstitial lung disease. Health-related quality of life measures improved or remained stable. Blinded dermatopathological analysis confirmed a significant decrease in skin thickness and improvement in skin morphology. Conclusions Treatment with imatinib was tolerated by most patients in this cohort. Although AE were common, most were mild to moderate. In this open-label experience, improvements in skin thickening and FVC were observed. Further investigation of tyrosine kinase inhibition for dcSSc in a double-blind randomised placebo controlled trial is warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00555581 PMID:21398330

  10. The Healthy Activity Program lay counsellor delivered treatment for severe depression in India: systematic development and randomised evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Neerja; Anand, Arpita; Dimidjian, Sona; Shinde, Sachin; Weobong, Benedict; Balaji, Madhumitha; Hollon, Steven D.; Rahman, Atif; Wilson, G. Terence; Verdeli, Helena; Araya, Ricardo; King, Michael; Jordans, Mark J. D.; Fairburn, Christopher; Kirkwood, Betty; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing the global treatment gap for mental disorders requires treatments that are economical, effective and culturally appropriate. Aims To describe a systematic approach to the development of a brief psychological treatment for patients with severe depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary healthcare. Method The treatment was developed in three stages using a variety of methods: (a) identifying potential strategies; (b) developing a theoretical framework; and (c) evaluating the acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of the psychological treatment. Results The Healthy Activity Program (HAP) is delivered over 6–8 sessions and consists of behavioral activation as the core psychological framework with added emphasis on strategies such as problem-solving and activation of social networks. Key elements to improve acceptability and feasibility are also included. In an intention-to-treat analysis of a pilot randomised controlled trial (55 participants), the prevalence of depression (Beck Depression Inventory II ⩾19) after 2 months was lower in the HAP than the control arm (adjusted risk ratio = 0.55, 95% CI 0.32–0.94, P = 0.01). Conclusions Our systematic approach to the development of psychological treatments could be extended to other mental disorders. HAP is an acceptable and effective brief psychological treatment for severe depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary care. PMID:26494875

  11. Phoenix Robotic Arm Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, H. U.; Goetz, W.; Hartwig, H.; Hviid, S. F.; Kramm, R.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Reynolds, R.; Shinohara, C.; Smith, P.; Tanner, R.; Woida, P.; Woida, R.; Bos, B. J.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2008-10-01

    The Phoenix Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) is a variable-focus color camera mounted to the Robotic Arm (RA) of the Phoenix Mars Lander. It is designed to acquire both close-up images of the Martian surface and microscopic images (down to a scale of 23 μm/pixel) of material collected in the RA scoop. The mounting position at the end of the Robotic Arm allows the RAC to be actively positioned for imaging of targets not easily seen by the Stereo Surface Imager (SSI), such as excavated trench walls and targets under the Lander structure. Color information is acquired by illuminating the target with red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes. Digital terrain models (DTM) can be generated from RAC images acquired from different view points. This can provide high-resolution stereo information about fine details of the trench walls. The large stereo baseline possible with the arm can also provide a far-field DTM. The primary science objectives of the RAC are the search for subsurface soil/ice layering at the landing site and the characterization of scoop samples prior to delivery to other instruments on board Phoenix. The RAC shall also provide low-resolution panoramas in support of SSI activities and acquire images of the Lander deck for instrument and Lander check out. The camera design was inherited from the unsuccessful Mars Polar Lander mission (1999) and further developed for the (canceled) Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander (MSL01). Extensive testing and partial recalibration qualified the MSL01 RAC flight model for integration into the Phoenix science payload.

  12. Baseline Brain Activity Predicts Response to Neuromodulatory Pain Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mark P.; Sherlin, Leslie H.; Fregni, Felipe; Gianas, Ann; Howe, Jon D.; Hakimian, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the associations between baseline electroencephalogram (EEG)-assessed brain oscillations and subsequent response to four neuromodulatory treatments. Based on available research, we hypothesized that baseline theta oscillations would prospectively predict response to hypnotic analgesia. Analyses involving other oscillations and the other treatments (meditation, neurofeedback, and both active and sham transcranial direct current stimulation) were viewed as exploratory, given the lack of previous research examining brain oscillations as predictors of response to these other treatments. Design Randomized controlled study of single sessions of four neuromodulatory pain treatments and a control procedure. Methods Thirty individuals with spinal cord injury and chronic pain had their EEG recorded before each session of four active treatments (hypnosis, meditation, EEG biofeedback, transcranial direct current stimulation) and a control procedure (sham transcranial direct stimulation). Results As hypothesized, more presession theta power was associated with greater response to hypnotic analgesia. In exploratory analyses, we found that less baseline alpha power predicted pain reduction with meditation. Conclusions The findings support the idea that different patients respond to different pain treatments and that between-person treatment response differences are related to brain states as measured by EEG. The results have implications for the possibility of enhancing pain treatment response by either 1) better patient/treatment matching or 2) influencing brain activity before treatment is initiated in order to prepare patients to respond. Research is needed to replicate and confirm the findings in additional samples of individuals with chronic pain. PMID:25287554

  13. Behavioral activation: a strategy to enhance treatment response.

    PubMed

    Sudak, Donna M; Majeed, Muhammad H; Youngman, Branden

    2014-07-01

    Behavioral activation is an empirically validated treatment for depression pioneered in 1973 by Ferster, based on B.F. Skinner's behavioral principles. After publication of Beck's work on cognitive therapy, the boundaries of behavioral and cognitive therapies were blurred and the two now overlap substantially. Behavioral activation is also used as a stand-alone treatment and can also be effective in conjunction with antidepressant medication. Case conceptualization in behavioral activation entails an assessment of the behaviors that the patient has stopped that produce pleasure or are of importance, as well as behaviors essential to self-care. Activity monitoring, which provides treatment targets and leads to the case conceptualization in behavioral activation, consists of using charts, forms, or other prompts to track the relationship between activities and other variables (e.g., mood, enjoyment). That technique is also used to target rumination, procrastination, and avoidance and may also be helpful for patients with psychosis. PMID:25036582

  14. DESIGN HANDBOOK FOR AUTOMATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a systems engineering handbook for the automation of activated sludge wastewater treatment processes. Process control theory and application are discussed to acquaint the reader with terminology and fundamentals. Successful unit process control strategies currently...

  15. The analgesic effect of crossing the arms.

    PubMed

    Gallace, A; Torta, D M E; Moseley, G L; Iannetti, G D

    2011-06-01

    The ability to determine precisely the location of sensory stimuli is fundamental to how we interact with the world; indeed, to our survival. Crossing the hands over the body midline impairs this ability to localize tactile stimuli. We hypothesized that crossing the arms would modulate the intensity of pain evoked by noxious stimulation of the hand. In two separate experiments, we show (1) that the intensity of both laser-evoked painful sensations and electrically-evoked nonpainful sensations were decreased when the arms were crossed over the midline, and (2) that these effects were associated with changes in the multimodal cortical processing of somatosensory information. Critically, there was no change in the somatosensory-specific cortical processing of somatosensory information. Besides studies showing relief of phantom limb pain using mirrors, this is the first evidence that impeding the processes by which the brain localises a noxious stimulus can reduce pain, and that this effect reflects modulation of multimodal neural activities. By showing that the neural mechanisms by which pain emerges from nociception represent a possible target for analgesia, we raise the possibility of novel approaches to the treatment of painful clinical conditions. Crossing the arms over the midline impairs multimodal processing of somatosensory stimuli and induces significant analgesia to noxious hand stimulation. PMID:21440992

  16. Activation patterns of mono- and bi-articular arm muscles as a function of force and movement direction of the wrist in humans

    PubMed Central

    van Bolhuis, B M; Gielen, C C A M; van Ingen Schenau, G J

    1998-01-01

    In order to explain the task-dependent activation of muscles, we have investigated the hypothesis that mono- and bi-articular muscles have a different functional role in the control of multijoint movements. According to this hypothesis, bi-articular muscles are activated in a way to control the direction of external force. The mono-articular muscles are thought to be activated to contribute to joint torque mainly during shortening movements.To investigate this hypothesis, surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained from several mono- and bi-articular arm muscles during voluntary slow movements of the wrist in a horizontal plane against an external force. The direction of force produced at the wrist and the direction of movement of the wrist were varied independently.The results revealed distinct differences between the activation patterns of mono- and bi-articular muscles. The activation of the bi-articular muscles was not affected by movement direction, but appeared to vary exclusively with the direction of force.The mono-articular muscles showed significantly more EMG activity for movements in a specific direction, which equalled the movement direction corresponding to the largest shortening velocity of the muscle. The EMG activity decreased gradually for movements in other directions. This direction-dependent activation appeared to be independent of the direction of the external force. PMID:9490859

  17. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm

    PubMed Central

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A.; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T.; Lytton, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  18. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm.

    PubMed

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T; Lytton, William W

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  19. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  20. Brain activation to cocaine cues and motivation/treatment status.

    PubMed

    Prisciandaro, James J; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T

    2014-03-01

    Motivation to change is believed to be a key factor in therapeutic success in substance use disorders; however, the neurobiological mechanisms through which motivation to change impacts decreased substance use remain unclear. Existing research is conflicting, with some investigations supporting decreased and others reporting increased frontal activation to drug cues in individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. The present study investigated the relationship between motivation to change cocaine use and cue-elicited brain activity in cocaine-dependent individuals using two conceptualizations of 'motivation to change': (1) current treatment status (i.e. currently receiving versus not receiving outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence) and (2) self-reported motivation to change substance use, using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. Thirty-eight cocaine-dependent individuals (14 currently in treatment) completed a diagnostic assessment and an fMRI cocaine cue-reactivity task. Whole-brain analyses demonstrated that both treatment-seeking and motivated participants had lower activation to cocaine cues in a wide variety of brain regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal and cingulate cortices relative to non-treatment-seeking and less motivated participants. Future research is needed to explain the mechanism by which treatment and/or motivation impacts neural cue reactivity, as such work could potentially aid in the development of more effective therapeutic techniques for substance-dependent patients. PMID:22458561

  1. FINAL REPORT OF FY 1999, 2000, AND 2001 ACTIVITIES: CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED SOUNDING SYSTEM IN SUPPORT OF THE DOE/ARM EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Ed R. Westwater CIRES, University of Colorado /NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory 325 Broadway MS R/E/ET1 Boulder, Colorado 80305

    2002-04-30

    OAK B188 FINAL REPORT OF FY 1999, 2000, AND 2001 ACTIVITIES: CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED SOUNDING SYSTEM IN SUPPORT OF THE DOE/ARM EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM The basic goals of the research are to develop and test algorithms and deploy instruments that improve measurements of atmospheric quantities relevant to radiative transfer and climate research. Primary among these atmospheric variables are integrated amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid, as well as profiles of temperature, water vapor and cloud liquid. A primary thrust of this research is to combine data from instruments available to ARM to maximize their importance in radiative transfer and climate research. To gather data relevant to these studies, participation in field experiments, especially intensive operating periods, as well as the subsequent analysis and dissemination of collected data, is of primary importance. Examples of relevant experiments include several Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods at the Southern Great Plains Cloud And Radiation Testbed site, experiments in the Tropical Western Pacific such as PROBE and Nauru'99, and experiments at the North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean site. This final report describes our analyses of data taken during these field experiments.

  2. Infliximab treatment reduces complement activation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Familian, A; Voskuyl, A; van Mierlo, G J; Heijst, H; Twisk, J; Dijkmans, B; Hack, C

    2005-01-01

    Background: Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blocking agents decrease C reactive protein (CRP) levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It has been shown that CRP may contribute to complement activation in RA. Objective: To assess the effect of intravenous infliximab treatment on complement activation, especially that mediated by CRP, in RA. Methods: 35 patients with active RA (28 joint count Disease Activity Score (DAS28) >4.4) were treated with intravenous injections of infliximab (3 mg/kg, at weeks 0, 2, 6, 14, and 22). Clinical response and plasma levels of complement activation products, of CRP and of CRP-complement complexes, which are specific markers for CRP mediated complement activation, were assessed at the indicated time points up to 22 weeks. The relationship between CRP and CRP-complement complexes was analysed by paired t test between two time points and by generalised estimated equation, to test differences of variables over time. Results: At 2 weeks after the first dose, infliximab significantly reduced overall C3 and C4 activation and plasma levels of CRP and CRP-complement complexes were also significantly reduced at this time point. The effects of infliximab on CRP and complement continued throughout the observation period and were more pronounced in patients with a good response to infliximab treatment. Conclusion: Treatment with infliximab decreases plasma levels of CRP and CRP dependent complement activation products and concomitantly may reduce complement activation in RA. Complement activation may be among the effector mechanisms of TNF in RA. PMID:15958758

  3. Incidence of hiatal hernia in service members, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Francis L; Taubman, Stephen B

    2016-08-01

    From 2005 through 2014, a total of 27,276 active component service members had incident diagnoses of hiatal hernia documented in their medical records. The overall incidence rate was 19.7 cases per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs); annual incidence rates ranged from 16.5 to 22.2 cases per 10,000 p-yrs. Rates overall increased monotonically with increasing age and were higher among Air Force and Army members, officers, and healthcare workers than their respective counterparts. During the surveillance period, the 27,276 service members who had incident diagnoses of hiatal hernia accounted for 44,092 hiatal hernia-related encounters overall (1.6 encounters per case). Among all incident cases, 235 (0.86%) had surgical repairs documented during the period. The frequency of surgical treatment of hiatal hernias among military members mirrored the low frequency in U.S. civilian practice. During 2010-2014, most surgical procedures (79%) were accomplished via laparoscopic approaches. The incidence rates of hiatal hernia diagnoses reported here likely greatly underestimate the true incidence in U.S. military populations. Reasons for the underestimates and comparisons with other populations are discussed. PMID:27602798

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM data is collected both through permanent monitoring stations and field campaigns around the world. Airborne measurements required to answer science questions from researchers or to validate ground data are also collected. To find data from all categories of aerial operations, follow the links from the AAF information page at http://www.arm.gov/sites/aaf. Tables of information will provide start dates, duration, lead scientist, and the research site for each of the named campaigns. The title of a campaign leads, in turn, to a project description, contact information, and links to the data. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  5. Arms control and the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A collection of 16 articles from the Scientific American discusses the evolution of nuclear weapons since 1945 and the attempts to control the nuclear arms race through national action and international negotiations. The articles and commentaries by political scientists Bruce M. Russett and Fred Chernoff combine technical information on weapons and deployment systems with political analysis of current arms strategies and diplomacy. The articles are grouped under three major topics: SALT and the history of arms control negotiations, current strategic arms negotiations, and European security. A separate abstract was written for each of the 16 articles selected for the Energy Data Base. 226 references.

  6. Morphine treatment alters nucleotidase activities in rat blood serum

    PubMed Central

    Rozisky, Joanna Ripoll; Nonose, Yasmine; Laste, Gabriela; dos Santos, Vinicius Souza; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci LS

    2012-01-01

    Morphine has been widely used in neonatal pain management. However, this treatment may produce adaptive changes in several physiologic systems. Our laboratory has demonstrated that morphine treatment in neonate rats alters nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity and gene expression in central nervous system structures. Considering the relationship between the opioid and purinergic systems, our aim was to verify whether treatment with morphine from postnatal days 8 (P8) through 14 (P14) at a dose of 5 µg per day alters NTPDase and 5′-nucleotidase activities in rat serum over the short, medium, and long terms. After the in vivo assay, the morphine group showed increased hydrolysis of all nucleotides at P30, and a decrease in adenosine 5′-diphosphate hydrolysis at P60. Moreover, we found that nucleotidase activities change with age; adenosine 5′-triphosphate hydrolysis activity was lower at P16, and adenosine 5′-monophosphate hydrolysis activity was higher at P60. These changes are very important because these enzymes are the main regulators of blood nucleotide levels and, consequently, nucleotide signaling. Our findings showed that in vivo morphine treatment alters nucleotide hydrolysis in rat blood serum, suggesting that purine homeostasis can be influenced by opioid treatment during the neonatal period.

  7. Improved orthopedic arm joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dane, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Joint permits smooth and easy movement of disabled arm and is smaller, lighter and less expensive than previous models. Device is interchangeable and may be used on either arm at the shoulder or at the elbow.

  8. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of muscles, joints, tendons and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm ... a fall or an accident. Types of arm injuries include Tendinitis and bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones ...

  9. Objectively-assessed outcome measures: a translation and cross-cultural adaptation procedure applied to the Chedoke McMaster Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Standardised translation and cross-cultural adaptation (TCCA) procedures are vital to describe language translation, cultural adaptation, and to evaluate quality factors of transformed outcome measures. No TCCA procedure for objectively-assessed outcome (OAO) measures exists. Furthermore, no official German version of the Canadian Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI) is available. Methods An eight-step for TCCA procedure for OAO was developed (TCCA-OAO) based on the existing TCCA procedure for patient-reported outcomes. The TCCA-OAO procedure was applied to develop a German version of the CAHAI (CAHAI-G). Inter-rater reliability of the CAHAI-G was determined through video rating of CAHAI-G. Validity evaluation of the CAHAI-G was assessed using the Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA). All ratings were performed by trained, independent raters. In a cross-sectional study, patients were tested within 31 hours after the initial CAHAI-G scoring, for their motor function level using the subscales for arm and hand of the CMSA. Inpatients and outpatients of the occupational therapy department who experienced a cerebrovascular accident or an intracerebral haemorrhage were included. Results Performance of 23 patients (mean age 69.4, SD 12.9; six females; mean time since stroke onset: 1.5 years, SD 2.5 years) have been assessed. A high inter-rater reliability was calculated with ICCs for 4 CAHAI-G versions (13, 9, 8, 7 items) ranging between r = 0.96 and r = 0.99 (p < 0.001). Correlation between the CAHAI-G and CMSA subscales for hand and arm was r = 0.74 (p < 0.001) and r = 0.67 (p < 0.001) respectively. Internal consistency of the CAHAI-G for all four versions ranged between α = 0.974 and α = 0.979. Conclusions The TCCA-OAO procedure was validated regarding its feasibility and applicability for objectively-assessed outcome measures. The resulting German CAHAI can be used as a valid and reliable assessment for bilateral upper limb performance in

  10. CONSIDERATIONS IN GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF COMBINED INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to examine the use of activated carbon in reducing the content of biologically resistant organic compounds in a combined industrial wastewater treatment system. The invvestigation was conducted in two stages: (1) characterize organic priority pol...

  11. Activated carbon testing for the 200 area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R.N.

    1997-01-17

    This report documents pilot and laboratory scale testing of activated carbon for use in the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility peroxide decomposer columns. Recommendations are made concerning column operating conditions and hardware design, the optimum type of carbon for use in the plant, and possible further studies.

  12. Ergonomically neutral arm support system

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J; Chung, Jeffrey Y; Dellinges, Steven; Lafever, Robin E

    2005-08-02

    An ergonomic arm support system maintains a neutral position for the forearm. A mechanical support structure attached to a chair or other mounting structure supports the arms of a sitting or standing person. The system includes moving elements and tensioning elements to provide a dynamic balancing force against the forearms. The support structure is not fixed or locked in a rigid position, but is an active dynamic system that is maintained in equipoise by the continuous operation of the opposing forces. The support structure includes an armrest connected to a flexible linkage or articulated or pivoting assembly, which includes a tensioning element such as a spring. The pivoting assembly moves up and down, with the tensioning element providing the upward force that balances the downward force of the arm.

  13. 50 CFR 404.9 - Armed Forces actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Armed Forces actions. 404.9 Section 404.9... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.9 Armed Forces actions. (a) The prohibitions in this part do not apply to activities and exercises of the Armed Forces (including those carried out by the United States Coast...

  14. 50 CFR 404.9 - Armed Forces actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Armed Forces actions. 404.9 Section 404.9... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.9 Armed Forces actions. (a) The prohibitions in this part do not apply to activities and exercises of the Armed Forces (including those carried out by the United States Coast...

  15. 50 CFR 404.9 - Armed Forces actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Armed Forces actions. 404.9 Section 404.9... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.9 Armed Forces actions. (a) The prohibitions in this part do not apply to activities and exercises of the Armed Forces (including those carried out by the United States Coast...

  16. 50 CFR 404.9 - Armed Forces actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Armed Forces actions. 404.9 Section 404.9... MONUMENT § 404.9 Armed Forces actions. (a) The prohibitions in this part do not apply to activities and exercises of the Armed Forces (including those carried out by the United States Coast Guard) that...

  17. 50 CFR 404.9 - Armed Forces actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Armed Forces actions. 404.9 Section 404.9... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.9 Armed Forces actions. (a) The prohibitions in this part do not apply to activities and exercises of the Armed Forces (including those carried out by the United States Coast...

  18. Ten year revision of the brief behavioral activation treatment for depression: revised treatment manual.

    PubMed

    Lejuez, C W; Hopko, Derek R; Acierno, Ron; Daughters, Stacey B; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2011-03-01

    Following from the seminal work of Ferster, Lewinsohn, and Jacobson, as well as theory and research on the Matching Law, Lejuez, Hopko, LePage, Hopko, and McNeil developed a reinforcement-based depression treatment that was brief, uncomplicated, and tied closely to behavioral theory. They called this treatment the brief behavioral activation treatment for depression (BATD), and the original manual was published in this journal. The current manuscript is a revised manual (BATD-R), reflecting key modifications that simplify and clarify key treatment elements, procedures, and treatment forms. Specific modifications include (a) greater emphasis on treatment rationale, including therapeutic alliance; (b) greater clarity regarding life areas, values, and activities; (c) simplified (and fewer) treatment forms; (d) enhanced procedural details, including troubleshooting and concept reviews; and (e) availability of a modified Daily Monitoring Form to accommodate low literacy patients. Following the presentation of the manual, the authors conclude with a discussion of the key barriers in greater depth, including strategies for addressing these barriers. PMID:21324944

  19. Long-term efficacy and safety of incobotulinumtoxinA and conventional treatment of poststroke arm spasticity: a prospective, non-interventional, open-label, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Dressler, Dirk; Rychlik, Reinhard; Kreimendahl, Fabian; Schnur, Nicole; Lambert-Baumann, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of incobotulinumtoxinA with conventional antispastic therapy for poststroke arm spasticity in routine clinical practice over a 1-year period. Design Prospective, non-interventional, open-label, parallel-group study. Setting 47 centres in Germany. Participants Patients with poststroke arm spasticity; 108 receiving incobotulinumtoxinA, 110 conventional therapy. Intervention Conventional antispastic treatment including oral antispastic medications, physiotherapy and occupational therapy or 3-monthly incobotulinumtoxinA injections plus conventional therapy if required. Main outcome measures The main outcome measure was changes in muscle tone (Ashworth Scale) over the 1-year treatment period. Changes in functional disability (Disability Assessment Scale) and quality of life (Short-Form-12 Health Survey) were additionally assessed. Ratings for therapy outcome (Goal Attainment Scale), and efficacy and tolerability of treatment (Global Clinical Impression Scale) were also obtained. Results Muscle tone improved for all spasticity patterns with the Ashworth Scale responder rates between 63% and 86% (incobotulinumtoxinA) and 16–27% (conventional therapy). Median improvement in functional disability was –1.0 (incobotulinumtoxinA) and 0.0 (conventional measures) for all domains. Treatment goals were attained by 93% of incobotulinumtoxinA patients and 30% of patients under conventional therapy. Most physicians (93%) and patients (90%) rated efficacy as good or very good under incobotulinumtoxinA; the proportions were much lower under conventional therapy (36% and 37%). Tolerability under incobotulinumtoxinA was considered good or very good by 99% of physicians and patients (76% and 66%, respectively, under conventional therapy). Quality of life under incobotulinumtoxinA improved by 8.0 (physical score) and 10.8 (mental score) and by 0.8 and 5.7, respectively, under conventional therapy. Conclusions IncobotulinumtoxinA combined

  20. Robot-assisted arm training in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the growing diffusion of robotic devices in neurorehabilitation, no previous study investigated the effects of robotic training on arm impairment due to Parkinson’s disease. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether robot-assisted arm training might improve upper limb function in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Findings Ten patients with Parkinson’s disease (Hoehn and Yahr stage 2.5-3) received ten, 45-minute, treatment sessions, five days a week, for two consecutive weeks. Robot-assisted arm training was performed with the Bi-Manu-Track (Reha-Stim, Berlin, Germany) that provides a computer-controlled, repetitive, bilateral, mirror-like practice of forearm pronation/supination and wrist extension/flexion. Patients were trained according to the following modalities: passive-passive (both arms moved by the machine) and active-active (both arms actively moving against resistance). The dominant upper limb was evaluated before and immediately after treatment as well as at two weeks of follow-up. Outcomes were the nine-hole peg test, the Fugl-Meyer assessment (upper limb section) and the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale. After treatment, a significant improvement was found in the nine-hole peg test (P = 0.007) as well as in the upper limb section of the Fugl-Meyer assessment (P = 0.012). Findings were confirmed at the 2-week follow-up evaluation only for the nine-hole peg test (P = 0.007). No significant improvement was found in the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale at both post-treatment and follow-up evaluations. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that robot-assisted arm training might be a promising tool in order to improve upper limb function in patients with Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24597524

  1. Neutron distribution and induced activity inside a Linac treatment room.

    PubMed

    Juste, B; Miró, R; Verdú, G; Díez, S; Campayo, J M

    2015-08-01

    Induced radioactivity and photoneutron contamination inside a radiation therapy bunker of a medical linear accelerator (Linac) is investigated in this work. The Linac studied is an Elekta Precise electron accelerator which maximum treatment photon energy is 15 MeV. This energy exceeds the photonuclear reaction threshold (around 7 MeV for high atomic number metals). The Monte Carlo code MCNP6 has been used for quantifying the neutron contamination inside the treatment room for different gantry rotation configuration. Walls activation processes have also been simulated. The approach described in this paper is useful to prevent the overexposure of patients and medical staff. PMID:26737878

  2. [Behavioral activation and depression: a contextual treatment approach].

    PubMed

    Soucy Chartier, Isabelle; Blanchet, Valérie; Provencher, Martin D

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a widespread psychological disorder that affects approximately one in five North American. Typical reactions to depression include inactivity, isolation, and rumination. Several treatments and psychological interventions have emerged to address this problematic. Cognitive behavioural therapies have received increasingly large amounts of empirical support. A sub-component of cognitive behavioural therapy, behavioural activation, has been shown to in itself effectively treat symptoms of depression. This intervention involves efforts to re-activate the depressed client by having them engage in pleasant, gratifying, leisure, social, or physical activities, thereby counteracting the tendency to be inactive and to isolate oneself. Clients are guided through the process of establishing a list of potentially rewarding social, leisure, mastery-oriented or physical activities, to then establish a gradual hierarchy of objectives to be accomplished over the span of several weeks. Concrete action plans are devised, and solutions to potential obstacles are elaborated. The client is the asked to execute the targeted objective and to record their mood prior to and following the activity. Behavioural activation effectively reverses the downward spiral to depression. Interestingly, studies show that behavioural activation has a positive effect on cognitive activities. It has been shown to reduce rumination and favour cognitive restructuring, without requiring cognitively-based interventions. The advantage of this treatment is therefore that it is simpler to administer in comparison to full-packaged cognitive behavioural therapies, it requires a lesser number of sessions and can be disseminated in a low-intensity format. This article begins by summarizing the origins of the behavioural model of depression, which serves as a basis to the understanding of behavioural activation. This is followed by a detailed explanation of the different phases involved in a behavioural

  3. Immunoregulatory and antitumor activity of schizophyllan under ultrasonic treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Kui; Tong, Litao; Liu, Liya; Zhou, Xianrong; Liu, Xingxun; Zhang, Qi; Zhou, Sumei

    2015-09-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the biological activities of schizophyllan (SPG) from Schizophyllum commune. The immunoregulatory and antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo of SPG and ultrasonic-treated SPG (USPG) were evaluated by splenic lymphocytes, macrophages RAW264.7 and human breast carcinoma T-47D cells. Compared with SPG, USPG fractions had small molecular weight and narrow distribution. Meantime, more enhancement of NO production in macrophages RAW264.7, lymphocytes proliferation rates, IL-2 and TNF-α level from spleen lymphocytes and T-47D cells inhibition rates were observed in USPG fractions groups. This result indicated that the immune-enhancing and antitumor activity of SPG was significantly improved after ultrasonic treatment. USPG60 exhibited the highest biological activity in this study. In conclusion, application of ultrasonic technology on SPG preparation is an efficient approach to get high biological polysaccharide, and USPG60 might be a potential functional component for immunoregulatory and cancer treatment. PMID:26126943

  4. The future of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.; Mack, A.

    1987-01-01

    This collection of essays examines the issues involved in the arms negotiations between the Superpowers, and the potential for developing effective arms control in the future. Contents (partial): Preface; Reagan administration and arms control; Superpowers Arms Control: The Soviet perspective; Nuclear disengagement zones and no first use doctrines as arms control measures; Regional arms control in the South Pacific; Arms control and the Indian Ocean; Preventing Proliferation: The role of Australian uranium.

  5. Treatment of vertebral body compression fractures using percutaneous kyphoplasty guided by a combination of computed tomography and C-arm fluoroscopy with finger-touch guidance to determine the needle entry point.

    PubMed

    Wang, G Y; Zhang, C C; Ren, K; Zhang, P P; Liu, C H; Zheng, Z A; Chen, Y; Fang, R

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the results and complications of image-guided percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) using computed tomography (CT) and C-arm fluoroscopy, with finger-touch guidance to determine the needle entry point. Of the 86 patients (106 PKP) examined, 56 were treated for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures and 30 for vertebral tumors. All patients underwent image-guided treatment using CT and conventional fluoroscopy, with finger-touch identification of a puncture point within a small incision (1.5 to 2 cm). Partial or complete pain relief was achieved in 98% of patients within 24 h of treatment. Moreover, a significant improvement in functional mobility and reduction in analgesic use was observed. CT allowed the detection of cement leakage in 20.7% of the interventions. No bone cement leakages with neurologic symptoms were noted. All work channels were made only once, and bone cement was distributed near the center of the vertebral body. Our study confirms the efficacy of PKP treatment in osteoporotic and oncological patients. The combination of CT and C-arm fluoroscopy with finger-touch guidance reduces the risk of complications compared with conventional fluoroscopy alone, facilitates the detection of minor cement leakage, improves the operative procedure, and results in a favorable bone cement distribution. PMID:25867298

  6. Early Surrogate Markers of Treatment Activity: Where Are We Now?

    PubMed

    Klintman, Marie; Dowsett, Mitchell

    2015-05-01

    The assessment of new therapies in the adjuvant setting in early breast cancer requires large numbers of patients and many years of follow-up for results to be presented. Therefore, the neoadjuvant study setting, which allows for early prediction of treatment response in smaller patient sets, has become increasingly popular. Ki67 is the most commonly used and extensively studied intermediate biomarker of treatment activity and residual risk in neoadjuvant trials on endocrine therapy, new biological therapies, and chemotherapy. It is increasingly being used as a primary endpoint for new therapies particularly those added to endocrine therapy. The PeriOperative Endocrine Therapy for Individualizing Care (POETIC) trial, including more than 4000 postmenopausal, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive patients randomly assigned to receive 2 weeks of presurgical treatment with an aromatase inhibitor or no further treatment, is the largest window-of-opportunity trial conducted and is assessing the clinical utility of on-treatment Ki67 as a predictor of long-term outcome. For generalizability, Ki67 measurements in the POETIC and other trials need to use standard methodology. The International Working Group on Ki67 in Breast Cancer is conducting a series of studies to bring this to reality. PMID:26063881

  7. Embedded ARM system for volcano monitoring in remote areas: application to the active volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461

  8. Embedded ARM System for Volcano Monitoring in Remote Areas: Application to the Active Volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica)

    PubMed Central

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461

  9. Ghrelin treatment prevents development of activity based anorexia in mice.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Romain; Lucas, Nicolas; Breton, Jonathan; Azhar, Saïda; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2016-06-01

    Stimulation of feeding is necessary for treatment of pathological conditions of chronic malnutrition due to anorexia. Ghrelin, a hunger hormone, is one of the candidate for pharmacological treatments of anorexia, but because of its instability in plasma has limited efficacy. We previously showed that plasmatic IgG protect ghrelin from degradation and that IgG from obese subjects and mice may increase ghrelin׳s orexigenic effect. In this study we tested if ghrelin alone or combined with IgG may improve feeding in chronically food-restricted mice with or without physical activity-based anorexia (ABA) induced by free access to a running wheel. Mice received a single daily intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin (1nM) together or not with total IgG (1nM) from obese ob/ob or lean mice before access to food during 8 days of 3h/day feeding time. We found that both ghrelin and ghrelin combined with IgG from obese, but not lean mice, prevented ABA, however, they were not able to diminish body weight loss. Physical activity was lower during the feeding period and was increased shortly after feeding in mice receiving ghrelin together with IgG from obese mice. In food-restricted mice without ABA, ghrelin treatments did not have significant effects on food intake. Thus, this study supports pharmacological use of ghrelin or ghrelin combined with IgG from obese animals for treatment of anorexia accompanied by elevated physical activity. The utility of combining ghrelin with protective IgG should be further determined in animal models of anorexia with unrestricted access to food. PMID:27052473

  10. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment

  11. Simultaneous structure-activity studies and arming of natural products by C–H amination reveal cellular targets of eupalmerin acetate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Cisar, Justin S.; Zhou, Congying; Vera, Brunilda; Williams, Howard; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Romo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    To fully exploit the inherent and enduring potential of natural products for fundamental cell biology and drug lead discovery, synthetic methods for functionalizing unique sites are highly desirable. Here we describe a strategy for the derivatization of natural products at ‘unfunctionalized’ positions via Rh(II)-catalyzed amination enabling simultaneous structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies and arming (alkynylation) of natural products. Employing Du Bois C–H amination, allylic and benzylic C–H bonds underwent amination and olefins underwent aziridination. With tertiary amine-containing natural products, amidines were produced via C–H amination/oxidation and unusual N-aminations provided hydrazine sulfamate inner salts. The alkynylated derivatives are readied for subsequent conjugation to access cellular probes for mechanism of action studies. Both chemo- and site-selectivity was studied by application to a diverse set of natural products including the marine-derived anticancer diterpene, eupalmerin acetate (EPA). Quantitative proteome profiling with an alkynyl EPA derivative obtained by site-selective, allylic C–H amination led to identification of several protein targets in HL-60 cells, including several known to be associated with cancer proliferation, suggestive of a polypharmacological mode of action for EPA. PMID:23695633

  12. Radial arm strike rail

    DOEpatents

    McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.

    1991-01-01

    The radial arm strike rail assembly is a system for measurement of bearings, directions, and stereophotography for geologic mapping, particularly where magnetic compasses are not appropriate. The radial arm, pivoting around a shaft axis, provides a reference direction determination for geologic mapping and bearing or direction determination. The centerable and levelable pedestal provide a base for the radial arm strike rail and the telescoping camera pedestal. The telescoping feature of the radial arm strike rail allows positioning the end of the rail for strike direction or bearing measurement with a goniometer.

  13. Activation of bone marrow phagocytes following benzene treatment of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Laskin, D L; MacEachern, L; Snyder, R

    1989-01-01

    Techniques in flow cytometry/cell sorting were used to characterize the effects of benzene and its metabolites on subpopulations of bone marrow cells. Treatment of male Balb/c mice with benzene (880 mg/kg) or a combination of its metabolites, hydroquinone and phenol (50 mg/kg), resulted in a 30 to 40% decrease in bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometric analysis revealed two subpopulations of bone marrow cells that could be distinguished by their size and density or granularity. The larger, more dense subpopulation was found to consist predominantly of macrophages and granulocytes as determined by monoclonal antibody binding and by cell sorting. Benzene treatment had no selective cytotoxic effects on subpopulations of bone marrow cells. To determine if benzene treatment activated bone marrow phagocytes, we quantified production of hydrogen peroxide by these cells using the fluorescent indicator dye, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. We found that macrophages and granulocytes from bone marrow of treated mice produced 50% more hydrogen peroxide in response to the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate than did cells from control animals. It is hypothesized that phagocyte activation and production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates may contribute to hematotoxicity induced by benzene. PMID:2676504

  14. Early Outcome of Posterior Cervical Endoscopic Discectomy: An Alternative Treatment Choice for Physically/Socially Active Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chi Heon; Kim, Hyun Jib; Jahng, Tae Ahn; Kim, Dong Gyu

    2009-01-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is currently the standard treatment for cervical disc disease. Some patients wish to be treated with a less invasive method, because of their social/physical situations. Here we present one method of treatments for socially/physically active patients. Three patients had triceps weakness and mild posterior neck pain. The offending lesions were at the C6-7 level. All were middle-aged soldiers with families. If conventional ACDF were performed, they would have to retire from the military according to the regulation. They had to be able to perform military drills after the treatment if they were going to be able to keep their jobs. Because of their social/physical situations, all wanted to choose method with that they could treat the disease and keep their jobs. For these reasons, the posterior cervical endoscopic discectomies were performed. Ruptured fragments were successfully removed in all. The arm pain improved by more than 90% in two patients by 7 days and in the other patient by 2 months, respectively (excellent outcome by Macnab's criteria). None of the operations caused instability. All of the patients are currently able to successfully perform their military drills without difficulty. The posterior cervical endoscopic discectomy may be a promising alternative for the physically/socially active patients. PMID:19399274

  15. Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to

  16. New active drugs for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zaniboni, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Newer active drugs have been recently added to the pharmacological armamentarium for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Aflibercept, a recombinant fusion protein composed of the extracellular domains of human vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) 1 and 2 and the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), is an attractive second-line option in combination with folfiri for patients who have failed folfox +/- bevacizumab. Ramucirumab, a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets VEGFR-2, provided similar results in the same setting. Tas-102, an oral fluoropyrimidine, and regorafenib, a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, are both able to control the disease in a considerable proportion of patients when all other available treatments have failed. These new therapeutic options along with the emerging concept that previous therapies may also be reitroduced or rechallenged after regorafenib and Tas-102 failure are bringing new hope for thousands of patients and their families. PMID:26730280

  17. New active drugs for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zaniboni, Alberto

    2015-12-27

    Newer active drugs have been recently added to the pharmacological armamentarium for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Aflibercept, a recombinant fusion protein composed of the extracellular domains of human vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) 1 and 2 and the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), is an attractive second-line option in combination with folfiri for patients who have failed folfox +/- bevacizumab. Ramucirumab, a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets VEGFR-2, provided similar results in the same setting. Tas-102, an oral fluoropyrimidine, and regorafenib, a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, are both able to control the disease in a considerable proportion of patients when all other available treatments have failed. These new therapeutic options along with the emerging concept that previous therapies may also be reitroduced or rechallenged after regorafenib and Tas-102 failure are bringing new hope for thousands of patients and their families. PMID:26730280

  18. Antibacterial, DNA interaction and cytotoxic activities of pendant-armed polyamine macrocyclic dinuclear nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthi, P.; Haleel, A.; Srinivasan, P.; Prabhu, D.; Arulvasu, C.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2014-08-01

    A series of dinuclear nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes (1-6) of hexaaza macrocycles of 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol with three different benzoyl pendant-arms, 2,2‧-benzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L), 2,2‧-4-nitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L‧) and 2,2‧-3,5-dinitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L″) have been synthesized and characterized by spectral methods. The electrochemical studies of these complexes depict two irreversible one electron reduction processes around E1pc = -0.62 to -0.76 V and E2pc = -1.21 to -1.31, and nickel(II) complexes (1-3) exhibit two irreversible one electron oxidation processes around E1pa = 1.08 to 1.14 V and E2pa = 1.71 to 1.74 V. The room temperature magnetic moment values (μeff, 1.52-1.54 BM) indicate the presence of an antiferromagnetic interaction in the binuclear copper(II) complexes (4-6) which is also observed from the broad ESR spectra with a g value of 2.14-2.15. The synthesized complexes (1-6) were screened for their antibacterial activity. The results of DNA interaction studies indicate that the dinuclear complexes can bind to calf thymus DNA by intercalative mode and display efficient cleavage of plasmid DNA. Further, the cytotoxic activity of complexes 2, 5 and 6 on human liver adenocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line has been examined. Nuclear-chromatin cleavage has also been observed with PI staining and comet assays.

  19. Ozonation and activated carbon treatment of sewage effluents: removal of endocrine activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Stalter, Daniel; Magdeburg, Axel; Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Concerns about endocrine disrupting compounds in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents give rise to the implementation of advanced treatment steps for the elimination of trace organic contaminants. The present study investigated the effects of ozonation (O(3)) and activated carbon treatment (AC) on endocrine activities [estrogenicity, anti-estrogenicity, androgenicity, anti-androgenicity, aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonistic activity] with yeast-based bioassays. To evaluate the removal of non-specific toxicity, a cytotoxicity assay using a rat cell line was applied. Wastewater (WW) was sampled at two STPs after conventional activated sludge treatment following the secondary clarifier (SC) and after subsequent advanced treatments: O(3), O(3) + sand filtration (O(3-SF)), and AC. Conventional treatment reduced estrogenicity, androgenicity, and AhR agonistic activity by 78-99% compared to the untreated influent WW. Anti-androgenicity and anti-estrogenicity were not detectable in the influent but appeared in SC, possibly due to the more effective removal of respective agonists during conventional treatment. Endocrine activities after SC ranged from 2.0 to 2.8 ng/L estradiol equivalents (estrogenicity), from 4 to 22 μg/L 4-hydroxytamoxifen equivalents (anti-estrogenicity), from 1.9 to 2.0 ng/L testosterone equivalents (androgenicity), from 302 to 614 μg/L flutamide equivalents (anti-androgenicity), and from 387 to 741 ng/L β-naphthoflavone equivalents (AhR agonistic activity). In particular, estrogenicity and anti-androgenicity occurred in environmentally relevant concentrations. O(3) and AC further reduced endocrine activities effectively (estrogenicity: 77-99%, anti-androgenicity: 63-96%, AhR agonistic activity: 79-82%). The cytotoxicity assay exhibited a 32% removal of non-specific toxicity after O(3) compared to SC. O(3) and sand filtration reduced cytotoxic effects by 49%, indicating that sand filtration contributes to the removal of toxicants. AC was the

  20. Incidence and recent trends in functional gastrointestinal disorders, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amelia G; Hu, Zheng; Cost, Angelia A

    2016-06-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common chronic conditions with an unknown pathophysiology and etiology. FGIDs elevate healthcare costs and cause substantial burden to public health and the military, including diminished readiness, productivity, and quality of life. This retrospective cohort study of active component U.S. military personnel covered a 10-year surveillance period, 2005-2014. The Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) was the data source. Incident cases were identified and rates were calculated and stratified by important covariates. Trends were described over the surveillance period. Incidence rates among deployed personnel were compared to rates in non-deployed personnel, stratified by age and sex. An increasing trend in functional constipation was observed during 2005-2012. Being female, black, in the Army or Air Force, and younger than 20 years of age or 40 years of age or older was associated with higher incidence rates. Deployment-exposed personnel had incidence rates that were 53% higher than those of non-deployed personnel. Elevated rates in personnel younger than 20 years of age and deployed personnel evoke interest concerning readiness and cost implications for the Military Health System. These subgroups should be examined in future studies. PMID:27362344

  1. Incidence of joint replacement among active component service members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Denise O; Taubman, Stephen B; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-05-01

    In the U.S., joint replacements have become more common and the average age of individuals who undergo joint replacements has decreased. Joint replacements among active component service members increased 10.5% during 2004-2009, then 61.9% during 2009-2014. Knees and hips were the most frequently replaced joints among service members. During the surveillance period (and particularly after 2009), incidence rates increased in each age group of service members 30 years or older. Relative to their respective counterparts, rates of joint replacement overall--and of the hip and knee specifically--were higher among service members who were black, non-Hispanic; officers; and healthcare workers. One year after joint replacement, 18.2% had retired; 5.2% had been medically disqualified from service; 6.3% had otherwise left service; and 70.3% were still in service. By 2 years post-joint replacement, 30.2% had retired; 13.0% had been medically disqualified; 10.0% had otherwise left service; and 46.8% were still in service. Service members aged 30-44 years were the most likely to remain in service post-joint replacement. Given the increases in the frequency of joint replacement among younger service members, the number of service members who remain in service post-joint replacement may continue to increase. PMID:25996170

  2. Incident and recurrent Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Owings, Alfred J; Clark, Leslie L; Rohrbeck, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections impose a significant clinical and public health burden on the Military Health System. Repeat infections contribute significantly to that burden. This report summarizes rates and relative risks of true incident (i.e., initial or "first time ever") and recurrent (i.e., repeat) chlamydia and gonorrhea infections among active component members between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014. During the surveillance period, a total of 66,396 initial chlamydia and 9,138 initial gonorrhea cases were diagnosed. Annual crude rates of initial chlamydia infections increased by 23%. Crude rates of initial gonorrhea infections remained stable overall, but female rates decreased by 28.3% over the period. Among the incident cohorts, 11,699 cases of repeat chlamydia, and 1,138 cases of repeat gonorrhea were diagnosed over the period, accounting for 15.0% and 11.1% of overall cohort chlamydia and gonorrhea infections, respectively. The Army branch, those aged 17-19 years, females, non-Hispanic black service members, junior enlisted ranks, and single/never-married service members had the highest crude rates of initial chlamydia and gonorrhea infection, and (single/never-married service members excepted) highest adjusted relative risk of repeat chlamydia infection. PMID:26930148

  3. Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with concomitant induction of cellular immune responses by a tetraaza-macrocycle with acetate pendant arms.

    PubMed

    David, S; Ordway, D; Arroz, M J; Costa, J; Delgado, R

    2001-01-01

    The novel tetraaza-macrocyclic compound 3,7,11-tris(carboxymethyl)-3,7,11,17-tetraaza-bicyclo[11.3.1]heptadeca-1(17),13,15-triene, abbreviated as ac3py14, was investigated for its activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and for induction of protective cellular immune responses. Perspective results show that ac3py14 and its Fe3+ 1:1 complex, [Fe(ac3py14)], inhibited radiometric growth of several strains of M. tuberculosis. Inhibition with 25 microg/mL varied from 99% for H37Rv to 80% and above for multiple drug-resistant clinical isolates. The capacity of ac3py14 to elicit a beneficial immune response without cellular apoptosis was assessed and compared to the effects of virulent M. tuberculosis. The present study produces evidence that after stimulation with ac3py14 there was significant production of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), whereas the production of interleukin-5 (IL-5) remained low, and there was development of a memory population (CD45RO). The level of binding of Annexin V, a marker of apoptosis, was not sufficient to result in toxic effects toward alphabeta and gammadelta T cells and CD14+ macrophages. This preliminary study is the first report of a compound that simultaneously exerts an inhibitory effect against M. tuberculosis and induces factors associated with protective immune responses. PMID:11501675

  4. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  5. Targeting RING domains of Mdm2–MdmX E3 complex activates apoptotic arm of the p53 pathway in leukemia/lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, W; Xu, C; Ling, X; Fan, C; Buckley, B P; Chernov, M V; Ellis, L; Li, F; Muñoz, I G; Wang, X

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of tumor-suppressor p53 for targeted cancer therapy is an attractive strategy for cancers bearing wild-type (WT) p53. Targeting the Mdm2–p53 interface or MdmX ((MDM4), mouse double minute 4)–p53 interface or both has been a focus in the field. However, targeting the E3 ligase activity of Mdm2–MdmX really interesting new gene (RING)–RING interaction as a novel anticancer strategy has never been explored. In this report, we describe the identification and characterization of small molecule inhibitors targeting Mdm2–MdmX RING–RING interaction as a new class of E3 ligase inhibitors. With a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based E3 activity assay in high-throughput screening of a chemical library, we identified inhibitors (designated as MMRis (Mdm2–MdmX RING domain inhibitors)) that specifically inhibit Mdm2–MdmX E3 ligase activity toward Mdm2 and p53 substrates. MMRi6 and its analog MMRi64 are capable of disrupting Mdm2–MdmX interactions in vitro and activating p53 in cells. In leukemia cells, MMRi64 potently induces downregulation of Mdm2 and MdmX. In contrast to Nutlin3a, MMRi64 only induces the expression of pro-apoptotic gene PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) with minimal induction of growth-arresting gene p21. Consequently, MMRi64 selectively induces the apoptotic arm of the p53 pathway in leukemia/lymphoma cells. Owing to the distinct mechanisms of action of MMRi64 and Nutlin3a, their combination synergistically induces p53 and apoptosis. Taken together, this study reveals that Mdm2–MdmX has a critical role in apoptotic response of the p53 pathway and MMRi64 may serve as a new pharmacological tool for p53 studies and a platform for cancer drug development. PMID:26720344

  6. Some recommendations for multi-arm multi-stage trials.

    PubMed

    Wason, James; Magirr, Dominic; Law, Martin; Jaki, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Multi-arm multi-stage designs can improve the efficiency of the drug-development process by evaluating multiple experimental arms against a common control within one trial. This reduces the number of patients required compared to a series of trials testing each experimental arm separately against control. By allowing for multiple stages experimental treatments can be eliminated early from the study if they are unlikely to be significantly better than control. Using the TAILoR trial as a motivating example, we explore a broad range of statistical issues related to multi-arm multi-stage trials including a comparison of different ways to power a multi-arm multi-stage trial; choosing the allocation ratio to the control group compared to other experimental arms; the consequences of adding additional experimental arms during a multi-arm multi-stage trial, and how one might control the type-I error rate when this is necessary; and modifying the stopping boundaries of a multi-arm multi-stage design to account for unknown variance in the treatment outcome. Multi-arm multi-stage trials represent a large financial investment, and so considering their design carefully is important to ensure efficiency and that they have a good chance of succeeding. PMID:23242385

  7. Some recommendations for multi-arm multi-stage trials

    PubMed Central

    Magirr, Dominic; Law, Martin; Jaki, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multi-arm multi-stage designs can improve the efficiency of the drug-development process by evaluating multiple experimental arms against a common control within one trial. This reduces the number of patients required compared to a series of trials testing each experimental arm separately against control. By allowing for multiple stages experimental treatments can be eliminated early from the study if they are unlikely to be significantly better than control. Using the TAILoR trial as a motivating example, we explore a broad range of statistical issues related to multi-arm multi-stage trials including a comparison of different ways to power a multi-arm multi-stage trial; choosing the allocation ratio to the control group compared to other experimental arms; the consequences of adding additional experimental arms during a multi-arm multi-stage trial, and how one might control the type-I error rate when this is necessary; and modifying the stopping boundaries of a multi-arm multi-stage design to account for unknown variance in the treatment outcome. Multi-arm multi-stage trials represent a large financial investment, and so considering their design carefully is important to ensure efficiency and that they have a good chance of succeeding. PMID:23242385

  8. Pharmacological treatment options for mast cell activation disease.

    PubMed

    Molderings, Gerhard J; Haenisch, Britta; Brettner, Stefan; Homann, Jürgen; Menzen, Markus; Dumoulin, Franz Ludwig; Panse, Jens; Butterfield, Joseph; Afrin, Lawrence B

    2016-07-01

    Mast cell activation disease (MCAD) is a term referring to a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by aberrant release of variable subsets of mast cell (MC) mediators together with accumulation of either morphologically altered and immunohistochemically identifiable mutated MCs due to MC proliferation (systemic mastocytosis [SM] and MC leukemia [MCL]) or morphologically ordinary MCs due to decreased apoptosis (MC activation syndrome [MCAS] and well-differentiated SM). Clinical signs and symptoms in MCAD vary depending on disease subtype and result from excessive mediator release by MCs and, in aggressive forms, from organ failure related to MC infiltration. In most cases, treatment of MCAD is directed primarily at controlling the symptoms associated with MC mediator release. In advanced forms, such as aggressive SM and MCL, agents targeting MC proliferation such as kinase inhibitors may be provided. Targeted therapies aimed at blocking mutant protein variants and/or downstream signaling pathways are currently being developed. Other targets, such as specific surface antigens expressed on neoplastic MCs, might be considered for the development of future therapies. Since clinicians are often underprepared to evaluate, diagnose, and effectively treat this clinically heterogeneous disease, we seek to familiarize clinicians with MCAD and review current and future treatment approaches. PMID:27132234

  9. A new way of assessing arm function in activity using kinematic Exposure Variation Analysis and portable inertial sensors--A validity study.

    PubMed

    Ertzgaard, Per; Öhberg, Fredrik; Gerdle, Björn; Grip, Helena

    2016-02-01

    Portable motion systems based on inertial motion sensors are promising methods, with the advantage compared to optoelectronic cameras of not being confined to a laboratory setting. A challenge is to develop relevant outcome measures for clinical use. The aim of this study was to characterize elbow and shoulder motion during functional tasks, using portable motion sensors and a modified Exposure Variation Analysis (EVA) and evaluate system accuracy with optoelectronic cameras. Ten healthy volunteers and one participant with sequel after stroke performed standardised functional arm tasks. Motion was registered simultaneously with a custom developed motion sensor system, including gyroscopes and accelerometers, and an optoelectronic camera system. The EVA was applied on elbow and shoulder joints, and angular and angular velocity EVA plots was calculated. The EVA showed characteristic patterns for each arm task in the healthy controls and a distinct difference between the affected and unaffected arm in the participant with sequel after stroke. The accuracy of the portable system was high with a systematic error ranging between -1.2° and 2.0°. The error was direction specific due to a drift component along the gravity vector. Portable motion sensor systems have high potential as clinical tools for evaluation of arm function. EVA effectively illustrates joint angle and joint angle velocity patterns that may capture deficiencies in arm function and movement quality. Next step will be to manage system drift by including magnetometers, to further develop clinically relevant outcome variables and apply this for relevant patient groups. PMID:26456185

  10. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Rehabilitation of Arm Dysfunction After Stroke in Adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    rehabilitative care for the treatment of arm dysfunction after stroke in persons 18 years of age and older? Research Methods Literature Search Search Strategy A literature search was performed on January 21, 2011 using OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and the Cochrane Library, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. (Appendix 1) A preliminary search completed in August 2010 found a Cochrane Systematic review published in 2009. As a result, the literature search for this evidence-based analysis was designed to include studies published from January 1, 2008 to January 21, 2011. Inclusion Criteria Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials with or without meta-analysis. Study participants 18 years of age and older with arm dysfunction after stroke. Studies comparing the use of CIMT with occupational therapy and/or physiotherapy rehabilitative care (usual care) to improve arm function. Studies which described CIMT as having the following three components: i) restraining unimpaired arm and/or wrist with a sling, hand splint or cast; ii) intensive training with functional task practice of the affected arm; iii) application of shaping methodology during training. No restriction was placed on intensity or duration of treatment otherwise. Duration and intensity of therapy is equal in treatment and control groups. Therapy beginning a minimum of one month after stroke. Published between 2008 and 2011. Exclusion Criteria Narrative reviews, case series, case reports, controlled clinical trials. Letters to the editor Grey literature. Non-English language publications. Outcomes of Interest Primary Outcome Arm motor function: Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) Secondary Outcome Arm motor impairment: Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMA) Activities of daily living (ADL): Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Chedoke Arm and Hand Inventory Perceived motor function: Motor Activity

  11. Bioaugmentation to improve nitrification in activated sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Leu, Shao-Yuan; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2010-06-01

    Bioaugmentation is a proposed technique to improve nutrient removal in municipal wastewater treatment. Compared with commonly used nitrification/denitrification (NDN) processes, bioaugmentation may be able to reduce tankage or land requirements. Many approaches for bioaugmentation have been developed, but few studies have compared the benefits among different approaches. This paper quantifies the effectiveness of bioaugmentation processes and investigates three major "onsite" bioaugmentation alternatives: 1) the parallel-plants approach, which uses acclimated biomass grown in a nitrifying "long-SRT" (sludge retention time) plant to augment a low-SRT treatment plant; 2) the enricher-reactor approach, which uses an offline reactor to produce the augmentation cultures; and 3) the enricher-reactor/return activated sludge (ER-RAS) approach, which grows enrichment culture in a reaeration reactor that receives a portion of the recycle activated sludge. Kinetic models were developed to simulate each approach, and the benefits of various approaches are presented on the same basis with controllable parameters, such as bioaugmentation levels, aeration tank volume, and temperatures. Examples were given to illustrate the potential benefits of bioaugmentation by upgrading a "carbon-only" wastewater treatment plant to nitrification. Simulation results suggested that all bioaugmentation approaches can decrease the minimum SRT for nitrification. The parallel-plants approach creates the highest concentration of biomass but may fail at too low temperature. The ER-RAS approach likely would be more useful at lower temperature and required less reactor volume; enricher-reactor approach would likely be more advantageous in the presence of inhibitory compound(s). PMID:20572460

  12. Acid-labile pHPMA modification of four-arm oligoaminoamide pDNA polyplexes balances shielding and gene transfer activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Beckert, Linda; Kostka, Libor; Kessel, Eva; Krhac Levacic, Ana; Kostkova, Hana; Etrych, Tomas; Lächelt, Ulrich; Wagner, Ernst

    2016-08-01

    We report novel pH-reversibly surface-shielded polyplexes with enhanced gene transfer activity upon systemic administration. A four-arm-structured sequence-defined cationic oligomer KK[HK[(H-Sph-K)3HC]2]2 was designed and synthesized on solid-phase, containing additional lysine residues not only for improved pDNA polyplex stability, but also providing attachment points for subsequent polyplex functionalization with amine-reactive shielding polymers. Herein, the surface of polyplexes was shielded with hydrophilic polymers, monovalent PEG or monovalent and multivalent pHPMA, optionally attached to the polyplex via the acid-labile linker AzMMMan. Overall, surface modification with PEG or pHPMA resulted in a decrease in the zeta potential of polyplexes, consistent with the degree of surface shielding. At pH 6.0, only polyplexes modified via the acid-labile linkage showed an increase in zeta potential, consistent with a "deshielding" in acidic environment, expected as beneficial for endosomal escape. Shielding was more efficient for multivalent pHPMA (20kDa, 30kDa) as compared to monovalent pHPMA (10kDa, 20kDa, 30kDa) or PEG (5kDa). In vitro transfection studies revealed higher gene expression by the polyplexes with the acid-labile shield as compared to their irreversibly shielded counterparts. Intravenous administration of AzMMMan-pHPMA modified polyplexes in an in vivo tumor mouse model mediated enhanced gene expression in the subcutaneous tumor and reduced undesirable expression in the liver. PMID:27235729

  13. Incident diagnoses of cancers in the active component and cancer-related deaths in the active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Lee, Terrence; Williams, Valerie F; Clark, Leslie L

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S., surpassed only by heart disease. It is estimated that approximately one of every four deaths in the U.S. is due to cancer. Between 2005 and 2014 among active component service members in the U.S. military, crude incidence rates of most cancer diagnoses have remained relatively stable. During this period, 8,973 active component members were diagnosed with at least one of the cancers of interest and no specific increasing or decreasing trends were evident. Cancers accounted for 1,054 deaths of service members on active duty during the 10-year surveillance period; this included 727 service members in the active component and 327 in the reserve component. PMID:27501939

  14. MVACS Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; Noon, D.; Pixler, G.; Schenker, P.; Ton, T.; Tucker, C.; Zimmerman, W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  15. Kinematically redundant arm formulations for coordinated multiple arm implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Robert W.; Quiocho, Leslie J.; Cleghorn, Timothy F.

    1990-01-01

    Although control laws for kinematically redundant robotic arms were presented as early as 1969, redundant arms have only recently become recognized as viable solutions to limitations inherent to kinematically sufficient arms. The advantages of run-time control optimization and arm reconfiguration are becoming increasingly attractive as the complexity and criticality of robotic systems continues to progress. A generalized control law for a spatial arm with 7 or more degrees of freedom (DOF) based on Whitney's resolved rate formulation is given. Results from a simulation implementation utilizing this control law are presented. Furthermore, results from a two arm simulation are presented to demonstrate the coordinated control of multiple arms using this formulation.

  16. Optically active surfaces formed by ion implantation and thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gea, L.A.; Boatner, L.A.; Evans, H.M.; Zuhr, R.

    1996-08-01

    Embedded VO{sub 2} precipitates have been formed in single-crystal sapphire by the ion co-implantation of vanadium and oxygen and subsequent thermal annealing. The embedded VO{sub 2} particles have been shown to exhibit an optical switching behavior that is comparable to that of continuous thin films. In this work, the mechanisms of formation of these optically active particles are investigated. It is shown that precipitation of the vanadium dioxide phase is favored when the thermal treatment is performed on an ion-damaged but still crystalline (rather than amorphized) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. The best optical switching behavior is observed in this case, and this behavior is apparently correlated with a more-favorable dispersion of VO{sub 2} small particles inside the matrix.

  17. Treatment benefits on metabolic syndrome with diet and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dragusha, Gani; Elezi, Abdulla; Dragusha, Shpend; Gorani, Daut; Begolli, Luljeta

    2010-05-01

    The research has included 422 patients aged between 25 to 60, of whom 341 were men and 81 women. The purpose of research was to determine impact of diet and physical activity in the treatment of metabolic syndrome during the six month period. Processing of results through descriptive and discriminative analysis have indicated that 6 month treatment with diet and physical activity have had an impact in the: waistline decrease by 6.05 cm or 5.50% among males, and 4.92 cm or 5.10% among females; body mass index (BMI) decrease by 1.78 or 6.20% among males, and 2.3 or 8.16% among females; decrease of blood triglycerides levels by 0.35 mmol/L or 16.28% among males, and 0.27 mmol/L or 13.30% among females; increase of blood cholesterol HDL-C by 0.48 mmol/L or 34.78% among males, and 0.06 mmol/L or 4.28% among females; systolic arterial pressure decreased by 15 mmHg or 10.18%, and diastolic blood pressure by 8.74 mmHg or 9.47% among males, and systolic arterial pressure decreased by 7.39 mmHg or 5.17%, and diastolic blood pressure decreased by 5.18 mmHg or 5.75% among females; the level of blood glucose decreased by 0.45 mmol/L or 7.04% among males, and by 0.64 mmol/L or 9.92% decreased among females. The results show that physical exercise and diet are important factors in reducing the values symptoms of metabolic syndrome. In order to improve symptoms of metabolic syndrome, it is necessary to keep on with healthy diet and physical exercise that means the change of lifestyle. PMID:20507300

  18. 42 CFR 483.440 - Condition of participation: Active treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Active treatment... CARE FACILITIES Conditions of Participation for Intermediate Care Facilities for the Mentally Retarded § 483.440 Condition of participation: Active treatment services. (a) Standard: Active treatment....

  19. Decompression of Neglected Compartment Syndrome of the Arm

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Matt DA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Compartment syndrome of the arm is rare, and delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating. A case is reported of compartment syndrome of the whole arm occurring in a remote location and arrival at hospital 15 hours after injury with good results despite delayed treatment. Case Report: A 26 year old male presented with a combined crush injury and compartment syndrome of the arm, with delay in presentation due to remote injury and delay in rescue. Late (>16 hours)fasciotomy was performed with retention of the upper arm, elbow and proximal forearm with good residual function. Conclusion: Despite significant delay in treatment of compartment syndrome of the arm, useful function and tissue can be preserved with adequate decompression. PMID:27299052

  20. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the upper and lower ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  1. An elastica arm scale.

    PubMed

    Bosi, F; Misseroni, D; Dal Corso, F; Bigoni, D

    2014-09-01

    The concept of a 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free to slide in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measurement of load within a certain range of use. Finally, we show that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications for locomotion of serpents, plumbing and smart oil drilling. PMID:25197248

  2. Bruising Hands and Arms

    MedlinePlus

    ... and arms is common. Dermatologists call it 'actinic purpura', 'solar purpura' or 'Bateman's purpura'. These flat blotches start out red, then turn ... flimsy looking. Mostly seen in older individuals, actinic purpura is due to the weakened state of blood ...

  3. An elastica arm scale

    PubMed Central

    Bosi, F.; Misseroni, D.; Dal Corso, F.; Bigoni, D.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a ‘deformable arm scale’ (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free to slide in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measurement of load within a certain range of use. Finally, we show that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications for locomotion of serpents, plumbing and smart oil drilling. PMID:25197248

  4. HER2 activating mutations are targets for colorectal cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kavuri, Shyam M.; Jain, Naveen; Galimi, Francesco; Cottino, Francesca; Leto, Simonetta M.; Migliardi, Giorgia; Searleman, Adam C.; Shen, Wei; Monsey, John; Trusolino, Livio; Jacobs, Samuel A.; Bertotti, Andrea; Bose, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas project identified HER2 somatic mutations and gene amplification in 7% of colorectal cancer patients. Introduction of the HER2 mutations, S310F, L755S, V777L, V842I, and L866M, into colon epithelial cells increased signaling pathways and anchorage-independent cell growth, indicating that they are activating mutations. Introduction of these HER2 activating mutations into colorectal cancer cell lines produced resistance to cetuximab and panitumumab by sustaining MAPK phosphorylation. HER2 mutations are potently inhibited by low nanomolar doses of the irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors, neratinib and afatinib. HER2 gene sequencing of 48 cetuximab resistant, quadruple (KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA) WT colorectal cancer patient-derived xenografts (PDX’s) identified 4 PDX’s with HER2 mutations. HER2 targeted therapies were tested on two PDX’s. Treatment with a single HER2 targeted drug (trastuzumab, neratinib, or lapatinib) delayed tumor growth, but dual HER2 targeted therapy with trastuzumab plus tyrosine kinase inhibitors produced regression of these HER2 mutated PDX’s. PMID:26243863

  5. A longitudinal analysis of chronic arm morbidity following breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Boquiren, Virginia M; Hack, Thomas F; Thomas, Roanne L; Towers, Anna; Kwan, Winkle B; Tilley, Andrea; Quinlan, Elizabeth; Miedema, Baukje

    2016-06-01

    Arm morbidity (AM) arising from breast cancer (BC) treatment can detrimentally impact quality of life; often limiting a survivor's ability to participate in valued activities. The present study explored (a) the developmental time course of AM [restricted range of motion (ROM), pain, and arm volume changes], negative affect, and perceived disability in the immediate years post-surgery, and (b) the mediating role of perceived disability on the relationship between AM and negative affect over time. In this 5-year longitudinal study, BC survivors from four Canadian oncology clinics (n = 431) completed five annual clinical assessments, where differences in ROM (shoulder abduction, external rotation) and arm volume between the affected and non-affected arm were measured. The profile of mood states (POMS), disability of arm, shoulder, hand, and McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short form were completed. Results from general linear modeling showed that AM, negative affect, and perceived disability were greatest 1-year post-surgery, declined, and with the exception of arm volume changes, were significantly lower 5 years later. Negative affect was significantly associated with restrictions in shoulder abduction and external rotation (average r = -0.15; p < 0.05) and present arm pain (average r = 0.28, p < 0.01) at most assessments. The mediating role of perceived disability on the relationship between AM and negative affect was statistically significant in a majority of assessments. Perceived disability is the underlying factor driving the relationship between AM and mood disturbance over time. Rehabilitative therapy to improve survivors' functional well-being might mitigate the negative impacts of AM on emotional health. PMID:27194415

  6. Robot arm system for automatic satellite capture and berthing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishida, Shinichiro; Toriu, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Masato; Kubo, Tomoaki; Miyata, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    Load control is one of the most important technologies for capturing and berthing free flying satellites by a space robot arm because free flying satellites have different motion rates. The performance of active compliance control techniques depend on the location of the force sensor and the arm's structural compliance. A compliance control technique for the robot arm's structural elasticity and a consideration for an end-effector appropriate for it are presented in this paper.

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activities of Pendant Arm-Pyridyltetrazole Copper(II) Complexes: DNA Binding/Cleavage Activity and Cytotoxic Studies.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Shaik; Rao, Bommuluri Umamaheswara; Surendrababu, Manubolu Surya; Raju, Kalidindi Krishnam; Rao, Gollapalli Nageswara

    2015-10-01

    2-(1H-Tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine (L) has been reacted separately with Me2NCH2CH2Cl⋅HCl and ClCH2CH2OH to yield two regioisomers in each case, N,N-dimethyl-2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl]ethanamine (L1)/N,N-dimethyl-2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-2H-tetrazol-2-yl]ethanamine (L2) and 2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl]ethanol (L3)/2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-2H-tetrazol-2-yl]ethanol (L4), respectively. These ligands, L1-L4, have been coordinated with CuCl2 ⋅H2O in 1 : 1 composition to furnish the corresponding complexes 1-4. EPR Spectra of Cu complexes 1 and 3 were characteristic of square planar geometry, with nuclear hyperfine spin 3/2. Single X-ray crystallographic studies of 3 revealed that the Cu center has a square planar structure. DNA binding studies were carried out by UV/VIS absorption; viscosity and thermal denaturation studies revealed that each of these complexes are avid binders of calf thymus DNA. Investigation of nucleolytic cleavage activities of the complexes was carried out on double-stranded pBR322 circular plasmid DNA by using a gel electrophoresis experiment under various conditions, where cleavage of DNA takes place by oxidative free-radical mechanism (OH(⋅)). In vitro anticancer activities of the complexes against MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) cells revealed that the complexes inhibit the growth of cancer cells. The IC50 values of the complexes showed that Cu complexes exhibit comparable cytotoxic activities compared to the standard drug cisplatin. PMID:26460557

  8. Active Treatment for Idiopathic Adolescent Scoliosis (ACTIvATeS): a feasibility study.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Mark A; Heine, Peter J; Williamson, Esther M; Toye, Francine; Dritsaki, Melina; Petrou, Stavros; Crossman, Richard; Lall, Ranjit; Barker, Karen L; Fairbank, Jeremy; Harding, Ian; Gardner, Adrian; Slowther, Anne-Marie; Coulson, Neil; Lamb, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The feasibility of conducting a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercises (SSEs) for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is uncertain. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting a large, multicentre trial of SSE treatment for patients with AIS, in comparison with standard care, and to refine elements of the study design. The objectives were to (1) update a systematic review of controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of SSE in AIS; (2) survey UK orthopaedic surgeons and physiotherapists to determine current practice, patient populations and equipoise; (3) randomise 50 adolescents to a feasibility trial of either usual care or SSE interventions across a range of sites; (4) develop, document and assess acceptability and adherence of interventions; (5) assess and describe training requirements of physiotherapists; and (6) gain user input in all relevant stages of treatment and protocol design. DESIGN Multicomponent feasibility study including UK clinician survey, systematic literature review and a randomised feasibility trial. SETTING The randomised feasibility study involved four secondary care NHS trusts providing specialist care for patients with AIS. PARTICIPANTS The randomised feasibility study recruited people aged 10-16 years with mild AIS (Cobb angle of < 50°). INTERVENTIONS The randomised study allocated participants to standard practice of advice and education or a physiotherapy SSE programme supported by a home exercise plan. Our choice of intervention was informed by a systematic review of exercise interventions for AIS. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The main outcome was feasibility of recruitment to the randomised study. Other elements were to inform choice of outcomes for a definitive trial and included curve severity, quality of life, requirement for surgery/brace, adverse events, psychological symptoms, costs and

  9. [Advanced Treatment of Effluent from Industrial Park Wastewater Treatment Plant by Ferrous Ion Activated Sodium Persulfate].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Song-mei; Zhou, Zhen; Gu, Ling-yun; Jiang, Hai-tao; Ren, Jia-min; Wang, Luo-chun

    2016-01-15

    Fe(II) activated sodium persulfate (PS) technology was used for advanced treatment of effluent from industrial park wastewater treatment plant. Separate and combined effects of PS/COD, Fe(II)/PS and pH on COD and TOC removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology. Variations of organic substances before and after Fe(II)-PS oxidation were characterized by UV-Vis spectrometry, gel chromatography and three-dimensional fluorescence. PS/COD and Fe(II)/PS had significant effect on COD removal, while all the three factors had significant effect on TOC removal. The combined effect of PS/COD and pH had significant effect on COD removal. COD and TOC removal efficiencies reached 50.7% and 60.6% under optimized conditions of PS/COD 3.47, Fe(II)/PS 3.32 and pH 6.5. Fe(II)-PS oxidation converted macromolecular organic substances to small ones, and reduced contents of protein-, humic- and fulvic-like substances. PMID:27078964

  10. SHOCK-ABSORBING CONCRETE (SACON) BULLET TRAPS FOR SMALL ARMS RANGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small-arms training is a requirement in all branches of the military. Over 1,800 active military outdoor small-arms training ranges are operated in the United States. In a typical year, small-arms training activities consume over 300 million rounds and add between 1 and 2 million...

  11. Progress report of FY 1999 activities: Continued development of an integrated sounding system in support of the DOE/ARM experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Edgeworth R. Westwater; Yong Han; Vladimir Leuskiy

    1999-09-08

    Both during September 15-30, 1996 and September 15-October 5, 1997, the Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) participated in experiments at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site that was designed to study many of the ways that ARM is measuring water vapor. Because of some inconsistencies between ETL and ARM Microwave radiometers (MWR) during these experiments, called the Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods (WVIOPs), we applied to both sets of data a newly developed correction algorithm for tipping curve calibration. We found that this algorithm reduces the differences between the radiometers, there are still some unexplained features of scanning ARM MWR data. Measurements of water vapor at the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) CART site in Barrow, Alaska, area potential problem because of the difficulty of radiosondes to measure low amounts of vapor during cold and extremely dry conditions. The applicability of MWR scaling to radiosondes is questionable because of the low sensitivity of these instrument during dry conditions. It has been suggested by the ARM Instantaneous Radiative Flux Working Group and others that measurements of brightness temperature around 183 GHz could be used to scale radiosondes during the coldest and driest periods. However, the millimeter wavelengths are vulnerable to cloud effects from both liquid and ice. During March 1999, we participated in the joint NASA/NOAA Millimeter wave Arctic Experiment to evaluate microwave and millimeter wave radiometers during extremely cold conditions. ETL tested, both in an experiment at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory and during the two Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods in 1996 and 1997, a 5-mm scanning radiometer that measures low-altitude temperature profiles; both profiles of lapse rate and absolute temperature can be measured with the instrument. Results of these tests were published in the open literature. In addition, the

  12. Unstable Angina Treatment in Various Periods of Geomagnetic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshina, S. S.; Tokayeva, L. K.; Afanasiyeva, T. N.; Samsonov, S. N.; Petrova, V. D.; Dolgova, E. M.; Manykina, V. I.; Vodolagina, E. S.

    In 145 patients with unstable angina (UA) there was analized an efficiency of a drug therapy at different types of heliogeophysical activity (HA) during the 23th solar cycle. 83 patients were examined at the period of a lower HA (Kp-index 16,19±0,18), and 62 patients - at the period of a higher HA (Kp-index 17,25±0,21, p<0,05). Baseline severity of patients' condition with UA at the moment of hospitalization at the studied periods did not differ, but the effectiveness of the therapy depended on the period of HA. At the period of a higher HA antianginal effect was stronger than at the lower period of HA (2,27±0,16 points and 1,75±0,12 points, p<0,05), and the need in nitroglycerin on the background of a drug therapy disappeared for 5-7 days quicker than at the period of a lower HA. Maximal hypotensive effect at a higher HA was achieved quicker - on the 3rd day of the treatment, and at a lower HA - only up to hospital discharge (p<0,05). Blood viscosity did not normalize in both of the studied periods, but in small vessels there was noted a decrease of a BV (p<0,05). So, at a higher HA the effectiveness of a drug therapy in patients with UA is higher than at the period of a lower HA.

  13. Scientific Infrastructure To Support Manned And Unmanned Aircraft, Tethered Balloons, And Related Aerial Activities At Doe Arm Facilities On The North Slope Of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, M.; Dexheimer, D.; Hardesty, J.; Lucero, D. A.; Helsel, F.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its scientific user facility, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facilities, provides scientific infrastructure and data to the international Arctic research community via its research sites located on the North Slope of Alaska. DOE has recently invested in improvements to facilities and infrastructure to support operations of unmanned aerial systems for science missions in the Arctic and North Slope of Alaska. A new ground facility, the Third ARM Mobile Facility, was installed at Oliktok Point Alaska in 2013. Tethered instrumented balloons were used to make measurements of clouds in the boundary layer including mixed-phase clouds. A new Special Use Airspace was granted to DOE in 2015 to support science missions in international airspace in the Arctic. Warning Area W-220 is managed by Sandia National Laboratories for DOE Office of Science/BER. W-220 was successfully used for the first time in July 2015 in conjunction with Restricted Area R-2204 and a connecting Altitude Reservation Corridor (ALTRV) to permit unmanned aircraft to operate north of Oliktok Point. Small unmanned aircraft (DataHawks) and tethered balloons were flown at Oliktok during the summer and fall of 2015. This poster will discuss how principal investigators may apply for use of these Special Use Airspaces, acquire data from the Third ARM Mobile Facility, or bring their own instrumentation for deployment at Oliktok Point, Alaska. The printed poster will include the standard DOE funding statement.

  14. Pediatric Arm Function Test

    PubMed Central

    Uswatte, Gitendra; Taub, Edward; Griffin, Angi; Rowe, Jan; Vogtle, Laura; Barman, Joydip

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although there are several validated upper-extremity measures in young children with cerebral palsy (CP), none primarily assess capacity to carry out actions and tasks with the more-affected arm. To address this need, we developed the Pediatric Arm Function Test (PAFT), which involves behavioral observation of how children use their more-affected arm during structured play in the laboratory or clinic. This paper evaluates the reliability and validity of the PAFT Functional Ability scale. Design In Study 1, 20 children between 2–8 years with a wide range of upper-extremity hemiparesis due to CP completed the PAFT on two occasions separated by three weeks. In Study 2, 41 children between 2–6 years with similar characteristics completed the PAFT and received a grade reflecting severity of more-affected arm motor impairment. Results In Study 1, the PAFT test-retest reliability correlation coefficient was 0.74. In Study 2, convergent validity was supported by a strong, inverse correlation (r = −0.6, p < .001) between PAFT scores and grade of impairment. Conclusions The PAFT Functional Ability scale is a reliable and valid measure of more-affected arm motor capacity in children with CP between 2–6 years. It can be employed to measure upper-extremity neurorehabilitation outcome. PMID:23103486

  15. Phoenix Stretches its Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    The Phoenix spacecraft is scheduled to begin raising its robotic arm up and out of its stowed configuration on the third Martian day, or Sol 3 (May 28, 2008) of the mission. This artist's animation, based on engineering models, shows how Phoenix will accomplish this task. First, its wrist actuator will rotate, releasing its launch-restraint pin. Next, the forearm moves up, releasing the elbow launch-restraint pin. The elbow will then move up and over in small steps, a process referred to as 'staircasing.' This ensures that the arm's protective biobarrier wrap, now unpeeled and lying to the side of the arm, will not get in the way of the arm's deployment.

    The arm is scheduled to straighten all the way out on Sol 4 (May 29, 2008), after engineers have reviewed images and telemetry data from the spacecraft showing that the biobarrier material has been cleared.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. The RhoE/ROCK/ARHGAP25 signaling pathway controls cell invasion by inhibition of Rac activity.

    PubMed

    Thuault, Sylvie; Comunale, Franck; Hasna, Jessy; Fortier, Mathieu; Planchon, Damien; Elarouci, Nabila; De Reynies, Aurélien; Bodin, Stéphane; Blangy, Anne; Gauthier-Rouvière, Cécile

    2016-09-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of skeletal muscle origin in children and adolescents. Among RMS subtypes, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), which is characterized by the presence of the PAX3-FOXO1A or PAX7-FOXO1A chimeric oncogenic transcription factor, is associated with poor prognosis and a strong risk of metastasis compared with the embryonal subtype (ERMS). To identify molecular pathways involved in ARMS aggressiveness, we first characterized the migratory behavior of cell lines derived from ARMS and ERMS biopsies using a three-dimensional spheroid cell invasion assay. ARMS cells were more invasive than ERMS cells and adopted an ellipsoidal morphology to efficiently invade the extracellular matrix. Moreover, the invasive potential of ARMS cells depended on ROCK activity, which is regulated by the GTPase RhoE. Specifically, RhoE expression was low in ARMS biopsies, and its overexpression in ARMS cells reduced their invasion potential. Conversely, ARHGAP25, a GTPase-activating protein for Rac, was up-regulated in ARMS biopsies. Moreover, we found that ARHGAP25 inhibits Rac activity downstream of ROCKII and is required for ARMS cell invasion. Our results indicate that the RhoE/ROCK/ARHGAP25 signaling pathway promotes ARMS invasive potential and identify these proteins as potential therapeutic targets for ARMS treatment. PMID:27413008

  17. Coordination of multiple robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Soloway, D.

    1987-01-01

    Kinematic resolved-rate control from one robot arm is extended to the coordinated control of multiple robot arms in the movement of an object. The structure supports the general movement of one axis system (moving reference frame) with respect to another axis system (control reference frame) by one or more robot arms. The grippers of the robot arms do not have to be parallel or at any pre-disposed positions on the object. For multiarm control, the operator chooses the same moving and control reference frames for each of the robot arms. Consequently, each arm then moves as though it were carrying out the commanded motions by itself.

  18. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  19. Robotic Arm Unwrapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken shortly after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander touched down on the surface of Mars, shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier successfully unpeeled. The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm.

    The biobarrier is an extra precautionary measure for protecting Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

    Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm.

    After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy.

    The base of the lander's Meteorological Station can be seen in this picture on the upper left. Because only the base of the station is showing, this image tells engineers that the instrument deployed successfully.

    The image was taken on landing day, May 25, 2008, by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Highly active antiretroviral treatment for the prevention of HIV transmission

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 an estimated 33 million people were living with HIV; 67% resided in sub-Saharan Africa, with 35% in eight countries alone. In 2007, there were about 1.4 million HIV-positive tuberculosis cases. Globally, approximately 4 million people had been given highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by the end of 2008, but in 2007, an estimated 6.7 million were still in need of HAART and 2.7 million more became infected with HIV. Although there has been unprecedented investment in confronting HIV/AIDS - the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS estimates $13.8 billion was spent in 2008 - a key challenge is how to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic given limited and potentially shrinking resources. Economic disparities may further exacerbate human rights issues and widen the increasingly divergent approaches to HIV prevention, care and treatment. HIV transmission only occurs from people with HIV, and viral load is the single greatest risk factor for all modes of transmission. HAART can lower viral load to nearly undetectable levels. Prevention of mother to child transmission offers proof of the concept of HAART interrupting transmission, and observational studies and previous modelling work support using HAART for prevention. Although knowing one's HIV status is key for prevention efforts, it is not known with certainty when to start HAART. Building on previous modelling work, we used an HIV/AIDS epidemic of South African intensity to explore the impact of testing all adults annually and starting persons on HAART immediately after they are diagnosed as HIV positive. This theoretical strategy would reduce annual HIV incidence and mortality to less than one case per 1000 people within 10 years and it would reduce the prevalence of HIV to less than 1% within 50 years. To explore HAART as a prevention strategy, we recommend further discussions to explore human rights and ethical considerations, clarify research priorities and review feasibility and acceptability

  1. [Medical support of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation: the results of the activities and the main tasks for 2015].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia

    2015-01-01

    Presented the directions of activity of the medical service in the past year, including improving the legal framework, the optimization of medical management software, improving combat and mobilization readiness of units of the army, the optimization of therapeutic and preventive activities, implementation of innovative technologies, increasing mobility of units and subunits, their level of equipping with modern samples of property, training of qualified personnel, intensify research and etc. Analyzed and formulated directions of development of military medicine in 2015, including improvement of combat and mobilization readiness of the management body, military and medical organizations and departments, improving the legal framework of the military health care, holding among the troops interventions for the prevention morbidity of personnel by pneumonia and meningitis, work with commanders at all levels to ensure the preservation and strengthening of health of servicemen, improving of the system of early and active detection of diseases in the military, providing a guaranteed level of care to all contingent Ministry of Defense, improving the quality and accessibility of sanatorium treatment, maintaining constant readiness of medical special forces to carry out tasks for the purpose, improvement of professional training of personnel of the medical service, providing qualitative preparation of government medical service to participate in the training of troops, implementation of unexpected problems, equipping of army medical service with modern medical equipment finishing of the construction and renovation of military medical organizations facilities, improvement of social protection of personnel and many others. PMID:25916032

  2. Erlotinib plus capecitabine as first-line treatment for older Chinese patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung (C-TONG0807): an open-label, single arm, multicenter phase II study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-Yun; Chen, Gong-Yan; Huang, Yan; Li, Xiao-li; Feng, Ji-Feng; Shi, Mei-Qi; Cheng, Ying; Ma, Li-Xia; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Gu, Cui-Ping; Song, Xiang-Qun; Zhou, Da; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies have shown synergism between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors and antifolates in solid tumors. This study is to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of erlotinib plus capecitabine as first-line treatment in older Chinese patients (≥ 65 years) with lung adenocarcinoma. This is an open-label, single arm, multicenter phase II clinical trial. Sixty- two patients with previously untreated stage IIIB/IV adenocarcinoma and age 65 years or above were enrolled at four tertiary teaching hospitals and 2 provincial hospitals in China; 58 patients fulfilled the study requirements. Erlotinib (150 mg/day) and capecitabine (1000 mg/m2 twice daily on days 1-14) were administered during every 21-day cycle. The primary endpoint was the non-progression rate at 12 weeks. EGFR and K-ras mutation rates were determined using PCR. Tumor expression of different biomarkers was assessed using immunohistochemistry. In a cohort of 58 patients, 34 patients had no disease progression at 12 weeks following treatment. The objective response rate was 29.3%, and the disease control rate was 75.9%. The objective response rate was significantly higher in patients with EGFR mutations than in those with wild-type EGFR. Patients with thymidine phosphorylase-negative tumors had significantly longer overall survival after one year than patients with thymidine phosphorylase-positive tumors. Forty-four patients had at least one primary adverse events (AEs), including skin rash (n = 30), grade 3 AEs (n = 17), and grade 4 AEs (n = 7). This is the first phase II clinical trial to assess erlotinib plus capecitabine combination therapy as first-line treatment in older patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Erlotinib/capecitabine chemotherapy was significantly better in patients with EGFR mutations and in those with thymidine phosphorylase-negative tumors. The use of fluorouracil derivatives for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma warrants further study

  3. SUCCINCT: An Open-label, Single-arm, Non-randomised, Phase 2 Trial of Gemcitabine and Cisplatin Chemotherapy in Combination with Sunitinib as First-line Treatment for Patients with Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Geldart, Thomas; Chester, John; Casbard, Angela; Crabb, Simon; Elliott, Tony; Protheroe, Andrew; Huddart, Robert A.; Mead, Graham; Barber, Jim; Jones, Robert J.; Smith, Joanna; Cowles, Robert; Evans, Jessica; Griffiths, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Gemcitabine and cisplatin chemotherapy (GC regimen) represents a standard treatment for advanced urothelial carcinoma. We performed an open-label, single-arm, non-randomised, phase 2 trial evaluating the addition of sunitinib to standard GC chemotherapy (SGC regimen). Overall, 63 treatment-naïve participants were recruited and received up to six 21-d cycles of cisplatin 70 mg/m2 (intravenously [IV], day 1) and gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 (IV, days 1 and 8) combined with sunitinib 37.5 mg (orally, days 2–15). Following review of toxicity after the first six patients, the sunitinib dose was reduced to 25 mg for all patients. Overall response rate was 64%, with response noted in 37 of 58 patients. At 6 mo, 30 of 58 assessable patients (52%; 90% confidence interval [CI], 40–63%) were progression free. Median overall survival was 12 mo (95% CI, 9–15) and was heavily influenced by Bajorin prognostic group. Grade 3–4 toxicities were predominantly haematologic and limited the deliverability of the triple SGC regimen. The trial did not meet its prespecified primary end point of >60% patients progression free at 6 mo. Cumulative myelosuppression led to treatment delays of gemcitabine and cisplatin and dose reduction and/or withdrawal of sunitinib in the majority of cases. The triple-drug combination was not well tolerated. Phase 3 evaluation of the triple SGC regimen in advanced transitional cell carcinoma is not recommended. Patient summary The addition of sunitinib to standard cisplatin and gemcitabine chemotherapy was poorly tolerated and did not improve outcomes in advanced urothelial carcinoma. Treatment delivery was limited by myelotoxicity. PMID:25465968

  4. Error characterization of retrievals for active remote Sensing instruments in the ARM climate research facility at the Southern Great Plains site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekar, C. V.; Hardin, J. C.; Jensen, M. P.

    2012-12-01

    The ARM Climate Research Facility deploys a network of highly instrumented ground stations, including both mobile and aerial facilities to support the study of global climate change by the national and international research community. The Southern Great Plains facility (SGP) hosts a network of C, X, and K band radars; some are in scanning mode and some are in vertically pointing mode. As an example, the Mid-Latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) (Jensen, et al. 2011), was a joint DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and NASA Global Precipitation Measurements (GPM) field campaign which took place from April - June 2011 in Central Oklahoma centered at the ARM SGP site. This paper presents retrieval methodologies for the ARM instrument suite with a focus on the error characterization for the radar measurements and the retrievals. There is extensive literature on retrieval algorithms for precipitation and cloud parameters from single frequency, dual-polarization radar systems. Multiple radar deployments are becoming more common, and the MC3E is a text book example of such a deployment. Additionally, networked deployments are becoming more common (Chandrasekar, et al. 2010), resulting in networked retrievals, initially used for attenuation mitigation. Since then, networked retrievals have expanded to include DSDs from networked X-band or Ku-band radars (Yoshikawa, et al., 2012). The above retrieval methodologies were for homogeneous, single frequency systems; the multi frequency nature of the deployment during the MC3E program is the motivation for the integrated formulation and error characterization presented in this paper. The set of radars consists of the NASA NPOL radar at S-band, as well as the C and X-band radars from the ARM program, namely the C-SAPR and X-SAPR family. This paper presents a comprehensive integrated retrieval methodology focusing on error characterization to obtain microphysical retrieval including drop size

  5. Dual Arm Work Module Development and Appplications

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, M.W.

    1999-04-25

    The dual arm work module (DAWM) was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) as a development test bed to study issues related to dual arm manipulation, including platform cotilguration, controls, automation, operations, and tooling. The original platform was based on two Schilling Titan II manipulators mounted to a 5-degree-of- freedom (DOF) base fabricated by RedZone Robotics, Inc. The 5-DOF articulation provided a center torso rotation, linear actuation to change the separation between the arms, and arm base rotation joints to provide "elbows up," elbows down," or "elbows out" orientation. A series of tests were conducted on operations, tooling, and task space scene analysis (TSSA)-driven robotics for overhead transporter- mounted and crane hook-deployed scenarios. A concept was developed for DAWM deployment from a large remote work vehicle, but the project was redirected to support dismantlement of the Chicago Pile #5 (CP-5) reactor at Argonne National Laboratory in fiscal year (FY) 1997. Support of CP-5 required a change in focus of the dual arm technology from that of a development test bed to a system focussed for a specific end user. ORNL teamed with the Idaho National Environmental ,Engineering Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and the Savannah River Technology Center to deliver a crane-deployed derivative of the DAWM, designated the dual arm work platform (DAWP). RTDP staff supported DAWP at CP-5 for one FY; Argonne staff continued operation through to dismantlement of the reactor internals. Lessons learned from this interaction were extensive. Beginning in FY 1999, dual arm development activities are again being pursued in the context of those lessons learned. This paper describes the progression of philosophy of the DAWM from initial test bed to lessons learned through interaction at CP-5 and to the present investigation of telerobotic assist of teleoperation and TSSA- driven robotics.

  6. A Single-Arm, Proof-Of-Concept Trial of Lopimune (Lopinavir/Ritonavir) as a Treatment for HPV-Related Pre-Invasive Cervical Disease

    PubMed Central

    Masinde, Millicent S.; Oliver, Anthony W.; Batman, Gavin; He, Xiaotong; Desai, Minaxi; Okemwa, Parmenas M.; Stringfellow, Helen; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre; Mwaniki, Alex M.; Gichangi, Peter; Hampson, Ian N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the most common female malignancy in the developing nations and the third most common cancer in women globally. An effective, inexpensive and self-applied topical treatment would be an ideal solution for treatment of screen-detected, pre-invasive cervical disease in low resource settings. Methods Between 01/03/2013 and 01/08/2013, women attending Kenyatta National Hospital's Family Planning and Gynaecology Outpatients clinics were tested for HIV, HPV (Cervista®) and liquid based cervical cytology (LBC -ThinPrep®). HIV negative women diagnosed as high-risk HPV positive with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) were examined by colposcopy and given a 2 week course of 1 capsule of Lopimune (CIPLA) twice daily, to be self-applied as a vaginal pessary. Colposcopy, HPV testing and LBC were repeated at 4 and 12 weeks post-start of treatment with a final punch biopsy at 3 months for histology. Primary outcome measures were acceptability of treatment with efficacy as a secondary consideration. Results A total of 23 women with HSIL were treated with Lopimune during which time no adverse reactions were reported. A maximum concentration of 10 ng/ml of lopinavir was detected in patient plasma 1 week after starting treatment. HPV was no longer detected in 12/23 (52.2%, 95%CI: 30.6–73.2%). Post-treatment cytology at 12 weeks on women with HSIL, showed 14/22 (63.6%, 95%CI: 40.6–82.8%) had no dysplasia and 4/22 (18.2%, 95%CI: 9.9–65.1%) were now low grade demonstrating a combined positive response in 81.8% of women of which 77.8% was confirmed by histology. These data are supported by colposcopic images, which show regression of cervical lesions. Conclusions These results demonstrate the potential of Lopimune as a self-applied therapy for HPV infection and related cervical lesions. Since there were no serious adverse events or detectable post-treatment morbidity, this study indicates that further trials are clearly justified to

  7. Arm pain and erythema

    PubMed Central

    Juergens, Andrew L.

    2016-01-01

    Pyomyositis can be a difficult diagnosis to make, as it can mimic many other disease processes. Various laboratory studies can be abnormal with pyomyositis, but none are specific to the disease. Early disease can generally be treated with antibiotics alone, whereas advanced disease frequently requires emergent surgical intervention with significant resuscitation. We describe a case of pyomyositis of the right arm. PMID:27034571

  8. Arms and the Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurney, Ramsdell, Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The author traces the history of international weapons negotiations in this century and notes the world's two nuclear superpowers and chief protagonists of the arms race, the Soviet Union and the United States, must act speedily and decisively on this critical matter. (BT)

  9. 77 FR 43605 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Use of Glucocerebrosidase Activators for the Treatment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Glucocerebrosidase Activators for the Treatment of Gaucher Disease and Central Nervous System Proteinopathies... human central nervous system proteinopathies, including without limitation Parkinson's disease.''...

  10. Arm swing in human walking: what is their drive?

    PubMed

    Goudriaan, Marije; Jonkers, Ilse; van Dieen, Jaap H; Bruijn, Sjoerd M

    2014-06-01

    Although previous research has studied arm swing during walking, to date, it remains unclear what the contribution of passive dynamics versus active muscle control to arm swing is. In this study, we measured arm swing kinematics with 3D-motion analysis. We used a musculoskeletal model in OpenSim and generated dynamic simulations of walking with and without upper limb muscle excitations. We then compared arm swing amplitude and relative phase during both simulations to verify the extent to which passive dynamics contribute to arm swing. The results confirm that passive dynamics are partly responsible for arm swing during walking. However, without muscle activity, passive swing amplitude and relative phase decrease significantly (both p<0.05), the latter inducing a more in-phase swing pattern of the arms. Therefore, we conclude that muscle activity is needed to increase arm swing amplitude and modify relative phase during human walking to obtain an out-phase movement relative to the legs. PMID:24865637

  11. Post-deployment screening and referral for risky alcohol use and subsequent alcohol-related and injury diagnoses, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Lee

    2015-07-01

    Risky alcohol use among service members is a threat to both military readiness and the health of service members. This report describes an analysis using the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) to identify all active component service members who returned from deployment and completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) alcohol use screen as part of the Post Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA) and Post Deployment Health Reassessment (PDHRA) during 2008-2014. This analysis identified that 3.4% of PDHA forms and 4.8% of PDHRA forms completed indicated severe risk for alcohol abuse, defined as an AUDIT-C score of 8 or higher. Among those at severe risk on the PDHRA who were not already under care for alcohol abuse, only 37.7% received a referral for treatment: 21.7% to primary care, 13.4% to behavioral health in primary care, 7.5% to mental health specialty care, and 5.6% to a substance abuse program. Referrals for treatment for those at severe risk were lower than their respective counterparts among males, white non-Hispanics, members of the Air Force, junior officers, and pilots/air crew. There were significant trends of increasing frequencies of subsequent injury and alcohol-related conditions as alcohol use levels increased. PMID:26207410

  12. Colleges Grapple with the "Behavioral Broken Arm"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    After the fatal shootings at Virginia Tech last April, colleges went shopping for hardware. They bought sirens, mass-messaging systems, surveillance cameras, and door locks. Some colleges armed their police departments for the first time. Others added assault rifles to their arsenals. "Active shooter" drills happened everywhere. As administrators…

  13. APPRAISAL OF POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON PROCESSES FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Powdered activated carbon has been the subject of several developmental efforts directed towards producing improved methods for treating municipal wastewaters. Granular activated carbon has proven itself as an effective means of reducing dissolved organic contaminant levels, but ...

  14. Robotic Arm of Rover 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    JPL engineers examine the robotic arm of Mars Exploration Rover 1. The arm is modeled after a human arm, complete with joints, and holds four devices on its end, the Rock Abrasion Tool which can grind into Martian rocks, a microscopic imager, and two spectrometers for elemental and iron-mineral identification.

  15. Layers of Experience Using "Arms"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Laurinda; Coles, Alf; Ball, Derek; Morton, Pat; Coles, Matt; Ordman, Louise; Orr, Barry; Lam, Tung Ken

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the authors' personal accounts and their experiences in working on mathematics using "arms." "Arms" is an idea that first appeared as a program written by John Warwick and David Wooldridge in an ATM publication "Some Lessons in Mathematics with a Microcomputer," 1983. The introduction to "Arms" in the book states that it is a…

  16. Activated Sludge. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Owen K.; Klopping, Paul H.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. Topic areas addressed in the lessons include: (1) activated sludge concepts and components (including aeration tanks, aeration systems, clarifiers, and sludge pumping systems); (2) activated sludge variations and modes; (3) biological nature of activated…

  17. Effects of spiral arms on star formation in nuclear rings of barred-spiral galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Woong-Tae E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2014-09-01

    We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the effect of spiral arms on the star formation rate (SFR) in nuclear rings of barred-spiral galaxies. We find that spiral arms can be an efficient means of gas transport from the outskirts to the central parts, provided that the arms are rotating slower than the bar. While the ring star formation in models with no arms or corotating arms is active only during around the bar growth phase, arm-driven gas accretion both significantly enhances and prolongs the ring star formation in models with slow-rotating arms. The arm-enhanced SFR is larger by a factor of ∼3-20 than in the no-arm model, with larger values corresponding to stronger and slower arms. Arm-induced mass inflows also make dust lanes stronger. Nuclear rings in slow-arm models are ∼45% larger than in the no-arm counterparts. Star clusters that form in a nuclear ring exhibit an age gradient in the azimuthal direction only when the SFR is small, whereas no notable age gradient is found in the radial direction for models with arm-induced star formation.

  18. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  19. Stroke Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... weakened blood vessels that also cause hemorrhagic stroke: aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Treatment differs depending on ... the leg or arm, then guided to the aneurysm or AVM ; it then deposits a mechanical agent, ...

  20. Arm blood flow and metabolism during arm and combined arm and leg exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Volianitis, S; Secher, N H

    2002-01-01

    The cardiovascular response to exercise with several groups of skeletal muscle suggests that work with the arms may decrease leg blood flow. This study evaluated whether intense exercise with the legs would have a similar effect on arm blood flow (Q̇arm) and O2 consumption (V̇O2,arm). Ten healthy male subjects (age 21 ± 1 year; mean ± S.D.) performed arm cranking at 80 % of maximum arm work capacity (A trial) and combined arm cranking with cycling at 60 % of maximum leg work capacity (A + L trial). The combined trial was a maximum effort for 5-6 min. Q̇arm measurement by thermodilution in the axilliary vein and arterial and venous blood samples permitted calculation of V̇O2,arm. During the combined trial, Q̇arm was reduced by 0.58 ± 0.25 l min−1 (19.1 ± 3.0 %, P < 0.05) from the value during arm cranking (3.00 ± 0.46 l min−1). The arterio-venous O2 difference increased from 122 ± 15 ml l−1 during the arm trial to 150 ± 21 ml l−1 (P < 0.05) during the combined trial. Thus, V̇O2,arm (0.45 ± 0.06 l min−1) was reduced by 9.6 ± 6.3 % (P < 0.05) and arm vascular conductance from 27 ± 4 to 23 ± 3 ml min−1 (mmHg)−1 (P < 0.05) as noradrenaline spillover from the arm increased from 7.5 ± 3.5 to 13.8 ± 4.2 nmol min−1 (P < 0.05). The data suggest that during maximal whole body exercise in humans, arm vasoconstriction is established to an extent that affects oxygen delivery to and utilisation by working skeletal muscles. PMID:12411540

  1. The Effect of Restricted Arm Swing on Energy Expenditure in Healthy Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yizhar, Ziva; Boulos, Spiro; Inbar, Omri; Carmeli, Eli

    2009-01-01

    Arm swing in human walking is an active natural motion involving the upper extremities. Earlier studies have described the interrelationship between arms and legs during walking, but the effect of arm swing on energy expenditure and dynamic parameters during normal gait, is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of…

  2. 27 CFR 478.114 - Importation by members of the U.S. Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the U.S. Armed Forces. 478.114 Section 478.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Importation § 478.114 Importation by members of the U.S. Armed Forces. (a) The... to the place of residence of any military member of the U.S. Armed Forces who is on active...

  3. 27 CFR 478.114 - Importation by members of the U.S. Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the U.S. Armed Forces. 478.114 Section 478.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Importation § 478.114 Importation by members of the U.S. Armed Forces. (a) The... to the place of residence of any military member of the U.S. Armed Forces who is on active...

  4. 26 CFR 20.2201-1 - Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Members of the Armed Forces dying during an... Miscellaneous § 20.2201-1 Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period. (a) The additional...) (see paragraph (b) of this section) and while in active service as a member of the Armed Forces of...

  5. 26 CFR 20.2201-1 - Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Members of the Armed Forces dying during an... Miscellaneous § 20.2201-1 Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period. (a) The additional...) (see paragraph (b) of this section) and while in active service as a member of the Armed Forces of...

  6. 27 CFR 478.114 - Importation by members of the U.S. Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the U.S. Armed Forces. 478.114 Section 478.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Importation § 478.114 Importation by members of the U.S. Armed Forces. (a) The... to the place of residence of any military member of the U.S. Armed Forces who is on active...

  7. 26 CFR 20.2201-1 - Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Members of the Armed Forces dying during an... Miscellaneous § 20.2201-1 Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period. (a) The additional...) (see paragraph (b) of this section) and while in active service as a member of the Armed Forces of...

  8. 27 CFR 478.114 - Importation by members of the U.S. Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the U.S. Armed Forces. 478.114 Section 478.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Importation § 478.114 Importation by members of the U.S. Armed Forces. (a) The... to the place of residence of any military member of the U.S. Armed Forces who is on active...

  9. 26 CFR 20.2201-1 - Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Members of the Armed Forces dying during an... Miscellaneous § 20.2201-1 Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period. (a) The additional...) (see paragraph (b) of this section) and while in active service as a member of the Armed Forces of...

  10. 27 CFR 478.114 - Importation by members of the U.S. Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the U.S. Armed Forces. 478.114 Section 478.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Importation § 478.114 Importation by members of the U.S. Armed Forces. (a) The... to the place of residence of any military member of the U.S. Armed Forces who is on active...

  11. Effects of the Alternate Combination of “Error-Enhancing” and “Active Assistive” Robot-Mediated Treatments on Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cesqui, Benedetta; Monaco, Vito; Aliboni, Sara; Posteraro, Federico; Micera, Silvestro

    2013-01-01

    This paper aimed at investigating the effects of a novel robotic-aided rehabilitation treatment for the recovery of the upper limb related capabilities in chronic post stroke patients. Eighteen post-stroke patients were enrolled in a six-week therapy program and divided into two groups. They were all required to perform horizontal pointing movements both in the presence of a robot-generated divergent force field (DF) that pushed their hands proportional to the trajectory error and perpendicular to the direction of motion, and according to the typical active assistive (AA) approach used in robotic therapy. We used a crossover experimental paradigm where the two groups switched from one therapy treatment to the other. The hypothesis underlying this paper was that the use of the destabilizing scenario forced the patient to keep the end-point position as close as possible to the ideal path, hence requiring a more active control of the arm with respect to the AA approach. Our findings confirmed this hypothesis. In addition, when the DF treatment was provided in the first therapy cycle, patients also showed straighter and smoother paths during the subsequent AA therapy cycle, while this was not true in the opposite case. In conclusion, the results herein reported provide evidence that the use of an unstable DF field can lead to better recovery outcomes, and therefore it potentially more effective than solely active assistance therapy alone. PMID:27170850

  12. An arm for a leg: Adapting a robotic arm for gait rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Giulia; Viereck, Ulrich; Platt, Robert; Yen, Sheng-Che; Hasson, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt a multipurpose robotic arm for gait rehabilitation. An advantage of this approach is versatility: a robotic arm can be attached to almost any point on the body to assist with lower- and upper-extremity rehabilitation. This may be more cost-effective than purchasing and training rehabilitation staff to use several specialized rehabilitation robots. Robotic arms also have a more human-like morphology, which may make them less intimidating or alien to patients. In this study a mechanical interface was developed that allows a fast, secure, and safe attachment between a robotic arm and a human limb. The effectiveness of this interface was assessed by having two healthy subjects walk on a treadmill with and without a robotic arm attached to their legs. The robot's ability to follow the subjects' swinging legs was evaluated at slow and fast walking speeds. Two different control schemes were evaluated: one using the standard manufacturer-provided control algorithm, and another using a custom algorithm that actively compensated for robot-human interaction forces. The results showed that both robot control schemes performed well for slow walking. There were negligible differences between subjects' gait kinematics with and without the robot. During fast walking with the robot, similar results were obtained for one subject; however, the second subject demonstrated noticeable gait modifications. Together, these results show the feasibility of adapting a multipurpose robotic arm for gait rehabilitation. PMID:26737153

  13. Armed conflict and child health

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Summary Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented. PMID:21393303

  14. Ten Year Revision of the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression: Revised Treatment Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejuez, C. W.; Hopko, Derek R.; Acierno, Ron; Daughters, Stacey B.; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2011-01-01

    Following from the seminal work of Ferster, Lewinsohn, and Jacobson, as well as theory and research on the Matching Law, Lejuez, Hopko, LePage, Hopko, and McNeil developed a reinforcement-based depression treatment that was brief, uncomplicated, and tied closely to behavioral theory. They called this treatment the brief behavioral activation…

  15. Hanford Tank Waste - Near Source Treatment of Low Activity Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, William Gene

    2013-08-15

    Abstract only. Treatment and disposition of Hanford Site waste as currently planned consists of 100+ waste retrievals, waste delivery through up to 8+ miles of dedicated, in-ground piping, centralized mixing and blending operations- all leading to pre-treatment combination and separation processes followed by vitrification at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The sequential nature of Tank Farm and WTP operations requires nominally 15-20 years of continuous operations before all waste can be retrieved from many Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). Also, the infrastructure necessary to mobilize and deliver the waste requires significant investment beyond that required for the WTP. Treating waste as closely as possible to individual tanks or groups- as allowed by the waste characteristics- is being investigated to determine the potential to 1) defer, reduce, and/or eliminate infrastructure requirements, and 2) significantly mitigate project risk by reducing the potential and impact of single point failures. The inventory of Hanford waste slated for processing and disposition as LAW is currently managed as high-level waste (HLW), i.e., the separation of fission products and other radionuclides has not commenced. A significant inventory of this waste (over 20M gallons) is in the form of precipitated saltcake maintained in single shell tanks, many of which are identified as potential leaking tanks. Retrieval and transport (as a liquid) must be staged within the waste feed delivery capability established by site infrastructure and WTP. Near Source treatment, if employed, would provide for the separation and stabilization processing necessary for waste located in remote farms (wherein most of the leaking tanks reside) significantly earlier than currently projected. Near Source treatment is intended to address the currently accepted site risk and also provides means to mitigate future issues likely to be faced over the coming decades. This paper

  16. Robot arm apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Nachbar, H.D.

    1990-12-31

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in ``x,`` ``y,`` and ``z`` directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  17. ARM User Survey Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  18. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  19. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  20. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-12-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  1. Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Zanamivir Treatment in Hospitalized Adults With Influenza: An Open-label, Multicenter, Single-Arm, Phase II Study

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Francisco M.; Man, Choy Y.; van der Horst, Charles; Francois, Bruno; Garot, Denis; Máňez, Rafael; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; Lorente, José A.; Álvarez-Lerma, Francisco; Brealey, David; Zhao, Henry H.; Weller, Steve; Yates, Phillip J.; Peppercorn, Amanda F.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Intravenous zanamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor suitable for treatment of hospitalized patients with severe influenza. Methods. Patients were treated with intravenous zanamivir 600 mg twice daily, adjusted for renal impairment, for up to 10 days. Primary outcomes included adverse events (AEs), and clinical/laboratory parameters. Pharmacokinetics, viral load, and disease course were also assessed. Results. One hundred thirty patients received intravenous zanamivir (median, 5 days; range, 1–11) a median of 4.5 days (range, 1–7) after onset of influenza; 83% required intensive care. The most common influenza type/subtype was A/H1N1pdm09 (71%). AEs and serious AEs were reported in 85% and 34% of patients, respectively; serious AEs included bacterial pulmonary infections (8%), respiratory failure (7%), sepsis or septic shock (5%), and cardiogenic shock (5%). No drug-related trends in safety parameters were identified. Protocol-defined liver events were observed in 13% of patients. The 14- and 28-day all-cause mortality rates were 13% and 17%. No fatalities were considered zanamivir related. Pharmacokinetic data showed dose adjustments for renal impairment yielded similar zanamivir exposures. Ninety-three patients, positive at baseline for influenza by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, showed a median decrease in viral load of 1.42 log10 copies/mL after 2 days of treatment. Conclusions. Safety, pharmacokinetic and clinical outcome data support further investigation of intravenous zanamivir. Clinical Trials Registration NCT01014988. PMID:23983212

  2. Transplantation of Autologous Ex Vivo Expanded Human Conjunctival Epithelial Cells for Treatment of Pterygia: A Prospective Open-label Single Arm Multicentric Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vasania, Viraf Sam; Hari, Aarya; Tandon, Radhika; Shah, Sanjay; Haldipurkar, Suhas; Shah, Smitesh; Sachan, Shailendra; Viswanathan, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the efficacy and safety of ex vivo cultured autologous human conjunctival epithelial cell (hCjEC) transplantation for treatment of pterygia. Methods: Twenty-five patients with pterygia were recruited at different centers across the country. Autologous hCjEC grafts were prepared from conjunctival biopsy specimens excised from the healthy eye and cultured ex vivo on human amniotic membrane mounted on inserts using a unique mounting device. The hCjEC grafts were then transported in an in-house designed transport container for transplantation. Post-surgery, the patients were followed up on days 1, 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 as per the approved study protocol. Clinical outcomes were assessed by slit lamp examination, visual acuity, imprint cytology, fluorescein/rose bengal staining, Schirmer's test, and photographic evaluation three and 6 months post-transplantation. Results: Two patients were lost to follow-up and final analysis included 23 cases. No recurrence of pterygium was observed in 18 (78.3%) patients; all of these eyes showed a smooth conjunctival surface without epithelial defects. Recurrence was observed in 5 (21.7%) patients at 3 months post-treatment. No conjunctival inflammation, secondary infections or other complications were reported. Adequate goblet cells were present in 19 (82.6%) patients at the site of transplantation. Conclusion: We have, for the 1st time, standardized a protocol for preparing autologous hCjEC grafts that can be safely transported to multiple centers across the country for transplantation. The clinical outcome was satisfactory for treating pterygia. PMID:25709763

  3. Comparing Active Pediatric Obesity Treatments Using Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilles, Allyson; Cassano, Michael; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Higgins, Diana; Hecker, Jeffrey E.; Nangle, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    The current meta-analysis reviews research on the treatment of pediatric obesity focusing on studies that have been published since 1994. Eleven studies (22 comparisons, 115 effect sizes, N = 447) were included in the present meta-analysis. Results indicated that comprehensive behavioral interventions may be improved in at least two ways:…

  4. Strategic arms limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen Greb, G.; Johnson, Gerald W.

    1983-10-01

    Following World War II, American scientists and politicians proposed in the Baruch plan a radical solution to the problem of nuclear weapons: to eliminate them forever under the auspices of an international nuclear development authority. The Soviets, who as yet did not possess the bomb, rejected this plan. Another approach suggested by Secretary of War Henry Stimson to negotiate directly with the Soviet Union was not accepted by the American leadership. These initial arms limitation failures both reflected and exacerbated the hostile political relationship of the superpowers in the 1950s and 1960s. Since 1969, the more modest focus of the Soviet-American arms control process has been on limiting the numbers and sizes of both defensive and offensive strategic systems. The format for this effort has been the Strategic Arms Limitatins Talks (Salt) and more recently the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Both sides came to these negotiations convinced that nuclear arsenals had grown so large that some for of mutual restraint was needed. Although the SALT/START process has been slow and ponderous, it has produced several concrete the agreements and collateral benefits. The 1972 ABM Treaty restricts the deployment of ballistic missile defense systems, the 1972 Interim Agreement places a quantitative freeze on each side's land based and sea based strategic launchers, and the as yet unratified 1979 SALT II Treaty sets numerical limits on all offensive strategic systems and sublimits on MIRVed systems. Collateral benefits include improved verification procedures, working definitions and counting rules, and permanent bureaucratic apparatus which enhance stability and increase the chances for achieving additional agreements.

  5. Worldwide report, arms control

    SciTech Connect

    1987-03-18

    This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on Arms Control. Titles include: USSR Journal Review of French Book on SDI; Moscow Talk Show Considers Possibility of Dealing with U.S.; Thatcher, Gorbachev Talks Anticipated; U.S. Presents Draft Treaty to Eliminate INF from Europe; TASS: White House Rejects Treaty of Tatotonga; Soviet Paper on Congressional Divisions on Moratorium; Turkish Officials on Deployment of Nuclear Weapons; and others.

  6. Scientific coats of arms.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2005-09-01

    With their mythical creatures and arcane symbolism, coats of arms seem to have little connection with modern science. Yet despite its chivalric origins, the ancient language of heraldry has long fascinated famous scientists. Although this idiosyncratic tradition was parodied by Victorian geologists, who laughingly replaced unicorns and griffins with images of dinosaurs that they had recently discovered, it has been perpetuated since by Ernest Rutherford, who liked to present himself as a new alchemist. PMID:16098590

  7. Robotic Arm End Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Image illustrates the tools on the end of the arm that are used to acquire samples, image the contents of the scoop, and perform science experiments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Small arms ammunition

    DOEpatents

    Huerta, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    An elongate projectile for small arms use has a single unitary mass with a hollow nose cavity defined by a sharp rigid cutting edge adapted to make initial contact with the target surface and cut therethrough. The projectile then enters the target mass in an unstable flight mode. The projectile base is substantially solid such that the nose cavity, while relatively deep, does not extend entirely through the base and the projectile center of gravity is aft of its geometric center.

  9. Strategic arms limitation

    SciTech Connect

    Greb, G.A.; Johnson, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1969, the focus of the Soviet-American arms control process has been on limiting the numbers and sizes of both defensive and offensive strategic systems. The format for this effort has been the Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT) and more recently the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Both sides came to these negotiations convinced that nuclear arsenals had grown so large that some form of mutual restraint was needed. Although the SALT/START process has been slow and ponderous, it has produced several concrete agreements and collateral benefits. The 1972 ABM Treaty restricts the deployment of ballistic missile defense systems, the 1972 Interim Agreement places a quantitative freeze on each side's land based and sea based strategic launchers, and the as yet unratified 1979 SALT II Treaty sets numerical limits on all offensive strategic systems and sublimits on MIRVed systems. Collateral benefits include improved verification procedures, working definitions and counting rules, and permanent bureaucratic apparatus that enhance stability and increase the chances for achieving additional agreements.

  10. Phoenix Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A vital instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is the robotic arm, which will dig into the icy soil and bring samples back to the science deck of the spacecraft for analysis. In September 2006 at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems clean room facility near Denver, spacecraft technician Billy Jones inspects the arm during the assembly phase of the mission.

    Using the robotic arm -- built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena -- the Phoenix mission will study the history of water and search for complex organic molecules in the ice-rich soil.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Dissemination Activities: A Critical New Role for Substance Abuse Treatment Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Terry C.; Roman, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for integration of substance abuse treatment into medical care via medical homes and continuing specialty care. For this integration to occur in the substance abuse treatment field, substantial sharing and dissemination of information by treatment providers is required. This study explored the determinants of organizational activities directed at disseminating evidence-based practices (EBP) undertaken by 193 community treatment programs who are members of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network. Using factor analysis, the research identified two generic categories reflecting different motivations for dissemination activities, and explored both treatment center leadership and organizational characteristics as determinants of these different types of dissemination activities. Organizational characteristics predicting treatment center dissemination activities included size, previous involvement in research protocols, linkages with other providers, and having non-profit status. The treatment center leader's membership in professional organizations was also a significant determinant. Organization variables account for a larger portion of the variance in treatment center dissemination activities. The results suggest that the willingness of treatment providers to help disseminate EBPs within the industry may be heavily influenced through shared network connections with other treatment organizations. PMID:24722825

  12. A monitoring and feedback tool embedded in a counselling protocol to increase physical activity of patients with COPD or type 2 diabetes in primary care: study protocol of a three-arm cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is important for a healthy lifestyle. Although physical activity can delay complications and decrease the burden of the disease, the level of activity of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) is often far from optimal. To stimulate physical activity, a monitoring and feedback tool, consisting of an accelerometer linked to a smart phone and webserver (It’s LiFe! tool), and a counselling protocol for practice nurses in primary care was developed (the Self-management Support Program). The main objective of this study is to measure the longitudinal effects of this counselling protocol and the added value of using the tool. Methods/Design This three-armed cluster randomised controlled trial with 120 participants with COPD and 120 participants with DM2 (aged 40–70), compares the counselling protocol with and without the use of the tool (group 1 and 2) with usual care (group 3). Recruitment takes place at GP practices in the southern regions of the Netherlands. Randomisation takes place at the practice level. The intended sample (three arms of 8 practices) powers the study to detect a 10-minute difference of moderate and intense physical activity per day between groups 1 and 3. Participants in the intervention groups have to visit the practice nurse 3–4 times for physical activity counselling, in a 4-6-month period. Specific activity goals tailored to the individual patient's preferences and needs will be set. In addition, participants in group 1 will be instructed to use the tool in daily life. The primary outcome, physical activity, will be measured in all groups with a physical activity monitor (PAM). Secondary outcomes are quality of life, general - and exercise - self-efficacy, and health status. Follow-up will take place after 6 and 9 months. Separately, a process evaluation will be conducted to explore reasons for trial non-participation, and the intervention

  13. Direct imaging of macrophage activation during PDT treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.; Xing, Da

    2011-11-01

    Mounting evidence describes a more complex progress of macrophage activation during photodynamic therapy (PDT), which performing distinct immunological functions and different physiologies on surrounding cells and tissues. Macrophage-targeted PDT has been applied in the selective killing of cells involved in inflammation and tumor. We have previously shown that PDT-mediated tumor cells apoptosis can induce a higher level immune response than necrosis, and enhance the macrophage activation. However, the molecular mechanism of macrophage activation during PDT-induced apoptotic cells (AC) still unclear. Here, we use confocal microscopy to image the phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages. We also observed that PDT-treated AC can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are present on macrophages surface. Besides, the increase in nitric oxide (NO) formation in macrophages was detected in real time by a laser scanning microscopy. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

  14. Direct imaging of macrophage activation during PDT treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.; Xing, Da

    2012-03-01

    Mounting evidence describes a more complex progress of macrophage activation during photodynamic therapy (PDT), which performing distinct immunological functions and different physiologies on surrounding cells and tissues. Macrophage-targeted PDT has been applied in the selective killing of cells involved in inflammation and tumor. We have previously shown that PDT-mediated tumor cells apoptosis can induce a higher level immune response than necrosis, and enhance the macrophage activation. However, the molecular mechanism of macrophage activation during PDT-induced apoptotic cells (AC) still unclear. Here, we use confocal microscopy to image the phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages. We also observed that PDT-treated AC can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are present on macrophages surface. Besides, the increase in nitric oxide (NO) formation in macrophages was detected in real time by a laser scanning microscopy. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

  15. REPEATED REDUCTIVE AND OXIDATIVE TREATMENTS ON GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenton oxidation and Fenton oxidation preceded by reduction solutions were applied to granular activated carbon (GAC) to chemically regenerate the adsorbent. No adsorbate was present on the GAC so physicochemical effects from chemically aggressive regeneration of the carbon coul...

  16. Octopus-inspired multi-arm robotic swimming.

    PubMed

    Sfakiotakis, M; Kazakidi, A; Tsakiris, D P

    2015-06-01

    The outstanding locomotor and manipulation characteristics of the octopus have recently inspired the development, by our group, of multi-functional robotic swimmers, featuring both manipulation and locomotion capabilities, which could be of significant engineering interest in underwater applications. During its little-studied arm-swimming behavior, as opposed to the better known jetting via the siphon, the animal appears to generate considerable propulsive thrust and rapid acceleration, predominantly employing movements of its arms. In this work, we capture the fundamental characteristics of the corresponding complex pattern of arm motion by a sculling profile, involving a fast power stroke and a slow recovery stroke. We investigate the propulsive capabilities of a multi-arm robotic system under various swimming gaits, namely patterns of arm coordination, which achieve the generation of forward, as well as backward, propulsion and turning. A lumped-element model of the robotic swimmer, which considers arm compliance and the interaction with the aquatic environment, was used to study the characteristics of these gaits, the effect of various kinematic parameters on propulsion, and the generation of complex trajectories. This investigation focuses on relatively high-stiffness arms. Experiments employing a compliant-body robotic prototype swimmer with eight compliant arms, all made of polyurethane, inside a water tank, successfully demonstrated this novel mode of underwater propulsion. Speeds of up to 0.26 body lengths per second (approximately 100 mm s(-1)), and propulsive forces of up to 3.5 N were achieved, with a non-dimensional cost of transport of 1.42 with all eight arms and of 0.9 with only two active arms. The experiments confirmed the computational results and verified the multi-arm maneuverability and simultaneous object grasping capability of such systems. PMID:25970151

  17. Patterns of metabolic activity in the treatment of schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, J.D.; Christman, D.R.; Corona, J.F.; Fowler, J.S.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Jaeger, J.; Micheels, P.A.; Rotrosen, J.; Russell, J.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Wikler, A.

    1984-04-01

    Six patients with chronic schizophrenia were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) before and after neuroleptic treatment, using fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose. After treatment, the mean whole-slice glucose metabolic rate at the level of the basal ganglia showed a 25% increase. However, patterns of frontal hypometabolism observed with the schizophrenic patients were not altered by medication. Pattern analysis using the fast Fourier transform was applied to a set of 422 images from a mixed group of normal, depressed, and schizophrenic subjects. Reconstruction of the images with low-frequency coefficients was excellent, reducing considerably the number of variables needed to characterize each image. Hierarchical cluster analysis categorized the transformed images according to anatomical level and subject group (patient versus control). The results suggest the utility of this procedure for the classification and characterization of metabolic PET images from psychiatric patients. 8 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  18. Experimental Treatment with Favipiravir for Ebola Virus Disease (the JIKI Trial): A Historically Controlled, Single-Arm Proof-of-Concept Trial in Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Sissoko, Daouda; Laouenan, Cedric; Folkesson, Elin; M’Lebing, Abdoul-Bing; Beavogui, Abdoul-Habib; Baize, Sylvain; Camara, Alseny-Modet; Maes, Piet; Shepherd, Susan; Danel, Christine; Carazo, Sara; Conde, Mamoudou N.; Gala, Jean-Luc; Colin, Géraldine; Savini, Hélène; Bore, Joseph Akoi; Le Marcis, Frederic; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Petitjean, Frédéric; Lamah, Marie-Claire; Diederich, Sandra; Tounkara, Alexis; Poelart, Geertrui; Berbain, Emmanuel; Dindart, Jean-Michel; Duraffour, Sophie; Lefevre, Annabelle; Leno, Tamba; Peyrouset, Olivier; Irenge, Léonid; Bangoura, N’Famara; Palich, Romain; Hinzmann, Julia; Kraus, Annette; Barry, Thierno Sadou; Berette, Sakoba; Bongono, André; Camara, Mohamed Seto; Chanfreau Munoz, Valérie; Doumbouya, Lanciné; Souley Harouna; Kighoma, Patient Mumbere; Koundouno, Fara Roger; Réné Lolamou; Loua, Cécé Moriba; Massala, Vincent; Moumouni, Kinda; Provost, Célia; Samake, Nenefing; Sekou, Conde; Soumah, Abdoulaye; Arnould, Isabelle; Komano, Michel Saa; Gustin, Lina; Berutto, Carlotta; Camara, Diarra; Camara, Fodé Saydou; Colpaert, Joliene; Delamou, Léontine; Jansson, Lena; Kourouma, Etienne; Loua, Maurice; Malme, Kristian; Manfrin, Emma; Maomou, André; Milinouno, Adele; Ombelet, Sien; Sidiboun, Aboubacar Youla; Verreckt, Isabelle; Yombouno, Pauline; Bocquin, Anne; Carbonnelle, Caroline; Carmoi, Thierry; Frange, Pierre; Mely, Stéphane; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim; Pannetier, Delphine; Taburet, Anne-Marie; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Kolie, Jacques; Moh, Raoul; Gonzalez, Minerva Cervantes; Kuisma, Eeva; Liedigk, Britta; Ngabo, Didier; Rudolf, Martin; Thom, Ruth; Kerber, Romy; Gabriel, Martin; Di Caro, Antonino; Wölfel, Roman; Badir, Jamal; Bentahir, Mostafa; Deccache, Yann; Dumont, Catherine; Durant, Jean-François; El Bakkouri, Karim; Gasasira Uwamahoro, Marie; Smits, Benjamin; Toufik, Nora; Van Cauwenberghe, Stéphane; Ezzedine, Khaled; Dortenzio, Eric; Pizarro, Louis; Etienne, Aurélie; Guedj, Jérémie; Fizet, Alexandra; Barte de Sainte Fare, Eric; Murgue, Bernadette; Tran-Minh, Tuan; Rapp, Christophe; Piguet, Pascal; Poncin, Marc; Draguez, Bertrand; Allaford Duverger, Thierry; Barbe, Solenne; Baret, Guillaume; Defourny, Isabelle; Carroll, Miles; Raoul, Hervé; Augier, Augustin; Eholie, Serge P.; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Levy-Marchal, Claire; Antierrens, Annick; Van Herp, Michel; Günther, Stephan; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Keïta, Sakoba; Mentre, France

    2016-01-01

    Background Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a highly lethal condition for which no specific treatment has proven efficacy. In September 2014, while the Ebola outbreak was at its peak, the World Health Organization released a short list of drugs suitable for EVD research. Favipiravir, an antiviral developed for the treatment of severe influenza, was one of these. In late 2014, the conditions for starting a randomized Ebola trial were not fulfilled for two reasons. One was the perception that, given the high number of patients presenting simultaneously and the very high mortality rate of the disease, it was ethically unacceptable to allocate patients from within the same family or village to receive or not receive an experimental drug, using a randomization process impossible to understand by very sick patients. The other was that, in the context of rumors and distrust of Ebola treatment centers, using a randomized design at the outset might lead even more patients to refuse to seek care. Therefore, we chose to conduct a multicenter non-randomized trial, in which all patients would receive favipiravir along with standardized care. The objectives of the trial were to test the feasibility and acceptability of an emergency trial in the context of a large Ebola outbreak, and to collect data on the safety and effectiveness of favipiravir in reducing mortality and viral load in patients with EVD. The trial was not aimed at directly informing future guidelines on Ebola treatment but at quickly gathering standardized preliminary data to optimize the design of future studies. Methods and Findings Inclusion criteria were positive Ebola virus reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) test, age ≥ 1 y, weight ≥ 10 kg, ability to take oral drugs, and informed consent. All participants received oral favipiravir (day 0: 6,000 mg; day 1 to day 9: 2,400 mg/d). Semi-quantitative Ebola virus RT-PCR (results expressed in “cycle threshold” [Ct]) and biochemistry tests were performed at day 0

  19. [Ethical concerns around donors after cessation of active treatment].

    PubMed

    Dorez, Didier

    2016-09-01

    The cessation of treatment in intensive care leads to death through circulatory arrest. In these circumstances there is an opportunity to remove organs, if that was the wish of the patient. This raises legitimate ethical questions. A French national protocol defines the conditions of this donation and ensures a harmonisation of practices as well as an overall improvement in end-of-life support in intensive care. These donors represent an opportunity to increase the number of organs available for transplant. PMID:27596498

  20. Fate and removal of permethrin by conventional activated sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Santos, A; Reif, R; Hillis, P; Judd, S J

    2011-01-01

    The fate and removal of permethrin during conventional wastewater treatment were evaluated at pilot-plant scale at different concentrations of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and, hence, different solids retention times (SRT). At feed concentrations of 0.26-0.86 microg L(-1), the permethrin was removed by primary treatment at an efficiency rate of 37%, similar to previously reported data, and from 40% to 83% for secondary treatment, decreasing with decreasing SRT. Comparable ranges, from 37% up to 98%, have been reported for micropollutants with similar physicochemical properties to permethrin, such as galaxolide and tonalide. Little difference in removal was noted between the medium and low MLSS concentrations trials, the main difference in treated effluent permethrin concentration arising on changing from high to medium MLSS levels. This was attributed to the limited acclimatization period employed in these two trials, leading to higher levels of soluble organic matter in the treated water, with which the permethrin appeared to be associated. PMID:21970178

  1. Controller arm for a remotely related slave arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, J. K., Jr. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A segmented controller arm configured and dimensioned to form a miniature kinematic replica of a remotely related slave arm is disclosed. The arm includes: (1) a plurality of joints for affording segments of the arm simultaneous angular displacement about a plurality of pairs of intersecting axes, (2) a plurality of position sensing devices for providing electrical signals indicative of angular displacement imparted to corresponding segments of the controller shaft about the axes, and (3) a control signal circuit for generating control signals to be transmitted to the slave arm. The arm is characterized by a plurality of yokes, each being supported for angular displacement about a pair of orthogonally related axes and counterbalanced against gravitation by a cantilevered mass.

  2. Design and analysis of three-arm trials with negative binomially distributed endpoints.

    PubMed

    Mütze, Tobias; Munk, Axel; Friede, Tim

    2016-02-20

    A three-arm clinical trial design with an experimental treatment, an active control, and a placebo control, commonly referred to as the gold standard design, enables testing of non-inferiority or superiority of the experimental treatment compared with the active control. In this paper, we propose methods for designing and analyzing three-arm trials with negative binomially distributed endpoints. In particular, we develop a Wald-type test with a restricted maximum-likelihood variance estimator for testing non-inferiority or superiority. For this test, sample size and power formulas as well as optimal sample size allocations will be derived. The performance of the proposed test will be assessed in an extensive simulation study with regard to type I error rate, power, sample size, and sample size allocation. For the purpose of comparison, Wald-type statistics with a sample variance estimator and an unrestricted maximum-likelihood estimator are included in the simulation study. We found that the proposed Wald-type test with a restricted variance estimator performed well across the considered scenarios and is therefore recommended for application in clinical trials. The methods proposed are motivated and illustrated by a recent clinical trial in multiple sclerosis. The R package ThreeArmedTrials, which implements the methods discussed in this paper, is available on CRAN. PMID:26388314

  3. Effect of arm swing on single-step balance recovery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuangyou B; Huang, Yi-Chang; Kuo, Shih-Yu

    2014-12-01

    Balance recovery techniques are useful not only in preventing falls but also in many sports activities. The step strategy plays an important role especially under intense perturbations. However, relatively little is known about the effect of arm swing on stepping balance recovery although considerable arm motions have been observed. The purpose of this study was to examine how the arms influence kinematic and kinetic characteristics in single-step balance recovery. Twelve young male adults were released from three forward-lean angles and asked to regain balance by taking a single step under arm swing (AS) and arm constrained (AC) conditions. It was found that unconstrained arms had initial forward motion and later upward motion causing increased moment of inertia of the body, which decreased falling angular velocity and allowed more time for stepping. The lengthened total balance time included weight transfer and stepping time, although duration increase in the latter was significant only at the largest lean angle. In contrast, step length, step velocity, and vertical ground reaction forces on the stepping foot were unaffected by arm swing. Future studies are required to investigate optimal movement strategies for the arms to coordinate with other body segments in balance recovery and injury reduction. PMID:25457416

  4. 26 CFR 1.1398-1 - Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits in individuals' title 11 cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... “ELECTION PURSUANT TO § 1.1398-1” must be placed prominently on the first page of each of the debtor's... passive activity credits in individuals' title 11 cases. 1.1398-1 Section 1.1398-1 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Rules Relating to Individuals' Title 11 Cases § 1.1398-1 Treatment of passive activity losses...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1398-1 - Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits in individuals' title 11 cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... “ELECTION PURSUANT TO § 1.1398-1” must be placed prominently on the first page of each of the debtor's... passive activity credits in individuals' title 11 cases. 1.1398-1 Section 1.1398-1 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Rules Relating to Individuals' Title 11 Cases § 1.1398-1 Treatment of passive activity losses...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1398-1 - Treatment of passive activity losses and passive activity credits in individuals' title 11 cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... “ELECTION PURSUANT TO § 1.1398-1” must be placed prominently on the first page of each of the debtor's... activity credits in individuals' title 11 cases. 1.1398-1 Section 1.1398-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... to Individuals' Title 11 Cases § 1.1398-1 Treatment of passive activity losses and passive...

  7. Brain Activity in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder Before and After Fluoxetine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Rongrong; Calley, Clifford S.; Hart, John; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Lu, Hanzhang; Kennard, Betsy D.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Emslie, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Major depression in adolescents is a significant public health concern because of its frequency and severity. To examine the neurobiological basis of depression in this population, the authors studied functional activation characteristics of the brain before and after antidepressant treatment in antidepressant-naive depressed adolescents and healthy comparison subjects. Method Depressed (N=19) and healthy (N=21) adolescents, ages 11 to 18 years, underwent functional MRI assessment while viewing fearful and neutral facial expressions at baseline and again 8 weeks later. The depressed adolescents received 8 weeks of open-label fluoxetine treatment after their baseline scan. Results Voxel-wise whole brain analyses showed that depressed youths have exaggerated brain activation compared with healthy comparison subjects in multiple regions, including the frontal, temporal, and limbic cortices. The 8 weeks of fluoxetine treatment normalized most of these regions of hyperactivity in the depressed group. Region-of-interest analyses of the areas involved in emotion processing indicated that before treatment, depressed youths had significantly greater activations to fearful relative to neutral facial expressions than did healthy comparison subjects in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally. Fluoxetine treatment decreased activations in all three regions, as compared with the repeat scans of healthy comparison subjects. Conclusions While effective treatments are available, the impact of depression and its treatment on the brain in adolescents is understudied. This study confirms increases in brain activation in untreated depressed adolescents and demonstrates reductions in these aberrant activations with treatment. PMID:22267183

  8. Two-Armed, Mobile, Sensate Research Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelberger, J. F.; Roberts, W. Nelson; Ryan, David J.; Silverthorne, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The Anthropomorphic Robotic Testbed (ART) is an experimental prototype of a partly anthropomorphic, humanoid-size, mobile robot. The basic ART design concept provides for a combination of two-armed coordination, tactility, stereoscopic vision, mobility with navigation and avoidance of obstacles, and natural-language communication, so that the ART could emulate humans in many activities. The ART could be developed into a variety of highly capable robotic assistants for general or specific applications. There is especially great potential for the development of ART-based robots as substitutes for live-in health-care aides for home-bound persons who are aged, infirm, or physically handicapped; these robots could greatly reduce the cost of home health care and extend the term of independent living. The ART is a fully autonomous and untethered system. It includes a mobile base on which is mounted an extensible torso topped by a head, shoulders, and two arms. All subsystems of the ART are powered by a rechargeable, removable battery pack. The mobile base is a differentially- driven, nonholonomic vehicle capable of a speed >1 m/s and can handle a payload >100 kg. The base can be controlled manually, in forward/backward and/or simultaneous rotational motion, by use of a joystick. Alternatively, the motion of the base can be controlled autonomously by an onboard navigational computer. By retraction or extension of the torso, the head height of the ART can be adjusted from 5 ft (1.5 m) to 6 1/2 ft (2 m), so that the arms can reach either the floor or high shelves, or some ceilings. The arms are symmetrical. Each arm (including the wrist) has a total of six rotary axes like those of the human shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints. The arms are actuated by electric motors in combination with brakes and gas-spring assists on the shoulder and elbow joints. The arms are operated under closed-loop digital control. A receptacle for an end effector is mounted on the tip of the wrist and

  9. ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS: SELECTED TECHNICAL PAPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the tremendous interest in the organic constituent removal by activated carbon, the two industrial categories displaying the most interest are the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. EPA's Office of Research and Development has co-sponsored two technical s...

  10. Activated Sludge. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Owen K.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials needed to teach a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. These materials include an overview of the unit, lesson plans, lecture outlines (keyed to slides designed for use with the lessons), student worksheets for each of the seven lessons (with answers), and two copies of a final quiz (with and…

  11. ACTIVATED CARBON PROCESS FOR TREATMENT OF WASTEWATERS CONTAINING HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The removal of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), from dilute aqueous solution by an activated carbon process has been investigated. Two removal mechanisms were observed; hexavalent chromium species were removed by adsorption onto the interior carbon surface and/or through reduction to...

  12. Incorporating Nondrug Social & Recreational Activities in Outpatient Chemical Dependency Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siporin, Sheldon; Baron, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    "Contingency Management programs (CMP) and non-drug social and recreational activities (NDSRA) are interventions premised on behavior theory that rely on external sources of reinforcement alternative to drug-based forms to decrease drug use. CMP usually employs vouchers as reinforcement for negative toxicologies. Despite research support, CMP…

  13. Activity of fosfomycin in the treatment of bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Hutzler, R; Fernandes, V; Muñoz, D; Rozentraub, A

    1977-01-01

    30 patients with different infections were treated with fosfomycin: 13 had urinary infections, 14 had pneumonial infections, 2 had staphylococcus osteomyelitis and 1 had staphylococcus septicemia. The antibiotic was administered in doses ranging from 100 to 230 mg/kg/day, with periods of treatment that lasted from 5 to 58 days. The doses were administered every 6 h by the oral or intramuscular route. A total of 35 organisms were isolated: 7 E. coli, 7beta-hemolitic Streptococcus, 6 Proteus sp., 6 S. aureus, 6 S. viridans, 2 Klebsiella sp. and 1 negative coagulase S. aureus. All were sensitive to fosfomycin in vitro, as was revealed by the diffusion in discs method. The therapeutic results were good in 29 of the 30 cases (96.7%). There were no important side effects. A patient complained of a local pain in the area of the injection. The transaminases increased temporarily in 2 patients. One patient had a moderate eosinophilia while under treatment. PMID:832537

  14. A phase 2, single-arm study of an autologous dendritic cell treatment against mucin 1 in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mucin 1 antigen, highly expressed by epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), is a potential target for immunotherapy. A previous successful phase 1 trial was conducted in patients with adenocarcinoma who were injected with Cvac, autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) incubated with mannosylated mucin 1 protein (M-FP). The present study was a phase 2 trial of Cvac in patients with advanced EOC. Methods Eligible patients had EOC with progressive disease, defined as an increase in CA125 of ≥ 25% in 1 month. The primary endpoint was CA125 response or stabilization. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected by leukapheresis and cultured to generate DCs. The DC were incubated with M-FP, and after washing were prepared for injection into the patient intradermally every 4 weeks for 3 doses, then every 10 weeks for up to 12 months. Results All 28 patients recruited were evaluable for safety and 26 for efficacy. All had undergone surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy, and 57% of patients received ≥ 3 chemotherapy regimens. There were no Grade 3 or 4 toxicities considered related to Cvac. Four patients showed CA125 response or stabilization (2 patients with major responses, 1 minor response, 1 stabilization) of median duration 10.3 months (5.3–16.3 months). An additional patient had > 25% CA125 reduction (not confirmed). Conclusions Cvac immunotherapy was well tolerated. Clinical activity in EOC was evident based on decline or stabilization of CA125 in some patients, supporting ongoing development of Cvac in ovarian carcinoma and planning of additional trials of patients in remission is currently underway. PMID:24995129

  15. Incidence of Salmonella infections among service members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces and among other beneficiaries of the Military Health System, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Clark, Leslie L; Daniele, Denise O; O'Donnell, Francis L

    2015-01-01

    This report reviews the incidence of cases of typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella infections based on diagnoses recorded in healthcare records and reported through the Armed Forces reportable medical event (RME) system. During 2000-2013, there were 1,815 incident cases of non-typhoidal Salmonella and 456 incident cases of typhoidal Salmonella diagnosed in the active component force. The crude incidence rate for non-typhoidal Salmonella was 0.91 cases per 10,000 person years (p-yrs) and the rate for typhoidal Salmonella was 0.23 cases per 10,000 p-yrs. Among retirees and family members, children under 5 years of age and those aged 75 years or older comprised the greatest number of non-typhoidal Salmonella cases. Preventive measures for reducing the risk of infection with Salmonella are discussed. PMID:25646599

  16. The Norma arm region Chandra survey catalog: X-ray populations in the spiral arms

    SciTech Connect

    Fornasini, Francesca M.; Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Krivonos, Roman A.; An, Hongjun; Rahoui, Farid; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Bauer, Franz E.; Stern, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey (NARCS), which covers a 2° × 0.°8 region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of ≈20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with ≥3σ confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that ∼50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arm, while 30% are more distant, in the proximity of the far Norma arm or beyond. We argue that a mixture of magnetic and nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables dominates the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arms, while intermediate polars and high-mass stars (isolated or in binaries) dominate the far Norma arm. We also present the cumulative number count distribution for sources in our survey that are detected in the hard energy band. A population of very hard sources in the vicinity of the far Norma arm and active galactic nuclei dominate the hard X-ray emission down to f{sub X} ≈ 10{sup –14} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, but the distribution curve flattens at fainter fluxes. We find good agreement between the observed distribution and predictions based on other surveys.

  17. ARM Data Integrator

    2014-02-06

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Integrator (ADI) streamlines the development of scientific algorithms and analysis of time-series NetCDF data, and improves the content and consistency of the output data products produced by these algorithms. The framework automates the process of retrieving and preparing data for analysis, and allows users to design output data products through a graphical interface. It also provides a modular, flexible software development architecture that scientists can use to generate C,more » Python, and IDL source code templates that embed the pre and post processing logic allowing the scientist to focus on only their science. The input data, preprocessing, and output data specifications of algorithms are defined through a graphical interface and stored in a database. ADI implements workflow for data integration and supports user access to data through a library of software modules. Data preprocess capabilities supported include automated retrieval of data from input files, merging the retrieved data into appropriately sized chunks, and transformation of the data onto a common coordinate system grid. Through the graphical interface, users can view the details of both their data products and those in the ARM catalog and allows developers to use existing data product to build new data products. Views of the output data products include an overlay of how the design meets ARM archive’s data standards providing the user with a visual cue indicating where their output violates an archive standard. The ADI libraries access the information provided through the GUI via a Postgres database. The ADI framework and its supporting components can significantly decrease the time and cost of implementing scientific algorithms while improving the ability of scientists to disseminate their results.« less

  18. ARM Data Integrator

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-06

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Integrator (ADI) streamlines the development of scientific algorithms and analysis of time-series NetCDF data, and improves the content and consistency of the output data products produced by these algorithms. The framework automates the process of retrieving and preparing data for analysis, and allows users to design output data products through a graphical interface. It also provides a modular, flexible software development architecture that scientists can use to generate C, Python, and IDL source code templates that embed the pre and post processing logic allowing the scientist to focus on only their science. The input data, preprocessing, and output data specifications of algorithms are defined through a graphical interface and stored in a database. ADI implements workflow for data integration and supports user access to data through a library of software modules. Data preprocess capabilities supported include automated retrieval of data from input files, merging the retrieved data into appropriately sized chunks, and transformation of the data onto a common coordinate system grid. Through the graphical interface, users can view the details of both their data products and those in the ARM catalog and allows developers to use existing data product to build new data products. Views of the output data products include an overlay of how the design meets ARM archive’s data standards providing the user with a visual cue indicating where their output violates an archive standard. The ADI libraries access the information provided through the GUI via a Postgres database. The ADI framework and its supporting components can significantly decrease the time and cost of implementing scientific algorithms while improving the ability of scientists to disseminate their results.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of different filling pastes for deciduous tooth treatment.

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, Bruna Feltrin; Pires, Carine Weber; Bresolin, Carmela Rampazzo; Weiss, Rita Niederauer; Praetzel, Juliana Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Guedes-Pinto paste is the filling material most employed in Brazil for endodontic treatment of deciduous teeth; however, the Rifocort® ointment has been removed. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial potential of filling pastes, by proposing three new pharmacological associations to replace Rifocort® ointment with drugs of already established antimicrobial power: Nebacetin® ointment, 2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate gel, and Maxitrol® ointment. A paste composed of Iodoform, Rifocort® ointment and Camphorated Paramonochlorophenol (CPC) was employed as the gold standard (G1). The other associations were: Iodoform, Nebacetin® ointment and CPC (G2); Iodoform, 2% Chlorhexidine Digluconate gel and CPC (G3); Iodoform, Maxitrol® ointment and CPC (G4). The associations were tested for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Streptococcus oralis (S. oralis), Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), using the methods of dilution on solid medium - orifice agar - and broth dilution. The results were tested using statistical analysis ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis. They showed that all the pastes had a bacteriostatic effect on all the microorganisms, without any statistically significant difference, compared with G1. S. aureus was statistically significant (multiple comparison test of Tukey), insofar as G2 and G3 presented the worst and the best performance, respectively. All associations were bactericidal for E. coli, S. aureus, S. mutans and S. oralis. Only G3 and G4 were bactericidal for E. faecalis, whereas no product was bactericidal for B. subtilis. Thus, the tested pastes have antimicrobial potential and have proved acceptable for endodontic treatment of primary teeth. PMID:25466327

  20. N-terminal arm of orchardgrass Hsp17.2 (DgHsp17.2) is essential for both in vitro chaperone activity and in vivo thermotolerance in yeast.

    PubMed

    Cha, Joon-Yung; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Seo, Kyung Hye; Choi, Young Jin; Cheong, Mi Sun; Son, Daeyoung

    2016-02-01

    Small heat shock proteins are well-known to function as chaperone in the protection of proteins and subcellular structures against stress-induced denaturation in many cell compartments. Irrespective of such general functional assignment, a proof of function in a living organism is missing. Here, we used heat-induced orchardgrass small Hsp17.2 (DgHsp17.2). Its function in in vitro chaperone properties has shown in protecting the model substrate, malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and citrate synthase (CS). Overexpression of DgHsp17.2 triggering strong chaperone activity enhanced in vivo thermotolerance of yeast cells. To identify the functional domain on DgHsp17.2 and correlationship between in vitro chaperone property and in vivo thermotolerance, we generated truncation mutants of DgHsp17.2 and showed essentiality of the N-terminal arm of DgHsp17.2 for the chaperone function. In addition, beyond for acquisition of thermotolerance irrespective of sequences are diverse among the small Hsps. However, any truncation mutants of DgHsp17.2 did not exhibit strong interaction with orchardgrass heat shock protein 70 (DgHsp70) different from mature DgHsp17.2, indicating that full-length DgHsp17.2 is necessary for cooperating with Hsp70 protein. Our study indicates that the N-terminal arm of DgHsp17.2 is an important region for chaperone activity and thermotolerance. PMID:26724757

  1. Light duty utility arm

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Light-Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System is a mobile, multi-axis positioning system capable of deploying tools and sensors (end effecters) inside radioactive waste tanks for tank wall inspection, waste characterization, and waste retrieval. The LDUA robotic manipulator enters a tank through existing openings (risers) in the tank dome of the underground tanks. Using various end effecters, the LDUA System is a versatile system for high-level waste tank remediation. The LDUA System provides a means to deploy tools, while increasing the technology resources available to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Ongoing end effecter development will provide additional capabilities to remediate the waste tanks.

  2. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson.

    This is the position the rasp will assume when it drills into the Martian soil to acquire an icy soil sample for analysis.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Effect of Physical Activity in Treatment of Paediatric Obesity.

    PubMed

    Pastucha, Dalibor; Malinčíková, Jana; Horák, Stanislav; Povová, Jana; Konečný, Petr

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the differences in anthropometric parameters, maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂max) and physical activity (PA) between groups of 146 obese boys and 128 obese girls. We tried to describe the relationships between changes in PA and changes in VO₂max, body fat, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference. We found statistically significant changes in VO₂max and waist circumference only in the group of boys and significant changes in VO₂max in the group of girls. PMID:26849545

  4. Nrf2 activation as target to implement therapeutic treatments

    PubMed Central

    Bocci, Velio; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    A chronic increase of oxidative stress is typical of serious pathologies such as myocardial infarction, stroke, chronic limb ischemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), type II-diabetes, age-related macular degeneration leads to an epic increase of morbidity and mortality in all countries of the world. The initial inflammation followed by an excessive release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) implies a diffused cellular injury that needs to be corrected by an inducible expression of the innate detoxifying and antioxidant system. The transcription factor Nrf2, when properly activated, is able to restore a redox homeostasis and possibly improve human health. PMID:25699252

  5. NRF2 Activation as Target to Implement Therapeutic Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocci, Velio; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    A chronic increase of oxidative stress is typical of serious pathologies such as myocardial infarction, stroke, chronic limb ischemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), type II-diabetes, age-related macular degeneration leads to an epic increase of morbidity and mortality in all countries of the world. The initial inflammation followed by an excessive release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) implies a diffused cellular injury that needs to be corrected by an inducible expression of the innate detoxifying and antioxidant system. The transcription factor Nrf2, when properly activated, is able to restore a redox homeostasis and possibly improve human health.

  6. AIDing cancer treatment: Reducing AID activity via HSP90 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rebhandl, Stefan; Geisberger, Roland

    2015-08-01

    The activation induced deaminase (AID) catalyses the two key events underlying humoral adaptive immunity: class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation of antibody genes in B lymphocytes. AID accomplishes this task by directly deaminating cytosines within the genomic immunoglobulin locus, thereby triggering a complex mutagenic process eventually leading to improved effector function of antibodies. However, it has long been noticed that AID can be aberrantly expressed in cancer and that its activity is not absolutely restricted to antibody genes, as substantial genome-wide off-target mutations have been observed, which contribute to tumorigenesis and clonal evolution of AID-expressing malignancies. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Montamat-Sicotte et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2015. 45: 2365-2376] investigate the feasibility and efficacy of in vivo inhibition of AID with HSP90 inhibitors in a mouse model of B-cell leukemia and in vitro with a human breast cancer cell line, thereby demonstrating that cancer patients may benefit from preventing noncanonical AID functions. PMID:26151367

  7. Environmental risk assessment of Polish wastewater treatment plant activity.

    PubMed

    Kudłak, Błażej; Wieczerzak, Monika; Yotova, Galina; Tsakovski, Stefan; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play an extremely important role in shaping modern society's environmental well-being and awareness, however only well operated and supervised systems can be considered as environmentally sustainable. For this reason, an attempt was undertaken to assess the environmental burden posed by WWTPs in major Polish cities by collecting water samples prior to and just after wastewater release points. Both classical and biological methods (Microtox(®), Ostracodtoxkit F™ and comet assay) were utilized to assess environmental impact of given WWTP. Interestingly, in some cases, water quality improvement indicated as a toxicity decrement toward one of the bio-indicating organisms makes water worse for others in the systems. This fact is particularly noticeable in case of Silesian cities where heavy industry and high population density is present. It proves that WWTP should undergo individual evaluation of pollutant removal efficiency and tuned to selectively remove pollutants of highest risk to surrounding regional ecosystems. Biotests again proved to be an extremely important tool to fully assess the impact of environmental stressors on water bodies receiving effluents from WWTPs. PMID:27376857

  8. Withanolides: Biologically Active Constituents in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahid A; Khan, Sher B; Shah, Zarbad; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2016-01-01

    The use of natural products in drug discovery and development have an important history. Several therapeutic agents have been investigated during the biological screenings of natural compounds. It is well documented that plants are possibly the core of novel substances that led to the discovery of new, novel, and effective therapeutic agents. Therefore, in the last few decades, scientists were thoroughly attempting for the search of benevolent drugs to protect mankind from various diseases and discomforts. The diverse chemical structures of natural products are the key element of their success in modern drug discovery. Cholinesterase enzyme inhibitors (ChEI) are chemicals which inhibit the splitting of cholinesterase enzymes (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase). Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are two types of cholinesterase enzymes that have been identified in vertebrates that are responsible for Alzheimer's disease and related dementia. Withanolides are affective plant secondary metabolites which inhibit acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzyme and thus possibly will be the future drug for Alzheimer's disease. By viewing the importance of natural products in drug discovery and development, we present here, the importance of withanolides in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In this article, we also describe the classification and structural characterization of withanolides. This review comprises of 114 compounds. PMID:26527154

  9. The purposes, achievements, and priorities of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.S.

    1987-09-01

    Arms control purposes include strengthening the framework of deterrence and reducing the threat of the use of nuclear weapons, reducing the dangers of attack and accidental nuclear war, and allowing more resources for the civilian economy. The paper briefly describes achievements in arms control since World War II. These include the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABMT)-SALT I, SALT II, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), and Nuclear-Free Zones treaties. The author also discusses his views on what the priorities of arms control activities should be. (ACR)

  10. SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

  11. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE Provisions Applicable to Personnel of Former Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical...

  12. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE Provisions Applicable to Personnel of Former Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical...

  13. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE Provisions Applicable to Personnel of Former Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical...

  14. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE Provisions Applicable to Personnel of Former Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical...

  15. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE Provisions Applicable to Personnel of Former Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical...

  16. BREAKPOINT CHLORINATION/ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT: EFFECT ON VOLATILE HALOGENATED ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The production and removal of six volatile halogenated organic compounds during treatment of tertiary clarified and filtered wastewater by breakpoint chlorination and activated carbon was examined in a continuous flow pilot plant. Short contact time breakpoint chlorination of fil...

  17. SYSTEMATIC SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING COMBINED BIOLOIGCAL/GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A systematic scanning election microscope analytical technique has been developed to examine granular activated carbon used a a medium for biomass attachment in liquid waste treatment. The procedure allows for the objective monitoring, comparing, and trouble shooting of combined ...

  18. SYSTEMATIC SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY FOR EVALUATING COMBINED BIOLOGICAL/GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A semi-quantitative scanning electron microscope (SEK) analytical technique has been developed to examine granular activated carbon (GAC) utilized as media for biomass attachment in liquid waste treatment (combined processes). he procedure allows for the objective monitoring, com...

  19. Biologically Inspired Photocatalytically Active Membranes for Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsinger, Nichola M.

    There is an alarming increase of a variety of new chemicals that are now being discharged into the wastewater system causing increased concern for public health and safety because many are not removed by typical wastewater treatment practices. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is a heterogeneous photocatalytic material that rapidly and completely mineralizing organics without harmful byproducts. TiO2 is synthesized by various methods, which lack the necessary control of crystal size, phase, and morphological features that yield optimized semiconductor materials. Mineralizing organisms demonstrate how nature can produce elegant structures at room temperature through controlled organic-mineral interactions. Here, we utilize biologically-inspired scaffolds to template the nucleation and growth of inorganic materials such as TiO2, which aid in controlling the size and phase of these particles and ultimately, their properties. Nanosized rutile and anatase particles were synthesized under solution conditions at relatively low temperatures and mild pH conditions. The effects of reaction conditions on phase and grain size were investigated and discussed from coordination chemistry and coarsening mechanisms. Photocatalytic characterization of TiO2 phase mixtures was performed to investigate their synergistic effect. The suspension conditions of these catalytic nanomaterials were modulated to optimize the degradation rate of organic analytes. Through the addition of an organic scaffold during the synthesis reaction, a mechanically robust (elastic) composite material containing TiO2 nanoparticles was produced. This composite was subsequently heat-treated to produce a porous, high surface area TiO2 nanoparticulate membrane. Processing conditions were investigated to characterize the growth and phase transformation of TiO2, which ultimately impacts photocatalytic performance. These bulk porous TiO2 structures can be fabricated and tailored to act as stand-alone photocatalytic membranes

  20. Stress and Activity Management: Group Treatment for Cancer Patients and Spouses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Richard L.; Schag, Cyndie Coscarelli

    1985-01-01

    Studied 51 ambulatory patients with commonly occurring cancers and 25 of their spouses to evaluate a group stress and activity management treatment program. Found support for unique effects of the treatment intervention, but also support for improvement in psychosocial adjustment for patients and spouses with the passage of time. (Author/MCF)

  1. Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression in Older Adults Delivered via Videoconferencing: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzari, Claudia; Egan, Sarah J.; Rees, Clare S.

    2011-01-01

    Depression affects up to 25% of older adults. Underdetection and subsequent undertreatment of depression in older adults has been attributed in part to difficulties in older adults being able to access treatment. This uncontrolled pilot study, N = 3, explored the acceptability and efficacy of a brief behavioral activation treatment delivered via…

  2. 76 FR 24572 - Proposed Information Collection (Report of Treatment by Attending Physician) Activity: Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... of Treatment by Attending Physician, VA Form 29-551a. OMB Control Number: 2900-0120. Type of Review... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Report of Treatment by Attending Physician) Activity: Comment...., Washington, DC 20420 or e-mail nancy.kessinger@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0120'' in...

  3. Activated carbon: Utilization excluding industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the commercial use and theoretical studies of activated carbon. Topics include performance evaluations in water treatment processes, preparation and regeneration techniques, materials recovery, and pore structure studies. Adsorption characteristics for specific materials are discussed. Studies pertaining specifically to industrial waste treatment are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Bioavailable and biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen in activated sludge and trickling filter wastewater treatment plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was carried out to understand the fate of biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen (BDON) and bioavailable dissolved organic nitrogen (ABDON) along the treatment trains of a wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) equipped with an activated sludge (AS) system and a WWTF equipped with a two-stag...

  5. Contingency Management Treatments: Reinforcing Abstinence Versus Adherence with Goal-Related Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Hanson, Tressa; MacKinnon, Stephen; Rounsaville, Bruce; Sierra, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually reinforce submission of drug-negative specimens, but they can also reinforce adherence with goal-related activities. This study compared the efficacy of the 2 approaches. Substance-abusing outpatients (N = 131) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 12-week treatments: standard treatment (ST), ST with CM…

  6. 76 FR 56503 - Agency Information Collection (Report of Treatment in Hospital) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Report of Treatment in Hospital) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: Report of Treatment in Hospital, VA FL 29-551. OMB Control Number: 2900-0119. Type...

  7. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  8. ARM KAZR-ARSCL Value Added Product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jensen, Michael

    2012-09-28

    The Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars (KAZRs) have replaced the long-serving Millimeter Cloud Radars, or MMCRs. Accordingly, the primary MMCR Value Added Product (VAP), the Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product, is being replaced by a KAZR-based version, the KAZR-ARSCL VAP. KAZR-ARSCL provides cloud boundaries and best-estimate time-height fields of radar moments.

  9. [Protection of medical personnel in contemporary armed conflicts].

    PubMed

    Goniewicz, Krzysztof; Goniewicz, Mariusz; Pawłowski, Witold

    2016-01-01

    International humanitarian law provides special protection devices and medical personnel during armed conflicts. In today's wars it became more frequent lack of respect for the protective emblems of the red cross and red crescent and the lack of respect for medical activities. The paper presents selected issues of humanitarian law with a particular emphasis on the rules concerning the protection of medical services and victims of armed conflicts. All countries that have ratified the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols, are required to comply in time of war the principles contained in them and their dissemination in peacetime. Education societies in the field of international humanitarian law can help to eliminate attacks on medical facilities and personnel and significantly improve the fate of the victims of armed conflict and mitigate the cruelty of war. Knowledge of humanitarian law does not prevent further wars, but it can cause all parties to any armed conflict will abide by its rules during such activities. PMID:27487549

  10. Arm locking experiments on UFLIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yinan; Mueller, Guido

    2010-02-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will detect gravitational waves in the frequency region of 3x10-5;Hz to 1; Hz by means of laser interferometry. At the University of Florida we developed the University of Florida LISA Interferometer Simulator (UFLIS) in order to study and verify laser frequency noise reduction and suppression techniques under realistic LISA-like conditions. These conditions include the Doppler shifts between the spacecraft, LISA-like signal travel times, and realistic laser frequency and timing noise. One of the proposed laser frequency stabilization techniques in LISA is arm locking, which synthesizes an adequately filtered linear combination of the LISA interferometry signals as a frequency reference. The arm locking experiments on UFLIS have already demonstrated the capability of single arm locking integrated with tunable cavity pre-stabilization as well as in the presence of a Doppler knowledge error. In this presentation we will report about experiments on advanced arm locking schemes such as dual arm locking and modified dual arm locking. We will demonstrate the noise suppression performance of dual arm locking and the capability of modified dual arm locking sensor to alleviate the frequency pulling effect due to the Doppler error. Furthermore, the limits of different noise sources such as digitization noise and clock noise in our experiments will also be discussed. This work is supported by NASA grant 07-ATFP07-0116. )

  11. Arms control: Myth versus reality

    SciTech Connect

    Staar, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on arms control. Topics considered include the strategic implications of the nuclear balance, historical aspects, the Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions (MBFR) negotiations, the European viewpoint on structural problems in negotiations, political aspects, national defense, forecasting, breaches of arms control obligations and their implications, and cultural aspects of diplomacy.

  12. Ultrasonic Treatment Enhanced Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterial (AOB) Activity for Nitritation Process.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Min; Liu, Yan-Chen; Xin, Jia; Zuo, Hao; Wang, Cheng-Wen; Wu, Wei-Min

    2016-01-19

    Oxidation of ammonia to nitrite rather than nitrate is critical for nitritation process for wastewater treatment. We proposed a promising approach by using controlled ultrasonic treatment to enhance the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and suppress that of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Batch activity assays indicated that when ultrasound was applied, AOB activity reached a peak level and then declined but NOB activity deteriorated continuously as the power intensity of ultrasound increased. Kinetic analysis of relative microbial activity versus ultrasonic energy density was performed to investigate the effect of operational factors (power, sludge concentration, and aeration) on AOB and NOB activities and the test parameters were selected for reactor tests. Laboratory sequential batch reactor (SBR) was further used to test the ultrasonic stimulus with 8 h per day operational cycle and synthetic waste urine as influent. With specific ultrasonic energy density of 0.09 kJ/mg VSS and continuously fed influent containing above 200 mg NH3-N/L, high AOB reproductive activity was achieved and nearly complete conversion of ammonia-N to nitrite was maintained. Microbial structure analysis confirmed that the treatment changed community of AOB, NOB, and heterotrophs. Known AOB Nitrosomonas genus remained at similar level in the biomass while typical NOB Nitrospira genus disappeared in the SBR under ultrasonic treatment and after the treatment was off for 30 days. PMID:26678011

  13. Treatment of activated carbon to enhance catalytic activity for reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, B.J.; Rhee, H.K. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Lee, J.K.; Park, D. )

    1994-11-01

    Catalytic activity of activated carbon treated with various techniques was examined in a fixed bed reactor for the reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia at 150 C. Activated carbon derived from coconut shell impregnated with an aqueous solution of ammonium sulfate, further treated with sulfuric acid, dried at 120 C, and then heated in an inert gas stream at 400 C, showed the highest catalytic activity within the range of experimental conditions. The enhancement of catalytic activity of modified activated carbon could be attributed to the increase in the amount of oxygen function groups which increased the adsorption site for ammonia. Catalytic activity of activated carbons depended on the surface area and the oxygen content as well.

  14. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    PubMed

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-01

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. PMID:25891406

  15. Global arms proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, D.

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that the United States delivered some US $11 billion of military hardware to Iran between 1969 and 1979, in the hopes of helping stabilize a volatile situation in the Middle East. That did not work. When Iran used the weapons against Iraq, the USSR, France, and a number of developing countries helped arm Iraq. It was this vast arsenal that Iraq deployed in its Kuwait-Persian Gulf War venture. Granted, those weapons were augmented by some U.S.-made equipment like TOW antitank missiles and Hawk antiaircraft missiles that were captured in the Iraqi attack on Kuwait. A report issued by the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) in June cited that chain of events to demonstrate that the U.S. and other major exporters are gradually losing control of the weapons transferred (to other countries) as well as the technology and industry necessary to produce and support them.

  16. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing.

    To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Individual Differences in Anterior Cingulate Activation Associated with Attentional Bias Predict Cocaine Use After Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Marhe, Reshmi; Luijten, Maartje; van de Wetering, Ben J M; Smits, Marion; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2013-01-01

    Drug-dependent patients often relapse into drug use after treatment. Behavioral studies show that enhanced attentional bias to drug cues is a precursor of relapse. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined whether brain regions involved in attentional bias are predictive of cocaine use after treatment. Attentional bias-related brain activity was measured—with a cocaine Stroop task—in cocaine-dependent patients during their first week in detoxification treatment and was used to predict cocaine use at 3-month follow-up. The predictive value of attentional bias-related brain activity in a priori defined regions of interest, in addition to other measures such as self-reports of substance severity, craving, and behavioral attentional bias were examined. The results show that craving in the week before treatment and individual variability in attentional bias-related activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) were significant predictors of days of cocaine use at 3-month follow-up and accounted for 45% in explained variance. Brain activity in the dACC uniquely contributed 22% of explained variance to the prediction model. These findings suggest that hyperactive attentional bias-related brain activity in the dACC might be a biomarker of relapse vulnerability as early as in the first week of detoxification treatment. Ultimately, this may help to develop individually tailored treatment interventions to reduce relapse risk. PMID:23303067

  18. Orthotic arm joint. [for use in mechanical arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dane, D. H. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An improved orthopedic (orthotic) arm joint that can be used in various joint of mechanical arms is described. The arm joints includes a worm, which is coupled to an electric motor for rotating a worm gear carried within a rotatable housing. The worm gear is supported on a thrust bearing and the rotatable housing is supported on a radial thrust bearing. A bolt extends through the housing, bearings, and worm gear for securing the device together. A potentiometer extends through the bolt, and is coupled to the rotatable housing for rotating therewith, so as to produce an electrical signal indicating the angular position of the rotatable housing.

  19. Use of component analyses to identify active variables in treatment packages for children with feeding disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, L J; Wacker, D P; McComas, J J; Brown, K; Peck, S M; Richman, D; Drew, J; Frischmeyer, P; Millard, T

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the separate components in treatment packages for food refusal of 4 young children. First, treatment packages were implemented until food acceptance improved. Next, a component analysis was conducted within a multielement or reversal design to identify the active components that facilitated food acceptance. The results indicated that escape extinction was always identified as an active variable when assessed; however, other variables, including positive reinforcement and noncontingent play, were also identified as active variables for 2 of the children. The results suggest that the component analysis was useful for identifying variables that affected food acceptance. PMID:7601802

  20. Motor Asymmetry Attenuation in Older Adults during Imagined Arm Movements.

    PubMed

    Paizis, Christos; Skoura, Xanthi; Personnier, Pascaline; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Laterality is an important feature of motor behavior. Several studies have shown that lateralization in right-handed young adults (i.e., right versus left arm superiority) emerges also during imagined actions, that is when an action is internally simulated without any motor output. Such information, however, is lacking for elderly people and it could be valuable to further comprehend the evolution of mental states of action in normal aging. Here, we evaluated the influence of age on motor laterality during mental actions. Twenty-four young (mean age: 24.7 ± 4.4 years) and 24 elderly (mean age: 72.4 ± 3.6 years) participants mentally simulated and actually executed pointing movements with either their dominant-right or non-dominant-left arm in the horizontal plane. We recorded and analyzed the time of actual and mental movements and looked for differences between groups and arms. In addition, electromyographic activity from arm muscle was recorded to quantify any enhancement in muscle activation during mental actions. Our findings indicated that both groups mentally simulated arm movements without activating the muscles of the right or the left arm above the baseline level. This finding suggests that young and, notably, elderly adults are able to generate covert actions without any motor output. We found that manual asymmetries (i.e., faster movements with the right arm) were preserved in young adults for both actual and mental movements. In elderly adults, manual asymmetries were observed for actual but not for mental movements (i.e., equal movement times for both arms). These findings clearly indicate an age-related reduction of motor laterality during mental actions. PMID:24688468

  1. A review of assistive devices for arm balancing.

    PubMed

    Dunning, A G; Herder, J L

    2013-06-01

    Due to neuromuscular disorders (e.g., Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy) people often loose muscle strength and become wheelchair bound. It is important to use muscles as much as possible. To allow this, and to increase independency of patients, an arm orthosis can be used to perform activities of daily life. The orthosis compensates for the gravity force of the arm, allowing people to perform movements with smaller muscle forces. For patients, the aesthetics of the orthosis is one of the critical issues. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in passive and wearable active arm orthoses, and investigates how to proceed towards a suitable structure for a wearable passive arm orthosis, that is able to balance the arm within its natural range of motion and is inconspicuous; in the ideal case it fits underneath the clothes. Existing devices were investigated with respect to the body interface, the volume, and the workspace. According to these evaluation metrics it is investigated to what extent the devices are wearable and inconspicuous. Furthermore, the balancing principle of the devices, the architecture, force transmission through the devices, and alignment with the body joints are investigated. It appears that there is only one wearable passive orthosis presented in literature. This orthosis can perform throughout the natural workspace of the arm, but is still too bulky to be inconspicuous. The other passive orthoses were conspicuous and mounted to the wheelchair. Except one, the wearable active orthoses were all conspicuous and heavy due to a large backpack to enclose the actuators. They also could not achieve the entire natural workspace of the human arm. A future design of an inconspicuous, wearable, passive arm orthoses should stay close to the body, be comfortable to wear, and supports pronation and supination. PMID:24187302

  2. Motor Asymmetry Attenuation in Older Adults during Imagined Arm Movements

    PubMed Central

    Paizis, Christos; Skoura, Xanthi; Personnier, Pascaline; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Laterality is an important feature of motor behavior. Several studies have shown that lateralization in right-handed young adults (i.e., right versus left arm superiority) emerges also during imagined actions, that is when an action is internally simulated without any motor output. Such information, however, is lacking for elderly people and it could be valuable to further comprehend the evolution of mental states of action in normal aging. Here, we evaluated the influence of age on motor laterality during mental actions. Twenty-four young (mean age: 24.7 ± 4.4 years) and 24 elderly (mean age: 72.4 ± 3.6 years) participants mentally simulated and actually executed pointing movements with either their dominant-right or non-dominant-left arm in the horizontal plane. We recorded and analyzed the time of actual and mental movements and looked for differences between groups and arms. In addition, electromyographic activity from arm muscle was recorded to quantify any enhancement in muscle activation during mental actions. Our findings indicated that both groups mentally simulated arm movements without activating the muscles of the right or the left arm above the baseline level. This finding suggests that young and, notably, elderly adults are able to generate covert actions without any motor output. We found that manual asymmetries (i.e., faster movements with the right arm) were preserved in young adults for both actual and mental movements. In elderly adults, manual asymmetries were observed for actual but not for mental movements (i.e., equal movement times for both arms). These findings clearly indicate an age-related reduction of motor laterality during mental actions. PMID:24688468

  3. Changes in whole grain polyphenols and antioxidant activity of six sorghum genotypes under different irrigation treatments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gangcheng; Johnson, Stuart K; Bornman, Janet F; Bennett, Sarita J; Fang, Zhongxiang

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum grain containing elevated polyphenolic antioxidant content may provide foods with benefits to human health. A study was undertaken to determine the potential role of irrigation on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant levels in sorghum grain. Bound, free and total polyphenols were investigated in six diverse sorghum genotypes grown under either full irrigation or a deficit irrigation regime. Results showed genotype, irrigation and their interaction had a significant effect on polyphenols and antioxidant activity (P⩽0.05). The deficit irrigation treatment significantly increased polyphenol content and antioxidant activity compared to the full irrigation treatment. Of the six genotypes Shawaya black short 1 and IS1311C (brown) showed the highest polyphenols levels and antioxidant activity. Therefore, both irrigation treatments and genotype need to be considered by sorghum breeders and farmers during sorghum production to produce grain with the required levels of polyphenolics and antioxidant activity for targeted end-use. PMID:27507466

  4. Combined System of Activated Sludge and Ozonation for the Treatment of Kraft E1 Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Assalin, Marcia Regina; dos Santos Almeida, Edna; Durán, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of paper mill effluent for COD, TOC, total phenols and color removal was investigated using combined activated sludge-ozonation processes and single processes. The combined activated sludge-O3/pH 10 treatment was able to remove around 80% of COD, TOC and color from Kraft E1 effluent. For the total phenols, the efficiency removal was around 70%. The ozonation post treatment carried out at pH 8.3 also showed better results than the single process. The COD, TOC, color and total phenols removal efficiency obtained were 75.5, 59.1, 77 and 52.3%, respectively. The difference in the concentrations of free radical produced by activated sludge-O3/pH 10 and activated sludge-O3/pH 8.3 affected mainly the TOC and total phenol removal values. PMID:19440438

  5. Effect of Bupropion Treatment on Brain Activation Induced by Cigarette-Related Cues in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Culbertson, Christopher S.; Bramen, Jennifer; Cohen, Mark S.; London, Edythe D.; Olmstead, Richard E.; Gan, Joanna J.; Costello, Matthew R.; Shulenberger, Stephanie; Mandelkern, Mark A.; Brody, Arthur L.

    2011-01-01

    Context Nicotine-dependent smokers exhibit craving and brain activation in the prefrontal and limbic regions when presented with cigarette-related cues. Bupropion hydrochloride treatment reduces cue-induced craving in cigarette smokers; however, the mechanism by which bupropion exerts this effect has not yet been described. Objective To assess changes in regional brain activation in response to cigarette-related cues from before to after treatment with bupropion (vs placebo). Design Randomized, double-blind, before-after controlled trial. Setting Academic brain imaging center. Participants Thirty nicotine-dependent smokers (paid volunteers). Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of treatment with either bupropion or a matching placebo pill (double-blind). Main Outcome Measures Subjective cigarette craving ratings and regional brain activations (blood oxygen level-dependent response) in response to viewing cue videos. Results Bupropion-treated participants reported less craving and exhibited reduced activation in the left ventral striatum, right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex from before to after treatment when actively resisting craving compared with placebo-treated participants. When resisting craving, reduction in self-reported craving correlated with reduced regional brain activation in the bilateral medial orbitofrontal and left anterior cingulate cortices in all participants. Conclusions Treatment with bupropion is associated with improved ability to resist cue-induced craving and a reduction in cue-induced activation of limbic and prefrontal brain regions, while a reduction in craving, regardless of treatment type, is associated with reduced activation in prefrontal brain regions. PMID:21199957

  6. Tailoring the Spacer Arm for Covalent Immobilization of Candida antarctica Lipase B-Thermal Stabilization by Bisepoxide-Activated Aminoalkyl Resins in Continuous-Flow Reactors.

    PubMed

    Abaházi, Emese; Lestál, Dávid; Boros, Zoltán; Poppe, László

    2016-01-01

    An efficient and easy-to-perform method was developed for immobilization of CaLB on mesoporous aminoalkyl polymer supports by bisepoxide activation. Polyacrylate resins (100-300 µm; ~50 nm pores) with different aminoalkyl functional groups (ethylamine: EA and hexylamine: HA) were modified with bisepoxides differing in the length, rigidity and hydrophobicity of the units linking the two epoxy functions. After immobilization, the different CaLB preparations were evaluated using the lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolution (KR) of racemic 1-phenylethanol (rac-1) in batch mode and in a continuous-flow reactor as well. Catalytic activity, enantiomer selectivity, recyclability, and the mechanical and long-term stability of CaLB immobilized on the various supports were tested. The most active CaLB preparation (on HA-resin activated with 1,6-hexanediol diglycidyl ether-HDGE) retained 90% of its initial activity after 13 consecutive reaction cycles or after 12 month of storage at 4 °C. The specific rate (rflow), enantiomer selectivity (E) and enantiomeric excess (ee) achievable with the best immobilized CaLB preparations were studied as a function of temperature in kinetic resolution of rac-1 performed in continuous-flow packed-bed bioreactors. The optimum temperature of the most active HA-HDGE CaLB in continuous-flow mode was 60 °C. Although CaLB immobilized on the glycerol diglycidyl ether (GDGE)-activated EA-resin was less active and less selective, a much higher optimum temperature (80 °C) was observed with this form in continuous-flow mode KR of rac-1. PMID:27304947

  7. Active ingredients of ginger as potential candidates in the prevention and treatment of diseases via modulation of biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H; shabrmi, Fahad M Al; Aly, Salah M

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment based on synthetic drugs is expensive and also causes genetic and metabolic alterations. However, safe and sound mode of treatment is needed to control the diseases development and progression. In this regards, medicinal plant and its constituents play an important role in diseases management via modulation of biological activities. Ginger, the rhizome of the Zingiber officinale, has shown therapeutic role in the health management since ancient time and considered as potential chemopreventive agent. Numerous studies based on clinical trials and animal model has shown that ginger and its constituents shows significant role in the prevention of diseases via modulation of genetic and metabolic activities. In this review, we focused on the therapeutics effects of ginger and its constituents in the diseases management, and its impact on genetic and metabolic activities. PMID:25057339

  8. Incidence of Campylobacter infections among service members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces and among other beneficiaries of the Military Health System, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    This report reviews the incidence of illness due to Campylobacter bacteria based on diagnoses recorded in healthcare records and reported through the Armed Forces reportable medical event (RME) system. During 2000-2013, incident cases of Campylobacter infection were diagnosed in 1,393 active component service members, 188 members of the reserve component, and 3,891 retirees and family members. Among members of the active component, incidence rates tended to be higher among females, those aged 40 years or older, members of the Army and Air Force, and offi cers. Incidence rates declined from 2002 through 2007 but have risen steadily since, especially from 2010 through 2013. Among retirees and family members, the highest numbers of cases were diagnosed among those aged 5 years or younger and those aged 75 years or older. Cases identifi ed through RME reports (n=2,938) showed the highest numbers of cases in May-August, especially July, and that cases reported from Fort Shafter, HI, accounted for 20% of all cases. Measures and precautions important in preventing Campylobacter infections as well as other food- and waterborne infections are discussed. PMID:25555210

  9. THE EFFECT OF POWERED ACTIVATED CARBON IN A PETROLEUM REFINERY ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this research program was to determine the effect of the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to refinery activated sludge systems. Bench-scale and full-scale tests were performed. A wide range of PAC concentrations and sludge ages were evaluated. Bench-scal...

  10. Modelling of full-scale wastewater treatment plants with different treatment processes using the Activated Sludge Model no. 3.

    PubMed

    Wichern, M; Obenaus, F; Wulf, P; Rosenwinkel, K H

    2001-01-01

    In 1999 the Activated Sludge Model no. 3 (ASM 3) by the IWA task Group on Mathematical Modeling for Design and Operation of Biological Wastewater Treatment was presented. The model is used for simulation of nitrogen removal. On the basis of a new calibration of the ASM 3 with the easy degradable COD measured by respiration simulation runs of this paper have been done. In 2000 a biological phosphorus removal module by the EAWAG was added to the calibrated version of ASM 3 and is now serving the current requirements for modelling the enhanced biological P-removal. Only little experiences with different load situations of large-scale wastewater treatment plants were made with both new models so far. This article reports the experiences with the simulation and calibration of the biological parameters using ASM 3 and the EAWAG BioP Module. Three different large-scale wastewater treatment plants in Germany with different treatment systems will be discussed (Koblenz: pre-denitrification; Hildesheim: simultaneous denitrification with EBPR; Duderstadt: intermediate denitrification with EBPR). Informations regarding the choice of kinetic and stoichiometric parameters will be given. PMID:11496677

  11. Darwin : The Third DOE ARM TWP ARCS Site /

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, William E.; Jones, L. A.; Baldwin, T.; Nitschke, K.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program began operations in its Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale in October 1996 when the first Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS) began collecting data on Manus Island in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Two years later, in November 1998, a second ARCS began operations on the island of Nauru in the Central Pacific. Now a third ARCS has begun collecting data in Darwin, Australia. The Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites are operated through collaborative agreements with the PNG National Weather Service, The Nauru Department of Industry and Economic Development (IED), and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's (BOM) Special Services Unit (SSU) respectively. All ARM TWP activities in the region are coordinated with the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) based in Apia, Samoa. The Darwin ARM site and its role in the ARM TWP Program are discussed.

  12. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  13. Gut microbiome composition and function in experimental colitis during active disease and treatment-induced remission

    PubMed Central

    Rooks, Michelle G; Veiga, Patrick; Wardwell-Scott, Leslie H; Tickle, Timothy; Segata, Nicola; Michaud, Monia; Gallini, Carey Ann; Beal, Chloé; van Hylckama-Vlieg, Johan ET; Ballal, Sonia A; Morgan, Xochitl C; Glickman, Jonathan N; Gevers, Dirk; Huttenhower, Curtis; Garrett, Wendy S

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated immune responses to gut microbes are central to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and gut microbial activity can fuel chronic inflammation. Examining how IBD-directed therapies influence gut microbiomes may identify microbial community features integral to mitigating disease and maintaining health. However, IBD patients often receive multiple treatments during disease flares, confounding such analyses. Preclinical models of IBD with well-defined disease courses and opportunities for controlled treatment exposures provide a valuable solution. Here, we surveyed the gut microbiome of the T-bet−/− Rag2−/− mouse model of colitis during active disease and treatment-induced remission. Microbial features modified among these conditions included altered potential for carbohydrate and energy metabolism and bacterial pathogenesis, specifically cell motility and signal transduction pathways. We also observed an increased capacity for xenobiotics metabolism, including benzoate degradation, a pathway linking host adrenergic stress with enhanced bacterial virulence, and found decreased levels of fecal dopamine in active colitis. When transferred to gnotobiotic mice, gut microbiomes from mice with active disease versus treatment-induced remission elicited varying degrees of colitis. Thus, our study provides insight into specific microbial clades and pathways associated with health, active disease and treatment interventions in a mouse model of colitis. PMID:24500617

  14. Cardiac Patients’ Walking Activity Determined by a Step Counter in Cardiac Telerehabilitation: Data From the Intervention Arm of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, John; Grønkjær, Mette; Andreasen, Jan Jesper; Nielsen, Gitte; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Dinesen, Birthe Irene

    2016-01-01

    Background Walking represents a large part of daily physical activity. It reduces both overall and cardiovascular diseases and mortality and is suitable for cardiac patients. A step counter measures walking activity and might be a motivational tool to increase and maintain physical activity. There is a lack of knowledge about both cardiac patients’ adherence to step counter use in a cardiac telerehabilitation program and how many steps cardiac patients walk up to 1 year after a cardiac event. Objective The purpose of this substudy was to explore cardiac patients’ walking activity. The walking activity was analyzed in relation to duration of pedometer use to determine correlations between walking activity, demographics, and medical and rehabilitation data. Methods A total of 64 patients from a randomized controlled telerehabilitation trial (Teledi@log) from Aalborg University Hospital and Hjoerring Hospital, Denmark, from December 2012 to March 2014 were included in this study. Inclusion criteria were patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, and coronary artery bypass grafting or valve surgery. In Teledi@log, the patients received telerehabilitation technology and selected one of three telerehabilitation settings: a call center, a community health care center, or a hospital. Monitoring of steps continued for 12 months and a step counter (Fitbit Zip) was used to monitor daily steps. Results Cardiac patients walked a mean 5899 (SD 3274) steps per day, increasing from mean 5191 (SD 3198) steps per day in the first week to mean 7890 (SD 2629) steps per day after 1 year. Adherence to step counter use lasted for a mean 160 (SD 100) days. The patients who walked significantly more were younger (P=.01) and continued to use the pedometer for a longer period (P=.04). Furthermore, less physically active patients weighed more. There were no significant differences in mean steps per day for patients in the three rehabilitation settings or in the

  15. Using voluntary motor commands to inhibit involuntary arm movements.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arko; Rothwell, John; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    A hallmark of voluntary motor control is the ability to stop an ongoing movement. Is voluntary motor inhibition a general neural mechanism that can be focused on any movement, including involuntary movements, or is it mere termination of a positive voluntary motor command? The involuntary arm lift, or 'floating arm trick', is a distinctive long-lasting reflex of the deltoid muscle. We investigated how a voluntary motor network inhibits this form of involuntary motor control. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex during the floating arm trick produced a silent period in the reflexively contracting deltoid muscle, followed by a rebound of muscle activity. This pattern suggests a persistent generator of involuntary motor commands. Instructions to bring the arm down voluntarily reduced activity of deltoid muscle. When this voluntary effort was withdrawn, the involuntary arm lift resumed. Further, voluntary motor inhibition produced a strange illusion of physical resistance to bringing the arm down, as if ongoing involuntarily generated commands were located in a 'sensory blind-spot', inaccessible to conscious perception. Our results suggest that voluntary motor inhibition may be a specific neural function, distinct from absence of positive voluntary motor commands. PMID:25253453

  16. Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms.

    PubMed

    Beom, Jaewon; Koh, Sukgyu; Nam, Hyung Seok; Kim, Wonshik; Kim, Yoonjae; Seo, Han Gil; Oh, Byung-Mo; Chung, Sun Gun; Kim, Sungwan

    2016-01-01

    Mirror therapy has been performed as effective occupational therapy in a clinical setting for functional recovery of a hemiplegic arm after stroke. It is conducted by eliciting an illusion through use of a mirror as if the hemiplegic arm is moving in real-time while moving the healthy arm. It can facilitate brain neuroplasticity through activation of the sensorimotor cortex. However, conventional mirror therapy has a critical limitation in that the hemiplegic arm is not actually moving. Thus, we developed a real-time 2-axis mirror robot system as a simple add-on module for conventional mirror therapy using a closed feedback mechanism, which enables real-time movement of the hemiplegic arm. We used 3 Attitude and Heading Reference System sensors, 2 brushless DC motors for elbow and wrist joints, and exoskeletal frames. In a feasibility study on 6 healthy subjects, robotic mirror therapy was safe and feasible. We further selected tasks useful for activities of daily living training through feedback from rehabilitation doctors. A chronic stroke patient showed improvement in the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale and elbow flexor spasticity after a 2-week application of the mirror robot system. Robotic mirror therapy may enhance proprioceptive input to the sensory cortex, which is considered to be important in neuroplasticity and functional recovery of hemiplegic arms. The mirror robot system presented herein can be easily developed and utilized effectively to advance occupational therapy. PMID:27583794

  17. Estrogenic and AhR activities in dissolved phase and suspended solids from wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Dagnino, Sonia; Gomez, Elena; Picot, Bernadette; Cavaillès, Vincent; Casellas, Claude; Balaguer, Patrick; Fenet, Hélène

    2010-05-15

    The distribution of estrogen receptor (ERalpha) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) activities between the dissolved phase and suspended solids were investigated during wastewater treatment. Three wastewater treatment plants with different treatment technologies (waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), trickling filters (TFs) and activated sludge supplemented with a biofilter system (ASB)) were sampled. Estrogenic and AhR activities were detected in both phases in influents and effluents. Estrogenic and AhR activities in wastewater influents ranged from 41.8 to 79 ng/L E(2) Eq. and from 37.9 to 115.5 ng/L TCDD Eq. in the dissolved phase and from 5.5 to 88.6 ng/g E(2) Eq. and from 15 to 700 ng/g TCDD Eq. in the suspended solids. For both activities, WSP showed greater or similar removal efficiency than ASB and both were much more efficient than TF which had the lowest removal efficiency. Moreover, our data indicate that the efficiency of removal of ER and AhR activities from the suspended solid phase was mainly due to removal of suspended solids. Indeed, ER and AhR activities were detected in the effluent suspended solid phase indicating that suspended solids, which are usually not considered in these types of studies, contribute to environmental contamination by endocrine disrupting compounds and should therefore be routinely assessed for a better estimation of the ER and AhR activities released in the environment. PMID:20303573

  18. [Microbial composition of the activated sludges of the Moscow wastewater treatment plants].

    PubMed

    Kallistova, A Iu; Pimenov, N V; Kozlov, M N; Nikolaev, Iu A; Dorofeev, A G; Aseeva, V G; Grachev, V A; Men'ko, E V; Berestovskaia, Iu Iu; Nozhevnikova, A N; Kevbrina, M V

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of the major technologically important microbial groups (ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing, phosphate-accumulating, foam-inducing, and anammox bacteria, as well as planctomycetes and methanogenic archaea) was characterized for the aeration tanks of the Moscow wastewater treatment facilities. FISH investigation revealed that aerobic sludges were eubacterial communities; the metabolically active archaea contributed insignificantly. Stage II nitrifying microorganisms and planctomycetes were significant constituents of the bacterial component of activated sludge, with Nitrobacter spp. being the dominant nitrifier. No metabolically active anammox bacteria were revealed in the sludge from aeration tanks. The sludge from the aeration tanks using different wastewater treatment technologies were found to differ in characteristics. Abundance of the nitrifying and phosphate-accumulating bacteria in the sludges generally correlated with microbial activity, in microcosms and with efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from wastewater. The highest microbial numbers and activity were found in the sludges of the tanks operating according to the technologies developed in the universities of Hanover and Cape Town. The activated sludge from the Novokur yanovo facilities, where abundant growth of filamentous bacteria resulted in foam formation, exhibited the lowest activity The group of foaming bacteria included Gordonia spp. and Acinetobacter spp., utilizing petroleum and motor oils, Sphaerotilus spp. utilizing unsaturated fatty acids, and Candidatus 'Microthrix parvicella'. Thus, the data on abundance and composition of metabolically active microorganisms obtained by FISH may be used for the technological control of wastewater treatment. PMID:25844473

  19. Model development with defined biological mechanisms for xenobiotic treatment activated sludge at steady state.

    PubMed

    Chong, Nyuk-Min

    2015-06-01

    Activated sludge treatment of a xenobiotic organic compound, much different from treatment of biogenic organics, must be modeled with interactions involving a two-part biomass of degrader and nondegrader, which selectively or competitively grow on a two-part substrate of input xenobiotic and its biogenic metabolites. A xenobiotic treatment model was developed which incorporates kinetics of the growth of degrader and nondegrader, the line dividing metabolites into xenobiotic and biogenic, yields of degrader and nondegrader from utilization of their parts of substrates, and kinetics of degrader reversion to nondegrader due to instability of the degradative element degraders carry. Experimental activated sludge operated for treatment of a xenobiotic generated data for calibration of the model. With the input of influent xenobiotic concentration, mean cell and hydraulic residence times, and calibrated parameters, the model readily outputs concentrations of degrader, nondegrader, and effluent biogenic residue that closely match the results obtained from experiments. PMID:25561268

  20. Decision-Making in Prostate Cancer: Active Surveillance Over Other Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, David; Duff, Jed; Stricker, Phil; Walker, Kim

    2016-01-01

    A qualitative-descriptive study of four patients with prostate cancer used the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing framework to understand how and why men diagnosed with prostate cancer choose active surveillance over other treatment options. In accordance with the literature, it was found that the surgeon or general practitioner's recommendation was the most influential factor when patients are making a treatment decision. PMID:27501595

  1. Effect of Treatment With Tabalumab, a B Cell-Activating Factor Inhibitor, on Highly Sensitized Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease Awaiting Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mujtaba, M A; Komocsar, W J; Nantz, E; Samaniego, M D; Henson, S L; Hague, J A; Lobashevsky, A L; Higgins, N G; Czader, M; Book, B K; Anderson, M D; Pescovitz, M D; Taber, T E

    2016-04-01

    B cell-activation factor (BAFF) is critical for B cell maturation. Inhibition of BAFF represents an appealing target for desensitization of sensitized end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We conducted a Phase 2a, single-arm, open-label exploratory study investigating the effect of tabalumab (BAFF inhibitor) in patients with ESRD and calculated panel reactive antibodies (cPRAs) >50%. The treatment period duration was 24 weeks. Eighteen patients received tabalumab, at doses of 240-mg subcutaneous (SC) at Week 0 followed by 120-mg SC monthly for 5 additional months. Patients were followed for an additional 52 weeks. Immunopharmacologic effects were characterized through analysis of blood for HLA antibodies, BAFF concentrations, immunoglobulins, T and B cell subsets, as well as pre- and posttreatment tonsil and bone marrow biopsies. Significant reductions in cPRAs were observed at Weeks 16 (p = 0.043) and 36 (p = 0.004); however, absolute reductions were small (<5%). Expected pharmacologic changes in B cell subsets and immunoglobulin reductions were observed. Two tabalumab-related serious adverse events occurred (pneumonia, worsening of peripheral neuropathy), while the most common other adverse events were injection-site pain and hypotension. Three patients received matched deceased donor transplants during follow-up. Treatment with a BAFF inhibitor resulted in statistically significant, but not clinically meaningful reduction in the cPRA from baseline (NCT01200290, Clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:26780484

  2. Frontal Alpha EEG Asymmetry Before and After Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Jackie K.; Hoxha, Denada; Chihade, Dietta; Pflieger, Mark E.; Rosebrock, Laina; Cacioppo, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Mid-frontal and mid-lateral (F3/F4 and F7/F8) EEG asymmetry has been associated with motivation and affect. We examined alpha EEG asymmetry in depressed and healthy participants before and after Behavioral Activation treatment for depression; examined the association between alpha EEG asymmetry and motivational systems and affect; and evaluated the utility of alpha EEG asymmetry in predicting remission. Methods Depressed (n = 37) and healthy participants (n = 35) were assessed before and after treatment using a clinical interview, a task to measure baseline EEG, and questionnaires of behavioral activation and inhibition, avoidance, and affect. Results Alpha EEG asymmetry was significantly higher in depressed than healthy participants at pre-treatment, positively correlated with negative affect and behavioral inhibition, and inversely correlated with lower behavioral activation sensitivity. Conclusions Heightened alpha EEG asymmetry in depressed participants was significantly associated with increased behavioral inhibition and negative emotion and was independent of clinical remission. PMID:24674708

  3. Turning off the tap: stopping tuberculosis transmission through active case-finding and prompt effective treatment.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Courtney M; Amanullah, Farhana; Dharmadhikari, Ashwin; Nardell, Edward A; Seddon, James A; Vasilyeva, Irina; Zhao, Yanlin; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Becerra, Mercedes C

    2015-12-01

    To halt the global tuberculosis epidemic, transmission must be stopped to prevent new infections and new cases. Identification of individuals with tuberculosis and prompt initiation of effective treatment to rapidly render them non-infectious is crucial to this task. However, in settings of high tuberculosis burden, active case-finding is often not implemented, resulting in long delays in diagnosis and treatment. A range of strategies to find cases and ensure prompt and correct treatment have been shown to be effective in high tuberculosis-burden settings. The population-level effect of targeted active case-finding on reducing tuberculosis incidence has been shown by studies and projected by mathematical modelling. The inclusion of targeted active case-finding in a comprehensive epidemic-control strategy for tuberculosis should contribute substantially to a decrease in tuberculosis incidence. PMID:26515675

  4. Arms control: misplaced focus

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, W.A.; Derber, C.

    1986-03-01

    Most of the nuclear debate consists of arguments about which weapons systems should be built, controlled, canceled, frozen, or retired. Short of virtually complete, multilateral nuclear disarmament, however, no change in the pace, balance, or even the direction of the arms race can make much difference in the risk of nuclear war, the damage should one occur, or the division of international political power. This includes Star Wars, the nuclear freeze, and even large cuts in or stabilization of offensive nuclear arsenals. A better starting point for nuclear politics would be the insight that nuclear weapons have completely changed the logic of power as it has been handed down through the ages. Military force, perfected to its highest level, has invalidated itself - for in a nuclearized world, any resort to force by a nuclear power risks escalation to its ultimate level, and thus to oblivion for all. Trying to rationalize and control the ultimate force is far less realistic and important than limiting the provocation of conflict and the use of force at lower, non-nuclear levels - by the United States, it clients, and, to the extent possible, its adversaries. 13 references.

  5. Hand/Wrist/Arm Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone. URGENT See your doctor right away. Apply ice packs to the affected area. Use a sling to ... ibuprofen to relieve pain and reduce swelling, apply ice packs to the area and rest your arm. See ...

  6. ARM Standards Policy Committee Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cialella, A; Jensen, M; Koontz, A; McFarlane, S; McCoy, R; Monroe, J; Palanisamy, G; Perez, R; Sivaraman, C

    2012-09-19

    Data and metadata standards promote the consistent recording of information and are necessary to ensure the stability and high quality of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility data products for scientific users. Standards also enable automated routines to be developed to examine data, which leads to more efficient operations and assessment of data quality. Although ARM Infrastructure agrees on the utility of data and metadata standards, there is significant confusion over the existing standards and the process for allowing the release of new data products with exceptions to the standards. The ARM Standards Policy Committee was initiated in March 2012 to develop a set of policies and best practices for ARM data and metadata standards.

  7. The arms race between fishers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Quirijns, Floor J.; HilleRisLambers, Reinier; De Wilde, Jan W.; Den Heijer, Willem M.

    An analysis of the changes in the Dutch demersal fishing fleet since the 1950s revealed that competitive interactions among vessels and gear types within the constraints imposed by biological, economic and fisheries management factors are the dominant processes governing the dynamics of fishing fleets. Double beam trawling, introduced in the early 1960s, proved a successful fishing method to catch deep burying flatfish, in particular sole. In less than 10 years, the otter trawl fleet was replaced by a highly specialised beam trawling fleet, despite an initial doubling of the loss rate of vessels due to stability problems. Engine power, size of the beam trawl, number of tickler chains and fishing speed rapidly increased and fishing activities expanded into previously lightly fished grounds and seasons. Following the ban on flatfish trawling within the 12 nautical mile zone for vessels of more than 300 hp in 1975 and with the restriction of engine power to 2000 hp in 1987, the beam trawl fleet bifurcated. Changes in the fleet capacity were related to the economic results and showed a cyclic pattern with a period of 6-7 years. The arms race between fishers was fuelled by competitive interactions among fishers: while the catchability of the fleet more than doubled in the ten years following the introduction of the beam trawl, a decline in catchability was observed in reference beam trawlers that remained the same. Vessel performance was not only affected by the technological characteristics but also by the number and characteristics of competing vessels.

  8. Optimal control simulations reveal mechanisms by which arm movement improves standing long jump performance.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Blake M; Delp, Scott L

    2006-01-01

    Optimal control simulations of the standing long jump were developed to gain insight into the mechanisms of enhanced performance due to arm motion. The activations that maximize standing long jump distance of a joint torque actuated model were determined for jumps with free and restricted arm movement. The simulated jump distance was 40 cm greater when arm movement was free (2.00 m) than when it was restricted (1.60 m). The majority of the performance improvement in the free arm jump was due to the 15% increase (3.30 vs. 2.86 m/s) in the take-off velocity of the center of gravity. Some of the performance improvement in the free arm jump was attributable to the ability of the jumper to swing the arms backwards during the flight phase to alleviate excessive forward rotation and position the body segments properly for landing. In restricted arm jumps, the excessive forward rotation was avoided by "holding back" during the propulsive phase and reducing the activation levels of the ankle, knee, and hip joint torque actuators. In addition, swinging the arm segments allowed the lower body joint torque actuators to perform 26 J more work in the free arm jump. However, the most significant contribution to developing greater take-off velocity came from the additional 80 J work done by the shoulder actuator in the jump with free arm movement. PMID:15992805

  9. The efficacy of Behavioral Activation Treatment among Depressed Spanish-speaking Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Anahí; Calderón, Marilyn; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Objective Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent among U.S. Spanish-speaking Latinos, but the lack of empirically-supported treatments precludes this population’s access to quality mental health care. Method Following the promising results of an open-label trial of the Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD) among Spanish-speaking Latinos, we conducted a randomized control trial (RCT; N = 46) that compared BATD to supportive counseling. Study outcomes included depression, BATD proposed mechanisms of change, and non-specific psychotherapy factors. Results Relative to supportive counseling, BATD led to greater decreases in depressive symptoms over time (p = 0.04) and greater MDD remission at the end of treatment (p = 0.01). Activity level (p = 0.01) and environmental reward (p = 0.05) showed greater increases over time among those who received BATD compared to supportive counseling. Treatment adherence, therapeutic alliance, and treatment satisfaction did not differ between the groups over time (ps > 0.17). The one-month follow-up suggested sustained clinical gains across therapies. Conclusions The current study adds to a growing treatment literature and provides support that BATD is efficacious in reducing depression and increasing activity level and environmental reward in the largest, yet historically underserved U.S. ethnic minority population. This trial sets the stage for a larger RCT that evaluates the transportability and generalizability of BATD in an effectiveness trial. PMID:27054826

  10. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  11. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  12. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  13. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  14. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  15. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... SYSTEMS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when... maintained in a condition sufficient to be clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm...

  16. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... SYSTEMS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when... maintained in a condition sufficient to be clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm...

  17. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... SYSTEMS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when... maintained in a condition sufficient to be clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm...

  18. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when in the downward position, shall extend across... clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm shall start its downward motion not less...

  19. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when in the downward position, shall extend across... clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm shall start its downward motion not less...

  20. Arm posture score and arm movement during walking: a comprehensive assessment in spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Riad, Jacques; Coleman, Scott; Lundh, Dan; Broström, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Patients with hemiplegic cerebral palsy often have noticeably deviant arm posture and decreased arm movement. Here we develop a comprehensive assessment method for the upper extremity during walking. Arm posture score (APS), deviation of shoulder flexion/extension, shoulder abduction/adduction, elbow flexion/extension and wrist flexion/extension were calculated from three-dimensional gait analysis. The APS is the root mean square deviation from normal, similar to Baker's Gait Profile Score (GPS) [1]. The total range of motion (ROM) was defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum position in the gait cycle for each variable. The arm symmetry, arm posture index (API) was calculated by dividing the APS on the hemiplegic side by that on the non-involved side, and the range of motion index (ROMI) by dividing the ROM on the hemiplegic side by that on the non-involved side. Using the APS, two groups were defined. Group 1 had minor deviations, with an APS under 9.0 and a mean of 6.0 (95% CI 5.0-7.0). Group 2 had more pronounced deviations, with an APS over 9.0 and a mean of 13.1 (CI 10.8-15.5) (p=0.000). Total ROM was 60.6 in group 1 and 46.2 in group 2 (p=0.031). API was 0.89 in group 1 and 1.70 in group 2 (p<0.001). ROMI was 1.15 in group 1 and 0.69 in group 2 (p=0.003). APS describes the amount of deviation, ROM provides additional information on movement pattern and the indices the symmetry. These comprehensive objective and dynamic measurements of upper extremity abnormality can be useful in following natural progression, evaluating treatment and making prognoses in several categories of patients. PMID:20971011

  1. Effect of radiation and fungal treatment on lignocelluloses and their biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Nguyen Duy; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-10-01

    Effects of high-dose irradiation and fungal treatment on some kinds of lignocellulosic material were investigated in order to assess the potential effects of bioactive substances on plants. Each treatment and combination of treatments significantly altered the components of lignocellulosic materials. Irradiation strongly affected all plant materials, causing a series of changes in physico-chemical parameters such as solubilization during solvent extraction and losses of fibre components. By these degradations, certain biologically active substances formed and acted as antagonists of auxin-induced growth.

  2. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Heat treatment results in a loss of transgene-encoded activities in several tobacco lines.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, K; Dröge-Laser, W; Köhne, S; Broer, I

    1997-01-01

    Heat treatment (37 degrees C) of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants led to a reversible reduction or complete loss of transgene-encoded activities in about 40% of 10 independent transformants carrying the luciferase-coding region fused to the 355 cauliflower mosaic virus or the soybean small subunit promoter and the nopaline synthase promoter driving the neomycin phosphotransferase gene, whereas the other lines had temperature-tolerant activities. Temperature sensitivity or tolerance of transgene-encoded activities was heritable. In some of the lines, temperature sensitivity of the transgene-encoded activities depended on the stage of development, occurring in either seedlings (40% luciferase and 50% neomycin phosphotransferase) or adult plants (both 40%). The phenomenon did not correlate with copy numbers or the homo- or hemizygous state of the transgenes. In lines harboring a temperature-sensitive luciferase activity, reduction of bioluminescence was observed after 2 to 3 h at 37 degrees C. Activity was regained after 2 h of subsequent cultivation at 25 degrees C. Irrespective of the reaction to the heat treatment, the level of luciferase RNA was slightly increased at 37 degrees C. Only in lines showing temperature sensitivity of transgene-encoded activities was the amount of luciferase and neomycin phosphotransferase strongly reduced. In sterile culture, heat treatment for 15 d did not cause visible damage or changes in plant morphology. In all plants tested a slight induction of the heat-shock response was observed at 37 degrees C. PMID:9390430

  6. Targeting macrophage activation for the prevention and treatment of S. aureus biofilm infections†

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, Mark L.; Heim, Cortney E.; Angle, Amanda; Sanderson, Sam D.; Kielian, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm infections often lead to significant morbidity due to their chronicity and recalcitrance to antibiotics. We have demonstrated that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilms can evade macrophage antibacterial effector mechanisms by skewing macrophages towards an alternatively activated M2 phenotype. To overcome this immune evasion, we have utilized two complementary approaches. In the first, a proinflammatory milieu was elicited by local administration of classically-activated M1 macrophages and second, by treatment with the C5a receptor (CD88) agonist EP67, which invokes macrophage proinflammatory activity. Early administration of M1-activated macrophages or EP67 significantly attenuated biofilm formation in a mouse model of MRSA catheter-associated infection. Several proinflammatory mediators were significantly elevated in biofilm infected tissues from macrophage- and EP67-treated animals, revealing effective reprogramming of the biofilm environment to a proinflammatory milieu. A requirement for macrophage proinflammatory activity was demonstrated by the fact that transfer of MyD88-deficient macrophages had minimal impact on biofilm growth. Likewise, neutrophil administration had no effect on biofilm formation. Treatment of established biofilm infections with M1-activated macrophages also significantly reduced catheter-associated biofilm burdens compared to antibiotic treatment. Collectively, these results demonstrate that targeting macrophage proinflammatory activity can overcome the local immune inhibitory environment created during biofilm infections and represents a novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:23365077

  7. Continuum robot arms inspired by cephalopods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Ian D.; Dawson, Darren M.; Flash, Tamar; Grasso, Frank W.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Hochner, Binyamin; Kier, William M.; Pagano, Christopher C.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Qiming M.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent results in the development of a new class of soft, continuous backbone ("continuum") robot manipulators. Our work is strongly motivated by the dexterous appendages found in cephalopods, particularly the arms and suckers of octopus, and the arms and tentacles of squid. Our ongoing investigation of these animals reveals interesting and unexpected functional aspects of their structure and behavior. The arrangement and dynamic operation of muscles and connective tissue observed in the arms of a variety of octopus species motivate the underlying design approach for our soft manipulators. These artificial manipulators feature biomimetic actuators, including artificial muscles based on both electro-active polymers (EAP) and pneumatic (McKibben) muscles. They feature a "clean" continuous backbone design, redundant degrees of freedom, and exhibit significant compliance that provides novel operational capacities during environmental interaction and object manipulation. The unusual compliance and redundant degrees of freedom provide strong potential for application to delicate tasks in cluttered and/or unstructured environments. Our aim is to endow these compliant robotic mechanisms with the diverse and dexterous grasping behavior observed in octopuses. To this end, we are conducting fundamental research into the manipulation tactics, sensory biology, and neural control of octopuses. This work in turn leads to novel approaches to motion planning and operator interfaces for the robots. The paper describes the above efforts, along with the results of our development of a series of continuum tentacle-like robots, demonstrating the unique abilities of biologically-inspired design.

  8. Landsat observations in support of ARM

    SciTech Connect

    Cahalan, R.

    2003-06-04

    Compare results from state-of-the-art 3D radiative transfer techniques on a variety of input cloud fields with a wide degree of complexity. The goal of this proposal is to compare results from state-of-the-art 3D radiative transfer techniques on a variety of input cloud fields with a wide degree of complexity. This effort will complement ongoing cloud-related efforts of the GCSS working groups, and DoE-ARM Single Column Modeling and Cloud working groups. The intercomparison will be beneficial in delineating the limits and merits of the various approaches currently used to treat 3D radiative transfer theory and will create a broader consensus on what are the most serious remote sensing errors due to 3D effects. Realistic cloud water distributions used as input for many of the experiments will come directly from the ARM archive or from ARM-related modeling activities (such as those in progress as part of GCSS).

  9. Removal of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in activated sludge treatment works.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A C; Sumpter, J P

    2001-12-15

    The release of endocrine-disrupting chemicals into the aquatic environment has raised the awareness of the central role played by sewage treatment in lowland water quality. This review focuses on the activated sludge process, which is commonly used to treat sewage in large towns and cities and which successfully removes the bulk of the organic compounds that enter the works. However, not all compounds are completely broken down or converted to biomass. For example, the estrogenic alkylphenols and steroid estrogens found in effluent are the breakdown products of incomplete breakdown of their respective parent compounds. Batch microcosm studies have indicated that estrone, ethinylestradiol, and alkylphenols will not be completely eliminated in activated sludge over typical treatment times. Field data suggest that the activated sludge treatment process can consistently remove over 85% of estradiol, estriol, and ethinylestradiol. The removal performance for estrone appears to be less and is more variable. Because of its relatively high hydrophobicity, the accumulation of alkylphenol in sludge has been observed. Although it has not been examined, accumulation of ethinylestradiol in sludge is a possibility due to its recalcitrance and hydrophobicity. A comparison between the concentrations of some of the major endocrine-active chemicals in effluents and their biological potencies has been made, to direct attention to the chemicals of most concern. While water purification techniques such as UV or activated charcoal could significantly remove these microorganic contaminants, the high costs involved suggest that research into the potential for treatment optimization should receive more attention. PMID:11775141

  10. Evaluation of NK and LAK cell activities in neoplastic patients during treatment with morphine.

    PubMed

    Provinciali, M; Di Stefano, G; Raffaeli, W; Pari, G; Desiderio, F; Fabris, N

    1991-07-01

    The cytotoxic activity of Natural Killer (NK) and Lymphokine Activated Killer (LAK) cells in neoplastic patients with or without antalgic treatment was studied. NK cell activity was found reduced in untreated neoplastic patients when compared to healthy subjects. The atalgic treatment with morphine (orally or intrathecally administered) was able to significantly reduce the mean values of NK cell activity found in cancer patients. In three patients the cytotoxicity of NK cells significantly decreased during transfer from oral to intrathecal administration of morphine. In contrast to the NK cell function, the development of LAK cell activity significantly increased in neoplastic patients when compared to healthy controls. Further increments were obtained during treatment with morphine. The oral treatment with morphine was able to determine a higher induction of LAK cells than the intrathecal administration of the drug. Besides providing new knowledge on the effect of morphine on immune system our findings suggest that, in order to include neoplastic patients in clinical trials of adoptive immunotherapy with LAK cells and interleukin-2 (IL-2), the antalgic therapy with oral administration of morphine may represent a better solution than the intrathecal administration of the drug. PMID:1774133

  11. Advanced treatment of effluents from an industrial park wastewater treatment plant by ferrous ion activated persulfate oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Songmei; Zhou, Zhen; Jiang, Haitao; Ye, Jianfeng; Ren, Jiamin; Gu, Lingyun; Wang, Luochun

    2016-01-01

    The advanced oxidation technology, ferrous ion (Fe(II)) activated persulfate (PS) producing sulfate radicals, was used for the advanced treatment of effluent from an integrated wastewater treatment plant in a papermaking industrial park. Separate and interactive effects of PS dosage, Fe(II)/PS ratio and initial pH on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that Fe(II)-PS system was effective in COD removal from the secondary effluent. PS dosage was the most dominant factor with positive influence on COD removal, followed by initial pH value. The optimum conditions with COD removal of 54.4% were obtained at PS/COD of 2.2, initial pH of 6.47 and Fe(II)/PS of 1.89. UV-visible spectrum analysis showed that after RSM optimization, Fe(II)-PS system effectively degraded large organic molecules into small ones, and decreased humification degree of the effluent. Three-dimensional fluorescence analysis demonstrated that aromatic protein and fulvic substances were fully decomposed by the Fe(II)-PS treatment. PMID:27438260

  12. Electromyogram-triggered neuromuscular stimulation and stroke motor recovery of arm/hand functions: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bolton, David A E; Cauraugh, James H; Hausenblas, Heather A

    2004-08-30

    Debate persists about the effectiveness of poststroke behavioral interventions for progress toward motor recovery. The current meta-analysis assessed the effect of electromyogram (EMG)-triggered neuromuscular stimulation on arm and hand functions. Computer searches of PubMed and Cochran databases, as well as hand searches of reference lists identified seven EMG-triggered neuromuscular stimulation studies. Outcome measures focused on arm and hand motor capability functions. In addition, the quality of each study was rated on three guidelines: randomization, double blind, and dropouts. After adjusting data for consistency in the arm/hand outcome measures and to avoid bias, five active stimulation studies were included in the analysis. Rehabilitation treatment in each study focused on wrist extension. The total number of individuals in the treatment groups was 47 whereas the control groups had 39 subjects. The meta-analysis revealed a significant overall mean effect size (delta=0.82, S.D.=0.59). A homogeneity test indicated that the pooled standardized effect sizes estimated the same treatment effect. A fail-safe test for null effect findings revealed that 15 studies were required to reduce the large effect (0.82) to a small effect (0.20). These improved wrist extension motor capabilities findings support EMG-triggered neuromuscular stimulation as an effective poststroke protocol. PMID:15337612

  13. Estrogenic activity and identification of potential xenoestrogens in a coking wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Yan, Bo; Wei, Chaohai; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the estrogenic activities in influent and effluents of coking wastewater from different treatment stages were studied using Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) bioassays. Raw extracts were further fractioned to identify the potential xenoestrogens combined with YES bioassays and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Influent, primary effluent, and anaerobic effluent showed high estrogenic activities, with potencies of 1136±269, 1417±320, and 959±69 ng/L of 17β-estradiol (E2) equivalent (EEQ), respectively. The potency of estrogenic activity was gradually removed through the treatment processes. In the final effluent, the estrogenic activity was reduced to 0.87 ng EEQ/L with a total removal efficiency of more than 99%, suggesting that the estrogenic activity was almost completely removed in the coking wastewater. For the fractions of raw extracts, bioassay results showed that the estrogenic activities were mostly present in the polar fractions. Correlation analysis between estrogenic activities and responses of identified chemicals indicated that potential xenoestrogens were the derivatives of indenol, naphthalenol, indol, acridinone, fluorenone, and carbazole. The estrogenic activity in the final effluent was higher than the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for E2, implying that the discharged effluent would probably exert estrogenic activity risk to the aquatic ecosystem in "the worst-case scenario." PMID:25463876

  14. An activated sludge model based on activated sludge model number 3 for full-scale wastewater treatment plant simulation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ji; Lu, Shu-Guang; Qiu, Zhao-fu; Wang, Xiao-Xia; Li, Wen-Zhen

    2009-06-01

    A modified model based on the activated sludge model no. 3 was established to simulate a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant in Shanghai, China. The activated sludge model no. 3 was modified to describe the simultaneous storage and growth processes occurring in activated sludge systems under aerobic and anoxic conditions. The mechanism of soluble microbial product formation and degradation by microorganisms was considered in this proposed model. Three months simulation was conducted including soluble chemical oxygen demand, NH4(+)-N, NO(X)(-)-N and T-N parameters, and compared with measured data from the Quyang wastewater treatment plant. Results indicated that the calculated effluent chemical oxygen demand and NH4(+)-N using this proposed model were in good agreement with the measured data. Results also showed that besides inert soluble organic matter contributing to the effluent chemical oxygen demand, soluble microbial products played an important part in the effluent chemical oxygen demand and, therefore, demonstrated that these products composed an important portion of effluent soluble chemical oxygen demand in wastewater treatment plants and should not be neglected. PMID:19705601

  15. In situ treatment with activated carbon reduces bioaccumulation in aquatic food chains.

    PubMed

    Kupryianchyk, D; Rakowska, M I; Roessink, I; Reichman, E P; Grotenhuis, J T C; Koelmans, A A

    2013-05-01

    In situ activated carbon (AC) amendment is a new direction in contaminated sediment management, yet its effectiveness and safety have never been tested on the level of entire food chains including fish. Here we tested the effects of three different AC treatments on hydrophobic organic chemical (HOC) concentrations in pore water, benthic invertebrates, zooplankton, and fish (Leuciscus idus melanotus). AC treatments were mixing with powdered AC (PAC), mixing with granular AC (GAC), and addition-removal of GAC (sediment stripping). The AC treatments resulted in a significant decrease in HOC concentrations in pore water, benthic invertebrates, zooplankton, macrophytes, and fish. In 6 months, PAC treatment caused a reduction of accumulation of polychlorobiphenyls (PCB) in fish by a factor of 20, bringing pollutant levels below toxic thresholds. All AC treatments supported growth of fish, but growth was inhibited in the PAC treatment, which was likely explained by reduced nutrient concentrations, resulting in lower zooplankton (i.e., food) densities for the fish. PAC treatment may be advised for sites where immediate ecosystem protection is required. GAC treatment may be equally effective in the longer term and may be adequate for vulnerable ecosystems where longer-term protection suffices. PMID:23544454

  16. Natural Resource Extraction, Armed Violence, and Environmental Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Liam; Bonds, Eric; Clark, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this article is to demonstrate that environmental sociologists cannot fully explain the relationship between humans and the natural world without theorizing a link between natural resource extraction, armed violence, and environmental degradation. The authors begin by arguing that armed violence is one of several overlapping mechanisms that provide powerful actors with the means to (a) prevail over others in conflicts over natural resources and (b) ensure that natural resources critical to industrial production and state power continue to be extracted and sold in sufficient quantities to promote capital accumulation, state power, and ecological unequal exchange. The authors then identify 10 minerals that are critical to the functioning of the U.S. economy and/or military and demonstrate that the extraction of these minerals often involves the use of armed violence. They further demonstrate that armed violence is associated with the activities of the world’s three largest mining companies, with African mines that receive World Bank funding, and with petroleum and rainforest timber extraction. The authors conclude that the natural resource base on which industrial societies stand is constructed in large part through the use and threatened use of armed violence. As a result, armed violence plays a critical role in fostering environmental degradation and ecological unequal exchange. PMID:21909231

  17. Neural activation during processing of aversive faces predicts treatment outcome in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Charlet, Katrin; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Richter, Anne; Naundorf, Karina; Dornhof, Lina; Weinfurtner, Christopher E J; König, Friederike; Walaszek, Bernadeta; Schubert, Florian; Müller, Christian A; Gutwinski, Stefan; Seissinger, Annette; Schmitz, Lioba; Walter, Henrik; Beck, Anne; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kiefer, Falk; Heinz, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Neuropsychological studies reported decoding deficits of emotional facial expressions in alcohol-dependent patients, and imaging studies revealed reduced prefrontal and limbic activation during emotional face processing. However, it remains unclear whether this reduced neural activation is mediated by alcohol-associated volume reductions and whether it interacts with treatment outcome. We combined analyses of neural activation during an aversive face-cue-comparison task and local gray matter volumes (GM) using Biological Parametric Mapping in 33 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and 33 matched healthy controls. Alcoholics displayed reduced activation toward aversive faces-neutral shapes in bilateral fusiform gyrus [FG; Brodmann areas (BA) 18/19], right middle frontal gyrus (BA46/47), right inferior parietal gyrus (BA7) and left cerebellum compared with controls, which were explained by GM differences (except for cerebellum). Enhanced functional activation in patients versus controls was found in left rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial frontal gyrus (BA10/11), even after GM reduction control. Increased ACC activation correlated significantly with less (previous) lifetime alcohol intake [Lifetime Drinking History (LDH)], longer abstinence and less subsequent binge drinking in patients. High LDH appear to impair treatment outcome via its neurotoxicity on ACC integrity. Thus, high activation of the rostral ACC elicited by affective faces appears to be a resilience factor predicting better treatment outcome. Although no group differences were found, increased FG activation correlated with patients' higher LDH. Because high LDH correlated with worse task performance for facial stimuli in patients, elevated activation in the fusiform 'face' area may reflect inefficient compensatory activation. Therapeutic interventions (e.g. emotion evaluation training) may enable patients to cope with social stress and to decrease relapses after detoxification. PMID

  18. Estradiol treatment, physical activity, and muscle function in ovarian-senescent mice.

    PubMed

    Greising, Sarah M; Carey, Ryan S; Blackford, Jennifer E; Dalton, Laurin E; Kosir, Allison M; Lowe, Dawn A

    2011-08-01

    Estradiol (E(2)) treatment in young adult, ovariectomized mice increases physical activity and reverses deleterious effects on skeletal muscle. Here we test the hypothesis that E(2) treatment improves muscle function and physical activity in aged, ovarian-senescent mice. Plasma E(2) levels and vaginal cytology confirmed ovarian senescence in 20-month-old C57BL/6 mice. Mice were then randomly divided into activity groups, having access to a running wheel or not, and further into those receiving E(2) or placebo. Placebo-treated mice wheel ran more than E(2)-treated mice (P=0.03), with no difference between treatment groups in cage activities such as time spent being active and ambulation distance (P≥0.55). Soleus muscles from aged mice that wheel ran adapted by getting larger and stronger, irrespective of E(2) status (P≤0.02). Soleus muscle fatigue resistance was greater in mice treated with E(2) (P=0.02), but maximal isometric tetanic force was not affected (P≥0.79). Because E(2) treatment did not improve physical activity or overall muscle function in the aged, ovarian-senescent mice as predicted, a second study was initiated to examine E(2) treatment of young adult mice prematurely ovarian senescent from exposure to the chemical, 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD). Four-month-old C57BL/6 female mice were dosed with oil (control) or VCD. Vaginal cytology confirmed ovarian senescence in all mice treated with VCD 63 days after the onset of dosing, and then a subset of the VCD mice received E(2) (VCD+E(2)). Wheel running distance did not differ among control, VCD, and VCD+E(2) mice (P≥0.34). Soleus muscle concentric, isometric, and eccentric in vitro forces were greater in VCD+E(2) than in VCD mice (P<0.04), indicating beneficial estrogenic effects on muscle function. In general, aged and young mice with senescent ovaries were less responsive to E(2) treatment, in terms of physical activities and muscle function, than what has previously been shown for young

  19. Estradiol treatment, physical activity, and muscle function in ovarian-senescent mice

    PubMed Central

    Greising, Sarah M.; Carey, Ryan S.; Blackford, Jennifer E.; Dalton, Laurin E.; Kosir, Allison M.; Lowe, Dawn A.

    2011-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) treatment in young adult, ovariectomized mice increases physical activity and reverses deleterious effects on skeletal muscle. Here we test the hypothesis that E2 treatment improves muscle function and physical activity in aged, ovarian-senescent mice. Plasma E2 levels and vaginal cytology confirmed ovarian senescence in 20-month-old C57BL/6 mice. Mice were then randomly divided into activity groups, having access to a running wheel or not, and further into those receiving E2 or placebo. Placebo-treated mice wheel ran more than E2-treated mice (P=0.03), with no difference between treatment groups in cage activities such as time spent being active and ambulation distance (P≥0.55). Soleus muscles from aged mice that wheel ran adapted by getting larger and stronger, irrespective of E2 status (P≤0.02). Soleus muscle fatigue resistance was greater in mice treated with E2 (P=0.02), but maximal isometric tetanic force was not affected (P≥0.79). Because E2 treatment did not improve physical activity or overall muscle function in the aged, ovarian-senescent mice as predicted, a second study was initiated to examine E2 treatment of young adult mice prematurely ovarian senescent from exposure to the chemical, 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD). 4-month-old C57BL/6 female mice were dosed with oil (control) or VCD. Vaginal cytology confirmed ovarian senescence in all mice treated with VCD 63 days after the onset of dosing, and then a subset of the VCD mice received E2 (VCD+E2). Wheel running distance did not differ among control, VCD, and VCD+E2 mice (P≥0.34). Soleus muscle concentric, isometric, and eccentric in vitro forces were greater in VCD+E2 than VCD mice (P<0.04), indicating beneficial estrogenic effects on muscle function. In general, aged and young mice with senescent ovaries were less responsive to E2 treatment, in terms of physical activities and muscle function, than what has previously been shown for young, ovariectomized mice. These results

  20. Effects of different heat treatments on lysozyme quantity and antimicrobial activity of jenny milk.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, C; Labella, C; Elshafie, H S; Camele, I; Musto, M; Paolino, R; D'Adamo, C; Freschi, P

    2016-07-01

    Thermal treatments are used to improve milk microbial safety, shelf life, and biological activity of some of its components. However, thermal treatments can reduce the nutritional quality of milk, affecting the molecular structure of milk proteins, such as lysozyme, which is a very important milk component due to its antimicrobial effect against gram-positive bacteria. Jenny milk is characterized by high lysozyme content. For this reason, in the last few years, it has been used as an antimicrobial additive in dairy products as an alternative to hen egg white lysozyme, which can cause allergic reactions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pasteurization and condensation on the concentration and antimicrobial activity of lysozyme in jenny milk. Furthermore, lysozyme quantity and activity were tested in raw and pasteurized milk after condensation at 40 and 20% of the initial volume. Reversed-phase HPLC was performed under fluorescence detection to monitor lysozyme in milk samples. We evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the tested milk against Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus mojavensis, Clavibacter michiganensis, Clostridium tyrobutyricum, Xanthomonas campestris, and Escherichia coli. Condensation and pasteurization did not affect the concentration or antimicrobial activity of lysozyme in jenny milk, except for B. mojaventis, which showed resistance to lysozyme in milk samples subjected to heat treatments. Moreover, lysozyme in jenny milk showed antimicrobial activity similar to synthetic antibiotics versus some gram-positive strains and also versus the gram-negative strain X. campestris. PMID:27157571

  1. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process

    SciTech Connect

    English, C.J.; Petty, S.E.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1983-02-01

    A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.

  2. A Stability Enhancement Method for Centrifugal Compressors using Active Control Casing Treatment System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuanyang; Xiao, Jun; Li, Liansheng; Yang, Qichao; Liu, Guangbin; Wang, Le

    2015-08-01

    The centrifugal compressors are widely used in many fields. When the centrifugal compressors operate at the edge of the surge line, the compressor will be unstable. In addition, if the centrifugal compressor runs at this situation long time, the damage will be occurred on compressor. There are some kinds of method to improve and enlarge the range of the centrifugal compressors, such as inlet guide vane, and casing treatment. For casing treatment method, some structures have been researched, such as holed recirculation, basic slot casing treatment and groove casing treatment. All these researches are the passive methods. This paper present a new stability enhancement method based Active Control Casing Treatment (ACCT). All parts of this new method are introduced in detail. The control strategy of the system is mentioned in the paper. As a research sample, a centrifugal compressor having this system is researched using CFD method. The study focuses on the effect of the active control system on the impeller flow. The vortex in impeller is changed by the active control system. And this leads to the suppression of the extension of vortex blockage in impeller and to contribute to the enhancement of the compressor operating range.

  3. Enhanced photocatalytic CO₂-reduction activity of electrospun mesoporous TiO₂ nanofibers by solvothermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Fu, Junwei; Cao, Shaowen; Yu, Jiaguo; Low, Jingxiang; Lei, Yongpeng

    2014-06-28

    Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuels using semiconductor photocatalysts is considered as a potential solution to the energy deficiency and greenhouse effect. In this work, mesoporous TiO2 nanofibers with high specific surface areas and abundant surface hydroxyl groups are prepared using an electrospinning strategy combined with a subsequent calcination process, followed by a solvothermal treatment. The solvothermally treated mesoporous TiO2 nanofibers exhibit excellent photocatalytic performance on CO2 reduction into hydrocarbon fuels. The significantly improved photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the enhanced CO2 adsorption capacity and the improved charge separation after solvothermal treatment. The highest activity is achieved for the sample with a 2-h solvothermal treatment, showing 6- and 25-fold higher CH4 production rate than those of TiO2 nanofibers without solvothermal treatment and P25, respectively. This work may also provide a prototype for studying the effect of solvothermal treatment on the structure and photocatalytic activity of semiconductor photocatalysts. PMID:24809306

  4. Working memory fMRI activation in cocaine-dependent subjects: association with treatment response.

    PubMed

    Moeller, F Gerard; Steinberg, Joel L; Schmitz, Joy M; Ma, Liangsuo; Liu, Shijing; Kjome, Kimberly L; Rathnayaka, Nuvan; Kramer, Larry A; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2010-03-30

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of early abstinence cocaine users offer information about the state of the brain when most cocaine users seek treatment. This study examined the relationship between pretreatment brain function and subsequent treatment response in 19 treatment-seeking early abstinence cocaine-dependent (CD) subjects. These subjects and 14 non-drug-using control subjects underwent fMRI while performing a working memory task with three levels of difficulty. CD subjects were then randomized to treatment studies. Results showed CD subjects had significantly lower (random effects, corrected for multiple comparisons) brain activation in caudate, putamen, cingulate gyrus, middle and superior frontal gyri, inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis and pars opercularis, precentral gyrus, and thalamus compared with non-drug-using controls. Within CD subjects, thalamic activation significantly correlated with treatment response. This study shows CD subjects in early abstinence have alterations of brain function in frontal, striatal, and thalamic brain regions known to be part of a circuit associated with motor control, reward, and cognition. Subjects with pretreatment thalamic deactivation showed the poorest treatment response, possibly related to thalamic involvement in mesocortical and mesolimbic dopamine projections. PMID:20153142

  5. Structural Investigation of Alkali Activated Clay Minerals for Application in Water Treatment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.; Dembovska, L.

    2015-11-01

    Alkali activation technology can be applied for a wide range of alumo-silicates to produce innovative materials with various areas of application. Most researches focuse on the application of alumo-silicate materials in building industry as cement binder replacement to produce mortar and concrete [1]. However, alkali activation technology offers high potential also in biotechnologies [2]. In the processes where certain pH level, especially alkaline environment, must be ensured, alkali activated materials can be applied. One of such fields is water treatment systems where high level pH (up to pH 10.5) ensures efficient removal of water pollutants such as manganese [3]. Previous investigations had shown that alkali activation technology can be applied to calcined clay powder and aluminium scrap recycling waste as a foam forming agent to create porous alkali activated materials. This investigation focuses on the structural investigation of calcined kaolin and illite clay alkali activation processes. Chemical and mineralogical composition of both clays were determined and structural investigation of alkali activated materials was made by using XRD, DTA, FTIR analysis; the microstructure of hardened specimens was observed by SEM. Physical properties of the obtained material were determined. Investigation indicates the essential role of chemical composition of the clay used in the alkali activation process, and potential use of the obtained material in water treatment systems.

  6. Predicting Treatment Outcomes from Prefrontal Cortex Activation for Self-Harming Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruocco, Anthony C.; Rodrigo, Achala H.; McMain, Shelley F.; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Ayaz, Hasan; Links, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Self-harm is a potentially lethal symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD) that often improves with dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). While DBT is effective for reducing self-harm in many patients with BPD, a small but significant number of patients either does not improve in treatment or ends treatment prematurely. Accordingly, it is crucial to identify factors that may prospectively predict which patients are most likely to benefit from and remain in treatment. In the present preliminary study, 29 actively self-harming patients with BPD completed brain-imaging procedures probing activation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during impulse control prior to beginning DBT and after 7 months of treatment. Patients that reduced their frequency of self-harm the most over treatment displayed lower levels of neural activation in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) prior to beginning treatment, and they showed the greatest increases in activity within this region after 7 months of treatment. Prior to starting DBT, treatment non-completers demonstrated greater activation than treatment-completers in the medial PFC and right inferior frontal gyrus. Reductions in self-harm over the treatment period were associated with increases in activity in right DLPFC even after accounting for improvements in depression, mania, and BPD symptom severity. These findings suggest that pre-treatment patterns of activation in the PFC underlying impulse control may be prospectively associated with improvements in self-harm and treatment attrition for patients with BPD treated with DBT. PMID:27242484

  7. CAST STONE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    MINWALL HJ

    2011-04-08

    Cast stone technology is being evaluated for potential application in the treatment and immobilization of Hanford low-activity waste. The purpose of this document is to provide background information on cast stone technology. The information provided in the report is mainly based on a pre-conceptual design completed in 2003.

  8. EVALUATION OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM A MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT WITH PREDOMINANTLY DOMESTIC INPUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to survey estrogenic releases from two primarily domestic wastewater treatment plants over three seasons (1996-1999). Mature male channel catfish were maintained at two sites within each WWTP and a reference site for 21 days. Estrogenic activity of e...

  9. 42 CFR 31.5 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE Provisions Applicable to Coast Guard, National Ocean... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel. 31.5 Section 31.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  10. Using Concept Mapping to Identify Action Steps for Physical Activity Promotion in Cancer Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Sean Joseph; Zizzi, Sam J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The benefits of exercise during and after cancer treatment represent research areas that have received increased attention throughout the past 2 decades. Numerous benefits have been observed for cancer survivors who are physically active, yet oncologists have been slow to incorporate exercise counseling into practice. Purpose: The…

  11. Behavioral Activation in the Treatment of Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulick, Patrick S.; Naugle, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of 10-weeks of Behavioral Activation (BA) in the treatment of comorbid Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in four adults using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. All participants met full "DSM-IV" criteria for both MDD and PTSD at the outset of…

  12. Activated Biological Filters (ABF Towers). Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    This student manual contains textual material for a two-lesson unit on activated bio-filters (ABF). The first lesson (the sewage treatment plant) examines those process units that are unique to the ABF system. The lesson includes a review of the structural components of the ABF system and their functions and a discussion of several operational…

  13. Randomized Controlled Trial of Behavioral Activation Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Rodman, Samantha; Strong, David R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hopko, Derek R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Brown, Richard A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Depressive symptoms are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes, and there remains continued interest in behavioral interventions that simultaneously target smoking and depressive symptomatology. In this pilot study, we examined whether a behavioral activation treatment for smoking (BATS) can enhance cessation outcomes. Method:…

  14. Effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment on Fibromyalgia-Related Pain Anxiety Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Talley, Chris; Buermann, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Effects of Behavioral Activation Treatment (BAT) on pain anxiety, depression, and pain interference on a 43-year-old female with an 11-year history of chronic fibromyalgia pain are described. Analgesic, anxyiolytic, and antidepressant medications were stabilized prior to participation. Dependent measures were the Behavioral Relaxation Scale, a…

  15. Effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment on Chronic Fibromyalgia Pain: Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Talley, Chris; Buermann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A multiple-baseline-across two behavior sets and positions (reclined, upright) was used to experimentally examine the effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment for Pain (BAT-P) on pain-related behavior of a 44-year-old woman with a 22-year history of fibromyalgia (FM). BAT-P, based on the matching law, is comprised of Behavioral Relaxation…

  16. ASSESSMENT OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY IN EFFLUENTS FROM SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Newly developed molecular biology methods have been used for the measurement of estrogenic activity in source-biased studies of sewage treatment plants. Studies in Texas and New Mexico have shown the utility of the measurement of changes in vitellogenin gene expression in fathea...

  17. Heat treatment effects on the antimicrobial activity of macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in milk.

    PubMed

    Zorraquino, M A; Althaus, R L; Roca, M; Molina, M P

    2011-02-01

    Antibiotic residues in milk can cause serious problems for consumers and the dairy industry. Heat treatment of milk may diminish the antimicrobial activity of these antibiotic residues. This study analyzed the effect of milk processing (60 °C for 30 min, 120 °C for 20 min, and 140 °C for 10 s) on the antimicrobial activity of milk samples fortified with three concentrations of three macrolides (erythromycin: 20, 40 and 80 μg/liter; spiramycin: 100, 200, and 400 μg/liter; and tylosin: 500, 1,000, and 2,000 μg/liter) and one lincosamide (lincomycin: 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 μg/liter). To measure the loss of antimicrobial activity, a bioassay based on the growth inhibition of Micrococcus luteus was done. The data were analyzed using a multiple linear regression model. The results indicate that treatment at 120 °C for 20 min produces inactivation percentages of 93% (erythromycin), 64% (spiramycin), 51% (tylosin), and 5% (lincomycin), while treatment at 140 °C for 10 s results in generally lower percentages (30% erythromycin, 35% spiramycin, 12% tylosin, and 5% lincomycin). The lowest loss or lowest reduction of antimicrobial activity (21% erythromycin and 13% spiramycin) was obtained by treatment at 60 °C for 30 min. PMID:21333154

  18. 42 CFR 483.440 - Condition of participation: Active treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: Active treatment services. 483.440 Section 483.440 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Conditions of Participation...

  19. Treatment of industrial effluents by a continuous system: electrocoagulation--activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Moisés, Tejocote-Pérez; Patricia, Balderas-Hernández; Barrera-Díaz, C E; Gabriela, Roa-Morales; Natividad-Rangel, Reyna

    2010-10-01

    A continuous system electrocoagulation--active sludge was designed and built for the treatment of industrial wastewater. The system included an electrochemical reactor with aluminum electrodes, a clarifier and a biological reactor. The electrochemical reactor was tested under different flowrates (50, 100 and 200 mL/min). In the biological reactor, the performance of different cultures of active sludge was assessed: coliform bacterial, ciliate and flagellate protozoa and aquatic fungus. Overall treatment efficiencies of color, turbidity and COD removal were 94%, 92% and 80%, respectively, under optimal conditions of 50 mL/min flowrate and using ciliate and flagellate protozoa. It was concluded that the system was efficient for the treatment of industrial wastewater. PMID:20570506

  20. Alterations in leukocyte transcriptional control pathway activity associated with major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Mellon, S H; Wolkowitz, O M; Schonemann, M D; Epel, E S; Rosser, R; Burke, H B; Mahan, L; Reus, V I; Stamatiou, D; Liew, C-C; Cole, S W

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a significantly elevated risk of developing serious medical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, immune impairments, infection, dementia and premature death. Previous work has demonstrated immune dysregulation in subjects with MDD. Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling and promoter-based bioinformatic strategies, we assessed leukocyte transcription factor (TF) activity in leukocytes from 20 unmedicated MDD subjects versus 20 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls, before initiation of antidepressant therapy, and in 17 of the MDD subjects after 8 weeks of sertraline treatment. In leukocytes from unmedicated MDD subjects, bioinformatic analysis of transcription control pathway activity indicated an increased transcriptional activity of cAMP response element-binding/activating TF (CREB/ATF) and increased activity of TFs associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2, NFE2l2 or NRF2). Eight weeks of antidepressant therapy was associated with significant reductions in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores and reduced activity of NRF2, but not in CREB/ATF activity. Several other transcriptional regulation pathways, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB), early growth response proteins 1-4 (EGR1-4) and interferon-responsive TFs, showed either no significant differences as a function of disease or treatment, or activities that were opposite to those previously hypothesized to be involved in the etiology of MDD or effective treatment. Our results suggest that CREB/ATF and NRF2 signaling may contribute to MDD by activating immune cell transcriptome dynamics that ultimately influence central nervous system (CNS) motivational and affective processes via circulating mediators. PMID:27219347

  1. Effects of Hypobaric Treatments on the Quality, Bioactive Compounds, and Antioxidant Activity of Tomato.

    PubMed

    Kou, Xiaohong; Wu, Ji Yun; Wang, Yong; Chen, Qiong; Xue, Zhaohui; Bai, Yang; Zhou, Fengjuan

    2016-07-01

    Hypobaric treatment is becoming a potential technology to protect fruits from postharvest decay. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of hypobaric treatments on storage quality, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity of tomato fruit. In this study, green tomatoes (cv. "Fen guan") were treated with hypobaric pressures (0.04 and 0.07 MPa) at ambient temperature (20 ℃) for 28 d. The results showed that under hypobaric storage, the respiration rates significantly declined and the respiratory peaks postponed 12 and 8 d by 0.04 and 0.07 MPa treatments, respectively, compared to control. Total soluble solid, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, and lycopene were retained by hypobaric treatment. Moreover, ascorbic acid contents treated with 0.04 and 0.07 MPa were, respectively, 37% and 26% higher than control at day 24 and the contents of total polyphenols were, respectively, 1.28 and 1.11 times higher than control. Production and accumulation of toxic substances were significantly restrained. The ethanol content decreased, respectively, by 53% and 84% than control. At later storage period, the superoxide dismutase activity in treated fruits was about 0.58 U/(g·FW·min), whereas only 0.29 U/(g·FW·min) in control. Hypobaric treatment not only maintained a high activity of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase (POD), but also improved antioxidant capacity. All the results indicated that hypobaric treatment was a potential helpful method to protect the quality and nutrition of tomato and prolong ripening of tomato. Furthermore, the effect of 0.04 MPa hypobaric treatment was found better than 0.07 MPa. PMID:27257791

  2. Pain and discomfort perceived during the initial stage of active fixed orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rakhshan, Hamid; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives As the most common complication of orthodontic treatment, pain can negatively impact quality of life and cause patients to discontinue treatment. However, few studies have evaluated pain during orthodontic treatment, with controversial findings. This study assessed the intensity and duration of pain and discomfort caused by active orthodontic treatment. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study examined 67 patients (22 men, 45 females; age range: 18–32 years) undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Patients were interviewed after the active treatment stage to assess their perceived pain and discomfort at different sites during different activities by a visual analogue scale. Frequency and duration of pain in different areas were analyzed by the chi-squared and chi-squared goodness-of-fit tests (α = 0.05). Results Among the 67 patients, 65.7% experienced general dentogingival pain or discomfort and 34.3% had localized dentogingival pain or discomfort (p = 0.010, chi-squared goodness-of-fit test). Masticating soft foods reduced discomfort (p = 0.000, chi-squared) in the tongue, cheeks, and in or around the teeth and gingivae. Pain and discomfort were mostly moderate while masticating sticky, fibrous, and firm foods. Mild pains were mostly reported during tooth brushing and while consuming soft foods (p < 0.05, chi-squared). Pain and discomfort tended to last for more than 4 weeks, except in the tongue, where pain and discomfort lasted less than 4 weeks (p < 0.05, chi-squared goodness-of-fit test). Conclusions Pain and discomfort occur for more than 4 weeks after beginning fixed orthodontic treatment. Changing diets to incorporate softer foods is recommended to alleviate pain. PMID:26082574

  3. An appraisal of golimumab in the treatment of severe, active nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Paccou, Julien; Flipo, René-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Golimumab (Simponi®) is a fully human tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor (TNFi) antibody administered subcutaneously. In the European Union, golimumab is indicated for the treatment of adults with severe, active axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), which includes both ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and nonradiographic axSpA (nr-axSpA). In the US, it is indicated for the treatment of adults with active AS only. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of golimumab in nr-axSpA patients compared to other TNFi agents (adalimumab, infliximab, etanercept, and certolizumab pegol). In one ongoing, well-designed controlled study (GO-AHEAD), data at 16 weeks showed that treatment with golimumab (50 mg every 4 weeks) was effective in improving the clinical signs and symptoms of disease in nr-axSpA patients. In addition, 16 weeks of treatment with golimumab reduced inflammation in the sacroiliac joints and spine in patients with nr-axSpA. Moreover, objective evidence of active inflammation at baseline, such as a positive magnetic resonance imaging scan and/or an elevated CRP level, was a good predictor of treatment response to golimumab. Golimumab was generally well tolerated in this study, with a tolerability profile consistent with that seen in previous clinical trials for other indications. Although additional long-term data are needed, current evidence indicates that golimumab is an effective option for the treatment of nr-axSpA. However, in the absence of comparative head-to-head trials, there is no recommended hierarchy for the first prescription of a TNFi agent for the treatment of either nr-axSpA or AS. PMID:27468228

  4. Biomarkers on patient T cells diagnose active tuberculosis and monitor treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Adekambi, Toidi; Ibegbu, Chris C.; Cagle, Stephanie; Kalokhe, Ameeta S.; Wang, Yun F.; Hu, Yijuan; Day, Cheryl L.; Ray, Susan M.; Rengarajan, Jyothi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The identification and treatment of individuals with tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health priority. Accurate diagnosis of pulmonary active TB (ATB) disease remains challenging and relies on extensive medical evaluation and detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in the patient’s sputum. Further, the response to treatment is monitored by sputum culture conversion, which takes several weeks for results. Here, we sought to identify blood-based host biomarkers associated with ATB and hypothesized that immune activation markers on Mtb-specific CD4+ T cells would be associated with Mtb load in vivo and could thus provide a gauge of Mtb infection. METHODS. Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we evaluated the expression of immune activation markers on Mtb-specific CD4+ T cells from individuals with asymptomatic latent Mtb infection (LTBI) and ATB as well as from ATB patients undergoing anti-TB treatment. RESULTS. Frequencies of Mtb-specific IFN-γ+CD4+ T cells that expressed immune activation markers CD38 and HLA-DR as well as intracellular proliferation marker Ki-67 were substantially higher in subjects with ATB compared with those with LTBI. These markers accurately classified ATB and LTBI status, with cutoff values of 18%, 60%, and 5% for CD38+IFN-γ+, HLA-DR+IFN-γ+, and Ki-67+IFN-γ+, respectively, with 100% specificity and greater than 96% sensitivity. These markers also distinguished individuals with untreated ATB from those who had successfully completed anti-TB treatment and correlated with decreasing mycobacterial loads during treatment. CONCLUSION. We have identified host blood-based biomarkers on Mtb-specific CD4+ T cells that discriminate between ATB and LTBI and provide a set of tools for monitoring treatment response and cure. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Registration is not required for observational studies. FUNDING. This study was funded by Emory University, the NIH, and the Yerkes National Primate Center. PMID:25822019

  5. Integrated fungal biomass and activated sludge treatment for textile wastewaters bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Anastasi, Antonella; Spina, Federica; Romagnolo, Alice; Tigini, Valeria; Prigione, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2012-11-01

    A combined biological process was investigated for effective textile wastewater treatment. The process consisted of a first step performed by selected fungal biomasses, mainly devoted to the effluent decolourisation, and of a subsequent stage by means of activated sludge, in order to reduce the remaining COD and toxicity. In particular, the treatment with Trametes pubescens MUT 2400, selected over nine strains, achieved very good results in respect to all parameters. The final scale-up phase in a moving bed bioreactor with the supported biomass of the fungus allowed to verify the effectiveness of the treatment with high volumes. Despite promising results, further steps must be taken in order to optimize the use of these biomasses for a full exploitation of their oxidative potential in textile wastewater treatment. PMID:22940306

  6. Non-paretic arm force does not over-inhibit the paretic arm in chronic post-stroke hemiparesis

    PubMed Central

    Dimyan, Michael A.; Perez, Monica A.; Auh, Sungyoung; Tarula, Erick; Wilson, Matthew; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether non-paretic arm force over-inhibits the paretic arm in patients with chronic unilateral post-stroke hemiparesis. We hypothesized that interhemispheric inhibition would increase more in healthy controls than in hemiparetic patients. Design Case-control neurophysiologic and behavioral study of patients with chronic stroke. Setting Federal research institution, outpatient clinical research setting Participants Eighty-six referred patients were screened to enroll 9 participants with greater than 6 month history of one unilateral ischemic infarct that resulted in arm hemiparesis, with residual ability to produce 1Nm of wrist flexion torque, without contraindication to transcranial magnetic stimulation. 8 age- and handedness-matched healthy volunteers without neurologic diagnosis were studied for comparison. Interventions Not Applicable Main Outcome Measures Change in interhemispheric inhibition targeting the ipsilesional primary-motor-cortex (M1) during non-paretic arm force. Results Healthy age-matched controls had significantly greater increases in inhibition from their active to resting M1 than did stroke patients from their active contralesional to resting ipsilesional M1 in the same scenario (20% ±7 vs. −1% ±4, F1,12=6.61, p=0.0245). Patients with greater increases in contralesional to ipsilesional inhibition were better performers on the nine-hole-peg-test of paretic arm function. Conclusions Our findings reveal that producing force with the non-paretic arm does not necessarily over-inhibit the paretic arm. Though limited in generalizability by the small sample size, we found that greater active contralesional to resting ipsilesional M1 inhibition was related to better recovery in this subset of chronic post-stroke patients. PMID:24440364

  7. Landfill leachate characterization for simulation of biological treatment with Activated Sludge Model No. 1 and Activated Sludge Model No. 3.

    PubMed

    Galleguillos, Marcelo; Vasel, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    Landfill leachates can be characterized correctly in terms of Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) and Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) variables. The wastewater characterization of leachate from a Luxembourg landfill was based on a physical-chemical method combined with a BOD analysis for the COD fractions and on standard analysis for forms of nitrogen. The results show important differences compared with municipal wastewater. High amounts of organic matter with low biodegradability were found, as well as a high concentration of ammonium nitrogen. Based on average values, a generic ASM characterization is proposed for landfill leachates. It can be directly employed in the early stages of the simulation of landfill leachate treatment with activated sludge models. PMID:21970168

  8. Depression and suicidality during the postpartum period after first time deliveries, active component service women and dependent spouses, U.S. Armed Forces, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Do, Tai; Hu, Zheng; Otto, Jean; Rohrbeck, Patricia

    2013-09-01

    Although suicide is a leading cause of death among new mothers during the postpartum period, there has been limited research on self-harm in the postpartum period and associated risk factors. One potential risk factor for suicidality (completed suicides, suicide attempts, and suicide ideation including thoughts of self harm) during the postpartum period is postpartum depression (PPD). In this study of women who gave birth for the first time between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011, 5,267 (9.9% of all who delivered) active component service women and 10,301 (8.2%) dependent spouses received incident PPD diagnoses during the one year postpartum period; 213 (0.4%) service women and 221 (0.2%) dependent spouses were diagnosed with incident suicidality. After adjusting for the effects of other covariates, service women with PPD had 42.2 times the odds to be diagnosed with suicidality in the postpartum period compared to service women without PPD; dependent spouses with PPD had 14.5 times the odds compared to those without PPD. The findings of this report suggest that a history of mental disorders was common among service women and dependent spouses with PPD in the postpartum period, and, in turn, PPD was a strong predictor for suicidality in the postpartum period. These results emphasize the importance of PPD screening during the postpartum period. They also suggest that additional focused screening for suicidal behavior among those already diagnosed with PPD may be warranted. PMID:24093957

  9. Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  10. Treatment of high-strength wastewater by Fe(2+)-activated persulphate and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Kattel, E; Dulova, N; Viisimaa, M; Tenno, T; Trapido, M

    2016-01-01

    Ferrous ion-activated persulphate and hydrogen peroxide were studied for the treatment of real high-strength industrial effluent. The Fenton process demonstrated greater organic load removal, biodegradability improvement and toxicity reduction as well as lower treatment cost than the activated persulphate system. However, the use of an activated persulphate process was more favourable due to the exothermic effect intrinsic to the Fenton reaction, which resulted in a rapid increase in the temperature of the high-strength wastewater along with excessive foam formation. Overall, for the H2O2/Fe(2+) and [Formula: see text] processes, the application of a chemical oxygen demand (COD)/oxidant/Fe(2+) weight ratio of 1/0.4/0.075 resulted in a COD removal of 58 and 50%, a 7-day biochemical oxygen demand/COD ratio increase from 0.14 to 0.3 and 0.23, and an increase in the EC50 (Daphnia magna) by 6.5-fold and 2.9-fold, respectively. The stepwise addition of the oxidant and activator was favourable for the Fenton process and resulted in negligible improvement in the wastewater treatment efficacy in the activated persulphate system. PMID:26165510

  11. Effect of beta-propiolactone treatment on the complement activation mediated by equine antisera.

    PubMed

    Guidolin, R; Morais, J F; Stephano, M A; Marcelino, J R; Yamaguchi, I K; Higashi, H G

    1997-01-01

    Reduction of complement activation through an alteration of the Fc fragment of immunoglobulins by beta-propiolactone treatment was carried out in equine antisera raised against rabies virus, Bothrops venoms and diphtherial toxin. Results were evaluated by means of an anaphylactic test performed on guinea-pigs, and compared to the ones obtained with the same sera purified by saline precipitation (ammonium sulfate), followed or not by enzymatic digestion with pepsin. Protein purity levels for antibothropic serum were 184.5 mg/g and 488.5 mg/g in beta-propiolactone treated and pepsin-digested sera, respectively. The recovery of specific activity was 100% and 62.5% when using antibothropic serum treated by beta-propiolactone and pepsin digestion, respectively. The antidiphtherial and anti-rabies sera treated with beta-propiolactone and pepsin presented protein purity levels of 5,698 and 7,179 Lf/g, 16,233 and 6,784 IU/g, respectively. The recovery of specific activity for these antisera were 88.8%, 77.7%, 100% and 36.5%, respectively. beta-propiolactone treatment induced a reduction in complement activation, tested "in vivo", without significant loss of biological activity. This treatment can be used in the preparation of heterologous immunoglobulins for human use. PMID:9394526

  12. Influence of Sulfur Fertilization on the Antioxidant Activities of Onion Juices Prepared by Thermal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eunmi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2016-06-01

    Two onions (Sulfur-1 and Sulfur-4) cultivated with different sulfur applications were thermally processed to elucidate the effects of heat treatment on browning index and antioxidant activity. Sulfur-4 onion had higher sulfur content compared with the Sulfur-1 onion. After thermal processing, browning intensity was different between the two onions juices, with lower values observed for Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that sulfur inhibits the Maillard browning reaction. The total reducing capacity of the juices increased at higher thermal processing temperatures; however, it was also lower in the Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that the heat treatment of onions enhanced their antioxidant activity, but the effect was offset in the Sulfur-4 onion juice presumably due to higher sulfur content. This study indicates that sulfur, a core element for the functionality of onions, can decrease the antioxidant activity of thermally processed onions because of its potential as a Maillard reaction inhibitor. PMID:27390734

  13. Influence of Sulfur Fertilization on the Antioxidant Activities of Onion Juices Prepared by Thermal Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Eunmi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2016-01-01

    Two onions (Sulfur-1 and Sulfur-4) cultivated with different sulfur applications were thermally processed to elucidate the effects of heat treatment on browning index and antioxidant activity. Sulfur-4 onion had higher sulfur content compared with the Sulfur-1 onion. After thermal processing, browning intensity was different between the two onions juices, with lower values observed for Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that sulfur inhibits the Maillard browning reaction. The total reducing capacity of the juices increased at higher thermal processing temperatures; however, it was also lower in the Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that the heat treatment of onions enhanced their antioxidant activity, but the effect was offset in the Sulfur-4 onion juice presumably due to higher sulfur content. This study indicates that sulfur, a core element for the functionality of onions, can decrease the antioxidant activity of thermally processed onions because of its potential as a Maillard reaction inhibitor. PMID:27390734

  14. Diversity and dynamics of Archaea in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The activated sludge process is one of the most widely used methods for treatment of wastewater and the microbial community composition in the sludge is important for the process operation. While the bacterial communities have been characterized in various activated sludge systems little is known about archaeal communities in activated sludge. The diversity and dynamics of the Archaea community in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Results The Archaea community was dominated by Methanosaeta-like species. During a 15 month period major changes in the community composition were only observed twice despite seasonal variations in environmental and operating conditions. Water temperature appeared to be the process parameter that affected the community composition the most. Several terminal restriction fragments also showed strong correlations with sludge properties and effluent water properties. The Archaea were estimated to make up 1.6% of total cell numbers in the activated sludge and were present both as single cells and colonies of varying sizes. Conclusions The results presented here show that Archaea can constitute a constant and integral part of the activated sludge and that it can therefore be useful to include Archaea in future studies of microbial communities in activated sludge. PMID:22784022

  15. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  16. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA's plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  17. HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION IN THE NEAR AND FAR 3 kpc ARMS

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J. A.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Caswell, J. L.; Voronkov, M. A.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Fuller, G. A.; Quinn, L.

    2009-05-10

    We report on the presence of 6.7 GHz methanol masers, known tracers of high-mass star formation, in the 3 kpc arms of the inner Galaxy. We present 49 detections from the Methanol Multibeam Survey, the largest Galactic plane survey for 6.7 GHz methanol masers, which coincide in longitude, latitude, and velocity with the recently discovered far-side 3 kpc arm and the well-known near-side 3 kpc arm. The presence of these masers is significant evidence for high-mass star formation actively occurring in both 3 kpc arms.

  18. Chemovirotherapy of malignant melanoma with a targeted and armed oncolytic measles virus.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Johanna K; Bossow, Sascha; Grossardt, Christian; Sawall, Stefanie; Kupsch, Jörg; Erbs, Philippe; Hassel, Jessica C; von Kalle, Christof; Enk, Alexander H; Nettelbeck, Dirk M; Ungerechts, Guy

    2013-04-01

    Effective treatment modalities for advanced melanoma are desperately needed. An innovative approach is virotherapy, in which viruses are engineered to infect cancer cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis and an amplification effect by viral replication and spread. Ideally, tumor selectivity of these oncolytic viruses is already determined during viral cell binding and entry, which has not been reported for melanoma. We engineered an oncolytic measles virus entering melanoma cells through the high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen (HMWMAA) and proved highly specific infection and spread in melanoma cells. We further enhanced this oncolytic virus by inserting the FCU1 gene encoding the yeast-derived prodrug convertases cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase. Combination treatment with armed and retargeted MV-FCU1-αHMWMAA and the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) led to effective prodrug conversion to 5-fluorouracil, extensive cytotoxicity to melanoma cells, and excessive bystander killing of noninfected cells. Importantly, HMWMAA-retargeted MV showed antitumor activity in a human xenograft mouse model, which was further increased by the FCU1/5-FC prodrug activation system. Finally, we demonstrated susceptibility of melanoma skin metastasis biopsies to HMWMAA-retargeted MV. The highly selective, entry-targeted and armed oncolytic virus MV-FCU1-αHMWMAA may become a potent building block of future melanoma therapies. PMID:23223133

  19. Evaluating sedimentation problems in activated sludge treatment plants operating at complete sludge retention time.

    PubMed

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Pekridis, George; Taousanidis, Nikolaos

    2015-02-01

    Zero net sludge growth can be achieved by complete retention of solids in activated sludge wastewater treatment, especially in high strength and biodegradable wastewaters. When increasing the solids retention time, MLSS and MLVSS concentrations reach a plateau phase and observed growth yields values tend to zero (Yobs ≈ 0). In this work, in order to evaluate sedimentation problems arised due to high MLSS concentrations and complete sludge retention operational conditions, two identical innovative slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plants were studied. Measurements of wastewaters' quality characteristics, treatment plant's operational conditions, sludge microscopic analysis and state point analysis were conducted. Results have shown that low COD/Nitrogen ratios increase sludge bulking and flotation phenomena due to accidental denitrification in clarifiers. High return activated sludge rate is essential in complete retention systems as it reduces sludge condensation and hydraulic retention time in the clarifiers. Under certain operational conditions sludge loading rates can greatly exceed literature limit values. The presented methodology is a useful tool for estimation of sedimentation problems encountered in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants with complete retention time. PMID:25463928

  20. Treatment of micropollutants in municipal wastewater: ozone or powdered activated carbon?

    PubMed

    Margot, Jonas; Kienle, Cornelia; Magnet, Anoÿs; Weil, Mirco; Rossi, Luca; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Abegglen, Christian; Thonney, Denis; Chèvre, Nathalie; Schärer, Michael; Barry, D A

    2013-09-01

    Many organic micropollutants present in wastewater, such as pharmaceuticals and pesticides, are poorly removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To reduce the release of these substances into the aquatic environment, advanced wastewater treatments are necessary. In this context, two large-scale pilot advanced treatments were tested in parallel over more than one year at the municipal WWTP of Lausanne, Switzerland. The treatments were: i) oxidation by ozone followed by sand filtration (SF) and ii) powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption followed by either ultrafiltration (UF) or sand filtration. More than 70 potentially problematic substances (pharmaceuticals, pesticides, endocrine disruptors, drug metabolites and other common chemicals) were regularly measured at different stages of treatment. Additionally, several ecotoxicological tests such as the Yeast Estrogen Screen, a combined algae bioassay and a fish early life stage test were performed to evaluate effluent toxicity. Both treatments significantly improved the effluent quality. Micropollutants were removed on average over 80% compared with raw wastewater, with an average ozone dose of 5.7 mg O3 l(-1) or a PAC dose between 10 and 20 mg l(-1). Depending on the chemical properties of the substances (presence of electron-rich moieties, charge and hydrophobicity), either ozone or PAC performed better. Both advanced treatments led to a clear reduction in toxicity of the effluents, with PAC-UF performing slightly better overall. As both treatments had, on average, relatively similar efficiency, further criteria relevant to their implementation were considered, including local constraints (e.g., safety, sludge disposal, disinfection), operational feasibility and cost. For sensitive receiving waters (drinking water resources or recreational waters), the PAC-UF treatment, despite its current higher cost, was considered to be the most suitable option, enabling good removal of most micropollutants

  1. Enhanced activation of cellular AMPK by dual-small molecule treatment: AICAR and A769662

    PubMed Central

    Ducommun, Serge; Ford, Rebecca J.; Bultot, Laurent; Deak, Maria; Bertrand, Luc; Kemp, Bruce E.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key cellular energy sensor and regulator of metabolic homeostasis. Activation of AMPK provides beneficial outcomes in fighting against metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Currently, there is no allosteric AMPK activator available for the treatment of metabolic diseases, and limited compounds are available to robustly stimulate cellular/tissue AMPK in a specific manner. Here we investigated whether simultaneous administration of two different pharmacological AMPK activators, which bind and act on different sites, would result in an additive or synergistic effect on AMPK and its downstream signaling and physiological events in intact cells. We observed that cotreating primary hepatocytes with the AMP mimetic 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and a low dose (1 μM) of the allosteric activator A769662 produced a synergistic effect on AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation and catalytic activity, which was associated with a more profound increase/decrease in phosphorylation of downstream AMPK targets and inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis compared with single-compound treatment. Mechanistically, we found that cotreatment does not stimulate LKB1, upstream kinase for AMPK, but it protects against dephosphorylation of Thr172 phosphorylation by protein phosphatase PP2Cα in an additive manner in a cell-free assay. Collectively, we demonstrate that AICAR sensitizes the effect of A769662 and promotes AMPK activity and its downstream events. The study demonstrates the feasibility of promoting AMPK activity by using two activators with distinct modes of action in order to achieve a greater activation of AMPK and downstream signaling. PMID:24425763

  2. Radioiodinated DPA-713 Imaging Correlates with Bactericidal Activity of Tuberculosis Treatments in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez, Alvaro A.; Pokkali, Supriya; DeMarco, Vincent P.; Klunk, Mariah; Mease, Ronnie C.; Foss, Catherine A.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2014-01-01

    Current tools for monitoring response to tuberculosis treatments have several limitations. Noninvasive biomarkers could accelerate tuberculosis drug development and clinical studies, but to date little progress has been made in developing new imaging technologies for this application. In this study, we developed pulmonary single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using radioiodinated DPA-713 to serially monitor the activity of tuberculosis treatments in live mice, which develop necrotic granulomas and cavitary lesions. C3HeB/FeJ mice were aerosol infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and administered either a standard or a highly active bedaquiline-containing drug regimen. Serial 125I-DPA-713 SPECT imaging was compared with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and standard microbiology. Ex vivo studies were performed to characterize and correlate DPA-713 imaging with cellular and cytokine responses. Pulmonary 125I-DPA-713 SPECT, but not 18F-FDG PET, was able to correctly identify the bactericidal activities of the two tuberculosis treatments as early as 4 weeks after the start of treatment (P < 0.03). DPA-713 readily penetrated the fibrotic rims of necrotic and cavitary lesions. A time-dependent decrease in both tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels was observed with treatments, with 125I-DPA-713 SPECT correlating best with tissue TNF-α levels (ρ = 0.94; P < 0.01). 124I-DPA-713 was also evaluated as a PET probe and demonstrated a 4.0-fold-higher signal intensity in the infected tuberculous lesions than uninfected controls (P = 0.03). These studies provide proof of concept for application of a novel noninvasive imaging biomarker to monitor tuberculosis treatments, with the potential for application for humans. PMID:25403669

  3. Radioiodinated DPA-713 imaging correlates with bactericidal activity of tuberculosis treatments in mice.

    PubMed

    Ordonez, Alvaro A; Pokkali, Supriya; DeMarco, Vincent P; Klunk, Mariah; Mease, Ronnie C; Foss, Catherine A; Pomper, Martin G; Jain, Sanjay K

    2015-01-01

    Current tools for monitoring response to tuberculosis treatments have several limitations. Noninvasive biomarkers could accelerate tuberculosis drug development and clinical studies, but to date little progress has been made in developing new imaging technologies for this application. In this study, we developed pulmonary single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using radioiodinated DPA-713 to serially monitor the activity of tuberculosis treatments in live mice, which develop necrotic granulomas and cavitary lesions. C3HeB/FeJ mice were aerosol infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and administered either a standard or a highly active bedaquiline-containing drug regimen. Serial (125)I-DPA-713 SPECT imaging was compared with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and standard microbiology. Ex vivo studies were performed to characterize and correlate DPA-713 imaging with cellular and cytokine responses. Pulmonary (125)I-DPA-713 SPECT, but not (18)F-FDG PET, was able to correctly identify the bactericidal activities of the two tuberculosis treatments as early as 4 weeks after the start of treatment (P < 0.03). DPA-713 readily penetrated the fibrotic rims of necrotic and cavitary lesions. A time-dependent decrease in both tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels was observed with treatments, with (125)I-DPA-713 SPECT correlating best with tissue TNF-α levels (ρ = 0.94; P < 0.01). (124)I-DPA-713 was also evaluated as a PET probe and demonstrated a 4.0-fold-higher signal intensity in the infected tuberculous lesions than uninfected controls (P = 0.03). These studies provide proof of concept for application of a novel noninvasive imaging biomarker to monitor tuberculosis treatments, with the potential for application for humans. PMID:25403669

  4. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  5. Arms Control past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T.R.

    1991-12-01

    I am going to talk today about Arms Control. First, I want to go over the recent history of the process. Five years ago, the pace of arms control changed dramatically. From an outsider it probably didn't appear that way -- but those working it, the shift from the historic glacial speed normally associated with this process to one of pressures -- political and economic -- national and global -- to actually conclude meaningful, verifiable agreements was a major change. Then, I want to spend a few minutes covering the future of arms control new that we have lost our enemy, and it is no longer a bipolar world. I also want to leave time for easy questions.

  6. Arms Control past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T.R.

    1991-12-01

    I am going to talk today about Arms Control. First, I want to go over the recent history of the process. Five years ago, the pace of arms control changed dramatically. From an outsider it probably didn`t appear that way -- but those working it, the shift from the historic glacial speed normally associated with this process to one of pressures -- political and economic -- national and global -- to actually conclude meaningful, verifiable agreements was a major change. Then, I want to spend a few minutes covering the future of arms control new that we have lost our enemy, and it is no longer a bipolar world. I also want to leave time for easy questions.

  7. Prefrontal activation predicts social functioning improvement after initial treatment in late-onset depression.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Katsutoshi; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Nagata, Izumi; Kaneko, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    The activation of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) has been shown to be lacking in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of patients with late-onset depression (LOD), in verbal fluency task (VFT)-related near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In our previous studies, we have emphasized the connection between the lack of activation in the frontopolar cortex and social functioning disorder in patients with LOD. In this study, we investigated whether the responsiveness to medical treatment of untreated patients with LOD, particularly social functioning improvements, could be predicted by NIRS findings at the initial examination. The subjects were 29 patients with LOD who were diagnosed with major depression at 65 years or older at the initial examination (mean age ± standard deviation, 72.4 ± 5.71 years). We measured the changes in hemoglobin concentration in the prefrontal and temporal cortex regions during a VFT by using 52-channel NIRS. In addition, depression status and social functioning were evaluated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale, respectively, at the initial examination and 8 weeks after the treatment. A negative correlation was found between the NIRS activation in the right ventrolateral PFC region before treatment and the improvement in social functioning. These results suggested that the social functioning improvements were greater in LOD with initially lower NIRS activation in the right ventrolateral PFC region. NIRS is a simple technique that can be used before treatment to evaluate the social functioning levels of patients with LOD, and predict social functioning improvement after treatment. PMID:25659188

  8. Underlying Mechanism of Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Microparticles and Implications for the Treatment of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Soo Jin; Oh, Manhwan; Yeo, Won-Sik; Galvão, Klibs N.; Jeong, Kwang Cheol

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistant microorganisms is a great public health concern and has triggered an urgent need to develop alternative antibiotics. Chitosan microparticles (CM), derived from chitosan, have been shown to reduce E. coli O157:H7 shedding in a cattle model, indicating potential use as an alternative antimicrobial agent. However, the underlying mechanism of CM on reducing the shedding of this pathogen remains unclear. To understand the mode of action, we studied molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial activity of CM using in vitro and in vivo methods. We report that CM are an effective bactericidal agent with capability to disrupt cell membranes. Binding assays and genetic studies with an ompA mutant strain demonstrated that outer membrane protein OmpA of E. coli O157:H7 is critical for CM binding, and this binding activity is coupled with a bactericidal effect of CM. This activity was also demonstrated in an animal model using cows with uterine diseases. CM treatment effectively reduced shedding of intrauterine pathogenic E. coli (IUPEC) in the uterus compared to antibiotic treatment. Since Shiga-toxins encoded in the genome of bacteriophage is often overexpressed during antibiotic treatment, antibiotic therapy is generally not recommended because of high risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome. However, CM treatment did not induce bacteriophage or Shiga-toxins in E. coli O157:H7; suggesting that CM can be a potential candidate to treat infections caused by this pathogen. This work establishes an underlying mechanism whereby CM exert antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo, providing significant insight for the treatment of diseases caused by a broad spectrum of pathogens including antibiotic resistant microorganisms. PMID:24658463

  9. Evaluation of estrogenic activity and measurement of EDCs in wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. C.; Jung, J. Y.; Kim, H. K.

    2006-10-01

    Correlations between estrogenic activity and DOC/UV260 ratio in wastewater treatment processes were investigated to propose a simple, reliable and comprehensive indicator for the presence of estrogenic substances. Contrary to this, when short-term bioassays such as the E-SCREEN, receptor binding and reporter gene expression assays are used for detecting estrogenic activity in the wastewater sample, they require a long time, at least a few days. The major factors contributing to the estrogenic activity were found to be 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone (El). A good relationship between the DOC/ UV260 ratio and the concentration of estrogens (El and E2) in the effluent of the activated sludge process was found: the E2 concentration increased as the DOC/UV260 ratio increased while the El concentration decreased. The relative estrogenic activity and DOC/UV260 ratio showed a good correlation (R2=0.84) for all sewage samples except the ozonized samples in the sewage treatment plants. This study shows that the estrogenic compounds are hard to be mineralized by the conventional biological processes. Advanced oxidation processes are required to further remove estrogenic substances in the secondary effluent. By analysis of DOC and UV260, the estrogenic activity in the wastewater can be rapidly estimated.

  10. Investigating a new neuromodulation treatment for brain disorders using synchronized activation of multimodal pathways

    PubMed Central

    Markovitz, Craig D.; Smith, Benjamin T.; Gloeckner, Cory D.; Lim, Hubert H.

    2015-01-01

    Neuromodulation is an increasingly accepted treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders but is limited by its invasiveness or its inability to target deep brain structures using noninvasive techniques. We propose a new concept called Multimodal Synchronization Therapy (mSync) for achieving targeted activation of the brain via noninvasive and precisely timed activation of auditory, visual, somatosensory, motor, cognitive, and limbic pathways. In this initial study in guinea pigs, we investigated mSync using combined activation of just the auditory and somatosensory pathways, which induced differential and timing dependent plasticity in neural firing within deep brain and cortical regions of the auditory system. Furthermore, by varying the location of somatosensory stimulation across the body, we increased or decreased spiking activity across different neurons. These encouraging results demonstrate the feasibility of systematically modulating the brain using mSync. Considering that hearing disorders such as tinnitus and hyperacusis have been linked to abnormal and hyperactive firing patterns within the auditory system, these results open up the possibility for using mSync to decrease this pathological activity by varying stimulation parameters. Incorporating multiple types of pathways beyond just auditory and somatosensory inputs and using other activation patterns may enable treatment of various brain disorders. PMID:25804410

  11. Treatment of coke-oven wastewater with the powdered activated carbon-contact stabilization activated sludge process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Suidan, M.T.; Deady, M.A.; Gee, C.S.

    1983-11-01

    The objective of the study was to determine optimum parameters for the operation of an innovative process train used in the treatment of coke-over wastewater. The treatment process train consisted of a contact-stabilization activated sludge system with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition, followed by activated sludge nitrification, followed by denitrification in an anoxic filter. The control and operating parameters evaluated during the study were: (a) the average mixed-liquor PAC concentration maintained in the contact-stabilization system, (b) the solids retention time practiced in the contact-stabilization system, and (c) the hydraulic detention time maintained in the contact aeration tank. Three identical treatement process trains were constructed and employed in this study. The coke-oven wastewater used for this investigation was fed to the treatment units at 30% strength. The first part of the study was devoted to determining the interactions between the mixed liquor PAC concentration and the solids retention time in the contact-stabilization tanks. Results showed that optimum overall system performance is attainable when the highest sludge age (30 day) and highest mixed liquor PAC concentration were practiced. During the second phase of the study, all three systems were operated at a 30 day solids retention time while different detention times of 1, 2/3 and 1/3 day were evaluated in the contact tank. PAC addition rates were maintained at the former levels and, consequently, reduced contact times entailed higher mixed liquor carbon concentrations. Once again, the system receiving the highest PAC addition rate of PAC exhibited the best overall performance. This system exhibited no deterioration in process performance as a result of decreased contact detention time. 72 references, 41 figures, 24 tables.

  12. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) treatment induces apoptosis in cultured rat mesangial cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress activation.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Jung; Oh, Ki-Seok; Nho, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Gye-Yeop; Kim, Dong-Il

    2016-06-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a high risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD), has been reported to promote cellular dysfunction via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activation in various cells. Additionally, increased serum ADMA levels have been observed in incipient kidney diseases. Previously, we reported that activated ER stress is associated with mesangial cell apoptosis, observed mainly in overt nephropathy or chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the effect of ADMA on mesangial cell apoptosis is unknown. Thus, we investigated the effects of ADMA on mesangial cell apoptosis and ER stress signaling. ADMA treatment increased caspase-3 activity and activated three branches of ER stress signaling (PERK, IRE1, and ATF6) that induce mesangial cell apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibitors of ER stress (inhibitors of PERK, IRE1, and S1P) attenuated ADMA-induced cleavage of caspase-3 and induced a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, these inhibitors diminished the number of apoptotic cells induced by ADMA treatment. Taken together, our results indicated that ADMA treatment induces mesangial cell apoptosis via ER stress signaling. These results suggest that ADMA-induced mesangial cell apoptosis could contribute to the progression of overt nephropathy and CKD. PMID:26992443

  13. Oral activity of a nature-derived cyclic peptide for the treatment of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Thell, Kathrin; Hellinger, Roland; Sahin, Emine; Michenthaler, Paul; Gold-Binder, Markus; Haider, Thomas; Kuttke, Mario; Liutkevičiūtė, Zita; Göransson, Ulf; Gründemann, Carsten; Schabbauer, Gernot; Gruber, Christian W.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system. It is characterized by auto-reactive T cells that induce demyelination and neuronal degradation. Treatment options are still limited and several MS medications need to be administered by parenteral application but are modestly effective. Oral active drugs such as fingolimod have been weighed down by safety concerns. Consequently, there is a demand for novel, especially orally active therapeutics. Nature offers an abundance of compounds for drug discovery. Recently, the circular plant peptide kalata B1 was shown to silence T-cell proliferation in vitro in an IL-2–dependent mechanism. Owing to this promising effect, we aimed to determine in vivo activity of the cyclotide [T20K]kalata B1 using the MS mouse model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Treatment of mice with the cyclotide resulted in a significant delay and diminished symptoms of EAE by oral administration. Cyclotide application substantially impeded disease progression and did not exhibit adverse effects. Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and the reduction of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular IL-2, distinguish the cyclotide from other marketed drugs. Considering their stable structural topology and oral activity, cyclotides are candidates as peptide therapeutics for pharmaceutical drug development for treatment of T-cell-mediated disorders. PMID:27035952

  14. Controlled trial of oligopeptide versus amino acid diet in treatment of active Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, J C; Giaffer, M H; Holdsworth, C D

    1995-01-01

    Elemental diets are effective in inducing remission in active Crohn's disease, but how they exert this therapeutic effect is unclear. In a previous study a whole protein containing diet proved less effective than one in which food antigens were excluded, suggesting that exclusion of food antigens from the gut was a possible mechanism. This study was designed to test whether an oligopeptide diet of hydrolysed proteins was as effective as an amino acid based diet. These diets were equally antigen free but with different nitrogen sources. Forty four patients with active Crohn's disease were randomised in a controlled trial of amino acid versus oligopeptide diet. The feeds were given by nasogastric tube in equicaloric quantities and were the sole form of nutrition. Treatment was continued for four weeks although failure to improve by day 10 resulted in withdrawal. Quantitative leucocyte scintigraphy was used to investigate the effect of diet treatment on gut inflammation. Clinical and nutritional responses to treatment were also measured. Sixteen patients entered remission (including withdrawal of corticosteroids), six patients could not tolerate the nasogastric tube, and 22 patients failed to respond. The two diets were equally effective. Patients who responded had a rapid drop in clinical index of disease activity and a major reduction in the bowel uptake of leucocytes on scintigraphy. The oligopeptide and amino acid based enteral feeds were equally effective at inducing remission in active Crohn's disease. With both diets clinical improvement was accompanied by a reduction in intestinal inflammation. Images Figure 3 PMID:7890238

  15. Gravitoinertial force level influences arm movement control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisk, J.; Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1993-01-01

    1. The ability to move the forearm between remembered elbow joint angles immediately after rapid increases or decreases of the background gravitoinertial force (G) level was measured. The movements had been well-practiced in a normal 1G environment before the measurements in high-(1.8G) and low-force (0G) environments. The forearm and upper arm were always unsupported to maximize the influence of altered G-loading and to minimize extraneous cues about arm position. 2. Horizontal and vertical movement planes were studied to measure the effects of varying the G load in the movement plane within a given G background. Rapid and slow movements were studied to assess the role of proprioceptive feedback. 3. G level did not affect the amplitude of rapid movements, indicating that subjects were able to plan and to generate appropriate motor commands for the new G loading of the arm. The amplitude of slow movements was affected by G level, indicating that proprioceptive feedback is influenced by G level. 4. The effects of G level were similar for horizontal and vertical movements, indicating that proprioceptive information from supporting structures, such as the shoulder joint and muscles, had a role in allowing generation of the appropriate motor commands. 5. The incidence and size of dynamic overshoots were greater in 0G and for rapid movements. This G-related change in damping suggests a decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G. A decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G and an increase in 1.8G are consistent with the results of our prior studies on the tonic vibration reflex, locomotion, and perception of head movement trajectory in varying force backgrounds.

  16. Effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of extracts from citrus peels.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seok-Moon; Kim, So-Young; Kim, Dong-Ryul; Jo, Seong-Chun; Nam, K C; Ahn, D U; Lee, Seung-Cheol

    2004-06-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of extracts from Citrus unshiu peels was evaluated. Citrus peels (CP) (5 g) were placed in Pyrex Petri dishes (8.0 cm diameter) and heat-treated at 50, 100, or 150 degrees C for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min in an electric muffle furnace. After heat treatment, 70% ethanol extract (EE) and water extract (WE) (0.1 g/10 mL) of CP were prepared, and total phenol contents (TPC), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and reducing power of the extracts were determined. The antioxidant activities of CP extracts increased as heating temperature increased. For example, heat treatment of CP at 150 degrees C for 60 min increased the TPC, RSA, and reducing power of EE from 71.8 to 171.0 microM, from 29.64 to 64.25%, and from 0.45 to 0.82, respectively, compared to non-heat-treated control. In the case of WE from CP heat-treated at the same conditions (150 degrees C for 60 min), the TPC, RSA, and reducing power also increased from 84.4 to 204.9 microM, from 15.81 to 58.26%, and from 0.27 to 0.96, respectively. Several low molecular weight phenolic compounds such as 2,3-diacetyl-1-phenylnaphthalene, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldoxime, 5-hydroxyvaleric acid, 2,3-diacetyl-1-phenylnaphthalene, and vanillic acid were newly formed in the CP heated at 150 degrees C for 30 min. These results indicated that the antioxidant activity of CP extracts was significantly affected by heating temperature and duration of treatment on CP and that the heating process can be used as a tool for increasing the antioxidant activity of CP. PMID:15161203

  17. Detection Technologies, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Third/fourth quarters 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G; Stull, S; Talaber, C; Moulthrop, P

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is another in a series of issues about specific means for detecting and identifying proliferation and other suspect activities outside the realm of arms control treaties. All the projects discussed are funded by the Office of Research and Development of the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  18. Influence of medical treatment, smoking and disease activity on pregnancy outcomes in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Julsgaard, Mette; Nørgaard, Mette; Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Grosen, Anne; Hasseriis, Sara; Christensen, Lisbet Ambrosius

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. Little is known about predictors for adverse pregnancy outcomes among women with Crohn's disease (CD). In this population-based study, we examined pregnancy outcomes in CD stratified by medical treatment and smoking status while accounting for disease activity. METHODS. In two Danish regions with a population of 1.6 million, we identified 154 CD women who had given birth within a 6-year period. We combined questionnaire data, prescription data, data from medical records and population-based medical databases. We used logistic regression to estimate prevalence odds ratios (POR) for adverse pregnancy outcomes by different predictors. RESULTS. Among 105 (80%) respondents, 55 (52%) reported taking medication during pregnancy. The majority (95%) were in disease remission. The children's mean birth weight did not differ by maternal medical treatment. As expected, smoking was a predictor of low birth weight. Mean birth weight in children of smokers in medical treatment was significantly reduced by 274 g compared with children of non-smokers who received medical treatment. In children of women without medical treatment, this difference was 126 g between smokers and non-smokers. Women in medical treatment did not have an increased risk of preterm delivery (POR 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18-2.79), congenital malformations (POR 0.60; 0.10-3.76) or cesarean section (POR 1.40; 0.63-3.08). CONCLUSIon. In CD, smoking was negatively associated with child birth weight. This association was most pronounced among women who received medical treatment. Maternal medical treatment for CD did not seem to be a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24417179

  19. Activation of retinal tyrosine hydroxylase: tolerance induced by chronic treatment with haloperidol does not modify response to light

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.; Neff, N.H.

    1982-05-01

    A single dose of haloperidol administered to rats in the dark increases the activity of retinal tyrosine hydroxylase. The ability of haloperidol to activate the enzyme is diminished 24 hr after terminating 22 to 30 days of treatment with haloperidol. The retinal enzyme is also tolerant to activation by treatment with chlorpromazine. In contrast, exposure of the animals to light activates the enzyme to the same extent in chronic haloperidol-treated and control animals. Thus, chronic haloperidol treatment does not modify the ability of the retinal enzyme system to respond to the physiological stimulus, light. Apparently, activation of retinol tyrosine hydroxylase by haloperidol and light occurs by independent mechanisms.

  20. Fate of endocrine-active compounds during municipal biosolids treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Citulski, Joel A; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2010-11-15

    For two decades, the fates of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) across various wastewater treatment processes have been studied using chemical and in vitro bioassay measurements. In comparison, little work has been conducted to track the fates of EDCs during municipal biosolids stabilization, particularly using bioassay approaches. This leads to knowledge gaps with respect to understanding which single or combined biosolid treatments facilitate EDC removal, and what the total endocrine-active potency of treated biosolids might be. These unknowns in turn heighten public opposition and distrust of biosolids reuse applications. This review aims to summarize what is currently known regarding EDC removal during commonly used full-scale biosolids treatment processes and highlights analytical challenges that are relevant when in vitro bioassays and chemical analyses are applied to biosolids samples. PMID:20961053

  1. Activated sludge as substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria in acid mine drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ani, W.A.G.; Henry, J.G.; Prasad, D.

    1996-11-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), characterized by high concentrations of sulfates and heavy metals and low pH, presents a potential hazard to the environment.Several treatment processes (chemical precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis and electrolytic recovery) are available, but these are often too expensive. Biological treatment of AMD, mediated by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), seems promising. The objective of this study was to use activated sludge as a carbon source for the SRB and determine the most effective COD/sulfate ratio and hydraulic retention time (HRT) for reducing sulfate. Such information would be useful for the application of the proposed two-stage system to AMD treatment. Since the aim of this study was to obtain sulfate reduction and to avoid methane production, it was decided to operate the digesters initially at low COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} ratios of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0.

  2. The "Conflicted Dying": The Active Search for Life Extension in Advanced Cancer Through Biomedical Treatment.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Shan; Peter, Elizabeth; Gastaldo, Denise; Howell, Doris

    2016-03-01

    Using a poststructural perspective, we examine the subjectivities that are produced when advanced cancer patients seek life extension through biomedical treatments. Seven case studies were developed that included 20 interviews with patients, family, nurses, and physicians recruited from a tertiary hospital in Canada, 30 documents, and 5 hours of participant observation. We identify seven types of subjectivity: (a) the Desperate Subject, (b) the Cancer Expert Subject, (c) the Proactive Subject, (d) the Productive Subject, (e) the Mistrusting Subject, (f) the Model Patient Subject, and (g) the Suffering Subject. We characterize the "conflicted dying," a contemporary figure who holds multiple perspectives about seeking curative treatment despite the acknowledgment of death. Using active strategies to gain access to treatment, this figure resists traditional arrangements of power/knowledge established by health care providers. We suggest that the search for life extension is a process of shaping the self to fit certain aesthetical traits associated with surviving cancer. PMID:25711844

  3. Transcriptional Activity of rRNA Genes in Barley Cells after Mutagenic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kwasniewska, Jolanta; Jaskowiak, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the combination of the micronucleus test with analysis of the activity of the rRNA genes in mutagen-treated Hordeum vulgare (barley) by maleic hydrazide (MH) cells was performed. Simultaneously fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 25S rDNA as probes and an analysis of the transcriptional activity of 35S rRNA genes with silver staining were performed. The results showed that transcriptional activity is always maintained in the micronuclei although they are eliminated during the next cell cycle. The analysis of the transcriptional activity was extended to barley nuclei. MH influenced the fusion of the nucleoli in barley nuclei. The silver staining enabled detection of the nuclear bodies which arose after MH treatment. The results confirmed the usefulness of cytogenetic techniques in the characterization of micronuclei. Similar analyses can be now extended to other abiotic stresses to study the response of plant cells to the environment. PMID:27257817

  4. Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, A; Menéndez, H; Méndez, E; Cohobón, E; Samayoa, B E; Jauregui, E; Peralta, E; Carrillo, G

    1995-10-01

    Plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of gonorrhoea were macerated in 50% alcohol and the tincture tested for in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae using strains isolated from symptomatic patients and confirmed by standard bacteriological procedures. From 46 plants investigated, 13 (28.3%) showed evident inhibition zones (> 9 mm), seven (15.2%) showed small activity (6.1-8.9 mm) and 26 (56.5%) showed no activity; nine of these plants inhibited five strains of N. gonorrhoea freshly isolated. The most active plants of American origin were: bark of Bixa orellana fruits of Parmentiera edulis, leaf of Diphysa robinioides, Eupatorium odoratum, Gliricidia sepium, Physalis angulata, Piper aduncum and Prosopis juliflora, root of Casimiroa edulis, and whole Clematis dioica. PMID:8583798

  5. Transcriptional Activity of rRNA Genes in Barley Cells after Mutagenic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the combination of the micronucleus test with analysis of the activity of the rRNA genes in mutagen-treated Hordeum vulgare (barley) by maleic hydrazide (MH) cells was performed. Simultaneously fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 25S rDNA as probes and an analysis of the transcriptional activity of 35S rRNA genes with silver staining were performed. The results showed that transcriptional activity is always maintained in the micronuclei although they are eliminated during the next cell cycle. The analysis of the transcriptional activity was extended to barley nuclei. MH influenced the fusion of the nucleoli in barley nuclei. The silver staining enabled detection of the nuclear bodies which arose after MH treatment. The results confirmed the usefulness of cytogenetic techniques in the characterization of micronuclei. Similar analyses can be now extended to other abiotic stresses to study the response of plant cells to the environment. PMID:27257817

  6. Occupational, Physical, and Speech Therapy Treatment Activities during Inpatient Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Cynthia L.; Dijkers, Marcel P.; Barrett, Ryan S.; Horn, Susan D.; Giuffrida, Clare G.; Timpson, Misti L.; Carroll, Deborah M.; Smout, Randy J.; Hammond, Flora M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe use of Occupational Therapy (OT), Physical Therapy (PT) and Speech Therapy (ST) treatment activities throughout the acute rehabilitation stay of patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Design Multi-site prospective observational cohort study. Setting 9 U.S. and 1 Canadian inpatient rehabilitation settings. Participants 2130 patients admitted for initial acute rehabilitation following TBI. Patients were categorized based on admission FIM cognitive scores, resulting in 5 fairly homogenous groups. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Percentage of patients engaged in specific activities and mean time patients engaged in the activities, per 10-hour block of time for OT, PT, and ST combined. Results Therapy activities in OT, PT, and ST across all 5 cognitive groups had a primary focus on basic activities. While advanced activities occurred in each discipline and within each cognitive group, these advanced activities occurred with fewer patients and usually only toward the end of the rehabilitation stay. Conclusions The pattern of activities engaged in was both similar to and different from patterns seen in previous PBE studies with different rehabilitation diagnostic groups. PMID:26212399

  7. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of berberine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Geng, Ya-Na; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are proved to be critical for the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Berberine (BBR) is a natural compound isolated from plants such as Coptis chinensis and Hydrastis canadensis and with multiple pharmacological activities. Recent studies showed that BBR had antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which contributed in part to its efficacy against diabetes mellitus. In this review, we summarized the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of BBR as well as their molecular basis. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of BBR were noted with changes in oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, and proinflammatory cytokines after BBR administration in diabetic animals. BBR inhibited oxidative stress and inflammation in a variety of tissues including liver, adipose tissue, kidney and pancreas. Mechanisms of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of BBR were complex, which involved multiple cellular kinases and signaling pathways, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) pathway, and nuclear factor- κ B (NF- κ B) pathway. Detailed mechanisms and pathways for the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of BBR still need further investigation. Clarification of these issues could help to understand the pharmacology of BBR in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and promote the development of antidiabetic natural products. PMID:24669227

  8. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Berberine in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Ya-Na; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are proved to be critical for the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Berberine (BBR) is a natural compound isolated from plants such as Coptis chinensis and Hydrastis canadensis and with multiple pharmacological activities. Recent studies showed that BBR had antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which contributed in part to its efficacy against diabetes mellitus. In this review, we summarized the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of BBR as well as their molecular basis. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of BBR were noted with changes in oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, and proinflammatory cytokines after BBR administration in diabetic animals. BBR inhibited oxidative stress and inflammation in a variety of tissues including liver, adipose tissue, kidney and pancreas. Mechanisms of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of BBR were complex, which involved multiple cellular kinases and signaling pathways, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) pathway, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Detailed mechanisms and pathways for the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of BBR still need further investigation. Clarification of these issues could help to understand the pharmacology of BBR in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and promote the development of antidiabetic natural products. PMID:24669227

  9. The adsorption onto fibrous activated carbon applications to water and air treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Le Cloirec, P.; Brasquet, C.; Subrenat, E.

    1996-12-31

    The adsorption of polluted fluids is performed by fiber activated carbon (FAC). The adsorption is carried out in a batch or dynamic reactor. Classic models are applied and kinetic constants are calculated. Results showed that the performances of FAC are significantly higher than that of granular activated carbon (GAC) in terms of adsorption velocity and selectivity. The breakthrough curves obtained with FAC adsorbers are particularly steep, suggesting a smaller mass transfer resistance than GAC. The adsorption zone in the FAC bed is about 3.4 mm and is not really dependent on the water flow rate within the studied range. Applications are developed in water and air treatments. Examples are given in the micropollutants removal of an aqueous solution. Air loaded with VOC or/and odorous molecules is treated by fibers. Regeneration of this material is performed by heating by joule effects or electromagnetic induction. Theses original approaches to water or air treatment processes are successfully put to use.

  10. The adsorption onto fibrous activated carbon - applications to water and air treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Le Cloirec, P.; Subrenat, E.

    1996-10-01

    The adsorption of polluted fluids is performed by fiber activated carbon (FAC). The adsorption is carried out in a batch or dynamic reactor. Classic model`s are applied and kinetic constants are calculated. Results showed that the performances of FAC are significantly higher than that of granular activated carbon (GAC) in terms of adsorption velocity. and selectivity. The breakthrough curves obtained with FAC adsorbers are particularly steep, suggesting a smaller mass transfer resistance than GAC. The adsorption zone in the FAC bed is about 3.4 mm and is not really dependent on the water flow rare within the studied range. Applications are developed in water and air treatments. Examples are given in the micropollutants removal of an aqueous solution. Air loaded with VOC or/and odorous molecules is treated by fibers. Regeneration of this material is performed by heating by joule effects or electromagnetic induction. These original approaches to water or air treatment processes are successfully put to use.

  11. GFDL ARM Project Technical Report: Using ARM Observations to Evaluate Cloud and Convection Parameterizations & Cloud-Convection-Radiation Interactions in the GFDL Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    V. Ramaswamy; L. J. Donner; J-C. Golaz; S. A. Klein

    2010-06-17

    This report briefly summarizes the progress made by ARM postdoctoral fellow, Yanluan Lin, at GFDL during the period from October 2008 to present. Several ARM datasets have been used for GFDL model evaluation, understanding, and improvement. This includes a new ice fall speed parameterization with riming impact and its test in GFDL AM3, evaluation of model cloud and radiation diurnal and seasonal variation using ARM CMBE data, model ice water content evaluation using ARM cirrus data, and coordination of the TWPICE global model intercomparison. The work illustrates the potential and importance of ARM data for GCM evaluation, understanding, and ultimately, improvement of GCM cloud and radiation parameterizations. Future work includes evaluation and improvement of the new dynamicsPDF cloud scheme and aerosol activation in the GFDL model.

  12. Bevacizumab and temozolomide versus temozolomide alone as neoadjuvant treatment in unresected glioblastoma: the GENOM 009 randomized phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Balana, Carmen; De Las Penas, Ramon; Sepúlveda, Juan Manuel; Gil-Gil, Miguel J; Luque, Raquel; Gallego, Oscar; Carrato, Cristina; Sanz, Carolina; Reynes, Gaspar; Herrero, Ana; Ramirez, Jose Luis; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; Berrocal, Alfonso; Vieitez, Jose Maria; Garcia, Almudena; Vazquez-Estevez, Sergio; Peralta, Sergi; Fernandez, Isaura; Henriquez, Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Maria; De la Cruz, Juan Jose; Capellades, Jaume; Giner, Pilar; Villà, Salvador

    2016-05-01

    We sought to determine the impact of bevacizumab on reduction of tumor size prior to chemoradiotherapy in unresected glioblastoma patients. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive temozolomide (TMZ arm) or temozolomide plus bevacizumab (TMZ + BEV arm). In both arms, neoadjuvant treatment was temozolomide (85 mg/m(2), days 1-21, two 28-day cycles), concurrent radiation plus temozolomide, and six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide. In the TMZ + BEV arm, bevacizumab (10 mg/kg) was added on days 1 and 15 of each neoadjuvant cycle and on days 1, 15 and 30 of concurrent treatment. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed response to neoadjuvant treatment. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and the impact on outcome of MGMT methylation in tumor and serum. One hundred and two patients were included; 43 in the TMZ arm and 44 in the TMZ + BEV arm were evaluable for response. Results favored the TMZ + BEV arm in terms of objective response (3 [6.7 %] vs. 11 [22.9 %]; odds ratio 4.2; P = 0.04). PFS and OS were longer in the TMZ + BEV arm, though the difference did not reach statistical significance. MGMT methylation in tumor, but not in serum, was associated with outcome. More patients experienced toxicities in the TMZ + BEV than in the TMZ arm (P = 0.06). The combination of bevacizumab plus temozolomide is more active than temozolomide alone and may well confer benefit in terms of tumor shrinkage in unresected patients albeit at the expense of greater toxicity. PMID:26847813

  13. Imaging Caspase-3 Activation as a Marker of Apoptosis-Targeted Treatment Response in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Delphine L.; Engle, Jacquelyn T.; Griffin, Elizabeth A.; Miller, J. Philip; Chu, Wenhua; Zhou, Dong; Mach, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We tested whether positron emission tomography (PET) with the caspase-3 targeted isatin analog [18F]WC-4-116 could image caspase-3 activation in response to an apoptosis-inducing anticancer therapy. Procedures [18F]WC-4-116 uptake was determined in etoposide-treated EL4 cells. Biodistribution studies with [18F]WC-4-116 and [18F]ICMT-18, a non-caspase-3-targeted tracer, as well as [18F]WC-4-116 microPET imaging assessed responses in Colo205 tumor bearing mice treated with death receptor 5 (DR5) targeted agonist antibodies. Immunohistochemical staining and enzyme assays confirmed caspase-3 activation. Two-way analysis of variance or Student’s t-test assessed for treatment-related changes in tracer uptake. Results [18F]WC-4-116 increased 8 ± 2-fold in etoposide-treated cells. The [18F]WC-4-116 %ID/g also increased significantly in tumors with high caspase-3 enzyme activity (p < 0.05). [18F]ICMT-18 tumor uptake did not differ in tumors with high or low caspase-3 enzyme activity. Conclusions [18F]WC-4-116 uptake in vivo reflects increased caspase-3 activation and may be useful for detecting caspase-3 mediated apoptosis treatment responses in cancer. PMID:25344147

  14. Protease-Activated Pore-Forming Peptides for the Treatment and Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    LeBeau, Aaron M.; Denmeade, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    A common hallmark of cancers with highly aggressive phenotypes is increased proteolysis in the tumor and the surrounding microenvironment. Prostate cancer has a number of proteases uniquely associated with it that may play various important roles in disease progression. In this report, we utilize the peritumoral proteolytic activity of prostate cancer to activate engineered peptide constructs for the treatment and noninvasive imaging of prostate cancer. Using a modular "propeptide" approach, a cationic diastereomeric pore-forming peptide domain was linked to an inactivating acidic peptide domain. The inactivating acidic peptide domain was engineered to be a cleavable substrate for the secreted serine protease prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or the transmembrane metalloprotease prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). The propeptides were then evaluated in a direct comparison study. Both the PSA and PSMA activated propeptides were found to be cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells in vitro. In vivo, however, treatment of LNCaP and CWR22Rv1 xenografts with the PSMA propeptide resulted in a pronounced cytostatic effect when compared with xenografts treated with the PSA propeptide or the cationic diastereomeric peptide alone. The PSMA activated propeptide also proved to be an effective optical imaging probe in vivo when labeled with a near-infrared fluorophore. These data suggest that protease-activated pore-forming peptides could potentially be used for both imaging and treating prostate cancer. PMID:25537662

  15. Antipyrine clearance and response to interferon treatment in patients with chronic active hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Coverdale, S; Byth, K; Field, J; Liddle, C; Lin, R; Farrell, G C

    1995-10-01

    To determine whether hepatic metabolic function affects the response to interferon treatment, we measured antipyrine clearance (APC) in 85 patients with chronic active hepatitis C and compared the results with treatment outcome. Among 55 patients who responded to interferon by normalization of alanine transaminase (ALT), median APC before treatment was 0.47 (range, 0.12 to 0.98; normal range, 0.34 to 1.02 mL/min/kg body wt), a value that was significantly greater than in 30 nonresponders (0.23; 0.08 to 0.67 mL/min/kg body wt, P < .001). APC was closely associated with response to interferon. The response rate among cases with values > 0.25 mL/min/kg body weight was 79%, the same as in cases without cirrhosis. Cases without cirrhosis and with APC of > 0.25 mL/min/kg body weight had an 85% chance of responding to interferon; this was unlikely a simple reflection of histological activity, because the correlation with Scheuer score was poor in this subgroup (r = -.31, P < .05). A second, independent group of 43 patients was used to test the predictive value of APC (using 0.25 mL/min/kg body wt as a cut-off) for response to interferon treatment. In this group, APC correctly predicted positive response to interferon in 75% of cases. APC was also used to measure the effects of treatment on hepatic metabolic function. Regardless of outcome, there was no change in APC at the end of a 6-month course of interferon treatment. Six months later, however, improvement in APC (14%; P < .05) was evident among responders but not in those who had failed to respond to interferon.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7557852

  16. Effect of thermal treatments on the properties of nickel and cobalt activated-charcoal-supported catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gandia, L.M.; Montes, M. )

    1994-02-01

    The effect of thermal pretreatment in N[sub 2] up to 723 K and the activation treatments in H[sub 2] and an inert atmosphere on the properties of Ni and Co activated-charcoal-supported catalysts were studied. Catalysts were characterized by means of N[sub 2] adsorption at 77 K, H[sub 2] chemisorption at room temperature, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The catalysts' activity and selectivity for acetone hydrogenation to 2-propanol under unusual and severe conditions (473 K and high overall acetone conversion) were also measured. TGA and XRD evidence was found for the charcoal-support-promoted NiO and CoO reduction to the metallic states when the catalysts were subjected to an inert atmosphere above 723 K caused a loss of acetone hydrogenation activity (calculated on a metal load basis) for both the Ni and Co activated-charcoal-supported catalysts, with respect to that of the low-temperature (573 K) activation treatments. In a series of activated-charcoal-supported Ni catalysts, a large decrease in the H[sub 2] chemisorption uptake was also found for a sample pretreated in N[sub 2] at 723 K prior to H[sub 2] reduction. These results were not due to nickel or cobalt sintering, as shown by XRD line broadening measurements. The catalytic activity loss was accompanied by a decrease (in the case of Ni) and an increase (in the case of Co) in the 2-propanol selectivity. 44 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Does goal setting in activity-focused interventions for children with cerebral palsy influence treatment outcome?

    PubMed

    Brogren Carlberg, Eva; Löwing, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    Today, treatment for children with cerebral palsy predominantly aims at improving the children's possibilities to perform everyday activities in their natural environment. The activities in focus for intervention are often expressed as specific goals, frequently defined in a collaborative goal-setting process between professionals and parents. The role of goal setting to improve the outcome of the intervention has not been shown in the literature so far. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore if goal setting has an impact on treatment outcome assessed by standardized measures. CINAHL and MEDLINE were searched from January 2000 to October 2012, resulting in a final selection of 13 articles, six of which were randomized controlled trials. Methodological quality was assessed and study characteristics were analysed descriptively. Subject characteristics, type of intervention/s, frequency, and intensity of therapy varied largely. Outcome was assessed by standardized outcome measures as well as evaluated through aspects of goal attainment. Most studies showed robust within-group changes according to study-appropriate standardized measures, whereas the between-group comparisons exhibited less consistent differences in outcome. The review does not provide support for a positive effect of goal setting per se on treatment outcome. Studies that specifically measure the effect of goal setting on treatment outcome are needed. PMID:24237280

  18. Mechanisms involved in Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens removal during activated sludge wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Orruño, Maite; Garaizabal, Idoia; Bravo, Zaloa; Parada, Claudia; Barcina, Isabel; Arana, Inés

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater treatment reduces environmental contamination by removing gross solids and mitigating the effects of pollution. Treatment also reduces the number of indicator organisms and pathogens. In this work, the fates of two coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens, were analyzed in an activated sludge process to determine the main mechanisms involved in the reduction of pathogenic microorganisms during wastewater treatment. These bacteria, modified to express green fluorescent protein, were inoculated in an activated sludge unit and in batch systems containing wastewater. The results suggested that, among the different biological factors implied in bacterial removal, bacterivorous protozoa play a key role. Moreover, a representative number of bacteria persisted in the system as free-living or embedded cells, but their distribution into liquid or solid fractions varied depending on the bacterium tested, questioning the real value of bacterial indicators for the control of wastewater treatment process. Additionally, viable but nonculturable cells constituted an important part of the bacterial population adhered to solid fractions, what can be derived from the competition relationships with native bacteria, present in high densities in this environment. These facts, taken together, emphasize the need for reliable quantitative and qualitative analysis tools for the evaluation of pathogenic microbial composition in sludge, which could represent an undefined risk to public health and ecosystem functions when considering its recycling. PMID:25044599

  19. Mechanisms involved in Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens removal during activated sludge wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Orruño, Maite; Garaizabal, Idoia; Bravo, Zaloa; Parada, Claudia; Barcina, Isabel; Arana, Inés

    2014-10-01

    Wastewater treatment reduces environmental contamination by removing gross solids and mitigating the effects of pollution. Treatment also reduces the number of indicator organisms and pathogens. In this work, the fates of two coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens, were analyzed in an activated sludge process to determine the main mechanisms involved in the reduction of pathogenic microorganisms during wastewater treatment. These bacteria, modified to express green fluorescent protein, were inoculated in an activated sludge unit and in batch systems containing wastewater. The results suggested that, among the different biological factors implied in bacterial removal, bacterivorous protozoa play a key role. Moreover, a representative number of bacteria persisted in the system as free-living or embedded cells, but their distribution into liquid or solid fractions varied depending on the bacterium tested, questioning the real value of bacterial indicators for the control of wastewater treatment process. Additionally, viable but nonculturable cells constituted an important part of the bacterial population adhered to solid fractions, what can be derived from the competition relationships with native bacteria, present in high densities in this environment. These facts, taken together, emphasize the need for reliable quantitative and qualitative analysis tools for the evaluation of pathogenic microbial composition in sludge, which could represent an undefined risk to public health and ecosystem functions when considering its recycling. PMID:25044599

  20. Control of a flexible robot arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, E.; Cannon, R.

    1980-01-01

    Exact equations of motion of an arm with known parameters were developed and analyzed preparatory to designing control systems for robotic manipulators. The design of an experimental one-link arm for testing control designs is presented.