Science.gov

Sample records for active treatment groups

  1. Stress and Activity Management: Group Treatment for Cancer Patients and Spouses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Richard L.; Schag, Cyndie Coscarelli

    1985-01-01

    Studied 51 ambulatory patients with commonly occurring cancers and 25 of their spouses to evaluate a group stress and activity management treatment program. Found support for unique effects of the treatment intervention, but also support for improvement in psychosocial adjustment for patients and spouses with the passage of time. (Author/MCF)

  2. The Group Treatment of Bulimia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Harvey M.; Richman, Ann

    1984-01-01

    Bulimia has become an increasing problem in the college population. This article describes a group psychotherapeutic treatment approach to the problem. A theoretical formulation of the psychodynamics that may underlie the development of bulimia is offered. (Author/DF)

  3. An Active Adventure for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, H. Lee

    A sequence of action-oriented games and initiatives is provided in this guide for group therapy leaders who wish to employ activities to promote trust, problem solving, and cohesion among group members. Introductory material discusses the objectives of action-oriented therapy, the adaptation of traditionally outdoor activities to indoor settings,…

  4. Activity Group Guidance: A Developmental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Bill W.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Illustrates the content, process, and group dynamics of Activity Group Guidance. Describes and evaluates a comprehensive Activity Group Guidance program. Gives specific suggestions to counselors who wish to start Activity Groups. (Author)

  5. A Multifaceted Group Treatment of Bulimia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzman, Melanie; Weiss, Lillie

    In spite of growing attention to the negative psychological and physiological consequences of bulimia, little has been written on its treatment. A comprehensive group treatment program was developed to increase the bulimic's comfort with herself and her body. Subjects were five single females (four college students and a nurse) who participated in…

  6. Activities of the WASVSO Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Michael A.; van Poucker, Joseph F.; Greene, Stephen M.

    2001-04-01

    This poster outlines the goals, activities, and achievements of the Warren Astronomical Society Variable Star Observers (WASVSO), a special-interest sub-group of the Warren Astronomical Society in Michigan. The WASVSO holds monthly meetings to discuss variable star behavior, terminology, current events, observing techniques, Internet resources, software, and of course, the weather. Ongoing projects include monitoring cataclysmic variables, active galactic nuclei, and stars that need more observations from the AAVSO "News Flashes" and "Alert Notices". We are also actively involved in "spreading the word" about AAVSO and variable star observing through presentations at star parties and a speaker exchange program with other astronomy clubs throughout the Midwest and Canada. The WASVSO also maintains an impressive website featuring member areas, upcoming events, articles on variable stars and observing techniques, charts for obscure cataclsmic variables, utilities for observing, and links to variable star organizations and observers throughout the world. Members of the WASVSO contributed 94% of all variable star observations submitted to the AAVSO from Michigan in the fiscal year 2000-2001, and our enthusiasm has catapulted Michigan from 20th place to 11th in overall numbers of US observations submitted to AAVSO in one year.

  7. Group Treatment in Acquired Brain Injury Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertisch, Hilary; Rath, Joseph F.; Langenbahn, Donna M.; Sherr, Rose Lynn; Diller, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    The current article describes critical issues in adapting traditional group-treatment methods for working with individuals with reduced cognitive capacity secondary to acquired brain injury. Using the classification system based on functional ability developed at the NYU Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (RIRM), we delineate the cognitive…

  8. Tinnitus activities treatment.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Richard S; Gogel, Stephanie A; Gehringer, Anne K

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus Activities Treatment includes counseling of the whole person, and considers individual differences and needs. We consider four areas: thoughts and emotions, hearing and communication, sleep, and concentration. We typically use Partial Masking Sound Therapy, with a noise or music set to the lowest level that provides relief. A picture-based approach facilitates engagement of the patient, and provides thorough and structured counseling. We engage the patient by including homework and activities to demonstrate understanding and facilitate progress. PMID:17956807

  9. Supporting Student Research Group Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopatin, Dennis E.

    1993-01-01

    This discussion describes methods that foster a healthy Student Research Group (SRG) and permits it to fulfill its responsibility in the development of the student researcher. The model used in the discussion is that of the University of Michigan School of Dentistry SRG. (GLR)

  10. GROUP TREATMENT OF AUTISTIC CHILDREN. PRENTICE-HALL PSYCHOLOGY SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COFFEY, HUBERT S.; WIENER, LOUISE L.

    AT THE EAST BAY ACTIVITY CENTER IN BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA, TREATMENT INVOLVED THE MIXING OF AUTISTIC CHILDREN WITH LESS SEVERELY DISTURBED CHILDREN. NON-AUTISTIC CHILDREN IN THE GROUP WERE EXPECTED TO ACT AS CATALYSTS BY TRYING TO FORM SOME TYPE OF SOCIALLY MATURE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE AUTISTIC CHILDREN WHILE THE THERAPIST ENCOURAGED INTERACTION.…

  11. Identification of barriers to the prevention and treatment of heat-related illness in Latino farmworkers using activity-oriented, participatory rural appraisal focus group methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Heat-related illness (HRI) is an important cause of non-fatal illness and death in farmworkers. We sought to identify potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment in Latino farmworkers. Methods We conducted three semi-structured focus group discussions with 35 Latino farmworkers in the Central Washington, USA area using participatory rural appraisal techniques. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed in Spanish. Three researchers reviewed and coded transcripts and field notes, and investigator triangulation was used to identify relevant themes and quotes. Results Although the majority of participants in our study reported never receiving formal HRI training, most participants were aware that extreme heat can cause illness and were able to accurately describe HRI symptoms, risk factors, and certain prevention strategies. Four main observations regarding farmworkers’ HRI-relevant beliefs and attitudes were identified: 1) farmworkers subscribe to varying degrees to the belief that cooling treatments should be avoided after heat exposure, with some believing that such treatments should be avoided after heat exposure, and others encouraging the use of such treatments; 2) the desire to lose weight may be reflected in behaviors that promote increased sweating; 3) highly caffeinated energy drinks are preferred to increase work efficiency and maintain alertness; and 4) the location of drinking water at work (e.g. next to restrooms) and whether water is clean, but not necessarily chemically-treated, are important considerations in deciding whether to drink the water provided at worksites. Conclusions We identified potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment related to hydration, certain HRI treatments, clothing use, and the desire to lose weight among Latino farmworkers. Strategies to address potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment in this population may include engineering, administrative, and health education and health promotion

  12. Do weight loss and adherence cluster within behavioral treatment groups?

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Rena R.; Leahey, Tricia; Jeffery, Robert; Johnson, Karen C.; Hill, James O.; Coday, Mace; Espeland, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Weight loss programs are often conducted in a group format, but it is unclear whether weight losses or adherence cluster within treatment group and whether characteristics of the group (e.g. size or homogeneity) affect outcomes. We examined these questions within Look AHEAD, a multicenter study of the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Design and Methods Weight losses and adherence (attendance, use of meal replacement products, and minutes of activity) were examined over one year of intervention in 2329 ILI participants in 209 treatment groups, which all received the same weight loss program. Results Weight losses did not cluster among members of a treatment group (intra-class correlation [ICC] of .007), whereas measures of adherence had small/moderate clustering (ICCs of .05–.11). The 209 groups varied in weight losses, with a mean of 8.64 % (SD=2.35 %, interquartile range=6.82%, 10.32%), but neither size nor baseline homogeneity of members affected the outcome. Conclusions Although these findings suggest that it may not be necessary to control for clustering in behavioral weight loss studies, they also indicate that merely treating individuals in groups is not sufficient to harness social influences on weight loss. PMID:23804576

  13. Treatment optimization in MS: Canadian MS Working Group updated recommendations.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Mark S; Selchen, Daniel; Arnold, Douglas L; Prat, Alexandre; Banwell, Brenda; Yeung, Michael; Morgenthau, David; Lapierre, Yves

    2013-05-01

    The Canadian Multiple Sclerosis Working Group (CMSWG) developed practical recommendations in 2004 to assist clinicians in optimizing the use of disease-modifying therapies (DMT) in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. The CMSWG convened to review how disease activity is assessed, propose a more current approach for assessing suboptimal response, and to suggest a scheme for switching or escalating treatment. Practical criteria for relapses, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) progression and MRI were developed to classify the clinical level of concern as Low, Medium and High. The group concluded that a change in treatment may be considered in any RRMS patient if there is a high level of concern in any one domain (relapses, progression or MRI), a medium level of concern in any two domains, or a low level of concern in all three domains. These recommendations for assessing treatment response should assist clinicians in making more rational choices in their management of relapsing MS patients. PMID:23603165

  14. The Group Treatment of Bulimia: Assumptions and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mines, Robert A.; Merrill, Cheryl A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of group approaches when treating bulimia and outlines recommendations for more efficacious group treatment. Recommends a comprehensive approach to assessment and treatment. Notes that a cognitive-behavioral approach seems viable. (Author/ABB)

  15. Small Group Activities for Introductory Business Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundrake, George

    1999-01-01

    Describes numerous small-group activities for the following areas of basic business education: consumer credit, marketing, business organization, entrepreneurship, insurance, risk management, economics, personal finance, business careers, global markets, and government regulation. (SK)

  16. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanks, William; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Background information and procedures for demonstrating physical phenomena to groups are described: a red plastic sheet that changes to blue, a group activity for understanding energy transfer, and hanging a spoon from one's nose to illustrate forces involved in static equilibrium. (SK)

  17. A Group Recommender System for Tourist Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Inma; Sebastia, Laura; Onaindia, Eva; Guzman, Cesar

    This paper introduces a method for giving recommendations of tourist activities to a group of users. This method makes recommendations based on the group tastes, their demographic classification and the places visited by the users in former trips. The group recommendation is computed from individual personal recommendations through the use of techniques such as aggregation, intersection or incremental intersection. This method is implemented as an extension of the e-Tourism tool, which is a user-adapted tourism and leisure application, whose main component is the Generalist Recommender System Kernel (GRSK), a domain-independent taxonomy-driven search engine that manages the group recommendation.

  18. Analytic Methods for Individually Randomized Group Treatment Trials and Group-Randomized Trials When Subjects Belong to Multiple Groups

    PubMed Central

    Andridge, Rebecca. R.; Shoben, Abigail B.; Muller, Keith E.; Murray, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Participants in trials may be randomized either individually or in groups, and may receive their treatment either entirely individually, entirely in groups, or partially individually and partially in groups. This paper concerns cases in which participants receive their treatment either entirely or partially in groups, regardless of how they were randomized. Participants in Group-Randomized Trials (GRTs) are randomized in groups and participants in Individually Randomized Group Treatment (IRGT) trials are individually randomized, but participants in both types of trials receive part or all of their treatment in groups or through common change agents. Participants who receive part or all of their treatment in a group are expected to have positively correlated outcome measurements. This paper addresses a situation that occurs in GRTs and IRGT trials – participants receive treatment through more than one group. As motivation, we consider trials in The Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research Consortium (COPTR), in which each child participant receives treatment in at least two groups. In simulation studies we considered several possible analytic approaches over a variety of possible group structures. A mixed model with random effects for both groups provided the only consistent protection against inflated type I error rates and did so at the cost of only moderate loss of power when intraclass correlations were not large. We recommend constraining variance estimates to be positive and using the Kenward-Roger adjustment for degrees of freedom; this combination provided additional power but maintained type I error rates at the nominal level. PMID:24399701

  19. Behavior Change Outcomes of Marathon Group Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlemann, Max R.; Weigel, Richard G.

    1977-01-01

    This study evaluated behavior change occurring after a marathon group experience, with a focus on individualized rather than shared behavioral change criteria. The individualization of behavior change criteria is based on the assertion that few, if any, single change criteria are appropriate or realistic for assessing change in all individuals.…

  20. Advanced Extravehicular Activity Breakout Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Perka, Alan; Walz, Carl; Cobb, Sharon; Hanford, Anthony; Eppler, Dean

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph document summarizes the workings of the Advanced Extravehicular Activity (AEVA) Breakout group in a Martian environment. The group was tasked with: identifying potential contaminants and pathways for AEVA systems with respect to forward and backward contamination; identifying plausible mitigation alternatives and obstacles for pertinent missions; identifying topics that require further research and technology development and discuss development strategies with uncertain Planetary Protection (PP) requirements; Identifying PP requirements that impose the greatest mission/development costs; Identifying PP requirements/topics that require further definition;

  1. 26 CFR 1.1366-3 - Treatment of family groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Treatment of family groups. 1.1366-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1366-3 Treatment of family groups. (a) In general. Under section 1366(e), if an individual, who is a member of the family of one...

  2. Morbidity Related Groups (MRG) for Epidemiological Analysis in Outpatient Treatment.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Reinhard; Emcke, Timo; von Arnstedt, Eva; Heidbreder, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Each patient in outpatient treatment is assigned per quarter and corresponding physician to a case group that is strongly related to the morbidity (Morbidity Related Group, MRG). MRG is defined by the drug group on a four character level in the international anatomic-therapeutic-chemical (ATC) classification with the largest costs as an indicator for the severity of the drug treatment. Using severity levels we get a risk adjustment with respect to age and polypharmacy as an indicator for multimorbidity and treatment intensity. By application of MRG groups we generate a patient type classification in relation to physicians and a distance structure of the medical disciplines. PMID:27577493

  3. The Effectiveness of Group Treatment for Female Adult Incest Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donalee; Reyes, Sonia; Brown, Brienne; Gonzenbach, Meredith

    2013-01-01

    Very few clinicians receive training in the treatment of sexual abuse, yet during their careers many will encounter victims of sexual abuse. This article discusses the incidence of child sexual abuse, defines incest, and discusses treatment options. A review of group treatment is explored, with results being documented providing support for the…

  4. Treatment Compliance in Group Therapy: Issues and Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt Hollenbaugh, Karen Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In this manuscript, research on treatment compliance and dropout in group therapy is reviewed. A number of variables found to be related to the compliance and dropout are identified including client characteristics, treatment characteristics, and therapist perceptions and behavior. Implications of these results for increasing treatment compliance…

  5. Meaning of Life Group: Group Application of Logotherapy for Substance Use Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somov, Pavel G.

    2007-01-01

    The rationale for the use of logotherapy in the context of substance use treatment is introduced. The article reviews prior group applications of logotherapy and offers a clinical curriculum for a group application of logotherapy tailored to the substance use treatment context. Furthermore, the article provides a discussion of the specifics of the…

  6. Creative Art Therapy Groups: A Treatment Modality for Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapeau, Marie-Celine; Kronish, Neomi

    2007-01-01

    This brief report examines the benefits of a creative art therapy group program for outpatients suffering from psychiatric disorders. Included is a review of relevant treatment outcomes literature on the effectiveness of group art therapy. The authors describe the Creative Art Therapy Group Program offered to adult psychiatric outpatients that is…

  7. Do weight loss and adherence cluster within behavioral treatment groups?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Weight loss programs are often conducted in a group format, but it is unclear whether weight losses or adherence cluster within treatment group and whether characteristics of the group (e.g., size or homogeneity) affect outcomes. We examined these questions within Look AHEAD, a multicente...

  8. From Cannibalism to Active Motion of Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanczuk, Pawel; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz

    2008-03-01

    The detailed mechanisms leading to collective dynamics in groups of animals and insect are still poorly understood. A recent study by Simpson et. al. suggests cannibalism as a driving mechanism for coordinated migration of mormon crickets [1]. Based on this result we propose a simple generic model of brownian particles interacting by asymmetric, non-conservative collisions accounting for cannibalistic behavior and the corresponding avoidance strategy. We discuss our model in one and two dimensions and show that a certain type of collisions drives the system out of equilibrium and leads to coordinated active motion of groups.[1] Stephen J. Simpson, Gregory A. Sword, Patrick D. Lorch and Iain D. Couzin: Cannibal crickets on a forced march for protein and salt, PNAS, 103:4152-4156, 2006

  9. Group process as a mechanism of change in the group treatment of anger and aggression.

    PubMed

    Gerhart, James; Holman, Krista; Seymour, Bailey; Dinges, Brandy; Ronan, George F

    2015-04-01

    Angry reactions can present unique challenges to the process of conducting group therapy, especially when providing group treatment to participants who have histories of angry or aggressive behavior. This article briefly reviews relevant literature and describes a group-based violence reduction training program (VRTP). The VRTP conceptualizes anger and aggression from a frustration-aggression framework and employs treatment derived from research in the area of social problem-solving. An emphasis is placed on how fostering group experiences consistent with Irving Yalom's classic work on the theory and practice of group therapy can reinforce skill acquisition and general treatment responsiveness. Management of the group process is a plausible mechanism of change in group treatment of anger. We highlight the challenges and benefits of dealing with anger-infused communication while ensuring the integrity of the overall group process. Case examples are provided for illustration of VRTP. Future research can answer important questions about group process and mechanisms of change in group-based treatments for anger and aggression. PMID:25760784

  10. A comparison of individual and group cognitive-behavioural treatment for female pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang

    2007-09-01

    The current study aimed to determine the differential efficacy of a cognitive-behavioural treatment program for female pathological gamblers delivered in individual and group format. Fifty-six female pathological gamblers with electronic gaming machine gambling problems were randomly assigned to the control (waiting list) group or one of the treatment groups (individual or group treatment). Treatment comprised a 12-session program including financial limit setting, alternative activity planning, cognitive correction, problem solving, communication training, relapse prevention, and imaginal desensitisation. Treatment outcome was evaluated with conceptually related measures within the areas of gambling behaviour and psychological functioning. While individual and group treatment formats generally produced comparable outcomes in terms of gambling behaviour and psychological functioning, group treatment failed to produce superior outcomes to the control group in relation to several measures of psychological functioning. Moreover, by the completion of the six-month follow-up, 92% of the gamblers allocated to individual treatment compared with 60% allocated to group treatment no longer satisfied the diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling. These findings suggest that some caution should be employed when delivering cognitive-behavioural treatment in a group format until further research is conducted to establish its efficacy. PMID:17196159

  11. Contemporary group treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, George

    2007-01-01

    The contemporary group treatment of veterans from the Vietnam War to the present who suffer from combat-related PTSD is reviewed in light of the dynamic understanding of combat trauma developed during and since World War II. Both dynamic and cognitive behavioral group therapies are explored. The common features of all group treatments of combat PTSD involve the development of trust and the communalization of trauma within a cohesive group. Further research is needed to increase our understanding of effectiveness, mediating factors, and relationships between childhood experience and combat trauma. PMID:17480188

  12. The efficacy of group treatment in sexually abused girls.

    PubMed

    McGain, B; McKinzey, R K

    1995-09-01

    The efficacy of the outpatient, once a week group treatment of sexually abused girls was examined using a pre-post, matched control/treatment design. The 30 girls were 9-12 years old, within 1 year of trauma, and were screened for psychosis. The Quay Revised Behavioral Problem Checklist (RBPC) and the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) were used as dependent measures, and given 6 months apart. Depending on the scale, and excepting the RBPC's Psychotic Behavior Scale, 60-100% of the girls had abnormal scores pretreatment, with no significant differences between the two groups. Significant (p < .001) treatment effects were found. After treatment, 0-33% of the treated girls had abnormal scores, while 60-100% of the control group continued to have abnormal scores. Assuming generalization is possible, it appears that this and similar treatment programs are effective in reducing the girls' perceived problematical anxiety and misbehavior. PMID:8528821

  13. Factors Related to Attendance Rates in Obesity-Treatment-Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Eugene R.; Popler, Kenneth

    1979-01-01

    Examines personal, psychological, physical, and social characteristics of persons seeking group treatment for obesity and correlates these variables with their subsequent attendance. The best candidates for continuing in treatment have completed more schooling, have been obese longer, and are less depressed, more self-sufficient, and less…

  14. RETRIEVAL FROM LIMBO, THE INTERMEDIARY GROUP TREATMENT OF INACCESSIBLE CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GANTER, GRACE; AND OTHERS

    A CLINIC PROGRAM WAS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN INTERMEDIARY GROUP TREATMENT WITH THE ADVANTAGES OF RESIDENTIAL CARE WHILE THEY REMAINED AT HOME. OF THE 47 SUBJECTS SELECTED (27 AGED 6 TO 9, 20 AGED 9 TO 13), 25 HAD BEEN RECOMMENDED, AND NINE CONSIDERED, FOR RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT. ALL WERE JUDGED INACCESSIBLE BY THE CLINIC…

  15. The chronically mentally ill group treatment for individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W H; Diamond, R J; Factor, R M

    1990-08-01

    Comprehensive treatment programs for individuals with schizophrenia usually include a variety of groups, many of which have concrete tasks as a focus: medication management, social skills training, meal preparation, etc. These groups can simultaneously serve more general rehabilitative purposes if leaders apply principles of group leadership which recognize the neuropathological substrate of schizophrenia and which take into account the specific interpersonal characteristics and needs of individuals who have the illness. This paper presents a framework for leading task-oriented groups for individuals with schizophrenia and give examples from a medication group in a psychosocial rehabilitation program. PMID:2208966

  16. 26 CFR 1.1366-3 - Treatment of family groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment of family groups. 1.1366-3 Section 1... of family groups. (a) In general. Under section 1366(e), if an individual, who is a member of the family of one or more shareholders of an S corporation, renders services for, or furnishes capital...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1366-3 - Treatment of family groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of family groups. 1.1366-3 Section 1... of family groups. (a) In general. Under section 1366(e), if an individual, who is a member of the family of one or more shareholders of an S corporation, renders services for, or furnishes capital...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1366-3 - Treatment of family groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment of family groups. 1.1366-3 Section 1... of family groups. (a) In general. Under section 1366(e), if an individual, who is a member of the family of one or more shareholders of an S corporation, renders services for, or furnishes capital...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1366-3 - Treatment of family groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of family groups. 1.1366-3 Section 1... of family groups. (a) In general. Under section 1366(e), if an individual, who is a member of the family of one or more shareholders of an S corporation, renders services for, or furnishes capital...

  20. Group Treatment of Sexually Abused Latency-Age Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Lisa Y.; Gutierrez-Kovner, Victoria M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a pilot group developed to address the traumagenic stigmatization, powerlessness, betrayal, and sexualization that characterize victims of sexual abuse. Treatment modules developed within this framework focused on: group cohesiveness, discussion of specific abuse experiences, coping strategies, sexuality, victimization prevention, and…

  1. Estimating statistical power for open-enrollment group treatment trials.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Saavedra, Lissette M; Hien, Denise A; Fals-Stewart, William

    2011-01-01

    Modeling turnover in group membership has been identified as a key barrier contributing to a disconnect between the manner in which behavioral treatment is conducted (open-enrollment groups) and the designs of substance abuse treatment trials (closed-enrollment groups, individual therapy). Latent class pattern mixture models (LCPMMs) are emerging tools for modeling data from open-enrollment groups with membership turnover in recently proposed treatment trials. The current article illustrates an approach to conducting power analyses for open-enrollment designs based on the Monte Carlo simulation of LCPMM models using parameters derived from published data from a randomized controlled trial comparing Seeking Safety to a Community Care condition for women presenting with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorders. The example addresses discrepancies between the analysis framework assumed in power analyses of many recently proposed open-enrollment trials and the proposed use of LCPMM for data analysis. PMID:20832971

  2. Group and family treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Allen, S N; Bloom, S L

    1994-06-01

    A central feature of PTSD is its effect on social relationships. Trauma affects groups of people, not just individuals. Family systems, neighborhoods, and even whole generations may feel the results of psychological trauma. Because of the social nature of the effects of trauma, post-trauma treatment must address an individual's relationship to others. Group and family psychotherapy are ideally suited to this and are important components of a multimodal approach to PTSD treatment. Group and family psychotherapies provide superb opportunities for social support, social reintegration, and interpersonal learning. As with any powerful technique, these methods must be carefully applied. Although not all patients are appropriate for exposure-based treatments, improved interpersonal coping skills will likely be beneficial to many PTSD patients. Patients should be carefully evaluated for treatment types and assessed for treatment response. Although group and family therapies currently provide relief and growth for PTSD patients, many considerations remain for the future. For example, how can patients be matched with various treatments for optimal results? How should acute and chronic PTSD treatments be similar and different? What is the effectiveness of group and family therapies for PTSD? What are the social and legal implications of a prolonged course of treatment for a victim whose children meanwhile are being traumatized by the parent's relatively poor parenting skills secondary to their inadequacies and disabilities? Finally, at a global level, how do we improve systems therapy technology to enable us more radically, effectively, and quickly to bring about total systems change? Because families and groups are the "cells" that compose the "vital organs" we call nations, and these nations in turn make the total body of humankind, the answers to these questions may have a significant determining effect on the future survival of us all. PMID:7937368

  3. Group treatment for parents of the adult mentally ill.

    PubMed

    McLean, C S; Greer, K; Scott, J; Beck, J C

    1982-07-01

    Support and education groups for the families of the mentally ill have been in existence for at least 20 years. The authors describe a group treatment program established in 1979 for parents of chronically mentally ill individuals living in the community. The goal was to help parents become less overprotective, critical, and hostile so that clients would relapse less frequently and improve their social functioning during their time in the community. The groups provided parents with information and support. Some of the results of the groups include the implementation of new hospital procedures, more effective parenting, and a parent-initiated alliance on behalf of the mentally ill in the locality. PMID:7106719

  4. Substance Abuse Treatment: Group Therapy. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jonathan Max; Hills, Susan; Rife, Mary Lou

    2005-01-01

    This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) presents an overview of the role and efficacy of group therapy in substance abuse treatment. TIPs are best-practice guidelines for the treatment of substance use disorders that make the latest research in substance abuse treatment available to counselors and educators. The content was generated by a panel…

  5. [Health education for varicose ulcer patients through group activities].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jodo Luis Almeida; Lopes, Marta Julia Marques

    2006-06-01

    It is a report on the group activities carried out with carriers of varicose ulcer in a health unit in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The varicose ulcer presents factors, besides the biological ones, which interfere in the cicatrization, in the relapse cases and in its effective resolution. The proposed activities aimed at producing behavior changes with the intention of achieving self-care, providing information, socializing the participants, and stimulating cooperation, searching for joint solutions, aggregating interdisciplinary spirit and improving the care. Two groups have been formed and a thematic schedule established. The results have showed higher adhesion to the treatment, behavioral changes, and adapted and more effective attitudes of the health team. PMID:17025041

  6. Group Work vs. Whole Class Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanveer, Asma

    2008-01-01

    Group work has only been recently introduced in the education system of Pakistan but many primary teachers, especially in the public schools, are still not aware of how different kinds of strategies that is group work and whole class teaching facilitate learning among students. This paper aims to provide an overview of teaching strategies to…

  7. Group Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for PTSD: Treatment of Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Beck, J. Gayle; Coffey, Scott F.

    2006-01-01

    Individual cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) are now considered the first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Foa, Keane, & Friedman, 2000). As mental health reimbursement becomes more restricted, it is imperative that we adapt individual-format therapies for use in a small group format. Group therapies have a number of advantages, including provision of a natural support group, the ability to reach more patients, and greater cost efficiency. In this article, we describe the development of a group CBT for PTSD in the aftermath of a serious motor vehicle accident (MVA). Issues unique to the group treatment format are discussed, along with special considerations such as strategies to reduce the potential for triggering reexperiencing symptoms during group sessions. A case example is presented, along with discussion of group process issues. Although still in the early stages, this group CBT may offer promise as an effective treatment of MVA-related PTSD. PMID:16525513

  8. Length of Group Treatment and Changes in Women with Bulimia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Hotelling, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Examined effects of 4-month or 9-month multidimensional therapy group on bulimic women. Results suggest that participants altered behaviors, attitudes, feelings, and thoughts related to bingeing, purging, and physical appearance and developed more adaptive life skills. Decreases in bingeing and purging were maintained after treatment; no…

  9. Teaching Adaptive Interpersonal Behavior: Group Techniques in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, David A.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes a group approach to the treatment of mildly retarded and borderline adolescents in a residential school setting. The program attempts to develop the requisite interpersonal skills for a successful return to community life. The approach utilizes strong reality orientation and role playing. (Author/MS)

  10. Group Treatment of Eating Disorders in a University Counseling Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Gregory; And Others

    Sociocultural pressures to pursue an unrealistic ideal of thinness have contributed to an increasing number of students seeking help at a university counseling center for the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia. To help these students, a group treatment technique was developed using a cognitive-behavioral approach. Treatment…

  11. "Outside In": Group Treatment of Youth with Asperger's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhurst, Jim; Richards, Dana; Copenhaver, Jenna; Morrow, Diana

    2010-01-01

    A forerunner in therapeutic treatment explores new avenues of working with youth in the Autistic Spectrum through a group approach and discovers the need for flexibility and accommodations to make it work. In 2000, Starr Commonwealth--an internationally recognized leader in transformational programs for children, families, schools, professionals…

  12. Iatrogenic effects of group treatment for antisocial youths.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Bahr; Caron, Annalise; Ball, Shelly; Tapp, Julie; Johnson, Margaret; Weisz, John R

    2005-12-01

    It has been argued that group treatment of antisocial adolescents may increase rather than decrease conduct problems. One mechanism that has been suggested to underlie this effect is "deviancy training," wherein during group sessions deviant peers reinforce each other's antisocial actions and words. These 2 hypotheses have important implications and warrant close review at conceptual and empirical levels. In this article, the authors present such a review. Conceptually, deviancy training potential of treatment sessions appears less significant than the more extensive peer influences outside treatment. Empirical findings previously cited in support of iatrogenic effects appear on close examination to provide little support. Finally, 17 of 18 new meta-analytic tests produced results not supportive of iatrogenic or deviancy training effects. PMID:16392977

  13. Iatrogenic Effects of Group Treatment for Antisocial Youth

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Bahr; Caron, Annalise; Ball, Shelly; Tapp, Julie; Johnson, Margaret; Weisz, John R.

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that group treatment of antisocial adolescents may increase rather than decrease conduct problems. One mechanism that has been suggested to underlie this effect is “deviancy training” wherein during group sessions deviant peers reinforce each other’s antisocial actions and words. These two hypotheses have important implications, and warrant close review at conceptual and empirical levels. In this paper we present such a review. Conceptually, deviancy training potential of treatment sessions appears less significant than the more extensive peer influences outside treatment. Empirical findings previously cited in support of iatrogenic effects appear on close examination to provide little support. Finally, seventeen of eighteen new meta-analytic tests produced results not supportive of iatrogenic or deviancy training effects. PMID:16392977

  14. Comparing Outcomes for Youth Served in Treatment Foster Care and Treatment Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robst, John; Armstrong, Mary; Dollard, Norin

    2011-01-01

    This study compared youth in the Florida Medicaid system prior to entry into treatment foster care or treatment group care, and compared outcomes in the 6 months after treatment. Florida Medicaid data from FY2003/04 through 2006/2007 along with Department of Juvenile Justice, Department of Law Enforcement, and involuntary examination data were…

  15. Exploring Group Activity Therapy with Ethnically Diverse Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paone, Tina R.; Malott, Krista M.; Maldonado, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    Group activity therapy has been promoted as an effective means of providing growth opportunities for adolescents through the use of structured, developmentally appropriate activities in a group setting. This article qualitatively explores outcomes of 12 sessions of group activity therapy with ethnically diverse adolescents in a school setting. The…

  16. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Glenn; Insley, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Explains two activities: (1) a "rotator demonstration" (a turntable, pendulum, chalk, and other materials), which can be used in many activities to demonstrate rotational concepts; and (2) an "Eskimo yo-yo," consisting of two balls (plus long strings and a glass tube) which rotate in opposite directions to show centripetal force. (JN)

  17. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which demonstrates standing waves in air generated by a loudspeaker driven by an audio oscillator. The waves are detected by cool spots on a glowing nichrome wire contained in an inexpensive piece of equipment. Also describes activities involving analysis of kinematics through data taking and graphing. (JM)

  18. Mountain Biking with Groups: A "Safe" Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Terry

    2001-01-01

    A survey mailed to 200 British mountain bike leaders found that rates of cycling accidents and injuries were greater in forests and woodlands than on terrain where a license is required to lead groups of young cyclists. Excessive speed was mentioned in most accidents, coupled with poor use of breaks in many cases. (SV)

  19. Group Learning as Relational Economic Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke; Atencio, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss group learning in line with economic perspectives of embeddedness and integration emanating from the work of Karl Polanyi. Polanyi's work defines economy as a necessary interaction among human beings for survival; the economy is considered inextricably linked from broader society and social relations…

  20. Active microwave users working group program planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Bare, J.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Childs, L. F.; Dellwig, L. F.; Heighway, J. E.; Joosten, R.; Lewis, A. J.; Linlor, W.; Lundien, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed programmatic and technical development plan for active microwave technology was examined in each of four user activities: (1) vegetation; (2) water resources and geologic applications, and (4) oceanographic applications. Major application areas were identified, and the impact of each application area in terms of social and economic gains were evaluated. The present state of knowledge of the applicability of active microwave remote sensing to each application area was summarized and its role relative to other remote sensing devices was examined. The analysis and data acquisition techniques needed to resolve the effects of interference factors were reviewed to establish an operational capability in each application area. Flow charts of accomplished and required activities in each application area that lead to operational capability were structured.

  1. Doing Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Materials needed and procedures for conducting two activities are provided. The first investigates drops of a liquid which float on water in a watchglass resting on top of a loudspeaker. The second investigates electromagnetic phenomena. (JN)

  2. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Spanish: Culture-Sensitive Manualized Treatment in Practice

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Adrian; Garza, Monica J.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.

    2014-01-01

    The authors applied cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression using the Healthy Management of Reality treatment manual. This 16-week group treatment comprised four 4-week modules: thoughts (cognitive restructuring), activities (behavioral activation), people (interpersonal skills training), and health (addresses physical health and depression). They illustrated the use of the culture-sensitive treatment manuals by way of the member characteristics and clinical process of a Spanish-language CBT group for depression. They highlighted the challenges and satisfactions of working with a Spanish-speaking population in the public sector, and focused on how culture and socioeconomic status influence patients, and how to adapt treatment to these factors. Last, they demonstrated how technological advances integrate with culture-sensitive, evidence-based treatments to better serve this population and reduce disparities. PMID:20549680

  3. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity in which two pulleys are connected by a wire loop; when the bottom pulley is dipped into hot water, the pulleys rotate. Also suggests that students design/build a machine to propel a bean; the machine must use materials including one bean, two plastic straws, and two rubber bands. (JN)

  4. Individual and group dynamics in purchasing activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Guo, Jin-Li; Fan, Chao; Liu, Xue-Jiao

    2013-01-01

    As a major part of the daily operation in an enterprise, purchasing frequency is in constant change. Recent approaches on the human dynamics can provide some new insights into the economic behavior of companies in the supply chain. This paper captures the attributes of creation times of purchase orders to an individual vendor, as well as to all vendors, and further investigates whether they have some kind of dynamics by applying logarithmic binning to the construction of distribution plots. It’s found that the former displays a power-law distribution with approximate exponent 2.0, while the latter is fitted by a mixture distribution with both power-law and exponential characteristics. Obviously, two distinctive characteristics are presented for the interval time distribution from the perspective of individual dynamics and group dynamics. Actually, this mixing feature can be attributed to the fitting deviations as they are negligible for individual dynamics, but those of different vendors are cumulated and then lead to an exponential factor for group dynamics. To better describe the mechanism generating the heterogeneity of the purchase order assignment process from the objective company to all its vendors, a model driven by product life cycle is introduced, and then the analytical distribution and the simulation result are obtained, which are in good agreement with the empirical data.

  5. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2003-01-01

    TD64, the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group, is one of several groups with high-fidelity fluids design and analysis expertise in the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). TD64 assists personnel working on other programs. The group participates in projects in the following areas: turbomachinery activities, nozzle activities, combustion devices, and the Columbia accident investigation.

  6. Psychodynamic group treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Koller, P; Marmar, C R; Kanas, N

    1992-04-01

    Exposure to combat frequently imparts a sense of aloneness, guilt, and helplessness. These and other intrapsychic and interpersonal issues need to be addressed in treating Vietnam veterans suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Group therapy is proposed as a core treatment modality for dealing with these problems. A model is proposed in which patients are treated for 1 year or more in weekly groups that meet for 16-week sequential segments. Clinical guidelines are made explicit to new members by the co-therapists. Discussion topics deal not only with traumatic experiences related to combat, but also with important pre- and postwar issues that are relevant to the symptoms of PTSD. Timely integration and working through of these issues in the group is critical. PMID:1572783

  7. Peroxidized coelenterazine, the active group in the photoprotein aequorin.

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, O; Johnson, F H

    1978-01-01

    The photoprotein aequorin emits light by an intramolecular reaction when Ca2+ is added under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Previously reported evidence has indicated two possibilities: (i) the functional group of aequorin is coelenterazine itself, a compond that plays key roles in the bioluminescence of various other types of organisms, or (ii) it is the enolized form of this compound. Present data rule out both of these possibilities, through elucidation of the structure of the yellow compound that is split off aequorin by treatment with NaHSO3. The yellow compound is now shown to be a tertiary alcohol of coelenterazine on the basis of chemical reactions, mass spectral data, and relationships to known derivatives of coelenterazine. From this structure and the method of forming the yellow compound from aequorin, aequorin evidently contains a peroxide of coelenterazine as the active group. The presence of such a peroxide is consistent with the fact that aequorin yields free coelenterazine upon treatment with Na2S2O4. Although there is no applicable technique at present to determine with assurance the specific state of the peroxide in the protein, a study with 18O tracer indicates that a linear peroxide structure is more likely than the alternative possibility of a dioxetane structure. PMID:275832

  8. Peer-Nominated Deviant Talk within Residential Treatment: Individual and Group Influences on Treatment Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakriski, Audrey L.; Wright, Jack C.; Cardoos, Stephanie L.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined deviant talk during summer residential treatment using peer nominations and extensive field observations. Participants were 239 youth (M age = 12.62, SD = 2.60; 67% male), nested in 26 treatment groups. Deviant talk was present in this setting, showed individual differences, and increased over time, especially for younger…

  9. Activities of the Boom and Chassis Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dell, Jason Scott; Meeks, Thomas Bayne; Merkel, Kelly; Nelson, Brent; Winchell, Tom

    1992-01-01

    Group One of the NASA Lunar Enabler Project has designed the primary chassis and boom structures for the lunar vehicle. Both components also feature V-clamps that were adapted to interface connections within the structure. The chassis features a front end, rear end section, middle cross-section, and face plate. The rear section contains an extra compartment for the engine, hydraulic pump, fuel bottles, and oil reservoir necessary for the wheel drives. Each section consists of tubular aluminum 6061-T6. The boom features four degrees of freedom system, where the minimum factor of safety of any part is 1.5 (but, normally much higher). It consists of a tapered upper boom, lower boom, and three elbows that complement the articulation joints. Each section of the boom has been constructed from aluminum 6061-T6. There are four joints and eight V-clamps in the boom assembly. The V-clamps feature support rings that prevent axial rotation. They provide easy adaptability and assembly.

  10. Group Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for PTSD: Treatment of Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, J. Gayle; Coffey, Scott F.

    2005-01-01

    Individual cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) are now considered the first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Foa, Keane, & Friedman, 2000). As mental health reimbursement becomes more restricted, it is imperative that we adapt individual-format therapies for use in a small group format. Group therapies have a number of…

  11. Group treatment of physically disabled adults by telephone.

    PubMed

    Evans, R L; Fox, H R; Pritzl, D O; Halar, E M

    1984-01-01

    Physical disability threatens a person's life style and can be detrimental in its effects on mood and activity. We describe a counseling program for severely disabled persons who were involved in telephone support groups in order to solve problems related to feeling discouraged, lonely, or being too inactive to remain healthy. A majority of the participants reported being less anxious and more socially involved as a result of the intervention. Ease with which groups were conducted and positive feedback from participants suggests that research should evaluate the cost effectiveness of phone intervention and explore potential of treating affective problems with scheduled phone contact. PMID:6234668

  12. The effects of activity-elicited humor and group structure on group cohesion and affective responses.

    PubMed

    Banning, M R; Nelson, D L

    1987-08-01

    The ability to analyze the therapeutic components of an activity is an important skill for occupational therapists. This study examined two potentially significant factors in activity analysis: the use of humor and the effect of group structure. Four groups (two with a parallel structure and two with a project structure) participated in a hat-making activity designed to elicit humor. Four groups (two with a parallel structure and two with a project structure) participated in a bookmark-making activity. The 28 female subjects' affective responses were measured by Osgood's short-form semantic differential, and the cohesion among group members was assessed by the Group Environment Scale. Results indicated that subjects who participated in groups which included humor rated their activity significantly higher on two factors of affective meaning (evaluation and action) and significantly higher in terms of cohesion. There was a significant interaction between the two activities and group structure in terms of the action factor and cohesion. In both cases the parallel groups making bookmarks received particularly low scores. The findings have implications for conceptualizing occupational therapy group activities. PMID:3434603

  13. PEGASUS: Designing a System for Supporting Group Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyprianidou, Maria; Demetriadis, Stavros; Pombortsis, Andreas; Karatasios, George

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the design and first results of the integration of a web-based system person-centred group-activity support system (PEGASUS) in university instruction, as a means for advancing person-centred learning by supporting group activity. The PEGASUS is expected to help students and teachers in two distinct…

  14. Supporting "Learning by Design" Activities Using Group Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessakis, Georgios; Tatsis, Konstantinos; Dimitracopoulou, Angelique

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a case study of the educational exploitation of group blogging for the implementation of a "learning by design" activity. More specifically, a group of students used a blog as a communication and information management tool in the University course of ICT-enhanced Geometry learning activities. The analysis of the designed…

  15. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Active treatment. 441.154 Section 441.154 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  16. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Active treatment. 441.154 Section 441.154 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  17. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Active treatment. 441.154 Section 441.154 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  18. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Active treatment. 441.154 Section 441.154 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  19. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Active treatment. 441.154 Section 441.154 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  20. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph report presents an overview of activities and accomplishments of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group. Expertise in this group focuses on high-fidelity fluids design and analysis with application to space shuttle propulsion and next generation launch technologies. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics research and goals, turbomachinery research and activities, nozzle research and activities, combustion devices, engine systems, MDA development and CFD process improvements.

  1. Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia by Risk Group

    MedlinePlus

    ... possible stem cell transplant (SCT) early in treatment. Second-line treatment of CLL If the initial treatment ... and combinations listed above may be options as second-line treatments. For many people who have already ...

  2. Group-wise FMRI Activation Detection on DICCCOL Landmarks

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jinglei; Guo, Lei; Zhu, Dajiang; Zhang, Tuo; Hu, Xintao; Han, Junwei; Liu, Tianming

    2014-01-01

    Group-wise activation detection in task-based fMRI has been widely used because of its robustness to noises and its capacity to deal with variability of individual brains. However, current group-wise fMRI activation detection methods typically rely on the co-registration of individual brains’ fMRI images, which has difficulty in dealing with the remarkable anatomic variation of different brains. As a consequence, the resulted misalignments could significantly degrade the required inter-subject correspondences, thus substantially reducing the sensitivity and specificity of group-wise fMRI activation detection. To deal with these challenges, this paper presents a novel approach to detecting group-wise fMRI activation on our recently developed and validated Dense Individualized and Common Connectivity-based Cortical Landmarks (DICCCOL). The basic idea here is that the first-level general linear model (GLM) analysis is first performed on the fMRI signal of each corresponding DICCCOL landmark in individual brain’s own space, and then the estimated effect sizes of the same landmark from a group of subjects are statistically assessed with the mixed-effect model at the group level. Finally, the consistently activated DICCCOL landmarks are determined and declared in a group-wise fashion in response to external block-based stimuli. Our experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed approach can detect meaningful activations. PMID:24777386

  3. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6–8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p < 0.001), with no difference between interventions. No amelioration of psychiatric symptoms was observed. The dropout rate was lower with cognitive behavioural therapy than with recreational activity, and participants in cognitive behavioural therapy rated themselves as more generally improved, as well as more improved regarding expression of needs and understanding of difficulties. Both interventions appear to be promising treatment options for adults with autism spectrum disorder. The interventions’ similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout. PMID:24089423

  4. IMPORTANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON'S OXYGEN SURFACE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS ON ELEMENTAL MERCURY ADSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of varying physical and chemical properties of activated carbons on adsorption of elemental mercury [Hg(0)] was studied by treating two activated carbons to modify their surface functional groups and pore structures. Heat treatment (1200 K) in nitrogen (N2), air oxidat...

  5. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Wang, Tee-See; Griffin, Lisa; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This document is a presentation graphic which reviews the activities of the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center (i.e., Code TD64). The work of this group focused on supporting the space transportation programs. The work of the group is in Computational Fluid Dynamic tool development. This development is driven by hardware design needs. The major applications for the design and analysis tools are: turbines, pumps, propulsion-to-airframe integration, and combustion devices.

  6. Group II p21-activated kinases as therapeutic targets in gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yang-Guang; Ning, Ke; Li, Feng

    2016-01-01

    P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are central players in various oncogenic signaling pathways. The six PAK family members are classified into group I (PAK1-3) and group II (PAK4-6). Focus is currently shifting from group I PAKs to group II PAKs. Group II PAKs play important roles in many fundamental cellular processes, some of which have particular significance in the development and progression of cancer. Because of their important functions, group II PAKs have become popular potential drug target candidates. However, few group II PAKs inhibitors have been reported, and most do not exhibit satisfactory kinase selectivity and “drug-like” properties. Isoform- and kinase-selective PAK inhibitors remain to be developed. This review describes the biological activities of group II PAKs, the importance of group II PAKs in the development and progression of gastrointestinal cancer, and small-molecule inhibitors of group II PAKs for the treatment of cancer. PMID:26811660

  7. Effects of Collaborative Activities on Group Identity in Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyungsung; Seo, Sumin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of collaborative activities on group identity in a virtual world such as "Second Life." To achieve this purpose, this study adopted events that promoted participants' interactions using tools inherent in "Second Life." The interactive tools given to the control group in…

  8. Implementing Small-Group Activities in Large Lecture Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazedjian, Ani; Kolkhorst, Brittany Boyle

    2007-01-01

    This study examines student perceptions regarding the effectiveness of small-group work in a large lecture class. The article considers and illustrates from students' perspectives the ways in which small-group activities could enhance comprehension of course material, reduce anonymity associated with large lecture classes, and promote student…

  9. SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR FEMOROACETABULAR IMPINGEMENT IN A GROUP THAT PERFORMS SQUATS

    PubMed Central

    Polesello, Giancarlo Cavalli; Cinagawa, Eduardo Hitoshi Tsuge; Cruz, Paulo Daniel Sousa Santa; de Queiroz, Marcelo Cavalheiro; Borges, Cristian Jandrey; Junior, Walter Ricioli; Daniachi, Daniel; Guimarães, Rodrigo Pereira; Honda, Emerson Kiyoshi; Ono, Nelson Keiske

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Describe the results from arthroscopic surgical treatment on a group of patients who developed symptoms after repetitive physical activity of moving their hips in a position of hyperflexion, as in leg presses and squats. Methods: The study group comprised 47 individuals (48 hips) who developed the onset of painful symptoms associated with hip hyperflexion exercises (leg presses or squats) and underwent arthroscopic treatment. The patients were evaluated radiographically and clinically according to the “Harris Hip Score", as modified by Byrd (MHHS), pre and postoperatively, and were asked about their return to sports activities and the surgical findings. Results: The mean preoperative and postoperative MHHS, respectively, were 60 points (SD 11.0, range 38.5 to 92.4) and 95.9 points (SD 7.7, range 63.8 to 100), with an increase of 35.9 points (P < 0.001). Regarding physical activity, 30 individuals (71.5%) resumed sports activities after surgery, and 25 of them (83.4%) at the previous level. Six patients (12.8%) did not resume activities because of persistent pain. During arthroscopy, 48 hips (100%) presented lesions of the acetabular labrum, and 41 hips (85.4%) had acetabular chondral lesions. Conclusion: The patients with painful symptoms after hip hyperflexion exercises associated with femoroacetabular impingement presented improvements after arthroscopic treatment. PMID:27047856

  10. Overview af MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities. The topics include: 1) Status of programs at MSFC; 2) Fluid Mechanics at MSFC; 3) Relevant Fluid Dynamics Activities at MSFC; and 4) Shuttle Return to Flight.

  11. Problem-Based Group Activities for Teaching Sensation and Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiner, David S.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes 14 problem-based group activities for a sensation and perception course. The intent was to provide opportunities for students to practice applying their knowledge to real-world problems related to course content. Student ratings of how effectively the activities helped them learn were variable but relatively high. Students…

  12. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  13. A focus-group study on spirituality and substance-abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; Disney, Elizabeth R.; Epstein, David H.; Glezen, Louise A.; Clark, Pamela I.; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals recovering from addictions frequently cite spirituality as a helpful influence. However, little is known about whether or how spirituality could be incorporated into formal treatment in a manner that is sensitive to individual differences. In the present study, focus groups were conducted with 25 methadone-maintained outpatients (primarily high-school educated, African-American males) to examine beliefs about the role of spirituality in recovery and its appropriateness in formal treatment. Groups also discussed the relationship between spirituality and behavior during active addiction. Thematic analyses suggested that spirituality and religious practices suffered in complex ways during active addiction, but went “hand in hand” with recovery. Nearly all participants agreed that integration of a voluntary spiritual discussion group into formal treatment would be preferable to currently available alternatives. One limitation was that all participants identified as strongly spiritual. Studies of more diverse samples will help guide the development and evaluation of spiritually based interventions in formal treatment settings. PMID:20025443

  14. Influences on preschool children's physical activity: exploration through focus groups.

    PubMed

    Hinkley, Trina; Salmon, Jo; Okely, Anthony D; Crawford, David; Hesketh, Kylie

    2011-01-01

    This study explored mothers' perceptions of influences on preschoolers' physical activity. Six semistructured focus groups with 23 mothers were conducted across a range of socioeconomic position locations. Mothers identified 4 key areas of influence: child fundamentals (eg, sex, personality), parent power (eg, rules, support), people to share with (eg, peers, adults), and places and things (eg, physical environments, toys). No substantial differences in themes were identified among socioeconomic position groups. Influences on preschoolers' physical activity are multidimensional, multifactorial, and support the use of ecological models to conceptualize and understand the influencing factors. Associations among factors influencing preschoolers' physical activity should be further investigated through quantitative research. PMID:21135627

  15. Application of a Motor Learning Treatment for Speech Sound Disorders in Small Groups.

    PubMed

    Skelton, Steven L; Richard, Jennifer T

    2016-06-01

    Speech sound treatment in the public schools is often conducted in small groups, but there are minimal data on the efficacy of group treatment. This study evaluated the efficacy of a motor learning-based treatment (Concurrent Treatment) provided to elementary-school students in small groups. Concurrent Treatment incorporates the randomized sequencing of various practice tasks (e.g., words, sentences, or storytelling) and can result in rapid speech sound acquisition during individual treatment settings. Twenty-eight 6- to 9-year-old children participated in a randomized pretest-posttest control group design. The experimental group received Concurrent Treatment, while the control group received treatment (if needed) after the study. Participants in the experimental group acquired their target speech sounds within 40 30-minute sessions in groups of up to four participants (effect size, d = 1.31). PMID:27160738

  16. Using Research Cruise Data to Improve Group Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    Group activities can be used to create an interactive classroom learning environment. POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) is a pedagogical approach that uses group activities to teach content and process skills. In these group activities an initial model and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to new content. These activities have primarily been developed for chemistry courses, using general information in the model. New activities have been developed for an environmental chemistry course using real-world data as the model. The data used for one of these activities were collected during a research cruise in the Pacific Ocean. Halocarbons were measured in surface seawater and the overlying atmosphere as part of a research study on the natural cycling of compounds involved in ozone depletion. The coupled air and water measurements are used to help students learn about the solubility of gases in water. Students are first given a graph of atmospheric mixing ratios as a function of latitude for several halocarbons and then asked to predict what the corresponding graph of seawater concentrations will look like. The students are then guided through the interpretation of the seawater concentration graph. Plotting the data as a function of latitude enables the discussion of the temperature dependence of the solubility. This activity will be presented as an example of how research data can be incorporated into a classroom module. The effectiveness of this approach will be discussed.

  17. The essential activated carboxyl group of inorganic pyrophosphatase.

    PubMed

    Avaeva, S M; Bakuleva, N P; Baratova, L A; Nazarova, T I; Fink, N Y

    1977-05-12

    1. A carboxyl group of high reactivity has been found in inorganic pyrophosphatase (pyrophosphate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.1) from yeast. This group interacts with agents which react neither with carboxyl groups of low molecular weight compounds nor with other carboxyl groups of the protein. 2. The reaction of this activated carboxyl group with inorganic phosphate, hydroxylamine, N-methyl- and O-methylhydroxylamines, and glycine methyl ester has been studied. 3. Homoserine and homoserine lactone were found in the hydrolyzate of phosphorylated and NaBH4-reduced pyrophosphatase, indicating that an aspartyl residue is phosphorylated. 4. Hydroxylamine and other nucleophilic agents cause inactivation of pyrophosphatase as a result of interaction with a carboxyl group. Both diaminobutyric and diaminopropionic acids were seen in the acid hydrolyzate of the protein treated with hydroxylamine and subjected to rearrangement in the presence of carbodiimide. 5. The ways in which the activation of a carboxyl group in the enzyme is achieved and the presumed mechanism of action of inorganic pyrophosphatase are discussed. PMID:16652

  18. Group therapy for refugees and torture survivors: treatment model innovations.

    PubMed

    Kira, Ibrahim A; Ahmed, Asha; Wasim, Fatima; Mahmoud, Vanessa; Colrain, Joanna; Rai, Dhan

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses varieties of group therapies with refugees and torture survivors and the logic behind enhancing traditional group therapies to fit the unique experiences of refugees and torture survivors. It discusses some lessons learned from practice and from empirical research and some recommended adaptations. Finally, it discusses the Center for Torture and Trauma Survivors' therapy group model for torture survivors and describes two of its variants: The Bashal group for African and Somali women and the Bhutanese multi-family therapy group. Group therapies, in this model, extend to community healing. One of the essential and innovative features of the model is that it focuses not only on treating individual psychopathology but also extends to community healing by promoting the development of social clubs and organizations that promote the values and culture of the graduates of the therapy group and the continuation of social support. New graduates from the group join the club and become part of the social advocacy process and of group and community support and healing. This model adds an ecological dimension to the traditional group therapy. PMID:22229369

  19. Similar barriers and facilitators to physical activity across different clinical groups experiencing lower limb spasticity.

    PubMed

    Hundza, Sandra; Quartly, Caroline; Kim, Jasmine M; Dunnett, James; Dobrinsky, Jill; Loots, Iris; Choy, Kim; Chow, Brayley; Hampshire, Alexis; Temple, Viviene A

    2016-07-01

    ' ability to perform these activities and these activities should be an integral focus of ongoing physical activity programs. Individuals who have lower limb spasticity shared similar impairments in body structures and functions and limitations in activities across the clinical groups and these impairments and limitations negatively impacted participation in physical in a similar way in all groups. Further, the environmental and personal factors exacerbated or mitigated the limiting effects of body functions and structures and activities on physical activity in many areas of life in a similar way in all groups. The presence of similar barriers and facilitators across the clinical groups suggests that rehabilitation assessment and treatment as well as support and services to promote valued forms of physical activity could be organised and delivered based on limitations in mobility and functioning rather than clinical diagnosis. This work affirms that a mixed methods research approach is critical for completely understanding the complexities of the barriers and facilitators engaging in physical activity across clinical groups, including multiple sclerosis, stroke, and incomplete spinal cord injury who have chronic lower limb spasticity. PMID:26726762

  20. Counteraggression in Group Treatment: Good Intentions Gone Awry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasmund, William C.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment programs for delinquent youth often develop negative youth subcultures that sabotage the formal treatment efforts of adults. Students exercising peer authority can manufacture and then escalate minor incidents into major confrontations. Staff who are unaware of the dynamics of the conflict can inadvertently be lured into the battle. (JPS)

  1. Ceftaroline activity tested against viridans group streptococci from US hospitals.

    PubMed

    Sader, Helio S; Rhomberg, Paul R; Castanheira, Mariana; Farrell, David J; Flamm, Robert K; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    A total of 840 clinically relevant viridans group streptococci (VGS) isolates (1/patient episode) were collected from 71 US medical centers in 2013-2014. These organisms were tested for susceptibility by reference broth microdilution methods against ceftaroline and selected comparator agents. All isolates were speciated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and were primarily from skin/soft tissue (32.6%) and bloodstream (32.3%) infections. Ceftaroline was highly active against all VGS species/groups with MIC50 and MIC90 values ranging from ≤0.015 to 0.03μg/mL and ≤0.015 to 0.06μg/mL, respectively. The highest ceftaroline MIC value was only 0.5μg/mL (0.5% of strains) and ceftaroline (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06μg/mL) was 8-fold more active than ceftriaxone (MIC50/90, 0.25/0.5μg/mL). The VGS groups most susceptible to ceftaroline were Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus bovis (MIC90, ≤0.015μg/mL), whereas the highest ceftaroline MIC values were observed among Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguinis groups. In summary, ceftaroline exhibited potent in vitro activity against VGS, including many uncommonly isolated species/groups for which very limited susceptibility information is currently available to guide therapy. PMID:26658313

  2. Short-Term Group Treatment for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Alvin; McCormack, WIlliam A.

    1992-01-01

    Adult children of alcoholics (n=24) were tested on measures of loneliness, anxiety, hostility, depression, and interpersonal dependency before and after participation in short-term group therapy. Highly significant test score changes supported effectiveness of individual therapy in short-term groups. (Author/NB)

  3. Forestry Activities. A Guide for Youth Group Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Twenty-six activities related to forestry, conservation, and outdoor education comprise the content of this leader's guide. Designed for use with youth groups, ideas and techniques range from forest conservation mobiles, locating forest fires, and Christmas tree uses to litterbug campaigns, watershed experiments, and crossword puzzles. Activities…

  4. Active Classroom Participation in a Group Scribbles Primary Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wenli; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2011-01-01

    A key stimulus of learning efficacy for students in the classroom is active participation and engagement in the learning process. This study examines the nature of teacher-student and student-student discourse when leveraged by an interactive technology--Group Scribbles (GS) in a Primary 5 Science classroom in Singapore which supports rapid…

  5. Elastic activator for treatment of open bite.

    PubMed

    Stellzig, A; Steegmayer-Gilde, G; Basdra, E K

    1999-06-01

    This article presents a modified activator for treatment of open bite cases. The intermaxillary acrylic of the lateral occlusal zones is replaced by elastic rubber tubes. By stimulating orthopaedic gymnastics (chewing gum effect), the elastic activator intrudes upper and lower posterior teeth. A noticeable counterclockwise rotation of the mandible was accomplished by a decrease of the gonial angle. Besides the simple fabrication of the device and uncomplicated replacement of the elastic rubber tubes, treatment can be started even in mixed dentition when affixing plates may be difficult. PMID:10420241

  6. Division Iv/v Working Group on Active B Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine J.; Jones, Carol E.; Townsend, Richard D.; Fabregat, Juan; Bjorkman, Karen S.; McSwain, M. Virginia; Mennickent, Ronald E.; Neiner, Coralie; Stee, Philippe; Fabregat, Juan

    2010-05-01

    The meeting of the Working Group on Active B Stars consisted of a business session followed by a scientific session containing nine talks. The titles of the talks and their presenters are listed below. We plan to publish a series of articles containing summaries of these talks in Issue No. 40 of the Be Star Newsletter. This report contains an account of the announcements made during the business session, an update on a forthcoming IAU Symposium on active B stars, a report on the status of the Be Star Newsletter, the results of the 2009 election of the SOC for the Working Group for 2009-12, a listing of the Working Group bylaws that were recently adopted, and a list of the scientific talks that we presented at the meeting.

  7. IGM Heating and AGN activity in Fossil Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miraghaei, H.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Ponman, T. J.; Jetha, N. N.; Raychaudhury, S.

    2014-07-01

    Fossil galaxy groups are energetically and morphologically ideal environments to study the intergalactic medium (IGM) heating, because their inter-galactic gas is undisturbed due to the lack of recent group scale mergers. We study the role of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in heating the IGM in a sample of five fossil galaxy groups by employing properties at 610 MHz and 1.4 GHz. We find that two of the dominant galaxies in fossil groups, ESO 3060170 and RX J1416.4+2315, are associated with the radio lobes. We evaluate the PdV work of the radio lobes and their corresponding heating power and compare to the X-ray emission loss within cooling radius. Our results show that the power due to mechanical heating is not sufficiently high to suppress the cooling.

  8. Adherence to physical activity guidelines among cancer support group participants.

    PubMed

    Stevinson, C; Lydon, A; Amir, Z

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity is recommended after cancer diagnosis for physical function, quality of life and survival benefits. This study provided preliminary data on the prevalence of physical activity among adult men and women with cancer in the UK. As part of a national survey of cancer support group participation, questionnaires including items on leisure-time physical activity and demographic information were completed by 748 cancer survivors. Overall, 395 (52.8%) participants reported no weekly moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity, 221 (29.5%) reported some activity but below minimum recommendations and 132 (17.6%) were meeting published guidelines. Gender, health status and socio-economic status were independently associated with meeting guidelines. Among participants in good or fair health who were not meeting guidelines, 59.9% thought that they ought to be more physically active. In conclusion, overall levels of physical activity are low among cancer survivors in the UK. However, the majority of insufficiently active participants showed awareness of the need to increase their activity, and may be receptive to interventions for promoting physical activity in this population. PMID:24127843

  9. Modulation of Group I Ribozyme Activity by Cationic Porphyrins

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Shigeyoshi; Ito, Tatsunobu; Tanaka, Takahiro; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Ikawa, Yoshiya

    2015-01-01

    The effects of cationic porphyrins on the catalytic activities of four group I ribozymes were investigated. A cationic porphyrin possessing four pyridinium moieties (pPyP) inhibited two group IC3 ribozymes (Syn Rz and Azo Rz) and a group IC1 ribozyme (Tet Rz). In the case of a group IA2 ribozyme (Td Rz), however, pPyP served not only as an inhibitor but also as an activator, and the effects of pPyP were dependent on its concentration. To analyze the structural and electronic factors determining the effects of pPyP on group I ribozymes, three cationic porphyrins (pPyNCP, pPyF4P, and TMPyP) were also examined. As interactions between small organic molecules and nucleic acids are attractive and important issues in biochemistry and biotechnology, this study contributes to the development of porphyrin-based molecules that can modulate functions of structured RNA molecules. PMID:25811638

  10. The evolution of star formation activity in galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfanianfar, G.; Popesso, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Wuyts, S.; Wilman, D.; Biviano, A.; Ziparo, F.; Salvato, M.; Nandra, K.; Lutz, D.; Elbaz, D.; Dickinson, M.; Tanaka, M.; Mirkazemi, M.; Balogh, M. L.; Altieri, M. B.; Aussel, H.; Bauer, F.; Berta, S.; Bielby, R. M.; Brandt, N.; Cappelluti, N.; Cimatti, A.; Cooper, M.; Fadda, D.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floch, E.; Magnelli, B.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Nordon, R.; Newman, J. A.; Poglitsch, A.; Pozzi, F.

    2014-12-01

    We study the evolution of the total star formation (SF) activity, total stellar mass (ΣM*) and halo occupation distribution (HOD) in massive haloes by using one of the largest X-ray selected sample of galaxy groups with secure spectroscopic identification in the major blank field surveys (ECDFS, CDFN, COSMOS, AEGIS). We provide an accurate measurement of star formation rate (SFR) for the bulk of the star-forming galaxies using very deep mid-infrared Spitzer MIPS and far-infrared Herschel PACS observations. For undetected IR sources, we provide a well-calibrated SFR from spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. We observe a clear evolution in the level of SF activity in galaxy groups. The total SF activity in the high-redshift groups (0.5 < z < 1.1) is higher with respect to the low-redshift (0.15 < z < 0.5) sample at any mass by 0.8 ± 0.12 dex. A milder difference (0.35 ± 0.1 dex) is observed between the low-redshift bin and the groups at z ˜ 0. We show that the level of SF activity is declining more rapidly in the more massive haloes than in the more common lower mass haloes. We do not observe any evolution in the HOD and total stellar mass-halo mass relations in groups. The picture emerging from our findings suggests that the galaxy population in the most massive systems is evolving faster than galaxies in lower mass haloes, consistently with a `halo downsizing' scenario.

  11. Group art therapy as an adjunctive treatment for people with schizophrenia: multicentre pragmatic randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Killaspy, Helen; Barnes, Thomas R E; Barrett, Barbara; Byford, Sarah; Clayton, Katie; Dinsmore, John; Floyd, Siobhan; Hoadley, Angela; Johnson, Tony; Kalaitzaki, Eleftheria; King, Michael; Leurent, Baptiste; Maratos, Anna; O’Neill, Francis A; Osborn, David P; Patterson, Sue; Soteriou, Tony; Tyrer, Peter; Waller, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of group art therapy for people with schizophrenia and to test whether any benefits exceed those of an active control treatment. Design Three arm, rater blinded, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial. Setting Secondary care services across 15 sites in the United Kingdom. Participants 417 people aged 18 or over, who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia and provided written informed consent to take part in the study. Interventions Participants, stratified by site, were randomised to 12 months of weekly group art therapy plus standard care, 12 months of weekly activity groups plus standard care, or standard care alone. Art therapy and activity groups had up to eight members and lasted for 90 minutes. In art therapy, members were given access to a range of art materials and encouraged to use these to express themselves freely. Members of activity groups were offered various activities that did not involve use of art or craft materials and were encouraged to collectively select those they wanted to pursue. Main outcome measures The primary outcomes were global functioning, measured using the global assessment of functioning scale, and mental health symptoms, measured using the positive and negative syndrome scale, 24 months after randomisation. Main secondary outcomes were levels of group attendance, social functioning, and satisfaction with care at 12 and 24 months. Results 417 participants were assigned to either art therapy (n=140), activity groups (n=140), or standard care alone (n=137). Primary outcomes between the three study arms did not differ. The adjusted mean difference between art therapy and standard care at 24 months on the global assessment of functioning scale was −0.9 (95% confidence interval −3.8 to 2.1), and on the positive and negative syndrome scale was 0.7 (−3.1 to 4.6). Secondary outcomes did not differ between those referred to art therapy or those referred to standard care at 12 or 24 months

  12. Morphine treatment alters nucleotidase activities in rat blood serum

    PubMed Central

    Rozisky, Joanna Ripoll; Nonose, Yasmine; Laste, Gabriela; dos Santos, Vinicius Souza; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci LS

    2012-01-01

    Morphine has been widely used in neonatal pain management. However, this treatment may produce adaptive changes in several physiologic systems. Our laboratory has demonstrated that morphine treatment in neonate rats alters nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity and gene expression in central nervous system structures. Considering the relationship between the opioid and purinergic systems, our aim was to verify whether treatment with morphine from postnatal days 8 (P8) through 14 (P14) at a dose of 5 µg per day alters NTPDase and 5′-nucleotidase activities in rat serum over the short, medium, and long terms. After the in vivo assay, the morphine group showed increased hydrolysis of all nucleotides at P30, and a decrease in adenosine 5′-diphosphate hydrolysis at P60. Moreover, we found that nucleotidase activities change with age; adenosine 5′-triphosphate hydrolysis activity was lower at P16, and adenosine 5′-monophosphate hydrolysis activity was higher at P60. These changes are very important because these enzymes are the main regulators of blood nucleotide levels and, consequently, nucleotide signaling. Our findings showed that in vivo morphine treatment alters nucleotide hydrolysis in rat blood serum, suggesting that purine homeostasis can be influenced by opioid treatment during the neonatal period.

  13. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for a Heterogeneous Group of Treatment-Resistant Clients: A Treatment Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Sue; Kingston, Jessica; Wilson, Kelly G.; Bolderston, Helen; Remington, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has been shown to have broad applicability to different diagnostic groups, and there are theoretical reasons to consider its use with clients with chronic mental health problems. We report an innovative treatment development evaluation of ACT for a heterogeneous group of "treatment-resistant clients" (N =…

  14. Group Treatment of Separated Parent and Child Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Harold E.; Leary, Joy D.; Briggs, Adam C.; Cox, Wendell H.; Shibano, Matsujiro

    2005-01-01

    Effective child-behavior management is an important characteristic in facilitating positive parent and child interaction. The current study examines the impact of a behavioral parent-training group methodology on problem behaviors and goals for a single mother and two young boys. Results indicate that the procedures were valuable for enhancing…

  15. Silanone groups on the surface of mechanically activated silicon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Bobyshev, A.A.; Radtsig, V.A.

    1988-12-01

    A new type of natural defects, namely, silanone groups, was identified on the surface of mechanically activated SiO/sub 2/. A study was carried out on their thermal stability, optical properties (a characteristic absorption band was found with maximum at 5.3 eV), and reactivity relative to simple molecules such as CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/O and radicals such as H, D, and CH/sub 3/.

  16. Maintaining professional activity during breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Ganem, G; Antoine, E-C; Touboul, C; Naman, H; Dohollou, N; Facchini, T; Coscas, Y; Lortholary, A; Catala, S; Jacquot, S; Lhomel, C; Eisinger, F

    2016-05-01

    The question of returning to work and pursuing professional activity during cancer treatment is an increasingly important consideration. The present work focuses on factors affecting the feasibility of maintaining professional activity during treatment for breast cancer, for women who wished to do so. Written questionnaires were collected from 216 patients between March and November 2012. Since the onset of their treatment, 31.4% of the women (68/216) had not been on sick-leave. The main factors associated with the pursuit of professional activity were: considering the availability of their physician to answer questions as unimportant [OR = 18.83 (3.60-98.53); P ≤ 0.05]; considering the diagnosis of cancer as likely to have a weak impact on career perspectives [OR = 4.07 (2.49-6.64); P ≤ 0.05]; not having any children in the household [OR = 3.87 (2.38-6.28); P ≤ 0.05]; being in a managerial position [OR = 3.13 (1.88-5.21); P ≤ 0.05]. Negative predictive factors were: physician mentioning adverse effects of the treatment [OR = 0.31 (0.16-0.58); P ≤ 0.05], and patient rating workload as high [OR = 0.26 (0.15-0.46); P ≤ 0.05]. As a result of advances in therapeutic strategies, more patients will expect healthcare professionals, as well as employers and occupational health societies, to prioritise issues pertaining to the maintenance of professional activities during cancer treatment. PMID:26891443

  17. Knowledge discovery in group activities through sequential observation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2014-06-01

    Understanding of Group Activities (GA) has significant applications in civilian and military domains. The process of understanding GA is typically involved with spatiotemporal analysis of multi-modality sensor data. Video imagery is one popular sensing modality that offers rich data, however, data associated with imagery source may become fragmented and discontinued due to a number of reasons (e.g., data transmission, or observation obstructions and occlusions). However, making sense out of video imagery is a real challenge. It requires a proper inference working model capable of analyzing video imagery frame by frame, extract and inference spatiotemporal information pertaining to observations while developing an incremental perception of the GA as they emerge overtime. In this paper, we propose an ontology based GA recognition where three inference Hidden Markov Models (HMM's) are used for predicting group activities taking place in outdoor environments and different task operational taxonomy. The three competing models include: a concatenated HMM, a cascaded HMM, and a context-based HMM. The proposed ontology based GA-HMM was subjected to set of semantically annotated visual observations from outdoor group activity experiments. Experimental results from GA-HMM are presented with technical discussions on design of each model and their potential implication to Persistent Surveillance Systems (PSS).

  18. What Works in Group Care? – A Structured Review of Treatment Models for Group Homes and Residential Care

    PubMed Central

    James, Sigrid

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a structured review of treatment models that are relevant to group care and residential treatment settings for children involved with the child welfare system. Initiated and guided by The California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare, five treatment models – Positive Peer Culture, Teaching Family Model, Sanctuary Model, Stop-Gap Model, and Re-ED – were reviewed for effectiveness. In this paper, each model s treatment features are described and relevant outcome studies reviewed in terms of their effectiveness as well as relevance for child welfare practice. Findings indicate that four of the models are either supported or promising in terms of evidence for effectiveness. Implications for group care practice and research are discussed. PMID:22468014

  19. ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Daniel J. Stepan

    2000-07-01

    High concentrations of humate in surface water result in the formation of excess amounts of chlorinated byproducts during disinfection treatment. These precursors can be removed in water treatment prior to disinfection using powdered activated carbon. In the interest of developing a more cost-effective method for removal of humates in surface water, a comparison of the activities of carbons prepared from North Dakota lignites with those of commercial carbons was conducted. Previous studies indicated that a commercial carbon prepared from Texas lignite (Darco HDB) was superior to those prepared from bituminous coals for water treatment. That the high alkali content of North Dakota lignites would result in favorable adsorptive properties for the very large humate molecules was hypothesized, owing to the formation of larger pores during activation. Since no standard humate test has been previously developed, initial adsorption testing was performed using smaller dye molecules with various types of ionic character. With the cationic dye, methylene blue, a carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite (HSKRC) adsorbed more dye than the Darco HDB. The carbon from the low-sodium lignite was much inferior. With another cationic dye, malachite green, the Darco HDB was slightly better. With anionic dyes, methyl red and azocarmine-B, the results for the HSKRC and Darco HDB were comparable. A humate test was developed using Aldrich humic acid. The HSKRC and the Darco HDB gave equally high adsorption capacities for the humate (138 mg/g), consistent with the similarities observed in earlier tests. A carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite from a different mine showed an outstanding improvement (201 mg/g). The carbons prepared from the low-sodium lignites from both mines showed poor adsorption capacities for humate. Adsorption isotherms were performed for the set of activated carbons in the humate system. These exhibited a complex behavior interpreted as resulting from two types

  20. Serum antimuscarinic activity during clozapine treatment.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Jose; Odom-White, Aruby; Josiassen, Richard C; Diaz, Francisco J; Cooper, Thomas B; Simpson, George M

    2003-08-01

    This study attempts: (1) to verify that serum antimuscarinic activity is related to clozapine dose, and more importantly to clozapine plasma concentrations; (2) to explore whether norclozapine has serum antimuscarinic activity; (3) to explore whether antimuscarinic activity is related to clozapine side effects; and (4) to compare the serum antimuscarinic activities of clozapine with those of antiparkinsonian drugs and other antipsychotics. In 39 patients participating in a double-blind clozapine study, the [3H]QNB assay was used to measure serum antimuscarinic activity: (1) on baseline medications; (2) after a 4-week haloperidol trial; (3) after a 16-week clozapine trial of either 100, 300, or 600 mg/d; and (4) after 1 or 2 consecutive 16-week clozapine trials with remaining doses in nonresponders. Clozapine levels predicted serum antimuscarinic activity better than clozapine dose. At the end of the 1st clozapine trial, the correlation with the levels explained 69% of the variance of serum antimuscarinic activity (r = 0.83, P < 0.001, N = 34). Clozapine levels were good predictors of serum antimuscarinic activity only in patients taking 300 or 600 mg/d. After correcting for clozapine levels, the within-subject correlation between norclozapine levels and serum antimuscarinic activity was relatively high and significant (r = 0.54, F = 26.7, df = 1.65, P < 0.001). Constipation was significantly associated with higher serum antimuscarinic activity during the 1st clozapine trial. Clozapine was associated with clearly higher antimuscarinic activity than other antipsychotics or low doses of antiparkinsonians. In vitro studies and new clinical studies are needed to verify whether norclozapine may significantly contribute to antimuscarinic activity during clozapine treatment. PMID:12920408

  1. Obscured Starburst Activity in High Redshift Clusters and Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocevski, Dale; Lemaux, B.; Lubin, L.; Gal, R.

    2011-01-01

    Using Spitzer MIPS 24um imaging and extensive Keck spectroscopy we have found evidence for environmentally triggered starburst activity within six clusters and groups at z 0.9. I will show that the density of 24um-detected galaxies in the cluster environment is nearly twice that of the surrounding field at this redshift and that this overdensity scales with the cluster's dynamical state. The 24um-bright members often appear optically unremarkable and exhibit only moderate [OII] line emission due to severe obscuration. Although their spatial distribution suggests they are an infalling population, a close examination of their spectral properties, morphologies and optical colors indicate they are not simply analogs of the field population that have yet to be quenched. Using stacked DEIMOS spectra, we find the 24um-detected cluster and group galaxies exhibit elevated levels of Balmer absorption compared to galaxies undergoing normal, continuous star formation. A similar excess is not observed in field galaxies with equivalent infrared luminosities, indicating a greater fraction of the detected cluster and group members have experienced a burst of star formation in the recent past compared to their counterparts in the field. Our results suggest that gas-rich galaxies at high redshift experience a temporary increase in their star formation activity as they assemble into denser environments. Using HST ACS imaging we find that disturbed morphologies are common among the obscured starburst population and become more prevalent in regions of higher galaxy density. We conclude that mergers are the dominant triggering mechanism responsible for the enhanced star formation found in the group galaxies, while a mix of harassment and mergers are likely driving the activity of the cluster galaxies.

  2. Obscured Starburst Activity in High-redshift Clusters and Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocevski, Dale D.; Lemaux, Brian C.; Lubin, Lori M.; Gal, Roy; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Squires, Gordon K.; Surace, Jason A.; Lacy, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Using Spitzer-Multiband Imaging Photometer 24 μm imaging and extensive Keck spectroscopy, we examine the nature of the obscured star-forming population in three clusters and three groups at z ~ 0.9. These six systems are the primary components of the Cl1604 supercluster, the largest structure imaged by Spitzer at redshifts approaching unity. We find that the average density of 24 μm detected galaxies within the Cl1604 clusters is nearly twice that of the surrounding field and that this overdensity scales with the cluster's dynamical state. The 24 μm bright members often appear optically unremarkable and exhibit only moderate [O II] line emission due to severe obscuration. Their spatial distribution suggests that they are an infalling population, but an examination of their spectral properties, morphologies, and optical colors indicates that they are not simply analogs of the field population that have yet to be quenched. Using stacked composite spectra, we find that the 24 μm detected cluster and group galaxies exhibit elevated levels of Balmer absorption compared with galaxies undergoing normal, continuous star formation. A similar excess is not observed in field galaxies with equivalent infrared luminosities, indicating a greater fraction of the detected cluster and group members have experienced a burst of star formation in the recent past compared to their counterparts in the field. Our results suggest that gas-rich galaxies at high redshift experience a temporary increase in their star formation activity as they assemble into denser environments. Using Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging, we find that disturbed morphologies are common among the 24 μm detected cluster and group members and become more prevalent in regions of higher galaxy density. We conclude that mergers are the dominant triggering mechanism responsible for the enhanced star formation found in the Cl1604 groups, while a mix of harassment and mergers are likely

  3. Reactive and Reciprocal Inhibition Therapies in the Group Treatment of Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Maureen

    This experiment compares the effects of group reactive inhibition therapy and group reciprocal inhibition therapy with no treatment on the anxiety level of test-anxious college students. Twenty undergraduate students volunteered for the study and were assigned to either the reactive inhibition group, the reciprocal inhibition group, or the…

  4. Group Lidcombe Program Treatment for Early Stuttering: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Simone; Onslow, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study adds to the Lidcombe Program evidence base by comparing individual and group treatment of preschoolers who stutter. Method: A randomized controlled trial of 54 preschoolers was designed to establish whether group delivery outcomes were not inferior to the individual model. The group arm used a rolling group model, in which a…

  5. Dynamic regulation of Polycomb group activity during plant development.

    PubMed

    Bemer, Marian; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2012-11-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) complexes play important roles in phase transitions and cell fate determination in plants and animals, by epigenetically repressing sets of genes that promote either proliferation or differentiation. The continuous differentiation of new organs in plants, such as leaves or flowers, requires a highly dynamic PcG function, which can be induced, modulated, or repressed when necessary. In this review, we discuss the recent advance in understanding PcG function in plants and focus on the diverse molecular mechanisms that have been described to regulate and counteract PcG activity in Arabidopsis. PMID:22999383

  6. Activities of the PNC Nuclear Safety Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, W.Y.

    1991-12-31

    The Nuclear Safety Working Group of the Pacific Nuclear Council promotes nuclear safety cooperation among its members. Status of safety research, emergency planning, development of lists of technical experts, severe accident prevention and mitigation have been the topics of discussion in the NSWG. This paper reviews and compares the severe accident prevention and mitigation program activities in some of the areas of the Pacific Basin region based on papers presented at a special session organized by the NSWG at an ANS Topical Meeting as well as papers from other sources.

  7. Activities of the PNC Nuclear Safety Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, W.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Working Group of the Pacific Nuclear Council promotes nuclear safety cooperation among its members. Status of safety research, emergency planning, development of lists of technical experts, severe accident prevention and mitigation have been the topics of discussion in the NSWG. This paper reviews and compares the severe accident prevention and mitigation program activities in some of the areas of the Pacific Basin region based on papers presented at a special session organized by the NSWG at an ANS Topical Meeting as well as papers from other sources.

  8. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    PubMed

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones. PMID:26378390

  9. Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

  10. Outcome Evaluation of a Group Treatment of Sexually Abused and Reactive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffany, Adrienne; Panos, Patrick T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of group therapy in treating sexually abused children to prevent recidivism (subsequently re-abused or becoming abusers themselves). Methods: Recidivism rates of 617 children were compared between sexually abused children who received group treatment with those whose parents refused treatment.…

  11. Substance Abuse Treatment Agencies and Self-Help Groups: Collaborators or Competitors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Keith; And Others

    While self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous are becoming more integrated into the professional substance abuse treatment network, many professionals are still hesitant to encourage clients to attend self-help groups after treatment. This study examined what factors predict the degree of cooperation between professional agencies and…

  12. Group behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. PMID:25268019

  13. Evaluating Animal-Assisted Therapy in Group Treatment for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Tracy J.; Davis, Diana; Pennings, Jacquelyn

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of three group interventions on trauma symptoms for children who have been sexually abused. All of the groups followed the same treatment protocol, with two of them incorporating variations of animal-assisted therapy. A total of 153 children ages 7 to 17 who were in group therapy at a Child…

  14. Photovoltaic Reliability Group activities in USA and Brazil (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Cruz, Leila R. O.

    2015-09-01

    Recently prices of photovoltaic (PV) systems have been reduced considerably and may continue to be reduced making them attractive. If these systems provide electricity over the stipulated warranty period, it would be possible attain socket parity within the next few years. Current photovoltaic module qualifications tests help in minimizing infant mortality but do not guarantee useful lifetime over the warranty period. The PV Module Quality Assurance Task Force (PVQAT) is trying to formulate accelerated tests that will be useful towards achieving the ultimate goal of assuring useful lifetime over the warranty period as well as to assure manufacturing quality. Unfortunately, assuring the manufacturing quality may require 24/7 presence. Alternatively, collecting data on the performance of fielded systems would assist in assuring manufacturing quality. Here PV systems installed by home-owners and small businesses can constitute as an important untapped source of data. The volunteer group, PV - Reliable, Safe and Sustainable Quality! (PVRessQ!) is providing valuable service to small PV system owners. Photovoltaic Reliability Group (PVRG) is initiating activities in USA and Brazil to assist home owners and small businesses in monitoring photovoltaic (PV) module performance and enforcing warranty. It will work in collaboration with small PV system owners, consumer protection agencies. Brazil is endowed with excellent solar irradiance making it attractive for installation of PV systems. Participating owners of small PV systems would instruct inverter manufacturers to copy the daily e-mails to PVRG and as necessary, will authorize the PVRG to carry out review of PV systems. The presentation will consist of overall activities of PVRG in USA and Brazil.

  15. Synergistic effect between defect sites and functional groups on the hydrolysis of cellulose over activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Foo, Guo Shiou; Sievers, Carsten

    2015-02-01

    The chemical oxidation of activated carbon by H2 O2 and H2 SO4 is investigated, structural and chemical modifications are characterized, and the materials are used as catalysts for the hydrolysis of cellulose. Treatment with H2 O2 enlarges the pore size and imparts functional groups such as phenols, lactones, and carboxylic acids. H2 SO4 treatment targets the edges of carbon sheets primarily, and this effect is more pronounced with a higher temperature. Adsorption isotherms demonstrate that the adsorption of oligomers on functionalized carbon is dominated by van der Waals forces. The materials treated chemically are active for the hydrolysis of cellulose despite the relative weakness of most of their acid sites. It is proposed that a synergistic effect between defect sites and functional groups enhances the activity by inducing a conformational change in the glucan chains if they are adsorbed at defect sites. This activates the glycosidic bonds for hydrolysis by in-plane functional groups. PMID:25504913

  16. An Update on the VAMOS Extremes Working Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Cavalcanti, Iracema

    2011-01-01

    We review here the progress of the Variability of the American MOnsoon Systems (VAMOS) extremes working group since it was formed in February of 2010. The goals of the working group are to 1) develop an atlas of warm-season extremes over the Americas, 2) evaluate existing and planned simulations, and 3) suggest new model runs to address mechanisms and predictability of extremes. Substantial progress has been made in the development of an extremes atlas based on gridded observations and several reanalysis products including Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR). The status of the atlas, remaining issues and plans for its expansion to include model data will be discussed. This includes the possibility of adding a companion atlas based on station observations based on the software developed under the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Expert Team on Climate Change. Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) activity. We will also review progress on relevant research and plans for the use and validation of the atlas results.

  17. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy Compared to the Usual Opioid Dependence Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Saeed; Atef Vahid, Mohammad Kazem; Gharraee, Banafsheh; Noroozi, Alireza; Habibi, Mojtaba; Bowen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based group therapy (MBGT) compared to the usual opioid dependence treatment (TAU).Thirty outpatients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for opioid dependence from Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS) were randomly assigned into experimental (Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy) and control groups (the Usual Treatment).The experimental group undertook eight weeks of intervention, but the control group received the usual treatment according to the INCAS program. Methods: The Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Addiction Sevier Index (ASI) were administered at pre-treatment and post-treatment assessment periods. Thirteen patients from the experimental group and 15 from the control group completed post-test assessments. Results: The results of MANCOVA revealed an increase in mean scores in observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging, non-reacting, and decrease in mean scores of alcohol and opium in MBGT patient group. Conclusion: The effectiveness of MBGT, compared to the usual treatment, was discussed in this paper as a selective protocol in the health care setting for substance use disorders. PMID:26877751

  18. Immunoregulatory and antitumor activity of schizophyllan under ultrasonic treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Kui; Tong, Litao; Liu, Liya; Zhou, Xianrong; Liu, Xingxun; Zhang, Qi; Zhou, Sumei

    2015-09-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the biological activities of schizophyllan (SPG) from Schizophyllum commune. The immunoregulatory and antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo of SPG and ultrasonic-treated SPG (USPG) were evaluated by splenic lymphocytes, macrophages RAW264.7 and human breast carcinoma T-47D cells. Compared with SPG, USPG fractions had small molecular weight and narrow distribution. Meantime, more enhancement of NO production in macrophages RAW264.7, lymphocytes proliferation rates, IL-2 and TNF-α level from spleen lymphocytes and T-47D cells inhibition rates were observed in USPG fractions groups. This result indicated that the immune-enhancing and antitumor activity of SPG was significantly improved after ultrasonic treatment. USPG60 exhibited the highest biological activity in this study. In conclusion, application of ultrasonic technology on SPG preparation is an efficient approach to get high biological polysaccharide, and USPG60 might be a potential functional component for immunoregulatory and cancer treatment. PMID:26126943

  19. Therapeutic potential of targeting group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the treatment of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Duty, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Current drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), for example, L-DOPA and dopamine agonists, are very effective at reversing the motor symptoms of the disease. However, they do little to combat the underlying degeneration of dopaminergic neurones in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and their long-term use is associated with the appearance of adverse effects such as L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Much emphasis has therefore been placed on finding alternative non-dopaminergic drugs that may circumvent some or all of these problems. Group III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors were first identified in the basal ganglia a decade ago. One or more of these receptors (mGlu4, mGlu7 or mGlu8) is found on pre-synaptic terminals of basal ganglia pathways whose overactivity is implicated not only in the generation of motor symptoms in PD, but also in driving the progressive SNc degeneration. The finding that drugs which activate group III mGlu receptors can inhibit transmission across these overactive synapses has lead to the proposal that group III mGlu receptors are promising targets for drug discovery in PD. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the role and target potential of group III mGlu receptors in the basal ganglia. Overwhelming evidence obtained from in vitro studies and animal models of PD supports group III mGlu receptors as potentially important drug targets for providing both symptom relief and neuroprotection in PD. PMID:20735415

  20. Tobacco Cessation Treatment for Alaska Native Adolescents: Group Randomized Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco cessation treatments have not been evaluated among Alaska Native (AN) adolescents. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility and the potential efficacy of a targeted cessation intervention for AN youth using a group randomized design. Methods: Eight villages in western Alaska were randomly assigned to receive the intervention (n = 4 villages) or a delayed treatment control condition (written materials only; n = 4 villages). Ten adolescents aged 12–17 years were targeted from each village with a planned enrollment of 80. The intervention was held over a weekend, and youth traveled from their villages to quit tobacco use with other teens. The intervention comprised 8hr of group-based counseling. Talking circles, personal stories from elders, and recreational activities were included to enhance cultural acceptability and participation. Newsletters were mailed weekly for 5-weeks postprogram. Assessments were conducted at baseline, week 6 (end-of-treatment), and 6 months. Self-reported tobacco abstinence was confirmed with salivary cotinine. Results: Recruitment targets were met in the intervention (41 enrolled) but not in control villages (27 enrolled). All intervention participants attended the weekend program. Retention was high; 98% of intervention and 86% of control participants completed 6-month follow-up. The 7-day point-prevalence self-reported tobacco abstinence rates for intervention and control participants were 10% (4/41) and 0% (0/27) at both week 6 and 6 months (p = .15). Only 1 adolescent in the intervention condition was biochemically confirmed abstinent at week 6 and none at 6 months. Conclusion: The intensive individual-focused intervention used in this study was feasible but not effective for tobacco cessation among AN youth. Alternative approaches are warranted. PMID:24532352

  1. Object relations and transference in the group treatment of incest offenders.

    PubMed

    Stukenberg, K W

    2001-01-01

    After reviewing the literature on sex offenders-a literature largely devoted to behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and relapse-prevention approaches to treatment-the author proposes that an object-relational group psychotherapy treatment has a great deal to offer in the treatment of incest offenders. The author describes the parameters that distinguish group treatment of incest offenders from other object-relational group treatments. These parameters are largely related to the legally mandated nature of the treatment. The reality of enforced treatment and the very real influence treaters have on the lives of their patients supports a particular and salient transferential experience of the therapist as an authority figure who is generally also seen as harsh and arbitrary. Clinical case material clarifies how both overidentification with, and avoidance of, this authority figure role can derail treatment. The author concludes that there is potential for exploiting the reality-based treatment parameters with this population to help develop a treatment alliance that can be a powerful and effective treatment tool. PMID:11761493

  2. The Italian AIPO study on tuberculosis treatment results, report 1995. National AIPO "Tuberculosis" Study Group.

    PubMed

    Ambrosetti, M; Besozzi, G; Codecasa, L R; Farris, B; Nutini, S; Saini, L; Casali, L; Nardini, S; Migliori, G B

    1999-02-01

    In Italy, no national data on tuberculosis (TB) treatment results were available. In 1995, the AIPO (Italian Association of Hospital Pneumologists) TB Study Group, in collaboration with the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (technical branch of the Ministry of Health), started a prospective monitoring activity based on World Health Organization (WHO) and International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) recommendations. Data were collected from a nationwide network of 41 TB units, managing a significant proportion of all TB cases notified in Italy each year. The aim of this study was to analyse the case findings and treatment results for the year 1995. Seven hundred and seventy eight TB cases were reported (59% males; 21% immigrants), 640 (82%) being new cases. Of these cases, 517 (66%) were pulmonary, 239 (31%) extrapulmonary and 22 (3%) both pulmonary and extrapulmonary. The main risk factors for TB were a history of recent contact and alcohol abuse among native Italians and human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive status among immigrants. The majority of immigrants were from Africa and South America, and had been in Italy > 24 months before diagnosis of TB. Thirty-seven per cent of patients had a positive direct sputum smear examination for alcohol acid-fast bacilli; 20% were resistant to any drug (monoresistance to isoniazid 3.5%; multidrug resistance 5.2%). In 95% of cases, the duration of treatment was < 12 months. The overall success rate (cured plus treatment completed) was 81.1%. A significantly higher percentage of deaths was found in native Italians (being age-related), whereas immigrants had a higher default rate. PMID:10218371

  3. Group cognitive behavioral treatment in female soldiers diagnosed with binge/purge eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rinat; Yanykulovitch-Levy, Dana; Wertheim, Hadas; Gordon-Erez, Shirley; Shahimov, Meital; Weizman, Abraham; Stein, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) is the recommended intervention in bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorders not otherwise specified with binge/purge (EDNOS-B/P) symptoms. There are fewer data on its application in a group format. We sought to investigate the effect of group CBT in female soldiers with B/P symptomatology in an open trial design. For this purpose we assessed 64 female soldiers serving in the Israeli Defense Force diagnosed with BN and EDNOS-B/P who participated in a group CBT format of 16 weekly sessions and one follow-up session. In this study, 42 participants (65.6%) completed treatment and 22 participants (34.4%) did not. A total of 39 treatment completers (92.8% of treatment completers) and 19 non-completers (86.4% of treatment non-completers) were assessed around 12 months after treatment. Participants completed at baseline and following treatment questionnaires assessing eating-related symptoms, depression, anxiety, and overall functioning. At follow-up they were assessed for eating-related symptoms. Our findings show only minimal baseline differences between treatment completers and non-completers. Significant improvement from baseline to post-treatment was shown for B/P and restrictive symptoms, depression, anxiety, and overall functioning. At that time, more than a third of treatment completers were abstinent from binging and more than a half from vomiting. The improvement in B/P and restricting symptoms was maintained at 1 year follow-up for treatment completers. At that time around 60% were abstinent from binging and more than 70% from vomiting. Participants not completing treatment were also improved at follow-up but to a lesser extent. The findings of the present study suggest that group CBT may be effective for the treatment of female soldiers with BN and EDNOS-B/P. PMID:27128883

  4. Tobacco Assessment in Actively Accruing National Cancer Institute Cooperative Group Program Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Erica N.; Torres, Essie; Toll, Benjamin A.; Cummings, K. Michael; Gritz, Ellen R.; Hyland, Andrew; Herbst, Roy S.; Marshall, James R.; Warren, Graham W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Substantial evidence suggests that tobacco use has adverse effects on cancer treatment outcomes; however, routine assessment of tobacco use has not been fully incorporated into standard clinical oncology practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate tobacco use assessment in patients enrolled onto actively accruing cancer clinical trials. Methods Protocols and forms for 155 actively accruing trials in the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Clinical Trials Cooperative Group Program were evaluated for tobacco use assessment at enrollment and follow-up by using a structured coding instrument. Results Of the 155 clinical trials reviewed, 45 (29%) assessed any form of tobacco use at enrollment, but only 34 (21.9%) assessed current cigarette use. Only seven trials (4.5%) assessed any form of tobacco use during follow-up. Secondhand smoke exposure was captured in 2.6% of trials at enrollment and 0.6% during follow-up. None of the trials assessed nicotine dependence or interest in quitting at any point during enrollment or treatment. Tobacco status assessment was higher in lung/head and neck trials as well as phase III trials, but there was no difference according to year of starting accrual or cooperative group. Conclusion Most actively accruing cooperative group clinical trials do not assess tobacco use, and there is no observable trend in improvement over the past 8 years. Failure to incorporate standardized tobacco assessments into NCI-funded Cooperative Group Clinical Trials will limit the ability to provide evidence-based cessation support and will limit the ability to accurately understand the precise effect of tobacco use on cancer treatment outcomes. PMID:22689794

  5. Early Surrogate Markers of Treatment Activity: Where Are We Now?

    PubMed

    Klintman, Marie; Dowsett, Mitchell

    2015-05-01

    The assessment of new therapies in the adjuvant setting in early breast cancer requires large numbers of patients and many years of follow-up for results to be presented. Therefore, the neoadjuvant study setting, which allows for early prediction of treatment response in smaller patient sets, has become increasingly popular. Ki67 is the most commonly used and extensively studied intermediate biomarker of treatment activity and residual risk in neoadjuvant trials on endocrine therapy, new biological therapies, and chemotherapy. It is increasingly being used as a primary endpoint for new therapies particularly those added to endocrine therapy. The PeriOperative Endocrine Therapy for Individualizing Care (POETIC) trial, including more than 4000 postmenopausal, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive patients randomly assigned to receive 2 weeks of presurgical treatment with an aromatase inhibitor or no further treatment, is the largest window-of-opportunity trial conducted and is assessing the clinical utility of on-treatment Ki67 as a predictor of long-term outcome. For generalizability, Ki67 measurements in the POETIC and other trials need to use standard methodology. The International Working Group on Ki67 in Breast Cancer is conducting a series of studies to bring this to reality. PMID:26063881

  6. Activities of the EMRAS Tritium/C14 Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.A.; Balonov, M.; Venter, A

    2005-07-15

    A new model evaluation program, Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS), was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency in September 2003. EMRAS includes a working group (WG) on modeling tritium and C-14 transfer through the environment to biota and man. The main objective of this WG is to develop and test models of the uptake, formation and translocation of organically bound tritium (OBT) in food crops, animals and aquatic systems. To the extent possible, the WG is carrying out its work by comparing model predictions with experimental data to identify the modeling approaches and assumptions that lead to the best agreement between predictions and observations. Results for scenarios involving a chronically contaminated aquatic ecosystem and short-term exposure of soybeans are presently being analyzed. In addition, calculations for scenarios involving chronically contaminated terrestrial food chains and hypothetical short-term releases are currently underway, and a pinetree scenario is being developed. The preparation of datasets on tritium dynamics in large animals and fish is being encouraged, since these are the areas of greatest uncertainty in OBT modeling. These activities will be discussed in this paper.

  7. Update on Activities of CEOS Disaster Management Support Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, H. M.; Lauritson, L.

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Disaster Management Support Group (DMSG) has supported natural and technological disaster management on a worldwide basis by fostering improved utilization of existing and planned Earth Observation (EO) satellite data. The DMSG has focused on developing and refining recommendations for the application of satellite data to selected hazard areas--drought, earthquake, fire, flood, ice, landslide, oil spill, and volcanic hazards. Particular emphasis was placed on working closely with space agencies, international and regional organizations, and commercial organizations on the implementation of these recommendations. The DMSG is in its last year with its primary focus on documenting its work and migrating on going activities to other fora. With over 300 participants from more than 140 organizations, the DMSG has found strong support among CEOS space agencies and the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS), as well as an enthusiastic reception from numerous international, regional, and national emergency managers, and distinct interest from the commercial sector. In addition, the group has worked to give full support to the work of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) in pursuit of decisions taken at UNISPACE III and the United Nations International Strategy on Disaster Reduction (ISDR). In conjunction with the IGOS, several of the DMSG hazards teams (earthquake, landslide, and solid Earth dimensions of volcanoes) are joining in the effort to develop an IGOS Geohazards theme team. Cooperation efforts with organizations such as IGOS, COPUOS, and ISDR will hopefully lead to the pick up of much of the on going DMSG activities. Since the inception of this ad hoc working group and its predecessor project, the DMSG has developed and refined recommendations for the application of satellite data by bringing together experts from eight hazard areas to identify user needs, as well as

  8. Quantity, Quality, and Variety of Pupil Responses during an Open-Communication Structured Group Directed Reading-Thinking Activity and a Closed Communication Structured Group Directed Reading Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petre, Richard M.

    The quality, quantity, and variety of pupil responses while using two different group directed reading activities, the Directed Reading Activity (DRA), and the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA) were investigated in this study. The subjects, all fourth graders in two nearby communities, were grouped into above-grade-level, at-grade-level,…

  9. A Short-Term Structured Group Program for the Treatment of Bulimia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Janet I.; Oakley, Suzanne J.

    This paper discusses bulimia among college women, and describes a workshop utilizing structured short-term group treatment for these bulemic women. An overview and definitions of bulimia are given, and research supporting the theory that binge eating is a reaction to excessive dietary restraint is reviewed. Treatment goals and techniques used in…

  10. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for the Nonpurging Bulimic: An Initial Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telch, Christy F.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Tested initial effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy for binge eating. Female nonpurging binge eaters (n=44) were randomized to treatment or control groups. At posttreatment, significant difference was found, with 79 percent of treatment subjects reporting abstinence from binge eating and 94 percent decrease in binge eating compared with…

  11. Men with Intellectual Disabilities Who Have Attended Sex Offender Treatment Groups: A Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Kathryn M.; Murphy, Glynis H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There have been a number of studies of treatment for men with intellectual disabilities and sexually abusive behaviour but few follow-up studies. Our aim was to follow up men with intellectual disabilities who had attended group cognitive behavioural treatment (CBT) for sexually abusive behaviour. Method Thirty-four men (from seven…

  12. Oral Health Condition and Treatment Needs of a Group of Nigerian Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oredugba, Folakemi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age…

  13. Pivotal Response Group Treatment Program for Parents of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minjarez, Mendy Boettcher; Williams, Sharon E.; Mercier, Emma M.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2011-01-01

    The number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders is increasing, necessitating the development of efficient treatment models. Research has demonstrated that parent-delivered behavioral interventions are a viable treatment model; however, little research has focused on teaching parents in groups. The aim of this study was to…

  14. Legal Implications of Models of Individual and Group Treatment by Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    Although medical malpractice suits are based on a model of treatment of an individual by a professional, educational malpractice suits are based on a group treatment model. When the medical model and the teaching model are compared, the contrasts are so great that medical malpractice principles are not a reliable guide to the emerging law of…

  15. Perceptions of sex offenders about treatment: satisfaction and engagement in group therapy.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Macgowan, Mark J; Morin, John W; Cotter, Leo P

    2009-03-01

    Surveying the views of sex offender clients can help ensure that treatment is relevant and responsive to client needs. The purpose of this exploratory study is to elicit sex offender clients' perceptions of their experiences in treatment in order to better understand the components of treatment perceived to be helpful in preventing reoffense. Samples (N = 338) of male sex offenders in outpatient group therapy are found to be generally satisfied with treatment services and have positive perceptions of treatment effectiveness. Offenders in treatment value the role of group therapy, and they find accountability, victim empathy, relapse prevention, and "good lives" concepts to be most helpful in managing their behavior. Their engagement in group therapy is assessed using the Group Engagement Measure, and a positive correlation is found between engagement and treatment satisfaction. Eliciting client opinions about the helpfulness of program content and process, and adjusting treatment protocols accordingly, is consistant with the principles of risk, need, and responsivity, a model recommended for therapeutic interventions with criminal offenders. PMID:18948429

  16. Some Factors Relevant to Group Activities in Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugglestone, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the handling of groups. The teacher should be aware of variables: size of group, composition (by ability, needs, etc.), seating arrangement, group structure, etc. Cooperative, competitive or individual work should be used, depending on the learning goal. The teacher must be perceptive, flexible, and must have good organizing ability.…

  17. Incorporating More Individual Accountability in Group Activities in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Charles T., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A modified model of cooperative learning known as the GIG model (for group-individual-group) designed and implemented in a large enrollment freshman chemistry course. The goal of the model is to establish a cooperative environment while emphasizing greater individual accountability using both group and individual assignments. The assignments were…

  18. Brief Psychoeducational Group Treatment with Re-Traumatized Refugees and Asylum Seekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of a psychoeducational group treatment with students with a history of refugee trauma, war, and human rights abuses who were further traumatized by the 9/11 attacks in New York City. The rationale for group intervention and specific techniques utilized to promote emotional and behavioral stabilization and…

  19. An Empirical Investigation of Group Treatment for a Clinical Population of Adult Female Incest Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxe, Brenda J.; Johnson, Susan M.

    1999-01-01

    Empirically assesses the effectiveness of a group treatment program on intrapersonal symptomatology and interpersonal difficulties in a clinical population of women with a history of incest. Results indicate that a time-limited group, which focuses on the original trauma, is effective in reducing intrapersonal symptomatology for women with a…

  20. Delinquency and Crime Prevention: Overview of Research Comparing Treatment Foster Care and Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, Gershon K.; Gorey, Kevin M.; Jozefowicz, Debra M. Hernandez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence of treatment foster care (TFC) and group care's (GC) potential to prevent delinquency and crime has been developing. Objectives: We clarified the state of comparative knowledge with a historical overview. Then we explored the hypothesis that smaller, probably better resourced group homes with smaller staff/resident ratios have…

  1. Reciprocal Influence of Alliance to the Group and Outcome in Day Treatment for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasca, Giorgio A.; Lampard, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    The nature of the alliance-outcome relationship is still emerging. This study examined the reciprocal influence of change in alliance to the group and change in urge to restrict in eating-disordered individuals attending a group-based day treatment. Participants (N = 238) were a transdiagnostic or mixed diagnostic sample of eating-disordered…

  2. JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

  3. [Do cognitive-behavioral group therapies in the treatment of anxiety disorders have an advantage over individual treatments?].

    PubMed

    Pomini, Valentino

    2004-01-01

    Group cognitive-behavior therapies in the treatment of anxiety disorders for adult psychiatric patients were historically developed on the basis of validated individual treatments. They have been widely employed and studied for social phobia, panic disorders, agoraphobia and obsessive-compulsive disorders, with generally positive results similar to those obtained with the corresponding individual methods. The cognitive-behavioural group treatments for generalized anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorders have not yet received sufficient validation. The results of evaluative research show that the format of the therapy (individual or group) does not appear to predict the outcome. Therefore an indication for an individual or a group therapy cannot be made on the basis of the diagnosis alone. It has to be based on other criteria, in particular economical, organisational or clinical. Group therapies can certainly offer advantages in comparison with individual procedures, even if they cannot always fit perfectly the specific needs of every patient. Indication has to be made individually, in order to allow the therapists to judge their patients' capacities and interest to participate in a group program. PMID:15470567

  4. The Use of a Group Blog to Actively Support Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of blogs in higher education, there remains a lack of knowledge and consensus about the use and value of blogging in higher education, particularly when used for long periods. This article investigates the use of a group blog to assist traditional teaching activities and foster collaborative learning through the…

  5. Aptitude treatment effects of laboratory grouping method for students of differing reasoning ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrenz, Frances; Munch, Theodore W.

    This study examines aptitude treatment effects in an inquiry/learning cycle based physical science class for elementary education majors. The aptitude was formal reasoning ability and the students were arranged into three groups: high, middle, and low ability reasoners. The treatment was method of forming groups to work in the laboratory. Students in each of three classes were grouped according to reasoning ability. In one class the laboratory groups were homogeneous, i.e., students of similar reasoning ability were grouped together. In the second class the students were grouped heterogeneously, i.e., students of different reasoning ability were grouped together. In the third class, the student choice pattern, the students chose their own partners. The findings were that there were no aptitude treatment interaction for achievement or for gain in formal reasoning ability, that grouping students of similar cognitive ability together for laboratory work in the class was more effective in terms of science achievement than grouping students of differing cognitive ability together or than allowing students to choose their own partners, and that students at different levels of reasoning ability experienced differential gains in that ability over the semester.

  6. Space Weather Activities of IONOLAB Group: IONOLAB-TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, F.; Sezen, U.; Arikan, O.; Ugurlu, O.; Nayir, H.

    2009-04-01

    Space Weather (SW) is the concept of changing environmental conditions in outer space and affect Earth and its technological systems. SW is a consequence of the solar activities and the coupling of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere due to the Earth's magnetic field. The monitoring and prediction of SW has utmost importance for HF communication, Satellite communication, navigation and guidance systems, Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite systems, Space Craft exit and entry into the atmosphere. Ionosphere is the plasma layer of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation and it is a key player of SW. Ionosphere is a temporally and spatially varying, dispersive, anisotropic and inhomogeneous medium that is characterized primarily by its electron density distribution. IONOLAB is a group of researchers of various disciplines, getting together to handle challenges of the Earth's ionosphere. The team has researchers from Hacettepe University and Bilkent University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and General Command of Mapping of Turkish Army. One of the most important contributions of IONOLAB group is the automated web-based computation service for Total Electron Content (TEC). TEC corresponds to the line integral of electron density distribution on a given path. TEC can also be expressed as the amount of free electrons within 1 m2 cross-sectional area of the cylinder on the ray path. Global Position System (GPS) provides a cost-effective medium for monitoring of ionosphere using the signals recorded by stationary GPS receivers in estimating TEC. IONOLAB group has developed IONOLAB-TEC for reliable and robust estimates for all latitudes and both calm and disturbed days by using RINEX, IONEX and satellite ephemeris data provided from the IGS centers. IONOLAB-TEC consists of a regularized signal estimation algorithm which combines signals from all GPS satellites for a given instant and a given receiver, for a desired time period or for 24 hours

  7. Bayesian Hierarchical Semiparametric Modelling of Longitudinal Post-treatment Outcomes from Open Enrolment Therapy Groups

    PubMed Central

    Paddock, Susan M.; Savitsky, Terrance D.

    2013-01-01

    There are several challenges to testing the effectiveness of group therapy-based interventions in alcohol and other drug use (AOD) treatment settings. Enrollment into AOD therapy groups typically occurs on an open (rolling) basis. Changes in therapy group membership induce a complex correlation structure among client outcomes, with relatively small numbers of clients attending each therapy group session. Primary outcomes are measured post-treatment, so each datum reflects the effect of all sessions attended by a client. The number of post-treatment outcomes assessments is typically very limited. The first feature of our modeling approach relaxes the assumption of independent random effects in the standard multiple membership model by employing conditional autoregression (CAR) to model correlation in random therapy group session effects associated with clients’ attendance of common group therapy sessions. A second feature specifies a longitudinal growth model under which the posterior distribution of client-specific random effects, or growth parameters, is modeled non-parametrically. The Dirichlet process prior helps to overcome limitations of standard parametric growth models given limited numbers of longitudinal assessments. We motivate and illustrate our approach with a data set from a study of group cognitive behavioral therapy to reduce depressive symptoms among residential AOD treatment clients. PMID:24353375

  8. Bayesian Hierarchical Semiparametric Modelling of Longitudinal Post-treatment Outcomes from Open Enrolment Therapy Groups.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Susan M; Savitsky, Terrance D

    2013-06-01

    There are several challenges to testing the effectiveness of group therapy-based interventions in alcohol and other drug use (AOD) treatment settings. Enrollment into AOD therapy groups typically occurs on an open (rolling) basis. Changes in therapy group membership induce a complex correlation structure among client outcomes, with relatively small numbers of clients attending each therapy group session. Primary outcomes are measured post-treatment, so each datum reflects the effect of all sessions attended by a client. The number of post-treatment outcomes assessments is typically very limited. The first feature of our modeling approach relaxes the assumption of independent random effects in the standard multiple membership model by employing conditional autoregression (CAR) to model correlation in random therapy group session effects associated with clients' attendance of common group therapy sessions. A second feature specifies a longitudinal growth model under which the posterior distribution of client-specific random effects, or growth parameters, is modeled non-parametrically. The Dirichlet process prior helps to overcome limitations of standard parametric growth models given limited numbers of longitudinal assessments. We motivate and illustrate our approach with a data set from a study of group cognitive behavioral therapy to reduce depressive symptoms among residential AOD treatment clients. PMID:24353375

  9. Multinomial logistic regression analysis for differentiating 3 treatment outcome trajectory groups for headache-associated disability.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kristin Nicole; Heckman, Bernadette Davantes; Himawan, Lina

    2011-08-01

    Growth mixture modeling (GMM) identified latent groups based on treatment outcome trajectories of headache disability measures in patients in headache subspecialty treatment clinics. Using a longitudinal design, 219 patients in headache subspecialty clinics in 4 large cities throughout Ohio provided data on their headache disability at pretreatment and 3 follow-up assessments. GMM identified 3 treatment outcome trajectory groups: (1) patients who initiated treatment with elevated disability levels and who reported statistically significant reductions in headache disability (high-disability improvers; 11%); (2) patients who initiated treatment with elevated disability but who reported no reductions in disability (high-disability nonimprovers; 34%); and (3) patients who initiated treatment with moderate disability and who reported statistically significant reductions in headache disability (moderate-disability improvers; 55%). Based on the final multinomial logistic regression model, a dichotomized treatment appointment attendance variable was a statistically significant predictor for differentiating high-disability improvers from high-disability nonimprovers. Three-fourths of patients who initiated treatment with elevated disability levels did not report reductions in disability after 5 months of treatment with new preventive pharmacotherapies. Preventive headache agents may be most efficacious for patients with moderate levels of disability and for patients with high disability levels who attend all treatment appointments. PMID:21420240

  10. Treatment of ichthyophthiriasis with photodynamically active chlorophyllin.

    PubMed

    Häder, D-P; Schmidl, J; Hilbig, R; Oberle, M; Wedekind, H; Richter, P R

    2016-04-01

    Water-soluble chlorophyll (chlorophyllin) exerts pronounced photodynamic activity on fish parasites. In order to determine its potential as a remedy against ectoparasites in fish carps were incubated in water with defined concentrations of chlorophyllin. The main focus of the experiments was on the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Fouquet) which is responsible for considerable losses in livestock in aquaculture. As malachite green, which in the past efficiently cured infected fishes, is banned because of its possible carcinogenicity; no effective remedy is presently available in aquaculture to treat ichthyophthiriasis. Using chlorophyllin, the number of trophonts was significantly reduced (more than 50 %) after 3 h incubation of infested fish at 2 and 4 mg/L and subsequent irradiation with simulated solar radiation. The lack of reinfection after light treatment indicates that also the remaining parasites have lost their multiplication capacity. In the controls (no chlorophyllin and no light, light but no chlorophyllin, or chlorophyllin but no light), no reduction of the I. multifiliis infection was observed. We propose that chlorophyllin (or other photodynamic substances) is a possible effective countermeasure against I. multifiliis and other ectoparasites in aquaculture. PMID:26693716

  11. Veteran satisfaction and treatment preferences in response to a posttraumatic stress disorder specialty clinic orientation group.

    PubMed

    Schumm, Jeremiah A; Walter, Kristen H; Bartone, Anne S; Chard, Kathleen M

    2015-06-01

    To maximize accessibility to evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has widely disseminated cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and prolonged exposure (PE) therapy to VA clinicians. However, there is a lack of research on veteran preferences when presented with a range of psychotherapy and medication options. This study uses a mixed-method approach to explore veteran satisfaction with a VA PTSD specialty clinic pre-treatment orientation group, which provides education about available PTSD treatment options. This study also tested differences in treatment preference in response to the group. Participants were 183 US veterans. Most were White, male, and referred to the clinic by a VA provider. Results indicated high satisfaction with the group in providing an overview of services and helping to inform treatment choice. Most preferred psychotherapy plus medications (63.4%) or psychotherapy only (30.1%). Participants endorsed a significantly stronger preference for CPT versus other psychotherapies. PE was significantly preferred over nightmare resolution therapy and present-centered therapy, and both PE and cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy were preferred over virtual reality exposure therapy. Results suggest that by informing consumers about evidence-based treatments for PTSD, pre-treatment educational approaches may increase consumer demand for these treatment options. PMID:25898342

  12. A combined group treatment for nightmares and insomnia in combat veterans: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Leslie M; Favorite, Todd K; Horin, Elizabeth; Arnedt, J Todd

    2009-12-01

    Insomnia and nightmares are hallmarks of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Sleep disturbances in PTSD negatively impact clinical course and functioning. In this open clinical trial, the preliminary effects of a combined treatment for insomnia and nightmares in combat veterans with PTSD were assessed. Ten combat veterans participated in a 10-session group treatment combining cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia with exposure, rescripting, and relaxation therapy. Participants maintained daily sleep and dream diaries and completed self-report measures of sleep quality and PTSD symptoms pre- and posttreatment. Participants reported improvements in sleep and nightmares following treatment. Future research using controlled designs to evaluate this treatment is warranted. PMID:19908322

  13. Skills for Living: Group Counseling Activities for Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morganett, Rosemarie Smead

    This book can help counselors in the school or mental health setting create meaningful group experiences for children who, for whatever reason, are behind in social and life skill development. The group agendas have been developed with children from grades 2-5 in mind. Although each topic stands alone, children can benefit from more than one…

  14. The Fantastic Facilitator: Engaging Activities for Leading Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duttweiler, Patricia Cloud

    This document is designed to help facilitators with the formation and development of effective teams of people who have no previous history as a team and no training in group processes. Part 1 provides a narrative explanation of the stages of group development (investing in membership, forming attachments to subgroups, confronting/debating issues,…

  15. Open-ended and Open-door Treatment Groups for Young People with Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    MILLER, RACHEL; MASON, SUSAN E.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of open-ended groups is expanded to include an open-door model (OEOD) wherein members with severe mental illnesses, including schizophrenia disorders and bi-polar, can join, leave, and re-enter groups as their life circumstances dictate their availability and willingness for treatment. This model is grounded on the work of Schopler and Galinsky’s (1984/2006) and Galinsky and Schopler’s (1989) theses on the value and processes of open-ended groups and includes perspectives on mutual aid and group development. Groupwork with the OEOD format is illustrated with examples taken from a group of 79 participants diagnosed with first-episode schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorders, 40 of who had co-occurring substance abuse. Of the 79 participants in the OEOD group program, 70 (89%) remained in treatment for the maximum of 3 years. The over-all value of group treatment for this population is reviewed along with the small number of available publications on open-ended and open-door-type groups. PMID:22427713

  16. Sexually active groups in cattle-a novel estrus sign.

    PubMed

    Sveberg, G; Refsdal, A O; Erhard, H W; Kommisrud, E; Aldrin, M; Tvete, I F; Buckley, F; Waldmann, A; Ropstad, E

    2013-07-01

    The current study presents a novel objective measure for characterizing sexually active groups (SAG 3-5) and relates this measure to other behaviors of lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Cows in SAG 3-5 were required to participate in a minimum of 1 estrus behavior per 5min while staying within 3m (2 cow lengths) of its partner(s) for a minimum of 5min. Twenty Holstein-Friesian cows were video-monitored continuously through 1 complete estrous cycle (22d). Standing behavior, SAG 3-5, secondary estrus signs (SEC), and other social and agonistic behaviors were recorded continuously. The period of mounting estrus (MTE) was divided into the 3 parts: prestand, standing estrus (STE), and poststand. The mean durations of MTE, prestand, STE, and poststand period were 12.9±1.84, 4.0±1.93, 7.1±1.44, and 1.8±0.57h (n=13). The fractions of time spent in SAG 3-5 during MTE, prestand, STE, and poststand period were 13, 8, 19, and 1% (n=11). During MTE, cows participated, on average, in 5.8±1.24 SAG 3-5 and initiated 9.5±2.99 mounts, with mean durations of 0.25±0.03h and 4.00±0.36s, respectively. The novel measure SAG 3-5 was a sign of long duration not confined only to groups of STE cows. On one day when no cows were in estrus and during the periods 4 to 24h before and after MTE, no SAG 3-5 behaviors were observed. Luteal-phase cows participated in SAG 3-5 only when the partner was a single cow in estrus. The time spent in SAG 3-5 increased between 1 and 3h before MTE and the prestand period (3 vs. 8%) and reached a peak level during STE. From STE to poststand, time spent in SAG 3-5 decreased considerably (19 vs. 1%). The observed decrease in nonmutual agonistic behaviors 4 to 24h before MTE is suggested as an early sign of pre-estrus. Changes in SAG 3-5, agonistic behaviors, and SEC are suggested as indicators of the specific stages of MTE. Increased SEC initiated and SAG 3-5 were indicators of late pre-estrus and early estrus (prestand). Peak levels of SAG 3-5, SEC, and

  17. Adolescent Girls' Perceptions of Physical Activity: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Sarah; Biddle, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity among adolescent girls are a cause for concern. Examining girls' physical activity perceptions and motivations through in-depth qualitative research allows for greater understanding of the reasons behind their physical activity-related choices. Forty-seven girls aged 14 to 16 years participated in exploratory focus…

  18. An Activity Group Experience for Disengaged Elderly Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, John Ewing; Bodden, Jack L.

    1978-01-01

    Tested the activity theory (which proposes that elderly persons remain in active contact with their environment) and disengagement theory (which suggests adjustment comes through reduction of activity and social contact). Disengaged elderly were identified. Subjects demonstrated significant improvement over the untreated control subjects. Results…

  19. Group Problem Solving as a Zone of Proximal Development activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewe, Eric

    2006-12-01

    Vygotsky described learning as a process, intertwined with development, which is strongly influenced by social interactions with others that are at differing developmental stages.i These interactions create a Zone of Proximal Development for each member of the interaction. Vygotsky’s notion of social constructivism is not only a theory of learning, but also of development. While teaching introductory physics in an interactive format, I have found manifestations of Vygotsky’s theory in my classroom. The source of evidence is a paired problem solution. A standard mechanics problem was solved by students in two classes as a homework assignment. Students handed in the homework and then solved the same problem in small groups. The solutions to both the group and individual problem were assessed by multiple reviewers. In many cases the group score was the same as the highest individual score in the group, but in some cases, the group score was higher than any individual score. For this poster, I will analyze the individual and group scores and focus on three groups solutions and video that provide evidence of learning through membership in a Zone of Proximal Development. Endnotes i L. Vygotsky -Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (1978).

  20. Parents' Networking Strategies: Participation of Formal and Informal Parent Groups in School Activities and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanat, Carolyn L.

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined parent groups' involvement in school activities and their participation in decision making. Research questions included the following: (1) What is the nature of parent groups in schools? (2) What activities and issues gain parent groups' attention and participation? (3) How do parent groups communicate concerns about…

  1. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  2. Retention in Depression Treatment among Ethnic and Racial Minority Groups in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Lisa R.; Alegria, Margarita; Gao, Shan

    2010-01-01

    Background Premature discontinuation of psychiatric treatment among ethnic-racial minorities is a persistent concern. Prior research on identifying factors associated with ethnic-racial disparities in depression treatment has been limited by the scarcity of national samples with adequate representation of minority groups and especially non-English speakers. In this article we aim to identify variations in the likelihood of retention in depression treatment among ethnic-racial minority groups in the US as compared to non-Latino whites. Secondly, we aim to identify factors which are related to treatment retention. Methods We use data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) to examine differences and correlates of depression treatment retention among a representative sample (n=564) of non-Latino whites, Latinos, African American and Asian respondents with last 12 month depressive disorder and who report receiving formal mental health treatment in the last year. We define retention as attending at least four visits or remaining in treatment over a 12 month period. Results Being seen by a mental health specialist as opposed to being seen by a generalist and having received medication are correlates of treatment retention for the entire sample. However, after adjusting for demographics, clinical factors including number of co-occurring psychiatric disorders and level of disability, African Americans are significantly less likely to be retained in depression treatment as compared to non-Latino whites. Conclusions Availability of specialized mental health services or comparable treatment within primary care could improve treatment retention. Low retention suggests persistent problems in the delivery of depression treatment for African Americans. PMID:20336808

  3. Development and evaluation of the Active Treatment Client Rights Checklist.

    PubMed

    Gross, E J; Maguire, K B; Shepard, S M; Piersel, W C

    1994-01-01

    The role of active treatment has been recognized as vital to the habilitation of persons with mental retardation; however, evaluating the provision of active treatment has been difficult. This study describes the development of the Active Treatment Client Rights checklist (ATCR), which was designed to facilitate the assessment, monitoring, and implementation of readily observable client active treatment services. This investigation provides an explanation of item content, initial reliability data (Phase I), and the results of implementation of the ATCR over a 2-year period in an ICF/MR facility with 29 living units serving nearly 500 clients (Phase II). The ATCR is highly reliable, valid, and useful in enhancing staff provision of active treatment. The most sensitive indicator of active treatment was shown to be related to frequency of functional interactions between clients and staff. PMID:8190969

  4. Psychodynamic/interpersonal group psychotherapy for perfectionism: Evaluating the effectiveness of a short-term treatment.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Paul L; Mikail, Samuel F; Flett, Gordon L; Tasca, Giorgio A; Flynn, Carol A; Deng, Xiaolei; Kaldas, Janet; Chen, Chang

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to determine whether clinically significant improvement could be obtained using a psychodynamic/interpersonal group treatment based on a comprehensive conceptualization of perfectionism. A sample of 71 community-recruited perfectionistic individuals participated in the University of British Columbia Perfectionism Treatment Study. Eighteen of these participants were initially nonrandomly assigned to a waitlist control condition. All participants completed measures of perfectionism traits, perfectionistic self-presentation, and automatic perfectionistic thoughts, as well as measures of distress including depression, anxiety, and interpersonal problems at pretreatment, posttreatment, and at a 4-month follow-up. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that perfectionism levels decreased with large effect sizes and that these decreases were associated with reductions in distress measures. Clinically significant decreases were found in all perfectionism components, and posttreatment scores on most variables were significantly lower in the treatment condition versus the waitlist control condition. The findings suggest that psychodynamic/interpersonal group treatment is effective in treating components of perfectionism. PMID:25985044

  5. Efficacy of garenoxacin in treatment of experimental endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus or viridans group streptococci.

    PubMed

    Entenza, José M; Vouillamoz, Jacques; Glauser, Michel P; Moreillon, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    The activity of garenoxacin was investigated in rats with experimental endocarditis due to staphylococci and viridans group streptococci (VGS). The staphylococci tested comprised one ciprofloxacin-susceptible and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolate (isolate 1112), one ciprofloxacin-susceptible but methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolate (isolate P8), and one ciprofloxacin-resistant mutant (grlA) of P8 (isolate P8-4). The VGS tested comprised one penicillin-susceptible isolate and one penicillin-resistant isolate (Streptococcus oralis 226 and Streptococcus mitis 531, respectively). To simulate the kinetics of drugs in humans, rats were infused intravenously with garenoxacin every 24 h (peak and trough levels in serum, 6.1 and 1.0 mg/liter, respectively; area under the concentration-time curve [AUC], 63.4 mg. h/liter) or levofloxacin every 12 h (peak and trough levels in serum, 7.3 and 1.5 mg/liter, respectively; AUC, 55.6 mg. h/liter) for 3 or 5 days. Flucloxacillin, vancomycin, and ceftriaxone were used as control drugs. Garenoxacin, levofloxacin, flucloxacillin, and vancomycin sterilized >/=70% of the vegetations infected with both ciprofloxacin-susceptible staphylococcal isolates (P < 0.05 versus the results for the controls). Garenoxacin and vancomycin also sterilized 70% of the vegetations infected with ciprofloxacin-resistant MRSA isolate P8-4, whereas treatment with levofloxacin failed against this organism (cure rate, 0%; P < 0.05 versus the results obtained with the comparator drugs). Garenoxacin did not select for resistant derivatives in vivo. In contrast, levofloxacin selected for resistant variants in four of six rats infected with MRSA isolate P8-4. Garenoxacin sterilized 90% of the vegetations infected with both penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant isolates of VGS. Levofloxacin sterilized only 22 and 40% of the vegetations infected with penicillin-susceptible S. oralis 226 and penicillin-resistant S. mitis

  6. Behavioural Activation for Depression; An Update of Meta-Analysis of Effectiveness and Sub Group Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ekers, David; Webster, Lisa; Van Straten, Annemieke; Cuijpers, Pim; Richards, David; Gilbody, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is a common, disabling condition for which psychological treatments are recommended. Behavioural activation has attracted increased interest in recent years. It has been over 5 years since our meta-analyses summarised the evidence supporting and this systematic review updates those findings and examines moderators of treatment effect. Method Randomised trials of behavioural activation for depression versus controls or anti-depressant medication were identified using electronic database searches, previous reviews and reference lists. Data on symptom level and study level moderators were extracted and analysed using meta-analysis, sub-group analysis and meta-regression respectively. Results Twenty six randomised controlled trials including 1524 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. A random effects meta-analysis of symptom level post treatment showed behavioural activation to be superior to controls (SMD −0.74 CI −0.91 to −0.56, k = 25, N = 1088) and medication (SMD −0.42 CI −0.83 to-0.00, k = 4, N = 283). Study quality was low in the majority of studies and follow- up time periods short. There was no indication of publication bias and subgroup analysis showed limited association between moderators and effect size. Conclusions The results in this meta-analysis support and strengthen the evidence base indicating Behavioural Activation is an effective treatment for depression. Further high quality research with longer term follow-up is needed to strengthen the evidence base. PMID:24936656

  7. Formation of nanostructured Group IIA metal activated sensors: The transformation of Group IIA metal compound sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tune, Travis C.; Baker, Caitlin; Hardy, Neil; Lin, Arthur; Widing, Timothy J.; Gole, James L.

    2015-05-01

    Trends in the Group IIA metal oxides and hydroxides of magnesium, calcium, and barium are unique in the periodic table. In this study we find that they display novel trends as decorating nanostructures for extrinsic semiconductor interfaces. The Group IIA metal ions are strong Lewis acids. We form these M2+ ions in aqueous solution and bring these solutions in contact with a porous silicon interface to form interfaces for conductometric measurements. Observed responses are consistent with the formation of MgO whereas the heavier elements display behaviors which suggest the effect of their more basic nature. Mg(OH)2, when formed, represents a weak base whereas the heavier metal hydroxides of Ca, Sr, and Ba are strong bases. However, the hydroxides tend to give up hydrogen and act as Brönsted acids. For the latter elements, the reversible interaction response of nanostructures deposited to the porous silicon (PS) interface is modified, as the formation of more basic sites appears to compete with M2+ Lewis acidity and hydroxide Brönsted acidity. Mg2+ forms an interface whose response to the analytes NH3 and NO is consistent with MgO and well explained by the recently developing Inverse Hard/Soft Acid/Base model. The behavior of the Ca2+ and Ba2+ decorated interfaces as they interact with the hard base NH3 follows a reversal of the model, indicating a decrease in acidic character as the observed conductometric response suggests the interaction with hydroxyl groups. A change from oxide-like to hydroxide-like constituents is supported by XPS studies. The changes in conductometric response is easily monitored in contrast to changes associated with the Group IIA oxides and hydroxides observed in XPS, EDAX, IR, and NMR measurements.

  8. Motivational interviewing group at inpatient detoxification, its influence in maintaining abstinence and treatment retention after discharge.

    PubMed

    Bachiller, Diana; Grau-López, Lara; Barral, Carmen; Daigre, Constanza; Alberich, Cristina; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Valero, Sergi; Casas, Miquel; Roncero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The relapse rate after discharge from inpatient detoxification is high. The objective of this pilot study is to assess the sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutic factors associated with maintaining abstinence in patients who participated in a brief motivational interviewing group during admission for detoxification. A total of 46 patients, diagnosed substance dependent according to DSM -IV, and admitted to the Hospital Detoxification Unit, participated in a brief motivational interviewing group. Sociodemographic, clinical, motivation to change (University of Rhode Island Change Assessment, URICA) and satisfaction with the treatment group (Treatment Perceptions Questionnaire, CPT) data were collected. Abstinence and treatment retention two months after discharge were assessed by weekly telephone calls. A survival analysis was performed. Being male, having more cognitions of the maintenance stage of change at discharge, being satisfied with group therapy and therapist during hospitalization are associated with longer abstinence after discharge. The brief motivational interviewing group approach with patients admitted for detoxification is related to greater likelihood of maintaining abstinence and subsequent treatment retention. PMID:26132300

  9. Antidiabetic Effect of an Active Components Group from Ilex kudingcha and Its Chemical Composition

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chengwu; Xie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiwen; Yu, Shanggong; Fang, Nianbai

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of Ilex kudingcha are used as an ethnomedicine in the treatment of symptoms related with diabetes mellitus and obesity throughout the centuries in China. The present study investigated the antidiabetic activities of an active components group (ACG) obtained from Ilex kudingcha in alloxan-induced type 2 diabetic mice. ACG significantly reduced the elevated levels of serum glycaemic and lipids in type 2 diabetic mice. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and glucokinase were upregulated significantly, while fatty acid synthetase, glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic enzyme was downregulated in diabetic mice after treatment of ACG. These findings clearly provided evidences regarding the antidiabetic potentials of ACG from Ilex kudingcha. Using LC-DAD/HR-ESI-TOF-MS, six major components were identified in ACG. They are three dicaffeoylquinic acids that have been reported previously, and three new triterpenoid saponins, which were the first time to be identified in Ilex kudingcha. It is reasonable to assume that antidiabetic activity of Ilex kudingcha against hyperglycemia resulted from these six major components. Also, synergistic effects among their compounds may exist in the antidiabetic activity of Ilex kudingcha. PMID:22474502

  10. Supporting Mobile Collaborative Activities through Scaffolded Flexible Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boticki, Ivica; Looi, Chee-Kit; Wong, Lung-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    Within the field of Mobile Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (mCSCL), we are interested in exploring the space of collaborative activities that enable students to practice communication, negotiation and decision-making skills. Collaboration is via learning activities that circumvent the constraints of fixed seating or locations of…

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral and Humanistic Group Treatment for Children with Learning Disabilities: A Comparison of Outcomes and Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shechtman, Zipora; Pastor, Ronit

    2005-01-01

    The authors of this study examined the outcomes and processes of 2 types of group treatment--cognitive-behavioral treatment groups (CBTG) and humanistic group therapy (HGT)--offered to 200 elementary school children in a center for students with learning disabilities in Israel. Results indicated that the addition of either type of group treatment…

  12. Classroom-Based Interdependent Group Contingencies Increase Children's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, Sarah; Rudrud, Eric H.; Witts, Benjamin N.; Schulze, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 2 interdependent group contingencies (individual vs. cumulative classroom goal setting) on the number of pedometer-recorded steps taken per day. Thirty third-grade students in 2 classrooms participated. An ABACX design was conducted in which the X phase referred to a replication of the most successful phase…

  13. Pharmacological treatment options for mast cell activation disease.

    PubMed

    Molderings, Gerhard J; Haenisch, Britta; Brettner, Stefan; Homann, Jürgen; Menzen, Markus; Dumoulin, Franz Ludwig; Panse, Jens; Butterfield, Joseph; Afrin, Lawrence B

    2016-07-01

    Mast cell activation disease (MCAD) is a term referring to a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by aberrant release of variable subsets of mast cell (MC) mediators together with accumulation of either morphologically altered and immunohistochemically identifiable mutated MCs due to MC proliferation (systemic mastocytosis [SM] and MC leukemia [MCL]) or morphologically ordinary MCs due to decreased apoptosis (MC activation syndrome [MCAS] and well-differentiated SM). Clinical signs and symptoms in MCAD vary depending on disease subtype and result from excessive mediator release by MCs and, in aggressive forms, from organ failure related to MC infiltration. In most cases, treatment of MCAD is directed primarily at controlling the symptoms associated with MC mediator release. In advanced forms, such as aggressive SM and MCL, agents targeting MC proliferation such as kinase inhibitors may be provided. Targeted therapies aimed at blocking mutant protein variants and/or downstream signaling pathways are currently being developed. Other targets, such as specific surface antigens expressed on neoplastic MCs, might be considered for the development of future therapies. Since clinicians are often underprepared to evaluate, diagnose, and effectively treat this clinically heterogeneous disease, we seek to familiarize clinicians with MCAD and review current and future treatment approaches. PMID:27132234

  14. Preliminary examination of ethnic group differences in adolescent girls' attitudes toward depression treatments.

    PubMed

    Caporino, Nicole E; Chen, Jason I; Karver, Marc S

    2014-01-01

    Efficacious treatments are only valuable to the extent that they are used. Given ethnic disparities in mental health service utilization, this preliminary study examined differences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) adolescents' ratings of the acceptability of depression treatments and related constructs. Female high school students (N = 67; 54% Hispanic) read a vignette describing a depressed adolescent and rated the acceptability of four single treatments for depression (i.e., cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, family therapy, and pharmacotherapy) and three treatment combinations. Hispanic adolescents completed a self-report measure of acculturation and all adolescents were interviewed about their beliefs of the causes of depression. Results showed more similarities than differences between ethnic groups, with Hispanic and NHW adolescents favoring psychological treatments over pharmacotherapy. Among Hispanic participants, overall ratings of treatment acceptability were significantly higher for bicultural adolescents than Hispanic adolescents immersed predominantly in non-Hispanic culture. Hispanic and NHW adolescents generally showed similar beliefs about the causes of depression, with both groups endorsing personality and cognitions at high rates, but Hispanics were significantly less likely than NHWs to endorse trauma as a cause of depression. Implications for decreasing ethnic disparities in unmet need for treatment are discussed. PMID:23834256

  15. Insulin pump treatment in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: experiences of the German working group for insulin pump treatment in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kapellen, Thomas M; Klinkert, Christoph; Heidtmann, Bettina; Jakisch, Bela; Haberland, Holger; Hofer, Sabine E; Holl, Reinhard W

    2010-05-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is frequently used in children and adolescents. This review discusses pump treatment, as analyzed by the German Working Group for Insulin Pump Treatment in Pediatric Patients. This group has published several papers, in collaboration with the DPV-Wiss (Diabetes-Patienten-Verlaufsdaten) group. The review includes practical aspects of pump treatment and recent results of CSII in Germany, and compares these with American pump treatment. PMID:20463419

  16. A Comparison of Therapeutic Factors in Two Group Treatment Modalities: Verbal and Art Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shechtman, Zipora; Perl-Dekel, Ofra

    2000-01-01

    Compares therapeutic factors in verbal and art group psychotherapy in a psychiatric day-treatment clinic in Israel. Results only partly support the differences between modalities, but do reveal significant differences between participants with only a few interactions between participants and modalities. All therapeutic factors appear in both…

  17. Critical Issues in the Treatment of Severe Self-Injurious Behavior in the Group Home Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFalls, James

    The paper briefly discusses 12 critical issues that significantly affect program success in reducing severe self-injurious behavior (SIB) in group homes. The paper emphasizes the necessity of: (1) a process approach to the development and monitoring of treatment; (2) demythologizing the self-injurious client; (3) discussing and clarifying legal…

  18. The Use of Phototherapy in Group Treatment for Persons Who Are Chemically Dependent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover-Graf, Noreen M.; Miller, Eva

    2006-01-01

    This study used photography as a therapeutic tool and a present-focused approach in a 12-week group intervention to treat adults with chemical dependence enrolled in an outpatient treatment program. A qualitative analysis identified themes related to the topics of trust, honesty, self-worth, power, and abuse. Self-esteem, abuse, and trauma-related…

  19. A Focus Group on Dental Pain Complaints with General Medical Practitioners: Developing a Treatment Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Geoff; Abbey, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The differential diagnosis of pain in the mouth can be challenging for general medical practitioners (GMPs) as many different dental problems can present with similar signs and symptoms. This study aimed to create a treatment algorithm for GMPs to effectively and appropriately refer the patients and prescribe antibiotics. Design. The study design is comprised of qualitative focus group discussions. Setting and Subjects. Groups of GMPs within the Gold Coast and Brisbane urban and city regions. Outcome Measures. Content thematically analysed and treatment algorithm developed. Results. There were 5 focus groups with 8-9 participants per group. Addressing whether antibiotics should be given to patients with dental pain was considered very important to GMPs to prevent overtreatment and creating antibiotic resistance. Many practitioners were unsure of what the different forms of dental pains represent. 90% of the practitioners involved agreed that the treatment algorithm was useful to daily practice. Conclusion. Common dental complaints and infections are seldom surgical emergencies but can result in prolonged appointments for those GMPs who do not regularly deal with these issues. The treatment algorithm for referral processes and prescriptions was deemed easily downloadable and simple to interpret and detailed but succinct enough for clinical use by GMPs. PMID:27462469

  20. A Focus Group on Dental Pain Complaints with General Medical Practitioners: Developing a Treatment Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ava Elizabeth; Carter, Geoff; Abbey, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The differential diagnosis of pain in the mouth can be challenging for general medical practitioners (GMPs) as many different dental problems can present with similar signs and symptoms. This study aimed to create a treatment algorithm for GMPs to effectively and appropriately refer the patients and prescribe antibiotics. Design. The study design is comprised of qualitative focus group discussions. Setting and Subjects. Groups of GMPs within the Gold Coast and Brisbane urban and city regions. Outcome Measures. Content thematically analysed and treatment algorithm developed. Results. There were 5 focus groups with 8-9 participants per group. Addressing whether antibiotics should be given to patients with dental pain was considered very important to GMPs to prevent overtreatment and creating antibiotic resistance. Many practitioners were unsure of what the different forms of dental pains represent. 90% of the practitioners involved agreed that the treatment algorithm was useful to daily practice. Conclusion. Common dental complaints and infections are seldom surgical emergencies but can result in prolonged appointments for those GMPs who do not regularly deal with these issues. The treatment algorithm for referral processes and prescriptions was deemed easily downloadable and simple to interpret and detailed but succinct enough for clinical use by GMPs. PMID:27462469

  1. Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study Using Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, Farah; Egan, Sarah; Gasson, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    Depression and anxiety affect up to 50% of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) (Marsh, 2000; Murray, 1996), however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological treatment. This study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in treating depression and anxiety in PD. Four participants, aged between 56…

  2. Group Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Older Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Beverly L.; And Others

    Delayed and chronic symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) have been documented in Vietnam veterans for up to 10-15 years following the stressor and in veterans of World War II and Korea for as long as 40 years. Group therapy for Vietnam veterans with PTSD has been found to be an effective treatment, but prior research has not tested…

  3. An Open Trial Investigation of a Transdiagnostic Group Treatment for Children with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilek, Emily L.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes associated with a transdiagnostic emotion-focused group protocol for the treatment of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms in youth. Twenty-two children (ages 7 to 12; M = 9.79) with a principal anxiety disorder and varying levels of comorbid depressive symptoms were…

  4. A Group Therapy Approach to the Treatment of Coronary Heart Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Grace S.

    This study investigates the coronary heart patient's "here and now" feelings and attitudes toward his illness prior to and following group treatment. This study also attempts to investigate the change in a patient's acceptance of his heart condition. To measure the change in general health level, a questionnaire was administered to eight patients…

  5. It's Not Your Heart: Group Treatment for Non-Cardiac Chest Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Sherry M.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a brief group psychoeducational treatment for non-cardiac chest pain, supplemented with a composite case study. Patients present to emergency rooms for chest pain they believe is a heart attack symptom. When cardiac testing is negative, this pain is usually a panic symptom, often occurring with a cluster of other panic…

  6. Manualized-Group Treatment of Eating Disorders: Attunement in Mind, Body, and Relationship (AMBR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine; Beck, Meredith; Kane, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a manualized-group treatment of eating disorders, the attunement in mind, body, and relationship (AMBR) program. The cognitive behavioral and dialectic behavioral research as well as the innovative prevention interventions upon which the program is based (e.g., interactive discourse, yoga, and mediation) are introduced. The…

  7. Family and Group Treatment for Sexually-Abused Children: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silovsky, Jane F.; Hembree-Kigin, Toni L.

    1994-01-01

    Provides a critical discussion of current research on the efficacy of family and group interventions for child sexual abuse victims. Treatment goals and components are described, followed by a review of relevant empirical studies. Suggestions are presented for improving the methodology of future sexual abuse intervention research. (JPS)

  8. Behavioral Activation Is an Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier…

  9. Working Group 5: Measurements technology and active experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E.; Barfield, J. N.; Faelthammar, C.-G.; Feynman, J.; Quinn, J. N.; Roberts, W.; Stone, N.; Taylor, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Technology issues identified by working groups 5 are listed. (1) New instruments are needed to upgrade the ability to measure plasma properties in space. (2) Facilities should be developed for conducting a broad range of plasma experiments in space. (3) The ability to predict plasma weather within magnetospheres should be improved and a capability to modify plasma weather developed. (4) Methods of control of plasma spacecraft and spacecraft plasma interference should be upgraded. (5) The space station laboratory facilities should be designed with attention to problems of flexibility to allow for future growth. These issues are discussed.

  10. Increased Serum Levels of Oxytocin in ‘Treatment Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TRDIA)’ Group

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kenji; Oda, Yasunori; Ishima, Tamaki; Yakita, Madoka; Kurata, Tsutomu; Kunou, Masaru; Takahashi, Jumpei; Kamata, Yu; Kimura, Atsushi; Niitsu, Tomihisa; Komatsu, Hideki; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Shiina, Akihiro; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Shimizu, Eiji; Iyo, Masaomi

    2016-01-01

    Objective ‘Treatment-resistant depression’ is depression that does not respond to an adequate regimen of evidence-based treatment. Treatment-resistant depression frequently becomes chronic. Children with treatment-resistant depression might also develop bipolar disorder (BD). The objective of this study was to determine whether serum levels of oxytocin (OXT) in treatment-resistant depression in adolescents (TRDIA) differ from non-treatment-resistant depression in adolescents (non-TRDIA) or controls. We also investigated the relationships between serum OXT levels and the clinical symptoms, severity, and familial histories of adolescent depressive patients. Methods We measured serum OXT levels: TRDIA (n = 10), non-TRDIA (n = 27), and age- and sex- matched, neurotypical controls (n = 25). Patients were evaluated using the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children-Japanese Version (DSRS-C-J). The patients were also assessed retrospectively using the following variables: familial history of major depressive disorder and BD (1st degree or 2nd degree), history of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, recurrent depressive disorder (RDD), history of antidepressant activation. Results Serum levels of OXT among the TRDIA and non-TRDIA patients and controls differed significantly. Interestingly, the rates of a family history of BD (1st or 2nd degree), RDD and a history of antidepressant activation in our TRDIA group were significantly higher than those of the non-TRDIA group. Conclusions Serum levels of OXT may play a role in the pathophysiology of TRDIA. PMID:27536785

  11. Characterization of inhibitory mechanism and antifungal activity between group-1 and group-2 phytocystatins from taro (Colocasia esculenta).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Ming; Kumar, Senthil; Cheng, Yi-Sheng; Venkatagiri, Shripathi; Yang, Ai-Hwa; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2008-10-01

    Tarocystatin from Colocasia esculenta, a group-2 phytocystatin, is a defense protein against phytopathogenic nematodes and fungi. It is composed of a highly conserved N-terminal region, which is homological to group-1 cystatin, and a repetitive peptide at the C-terminus. The purified recombinant proteins of tarocystatin, such as full-length (FL), N-terminus (Nt) and C-terminus (Ct) peptides, were produced and their inhibitory activities against papain as well as their antifungal effects were investigated. Kinetic analysis revealed that FL peptide exhibited mixed type inhibition (K(ia) = 0.098 microM and K(ib) = 0.252 microM) and Nt peptide showed competitive inhibition (K(i) = 0.057 microM), whereas Ct peptide possessed weak papain activation properties. A shift in the inhibitory pattern from competitive inhibition of Nt peptide alone to mixed type inhibition of FL peptide implied that the Ct peptide has an regulatory effect on the function of FL peptide. Based on the inhibitory kinetics of FL (group-2) and Nt (group-1) peptides on papain activity, an inhibitory mechanism of group-2 phytocystatins and a regulatory mechanism of extended Ct peptide have each been proposed. By contrast, the antifungal activity of Nt peptide appeared to be greater than that of FL peptide, and the Ct peptide showed no effect on antifungal activity, indicating that the antifungal effect is not related to proteinase inhibitory activity. The results are valid for most phytocystatins with respect to the inhibitory mechanism against cysteine proteinase. PMID:18785929

  12. Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of a Novel Dissonance-Based Group Treatment for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Butryn, Meghan; Menke, Katharine S.; Marti, C. Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Conduct a pilot trial of a new dissonance-based group eating disorder treatment designed to be a cost-effective front-line transdiagnostic treatment that could be more widely disseminated than extant individual or family treatments that are more expensive and difficult to deliver. Method Young women with a DSM-5 eating disorder (N = 72) were randomized to an 8-week dissonance-based Body Acceptance Therapy group treatment or a usual care control condition, completing diagnostic interviews and questionnaires at pre, post, and 2-month follow-up. Results Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that intervention participants showed greater reductions in outcomes than usual care controls in a multivariate multilevel model (χ2[6] = 34.1, p < .001), producing large effects for thin-ideal internalization (d = 0.79), body dissatisfaction (d = 1.14), and blinded interview-assessed eating disorder symptoms (d = .95), and medium effects for dissonance regarding perpetuating the thin ideal (d = .65) and negative affect (d = .55). Midway through this pilot we refined engagement procedures, which was associated with increased effect sizes (e.g., the d for eating disorder symptoms increased from .51 to 2.30). Conclusions This new group treatment produced large reductions in eating disorder symptoms, which is encouraging because it requires about 1/20th the therapist time necessary for extant individual and family treatments, and has the potential to provide a cost-effective and efficacious approach to reaching the majority of individuals with eating disorders who do not presently received treatment. PMID:25577189

  13. Cultural accommodation of group substance abuse treatment for Latino adolescents: Results of an RCT.

    PubMed

    Burrow-Sánchez, Jason J; Minami, Takuya; Hops, Hyman

    2015-10-01

    Comparative studies examining the difference between empirically supported substance abuse treatments versus their culturally accommodated counterparts with participants from a single ethnic minority group are frequently called for in the literature but infrequently conducted in practice. This randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of an empirically supported standard version of a group-based cognitive-behavioral treatment (S-CBT) to a culturally accommodated version (A-CBT) with a sample of Latino adolescents primarily recruited from the juvenile justice system. Development of the culturally accommodated treatment and testing was guided by the Cultural Accommodation Model for Substance Abuse Treatment (CAM-SAT). Seventy Latino adolescents (mean age = 15.2; 90% male) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 group-based treatment conditions (S-CBT = 36; A-CBT = 34) with assessments conducted at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Longitudinal Poisson mixed models for count data were used to conduct the major analyses. The primary outcome variable in the analytic models was the number of days any substance was used (including alcohol, except tobacco) in the past 90 days. In addition, the variables ethnic identity, familism, and acculturation were included as cultural moderators in the analysis. Although both conditions produced significant decreases in substance use, the results did not support a time by treatment condition interaction; however, outcomes were moderated by ethnic identity and familism. The findings are discussed with implications for research and practice within the context of providing culturally relevant treatment for Latino adolescents with substance use disorders. PMID:25602465

  14. A Comparative Study of Group Behavioral Activation and Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Subsyndromal Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Mehdi; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Dolatshahi, Behroz; Alizadeh, Hamid; Overmann, Karenleigh A.; Coolidge, Frederick L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two group treatments, behavioral activation (BA) and cognitive therapy (CT), in reducing subsyndromal anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian university students. Method: Twenty-seven Iranian university students who scored 18 or higher on the depression subscale and 16 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42) were randomly assigned into treatment groups. One group received 8 sessions of BA (n = 14), and the other received 8 sessions of group CT (n = 13). Result: Analysis of covariance revealed that the BA group had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than the CT group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of anxiety, stress symptoms or functional impairment after treatment. Conclusion: This study found evidence for the effectiveness of BA in reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and functional impairment compared to CT. BA was more effective than CT in improving depressive symptoms and was as effective as CT in decreasing anxiety, stress and functional impairment. BA is also a cost-effective intervention, particularly in group formats. PMID:26884782

  15. Reactivity of activated phenyl groups in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, M.R.; Yao, J.; Evilia, R.F.

    1996-08-01

    The reactivities of phenol, anisole, aniline, and N,N-dimethylaniline in deuterium oxide and sodium deuteroxide solution at 400 C and 250 bar are reported. Ortho/para deuteration characteristic of electrophilic substitution is found for phenol in both media and for all of the compounds in deuterium oxide. However, under basic conditions, only ortho deuteration of anisole and aniline and no deuteration of N,N-dimethylaniline is observed. These latter results in basic media suggest that, in these cases, the reaction proceeds via attack by deuteroxide ion at the site closest to the inductively electron withdrawing group, rather than by the more common electrophilic mechanism. N,N-dimethylaniline undergoes electrophilic substitution under neutral conditions, but does not react in basic media because either the acidity of its ortho hydrogen is too weak and/or it is sterically hindered by the presence of the methyl groups. N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium chloride decomposes to uncharacterized products under the reaction conditions employed.

  16. The feasibility and acceptability of groups for pain management in methadone maintenance treatment

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Declan T.; Savant, Jonathan D.; Beitel, Mark; Cutter, Christopher J.; Schottenfeld, Richard S.; Kerns, Robert D.; Moore, Brent A.; Oberleitner, Lindsay; Joy, Michelle T.; Keneally, Nina; Liong, Christopher; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Effective and safe pain management interventions in methadone maintenance treatment are needed. Methods We examined the feasibility (i.e., single session attendance) and acceptability (i.e., patient satisfaction, booster session attendance) of cognitive-behavioral therapy-informed groups for pain management: Coping with Pain, Relaxation Training, Group Singing, and Mindful Walking. Pre- and post-session measures were collected. Results 349 (out of a census of approximately 800) methadone-maintained patients attended at least one of the groups. Group satisfaction was high. Booster session attendance was numerically lower in Mindful Walking (15%) as compared to the other groups (at least 40%). Repeat attendance at Coping with Pain was associated with reduced characteristic pain intensity and depression, while repeat attendance at Relaxation Training was associated with decreased anxiety. Conclusions Coping with Pain, Relaxation Training, and Group Singing are transportable, affordable, adaptable, and tolerated well by patients with pain and show promise as components of a multimodal pain management approach in methadone maintenance treatment. PMID:25100310

  17. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM. PMID:26018644

  18. Meta-Analysis of Group Learning Activities: Empirically Based Teaching Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomcho, Thomas J.; Foels, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Teaching researchers commonly employ group-based collaborative learning approaches in Teaching of Psychology teaching activities. However, the authors know relatively little about the effectiveness of group-based activities in relation to known psychological processes associated with group dynamics. Therefore, the authors conducted a meta-analytic…

  19. Effect of Different Types of Small-Group Activities on Students' Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Krista K.; Talanquer, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Teaching reform efforts in chemistry education often involve engaging students in small-group activities of different types. This study focused on the analysis of how activity type affected the nature of group conversations. In particular, we analyzed the small-group conversations of students enrolled in a chemistry course for nonscience majors.…

  20. Recent Updates on the Efficacy of Group Based Treatments for Pediatric Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Myra; Coppock, Jackson H.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is limited research on optimal treatment formats for childhood obesity. Group-based interventions are popular, but it is unclear whether outcomes can be obtained without an additional individual component. Aim To examine statistically and clinically significant outcomes of recent group-based and mixed-format (group + Individual) pediatric obesity interventions. Methods Effect sizes and magnitudes of weight change were calculated for studies published between January 2013 and September 2014. Results Approximately half of the group-based studies reviewed produced significant results compared to control, and effect sizes were small. Mixed-format studies were less likely to include a control group, but those that did evidenced medium to large effects. Magnitudes of weight change post-intervention were generally greater in mixed-format studies than group-only studies. Conclusions Recent studies in pediatric obesity interventions suggest including an individual component in a group-based intervention produces optimal outcomes. Future research should directly compare group-only and mixed formats to confirm this observation. PMID:25866596

  1. Current activities of the Atmospheric Composition Sub-Group of the CEOS Working Group on Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojkov, Bojan

    The Atmospheric Sub-Group of the CEOS Calibration and Validation Working Group (CEOS WGCV/ASCG) was established in November 2001 with mission to ensure accurate and traceable calibration of remotely-sensed atmospheric chemistry radiance data and validation of higher level products, for application to atmospheric chemistry and climate research. This working-group, consisting of 15 members from space agencies and other relevant agencies and organizations with broad experience in calibration, modeling, algorithm development and validation, meet on an annual basis to promote international collaboration and technical exchanges, encourage interactions between mission scientists and data users, recommend network validation sites, develop comprehensive validation methodologies involving ground-based and space-borne assets, and specify comprehensive and consistent multi-mission validation datasets. Recent activities of the ACSG, including the recent ground-based intercomparisons, the ongoing NASA-ESA-NDACC validation data sharing activities, and the planned multi-agency CO2 validation efforts, will be presented.

  2. Intention to seek depression treatment in adolescent mothers and a comparison group of adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M Cynthia; Usui, Wayne; Pinto-Foltz, Melissa; Rakestraw, Vivian Leffler

    2009-02-01

    The aims of the study were (a) to determine the efficacy of the theory of reasoned action in predicting intention to seek depression treatment in adolescent mothers (n = 64) and a comparison group of adolescent girls (n = 65) and (b) to explore the role of empirically suggested variables (e.g., social support and current symptoms of depression) in increasing the explanatory power of the model. Findings between the two groups differed. Subjective norms, but not attitude, was a significant predictor of intention to seek depression treatment in adolescent mothers (F = 4.82, P = .00; R(2) = .14). In the comparison group of adolescent girls, both attitude and subjective norms predicted intention to seek depression treatment (F = 8.56, P = .00, R(2) = .22). The addition of depressive symptoms and social support increased the explanatory power of the model in the comparison group of adolescent girls (R(2) change = 0.10, P = .02) but resulted in the deletion of subjective norms from the regression equation. Implications for further research and practice are discussed. PMID:19216987

  3. Superfluid phase transition with activated velocity fluctuations: Renormalization group approach.

    PubMed

    Dančo, Michal; Hnatič, Michal; Komarova, Marina V; Lučivjanský, Tomáš; Nalimov, Mikhail Yu

    2016-01-01

    A quantum field model that incorporates Bose-condensed systems near their phase transition into a superfluid phase and velocity fluctuations is proposed. The stochastic Navier-Stokes equation is used for a generation of the velocity fluctuations. As such this model generalizes model F of critical dynamics. The field-theoretic action is derived using the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism and path integral approach. The regime of equilibrium fluctuations is analyzed within the perturbative renormalization group method. The double (ε,δ)-expansion scheme is employed, where ε is a deviation from space dimension 4 and δ describes scaling of velocity fluctuations. The renormalization procedure is performed to the leading order. The main corollary gained from the analysis of the thermal equilibrium regime suggests that one-loop calculations of the presented models are not sufficient to make a definite conclusion about the stability of fixed points. We also show that critical exponents are drastically changed as a result of the turbulent background and critical fluctuations are in fact destroyed by the developed turbulence fluctuations. The scaling exponent of effective viscosity is calculated and agrees with expected value 4/3. PMID:26871026

  4. Superfluid phase transition with activated velocity fluctuations: Renormalization group approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dančo, Michal; Hnatič, Michal; Komarova, Marina V.; Lučivjanský, Tomáš; Nalimov, Mikhail Yu.

    2016-01-01

    A quantum field model that incorporates Bose-condensed systems near their phase transition into a superfluid phase and velocity fluctuations is proposed. The stochastic Navier-Stokes equation is used for a generation of the velocity fluctuations. As such this model generalizes model F of critical dynamics. The field-theoretic action is derived using the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism and path integral approach. The regime of equilibrium fluctuations is analyzed within the perturbative renormalization group method. The double (ɛ ,δ ) -expansion scheme is employed, where ɛ is a deviation from space dimension 4 and δ describes scaling of velocity fluctuations. The renormalization procedure is performed to the leading order. The main corollary gained from the analysis of the thermal equilibrium regime suggests that one-loop calculations of the presented models are not sufficient to make a definite conclusion about the stability of fixed points. We also show that critical exponents are drastically changed as a result of the turbulent background and critical fluctuations are in fact destroyed by the developed turbulence fluctuations. The scaling exponent of effective viscosity is calculated and agrees with expected value 4 /3 .

  5. Psychological Group-Treatments of Social Anxiety Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wersebe, Hanna; Sijbrandij, Marit; Cuijpers, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Background A few meta-analyses have examined psychological treatments for a social anxiety disorder (SAD). This is the first meta-analysis that examines the effects of cognitive behavioural group therapies (CBGT) for SAD compared to control on symptoms of anxiety. Method After a systematic literature search in PubMed, Cochrane, PsychINFO and Embase was conducted; eleven studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. The studies had to be randomized controlled studies in which individuals with a diagnosed SAD were treated with cognitive-behavioural group therapy (CBGT) and compared with a control group. The overall quality of the studies was moderate. Results The pooled effect size indicated that the difference between intervention and control conditions was 0.53 (96% CI: 0.33–0.73), in favour of the intervention. This corresponds to a NNT 3.24. Heterogeneity was low to moderately high in all analyses. There was some indication of publication bias. Conclusions It was found that psychological group-treatments CBGT are more effective than control conditions in patients with SAD. Since heterogeneity between studies was high, more research comparing group psychotherapies for SAD to control is needed. PMID:24260148

  6. BRAIN REWARD ACTIVITY TO MASKED IN-GROUP SMILING FACES PREDICTS FRIENDSHIP DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pin-Hao A.; Whalen, Paul J.; Freeman, Jonathan B.; Taylor, James M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether neural responses in the ventral striatum (VS) to in-group facial expressions—presented without explicit awareness—could predict friendship patterns in newly arrived individuals from China six months later. Individuals who initially showed greater VS activity in response to in-group happy expressions during functional neuroimaging later made considerably more in-group friends, suggesting that VS activity might reflect reward processes that drive in-group approach behaviors. PMID:26185595

  7. ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF KRAFT BLEACHING EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The removal of color and organic contaminants by adsorption on activated carbon from the effluent of a kraft pulp bleaching plant was investigated in a pilot plant. The caustic bleach effluent, which contains 80% of the color from pulp bleaching, was decolorized successfully when...

  8. Enhancement of CA3 hippocampal network activity by activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ster, Jeanne; Mateos, José María; Grewe, Benjamin Friedrich; Coiret, Guyllaume; Corti, Corrado; Corsi, Mauro; Helmchen, Fritjof; Gerber, Urs

    2011-01-01

    Impaired function or expression of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRIIs) is observed in brain disorders such as schizophrenia. This class of receptor is thought to modulate activity of neuronal circuits primarily by inhibiting neurotransmitter release. Here, we characterize a postsynaptic excitatory response mediated by somato-dendritic mGluRIIs in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and in stratum oriens interneurons. The specific mGluRII agonists DCG-IV or LCCG-1 induced an inward current blocked by the mGluRII antagonist LY341495. Experiments with transgenic mice revealed a significant reduction of the inward current in mGluR3−/− but not in mGluR2−/− mice. The excitatory response was associated with periods of synchronized activity at theta frequency. Furthermore, cholinergically induced network oscillations exhibited decreased frequency when mGluRIIs were blocked. Thus, our data indicate that hippocampal responses are modulated not only by presynaptic mGluRIIs that reduce glutamate release but also by postsynaptic mGluRIIs that depolarize neurons and enhance CA3 network activity. PMID:21628565

  9. Factors affecting treatment efficacy in social phobia: the use of video feedback and individual vs. group formats.

    PubMed

    Aderka, Idan M

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis assessed two potential moderators of treatment efficacy in social phobia: video feedback, and treatment format (i.e., individual vs. group). Eighteen recent (2000-2006) trials including a total of 511 participants were sampled. Effect sizes (Cohen's d's) were calculated for each trial while correcting for measurement error. The Q statistic was used to test (a) heterogeneity across trials and (b) potential moderators. Results indicated that use of video feedback was not a moderator of treatment efficacy and did not significantly affect effect sizes. In contrast, treatment format was a moderator of treatment efficacy such that individual treatments reported larger effect sizes and lower attrition rates compared with group treatments. The results suggest that individual treatments in social phobia may be superior to group treatments irrespective of treatment type. PMID:18599263

  10. Less-costly activated carbon for sewage treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingham, J. D.; Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Lignite-aided sewage treatment is based on absorption of dissolved pollutants by activated carbon. Settling sludge is removed and dried into cakes that are pyrolyzed with lignites to yield activated carbon. Lignite is less expensive than activated carbon previously used to supplement pyrolysis yield.

  11. Evaluation of tuberculosis treatment results in Italy, report 1998. Tuberculosis section of the National AIPO Study Group on Infectious Disease and the SMIRA Group.

    PubMed

    Centis, R; Ianni, A; Migliori, G B

    2000-08-01

    In Italy no national data on tuberculosis (TB) treatment results were available. In 1995 the AIPO (Italian Association of Hospital Pneumologists) TB Study Group, in collaboration with the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (technical branch of the Ministry of Health), started a prospective monitoring activity based on World Health Organization (WHO) and International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) recommendations. Data were collected from a representative network of TB units nationwide, managing a significant proportion of all TB cases notified in Italy each year. The aim of this study was to analyse the case findings and treatment results for the year 1998. The number of TB cases reported was 1162 (61.7% males; 28.2% immigrants), 888 (76.6%) being new cases. Of these cases, 1,001 (86.4%) were pulmonary, 132 (11.4%) extrapulmonary and 26 (2.2%) both pulmonary and extrapulmonary. The main risk factors for TB were a history of recent contact, diabetes and alcohol abuse among native Italians and human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive status and history of recent contact among immigrants. The majority of immigrants were from Africa and South America, and had been in Italy > 24 months before diagnosis of TB. Forty-seven per cent (552 of 1,162) of patients had a positive direct sputum smear examination for alcohol acidfast bacilli; 30% were resistant to any drug (combined monoresistance (the sum of primary and acquired drug resistance) to rifampicin 2.3%; combined multidrug resistance 11.4%). In 97% of cases, the duration of treatment was < 12 months. The overall success rate (cured plus treatment completed excluding transferred out from the denominator) was 83%. A significantly higher percentage of deaths was found in native Italians (being age-related; p < 0.001), whereas immigrants had a higher default rate. PMID:11057082

  12. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2016-03-02

    Here, the most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigatemore » the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. In conclusion, from these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells.« less

  13. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2016-01-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells. PMID:26932808

  14. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2016-03-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells.

  15. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, Murillo L; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J; Bordallo, Heloisa N

    2016-01-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells. PMID:26932808

  16. Fortifying the Treatment of Prostate Cancer with Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Champ, Colin E.; Francis, Lanie; Klement, Rainer J.; Dickerman, Roger; Smith, Ryan P.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, significant data have shown that obese men experience a survival detriment after treatment for prostate cancer. While methods to combat obesity are of utmost importance for the prostate cancer patient, newer data reveal the overall metabolic improvements that accompany increased activity levels and intense exercise beyond weight loss. Along these lines, a plethora of data have shown improvement in prostate cancer-specific outcomes after treatment accompanied with these activity levels. This review discusses the metabolic mechanisms in which increased activity levels and exercise can help improve both outcomes for men treated for prostate cancer while lowering the side effects of treatment. PMID:26977321

  17. Fortifying the Treatment of Prostate Cancer with Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Champ, Colin E; Francis, Lanie; Klement, Rainer J; Dickerman, Roger; Smith, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, significant data have shown that obese men experience a survival detriment after treatment for prostate cancer. While methods to combat obesity are of utmost importance for the prostate cancer patient, newer data reveal the overall metabolic improvements that accompany increased activity levels and intense exercise beyond weight loss. Along these lines, a plethora of data have shown improvement in prostate cancer-specific outcomes after treatment accompanied with these activity levels. This review discusses the metabolic mechanisms in which increased activity levels and exercise can help improve both outcomes for men treated for prostate cancer while lowering the side effects of treatment. PMID:26977321

  18. The social treatment: the benefits of group interventions in residential care settings.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Catherine; Haslam, S Alexander; Jetten, Jolanda; Bevins, Adam; Ravenscroft, Sophie; Tonks, James

    2010-03-01

    We report findings from an intervention study that investigates the impact of group reminiscence (GR) and individual reminiscence (IR) activities on older adults living in care settings. This research aimed to provide a theory-driven evaluation of reminiscence based on a social identity framework. This framework predicts better health outcomes for group-based interventions as a result of their capacity to create a sense of shared social identification among participants. A total of 73 residents, living in either standard or specialized (i.e., dementia) care units, were randomly assigned to one of three interventions: GR (n = 29), IR (n = 24), and a group control activity (n = 20). The intervention took place over 6 weeks, and cognitive screening and well-being measures were administered both pre- and post-intervention. Results indicated that only the group interventions produced effective outcomes and that these differed as a modality-specific function of condition: Collective recollection of past memories enhanced memory performance, and engaging in a shared social activity enhanced well-being. Theoretically, these findings point to the important role that group membership plays in maintaining and promoting health and well-being. PMID:20230136

  19. Brain Activity in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder Before and After Fluoxetine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Rongrong; Calley, Clifford S.; Hart, John; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Lu, Hanzhang; Kennard, Betsy D.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Emslie, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Major depression in adolescents is a significant public health concern because of its frequency and severity. To examine the neurobiological basis of depression in this population, the authors studied functional activation characteristics of the brain before and after antidepressant treatment in antidepressant-naive depressed adolescents and healthy comparison subjects. Method Depressed (N=19) and healthy (N=21) adolescents, ages 11 to 18 years, underwent functional MRI assessment while viewing fearful and neutral facial expressions at baseline and again 8 weeks later. The depressed adolescents received 8 weeks of open-label fluoxetine treatment after their baseline scan. Results Voxel-wise whole brain analyses showed that depressed youths have exaggerated brain activation compared with healthy comparison subjects in multiple regions, including the frontal, temporal, and limbic cortices. The 8 weeks of fluoxetine treatment normalized most of these regions of hyperactivity in the depressed group. Region-of-interest analyses of the areas involved in emotion processing indicated that before treatment, depressed youths had significantly greater activations to fearful relative to neutral facial expressions than did healthy comparison subjects in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally. Fluoxetine treatment decreased activations in all three regions, as compared with the repeat scans of healthy comparison subjects. Conclusions While effective treatments are available, the impact of depression and its treatment on the brain in adolescents is understudied. This study confirms increases in brain activation in untreated depressed adolescents and demonstrates reductions in these aberrant activations with treatment. PMID:22267183

  20. Barriers and facilitators of treatment for depression in a latino community: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Uebelacker, Lisa A; Marootian, Beth A; Pirraglia, Paul A; Primack, Jennifer; Tigue, Patrick M; Haggarty, Ryan; Velazquez, Lavinia; Bowdoin, Jennifer J; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W

    2012-02-01

    We conducted focus groups with Latinos enrolled in a Medicaid health plan in order to ask about the barriers to and facilitators of depression treatment in general as well as barriers to participation in depression telephone care management. Telephone care management has been designed for and tested in primary care settings as a way of assisting physicians with caring for their depressed patients. It consists of regular brief contacts between the care manager and the patient; the care manager educates, tracks, and monitors patients with depression, coordinates care between the patient and primary care physician, and may provide short-term psychotherapy. We conducted qualitative analyses of four focus groups (n = 30 participants) composed of Latinos who endorsed having been depressed themselves or having had a close friend or family member with depression, stress, nervios, or worries. Within the area of barriers and facilitators of receiving care for depression, we identified the following themes: vulnerability, social connection and engagement, language, culture, insurance/money, stigma, disengagement, information, and family. Participants discussed attitudes toward: importance of seeking help for depression, specific types of treatments, healthcare providers, continuity and coordination of care, and phone calls. Improved understanding of barriers and facilitators of depression treatment in general and depression care management in particular for Latinos enrolled in Medicaid should lead to interventions better able to meet the needs of this particular group. PMID:21267653

  1. Emerging treatments in neurogastroenterology: a multidisciplinary working group consensus statement on opioid-induced constipation

    PubMed Central

    CAMILLERI, M.; DROSSMAN, D. A.; BECKER, G.; WEBSTER, L. R.; DAVIES, A. N.; MAWE, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Opioids are effective for acute and chronic pain conditions, but their use is associated with often difficult-to-manage constipation and other gastrointestinal (GI) effects due to effects on peripheral μ-opioid receptors in the gut. The mechanism of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) differs from that of functional constipation (FC), and OIC may not respond as well to most first-line treatments for FC. The impact of OIC on quality of life (QoL) induces some patients to decrease or stop their opioid therapy to relieve or avoid constipation. Purpose At a roundtable meeting on OIC, a working group developed a consensus definition for OIC diagnosis across disciplines and reviewed current OIC treatments and the potential of treatments in development. By consensus, OIC is defined as follows: ‘A change when initiating opioid therapy from baseline bowel habits that is characterized by any of the following: reduced bowel movement frequency, development or worsening of straining to pass bowel movements, a sense of incomplete rectal evacuation, or harder stool consistency’. The working group noted the prior validation of a patient response outcome and end point for clinical trials and recommended future efforts to create treatment guidelines and QoL measures specific for OIC. Details from the working group’s discussion and consensus recommendations for patient care and research are presented in this article. PMID:25164154

  2. Baseline Brain Activity Predicts Response to Neuromodulatory Pain Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mark P.; Sherlin, Leslie H.; Fregni, Felipe; Gianas, Ann; Howe, Jon D.; Hakimian, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the associations between baseline electroencephalogram (EEG)-assessed brain oscillations and subsequent response to four neuromodulatory treatments. Based on available research, we hypothesized that baseline theta oscillations would prospectively predict response to hypnotic analgesia. Analyses involving other oscillations and the other treatments (meditation, neurofeedback, and both active and sham transcranial direct current stimulation) were viewed as exploratory, given the lack of previous research examining brain oscillations as predictors of response to these other treatments. Design Randomized controlled study of single sessions of four neuromodulatory pain treatments and a control procedure. Methods Thirty individuals with spinal cord injury and chronic pain had their EEG recorded before each session of four active treatments (hypnosis, meditation, EEG biofeedback, transcranial direct current stimulation) and a control procedure (sham transcranial direct stimulation). Results As hypothesized, more presession theta power was associated with greater response to hypnotic analgesia. In exploratory analyses, we found that less baseline alpha power predicted pain reduction with meditation. Conclusions The findings support the idea that different patients respond to different pain treatments and that between-person treatment response differences are related to brain states as measured by EEG. The results have implications for the possibility of enhancing pain treatment response by either 1) better patient/treatment matching or 2) influencing brain activity before treatment is initiated in order to prepare patients to respond. Research is needed to replicate and confirm the findings in additional samples of individuals with chronic pain. PMID:25287554

  3. Communication Status and Semantic Network of Students in Small Group Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Duk Ho

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the communication status in group and the semantic network of science gifted students. Seven small groups, 5 members in each, participated in small group activities, in which they discussed the calculation of earth density. Both the communication status in group and the semantic network of science gifted students were analyzed using KrKwic, Ucinet 6.0 for Windows. As a result, the semantic network of prime movers in group represented more frequently used words, lesser rate of component, and higher density than that of out lookers. It means that the prime movers have coherent knowledge compared to out lookers, and they output more knowledge for problem solving than out lookers. Therefore, the results of this study may be applied to evaluating the cognitive level of science gifted students and group organization for small group activity. Keywords: small group activity, science gifted students, communication status, semantic network

  4. Latent activity rhythm disturbance sub-groups and longitudinal change in depression symptoms among older men.

    PubMed

    Smagula, Stephen F; Boudreau, Robert M; Stone, Katie; Reynolds, Charles F; Bromberger, Joyce T; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Dam, Thuy-Tien; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Cauley, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Activity rhythm disturbances and depression often co-occur among older adults. However, little is known about how activity rhythm disturbances themselves co-occur, or how disturbances to multiple aspects of the activity rhythm relate to depression over time. In this study, we performed a Latent Class Analysis to derive sub-groups of older men [total n = 2933, mean age = 76.28, standard deviation (SD) = 5.48] who shared similar patterns of activity rhythm disturbances (defined as extreme values of modeled activity rhythm parameters). We found eight sub-groups with distinct combinations of activity rhythm disturbances: one had all normative activity rhythm parameters (32.09%), one had only lower activity (10.06%), three had earlier activity (totaling 26.96%) and three had later activity (totaling 30.89%). Groups with similar timing were distinguished depending on whether the relative length of the active period was shorter and/or if the activity rhythm had lesser amplitude/robustness. We next examined whether the derived activity rhythm sub-groups were associated with different rates of change in depression symptom levels over an average of 5.5 (0.52 SD) follow-up years. The sub-group with lower activity only had faster increases in depressive symptoms over time (compared with the group with normative rhythm parameters), but this association was accounted for by adjustments for concurrently assessed health status covariates. Independent of these covariates, we found that four activity rhythm disturbance sub-groups experienced faster depressive symptom increases (compared with the normative sub-group): These included all three sub-groups that had later activity timing and one sub-group that had earlier activity timing plus a shorter active period and a dampened rhythm. Low activity rhythm height/robustness with normal timing therefore may mark depression risk that is attributable to co-occurring disease processes; in contrast, having late or combined early

  5. Examining the impact of mixing child molesters and rapists in group-based cognitive-behavioral treatment for sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Leigh; Beech, Anthony R

    2008-02-01

    This study examines the relationship between recidivism rates, therapeutic climate, and composition of offenders in group-based cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for sexual offenders. The Group Environment Scale (GES) is employed to measure social climate. The GES is administered to 73 male sexual offenders in groups of those who only victimized adults or children (five groups) or men who both victimized adults and those who victimized children (five groups). Group environment is not found to differ significantly as a function of group composition. Group member's ratings on the GES are in the medium to high range, indicating a generally positive group environment. Although the group environment overall does not differ between groups, groups do differ significantly in terms of expressiveness. There are no differences in recidivism rates between groups as a function of group composition. The results are discussed in the light of mixing child molesters and rapists in group-based CBT. PMID:17615434

  6. Behavioral activation: a strategy to enhance treatment response.

    PubMed

    Sudak, Donna M; Majeed, Muhammad H; Youngman, Branden

    2014-07-01

    Behavioral activation is an empirically validated treatment for depression pioneered in 1973 by Ferster, based on B.F. Skinner's behavioral principles. After publication of Beck's work on cognitive therapy, the boundaries of behavioral and cognitive therapies were blurred and the two now overlap substantially. Behavioral activation is also used as a stand-alone treatment and can also be effective in conjunction with antidepressant medication. Case conceptualization in behavioral activation entails an assessment of the behaviors that the patient has stopped that produce pleasure or are of importance, as well as behaviors essential to self-care. Activity monitoring, which provides treatment targets and leads to the case conceptualization in behavioral activation, consists of using charts, forms, or other prompts to track the relationship between activities and other variables (e.g., mood, enjoyment). That technique is also used to target rumination, procrastination, and avoidance and may also be helpful for patients with psychosis. PMID:25036582

  7. Medical cost-offset following treatment referral for alcohol and other drug use disorders in a group model HMO.

    PubMed

    Polen, Michael R; Freeborn, Donald K; Lynch, Frances L; Mullooly, John P; Dickinson, Daniel M

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether specialty alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment is associated with reduced subsequent medical care costs. AOD treatment costs and medical costs in a group model health maintenance organization (HMO) were collected for up to 6 years on 1,472 HMO members who were recommended for specialty AOD treatment, and on 738 members without AOD diagnoses or treatment. Addiction Severity Index measures were also obtained from a sample of 293 of those recommended for treatment. Changes in medical costs did not differ between treatment and comparison groups. Nor did individuals with improved treatment outcomes have greater reductions in medical costs. AOD treatment costs were not inversely related to subsequent medical costs, except for a subgroup with recent AOD treatment. In the interviewed sample, better treatment outcomes did not predict lower subsequent medical costs. Multiple treatment episodes may hold promise for producing cost-offsets. PMID:16752110

  8. DESIGN HANDBOOK FOR AUTOMATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a systems engineering handbook for the automation of activated sludge wastewater treatment processes. Process control theory and application are discussed to acquaint the reader with terminology and fundamentals. Successful unit process control strategies currently...

  9. Activation of band 3 mediates group A Streptococcus streptolysin S-based beta-haemolysis.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Dustin L; Biais, Nicolas; Donahue, Deborah L; Mayfield, Jeffrey A; Tessier, Charles R; Rodriguez, Kevin; Ashfeld, Brandon L; Luchetti, Jeffrey; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J; Lee, Shaun W

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, or group A Streptococcus (GAS), is a human bacterial pathogen that can manifest as a range of diseases from pharyngitis and impetigo to severe outcomes such as necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome. GAS disease remains a global health burden with cases estimated at over 700 million annually and over half a million deaths due to severe infections(1). For over 100 years, a clinical hallmark of diagnosis has been the appearance of complete (beta) haemolysis when grown in the presence of blood. This activity is due to the production of a small peptide toxin by GAS known as streptolysin S. Although it has been widely held that streptolysin S exerts its lytic activity through membrane disruption, its exact mode of action has remained unknown. Here, we show, using high-resolution live cell imaging, that streptolysin S induces a dramatic osmotic change in red blood cells, leading to cell lysis. This osmotic change was characterized by the rapid influx of Cl(-) ions into the red blood cells through SLS-mediated disruption of the major erythrocyte anion exchange protein, band 3. Chemical inhibition of band 3 function significantly reduced the haemolytic activity of streptolysin S, and dramatically reduced the pathology in an in vivo skin model of GAS infection. These results provide key insights into the mechanism of streptolysin S-mediated haemolysis and have implications for the development of treatments against GAS. PMID:27571972

  10. Large Group Exposure Treatment: a Feasibility Study in Highly Spider Fearful Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wannemueller, André; Appelbaum, David; Küppers, Maike; Matten, Amelie; Teismann, Tobias; Adolph, Dirk; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A large group one-session exposure treatment (LG-OST) based on indirect modeled exposure strategies was carried out to investigate its feasibility and effectiveness in a sample of highly spider fearful individuals (N = 78). The stability of LG-OST-effects was assessed at 8-month follow-up (FU). Furthermore, a second sample (N = 30) of highly spider fearful individuals was treated in a standard, single-person one-session treatment (SP-OST) design to compare LG-OST-effects to a standard spider fear treatment. Participants’ fear of spider was assessed by multiple questionnaires and by a behavioral approach test. The fear assessment took place before and after the respective intervention, and at 8-month FU in LG-OST. Regarding subjective spider fear measures, LG-OST mainly showed medium to large effect sizes, ranging from Cohen’s d = 0.69 to d = 1.21, except for one small effect of d = 0.25. After LG-OST, participants approached the spider closer at post-treatment measures (d = 1.18). LG-OST-effects remained stable during the 8-month FU-interval. However, SP-OST-effects proved superior in most measures. An LG-OST-protocol provided evidence for feasibility and efficiency. The effects of LG-OST were equal to those of indirect modeled exposure strategies, carried out in single-settings. LG-OST may represent a useful tool in future phobia-treatment, especially if it can match the effects of single-setting OST, e.g., by including more direct exposure elements in future large group attempts. PMID:27555830

  11. Large Group Exposure Treatment: a Feasibility Study in Highly Spider Fearful Individuals.

    PubMed

    Wannemueller, André; Appelbaum, David; Küppers, Maike; Matten, Amelie; Teismann, Tobias; Adolph, Dirk; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A large group one-session exposure treatment (LG-OST) based on indirect modeled exposure strategies was carried out to investigate its feasibility and effectiveness in a sample of highly spider fearful individuals (N = 78). The stability of LG-OST-effects was assessed at 8-month follow-up (FU). Furthermore, a second sample (N = 30) of highly spider fearful individuals was treated in a standard, single-person one-session treatment (SP-OST) design to compare LG-OST-effects to a standard spider fear treatment. Participants' fear of spider was assessed by multiple questionnaires and by a behavioral approach test. The fear assessment took place before and after the respective intervention, and at 8-month FU in LG-OST. Regarding subjective spider fear measures, LG-OST mainly showed medium to large effect sizes, ranging from Cohen's d = 0.69 to d = 1.21, except for one small effect of d = 0.25. After LG-OST, participants approached the spider closer at post-treatment measures (d = 1.18). LG-OST-effects remained stable during the 8-month FU-interval. However, SP-OST-effects proved superior in most measures. An LG-OST-protocol provided evidence for feasibility and efficiency. The effects of LG-OST were equal to those of indirect modeled exposure strategies, carried out in single-settings. LG-OST may represent a useful tool in future phobia-treatment, especially if it can match the effects of single-setting OST, e.g., by including more direct exposure elements in future large group attempts. PMID:27555830

  12. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  13. Independent and Small Group Activities for Social Studies in the Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Barbara; And Others

    A teachers' guide for social studies, this manual stresses geography curriculum and activities for the primary grades. It is suggested that a teacher work with one group while the other children work individually. Children first work independently for a team, and then progress to less structured small group activities. Positive reinforcement by…

  14. Prognostic factors identified three risk groups in the LRF CLL4 trial, independent of treatment allocation

    PubMed Central

    Oscier, David; Wade, Rachel; Davis, Zadie; Morilla, Alison; Best, Giles; Richards, Sue; Else, Monica; Matutes, Estella; Catovsky, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background Many prognostic markers have been identified in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, but there have been few opportunities to assess their relative importance in a large randomized trial. The aim of this study was to determine which of the available markers independently predicted outcome in patients requiring treatment and to use these to define new risk groups. Design and Methods A broad panel of clinical and laboratory markers, measured at randomization in patients entering the LRF CLL4 trial, was assessed with respect to treatment response, progression-free and overall survival, at a median follow-up of 68 months. Results Using the factors identified as independent predictors for progression-free survival, patients were subdivided into three risk groups: 6% had poor risk with known TP53 loss of greater than 10%; 72% had an intermediate risk without TP53 loss (≤10%) and with at least one of: unmutated IGHV genes and/or IGHV3-21 usage, 11q deletion, β-2 microglobulin greater than 4 mg/L; 22% had a good risk (with none of the above and mutated IGHV genes). The 5-year progression-free survival rates for these three groups were 0%, 12% and 34%, respectively, and the corresponding 5-year overall survival rates were 9%, 53% and 79% (both P<0.00005 independent of treatment allocation). In the intermediate risk group 250 patients, with data for all three risk factors, were further subdivided into intermediate-low (one risk factor) or intermediate-high (2 or 3 risk factors). The 5-year progression-free survival rates were 18% and 7% (P=0.0001) and the 5-year overall survival rates were 68% and 40% (P<0.00005), respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrates the role of biomarkers in prognosis and shows that, in patients requiring treatment, disease stage may no longer be an independent predictor of outcome. If validated independently, the risk groups defined here may inform the design of future trials in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (Clinicaltrials

  15. Psychometric properties of the adjective rating scale for withdrawal across treatment groups, gender, and over time.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; McPherson, Sterling; Mamey, Mary Rose; Burns, G Leonard; Roll, John

    2014-02-01

    The adjective rating scale for withdrawal (ARSW) is commonly used to assess opiate withdrawal in clinical practice and research. The aims of this study were to examine the factor structure of the ARSW, test measurement invariance across gender and treatment groups, and assess longitudinal measurement invariance across the clinical trial. Secondary data analysis of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network 000-3, a randomized clinical trial comparing two tapering strategies, was performed. The ARSW was analyzed at baseline, end of taper and 1-month follow-up (N=515 opioid-dependent individuals). A 1-factor model of the ARSW fit the data and demonstrated acceptable reliability. Measurement invariance was supported across gender and taper groups. Longitudinal measurement invariance was not found across the course of the trial, with baseline assessment contributing to the lack of invariance. If change over time is of interest, change from post-treatment through follow-up may offer the most valid comparison. PMID:24074852

  16. Obesity Treatment in Disadvantaged Population Groups: Where Do We Stand and What Can We Do?

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Jean R.; Ogden, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is now the second leading cause of death and disease in the United States leading to health care expenditures exceeding $147 billion dollars. The socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial/ethnic minority groups are at significantly increased risk for obesity. Despite this, low income and minority individuals are underrepresented in the current obesity treatment literature. Additionally, weight loss outcomes for these high risk groups are well below what is typically produced in standard, well-controlled behavioral interventions and reach and access to treatment is often limited. The use of telecommunications technology may provide a solution to this dilemma by expanding dissemination and allowing for dynamic tailoring. Further gains may be achieved with the use of material incentives to enhance uptake of new behaviors. Regardless of what novel strategies are deployed, the need for further research to improve the health disparities associated with obesity in disadvantaged groups is critical. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the weight loss intervention literature that has targeted socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial/ethnic minority populations with an eye toward understanding outcomes, current limitations, areas for improvement and need for further research. PMID:24878585

  17. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  18. Brain activation to cocaine cues and motivation/treatment status.

    PubMed

    Prisciandaro, James J; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T

    2014-03-01

    Motivation to change is believed to be a key factor in therapeutic success in substance use disorders; however, the neurobiological mechanisms through which motivation to change impacts decreased substance use remain unclear. Existing research is conflicting, with some investigations supporting decreased and others reporting increased frontal activation to drug cues in individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. The present study investigated the relationship between motivation to change cocaine use and cue-elicited brain activity in cocaine-dependent individuals using two conceptualizations of 'motivation to change': (1) current treatment status (i.e. currently receiving versus not receiving outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence) and (2) self-reported motivation to change substance use, using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. Thirty-eight cocaine-dependent individuals (14 currently in treatment) completed a diagnostic assessment and an fMRI cocaine cue-reactivity task. Whole-brain analyses demonstrated that both treatment-seeking and motivated participants had lower activation to cocaine cues in a wide variety of brain regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal and cingulate cortices relative to non-treatment-seeking and less motivated participants. Future research is needed to explain the mechanism by which treatment and/or motivation impacts neural cue reactivity, as such work could potentially aid in the development of more effective therapeutic techniques for substance-dependent patients. PMID:22458561

  19. Men Who Are Abusive to Their Female Intimate Partners: Incorporating Family of Origin Work into Group Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musick-Neily, Erin Francess; McBride, Dawn Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines and provides a rationale for incorporating past victimization into group treatment for men who have been abusive to their female intimate partners. It begins with providing a general overview of the issue of family violence in Canada and in the U.S including statistics and an overview of group treatment effectiveness overall.…

  20. Reducing Aggressive Behavior in Boys with a Social Cognitive Group Treatment: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Manen, Teun G.; Prins, Pier J.M.; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a social cognitive intervention program for Dutch aggressive boys and to compare it with a social skills training and a waitlist control group. Method: A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study with 97 aggressive boys (aged 9-13 years) was presented. An 11 session group treatment, a social…

  1. Narrative Focus Predicts Symptom Change Trajectories in Group Treatment for Traumatized and Bereaved Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grassetti, Stevie N; Herres, Joanna; Williamson, Ariel A; Yarger, Heather A; Layne, Christopher M; Kobak, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the effectiveness of Trauma and Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents (TGCT-A) in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and maladaptive grief (MG) reactions. This pilot study explored whether the specific focus of students' narratives (i.e., focus on trauma vs. focus on loss) as shared by TGCT-A group members would predict initial pretreatment levels, as well as pre- to posttreatment change trajectories, of PTSD symptoms and MG reactions. Thirty-three adolescents from three middle schools completed a 17-week course of group-based TGCT-A. PTSD and MG symptoms were assessed at pretreatment, twice during treatment, and at posttreatment. The focus (trauma vs. loss) of each student's narrative was coded using transcripts of members' narratives as shared within the groups. The reliable change index showed that 61% of students reported reliable pre-post improvement in either PTSD symptoms or MG reactions. Students whose narratives focused on loss both reported higher starting levels and showed steeper rates of decline in MG reactions than students whose narratives focused on trauma. In contrast, students whose narratives focused on trauma reported higher starting levels of PTSD than students who narrated loss experiences. However, narrative focus was not significantly linked to the rate at which PTSD symptoms declined over the course of treatment. This study provides preliminary evidence that TGCT-A treatment components are associated with reduced PTSD symptoms and MG reactions. Loss-focused narratives, in particular, appear to be associated with greater decreases in MG reactions. PMID:24927497

  2. Assertive outreach in Slovenia; identification of target group and goals of treatment in a new program.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Mirjana

    2009-09-01

    A team from the Rehabilitation unit of Ljubljana psychiatric clinic attended a course on community care in London in October and November 2005. Because we decided that the methods presented to us could be of great use in Slovenia where the Health system is lacking such services we decided to implement them after our return. Immediately after we returned we started to carry out our plan. We designated our target group which were patients who poorly participated in treatment or had multiple and severe difficulties functioning and retaining their progress after discharge. Our goals were to improve patient participation in treatment before and after discharge, less and shorter hospitalizations and better integration of patients into society. Initial results are very positive, which leaves me much hope for further implementation of assertive outreach and community care in Slovenia. PMID:19789482

  3. Should cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual subjects vary with ethnic group?

    PubMed Central

    Gooren, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines for cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people have been developed, but no attention has been paid to the specifics of ethnic groups. South East (SE) Asian male-to-female (MtoF) transsexual people may be able to transition to the female sex with lower doses of estrogens/progestins than Caucasians thus reducing health risks. Female-to-male (FtoM) may virilize less profoundly with standard doses of androgens, but this is probably sufficient to pass acceptably as men in view of the less pronounced sex differences in physique in Asians compared with Caucasians. It is timely that studies in Asians are conducted to get a better insight into their specific needs and risks of cross-sex hormone treatment. PMID:25038187

  4. Infliximab treatment reduces complement activation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Familian, A; Voskuyl, A; van Mierlo, G J; Heijst, H; Twisk, J; Dijkmans, B; Hack, C

    2005-01-01

    Background: Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blocking agents decrease C reactive protein (CRP) levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It has been shown that CRP may contribute to complement activation in RA. Objective: To assess the effect of intravenous infliximab treatment on complement activation, especially that mediated by CRP, in RA. Methods: 35 patients with active RA (28 joint count Disease Activity Score (DAS28) >4.4) were treated with intravenous injections of infliximab (3 mg/kg, at weeks 0, 2, 6, 14, and 22). Clinical response and plasma levels of complement activation products, of CRP and of CRP-complement complexes, which are specific markers for CRP mediated complement activation, were assessed at the indicated time points up to 22 weeks. The relationship between CRP and CRP-complement complexes was analysed by paired t test between two time points and by generalised estimated equation, to test differences of variables over time. Results: At 2 weeks after the first dose, infliximab significantly reduced overall C3 and C4 activation and plasma levels of CRP and CRP-complement complexes were also significantly reduced at this time point. The effects of infliximab on CRP and complement continued throughout the observation period and were more pronounced in patients with a good response to infliximab treatment. Conclusion: Treatment with infliximab decreases plasma levels of CRP and CRP dependent complement activation products and concomitantly may reduce complement activation in RA. Complement activation may be among the effector mechanisms of TNF in RA. PMID:15958758

  5. Consequences of Misspecifying the Number of Latent Treatment Attendance Classes in Modeling Group Membership Turnover within Ecologically-Valid Behavioral Treatment Trials

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2015-01-01

    Historically, difficulties in analyzing treatment outcome data from open enrollment groups have led to their avoidance in use in federally-funded treatment trials, despite the fact that 79% of treatment programs use open enrollment groups. Recently, latent class pattern mixture models (LCPMM) have shown promise as a defensible approach for making overall (and attendance class-specific) inferences from open enrollment groups with membership turnover. We present a statistical simulation study comparing LCPMMs to longitudinal growth models (LGM) to understand when both frameworks are likely to produce conflicting inferences concerning overall treatment efficacy. LCPMMs performed well under all conditions examined; meanwhile LGMs produced problematic levels of bias and Type I errors under two joint conditions: moderate-to-high dropout (30–50%) and treatment by attendance class interactions exceeding Cohen's d ≈.2. This study highlights key concerns about using LGM for open enrollment data: treatment effect overestimation and advocacy for treatments that may be ineffective in reality. PMID:18513917

  6. [Treatment outcome in tobacco dependence after nicotine replacement therapy and group therapy].

    PubMed

    Górecka, D; Borak, J; Goljan, A; Gorzelak, K; Mańkowski, M; Zgierska, A

    1999-01-01

    The deletorious health effects of smoking are generally known. In spite of that, great numbers of people still smoke tobacco in the whole world. It is primarily due to the addictive properties of nicotine. Cigarette smoking is also dependent on various social and psychologic factors making quitting very difficult. Among various treatment modalities for tobacco dependence we aimed to assess the efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) vs group therapy. 325 subjects smoking at least 15 cigarettes/day for more than 3 years were studied. They were allocated to group therapy (neurolinguistic programming) or NRT (gum or patch) at their will. Non-smoking was validated at each of follow-up visits, at 1 and 2 weeks 1, 3, 6, 12 months by measuring CO in expired air. All groups were matched in age, smoking history and nicotine dependence. The best quit rate was observed as a result of group therapy (41% at 1 year, p. < 0.001) as compared to nicotine patch (2%) and nicotine gum (9%). PMID:10497441

  7. Formation of carbonyl groups on cellulose during ozone treatment of pulp: consequences for pulp bleaching.

    PubMed

    Pouyet, Frédéric; Chirat, Christine; Potthast, Antje; Lachenal, Dominique

    2014-08-30

    The formation of carbonyl groups during the ozone treatment (Z) of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid) kraft pulps and their behaviors during subsequent alkaline stages were investigated by the CCOA method with carbazole-9-carboxylic acid [2-(2-aminooxethoxy)-ethoxy] amide (CCOA) as the carbonyl-selective fluorescence label. Several pulp samples with or without lignin and hexenuronic acids (hexA) were used to elucidate the effects of these components when present in unbleached kraft pulp. Both hexA and lignin increased the formation of carbonyl groups on cellulose and hemicellulose during ozonation. It was concluded that radicals are likely formed when ozone reacts with either lignin or hexA. These carbonyl groups were involved in cellulose depolymerization during subsequent alkaline extraction stages with sodium hydroxide (E) and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (P, in ZEP or ZP). Their numbers decreased after E but increased during P when H2O2 was not stabilized enough. Several ways to minimize the occurrence of carbonyl group formation are suggested. PMID:24815405

  8. The research priorities of patients attending UK cancer treatment centres: findings from a modified nominal group study

    PubMed Central

    Corner, J; Wright, D; Hopkinson, J; Gunaratnam, Y; McDonald, J W; Foster, C

    2007-01-01

    Members of the public are increasingly consulted over health care and research priorities. Patient involvement in determining cancer research priorities, however, has remained underdeveloped. This paper presents the findings of the first consultation to be conducted with UK cancer patients concerning research priorities. The study adopted a participatory approach using a collaborative model that sought joint ownership of the study with people affected by cancer. An exploratory, qualitative approach was used. Consultation groups were the main method, combining focus group and nominal group techniques. Seventeen groups were held with a total of 105 patients broadly representative of the UK cancer population. Fifteen areas for research were identified. Top priority areas included the impact cancer has on life, how to live with cancer and related support issues; risk factors and causes of cancer; early detection and prevention. Although biological and treatment related aspects of science were identified as important, patients rated the management of practical, social and emotional issues as a higher priority. There is a mismatch between the research priorities identified by participants and the current UK research portfolio. Current research activity should be broadened to reflect the priorities of people affected by the disease. PMID:17342090

  9. The effect of thiol functional group incorporation into cationic helical peptides on antimicrobial activities and spectra.

    PubMed

    Wiradharma, Nikken; Khan, Majad; Yong, Lin-Kin; Hauser, Charlotte A E; Seow, See Voon; Zhang, Shuguang; Yang, Yi-Yan

    2011-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been proposed as blueprints for the development of new antimicrobial agents for the treatment of drug resistant infections. A series of synthetic AMPs capable of forming α-helical structures and containing free-sulfhydryl groups are designed in this study ((LLKK)(2)C, C(LLKK)(2)C, (LLKK)(3)C, C(LLKK)(3)C). In particular, the AMP with 2 cysteine residues at the terminal ends of the peptide and 2 repeat units of LLKK, i.e., C(LLKK)(2)C, has been demonstrated to have high selectivity towards a wide range of microbes from Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerogenosa, and yeast Candida albicans over red blood cells. At the MIC levels, this peptide does not induce significant hemolysis, and its MIC values occur at the concentration of more than 10 times of their corresponding 50% hemolysis concentrations (HC(50)). Microscopy studies suggest that this peptide kills microbial cells by inducing pores of ∼20-30 nm in size in microbial membrane on a short time scale, which further develops to grossly damaged membrane envelope on a longer time scale. Multiple treatments of microbes with this peptide at sub MIC concentration do not induce resistance, even up to passage 10. However, the same treatment with conventional antibiotics penicillin G or ciprofloxacin easily develop resistance in the treated microbes. In addition, the peptides are shown not to induce secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α in human monocytes as compared to lipopolysaccharide, which implies additional safety aspects of the peptides to be used as both systemic and topical antimicrobial agents. Therefore, this study provides an excellent basis to develop promising antimicrobial agents that possess a broad range of antimicrobial activities with less susceptibility for development of drug resistance. PMID:21906803

  10. Adherence to Technology-Mediated Insomnia Treatment: A Meta-Analysis, Interviews, and Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Lancee, Jaap; Beun, Robbert Jan; Neerincx, Mark A; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Several technologies have been proposed to support the reduction of insomnia complaints. A user-centered assessment of these technologies could provide insight into underlying factors related to treatment adherence. Objective Gaining insight into adherence to technology-mediated insomnia treatment as a solid base for improving those adherence rates by applying adherence-enhancing strategies. Methods Adherence to technology-mediated sleep products was studied in three ways. First, a meta-analysis was performed to investigate adherence rates in technology-mediated insomnia therapy. Several databases were queried for technology-mediated insomnia treatments. After inclusion and exclusion steps, data from 18 studies were retrieved and aggregated to find an average adherence rate. Next, 15 semistructured interviews about sleep-support technologies were conducted to investigate perceived adherence. Lastly, several scenarios were written about the usage of a virtual sleep coach that could support adherence rates. The scenarios were discussed in six different focus groups consisting of potential users (n=15), sleep experts (n=7), and coaches (n=9). Results From the meta-analysis, average treatment adherence appeared to be approximately 52% (95% CI 43%-61%) for technology-mediated insomnia treatments. This means that, on average, half of the treatment exercises were not executed, suggesting there is a substantial need for adherence and room for improvement in this area. However, the users in the interviews believed they adhered quite well to their sleep products. Users mentioned relying on personal commitment (ie, willpower) for therapy adherence. Participants of the focus groups reconfirmed their belief in the effectiveness of personal commitment, which they regarded as more effective than adherence-enhancing strategies. Conclusions Although adherence rates for insomnia interventions indicate extensive room for improvement, users might not consider adherence to

  11. Integrating Art into Group Treatment for Adults with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Carol-Lynne J.

    2015-01-01

    Current research supports the use of exposure-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and integrated treatments show potential for enhanced symptom reduction. This pilot study developed a manualized group treatment integrating art interventions with exposure, grounding, and narrative therapy for five adults with PTSD who were…

  12. The Use of a Modified Marathon in Conjunction with Group Counseling in Short-term Treatment of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazda, G. M.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Two conclusions drawn from the application of the modified marathon to a short term treatment center were that the modified marathon had the advantages of holding" alcoholics for treatment once they were sober and it enhanced the quality of typical group counseling and therapy treatment. (Author)

  13. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disabilities at Risk of Sexual Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Background: For non-disabled men, group cognitive-behaviour therapy is a successful form of treatment when men have committed sexual offences. However, men with intellectual disabilities and sexually abusive behaviour are rarely offered treatment for their sexual behaviour and little research data on the effectiveness of such treatment has been…

  14. The physical activity profiles of South Asian ethnic groups in England

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Prachi; Townsend, Nick; Shaw, Alison; Foster, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Background To identify what types of activity contribute to overall physical activity in South Asian ethnic groups and how these vary according to sex and age. We used the White British ethnic group as a comparison. Methods Self-reported physical activity was measured in the Health Survey for England 1999 and 2004, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey that boosted ethnic minority samples in these years. We merged the two survey years and analysed data from 19 476 adults. The proportions of total physical activity achieved through walking, housework, sports and DIY activity were calculated. We stratified by sex and age group and used analysis of variances to examine differences between ethnic groups, adjusted for the socioeconomic status. Results There was a significant difference between ethnic groups for the contributions of all physical activity domains for those aged below 55 years, with the exception of walking. In women aged 16–34 years, there was no significant difference in the contribution of walking to total physical activity (p=0.38). In the 35–54 age group, Bangladeshi males have the highest proportion of total activity from walking (30%). In those aged over 55 years, the proportion of activity from sports was the lowest in all South Asian ethnic groups for both sexes. Conclusions UK South Asians are more active in some ways that differ, by age and sex, from White British, but are similarly active in other ways. These results can be used to develop targeted population level interventions for increasing physical activity levels in adult UK South Asian populations. PMID:26677257

  15. Human blood group activity of human and canine intestinal glycolipids containing fucose

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E. L.; Bowdler, A. J.; Bull, R. W.; McKibbin, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    A number of fucose-containing glycolipids (fuco-lipids), which are similar in composition to those of human normal and malignant gastrointestinal tissue, have been isolated from whole small intestines of individual dogs. Dogs from which these fuco-lipids were isolated fell into two types according to the qualitative sugar composition of their fuco-lipids. Glycolipids from type I dogs contained glucose, galactose, glucosamine, galactosamine and fucose, while those from type II dogs contained the same sugars but lacked galactosamine. Fucolipids isolated from type I and II dogs were tested for both canine blood group and human A, B, H and Lea and Leb blood group activity. At the concentrations tested, only human blood group A activity was found in significant amounts, and only in those fuco-lipids which contained galactosamine (type I dogs). Of the fuco-lipids with human blood group A activity, some had activity comparable to that of glycoprotein blood group substances, while others had lower, but significant, activity. These latter fuco-lipids also had marked chromatographic differences, indicating that they are of several different structural types, a finding similar to the A active glycolipids of human red cell stroma. None of the isolated intestinal fuco-lipids had canine blood group activity. A fuco-lipid with Lea activity was also isolated in relatively large amounts from a normal human whole small intestine. PMID:4753403

  16. Evaluating Measures of Fidelity for Substance Abuse Group Treatment With Incarcerated Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Shayna S; Stein, L A R; Rossi, Joseph S; Martin, Rosemarie A

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of treatment fidelity has become increasingly important as the demand for evidence-based practice grows. The purpose of the present study is to describe the psychometric properties of two measures of treatment fidelity that can be used by therapists and supervisors - one for group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and one for combined Substance Education and Twelve-Step Introduction (SET) for adolescent substance use. At the end of group sessions (CBT n=307; SET n=279), therapists and supervisors completed an evaluation measure assessing adherence to certain core components of the intervention. The supervisor version of the fidelity measure also included items for rating the level of competency the therapist demonstrated when providing each component of the intervention. Results from split-half cross-validation analyses provide strong support for an 11-item, three-factor CBT fidelity measure. Somewhat less consistent but adequate support for a nine-item, two-factor SET fidelity measure was found. Internal consistencies ranged from acceptable to good for both the CBT and SET adherence scales and from acceptable to good for the CBT and SET competency scales, with the exception of the CBT practices competency scale. Preliminary validation of the measures suggests that both measures have adequate to strong factor structure, reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity. The results of this study have implications for research and clinical settings, including the supervision process. PMID:27211991

  17. Treatment of psychotic children in a classroom environment: I. Learning in a large group1

    PubMed Central

    Koegel, Robert L.; Rincover, Arnold

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate systematically the feasibility of modifying the behavior of autistic children in a classroom environment. In the first experiment, eight autistic children were taught certain basic classroom behaviors (including attending to the teacher upon command, imitation, and an elementary speaking and recognition vocabulary) that were assumed to be necessary for subsequent learning to take place in the classroom. Based on research documenting the effectiveness of one-to-one (teacher-child ratio) procedures for modifying such behaviors, these behaviors were taught in one-to-one sessions. It was, however, found that behaviors taught in a one-to-one setting were not performed consistently in a classroom-sized group, or even in a group as small as two children with one teacher. Further, the children evidenced no acquisition of new behaviors in a classroom environment over a four-week period. Therefore, Experiment II introduced a treatment procedure based upon “fading in” the classroom stimulus situation from the one-to-one stimulus situation. Such treatment was highly effective in producing both a transfer in stimulus control and the acquisition of new behaviors in a kindergarten/first-grade classroom environment. PMID:4465373

  18. [Microbial composition of the activated sludges of the Moscow wastewater treatment plants].

    PubMed

    Kallistova, A Iu; Pimenov, N V; Kozlov, M N; Nikolaev, Iu A; Dorofeev, A G; Aseeva, V G; Grachev, V A; Men'ko, E V; Berestovskaia, Iu Iu; Nozhevnikova, A N; Kevbrina, M V

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of the major technologically important microbial groups (ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing, phosphate-accumulating, foam-inducing, and anammox bacteria, as well as planctomycetes and methanogenic archaea) was characterized for the aeration tanks of the Moscow wastewater treatment facilities. FISH investigation revealed that aerobic sludges were eubacterial communities; the metabolically active archaea contributed insignificantly. Stage II nitrifying microorganisms and planctomycetes were significant constituents of the bacterial component of activated sludge, with Nitrobacter spp. being the dominant nitrifier. No metabolically active anammox bacteria were revealed in the sludge from aeration tanks. The sludge from the aeration tanks using different wastewater treatment technologies were found to differ in characteristics. Abundance of the nitrifying and phosphate-accumulating bacteria in the sludges generally correlated with microbial activity, in microcosms and with efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from wastewater. The highest microbial numbers and activity were found in the sludges of the tanks operating according to the technologies developed in the universities of Hanover and Cape Town. The activated sludge from the Novokur yanovo facilities, where abundant growth of filamentous bacteria resulted in foam formation, exhibited the lowest activity The group of foaming bacteria included Gordonia spp. and Acinetobacter spp., utilizing petroleum and motor oils, Sphaerotilus spp. utilizing unsaturated fatty acids, and Candidatus 'Microthrix parvicella'. Thus, the data on abundance and composition of metabolically active microorganisms obtained by FISH may be used for the technological control of wastewater treatment. PMID:25844473

  19. Chemical modification and structure-activity relationships of pyripyropenes. 1. Modification at the four hydroxyl groups.

    PubMed

    Obata, R; Sunazuka, T; Li, Z; Tian, Z; Harigaya, Y; Tabata, N; Tomoda, H; Omura, S

    1996-11-01

    Four hydroxyl groups of pyripyropenes have been modified and evaluated for their ability to inhibit microsomal acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity in vitro and to lower cholesterol absorption in vivo in a cholesterol-fed hamster. 7-O-n-Valeryl derivative (8c) improved the in vitro ACAT inhibitory activity (IC50 = 13 nM) about 7 times better than pyripyropene A. Introduction of methanesulfonyl group at 11-hydroxyl group (17a) increased both in vitro activity (IC50 = 19 nM) and in vivo efficacy (ED50 = 10 mg/kg). PMID:8982343

  20. Elemental copper nanoparticle toxicity to different trophic groups involved in anaerobic and anoxic wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Estrella, Jorge; Puyol, Daniel; Gallagher, Sara; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2015-04-15

    Elemental copper nanoparticles (Cu(0) NPs) are potentially inhibitory to the different key microbial trophic groups involved in biological wastewater treatment processes. Cu-based NPs are known to be toxic to methanogens at low concentrations. However, very little is known about the toxic effect of Cu(0) NPs on other microbial groups involved in either upper trophic levels of anaerobic digestion or anoxic nitrogen removal processes. This study evaluated the toxicity of Cu(0) NPs to glucose fermentation, syntrophic propionate oxidation and denitrification in shaken batch bioassays with soluble substrates. Batch experiments were also supplemented with CuCl2 to evaluate the inhibitory impact of soluble Cu(II) ions. Syntrophic propionate oxidation and glucose fermentation were the least and most inhibited processes with inhibition constant (Ki) values of 0.202 and 0.047 mM of added Cu(0) NPs, respectively. Further analyses revealed that the Ki values calculated as a function of the free soluble Cu concentration were <0.003 mM for every biological process tested and most of these Ki values were similar in order of magnitude regardless of whether the Cu source was CuCl2 or Cu(0) NPs. The results taken as a whole indicate that Cu(0) NPs are toxic to all the microbial processes studied. Therefore, Cu(0) NPs can potentially be an important inhibitor of anaerobic wastewater treatment processes that rely on these trophic groups. The evidence suggests that the inhibitory impact of Cu(0) NPs was mainly due to the release of toxic Cu(II) ions originating from the corrosion and dissolution of Cu(0) NPs. PMID:25634735

  1. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    HRV, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  2. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups.

    PubMed

    Hrv, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna; Kandi, Venkataramana

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  3. Psychosocial mediators of group cohesion on physical activity intention of older adults.

    PubMed

    Caperchione, Cristina; Mummery, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    Considerable evidence has indicated that group-based physical activity may be a promising approach to reducing and preventing age-related illness. However, this research has not examined the mechanisms by which cohesion may impact on behaviour. The purpose of the present research was to utilise the theory of planned behaviour to investigate the mechanism by which group cohesion may affect physical activity intention. Participants were recruited from an existing physical activity intervention studying the effects of group cohesion on physical activity behaviour. The outcomes of this intervention are reported elsewhere. This paper presents data from a sub-sample of the intervention population (N=74) that examined the mediating relationships between the theory of planned behaviour and group cohesion on physical activity intention. Analyses showed that attitude and perceived behavioural control mediated the relationship between specific group cohesion concepts and physical activity intention. The direct measure of subjective norm failed to display a mediating relationship. The mediating relationships displayed between attitude and perceived behavioural control and physical activity intention provide insight into potential mechanisms by which group cohesion may affect behaviour. PMID:17129936

  4. Comparison of Fixed versus Calculated Activity of Radioiodine for the Treatment of Graves Disease in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Paulette N.; Jimeno, Cecilia A.; Obaldo, Jerry M.; Ogbac, Ruben V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Radioactive iodine as a treatment modality has been shown in several studies to be a safe and effective therapy for Graves disease. However, there is still no uniformity regarding optimal dosing method. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of calculated and fixed dosing of radioiodine for the treatment of Graves disease. Methods A hundred twenty-two patients diagnosed with Graves disease were randomized to receive either fixed or calculated dose of radioiodine. Those randomized to fixed activity received either low fixed activity at 9.9 mCi for thyroid gland size <40 g or high fixed activity at 14.9 mCi for thyroid gland size 40 to 80 g, and those grouped to calculated activity received 160 µCi/g of thyroid tissue adjusted for 24 hours radioiodine uptake. Thyroid function tests (free thyroxine [T4] and thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]) were monitored at 10, 16, and 24 weeks after radioactive iodine therapy. The primary outcome, treatment failure was defined as persistently elevated free T4 and low TSH. Results Of the 122 patients randomized, 56 in the fixed dose group and 56 in the calculated dose group completed the follow-up. At the end of 6 months, the percentage of treatment failure was 37.50% in the calculated dose group versus 19.64% in the fixed dose group with a relative risk of 0.53 (95% confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.98) favoring the fixed dose group. Conclusion Fixed dose radioiodine has a significantly lower incidence of persistent hyperthyroidism at 6 months post-radioactive therapy. PMID:26996425

  5. Active Learning in the Classroom: The Use of Group Role Plays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitzerow, Phyllis

    1990-01-01

    Describes group role-playing activities that have been used to teach about education, criminology, and sex roles. Suggests that role play helps students to absorb and retain many of the insights about the issues involved. (DB)

  6. 75 FR 49913 - Active Duty Service Determinations For Civilian or Contractual Groups

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ..., determined that service of the group known as the ``''Honorably Discharged Members of The Gold Coast Native... at Then `American Camp,' Now Named `Burma Camp,' Ghana' '' shall not be considered ``active...

  7. Emotional and Social Mind Training: A Randomised Controlled Trial of a New Group-Based Treatment for Bulimia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Lavender, Anna; Startup, Helen; Naumann, Ulrike; Samarawickrema, Nelum; DeJong, Hannah; Kenyon, Martha; van den Eynde, Frederique; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Objective There is a need to improve treatment for individuals with bulimic disorders. It was hypothesised that a focus in treatment on broader emotional and social/interpersonal issues underlying eating disorders would increase treatment efficacy. This study tested a novel treatment based on the above hypothesis, an Emotional and Social Mind Training Group (ESM), against a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Group (CBT) treatment. Method 74 participants were randomised to either ESM or CBT Group treatment programmes. All participants were offered 13 group and 4 individual sessions. The primary outcome measure was the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) Global score. Assessments were carried out at baseline, end of treatment (four months) and follow-up (six months). Results There were no differences in outcome between the two treatments. No moderators of treatment outcome were identified. Adherence rates were higher for participants in the ESM group. Discussion This suggests that ESM may be a viable alternative to CBT for some individuals. Further research will be required to identify and preferentially allocate suitable individuals accordingly. Trial Registration ISRCTN61115988 PMID:23118850

  8. Decreased Total Antioxidant Activity in Major Depressive Disorder Patients Non-Responsive to Antidepressant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Song-Eun; Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Rho, Dae-Young; Kim, Do-Hoon; Huh, Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity (TAA) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and the effect of antidepressants on TAA using a novel potentiometric method. Methods Twenty-eight patients with MDD and thirty-one healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The control group comprised 31 healthy individuals matched for gender, drinking and smoking status. We assessed symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We measured TAA using potentiometry. All measurements were made at baseline and four and eight weeks later. Results There was a significant negative correlation between BDI scores and TAA. TAA was significantly lower in the MDD group than in controls. When the MDD group was subdivided into those who showed clinical response to antidepressant therapy (response group) and those who did not (non-response group), only the non-response group showed lower TAA, while the response group showed no significant difference to controls at baseline. After eight weeks of antidepressant treatment, TAA in both the response and non-response groups was similar, and there was no significant difference among the three groups. Conclusion These results suggest that the response to antidepressant treatment in MDD patients might be predicted by measuring TAA. PMID:27081384

  9. Need for Cognition and Active Information Search in Small Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curseu, Petru Lucian

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 213 students organized in 44 groups this study tests the impact of need for cognition on active information search by using a multilevel analysis. The results show that group members with high need for cognition seek more advice in task related issues than those with low need for cognition and this pattern of information exchange is…

  10. Anger Management and Violence Prevention: A Group Activities Manual for Middle and High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Teresa M.

    This group-activity manual is intended for adolescents who have risk factors on any of the four ecological levels: personal, family, social, and societal. It contains everything needed to lead a group of middle or high school students through this anger-management program. Part 1 provides guidelines to help initiate and implement a support-group…

  11. DHPG Activation of Group 1 mGluRs in BLA Enhances Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Jerry W.; Matus-Amat, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors are known to play an important role in both synaptic plasticity and memory. We show that activating these receptors prior to fear conditioning by infusing the group 1 mGluR agonist, (R.S.)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), into the basolateral region of the amygdala (BLA) of adult Sprague-Dawley rats…

  12. 77 FR 58608 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... (77 FR 55372), with comments due by November 6, 2012. No additional System Safety Task Group meetings... announcement of working group activities and status reports of April 23, 2012 (77 FR 24257). The 46th full RSAC... published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October 23, 2006. The...

  13. 76 FR 72997 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... announcement of working group activities and status reports of December 7, 2010 (75 FR 76070). The 44th full..., 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October 23, 2006. The working group agreed upon... rescue access, was published on February 1, 2008 (73 FR 6370). The task force met on October 17-18,...

  14. The Relationship between Students' Small Group Activities, Time Spent on Self-Study, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp, Rachelle J. A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; van Berkel, Henk J. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the contributions students make to the problem-based tutorial group process as observed by their peers, self-study time and achievement. To that end, the Maastricht Peer Activity Rating Scale was administered to students participating in Problem-Based Learning tutorial groups.…

  15. Pain and emotional distress among substance-use patients beginning treatment relative to a representative comparison group

    PubMed Central

    Wiest, Katharina L.; Colditz, Jason B.; Carr, Kathryn; Asphaug, Victoria J.; McCarty, Dennis; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: A secondary analysis assessed health-related quality of life characteristics (i.e. anxiety, depression, fatigue, and types of pain) among patients entering substance-use treatment, and identified characteristics specific to treatment modalities relative to a representative comparison group. Methods: As part of a larger alcohol bank assessment, substance-use patients (n=406) beginning methadone treatment (n=170) or other outpatient treatment (n=236) and a comparison group representative of the general population (n=1000) completed a survey measuring anxiety, depression, fatigue, pain interference, and pain in the last 7 days. Previous studies lacked comparable and concurrent assessments across these three groups. Results: Patients entering substance-use treatment had relatively high levels of emotional distress and poorer health-related quality of life relative to the general population. Among treatment modalities, patients beginning methadone treatment reported the highest levels of pain interference and pain behavior and the poorest physical functioning. Prior to the potentially modifying effects of methadone maintenance, patients beginning agonist therapy reported the greatest levels of compromised quality of life. Conclusion: These data present the magnitude of differences in health-related quality of life characteristics between treatment and comparison groups using the same assessment rubric and may help inform the design and timing of treatment modalities, thereby enhancing treatment efficacy for patients. PMID:25275876

  16. Occupational, Physical, and Speech Therapy Treatment Activities during Inpatient Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Cynthia L.; Dijkers, Marcel P.; Barrett, Ryan S.; Horn, Susan D.; Giuffrida, Clare G.; Timpson, Misti L.; Carroll, Deborah M.; Smout, Randy J.; Hammond, Flora M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe use of Occupational Therapy (OT), Physical Therapy (PT) and Speech Therapy (ST) treatment activities throughout the acute rehabilitation stay of patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Design Multi-site prospective observational cohort study. Setting 9 U.S. and 1 Canadian inpatient rehabilitation settings. Participants 2130 patients admitted for initial acute rehabilitation following TBI. Patients were categorized based on admission FIM cognitive scores, resulting in 5 fairly homogenous groups. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Percentage of patients engaged in specific activities and mean time patients engaged in the activities, per 10-hour block of time for OT, PT, and ST combined. Results Therapy activities in OT, PT, and ST across all 5 cognitive groups had a primary focus on basic activities. While advanced activities occurred in each discipline and within each cognitive group, these advanced activities occurred with fewer patients and usually only toward the end of the rehabilitation stay. Conclusions The pattern of activities engaged in was both similar to and different from patterns seen in previous PBE studies with different rehabilitation diagnostic groups. PMID:26212399

  17. Effect of Physical Activity in Treatment of Paediatric Obesity.

    PubMed

    Pastucha, Dalibor; Malinčíková, Jana; Horák, Stanislav; Povová, Jana; Konečný, Petr

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the differences in anthropometric parameters, maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂max) and physical activity (PA) between groups of 146 obese boys and 128 obese girls. We tried to describe the relationships between changes in PA and changes in VO₂max, body fat, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference. We found statistically significant changes in VO₂max and waist circumference only in the group of boys and significant changes in VO₂max in the group of girls. PMID:26849545

  18. Preparation and ozone-surface modification of activated carbon. Thermal stability of oxygen surface groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, J.; Álvarez, P. M.; Gómez-Serrano, V.

    2010-06-01

    The control of the surface chemistry of activated carbon by ozone and heat treatment is investigated. Using cherry stones, activated carbons were prepared by carbonization at 900 °C and activation in CO 2 or steam at 850 °C. The obtained products were ozone-treated at room temperature. After their thermogravimetric analysis, the samples were heat-treated to 300, 500, 700 or 900 °C. The textural characterization was carried out by N 2 adsorption at 77 K, mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. The surface analysis was performed by the Bohem method and pH of the point of zero charge (pH pzc). It has been found that the treatment of activated carbon with ozone combined with heat treatment enables one to control the acidic-basic character and strength of the carbon surface. Whereas the treatment with ozone yields acidic carbons, carbon dioxide and steam activations of the carbonized product and the heat treatment of the ozone-treated products result in basic carbons; the strength of a base which increases with the increasing heat treatment temperature. pH pzc ranges between 3.6 and 10.3.

  19. Effect of pen size, group size, and stocking density on activity in freestall-housed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Telezhenko, E; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Talebi, A; Weary, D M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose was to determine the effects of the physical dimensions of the pen and group size and stocking density on cow activity. Cows (randomly assigned to 4 groups of 6 animals each) were tested in pens with 24 or 12 lying places and in groups with 12 or 6 cows. All groups were tested in each of the 4 treatments with treatment order allocated using a 4 × 4 Latin square. The distance moved and the number of movements were calculated using 5-min scan sampling of video recordings over a 48-h period. Time spent lying down, number of lying bouts, and the duration of each lying bout were recorded using activity sensors. Displacements at the feed bunk were assessed by continuous analysis of video for 3h after the delivery of the fresh feed in the afternoon. Cows moved greater distances when kept in a large versus small pens (330.2 vs. 270.1 ± 11.6 m/d; mean ± SE), irrespective of group size. Cows moved more often when kept in the larger pen (21.3 vs. 19.2 ± 0.63% of scans). The time spent lying down decreased when density increased (59.1 vs. 55.8 ± 2.3% of scans at 25% and 100% stocking, respectively). Treatment had no effect on the number of displacements at the feed bunk. Physical dimensions of the pen play an important role in how much cows move, and stocking density affects lying time. PMID:22612942

  20. Pemetrexed and gemcitabine as combination therapy for the treatment of Group3 medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Morfouace, Marie; Shelat, Anang; Jacus, Megan; Freeman, Burgess B.; Turner, David; Robinson, Sarah; Zindy, Frederique; Wang, Yong-Dong; Finkelstein, David; Ayrault, Olivier; Bihannic, Laure; Li, Xiao-Nan; Olson, James M.; Robinson, Giles W.; Guy, R. Kiplin; Stewart, Clinton F.; Gajjar, Amar; Roussel, Martine F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY We devised a high-throughput, cell-based assay to identify compounds to treat Group3 medulloblastoma (G3 MB). Mouse G3 MBs neurospheres were screened against a library of approximately 7,000 compounds including U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. We identified pemetrexed and gemcitabine that preferentially inhibited G3 MB proliferation in vitro compared to control neurospheres and substantially inhibited G3 MB proliferation in vivo. When combined, these two drugs significantly increased survival of mice bearing cortical implants of mouse and human G3 MBs that overexpress MYC compared to each agent alone, while having little effect on mouse MBs of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) subgroup. Our findings strongly suggest that combination therapy of pemetrexed and gemcitabine is a promising treatment for G3 MBs. PMID:24684846

  1. [Clinical practice guidelines for assessment and treatment of transsexualism. SEEN Identity and Sexual Differentiation Group (GIDSEEN)].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, Oscar; Esteva De Antonio, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Transsexual patients can only be diagnosed and treated at functional gender identity Units with provision of high quality care, development of clinical practice guidelines, and interdisciplinary working groups. The therapeutic process has three mainstays: initial psychological diagnostic evaluation and psychotherapy, endocrinological evaluation and hormone therapy, and sex reassignment surgery. Cross-sex hormone therapy is essential for the anatomical and psychological transition process in duly selected patients. Hormones help optimize real-life sex identity, improve quality of life, and limit psychiatric co-morbidities often associated to lack of treatment. Development of this clinical practice guideline addresses the need for implementing a coordinated action protocol for comprehensive health care for transgender people in the National Health System. PMID:22542505

  2. Generation of 2,000 breast cancer metabolic landscapes reveals a poor prognosis group with active serotonin production

    PubMed Central

    Leoncikas, Vytautas; Wu, Huihai; Ward, Lara T.; Kierzek, Andrzej M.; Plant, Nick J.

    2016-01-01

    A major roadblock in the effective treatment of cancers is their heterogeneity, whereby multiple molecular landscapes are classified as a single disease. To explore the contribution of cellular metabolism to cancer heterogeneity, we analyse the Metabric dataset, a landmark genomic and transcriptomic study of 2,000 individual breast tumours, in the context of the human genome-scale metabolic network. We create personalized metabolic landscapes for each tumour by exploring sets of active reactions that satisfy constraints derived from human biochemistry and maximize congruency with the Metabric transcriptome data. Classification of the personalized landscapes derived from 997 tumour samples within the Metabric discovery dataset reveals a novel poor prognosis cluster, reproducible in the 995-sample validation dataset. We experimentally follow mechanistic hypotheses resulting from the computational study and establish that active serotonin production is a major metabolic feature of the poor prognosis group. These data support the reconsideration of concomitant serotonin-specific uptake inhibitors treatment during breast cancer chemotherapy. PMID:26813959

  3. Group cohesion and between session homework activities predict self-reported cognitive-behavioral skill use amongst participants of SMART Recovery groups.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P; Baker, Amanda L

    2015-04-01

    SMART Recovery groups are cognitive-behaviorally oriented mutual support groups for individuals with addictions. The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which the quality of group facilitation, group cohesion and the use of between session homework activities contribute to self-rated use of cognitive-behavioral skills amongst group participants. Participants attending SMART Recovery groups in Australia completed a cross sectional survey (N=124). The survey included measures of cognitive and behavioral skill utilization, group cohesion, quality of group facilitation and a rating of how frequently participants leave group meetings with an achievable between session homework plan. On average, participants had been attending SMART Recovery meetings for 9 months. Participants were most likely to attend SMART Recovery for problematic alcohol use. Regression analyses indicated that group cohesion significantly predicted use of cognitive restructuring, but that only provision of homework at the end of each group session predicted self-reported behavioral activation. Both group cohesion and leaving a group with an achievable homework plan predicted participant use of cognitive behavioral skills. The concrete actions associated with homework activities may facilitate behavioral activation. There is a need for longitudinal research to examine the relationship between the utilization of cognitive and behavioral skills and participant outcomes (e.g. substance use, mental health) for people attending SMART Recovery groups. PMID:25535099

  4. CONSIDERATIONS IN GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF COMBINED INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to examine the use of activated carbon in reducing the content of biologically resistant organic compounds in a combined industrial wastewater treatment system. The invvestigation was conducted in two stages: (1) characterize organic priority pol...

  5. Activated carbon testing for the 200 area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R.N.

    1997-01-17

    This report documents pilot and laboratory scale testing of activated carbon for use in the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility peroxide decomposer columns. Recommendations are made concerning column operating conditions and hardware design, the optimum type of carbon for use in the plant, and possible further studies.

  6. Distinct activity of the oxyl FeIIIsbnd Orad group in the methane dissociation by activated iron hydroxide: DFT predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubin, Aleksandr A.; Ruzankin, Sergey Ph.; Zilberberg, Igor L.; Parmon, Valentin N.

    2015-11-01

    The abstraction of hydrogen from methane on the terminal iron-oxo group in the ferryl FeIVdbnd O and oxyl FeIIIsbnd Orad states, the hydrogen peroxide group Fesbnd OOH and the peroxo group Fesbnd OOsbnd Fe created in iron hydroxide was modeled by means of the density functional theory. The active groups were built using the Fe4O4(OH)4 starting complex having one hydrogen removed imitating the effect of the external oxidizer. Among considered groups the oxyl group is predicted to have the highest reactivity. A clear distinction in reactivity between the FeIIIsbnd Orad and FeIVdbnd O quasi-degenerate states has been attributed to the sign of terminal oxygen spin polarization.

  7. Patterns of metabolic activity in the treatment of schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, J.D.; Christman, D.R.; Corona, J.F.; Fowler, J.S.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Jaeger, J.; Micheels, P.A.; Rotrosen, J.; Russell, J.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Wikler, A.

    1984-04-01

    Six patients with chronic schizophrenia were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) before and after neuroleptic treatment, using fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose. After treatment, the mean whole-slice glucose metabolic rate at the level of the basal ganglia showed a 25% increase. However, patterns of frontal hypometabolism observed with the schizophrenic patients were not altered by medication. Pattern analysis using the fast Fourier transform was applied to a set of 422 images from a mixed group of normal, depressed, and schizophrenic subjects. Reconstruction of the images with low-frequency coefficients was excellent, reducing considerably the number of variables needed to characterize each image. Hierarchical cluster analysis categorized the transformed images according to anatomical level and subject group (patient versus control). The results suggest the utility of this procedure for the classification and characterization of metabolic PET images from psychiatric patients. 8 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  8. Polish Lymphoma Research Group Experience With Bexarotene in the Treatment of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sokolowska-Wojdylo, Malgorzata; Florek, Aleksandra; Zaucha, Jan Maciej; Chmielowska, Ewa; Giza, Agnieszka; Knopinska-Posluszny, Wanda; Kulikowski, Waldemar; Prejzner, Witold; Romejko-Jarosinska, Joanna; Paszkiewicz-Kozik, Ewa; Osowiecki, Michal; Walewski, Jan; Rogowski, Wojciech; Grzanka, Aleksandra; Placek, Waldemar; Lugowska-Umer, Hanna; Kowalczyk, Anna; Nowicki, Roman; Jurczak, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Bexarotene, a synthetic retinoid licensed for the treatment of refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), has been used clinically in Poland since 2007 in 21 patients. The objective of our retrospective, multicenter study was to evaluate our experience with bexarotene therapy, including efficacy, safety, and survival outcomes. We retrospectively identified 21 adult patients who were treated with bexarotene between the years 2007 and 2012. Starting dose of bexarotene was 300 mg/m per day. The analysis included 3 patients with early-stage mycosis fungoides (MF), 16 patients with advanced-stage MF, and 2 patients with Sézary syndrome (SS). The mean duration of therapy with bexarotene was 14.5 months. Use of bexarotene resulted in an overall response rate of 81.0%, although the overall mortality rate was 52.8%. In our study, early-stage CTCL responded better than advanced-stage CTCL (100.0% vs. 77.8%, respectively). The mean time to observable response was 1.8 months, and the mean duration of the response was 16.4 months. Most significant side effects were hyperlipidemia, hypothyroidism, and a bleeding gastric ulcer. Based on the results of our analysis, bexarotene is a valuable tool in the treatment of refractory early-stage CTCL. Although a majority of patients initially responded to therapy, the high mortality rate in the advanced-stage group suggests that bexarotene does not completely resolve the therapeutic problems in all stages of CTCL. Patient stratification for bexarotene treatment may need a thorough reassessment, in that bexarotene may not be an effective drug in the very advanced stages of CTCL. PMID:24732904

  9. AN OVERVIEW OF THE EFFICACY OF THE 12-STEP GROUP THERAPY FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT.

    PubMed

    Gamble, James; O'Lawrence, Henry

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if 12-Steps groups efficacy for substance abuse treatment significantly improve abstinence rates of heroin addicts in the short run and long run (1-year and 5-year period); and if abstinence rates are found to be lower for heroin addicts that have attended 12-Step groups at the 1-year mark, and if similar results would be expected at the 5-year mark. Secondary data from the Inter-University Consortium of Political and Social Research (ICPSR) was extracted and analyzed for the aforementioned hypothesis. Using SSPS to test the research hypothesis for the 1-Year Follow Up, the chi-square test shows a p-value below of .10, and the analysis determined that there was significant evidence to support the hypothesis that cases in a 12-Steps or self-help program have a higher success than cases not in a program for the 1-year follow up. For 5-Year Follow Up, the cases that attended a 12-Step program or a self-help program and about 27% went on to use heroin during the last 12 months compared to 34% cases that did not go to a program. PMID:27483978

  10. Group trauma-informed treatment for adolescent psychiatric inpatients: a preliminary uncontrolled trial.

    PubMed

    Gudiño, Omar G; Weis, J Rebecca; Havens, Jennifer F; Biggs, Emily A; Diamond, Ursula N; Marr, Mollie; Jackson, Christie; Cloitre, Marylene

    2014-08-01

    Despite high rates of trauma exposure (46%-96%) and significant posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 21%-29%) symptoms in adolescent psychiatric inpatients, there is a dearth of research on effective interventions delivered in inpatient settings. The current report describes the development of Brief STAIR-A, a repeatable 3-module version of skills training in affective and interpersonal regulation (STAIR) developed for adolescents in inpatient care. An uncontrolled design was used to conduct a preliminary examination of the group intervention's effectiveness. Adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N = 38; ages 12 years-17 years) admitted to a public hospital participated in Brief STAIR-A and attended a median of 6 sessions (range 3-36). They completed measures of PTSD and depressive symptom severity, coping skill use, and coping efficacy upon admission and again prior to discharge. Participants reported significant reductions in symptom severity (d = 0.65-0.67), no change in the absolute level of coping skills used (d = 0.16), but greater coping efficacy when discharged from care (d = 0.75). Results from this pilot study suggest that this brief group treatment shows promise for treating adolescents' trauma-related difficulties in inpatient psychiatry settings, but additional research examining its effectiveness is essential. PMID:25070927

  11. What Do We Want Small Group Activities For? Voices from EFL Teachers in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental issue of why small group activities are utilized in the language learning classroom. Although these activities have gained popularity in the field of Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL), supported by a sound theoretical base, few studies have so far examined the reasons why language teachers are…

  12. Integration of Structured Expressive Activities within a Humanistic Group Play Therapy Format for Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratton, Sue C.; Ceballos, Peggy L.; Ferebee, Kelly Webb

    2009-01-01

    The integration of expressive activities in play groups with preadolescents encourages them to reach more deeply into their own resources, enabling them to handle future challenges more effectively. Developmental and therapeutic rationale, along with research support, is given for the integration of creative activities into a humanistic play group…

  13. Upper Elementary Boys' Participation during Group Singing Activities in Single-Sex and Coeducational Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzy, Zadda M.

    2010-01-01

    As boys in the upper elementary grades become increasingly influenced by peer pressure, many are less likely to participate in singing activities because singing is considered a "feminine" activity. The purpose of this research was to explore if there was an effect on upper elementary boys' level of participation during group singing activities…

  14. Taking It to the Classroom: Number Board Games as a Small Group Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Geetha B.; Siegler, Robert S.; Hitti, Aline

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether a theoretically based number board game could be translated into a practical classroom activity that improves Head Start children's numerical knowledge. Playing the number board game as a small group learning activity promoted low-income children's number line estimation, magnitude comparison, numeral identification, and…

  15. Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (Ramp): Training Persons with Dementia to Serve as Group Activity Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Cameron J.; Skrajner, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an activity implemented by means of Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP). Design and Methods: Four persons with early-stage dementia were trained to serve as leaders for a small-group activity played by nine persons with more advanced dementia. Assessments of leaders'…

  16. Mutualistic Benefits Generate an Unequal Distribution of Risky Activities Among Unrelated Group Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukuk, Penelope F.; Ward, Seamus A.; Jozwiak, Amy

    Recent studies provide a new challenge to the adequacy of theories concerning the evolution of cooperation among nonrelatives: some individuals perform high-risk activities while others do not. We examined a communal hymenopteran species, Lasioglossum(Chilalictus)hemichalceum, to determine why group members engaged in demonstrably risky activities (foraging) tolerate the selfish behavior (remaining in the nest) of unrelated nestmates. Experimental removal of adult females indicated that their presence is required for the protection of brood from ant predators. Nonforagers ensure the continued presence of adults in the nest if the risk-taking foragers die, thereby safeguarding the survival of forager offspring. This results in an unequal distribution of risky activities within social groups in which avoidance of risky activities by some group members is ultimately beneficial to risk takers.

  17. Intensive weekend group treatment for panic disorder and its impact on co-occurring PTSD: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ellen J; Barrera, Terri L; Hiatt, Emily L; Chaison, Angelic D; Dunn, Nancy Jo; Petersen, Nancy J; Stanley, Melinda A

    2015-06-01

    This pilot study examines the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of delivering an intensive weekend group treatment for panic disorder (PD) to Veterans returning from deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The treatment program lasted 6h each day and was delivered by two experienced therapists. Patients received core components of panic treatment, including psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring, and interoceptive exposure. The interoceptive exposure exercises directly targeted anxiety sensitivity, a psychological construct also implicated in the maintenance of PTSD. Eighty-nine percent of patients who expressed interest in the treatment attended a baseline evaluation, and 63% of those who were study eligible initiated treatment. Treatment retention was high, with all 10 patients who initiated treatment completing the program. Veterans reported finding the treatment and delivery format highly acceptable and reported high levels of satisfaction. Panic symptoms improved significantly following the treatment and were maintained at a 7-month follow-up, with 71.4% of the sample reporting being panic free. Co-occurring PTSD symptoms also improved along with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Preliminary findings suggest that brief and intensive group treatments for PD/PTSD are a promising method of delivering cognitive behavioral therapy that may rapidly improve symptoms. This innovative treatment delivery format also may be a cost-effective way of increasing treatment engagement through increased access to quality care. PMID:25942646

  18. Ten year revision of the brief behavioral activation treatment for depression: revised treatment manual.

    PubMed

    Lejuez, C W; Hopko, Derek R; Acierno, Ron; Daughters, Stacey B; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2011-03-01

    Following from the seminal work of Ferster, Lewinsohn, and Jacobson, as well as theory and research on the Matching Law, Lejuez, Hopko, LePage, Hopko, and McNeil developed a reinforcement-based depression treatment that was brief, uncomplicated, and tied closely to behavioral theory. They called this treatment the brief behavioral activation treatment for depression (BATD), and the original manual was published in this journal. The current manuscript is a revised manual (BATD-R), reflecting key modifications that simplify and clarify key treatment elements, procedures, and treatment forms. Specific modifications include (a) greater emphasis on treatment rationale, including therapeutic alliance; (b) greater clarity regarding life areas, values, and activities; (c) simplified (and fewer) treatment forms; (d) enhanced procedural details, including troubleshooting and concept reviews; and (e) availability of a modified Daily Monitoring Form to accommodate low literacy patients. Following the presentation of the manual, the authors conclude with a discussion of the key barriers in greater depth, including strategies for addressing these barriers. PMID:21324944

  19. Intra-articular hyaluronan injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled multicentre trial. Hyaluronan Multicentre Trial Group.

    PubMed Central

    Lohmander, L S; Dalén, N; Englund, G; Hämäläinen, M; Jensen, E M; Karlsson, K; Odensten, M; Ryd, L; Sernbo, I; Suomalainen, O; Tegnander, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of intra-articular injections of hyaluronan on symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Two hundred and forty patients with symptomatic, radiological knee OA were randomly assigned to treatment with weekly injections for five weeks with either 25 mg of high molecular weight hyaluronan or vehicle. Results were evaluated at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 13, and 20 by visual analogue scales (pain, function, motion, activity), algofunctional index, and global evaluation by patient and investigator. Analysis was by "intention to treat', "per protocol', and area under the curve principles on unstratified patient groups and for patients stratified into four groups of equal size by age and baseline algofunctional index. RESULTS: No serious side effects were reported. At 20 weeks both treatment groups were improved compared with baseline, with no difference between unstratified groups treated with placebo or hyaluronan. Comparison of treatment groups stratified by age and baseline algofunctional index revealed a significant difference in favour of hyaluronan over placebo (pain, activity, algofunctional index, global evaluations by patient and investigator) for patients older than 60 years and with a baseline algofunctional index greater than 10. There was no clinically relevant difference between the two treatments for the other three stratified subgroups of younger age or fewer symptoms. Similar results were obtained by area under the curve, intention to treat, and per protocol analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Patients older than 60 years with knee osteoarthritis and with significant symptoms corresponding to an index of severity of knee disease of 10 or more, comprise the group most likely to benefit from treatment with intra-articular hyaluronan injections. PMID:8774159

  20. Self-Administered Vidoetape Therapy for Families With Conduct-Problem Children: Comparison With Two Cost-Effective Treatments and a Control Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned parents of 114 conduct-problem young children to either individually administered videotape modeling treatment, group discussion videotape modeling treatment, group discussion treatment, or waiting-list control. Compared with controls, all three treatment groups of mothers reported significantly fewer child behavior problems, more…

  1. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (3) The wastewater stream or residual is...-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams and/or residuals removed..., and Wastewater § 63.138 Process wastewater provisions—performance standards for treatment...

  2. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (3) The wastewater stream or residual is...-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams and/or residuals removed..., and Wastewater § 63.138 Process wastewater provisions—performance standards for treatment...

  3. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (3) The wastewater stream or residual is...-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams and/or residuals removed..., and Wastewater § 63.138 Process wastewater provisions—performance standards for treatment...

  4. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (3) The wastewater stream or residual is...-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams and/or residuals removed..., and Wastewater § 63.138 Process wastewater provisions—performance standards for treatment...

  5. Personality traits of aggression-submissiveness and perfectionism associate with ABO blood groups through catecholamine activities.

    PubMed

    Hobgood, Donna K

    2011-08-01

    Personality trait research has shown associations with many genes, prominently those of the catecholamine metabolism such as dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). Because DBH gene is in linkage disequilibrium with ABO gene, there is reason to think that other catecholamine genes using the same substrate as DBH may also have associations with ABO blood groups, and this paper demonstrates how this may be so. Reasons include similarities in hapmap population frequency distributions, similarities in illness risks between ABO blood groups and DBH activities as well as between ABO blood groups and COMT activities and between ABO blood groups and MAOA activities. If ABO blood groups can be demonstrated to associate with all these catecholamine genes, then the catecholamine personality trait research can be applied to ABO blood groups and tested for confirmation. ABO blood typing is widely available and affords ability to test this hypothesis and thus confirm the possible joint association of personality traits of aggression-submissiveness and perfectionism to catecholamine genes and to ABO blood groups. Clinical applications and implications are discussed. PMID:21601990

  6. Potentiation of acid-sensing ion channel activity by peripheral group I metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Gan, Xiong; Wu, Jing; Ren, Cuixia; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Li, Yan-Kun; Hu, Wang-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Glutamate activates peripheral group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and contributes to inflammatory pain. However, it is still not clear the mechanisms are involved in group I mGluR-mediated peripheral sensitization. Herein, we report that group I mGluRs signaling sensitizes acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and contributes to acidosis-evoked pain. DHPG, a selective group I mGluR agonist, can potentiate the functional activity of ASICs, which mediated the proton-induced events. DHPG concentration-dependently increased proton-gated currents in DRG neurons. It shifted the proton concentration-response curve upwards, with a 47.3±7.0% increase of the maximal current response to proton. Group I mGluRs, especially mGluR5, mediated the potentiation of DHPG via an intracellular cascade. DHPG potentiation of proton-gated currents disappeared after inhibition of intracellular Gq/11 proteins, PLCβ, PKC or PICK1 signaling. Moreover, DHPG enhanced proton-evoked membrane excitability of rat DRG neurons and increased the amplitude of the depolarization and the number of spikes induced by acid stimuli. Finally, peripherally administration of DHPG dose-dependently exacerbated nociceptive responses to intraplantar injection of acetic acid in rats. Potentiation of ASIC activity by group I mGluR signaling in rat DRG neurons revealed a novel peripheral mechanism underlying group I mGluRs involvement in hyperalgesia. PMID:26946972

  7. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams and/or residuals removed from Group 1 wastewater streams. 63.138 Section 63.138 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  8. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Use of Group Procedures in the Prevention and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazda, George M., Ed.

    The theme of the fifth annual Symposium on Group Procedures was "The Use of Group Procedures in the Prevention and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Addiction." Symposium participants included professionals in counseling; clinical, school, and educational psychology, psychiatry, and social work. In addition, invitations were sent to members of…

  9. Neutron distribution and induced activity inside a Linac treatment room.

    PubMed

    Juste, B; Miró, R; Verdú, G; Díez, S; Campayo, J M

    2015-08-01

    Induced radioactivity and photoneutron contamination inside a radiation therapy bunker of a medical linear accelerator (Linac) is investigated in this work. The Linac studied is an Elekta Precise electron accelerator which maximum treatment photon energy is 15 MeV. This energy exceeds the photonuclear reaction threshold (around 7 MeV for high atomic number metals). The Monte Carlo code MCNP6 has been used for quantifying the neutron contamination inside the treatment room for different gantry rotation configuration. Walls activation processes have also been simulated. The approach described in this paper is useful to prevent the overexposure of patients and medical staff. PMID:26737878

  10. Effects of oxygen functional groups on the enhancement of the hydrogen spillover of Pd-doped activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tsui-Yun; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Tseng, Hui-Ping; Chen, Chien-Hung; Yu, Ming-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    The hydrogen storage performance of Pd-doped oxidized activated carbon (Pd/AC-ox) with various oxygen contents or functional groups was investigated. The surface chemistry of the Pd/AC-ox sample was modified by treatment with hydrogen gas. Temperature-programmed desorption was performed to characterize the oxygen functional groups in each sample. In this study, low- and high-pressure hydrogen adsorption isotherm experiments were conducted using a static volumetric measurement at room temperature (RT) and pressures of up to 8 MPa. The results showed that increasing the oxygen content and functional groups on the surface of the Pd/AC-ox significantly improved the reversible RT hydrogen storage capacity due to the spillover effect. The hydrogen spillover enhancement factors at 0.12 MPa were greater than 100% for all samples. The hydrogen uptake of Pd/AC-ox1 at RT and 8 MPa with an oxygen content of 8.94 wt.% was 0.37 wt.%, which was 48% greater than that of Pd-free AC-ox (0.25 wt.%). In addition, the hydrogen uptake of Pd/AC-ox3 with lower oxygen contents demonstrates that the hydrogen spillover enhancement gradually disappears when the pressure is increased to more than 2 MPa (i.e., a transition from spillover to physisorption). The surface diffusion, or reversible adsorption, of the spiltover H atoms, which is enhanced by oxygen functional groups, was affected by a threshold amount of oxygen groups (such as hydroxyl groups). PMID:25490569

  11. [Behavioral activation and depression: a contextual treatment approach].

    PubMed

    Soucy Chartier, Isabelle; Blanchet, Valérie; Provencher, Martin D

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a widespread psychological disorder that affects approximately one in five North American. Typical reactions to depression include inactivity, isolation, and rumination. Several treatments and psychological interventions have emerged to address this problematic. Cognitive behavioural therapies have received increasingly large amounts of empirical support. A sub-component of cognitive behavioural therapy, behavioural activation, has been shown to in itself effectively treat symptoms of depression. This intervention involves efforts to re-activate the depressed client by having them engage in pleasant, gratifying, leisure, social, or physical activities, thereby counteracting the tendency to be inactive and to isolate oneself. Clients are guided through the process of establishing a list of potentially rewarding social, leisure, mastery-oriented or physical activities, to then establish a gradual hierarchy of objectives to be accomplished over the span of several weeks. Concrete action plans are devised, and solutions to potential obstacles are elaborated. The client is the asked to execute the targeted objective and to record their mood prior to and following the activity. Behavioural activation effectively reverses the downward spiral to depression. Interestingly, studies show that behavioural activation has a positive effect on cognitive activities. It has been shown to reduce rumination and favour cognitive restructuring, without requiring cognitively-based interventions. The advantage of this treatment is therefore that it is simpler to administer in comparison to full-packaged cognitive behavioural therapies, it requires a lesser number of sessions and can be disseminated in a low-intensity format. This article begins by summarizing the origins of the behavioural model of depression, which serves as a basis to the understanding of behavioural activation. This is followed by a detailed explanation of the different phases involved in a behavioural

  12. Making sense(s) in dementia: a multisensory and motor-based group activity program.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Joana; Marques, Alda; Barbosa, Ana; Figueiredo, Daniela; Sousa, Liliana X

    2013-03-01

    Lack of engagement in meaningful activities is associated with poor quality of life in dementia; thus, the development of these activities has been recommended. This pilot study aimed to develop a multisensory and motor-based group activity program for residents with dementia and assess its impact on residents' behavior. The program was designed using a multisensory and motor-based approach in sixteen 45-minute weekly sessions tailored to residents' characteristics. Four residents with advanced dementia participated in the program. The frequency and duration of the residents' behavior were assessed using video recordings. All residents participated in the proposed activities, although they were more participative and communicative in some sessions than in others. Group activity programs based on multisensory and motor stimulation can be a promising approach for people with advanced dementia; however, further research is needed. This study may serve as reference to the implementation of future programs aiming to increase person-centeredness of the care provided. PMID:23307794

  13. Effect of cardiopulmonary C fibre activation on the firing activity of ventral respiratory group neurones in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C G; Bonham, A C

    1997-01-01

    1. Cardiopulmonary C fibre receptor stimulation elicits apnoea and rapid shallow breathing, but the effects on the firing activity of central respiratory neurones are not well understood. This study examined the responses of ventral respiratory group neurones: decrementing expiratory (Edec), augmenting expiratory (Eaug), and inspiratory (I) neurones during cardiopulmonary C fibre receptor-evoked apnoea and rapid shallow breathing. 2. Extracellular neuronal activity, phrenic nerve activity and arterial pressure were recorded in urethane-anaesthetized rats. Cardiopulmonary C fibre receptors were stimulated by right atrial injections of phenylbiguanide. Neurones were tested for antidromic activation from the contra- and ipsilateral ventral respiratory group (VRG), spinal cord and cervical vagus nerve. 3. Edec neurones discharged tonically during cardiopulmonary C fibre-evoked apnoea and rapid shallow breathing, displaying increased burst durations, number of impulses per burst, and mean impulse frequencies. Edec neurones recovered either with the phrenic nerve activity (25 s) or much later (3 min). 4. By contrast, the firing activity of Eaug and most I neurones was decreased, featuring decreased burst durations and number of impulses per burst and increased interburst intervals. Eaug activity recovered in approximately 3 min and inspiratory activity in approximately 1 min. 5. The results indicate that cardiopulmonary C fibre receptor stimulation causes tonic firing of Edec neurones and decreases in Eaug and I neuronal activity coincident with apnoea or rapid shallow breathing. PMID:9365917

  14. The efficacy of Behavioral Activation Treatment among Depressed Spanish-speaking Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Anahí; Calderón, Marilyn; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Objective Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent among U.S. Spanish-speaking Latinos, but the lack of empirically-supported treatments precludes this population’s access to quality mental health care. Method Following the promising results of an open-label trial of the Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD) among Spanish-speaking Latinos, we conducted a randomized control trial (RCT; N = 46) that compared BATD to supportive counseling. Study outcomes included depression, BATD proposed mechanisms of change, and non-specific psychotherapy factors. Results Relative to supportive counseling, BATD led to greater decreases in depressive symptoms over time (p = 0.04) and greater MDD remission at the end of treatment (p = 0.01). Activity level (p = 0.01) and environmental reward (p = 0.05) showed greater increases over time among those who received BATD compared to supportive counseling. Treatment adherence, therapeutic alliance, and treatment satisfaction did not differ between the groups over time (ps > 0.17). The one-month follow-up suggested sustained clinical gains across therapies. Conclusions The current study adds to a growing treatment literature and provides support that BATD is efficacious in reducing depression and increasing activity level and environmental reward in the largest, yet historically underserved U.S. ethnic minority population. This trial sets the stage for a larger RCT that evaluates the transportability and generalizability of BATD in an effectiveness trial. PMID:27054826

  15. [Diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in the mentally retarded: guidelines of a multidisciplinary consensus work group. Dutch Association of Physicians in Care of Mentally Handicapped].

    PubMed

    Gimbel, H

    2000-06-10

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is more frequent among people with intellectual disability than among the intellectually normal population. Also GORD is more serious in this population. The diagnosis is often missed, because most intellectually disabled cannot express their complaints of GORD. For that reason a multidisciplinary working group of the Dutch Association of physicians active in the care of persons with a mental handicap has developed guidelines. The working group recommends endoscopy in case of a (alarm) symptoms: haematemesis, prolonged vomiting, irondeficiency anaemia e.c.i., and a 24 hour oesophageal pH test in case of b (aspecific) symptoms: recurrent pneumonia, refusal of food, regurgitation, rumination, dental erosions. In general most patients are cured with drug treatment (omeprazol or another proton pump inhibitor). If symptoms are not improved after 6 months of optimal treatment, surgical treatment may be considered. PMID:10876695

  16. Impact of Cancer Support Groups on Childhood Cancer Treatment and Abandonment in a Private Pediatric Oncology Centre

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Arathi; Tiwari, Khushboo; Scott, Julius Xavier; Ramachandran, Priya; Ramakrishnan, Mathangi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To analyze the impact of two cancer support groups in the treatment and abandonment of childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of children with cancer funded and non-funded who were treated at Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital from 2010 to 2013. A total of 100 patients were funded, 57 by Ray of Light Foundation and 43 by Pediatric Lymphoma Project and 70 non-funded. Results: The total current survival of 80%, including those who have completed treatment and those currently undergoing treatment, is comparable in both the groups. Abandonment of treatment after initiating therapy was not seen in the financially supported group whereas abandonment of treatment after initiation was seen in one child in the non-funded group. Conclusions: Besides intensive treatment with good supportive care, financial support also has an important impact on compliance and abandonment in all socioeconomic strata of society. Financial support from private cancer support groups also has its impact beyond the patient and family, in reducing the burden on government institutions by non-governmental funding in private sector. Improvement in the delivery of pediatric oncology care in developing countries could be done by financial support from the private sector. PMID:25709189

  17. Comparing Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy With Treatment as Usual for Opioid Dependents: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Saeed; Atef Vahid, Mohammad Kazem; Gharraee, Banafsheh; Habibi, Mojtaba; Bowen, Sarah; Noroozi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: In response to high burden of opioid abuse in Iran, Ministry of Health has launched a large-scale opioid maintenance treatment program, delivered through a network of certified drug treatment centers. To promote opioid pharmacotherapies, there is an urgent need to develop and introduce evidence-based psychosocial interventions into the network. Patients and Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to investigate feasibility and effectiveness of adding mindfulness-based group therapy to opioid pharmacotherapies as compared to opioid pharmacotherapies alone. The primary outcomes were treatment retention and percentage of weekly morphine, methamphetamine, and benzodiazepine negative tests. Discussion: This is the first RCT that explores the effectiveness of mindfulness-based relapse prevention group therapy among opioid dependent clients in Iran. The feasibility of group therapy and comparison of outcomes in intervention and control groups should be discussed in the outcome article. PMID:26251659

  18. Hemagglutination activities of group B, C, D, and G streptococci: demonstration of novel sugar-specific cell-binding activities in Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed Central

    Kurl, D N; Haataja, S; Finne, J

    1989-01-01

    A total of 378 streptococcal isolates of Lancefield groups B, C, D and G were tested for their ability to hemagglutinate untreated, sialidase-treated, and endo-beta-galactosidase-treated human erythrocytes. Of the 43 strains showing positive hemagglutination, 9 were inhibitable with neutral monosaccharides. Four strains were inhibited with galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine, whereas five were inhibited with galactose only. A third, sialic acid-specific adhesion activity was suggested for two additional strains on the basis of their agglutination of native and endo-beta-galactosidase-treated but not sialidase-treated erythrocytes. All the sugar-specific agglutination activities detected were confined to Streptococcus suis strains of group D streptococci, whereas streptococci of other groups did not exhibit these types of hemagglutination activities. The adhesins were sensitive to proteases and heat treatment, which indicates that they were proteins. The hemagglutinating isolates of S. suis originated from pig brain and lung, human brain, and the tonsils of healthy pigs. No clear correlation with a particular serotype was observed. These results demonstrate the occurrence of unique sugar-specific adherence activities in S. suis, an important pig pathogen with occasional human pathogenicity. PMID:2492258

  19. Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Four Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ham, Ok Kyung; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between physical activity and depression and the multiple contextual factors influencing these associations in four major ethnic-groups of midlife women in the U.S. This was a secondary analysis of the data from 542 midlife women. The instruments included questions on background characteristics and health and menopausal status; the Depression Index for Midlife Women; and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey. The data were analyzed using chi-square tests, the ANOVA, twoway ANOVA, correlation analyses, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. The women's depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with active living and sports/exercise physical activities whereas they were positively correlated with occupational physical activities (p < .01). Family income was the strongest predictor of their depressive symptoms. Increasing physical activity may improve midlife women's depressive symptoms, but the types of physical activity and multiple contextual factors need to be considered in intervention development. PMID:24879749

  20. Hyperbranched Aliphatic Polyester Modified Activated Carbon Particles with Homogenized Surface Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Liuxue

    The hyperbranched aliphatic polyester grafted activated carbon (HAPE-AC), was successfully prepared by the simple "one-pot" method. The surface functional groups of commercial activated carbon particles were homogenized to hydroxyl groups by being oxidized with nitric acid and then reduced with lithium tetrahydroaluminate (LiAlH4) at first. Secondly, the surface hydroxyl groups were used as the active sites for the solution polycondensation of the AB2 monomer, 2, 2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (bis-MPA), with the catalysis of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA). The homogenization of the surface groups of the activated carbon particles and the graft polymerization of the hyperbranched aliphatic polyester were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique. The products were also characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The competitive adsorption properties of the products toward the heavy metal ions (Cu(II), Hg(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II)) also proved the translations of the surface groups.

  1. Renormalization group treatment of polymer excluded volume by t'Hooft-Veltman-type dimensional regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodenko, A. L.; Freed, Karl F.

    1983-06-01

    The chain conformation space renormalization group method is transformed into a representation where the t'Hooft-Veltman method of dimensional regularization can directly be applied to problems involving polymer excluded volume. This t'Hooft-Veltman-type representation enables a comparison to be made with other direct renormalization methods for polymer excluded volume. In contrast to the latter, the current method and the chain conformation one from which it is derived are not restricted to the asymptotic limit of very long chains and do not require the cumbersome use of insertions to calculate the relevant exponents. Furthermore, the theory emerges directly in polymer language from the traditional excluded volume perturbation expansion which provides the correct weight factors for the diagrams. Special attention is paid to the general diagrammatic structure of the theory and to the renormalization prescription in order that this prescription follows from considerations on measurable quantities. The theory is illustrated by calculation of the mean square end-to-end distance and second virial coefficient to second order including the full crossover dependence on the renormalized strength of the excluded volume interaction and on the chain length. A subsequent paper provides the generalization of the theory to the treatment of excluded volume effects in polyelectrolytes.

  2. Using activity-based costing to track resource use in group practices.

    PubMed

    Zeller, T L; Siegel, G; Kaciuba, G; Lau, A H

    1999-09-01

    Research shows that understanding how resources are consumed can help group practices control costs. An American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons study used an activity-based costing (ABC) system to measure how resources are consumed in providing medical services. Teams of accounting professors observed 18 diverse orthopedic surgery practices. The researchers identified 17 resource-consuming business processes performed by nonphysician office staff. They measured resource consumption by assigning costs to each process according to how much time is spent on related work activities. When group practices understand how their resources are being consumed, they can reduce costs and optimize revenues by making adjustments in how administrative and clinical staff work. PMID:11066706

  3. The 4'-hydroxyl group of resveratrol is functionally important for direct activation of PPARα.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Yoshie; Nakata, Rieko; Fukuhara, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Kubodera, Hideo; Inoue, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Long-term moderate consumption of red wine is associated with a reduced risk of developing lifestyle-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Therefore, resveratrol, a constituent of grapes and various other plants, has attracted substantial interest. This study focused on one molecular target of resveratrol, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα). Our previous study in mice showed that resveratrol-mediated protection of the brain against stroke requires activation of PPARα; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process remain unknown. Here, we evaluated the chemical basis of the resveratrol-mediated activation of PPARα by performing a docking mode simulation and examining the structure-activity relationships of various polyphenols. The results of experiments using the crystal structure of the PPARα ligand-binding domain and an analysis of the activation of PPARα by a resveratrol analog 4-phenylazophenol (4-PAP) in vivo indicate that the 4'-hydroxyl group of resveratrol is critical for the direct activation of PPARα. Activation of PPARα by 5 μM resveratrol was enhanced by rolipram, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) and forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase. We also found that resveratrol has a higher PDE inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19 μM) than resveratrol analogs trans-4-hydroxystilbene and 4-PAP (IC50 = 27-28 μM), both of which has only 4'-hydroxyl group, indicating that this 4'-hydroxyl group of resveratrol is not sufficient for the inhibition of PDE. This result is consistent with that 10 μM resveratrol has a higher agonistic activity of PPARα than these analogs, suggesting that there is a feedforward activation loop of PPARα by resveratrol, which may be involved in the long-term effects of resveratrol in vivo. PMID:25798826

  4. In situ activity recovery of aging biofilm in biological aerated filter: Surfactants treatment and mechanisms study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qisheng; Huang, Hui; Ren, Hongqiang; Ding, Lili; Geng, Jinju

    2016-11-01

    In situ activity recovery of aging biofilm in the biological aerated filter (BAF) is an important but underappreciated problem. Lab-scaled BAFs were established in this study and three kinds of surfactants containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and rhamnolipid were employed. Multiple indicators including effluent qualities, dissolved organic matters, biofilm physiology and morphology characteristics were investigated to explore the mechanisms. Results showed that removal rates of effluent COD in test groups significantly recovered to the level before aging. Compared with the control, effluent in SDBS and rhamnolipid-treated groups obtained more protein-like and humic-like substances, respectively. Furthermore, great live cell ratio, smooth surface and low adhesion force of biofilm were observed after rhamnolipid treatment, which was in consistent with good effluent qualities in the same group. This is the first report of applying rhamnolipid for in situ activity recovery of aging biofilm in bioreactors. PMID:27513646

  5. Yield of intensified tuberculosis case-finding activities using Xpert® MTB/RIF among risk groups in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Baral, S.; Shrestha, P.; Puri, M.; Kandel, S.; Lamichanne, B.; Elsey, H.; Brouwer, M.; Goel, S.; Chinnakali, P.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Twenty-two districts of Nepal, where intensified case-finding (ICF) activities for tuberculosis (TB) were implemented among risk groups under the TB REACH initiative in collaboration with the National TB Programme from July 2013 to November 2015. Objectives: To assess the yield of TB screening using an algorithm with smear microscopy followed by Xpert® MTB/RIF. Design: A descriptive study using routinely collected data. Results: Of 145 679 individuals screened, 28 574 (19.6%) had presumptive TB; 1239 (4.3%) of these were diagnosed with TB and 1195 (96%) were initiated on anti-tuberculosis treatment. The yield of screening was highest among people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) (6.1%), followed by household contacts (3.5%) and urban slum dwellers (0.5%). Among other risk groups, such as prisoners, factory workers, refugees and individuals with diabetes, the yield was less than 0.5%. The number needed to screen to diagnose an active TB case was 17 for PLHIV, 29 for household contacts and 197 for urban slum dwellers. Of 11 525 patients from ICF and the routine programme, 112 (1%) were diagnosed with multidrug-resistant TB. Conclusion: There was a substantial yield of TB cases among risk groups such as PLHIV and household contacts. Although the yield in urban slum dwellers was found to be moderate, some intervention should nonetheless be targeted because of the large population and poor access to care in this group. PMID:27358808

  6. Motivational Interviewing Versus Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy in the Treatment of Problem and Pathological Gambling: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Carlbring, Per; Jonsson, Jakob; Josephson, Henrik; Forsberg, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Pathological gambling is a widespread problem with major implications for society and the individual. There are effective treatments, but little is known about the relative effectiveness of different treatments. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioral group therapy, and a no-treatment control (wait-list) in the treatment of pathological gambling. This was done in a randomized controlled trial at an outpatient dependency clinic at Karolinska Institute (Stockholm, Sweden). A total of 150 primarily self-recruited patients with current gambling problems or pathological gambling according to an NORC DSM-IV screen for gambling problems were randomized to four individual sessions of motivational interviewing (MI), eight sessions of cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT), or a no-treatment wait-list control. Gambling-related measures derived from timeline follow-back as well as general levels of anxiety and depression were administered at baseline, termination, and 6 and 12 months posttermination. Treatment showed superiority in some areas over the no-treatment control in the short term, including the primary outcome measure. No differences were found between MI and CBGT at any point in time. Instead, both MI and CBGT produced significant within-group decreases on most outcome measures up to the 12-month follow-up. Both forms of intervention are promising treatments, but there is room for improvement in terms of both outcome and compliance. PMID:19967577

  7. In vitro anti-mycobacterial activity of nine medicinal plants used by ethnic groups in Sonora, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sonoran ethnic groups (Yaquis, Mayos, Seris, Guarijíos, Pimas, Kikapúes and Pápagos) use mainly herbal based preparations as their first line of medicinal treatment. Among the plants used are those with anti-tuberculosis properties; however, no formal research is available. Methods Organic extracts were obtained from nine medicinal plants traditionally used by Sonoran ethnic groups to treat different kinds of diseases; three of them are mainly used to treat tuberculosis. All of the extracts were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using the Alamar Blue redox bioassay. Results Methanolic extracts from Ambrosia confertiflora, Ambrosia ambrosioides and Guaiacum coulteri showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 200, 790 and 1000 μg/mL, respectively, whereas no effect was observed with the rest of the methanolic extracts at the concentrations tested. Chloroform, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts from Ambrosia confertiflora showed a MIC of 90, 120 and 160 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions A. confertiflora and A. ambrosioides showed the best anti-mycobacterial activity in vitro. The activity of Guaiacum coulteri is consistent with the traditional use by Sonoran ethnic groups as anti-tuberculosis agent. For these reasons, it is important to investigate a broader spectrum of medicinal plants in order to find compounds active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:24267469

  8. Treatment uptake and outcomes among current and former injection drug users receiving directly observed therapy within a multidisciplinary group model for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Grebely, Jason; Genoway, Krista; Khara, Milan; Duncan, Fiona; Viljoen, Mark; Elliott, Doug; Raffa, Jesse D; DeVlaming, Stanley; Conway, Brian

    2007-10-01

    Injection drug use accounts for the majority of incident and prevalent cases of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, very few injection drug users (IDUs) have received treatment for this condition given issues of medical or psychiatric co-morbidity, ongoing substance abuse and a widely held belief that such individuals will not be able to adhere to the requirements of therapy, including regular medical follow-up. With this in mind, we sought to evaluate HCV treatment uptake and outcomes among current and former IDUs attending a weekly peer support group and receiving directly observed HCV therapy. Utilizing the existing infrastructure for the management of addictive disease, we have developed a model of "one-stop shopping" whereby the treatment of addiction, HCV and other medical conditions are fully integrated, with the collaboration of nurses, counsellors, addiction specialists, infectious disease specialists, primary care physicians and researchers. Subjects interested in receiving treatment for HCV infection were referred to a weekly peer-support group and evaluated for treatment. Patients received therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha2a or -alpha2b, both in combination with ribavirin. All injections were directly observed. Overall, we observed a high uptake of HCV treatment among attendees, with 51 percent either receiving or about to receive therapy. To date, 18 patients have initiated treatment for HCV infection and 12 have completed therapy. Overall, 8/12 (67 percent) subjects achieved an end of treatment response (genotype 1, 67 percent; genotypes 2/3, 67 percent), despite ongoing drug use in 75 percent of patients during treatment. These data demonstrate that with the appropriate programs in place, a high uptake of HCV treatment can be achieved among IDUs referred to a peer-support group. Moreover, the treatment of HCV in current and former IDUs within a multidisciplinary DOT program can be successfully undertaken, resulting in ETRs similar to

  9. Hanford Tank Waste - Near Source Treatment of Low Activity Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, William Gene

    2013-08-15

    Abstract only. Treatment and disposition of Hanford Site waste as currently planned consists of 100+ waste retrievals, waste delivery through up to 8+ miles of dedicated, in-ground piping, centralized mixing and blending operations- all leading to pre-treatment combination and separation processes followed by vitrification at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The sequential nature of Tank Farm and WTP operations requires nominally 15-20 years of continuous operations before all waste can be retrieved from many Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). Also, the infrastructure necessary to mobilize and deliver the waste requires significant investment beyond that required for the WTP. Treating waste as closely as possible to individual tanks or groups- as allowed by the waste characteristics- is being investigated to determine the potential to 1) defer, reduce, and/or eliminate infrastructure requirements, and 2) significantly mitigate project risk by reducing the potential and impact of single point failures. The inventory of Hanford waste slated for processing and disposition as LAW is currently managed as high-level waste (HLW), i.e., the separation of fission products and other radionuclides has not commenced. A significant inventory of this waste (over 20M gallons) is in the form of precipitated saltcake maintained in single shell tanks, many of which are identified as potential leaking tanks. Retrieval and transport (as a liquid) must be staged within the waste feed delivery capability established by site infrastructure and WTP. Near Source treatment, if employed, would provide for the separation and stabilization processing necessary for waste located in remote farms (wherein most of the leaking tanks reside) significantly earlier than currently projected. Near Source treatment is intended to address the currently accepted site risk and also provides means to mitigate future issues likely to be faced over the coming decades. This paper

  10. Involving postgraduate's students in undergraduate small group teaching promotes active learning in both

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Ruchi; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Vyas, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lecture is a common traditional method for teaching, but it may not stimulate higher order thinking and students may also be hesitant to express and interact. The postgraduate (PG) students are less involved with undergraduate (UG) teaching. Team based small group active learning method can contribute to better learning experience. Aim: To-promote active learning skills among the UG students using small group teaching methods involving PG students as facilitators to impart hands-on supervised training in teaching and managerial skills. Methodology: After Institutional approval under faculty supervision 92 UGs and 8 PGs participated in 6 small group sessions utilizing the jigsaw technique. Feedback was collected from both. Observations: Undergraduate Feedback (Percentage of Students Agreed): Learning in small groups was a good experience as it helped in better understanding of the subject (72%), students explored multiple reading resources (79%), they were actively involved in self-learning (88%), students reported initial apprehension of performance (71%), identified their learning gaps (86%), team enhanced their learning process (71%), informal learning in place of lecture was a welcome change (86%), it improved their communication skills (82%), small group learning can be useful for future self-learning (75%). Postgraduate Feedback: Majority performed facilitation for first time, perceived their performance as good (75%), it was helpful in self-learning (100%), felt confident of managing students in small groups (100%), as facilitator they improved their teaching skills, found it more useful and better identified own learning gaps (87.5%). Conclusions: Learning in small groups adopting team based approach involving both UGs and PGs promoted active learning in both and enhanced the teaching skills of the PGs. PMID:26380201

  11. A method to quantify movement activity of groups of animals using automated image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianyu; Yu, Haizhen; Liu, Ying

    2009-07-01

    Most physiological and environmental changes are capable of inducing variations in animal behavior. The behavioral parameters have the possibility to be measured continuously in-situ by a non-invasive and non-contact approach, and have the potential to be used in the actual productions to predict stress conditions. Most vertebrates tend to live in groups, herds, flocks, shoals, bands, packs of conspecific individuals. Under culture conditions, the livestock or fish are in groups and interact on each other, so the aggregate behavior of the group should be studied rather than that of individuals. This paper presents a method to calculate the movement speed of a group of animal in a enclosure or a tank denoted by body length speed that correspond to group activity using computer vision technique. Frame sequences captured at special time interval were subtracted in pairs after image segmentation and identification. By labeling components caused by object movement in difference frame, the projected area caused by the movement of every object in the capture interval was calculated; this projected area was divided by the projected area of every object in the later frame to get body length moving distance of each object, and further could obtain the relative body length speed. The average speed of all object can well respond to the activity of the group. The group activity of a tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) school to high (2.65 mg/L) levels of unionized ammonia (UIA) concentration were quantified based on these methods. High UIA level condition elicited a marked increase in school activity at the first hour (P<0.05) exhibiting an avoidance reaction (trying to flee from high UIA condition), and then decreased gradually.

  12. Barriers for recess physical activity: a gender specific qualitative focus group exploration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender differences in children’s perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. Methods Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools) with in total 111 children (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to rank the children’s perceived barriers. This was verified by a thematic analysis of transcripts from the open discussions and go-along interviews. Results The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of play facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys and girls identified the same barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the perception of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly by those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have more secluded areas added to the school playground, even in large schoolyards where lack of space was not a barrier. This aligned with girls’ requests for more “hanging-out” facilities, whereas boys primarily wanted activity promoting facilities. Conclusion Based on the results from this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and

  13. Estradiol treatment, physical activity, and muscle function in ovarian-senescent mice.

    PubMed

    Greising, Sarah M; Carey, Ryan S; Blackford, Jennifer E; Dalton, Laurin E; Kosir, Allison M; Lowe, Dawn A

    2011-08-01

    Estradiol (E(2)) treatment in young adult, ovariectomized mice increases physical activity and reverses deleterious effects on skeletal muscle. Here we test the hypothesis that E(2) treatment improves muscle function and physical activity in aged, ovarian-senescent mice. Plasma E(2) levels and vaginal cytology confirmed ovarian senescence in 20-month-old C57BL/6 mice. Mice were then randomly divided into activity groups, having access to a running wheel or not, and further into those receiving E(2) or placebo. Placebo-treated mice wheel ran more than E(2)-treated mice (P=0.03), with no difference between treatment groups in cage activities such as time spent being active and ambulation distance (P≥0.55). Soleus muscles from aged mice that wheel ran adapted by getting larger and stronger, irrespective of E(2) status (P≤0.02). Soleus muscle fatigue resistance was greater in mice treated with E(2) (P=0.02), but maximal isometric tetanic force was not affected (P≥0.79). Because E(2) treatment did not improve physical activity or overall muscle function in the aged, ovarian-senescent mice as predicted, a second study was initiated to examine E(2) treatment of young adult mice prematurely ovarian senescent from exposure to the chemical, 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD). Four-month-old C57BL/6 female mice were dosed with oil (control) or VCD. Vaginal cytology confirmed ovarian senescence in all mice treated with VCD 63 days after the onset of dosing, and then a subset of the VCD mice received E(2) (VCD+E(2)). Wheel running distance did not differ among control, VCD, and VCD+E(2) mice (P≥0.34). Soleus muscle concentric, isometric, and eccentric in vitro forces were greater in VCD+E(2) than in VCD mice (P<0.04), indicating beneficial estrogenic effects on muscle function. In general, aged and young mice with senescent ovaries were less responsive to E(2) treatment, in terms of physical activities and muscle function, than what has previously been shown for young

  14. Estradiol treatment, physical activity, and muscle function in ovarian-senescent mice

    PubMed Central

    Greising, Sarah M.; Carey, Ryan S.; Blackford, Jennifer E.; Dalton, Laurin E.; Kosir, Allison M.; Lowe, Dawn A.

    2011-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) treatment in young adult, ovariectomized mice increases physical activity and reverses deleterious effects on skeletal muscle. Here we test the hypothesis that E2 treatment improves muscle function and physical activity in aged, ovarian-senescent mice. Plasma E2 levels and vaginal cytology confirmed ovarian senescence in 20-month-old C57BL/6 mice. Mice were then randomly divided into activity groups, having access to a running wheel or not, and further into those receiving E2 or placebo. Placebo-treated mice wheel ran more than E2-treated mice (P=0.03), with no difference between treatment groups in cage activities such as time spent being active and ambulation distance (P≥0.55). Soleus muscles from aged mice that wheel ran adapted by getting larger and stronger, irrespective of E2 status (P≤0.02). Soleus muscle fatigue resistance was greater in mice treated with E2 (P=0.02), but maximal isometric tetanic force was not affected (P≥0.79). Because E2 treatment did not improve physical activity or overall muscle function in the aged, ovarian-senescent mice as predicted, a second study was initiated to examine E2 treatment of young adult mice prematurely ovarian senescent from exposure to the chemical, 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD). 4-month-old C57BL/6 female mice were dosed with oil (control) or VCD. Vaginal cytology confirmed ovarian senescence in all mice treated with VCD 63 days after the onset of dosing, and then a subset of the VCD mice received E2 (VCD+E2). Wheel running distance did not differ among control, VCD, and VCD+E2 mice (P≥0.34). Soleus muscle concentric, isometric, and eccentric in vitro forces were greater in VCD+E2 than VCD mice (P<0.04), indicating beneficial estrogenic effects on muscle function. In general, aged and young mice with senescent ovaries were less responsive to E2 treatment, in terms of physical activities and muscle function, than what has previously been shown for young, ovariectomized mice. These results

  15. Circadian activity rhythm in pre-pubertal and pubertal marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in family groups.

    PubMed

    Melo, Paula R; Gonçalves, Bruno S B; Menezes, Alexandre A L; Azevedo, Carolina V M

    2016-03-01

    In marmosets, a phase advance was observed in activity onset in pubertal animals living in captivity under semi-natural conditions which had stronger correlation with the times of sunrise over the course of the year than the age of the animal. In order to evaluate the effect of puberty on the circadian activity rhythm in male and female marmosets living in family groups in controlled lighting conditions, the activity of 5 dyads of twins (4 ♀/♂ and 1 ♂/♂) and their respective parents was continuously monitored by actiwatches between the 4th and 12th months of age. The families were kept under LD 12:12 h with constant humidity and temperature. The onset of puberty was identified by monitoring fecal steroids. Juveniles showed higher totals of daily activity and differences in the daily distribution of activity in relation to parents, in which the bimodal profile was characterized by higher levels in evening activity in relation to morning activity. Regarding the phase, the activity onset and offset, occurred later in relation to parents. After entering puberty, the activity onset and offset occurred later and there was an increase in total daily activity. On the other hand, when assessing the effect of sex, only females showed a delay in the activity offset and an increase in total daily activity. Therefore, the circadian activity rhythm in marmosets has peculiar characteristics in the juvenile stage in relation to the total of daily activity, the onset and offset of the active phase, and the distribution of activity during this phase. Besides, the entering puberty was associated with a phase delay and increase on total daily activity, with differences between sexes, possibly due to hormonal influences and/or social modulation on rhythm. PMID:26724713

  16. THE MERGER HISTORY, ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS, AND DWARF GALAXIES OF HICKSON COMPACT GROUP 59

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Charlton, J. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Eracleous, M.; Gronwall, C.; Gallagher, S. C.; Fedotov, K.; Hill, A. R.; Durrell, P. R.; Tzanavaris, P.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Zabludoff, A. I.; Maier, M. L.; Johnson, K. E.; Walker, L. M.; Maybhate, A.; English, J.; Mulchaey, J. S.

    2012-01-20

    Compact group galaxies often appear unaffected by their unusually dense environment. Closer examination can, however, reveal the subtle, cumulative effects of multiple galaxy interactions. Hickson Compact Group (HCG) 59 is an excellent example of this situation. We present a photometric study of this group in the optical (Hubble Space Telescope), infrared (Spitzer), and X-ray (Chandra) regimes aimed at characterizing the star formation and nuclear activity in its constituent galaxies and intra-group medium. We associate five dwarf galaxies with the group and update the velocity dispersion, leading to an increase in the dynamical mass of the group of up to a factor of 10 (to 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} M{sub Sun }), and a subsequent revision of its evolutionary stage. Star formation is proceeding at a level consistent with the morphological types of the four main galaxies, of which two are star-forming and the other are two quiescent. Unlike in some other compact groups, star-forming complexes across HCG 59 closely follow mass-radius scaling relations typical of nearby galaxies. In contrast, the ancient globular cluster populations in galaxies HCG 59A and B show intriguing irregularities, and two extragalactic H II regions are found just west of B. We age-date a faint stellar stream in the intra-group medium at {approx}1 Gyr to examine recent interactions. We detect a likely low-luminosity active galactic nucleus in HCG 59A by its {approx}10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} X-ray emission; the active nucleus rather than star formation can account for the UV+IR spectral energy distribution. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of galaxy evolution in dense environments.

  17. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Köhler theory to predict the effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid-liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.

  18. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-19

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Köhler theory to predict themore » effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid–liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.« less

  19. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-19

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Kohler theory to predict themore » effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid–liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. Furthermore, the model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.« less

  20. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2015-09-01

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. The model combines Köhler theory with semi-empirical group contribution methods to estimate molar volumes, activity coefficients and liquid-liquid phase boundaries to predict the effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of two. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging testbeds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger scale models.

  1. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    SciTech Connect

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Köhler theory to predict the effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid–liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.

  2. Structure-activity relationships in aminosterol antibiotics: the effect of stereochemistry at the 7-OH group.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Tsemre-Dingel; Gassler, Frank; Shu, Youheng; Jones, Stephen; Selinsky, Barry S

    2013-06-01

    Squalamine and three aminosterol analogs have been shown to inhibit bacterial cell growth and induce lysis of large unilamellar phospholipid vesicles. The analogs differ in the identity of the polyamine attached at C3 of the sterol, and the stereochemistry of a hydroxyl substituent at C7. Analogs with a tetraammonium spermine polyamine are somewhat more active than analogs with a shorter trisammonium spermidine polyamine, and analogs with an axial (α) hydroxyl substituent at C7 are more active than analogs with the corresponding equatorial (β) hydroxyl group. There is some variability noted; the 7β-OH spermine analog is the most active compound against Escherichia coli, but the least effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Lytic activity correlates well with antimicrobial activity of the compounds, but the lytic activity varies with the phospholipid composition of the vesicles. PMID:23618624

  3. [Activity and Future Perspective of Local Independent Clinical Trial Group (OGSG)].

    PubMed

    Tsujinaka, Toshimasa

    2016-04-01

    Osaka Gastrointestinal Cancer Chemotherapy Study Group (OGSG) was established in 2000 and has been conducting investigator initiated multi-institutional collaboration trials regarding the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, especially using chemotherapeutic agents. Although organization of OGSG has been renovated to perform post-marketing clinical trials with high quality, OGSG is now facing severe financial crisis because of shortage of donation from pharmaceutical companies. Here, present problems and future perspectives are discussed. PMID:27220796

  4. Physical activity and beverage consumption in preschoolers: focus groups with parents and teachers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is a method in which new ideas and strategies can be discovered. This qualitative study aimed to investigate parents’ and teachers’ opinions on physical activity and beverage consumption of preschool children. Through separate, independent focus groups, they expressed their perceptions on children’s current physical activity and beverage consumption levels, factors that influence and enhance these behaviours, and anticipated barriers to making changes. Methods Multi-cultural and multi-geographical focus groups were carried out in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain). In total, twenty-four focus groups with 122 parents and eighteen focus groups with 87 teachers were conducted between October 2010 and January 2011. Based on a semi-structured interview guide, questions on preschoolers’ physical activity (opinions on preschoolers’ physical activity, how to increase physical activity, facilitators and barriers of physical activity) and beverage consumption (rules and policies, factors influencing promotion of healthy drinking, recommendations for future intervention development) were asked. The information was analyzed using qualitative data analysis software (NVivo8). Results The focus group results indicated misperceptions of caregivers on preschoolers’ physical activity and beverage consumption levels. Caregivers perceived preschoolers as sufficiently active; they argue that children need to learn to sit still in preparation for primary school. At most preschools, children can drink only water. In some preschools sugar-sweetened beverages like chocolate milk or fruit juices, are also allowed. It was mentioned that sugar-sweetened beverages can be healthy due to mineral and vitamin content, although according to parents their daily intake is limited. These opinions resulted in low perceived needs to change behaviours. Conclusions Although previous research shows need of change in

  5. Ghrelin treatment prevents development of activity based anorexia in mice.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Romain; Lucas, Nicolas; Breton, Jonathan; Azhar, Saïda; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2016-06-01

    Stimulation of feeding is necessary for treatment of pathological conditions of chronic malnutrition due to anorexia. Ghrelin, a hunger hormone, is one of the candidate for pharmacological treatments of anorexia, but because of its instability in plasma has limited efficacy. We previously showed that plasmatic IgG protect ghrelin from degradation and that IgG from obese subjects and mice may increase ghrelin׳s orexigenic effect. In this study we tested if ghrelin alone or combined with IgG may improve feeding in chronically food-restricted mice with or without physical activity-based anorexia (ABA) induced by free access to a running wheel. Mice received a single daily intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin (1nM) together or not with total IgG (1nM) from obese ob/ob or lean mice before access to food during 8 days of 3h/day feeding time. We found that both ghrelin and ghrelin combined with IgG from obese, but not lean mice, prevented ABA, however, they were not able to diminish body weight loss. Physical activity was lower during the feeding period and was increased shortly after feeding in mice receiving ghrelin together with IgG from obese mice. In food-restricted mice without ABA, ghrelin treatments did not have significant effects on food intake. Thus, this study supports pharmacological use of ghrelin or ghrelin combined with IgG from obese animals for treatment of anorexia accompanied by elevated physical activity. The utility of combining ghrelin with protective IgG should be further determined in animal models of anorexia with unrestricted access to food. PMID:27052473

  6. Peer Groups and Substance Use: Examining the Direct and Interactive Effect of Leisure Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships among adolescent leisure activities, peer behavior, and substance use. We suggest that peer group interaction can have a differential effect on adolescent deviant behavior depending on the type of leisure pattern adolescents engage in. We analyze data from a representative national sample of Icelandic…

  7. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  8. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multifamily Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore multiple family members' perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthful eating and physical activity in the home. Design: Ten multifamily focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting and Participants: Community setting with primarily black and white families. Family members (n = 103) were aged 8 to 61…

  9. An Investigation of the Structure of Group Activities in ELT Coursebooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.; Ball, Jessica

    1996-01-01

    Reports a study examining the use of group activities in 10 randomly selected English-language teaching coursebooks published since 1990. Results are discussed in light of theory and research on cooperative learning; task-based language teaching; and the roles of learners, teachers, and coursebooks. (26 references) (Author/CK)

  10. Peer Interactions among Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities during Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijs, Sara; Penne, Anneleen; Vlaskamp, Carla; Maes, Bea

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) meet other children with PIMD in day care centres or schools. This study explores the peer-directed behaviours of children with PIMD, the peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers and the children's positioning. Method: Group activities for…

  11. Children's Preferences for Group Musical Activities in Child Care Centres: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a cross-cultural research study of children's preferences for group musical activities in child care centres. A total of 228 young children aged 4-5 years in seven child care centres in Hong Kong and in the Adelaide City of South Australia participated in the study. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected via a…

  12. 75 FR 76070 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... (Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance) regarding bridge failure. Final rule published on July 15, 2010 (75 FR... announcement of working group activities and status reports of August 20, 2010 (75 FR 51525). The 42nd full... Rulemaking (NPRM) was published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October...

  13. 77 FR 24257 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... announcement of working group activities and status reports of November 28, 2011 (76 FR 72997). The 45th full... Rulemaking (NPRM) was published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October 23... emergency communication, emergency egress, and rescue access, was published on February 1, 2008 (73 FR...

  14. Activities for Learning about Conservation of Forest Resources: A Guide for Leaders of Youth Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide is intended to support the leader of a youth group in increasing the awareness of members of the need for good forest conservation practices. Sections include: (1) science fundamentals; (2) making informative exhibits; (3) gaining community involvement; (4) Christmas activities; (5) games and crafts; and (6) a list of resources and…

  15. Activation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors is neuroprotective in cortical cultures.

    PubMed

    Bruno, V; Copani, A; Bonanno, L; Knoepfel, T; Kuhn, R; Roberts, P J; Nicoletti, F

    1996-08-22

    (RS)-alpha-Methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG) and (S)-alpha-methyl-3-carboxyphenylalanine (M3CPA), two novel preferential antagonists of group III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, antagonized the neuroprotective activity of L-2-amino-4-phosphono-butanoate (L-AP4) or L-serine-O-phosphate in mice cultured cortical cells exposed to a toxic pulse of N-methyl-D-aspartate. In contrast, MPPG did not influence the neuroprotective activity of the selective group II mGlu receptor agonist, (2S,1'R,2'R,3'R)-2-(2,3-dicarboxy-cyclopropyl) glycine (DCG-IV). These results indicate that activation of group III mGu receptors exerts neuroprotective activity against excitotoxic neuronal death. At least one of the two major group III mGlu receptor subtypes, i.e. mGlu4 receptor, is expressed by cultured cortical neurons, as shown by immunocytochemical analysis with specific polyclonal antibodies. PMID:8880068

  16. Information Activities and Appropriation in Teacher Trainees' Digital, Group-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanell, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports results from an ethnographic study of teacher trainees' information activities in digital, group-based learning and their relation to the interplay between use and appropriation of digital tools and the learning environment. Method: The participants in the present study are 249 pre-school teacher trainees in…

  17. 75 FR 51525 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... announcement of working group activities and status reports of January 29, 2010 (75 FR 4904). The 41st full... October 11, 2005. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) was published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275... published on February 1, 2008 (73 FR 6370). The Task Force met on October 17-18, 2007, and reached...

  18. Collaborative Activities Enabled by GroupScribbles (GS): An Exploratory Study of Learning Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looi, Chee-Kit; Chen, Wenli; Ng, Foo-Keong

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of an exploratory cycle of a design-based research project and examines the learning effectiveness of collaborative activities that are supported by the GroupScribbles (GS) software technology in two Singapore primary science classrooms. The students had ten weeks of GS-based lessons in science, which were…

  19. Use of a Wiki-Based Software to Manage Research Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting; Vezenov, Dmitri V.; Simboli, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses use of the wiki software Confluence to organize research group activities and lab resources. Confluence can serve as an electronic lab notebook (ELN), as well as an information management and collaboration tool. The article provides a case study in how researchers can use wiki software in "home-grown" fashion to…

  20. When Talking Won't Work: Implementing Experiential Group Activities with Addicted Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Hirshhorn, Meredith A.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional talk therapy, particularly cognitive behavioral techniques, are often ineffective when working with addicted clients for many reasons. By tapping into the power of the group modality, experiential activities can serve as a powerful facilitator of insight and behavior change. The authors provide a brief review of the literature followed…

  1. Singing as Language Learning Activity in Multilingual Toddler Groups in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kultti, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This research focused on learning conditions in preschool that support multilingual children's linguistic development. The aim of this paper was to study singing activities through the experiences of ten multilingual children in toddler groups (one to three years of age) in eight Swedish preschools. A sociocultural theoretical approach is…

  2. 78 FR 75905 - Credit for Increasing Research Activities: Intra-Group Gross Receipts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... similar provisions of the Code. See, e.g., Prop. Reg. Sec. 1.199-1, 70 FR 67220, 67236 (November 4, 2005...; ] DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BE14 Credit for Increasing Research Activities: Intra-Group Gross Receipts AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice...

  3. Bill Gates' Great-Great-Granddaughter's Honeymoon: An Astronomy Activity for Several Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    When students finish a unit or course on the planets these days, they are often overwhelmed with facts, comparisons, and images. A good culminating activity, to help them organize their thinking (and review), is to have them divide into small groups (travel agencies) and come up with their top ten solar system "tourist sights" for future space…

  4. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Three Group Treatments for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byom, Tianna K.

    2009-01-01

    Rising overweight and obesity rates in the United States and the accompanying health issues underscore the need for an effective treatment for weight loss. While most people tend to lose weight as a result of cognitive-behavioral treatment, the weight is often regained after treatment ends. Possible reasons for weight regain include not fully…

  5. Comparison of Operant Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Group Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Judith A.; Clancy, Steve

    1988-01-01

    Assigned chronic low back pain patients to operant behavioral (OB) treatment, cognitive-behavioral (CB) treatment, or waiting-list (WL) condition. Both treatments resulted in decreased physical and psychosocial disability. OB patients' greater improvement leveled off at followup; CB patients continued to improve over the 12 months following…

  6. Activities of the US-Japan Safety Monitor Joint Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Richard L. Savercool; Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    This paper documents the activities of the US-Japan exchange in the area of personnel safety at magnetic and laser fusion experiments. A near-miss event with a visiting scientist to the US in 1992 was the impetus for forming the Joint Working Group on Fusion Safety. This exchnge has been under way for over ten years and has provided many safety insights for both US and Japanese facility personnel at national institutes and at universities. The background and activities of the Joint Working Group are described, including the facilities that have been visited for safety walkthroughs, the participants from both countries, and the main safety issues examined during visits. Based on these visits, some operational safety ideas to enhance experiment safety are given. The near-term future plans of the Safety Monitor Joint Working group are also discussed.

  7. Modelling of full-scale wastewater treatment plants with different treatment processes using the Activated Sludge Model no. 3.

    PubMed

    Wichern, M; Obenaus, F; Wulf, P; Rosenwinkel, K H

    2001-01-01

    In 1999 the Activated Sludge Model no. 3 (ASM 3) by the IWA task Group on Mathematical Modeling for Design and Operation of Biological Wastewater Treatment was presented. The model is used for simulation of nitrogen removal. On the basis of a new calibration of the ASM 3 with the easy degradable COD measured by respiration simulation runs of this paper have been done. In 2000 a biological phosphorus removal module by the EAWAG was added to the calibrated version of ASM 3 and is now serving the current requirements for modelling the enhanced biological P-removal. Only little experiences with different load situations of large-scale wastewater treatment plants were made with both new models so far. This article reports the experiences with the simulation and calibration of the biological parameters using ASM 3 and the EAWAG BioP Module. Three different large-scale wastewater treatment plants in Germany with different treatment systems will be discussed (Koblenz: pre-denitrification; Hildesheim: simultaneous denitrification with EBPR; Duderstadt: intermediate denitrification with EBPR). Informations regarding the choice of kinetic and stoichiometric parameters will be given. PMID:11496677

  8. Enhanced photocatalytic CO₂-reduction activity of electrospun mesoporous TiO₂ nanofibers by solvothermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Fu, Junwei; Cao, Shaowen; Yu, Jiaguo; Low, Jingxiang; Lei, Yongpeng

    2014-06-28

    Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuels using semiconductor photocatalysts is considered as a potential solution to the energy deficiency and greenhouse effect. In this work, mesoporous TiO2 nanofibers with high specific surface areas and abundant surface hydroxyl groups are prepared using an electrospinning strategy combined with a subsequent calcination process, followed by a solvothermal treatment. The solvothermally treated mesoporous TiO2 nanofibers exhibit excellent photocatalytic performance on CO2 reduction into hydrocarbon fuels. The significantly improved photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the enhanced CO2 adsorption capacity and the improved charge separation after solvothermal treatment. The highest activity is achieved for the sample with a 2-h solvothermal treatment, showing 6- and 25-fold higher CH4 production rate than those of TiO2 nanofibers without solvothermal treatment and P25, respectively. This work may also provide a prototype for studying the effect of solvothermal treatment on the structure and photocatalytic activity of semiconductor photocatalysts. PMID:24809306

  9. Late Mortality After Dexrazoxane Treatment: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Eric J.; Asselin, Barbara L.; Schwartz, Cindy L.; Doody, David R.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Baker, K. Scott; Bhatia, Smita; Constine, Louis S.; Freyer, David R.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Armenian, Saro H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Given concerns that dexrazoxane may reduce treatment efficacy, induce second cancers, and thus compromise overall survival among children, we examined long-term overall and cause-specific mortality and disease relapse rates from three randomized clinical trials. Patients and Methods Children's Oncology Group trials P9404 (T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma; n = 537), P9425 (intermediate/high-risk Hodgkin lymphoma; n = 216), and P9426 (low-risk Hodgkin lymphoma; n = 255) were conducted between 1996 and 2001. Each trial randomly assigned patients to doxorubicin with or without dexrazoxane. The dexrazoxane:doxorubicin dose ratio was 10:1, and the cumulative protocol-specified doxorubicin dose was 100 to 360 mg/m2. Dexrazoxane was given as an intravenous bolus before each doxorubicin dose. Data from all three trials were linked with the National Death Index to determine overall and cause-specific mortality by dexrazoxane status. Results Among 1,008 patients (507 received dexrazoxane) with a median follow-up of 12.6 years (range, 0 to 15.5 years), 132 died (67 received dexrazoxane). Overall mortality did not vary by dexrazoxane status (12.8% with dexrazoxane at 10 years v 12.2% without; hazard ratio [HR], 1.03; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.45). Findings were similar when each trial was examined separately. Dexrazoxane also was not significantly associated with differential causes of death. The original cancer caused 76.5% of all deaths (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.61 to 1.32) followed by second cancers (13.6% of deaths; HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.49 to 3.15). Specifically, dexrazoxane was not associated with deaths from acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplasia or cardiovascular events. Conclusion Among pediatric patients with leukemia or lymphoma, after extended follow-up, dexrazoxane use did not seem to compromise long-term survival. PMID:26014292

  10. Communication: Active space decomposition with multiple sites: Density matrix renormalization group algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Shane M.; Shiozaki, Toru

    2014-12-07

    We extend the active space decomposition method, recently developed by us, to more than two active sites using the density matrix renormalization group algorithm. The fragment wave functions are described by complete or restricted active-space wave functions. Numerical results are shown on a benzene pentamer and a perylene diimide trimer. It is found that the truncation errors in our method decrease almost exponentially with respect to the number of renormalization states M, allowing for numerically exact calculations (to a few μE{sub h} or less) with M = 128 in both cases. This rapid convergence is because the renormalization steps are used only for the interfragment electron correlation.

  11. Randomised double blind comparison of terbinafine and itraconazole for treatment of toenail tinea infection. Seventh Lamisil German Onychomycosis Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Bräutigam, M.; Nolting, S.; Schopf, R. E.; Weidinger, G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the efficacy and tolerability of terbinafine and itraconazole in the treatment of toenail tinea unguium. DESIGN--Multicentre, double blind, parallel group study. SETTING--17 university hospitals, one army hospital, and five dermatology practices. PATIENTS--195 patients with clinically suspected toenail tinea and growth of dermatophytes in baseline culture; data on 86 patients in the terbinafine group and 84 patients in the itraconazole group were fully evaluated for efficacy. INTERVENTIONS--Daily dose of 250 mg terbinafine or 200 mg itraconazole for 12 weeks, with follow up for a further 40 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mycological cure (negative results on microscopy and culture) and clinical improvement (length and area of unaffected nail) at week 52 or at discontinuation of treatment. RESULTS--At the end of the study mycological cure rates were 81% (70 out of 86) for terbinafine and 63% (53 out of 84) for itraconazole (2P < 0.01). Negative culture was achieved in 92% (79 out of 86) in the terbinafine group and 67% (56 out of 84) in the itraconazole group (2P < 0.0001). Length of unaffected nail was 9.44 mm in the terbinafine group and 7.85 mm in the itraconazole group (2P < 0.05). CONCLUSION--Terbinafine is more effective than itraconazole in the treatment of toenail tinea infection. PMID:7580551

  12. Anger: A Neglected Group Treatment Issue with Cardiac Transplantation Recipients and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstam, Varda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the group process, specifically as it evolved with respect to anger in cardiac transplantation recipients and their families. Discusses the implications of these findings for professionals working in group settings with recipients and their families. (JBJ)

  13. Treatment of activated carbon to enhance catalytic activity for reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, B.J.; Rhee, H.K. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Lee, J.K.; Park, D. )

    1994-11-01

    Catalytic activity of activated carbon treated with various techniques was examined in a fixed bed reactor for the reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia at 150 C. Activated carbon derived from coconut shell impregnated with an aqueous solution of ammonium sulfate, further treated with sulfuric acid, dried at 120 C, and then heated in an inert gas stream at 400 C, showed the highest catalytic activity within the range of experimental conditions. The enhancement of catalytic activity of modified activated carbon could be attributed to the increase in the amount of oxygen function groups which increased the adsorption site for ammonia. Catalytic activity of activated carbons depended on the surface area and the oxygen content as well.

  14. “Convivência” Groups: Building Active and Healthy Communities of Older Adults in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Tânia R. Bertoldo; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J.

    2012-01-01

    In old age, social groups can be a crucial component for health and well-being. In 2009-2010, a follow-up survey was carried out in Florianópolis, Brazil to understand the impact of a variety of programs established since 2002 that were designed to enhance social activities among the older adult population. This study employed two surveys within the population of older adults in Florianópolis. The first survey interviewed a total of 875 older adults in 2002, and the second survey involved 1,705 older adults between 2009 and 2010. By 2010, many new programs were offered in the community and the enrollment of older adults in social programs followed similar trends. “Convivência” groups stood out as extremely popular social groups among this population. This paper discusses some of the potential outcomes associated with participation in “convivência” groups. PMID:22830022

  15. Townes Group Activities from 1983-2000: Personal Recollections of William Danchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.

    2015-01-01

    I arrived in Berkeley in October 1983 as a post-doc, and my appointment was at the Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). During that time the group was very large, with multiple activities led by Charlie himself and also by Senior Fellows such as John Lacy, Dan Jaffe, and Al Betz at the top of the hill at Space Sciences. Another significant contingent of the Townes group was housed in Birge Hall on campus, led by Reinhard Genzel when he was an Assistant Professor in the Physics Department. Although the group encompassed two separate locations, it functioned as one large group. Either we rode with Charlie up and down the hill, or (if we were concerned about our safety!) we took the bus.

  16. Activation of bone marrow phagocytes following benzene treatment of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Laskin, D L; MacEachern, L; Snyder, R

    1989-01-01

    Techniques in flow cytometry/cell sorting were used to characterize the effects of benzene and its metabolites on subpopulations of bone marrow cells. Treatment of male Balb/c mice with benzene (880 mg/kg) or a combination of its metabolites, hydroquinone and phenol (50 mg/kg), resulted in a 30 to 40% decrease in bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometric analysis revealed two subpopulations of bone marrow cells that could be distinguished by their size and density or granularity. The larger, more dense subpopulation was found to consist predominantly of macrophages and granulocytes as determined by monoclonal antibody binding and by cell sorting. Benzene treatment had no selective cytotoxic effects on subpopulations of bone marrow cells. To determine if benzene treatment activated bone marrow phagocytes, we quantified production of hydrogen peroxide by these cells using the fluorescent indicator dye, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. We found that macrophages and granulocytes from bone marrow of treated mice produced 50% more hydrogen peroxide in response to the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate than did cells from control animals. It is hypothesized that phagocyte activation and production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates may contribute to hematotoxicity induced by benzene. PMID:2676504

  17. A Small-Group Activity Introducing the Use and Interpretation of BLAST †

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Peter D.; Fricker, Ashwana D.; Roco, Constance Armanda; Chandrangsu, Pete; Merkel, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    As biological sequence data are generated at an ever increasing rate, the role of bioinformatics in biological research also grows. Students must be trained to complete and interpret bioinformatic searches to enable them to effectively utilize the trove of sequence data available. A key bioinformatic tool for sequence comparison and genome database searching is BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool). BLAST identifies sequences in a database that are similar to the entered query sequence, and ranks them based on the length and quality of the alignment. Our goal was to introduce sophomore and junior level undergraduate students to the basic functions and uses of BLAST with a small group activity lasting a single class period. The activity provides students an opportunity to perform a BLAST search, interpret the data output, and use the data to make inferences about bacterial cell envelope structure. The activity consists of two parts. Part 1 is a handout to be completed prior to class, complete with video tutorial, that reviews cell envelope structure, introduces key terms, and allows students to familiarize themselves with the mechanics of a BLAST search. Part 2 consists of a hands-on, web-based small group activity to be completed during the class period. Evaluation of the activity through student performance assessments suggests that students who complete the activity can better interpret the BLAST output parameters % query coverage and % max identity. While the topic of the activity is bacterial cell wall structure, it could be adapted to address other biological concepts. PMID:24358388

  18. Group Cognitive Therapy and Alprazolam in the Treatment of Depression in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutler, Larry E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explored relative and combined effectiveness of alprazolam and group cognitive therapy among 56 elderly adults experiencing major affective disorder. Results revealed that individuals assigned to group cognitive therapy showed consistent improvement in subjective state and sleep efficiency relative to non-group-therapy subjects. No differences…

  19. A comparison of two treatments for childhood apraxia of speech: methods and treatment protocol for a parallel group randomised control trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood Apraxia of Speech is an impairment of speech motor planning that manifests as difficulty producing the sounds (articulation) and melody (prosody) of speech. These difficulties may persist through life and are detrimental to academic, social, and vocational development. A number of published single subject and case series studies of speech treatments are available. There are currently no randomised control trials or other well designed group trials available to guide clinical practice. Methods/Design A parallel group, fixed size randomised control trial will be conducted in Sydney, Australia to determine the efficacy of two treatments for Childhood Apraxia of Speech: 1) Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment and the 2) Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme – Third edition. Eligible children will be English speaking, aged 4–12 years with a diagnosis of suspected CAS, normal or adjusted hearing and vision, and no comprehension difficulties or other developmental diagnoses. At least 20 children will be randomised to receive one of the two treatments in parallel. Treatments will be delivered by trained and supervised speech pathology clinicians using operationalised manuals. Treatment will be administered in 1-hour sessions, 4 times per week for 3 weeks. The primary outcomes are speech sound and prosodic accuracy on a customised 292 item probe and the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology inconsistency subtest administered prior to treatment and 1 week, 1 month and 4 months post-treatment. All post assessments will be completed by blinded assessors. Our hypotheses are: 1) treatment effects at 1 week post will be similar for both treatments, 2) maintenance of treatment effects at 1 and 4 months post will be greater for Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment than Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme treatment, and 3) generalisation of treatment effects to untrained related speech behaviours will be greater for Rapid Syllable Transition

  20. Activities of the OECD/NEA Expert Group on Assay Data for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, Ian C; Rugama, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    Management of spent nuclear fuel is a key issue for many NEA member countries. In nuclear criticality safety, the decision of many countries to advance burnup credit as part of their licensing strategy has heightened recent interest in experimental data needed to validate computer codes used in burnup credit calculations. This paper discusses recent activities of an Expert Group on assay data, formed under the OECD/NEA/NSC/WPNCS (Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety) to help coordinate isotopic assay data activities and facilitate international collaboration between NEA member countries developing or implementing burnup credit methodologies. Recent activities of the Expert Group are described, focusing on the planned expansion of the Spent Fuel Isotopic Composition Database (SFCOMPO), and preparation of a state-of-the-art report on assay data that includes sections on recommended radiochemical analysis methods, techniques, and lessons learned from previous experiments.

  1. Effects of sulfate group in red seaweed polysaccharides on anticoagulant activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wanai; Mao, Xuan; Peng, Xiaohui; Tang, Shunqing

    2014-01-30

    In this paper, the structural effects of two main red seaweed polysaccharides (agarose and carrageenan) and their sulfated derivatives on the anticoagulant activity and cytotoxicity were investigated. The substitution position rather than the substitution degree of sulfate groups shows the biggest impact on both the anticoagulant activity and the cell proliferation. Among them, C-2 of 3,6-anhydro-α-d-Galp is the most favorable position for substitution, whereas C-6 of β-d-Galp is the most disadvantageous. Moreover, the secondary structures of glycans also play a key role in biological activities. These demonstrations warrant that the red seaweed polysaccharides should be seriously considered in biomedical applications after carefully tailoring the sulfate groups. PMID:24299838

  2. Enhanced Surfactant Adsorption on Activated Carbon through Manipulation of Surface Oxygen Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, John; Qu, Deyang; Foster, Michelle

    2012-02-01

    Passive energy storage is a necessary component for balancing the lifecycle budget with new forms of green energy. The work presented describes how surface oxygen groups (SOG) on granulated activated carbon have been manipulated using Nitric Acid in a controlled, stepwise fashion. The structure and surface functionality of the activated carbon samples were characterized using DRIFTS, Raman Spectroscopy and Porosimetry. Total surface area was found to increase proportionally with the removal of heteroatom material, exposing previously insulated active sites responsible for SOG attachment. Broad oxide peaks were deconvoluted and analyzed, allowing for absolute identification of evolving functionality at each oxidation stage. SOGs were maximized on the third oxidation cycle with the presence of conjugated aromatic, phenol, lactone, and carboxylic acid groups. FSN Zonyl nonionic was applied to all oxidized samples at various concentrations. Total adsorbed surfactant was quantified for each concentration / oxidation scheme using attenuated total reflection. The relative quantity and polarity of chemisorbed surfactant were qualitatively assessed for each equilibrium concentration.

  3. FRESH ACTIVITY IN OLD SYSTEMS: RADIO AGNs IN FOSSIL GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Kelley M.; Wilcots, Eric M.; Hartwick, Victoria L. E-mail: ewilcots@astro.wisc.edu

    2012-08-15

    We present the first systematic 1.4 GHz Very Large Array radio continuum survey of fossil galaxy group candidates. These are virialized systems believed to have assembled over a gigayear in the past through the merging of galaxy group members into a single, isolated, massive elliptical galaxy and featuring an extended hot X-ray halo. We use new photometric and spectroscopic data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to determine that three of the candidates are clearly not fossil groups. Of the remaining 30 candidates, 67% contain a radio-loud (L{sub 1.4GHz} > 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}) active galactic nucleus (AGN) at the center of their dominant elliptical galaxy. We find a weak correlation between the radio luminosity of the AGN and the X-ray luminosity of the halo suggesting that the AGN contributes to energy deposition into the intragroup medium. We only find a correlation between the radio and optical luminosity of the central elliptical galaxy when we include X-ray-selected, elliptically dominated non-fossil groups, indicating a weak relationship between AGN strength and the mass assembly history of the groups. The dominant elliptical galaxy of fossil groups is on average roughly an order of magnitude more luminous than normal group elliptical galaxies in optical, X-ray, and radio luminosities and our findings are consistent with previous results that the radio-loud fraction in elliptical galaxies is linked to the stellar mass of a population. The current level of activity in fossil groups suggests that AGN fueling continues long after the last major merger. We discuss several possibilities for fueling the AGN at the present epoch.

  4. American Association of Physicists in Medicine Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 53: quality assurance for clinical radiotherapy treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Fraass, B; Doppke, K; Hunt, M; Kutcher, G; Starkschall, G; Stern, R; Van Dyke, J

    1998-10-01

    In recent years, the sophistication and complexity of clinical treatment planning and treatment planning systems has increased significantly, particularly including three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning systems, and the use of conformal treatment planning and delivery techniques. This has led to the need for a comprehensive set of quality assurance (QA) guidelines that can be applied to clinical treatment planning. This document is the report of Task Group 53 of the Radiation Therapy Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. The purpose of this report is to guide and assist the clinical medical physicist in developing and implementing a comprehensive but viable program of quality assurance for modern radiotherapy treatment planning. The scope of the QA needs for treatment planning is quite broad, encompassing image-based definition of patient anatomy, 3D beam descriptions for complex beams including multileaf collimator apertures, 3D dose calculation algorithms, and complex plan evaluation tools including dose volume histograms. The Task Group recommends an organizational framework for the task of creating a QA program which is individualized to the needs of each institution and addresses the issues of acceptance testing, commissioning the planning system and planning process, routine quality assurance, and ongoing QA of the planning process. This report, while not prescribing specific QA tests, provides the framework and guidance to allow radiation oncology physicists to design comprehensive and practical treatment planning QA programs for their clinics. PMID:9800687

  5. Effect of group activities on health promotion for the community-dwelling elderly

    PubMed Central

    Fukasawa, Masako; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In Japan, the Integrated Community Care System aims to support residents to live as independently as possible at home. Koreisya-Kyoshitsu and Fureaiikiiki salons are two types of group activities for community-dwelling elderly. We investigated effective ways of conducting such activities. Methods: We analyzed 96 subjects from 8 salons and 354 subjects from 10 Koreisya-Kyoshitsu. Self-completed questionnaires included the following: attributes, the Motor Fitness Scale (MFS), revised Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), Measurement of Psychological Independence (MPI), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and self-rated health status (SRH). Follow-up assessment was conducted 6 months later. Representatives from 8 salons and staff members from 10 Koreisya-Kyoshitsu answered an additional questionnaire on management. Results: In Koreisya-Kyoshitsu, physical performance (MFS) (p = 0.007) and subjective well-being (PGCMS) (p = 0.001) improved significantly, whereas psychological independence (MPI) deteriorated significantly (p = 0.015). The MFS scores significantly improved in the sub-group with a high number of sessions (7 or more) (p = 0.043), as well as in the non-volunteer sub-group (p = 0.004). The PGCMS scores significantly improved in the sub-group with a high number of sessions (p < 0.001). The MPI scores significantly deteriorated in the sub-group with a low frequency of sessions (6 or less) and in the non-volunteer sub-group (p = 0.013 and p = 0.010, respectively). In salons, the frequency of going out decreased significantly (p = 0.049). Functional status (IADL) significantly improved in the “twice or more a month” sub-group (p = 0.046), whereas it significantly deteriorated in the “once a month” sub-group (p = 0.004). The proportion of volunteers/organizers in Koreisya-Kyoshitsu (23.4%) was significantly lower than that in salons (39.6%). Conclusion: The frequency (number) of sessions, but not the volunteer

  6. Dihydrolipoic acid activates oligomycin-sensitive thiol groups and increases ATP synthesis in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, G; Mainka, L; Krüger, E

    1991-08-01

    Investigations with dihydrolipoic acid in rat heart mitochondria and mitoplasts reveal an activation of ATP-synthase up to 45%, whereas ATPase activities decrease by 36%. In parallel with an increase in ATP synthesis oligomycin-sensitive mitochondrial -SH groups are activated at 2-4 nmol dihydrolipoic acid/mg protein. ATPase activation by the uncouplers carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone and oleate is diminished by dihydrolipoic acid, and ATP synthesis depressed by oleate is partially restored. No such efficiency of dihydrolipoic acid is seen with palmitate-induced ATPase activation or decrease of ATP synthesis. This indicates different interference of oleate and palmitate with mitochondria. In addition to its known coenzymatic properties dihydrolipoic acid may act as a substitute for coenzyme A, thereby diminishing the uncoupling efficiency of oleate. Furthermore, dihydrolipoic acid is a very potent antioxidant, shifting the -SH-S-S- equilibrium in mitochondria to the reduced state and improving the energetic state of cells. PMID:1832845

  7. Does goal setting in activity-focused interventions for children with cerebral palsy influence treatment outcome?

    PubMed

    Brogren Carlberg, Eva; Löwing, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    Today, treatment for children with cerebral palsy predominantly aims at improving the children's possibilities to perform everyday activities in their natural environment. The activities in focus for intervention are often expressed as specific goals, frequently defined in a collaborative goal-setting process between professionals and parents. The role of goal setting to improve the outcome of the intervention has not been shown in the literature so far. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore if goal setting has an impact on treatment outcome assessed by standardized measures. CINAHL and MEDLINE were searched from January 2000 to October 2012, resulting in a final selection of 13 articles, six of which were randomized controlled trials. Methodological quality was assessed and study characteristics were analysed descriptively. Subject characteristics, type of intervention/s, frequency, and intensity of therapy varied largely. Outcome was assessed by standardized outcome measures as well as evaluated through aspects of goal attainment. Most studies showed robust within-group changes according to study-appropriate standardized measures, whereas the between-group comparisons exhibited less consistent differences in outcome. The review does not provide support for a positive effect of goal setting per se on treatment outcome. Studies that specifically measure the effect of goal setting on treatment outcome are needed. PMID:24237280

  8. Neural activation during processing of aversive faces predicts treatment outcome in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Charlet, Katrin; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Richter, Anne; Naundorf, Karina; Dornhof, Lina; Weinfurtner, Christopher E J; König, Friederike; Walaszek, Bernadeta; Schubert, Florian; Müller, Christian A; Gutwinski, Stefan; Seissinger, Annette; Schmitz, Lioba; Walter, Henrik; Beck, Anne; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kiefer, Falk; Heinz, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Neuropsychological studies reported decoding deficits of emotional facial expressions in alcohol-dependent patients, and imaging studies revealed reduced prefrontal and limbic activation during emotional face processing. However, it remains unclear whether this reduced neural activation is mediated by alcohol-associated volume reductions and whether it interacts with treatment outcome. We combined analyses of neural activation during an aversive face-cue-comparison task and local gray matter volumes (GM) using Biological Parametric Mapping in 33 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and 33 matched healthy controls. Alcoholics displayed reduced activation toward aversive faces-neutral shapes in bilateral fusiform gyrus [FG; Brodmann areas (BA) 18/19], right middle frontal gyrus (BA46/47), right inferior parietal gyrus (BA7) and left cerebellum compared with controls, which were explained by GM differences (except for cerebellum). Enhanced functional activation in patients versus controls was found in left rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial frontal gyrus (BA10/11), even after GM reduction control. Increased ACC activation correlated significantly with less (previous) lifetime alcohol intake [Lifetime Drinking History (LDH)], longer abstinence and less subsequent binge drinking in patients. High LDH appear to impair treatment outcome via its neurotoxicity on ACC integrity. Thus, high activation of the rostral ACC elicited by affective faces appears to be a resilience factor predicting better treatment outcome. Although no group differences were found, increased FG activation correlated with patients' higher LDH. Because high LDH correlated with worse task performance for facial stimuli in patients, elevated activation in the fusiform 'face' area may reflect inefficient compensatory activation. Therapeutic interventions (e.g. emotion evaluation training) may enable patients to cope with social stress and to decrease relapses after detoxification. PMID

  9. Assessing the temporal stability of surface functional groups introduced by plasma treatments on the outer shells of carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Merenda, Andrea; Ligneris, Elise des; Sears, Kallista; Chaffraix, Thomas; Magniez, Kevin; Cornu, David; Schütz, Jürg A.; Dumée, Ludovic F.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma treatments are emerging as superior efficiency treatment for high surface to volume ratio materials to tune functional group densities and alter crystallinity due to their ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale. The purpose of this study is to assess for the first time the long term stability of surface functional groups introduced across the surface of carbon nanotube materials for a series of oxidative, reductive and neutral plasma treatment conditions. Both plasma duration dose matrix based exposures and time decay experiments, whereby the surface energy of the materials was evaluated periodically over a one-month period, were carried out. Although only few morphological changes across the graphitic planes of the carbon nanotubes were found under the uniform plasma treatment conditions, the time dependence of pertinent work functions, supported by Raman analysis, suggested that the density of polar groups decreased non-linearly over time prior to reaching saturation from 7 days post treatment. This work provides critical considerations on the understanding of the stability of functional groups introduced across high specific surface area nano-materials used for the design of nano-composites, adsorptive or separation systems, or sensing materials and where interfacial interactions are key to the final materials performance. PMID:27507621

  10. Assessing the temporal stability of surface functional groups introduced by plasma treatments on the outer shells of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merenda, Andrea; Ligneris, Elise Des; Sears, Kallista; Chaffraix, Thomas; Magniez, Kevin; Cornu, David; Schütz, Jürg A.; Dumée, Ludovic F.

    2016-08-01

    Plasma treatments are emerging as superior efficiency treatment for high surface to volume ratio materials to tune functional group densities and alter crystallinity due to their ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale. The purpose of this study is to assess for the first time the long term stability of surface functional groups introduced across the surface of carbon nanotube materials for a series of oxidative, reductive and neutral plasma treatment conditions. Both plasma duration dose matrix based exposures and time decay experiments, whereby the surface energy of the materials was evaluated periodically over a one-month period, were carried out. Although only few morphological changes across the graphitic planes of the carbon nanotubes were found under the uniform plasma treatment conditions, the time dependence of pertinent work functions, supported by Raman analysis, suggested that the density of polar groups decreased non-linearly over time prior to reaching saturation from 7 days post treatment. This work provides critical considerations on the understanding of the stability of functional groups introduced across high specific surface area nano-materials used for the design of nano-composites, adsorptive or separation systems, or sensing materials and where interfacial interactions are key to the final materials performance.

  11. Assessing the temporal stability of surface functional groups introduced by plasma treatments on the outer shells of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Merenda, Andrea; Ligneris, Elise des; Sears, Kallista; Chaffraix, Thomas; Magniez, Kevin; Cornu, David; Schütz, Jürg A; Dumée, Ludovic F

    2016-01-01

    Plasma treatments are emerging as superior efficiency treatment for high surface to volume ratio materials to tune functional group densities and alter crystallinity due to their ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale. The purpose of this study is to assess for the first time the long term stability of surface functional groups introduced across the surface of carbon nanotube materials for a series of oxidative, reductive and neutral plasma treatment conditions. Both plasma duration dose matrix based exposures and time decay experiments, whereby the surface energy of the materials was evaluated periodically over a one-month period, were carried out. Although only few morphological changes across the graphitic planes of the carbon nanotubes were found under the uniform plasma treatment conditions, the time dependence of pertinent work functions, supported by Raman analysis, suggested that the density of polar groups decreased non-linearly over time prior to reaching saturation from 7 days post treatment. This work provides critical considerations on the understanding of the stability of functional groups introduced across high specific surface area nano-materials used for the design of nano-composites, adsorptive or separation systems, or sensing materials and where interfacial interactions are key to the final materials performance. PMID:27507621

  12. New active drugs for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zaniboni, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Newer active drugs have been recently added to the pharmacological armamentarium for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Aflibercept, a recombinant fusion protein composed of the extracellular domains of human vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) 1 and 2 and the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), is an attractive second-line option in combination with folfiri for patients who have failed folfox +/- bevacizumab. Ramucirumab, a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets VEGFR-2, provided similar results in the same setting. Tas-102, an oral fluoropyrimidine, and regorafenib, a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, are both able to control the disease in a considerable proportion of patients when all other available treatments have failed. These new therapeutic options along with the emerging concept that previous therapies may also be reitroduced or rechallenged after regorafenib and Tas-102 failure are bringing new hope for thousands of patients and their families. PMID:26730280

  13. New active drugs for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zaniboni, Alberto

    2015-12-27

    Newer active drugs have been recently added to the pharmacological armamentarium for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Aflibercept, a recombinant fusion protein composed of the extracellular domains of human vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) 1 and 2 and the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), is an attractive second-line option in combination with folfiri for patients who have failed folfox +/- bevacizumab. Ramucirumab, a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets VEGFR-2, provided similar results in the same setting. Tas-102, an oral fluoropyrimidine, and regorafenib, a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, are both able to control the disease in a considerable proportion of patients when all other available treatments have failed. These new therapeutic options along with the emerging concept that previous therapies may also be reitroduced or rechallenged after regorafenib and Tas-102 failure are bringing new hope for thousands of patients and their families. PMID:26730280

  14. Functional groups in the activity and regulation of Escherichia coli citrate synthase

    PubMed Central

    Danson, Michael J.; Weitzman, P. David J.

    1973-01-01

    1. Citrate synthase has been purified from Escherichia coli and shown to exist at an equilibrium between three forms: monomer (mol.wt. 57000), tetramer (mol.wt. 230000) and, possibly, octamer. Modification of the enzyme by photo-oxidation and by treatment with specific chemical reagents has been carried out to gain information on the amino acid residues involved in enzymic activity and in the inhibition of activity by NADH and α-oxoglutarate. 2. Several photo-oxidizable amino acids appear to be involved in activity. The nature of the pH-dependence of their rates of photo-oxidation with Methylene Blue suggests that these are histidines, a conclusion supported by the greater rate of photo-inactivation with Rose Bengal and the destruction of activity by diethyl pyrocarbonate. 3. The participation of histidine at the α-oxoglutarate effector site is indicated by photo-oxidation and the participation of cysteine at the NADH effector site suggested by photo-oxidation is confirmed by the desensitization to NADH produced by treatment with 5,5′-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate). Inactivation of the enzyme after modification with this reagent suggests the additional involvement of cysteine in catalytic activity. 4. Amino acid analyses of native and photo-oxidized enzyme are consistent with these conclusions. 5. Modification with 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl bromide indicates the participation of tryptophan in the activity of the enzyme. PMID:4359019

  15. Malaria crisis activity in sera from individuals of different ethnic groups of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Herrera, S; Perlaza, B L; Sanchez, C A; Herrera, M A

    1990-08-01

    Sera of negroes of African origin and of indians, living in a malaria endemic village on the Pacific Coast of Colombia, were analyzed to see if they could block intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro. A group of mestizos from a malaria-free city in Colombia was used as a negative control. Blood of each individual was studied for the presence of circulating parasites by thick and thin smears and their sera for antimalarial antibodies by IFAT and IRMA techniques. The inhibition of the intraerythrocytic growth induced by these sera was assessed by [3H]Hypoxanthine incorporation. All groups showed inhibitory activity independent of their exposure to malaria. Negro sera had the highest inhibitory activity even following the removal of antibody, and also the highest antimalarial antibody titers. The group of indians had reduced inhibitory activity and lower antibody titers compared to the negro sera. In the group of mestizos, who reported no malaria exposure, 14% had antibodies to asexual blood forms of P. falciparum and 60% induced significant inhibition. PMID:2283155

  16. Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Dorrepaal, Ethy; Thomaes, Kathleen; Smit, Johannes H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Draijer, Nel

    2013-01-01

    Background In the empirical and clinical literature, complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and personality disorders (PDs) are suggested to be predictive of drop-out or reduced treatment effectiveness in trauma-focused PTSD treatment. Objective In this study, we aimed to investigate if personality characteristics would predict treatment compliance and effectiveness in stabilizing complex PTSD treatment. Method In a randomized controlled trial on a 20-week stabilizing group cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for child-abuse-related complex PTSD, we included 71 patients of whom 38 were randomized to a psycho-educational and cognitive behavioral stabilizing group treatment. We compared the patients with few PD symptoms (adaptive) (N=14) with the non-adaptive patients (N=24) as revealed by a cluster analysis. Results We found that non-adaptive patients compared to the adaptive patients showed very low drop-out rates. Both non-adaptive patients, classified with highly different personality profiles “withdrawn” and “aggressive,” were equally compliant. With regard to symptom reduction, we found no significant differences between subtypes. Post-hoc, patients with a PD showed lower drop-out rates and higher effect sizes in terms of complex PTSD severity, especially on domains that affect regulation and interpersonal problems. Conclusions Contrary to our expectations, these preliminary findings indicate that this treatment is well tolerated by patients with a variety of personality pathology. Larger sample sizes are needed to study effectiveness for subgroups of complex PTSD patients. PMID:24224077

  17. Ozonation and activated carbon treatment of sewage effluents: removal of endocrine activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Stalter, Daniel; Magdeburg, Axel; Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Concerns about endocrine disrupting compounds in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents give rise to the implementation of advanced treatment steps for the elimination of trace organic contaminants. The present study investigated the effects of ozonation (O(3)) and activated carbon treatment (AC) on endocrine activities [estrogenicity, anti-estrogenicity, androgenicity, anti-androgenicity, aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonistic activity] with yeast-based bioassays. To evaluate the removal of non-specific toxicity, a cytotoxicity assay using a rat cell line was applied. Wastewater (WW) was sampled at two STPs after conventional activated sludge treatment following the secondary clarifier (SC) and after subsequent advanced treatments: O(3), O(3) + sand filtration (O(3-SF)), and AC. Conventional treatment reduced estrogenicity, androgenicity, and AhR agonistic activity by 78-99% compared to the untreated influent WW. Anti-androgenicity and anti-estrogenicity were not detectable in the influent but appeared in SC, possibly due to the more effective removal of respective agonists during conventional treatment. Endocrine activities after SC ranged from 2.0 to 2.8 ng/L estradiol equivalents (estrogenicity), from 4 to 22 μg/L 4-hydroxytamoxifen equivalents (anti-estrogenicity), from 1.9 to 2.0 ng/L testosterone equivalents (androgenicity), from 302 to 614 μg/L flutamide equivalents (anti-androgenicity), and from 387 to 741 ng/L β-naphthoflavone equivalents (AhR agonistic activity). In particular, estrogenicity and anti-androgenicity occurred in environmentally relevant concentrations. O(3) and AC further reduced endocrine activities effectively (estrogenicity: 77-99%, anti-androgenicity: 63-96%, AhR agonistic activity: 79-82%). The cytotoxicity assay exhibited a 32% removal of non-specific toxicity after O(3) compared to SC. O(3) and sand filtration reduced cytotoxic effects by 49%, indicating that sand filtration contributes to the removal of toxicants. AC was the

  18. Cell proliferation activity in posterior uveal melanoma after Ru-106 brachytherapy: an EORTC ocular oncology group study

    PubMed Central

    Pe'er, J.; Stefani, F.; Seregard, S.; Kivela, T.; Lommatzsch, P.; Prause, J.; Sobottka, B.; Damato, B.; Chowers, I.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate the cell proliferation activity in posterior uveal melanomas after Ru-106 brachytherapy.
METHODS—Eyes containing choroidal or ciliary body melanoma from seven ocular oncology centres, which were enucleated after first being treated by Ru-106 brachytherapy and which had enough melanoma tissue to enable histological assessment, were included. The 57 eligible specimens were divided into a group of 44 eyes that were enucleated because of tumour regrowth, and a non-recurrent group of 13 eyes that were enucleated because of complications such as neovascular glaucoma. 46 non-irradiated eyes harbouring uveal melanoma served as a control group. All specimens underwent routine processing. They were cut into 5 µm sections, and were stained with two main cell proliferation markers: PC-10 for PCNA and MIB-1 for Ki-67. The stained sections were assessed, and the cells that were positive in the immunostaining were counted in each section. The results were evaluated by various statistical methods.
RESULTS—The PC-10 score showed a statistically significant difference across the three groups (p = 0.002). The control group showed the highest PC-10 score (median 31.0 PCC/HPF) followed by the tumour regrowth group (median 4.9 PCC/HPF). The lowest PC-10 scores were found in the non-recurrent tumours (median 0.05 PCC/HPF). The MIB-1 score in the control group (median 5.77 PCC/HPF) was similar to the regrowth group (median 5.4 PCC/HPF). In contrast, the MIB-1 score in the non-recurrent tumours was statistically significantly lower (median 0.42 PCC/HPF). The PC-10 and MIB-1 scores were similar in tumours composed of either spindle cells or epithelioid cells in all groups.
CONCLUSIONS—The non-recurrent melanomas demonstrate significantly lower cellular proliferation activity than melanomas that showed regrowth or that were not irradiated at all. In our hands, PCNA gave more meaningful information than Ki-67. Our findings strongly support the need

  19. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology

    PubMed Central

    Siegford, Janice M.; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K.; Daigle, Courtney L.; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Hernandez, Carlos E.; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Tracking of individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. We describe several tracking systems that are currently in use for laying hens and review each, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suited, and relevant issues to fit the best technology for the intended purpose. Abstract Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns

  20. Detection of enzyme activities and their relation to serotypes of bovine and human group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Ekin, Ismail Hakki; Gurturk, Kemal; Ilhan, Ziya; Arabaci, Cigdem; Gulaydin, Ozgul

    2015-09-01

    Enzymatic properties of group B streptococci (GBS) serotypes from bovine milk and human routine vaginal specimens were investigated. Out of the 56 human and 66 bovine GBS, 35 and 30 could be classified serologically by a co-agglutination test with type-specific antisera, respectively. Hyaluronidase (HYAL), streptokinase (SK) and protease activities were detected using culture media. HYAL activity was observed mostly in typable human GBS, and serotypes Ia, Ic and II comprised 77.3% of the typable strains producing HYAL. Bovine GBS serotypes II, III and VII comprised 87.5% of typable bovine strains exhibiting HYAL activity. SK activity was detected only in three human GBS. Human GBS serotypes Ia, Ic, II, III, VII and almost all typable bovine GBS strains showed protease activity. β-D-glucosidase activity was frequently observed in human GBS, whereas N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity was mostly detected in non-typable GBS from humans. These results indicate that different GBS serotypes could vary in their virulence properties, and bovine and human GBS isolates could not be differentiated by their enzyme activities. Use of the culture media appeared to be a simple-to-apply and useful method for the detection of extracellular enzyme activity such as HYAL, protease and SK. PMID:26297151

  1. Development, Evaluation and Implementation of Chief Complaint Groupings to Activate Data Collection

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, L.; Hoffman, J.; Alessandrini, E.; Ballard, D. W.; Norris, R.; Tzimenatos, L.; Swietlik, M.; Tham, E.; Grundmeier, R. W.; Kuppermann, N.; Dayan, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Overuse of cranial computed tomography scans in children with blunt head trauma unnecessarily exposes them to radiation. The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) blunt head trauma prediction rules identify children who do not require a computed tomography scan. Electronic health record (EHR) based clinical decision support (CDS) may effectively implement these rules but must only be provided for appropriate patients in order to minimize excessive alerts. Objectives To develop, implement and evaluate site-specific groupings of chief complaints (CC) that accurately identify children with head trauma, in order to activate data collection in an EHR. Methods As part of a 13 site clinical trial comparing cranial computed tomography use before and after implementation of CDS, four PECARN sites centrally developed and locally implemented CC groupings to trigger a clinical trial alert (CTA) to facilitate the completion of an emergency department head trauma data collection template. We tested and chose CC groupings to attain high sensitivity while maintaining at least moderate specificity. Results Due to variability in CCs available, identical groupings across sites were not possible. We noted substantial variability in the sensitivity and specificity of seemingly similar CC groupings between sites. The implemented CC groupings had sensitivities greater than 90% with specificities between 75–89%. During the trial, formal testing and provider feedback led to tailoring of the CC groupings at some sites. Conclusions CC groupings can be successfully developed and implemented across multiple sites to accurately identify patients who should have a CTA triggered to facilitate EHR data collection. However, CC groupings will necessarily vary in order to attain high sensitivity and moderate-to-high specificity. In future trials, the balance between sensitivity and specificity should be considered based on the nature of the clinical condition

  2. DFT studies on the directing group dependent arene-alkene cross-couplings: arene activation vs. alkene activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Fang, De-Cai

    2015-08-01

    Due to its green-chemistry advantages, the dehydrogenative Heck reaction (DHR) has experienced enormous growth over the past few decades. In this work, two competing reaction channels were comparatively studied for the Pd(OAc)2-catalyzed DHRs of arenes with alkenes, referred to herein as the arene activation mechanism and the alkene activation mechanism, respectively, which mainly differ in the involvement of the reactants in the C-H activation step. Our calculations reveal that the commonly accepted arene activation mechanism is plausible for the desired arene-alkene cross-coupling; in contrast, the alternative alkene activation mechanism is kinetically inaccessible for the desired cross-coupling, but it is feasible for the homo-coupling of alkenes. The nature of directing groups on reactants could mainly determine the dominance of the two competing reaction routes, and therefore, influence the experimental yields. A wide range of directing groups experimentally used are examined by the density functional theory (DFT) method in this work, providing theoretical guidance for screening compatible reactants. PMID:26108375

  3. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p < 0.001), expressed in normalized and absolute unit, and possibly decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency power (p < 0.01); results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p < 0.001) and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing

  4. The Element Effect Revisited: Factors Determining Leaving Group Ability in Activated Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Senger, Nicholas A.; Bo, Bo; Cheng, Qian; Keeffe, James R.; Gronert, Scott; Wu, Weiming

    2012-01-01

    The “element effect” in nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions (SNAr) is characterized by the leaving group order, F > NO2 > Cl ≈ Br > I, in activated aryl halides. Multiple causes for this result have been proposed. Experimental evidence shows that the element effect order in the reaction of piperidine with 2,4-dinitrophenyl halides in methanol is governed by the differences in enthalpies of activation. Computational studies of the reaction of piperidine and dimethylamine with the same aryl halides using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) for solvation indicate that polar, polarizability, solvation, and negative hyperconjugative effects are all of some importance in producing the element effect in methanol. In addition, a reversal of polarity of the C–X bond from reactant to transition state in the case of ArCl and ArBr compared to ArF also contributes to their difference in reactivity. The polarity reversal, and hyperconjugative influences have received little or no attention in the past. Nor has differential solvation of the different transition states been strongly emphasized. An anionic nucleophile, thiolate, gives very early transition states and negative activation enthalpies with activated aryl halides. The element effect is not established for these reactions. We suggest that the leaving group order in the gas phase will be dependent on the exact combination of nucleophile, leaving group, and substrate framework. The geometry of the SNAr transition state permits useful, qualitative conceptual distinctions to be made between this reaction and other modes of nucleophilic attack. PMID:23057717

  5. Probing the interactions of phenol with oxygenated functional groups on curved fullerene-like sheets in activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chun-Yang; Ng, Man-Fai; Goh, Bee-Min; Saunders, Martin; Hill, Nick; Jiang, Zhong-Tao; Balach, Juan; El-Harbawi, Mohanad

    2016-02-01

    The mechanism(s) of interactions of phenol with oxygenated functional groups (OH, COO and COOH) in nanopores of activated carbon (AC) is a contentious issue among researchers. This mechanism is of particular interest because a better understanding of the role of such groups in nanopores would essentially translate to advances in AC production and use, especially in regard to the treatment of organic-based wastewaters. We therefore attempt to shed more light on the subject by employing density functional theory (DFT) calculations in which fullerene-like models integrating convex or concave structure, which simulate the eclectic porous structures on AC surface, are adopted. TEM analysis, EDS mapping and Boehm titration are also conducted on actual phenol-adsorbed AC. Our results suggest the widely-reported phenomenon of decreased phenol uptake on AC due to increased concentration of oxygenated functional groups is possibly attributed to the increased presence of the latter on the convex side of the curved carbon sheets. Such a system effectively inhibits phenol from getting direct contact with the carbon sheet, thus constraining any available π-π interaction, while the effect of groups acting on the concave part of the curved sheet does not impart the same detriment. PMID:26760531

  6. International Myeloma Working Group Recommendations for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma–Related Bone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Terpos, Evangelos; Morgan, Gareth; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Drake, Matthew T.; Lentzsch, Suzanne; Raje, Noopur; Sezer, Orhan; García-Sanz, Ramón; Shimizu, Kazuyuki; Turesson, Ingemar; Reiman, Tony; Jurczyszyn, Artur; Merlini, Giampaolo; Spencer, Andrew; Leleu, Xavier; Cavo, Michele; Munshi, Nikhil; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Durie, Brian G.M.; Roodman, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the International Myeloma Working Group was to develop practice recommendations for the management of multiple myeloma (MM) –related bone disease. Methodology An interdisciplinary panel of clinical experts on MM and myeloma bone disease developed recommendations based on published data through August 2012. Expert consensus was used to propose additional recommendations in situations where there were insufficient published data. Levels of evidence and grades of recommendations were assigned and approved by panel members. Recommendations Bisphosphonates (BPs) should be considered in all patients with MM receiving first-line antimyeloma therapy, regardless of presence of osteolytic bone lesions on conventional radiography. However, it is unknown if BPs offer any advantage in patients with no bone disease assessed by magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Intravenous (IV) zoledronic acid (ZOL) or pamidronate (PAM) is recommended for preventing skeletal-related events in patients with MM. ZOL is preferred over oral clodronate in newly diagnosed patients with MM because of its potential antimyeloma effects and survival benefits. BPs should be administered every 3 to 4 weeks IV during initial therapy. ZOL or PAM should be continued in patients with active disease and should be resumed after disease relapse, if discontinued in patients achieving complete or very good partial response. BPs are well tolerated, but preventive strategies must be instituted to avoid renal toxicity or osteonecrosis of the jaw. Kyphoplasty should be considered for symptomatic vertebral compression fractures. Low-dose radiation therapy can be used for palliation of uncontrolled pain, impending pathologic fracture, or spinal cord compression. Orthopedic consultation should be sought for long-bone fractures, spinal cord compression, and vertebral column instability. PMID:23690408

  7. Investigation of PON1 activity and MDA levels in patients with epilepsy not receiving antiepileptic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dönmezdil, Nilüfer; Çevik, Mehmet Uğur; Özdemir, Hasan Hüseyin; Taşin, Muhterem

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There are many studies dedicated to researching the etiopathogenesis of epilepsy. In such research, oxidative and antioxidant indicators of etiopathogenesis have also been examined under the scope. Drawing on a group of patients with epilepsy who were receiving no treatment, we have tried to evaluate whether or not an increase in oxidative indicators is linked directly with the disorder, independent of epileptic medicaments. Methods Thirty people in good health and 30 newly diagnosed with epilepsy and who received ambulatory treatment in the polyclinic of the Neurology Department took part in the study. The tests relating to serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity were carried out in the biochemistry laboratory. Results Even though the levels of MDA in the patient group (14.34±3.59 nmol/mL) were found to be high compared to those of the control group, which consisted of people in good health (13.53±3.56 nmol/mL), there was no statistically significant difference. PON1 activity in the serum taken from people in the patient group (0.65±0.17) was lower in comparison to that observed in the serum of the control group (0.71±0.17 U/L). Nonetheless, it was not so low as to have significance from a statistical point of view. Conclusion We conclude that such a high level of oxidative parameters should have been related to the disease and that statistically significant findings that emerged in some other studies could have been related to an antiepileptic treatment. PMID:27175078

  8. Efficacy of activated charcoal and magnesium citrate in the treatment of oral paraquat intoxication.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, P; Friedman, P A; Lovejoy, F H

    1985-02-01

    The binding capacity of activated charcoal for paraquat was evaluated in vitro and in vivo and compared with Fuller's earth. In vitro activated charcoal absorbs paraquat and is as effective as Fuller's earth. Activated charcoal's absorbing capacity for paraquat is increased when it is suspended in magnesium citrate and is maximal at pH 7.8. Paraquat (200 mg/kg) administered orally to male mice, followed 30 minutes later by activated charcoal, Fuller's earth (4 gm/kg), and magnesium citrate (0.01 cc/gm) resulted in a survival rate of 31% in the controls, 63% in the activated charcoal and Fuller's earth groups, and 69% in the magnesium citrate group (P values not significant). When activated charcoal was administered concomitantly with magnesium citrate, the survival rate was improved significantly to 94% (P less than 0.01). The efficacy and greater availability of activated charcoal and magnesium citrate make these materials the treatment of choice for gastrointestinal decontamination in oral paraquat poisoning. PMID:3970396

  9. Rh D blood group conversion using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyun O; Baek, Eun J; Kurita, Ryo; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Nakamura, Yukio; Kim, Hyongbum

    2015-01-01

    Group O D-negative blood cells are universal donors in transfusion medicine and methods for converting other blood groups into this universal donor group have been researched. However, conversion of D-positive cells into D-negative is yet to be achieved, although conversion of group A or B cells into O cells has been reported. The Rh D blood group is determined by the RHD gene, which encodes a 12-transmembrane domain protein. Here we convert Rh D-positive erythroid progenitor cells into D-negative cells using RHD-targeting transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). After transfection of TALEN-encoding plasmids, RHD-knockout clones are obtained. Erythroid-lineage cells differentiated from these knockout erythroid progenitor cells do not agglutinate in the presence of anti-D reagents and do not express D antigen, as assessed using flow cytometry. Our programmable nuclease-induced blood group conversion opens new avenues for compatible donor cell generation in transfusion medicine. PMID:26078220

  10. Towards a common framework for assessing the activity and associations of groups who sexually abuse children

    PubMed Central

    Cockbain, Ella; Brayley, Helen; Sullivan, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Extensive social psychological research emphasises the importance of groups in shaping individuals’ thoughts and actions. Within the child sexual abuse (CSA) literature criminal organisation has been largely overlooked, with some key exceptions. This research was a novel collaboration between academia and the UK's Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre (CEOP). Starting from the premise that the group is, in itself, a form of social situation affecting abuse, it offers the first systematic situational analysis of CSA groups. In-depth behavioural data from a small sample of convicted CSA group-offenders (n = 3) were analysed qualitatively to identify factors and processes underpinning CSA groups’ activities and associations: group formation, evolution, identity and resources. The results emphasise CSA groups’ variability, fluidity and dynamism. The foundations of a general framework are proposed for researching and assessing CSA groups and designing effective interventions. It is hoped that this work will stimulate discussion and development in this long-neglected area of CSA, helping to build a coherent knowledge-base. PMID:26494978

  11. Group III Pulmonary Hypertension: Pulmonary Hypertension Associated with Lung Disease: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Treatments.

    PubMed

    Klinger, James R

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with chronic lung disease (WHO group 3) is the second leading cause of PH and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) is usually moderate and correlates with severity of lung disease. In a small minority, PAP may approach that seen in WHO group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Current medications for treating PAH have not shown benefit in controlled trials of group 3 PH and their routine use is discouraged. Patients with severe group 3 PH should be considered for referral to expert centers or entry into clinical trials. PMID:27443138

  12. Treatment of non-incarcerated sexually compulsive/addictive offenders in an integrated, multimodal, and psychodynamic group therapy model.

    PubMed

    Lothstein, L M

    2001-10-01

    Group therapy is a widely accepted model of care for sex offenders. However, most group therapy takes place in prison utilizing a cognitive-behavioral, psychoeducational model of care. Given that over 250,000 sex offenders are in ambulatory treatment, newer models of care may need to be employed to address their specific needs. I present a naturalistic outpatient study involving my private practice of 109 consecutive sex offenders treated over a 10-year period. A multimodal model of care informed by psychodynamic theory is presented with detailed case material from one group session. Preliminary results of recidivism are presented. PMID:11582900

  13. Measurement Properties of the Motivation for Youth Treatment Scale with a Residential Group Home Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Matthew C.; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Tomlinson, M. Michele Athay; Stevens, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A client's motivation to receive services is significantly related to seeking services, remaining in services, and improved outcomes. The Motivation for Youth Treatment Scale (MYTS) is one of the few brief measures used to assess motivation for mental health treatment. Objective: To investigate if the psychometric properties of…

  14. The Prevalence Rate of Tuberculin Skin Test Positive by Contacts Group to Predict the Development of Active Tuberculosis After School Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jin; Chun, Byung Chul; Kwon, AmyM; Lee, Gyeong-Ho; Ryu, Sungweon; Oh, Soo Yeon; Lee, Jin Beom; Yoo, Se Hwa; Kim, Eui Sook; Kim, Je Hyeong; Shin, Chol

    2015-01-01

    Background The tuberculin skin test (TST) is the standard tool to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in mass screening. The aim of this study is to find an optimal cut-off point of the TST+ rate within tuberculosis (TB) contacts to predict the active TB development among adolescents in school TB outbreaks. Methods The Korean National Health Insurance Review and Assessment database was used to identify active TB development in relation to the initial TST (cut-off, 10 mm). The 7,475 contacts in 89 schools were divided into two groups: Incident TB group (43 schools) and no incident TB group (46 schools). LTBI treatment was initiated in 607 of the 1,761 TST+ contacts. The association with active TB progression was examined at different cut-off points of the TST+ rate. Results The mean duration of follow-up was 3.9±0.9 years. Thirty-three contacts developed active TB during the 4,504 person-years among the TST+ contacts without LTBI treatment (n=1,154). The average TST+ rate for the incident TB group (n=43) and no incident TB group (n=46) were 31.0% and 15.5%, respectively. The TST+ rate per group was related with TB progression (odds ratio [OR], 1.025; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001-1.050; p=0.037). Based on the TST+ rate per group, active TB was best predicted at TST+ ≥ 16% (OR, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.29-7.51; area under curve, 0.64). Conclusion Sixteen percent of the TST+ rate per group within the same grade students can be suggested as an optimal cut-off to predict active TB development in middle and high schools TB outbreaks. PMID:26508922

  15. Treatment of neuroblastoma with /sup 131/I-metaiodobenzylguanidine: the experience of an Italian Study Group

    SciTech Connect

    Bestagno, M.; Guerra, P.; Puricelli, G.P.; Colombo, L.; Calculli, G.

    1987-01-01

    Eight patients affected by neuroblastoma were treated with 18 courses of /sup 131/I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG). They all had been judged as nonresponders to conventional treatments. Six had stage IV disease: of these, five, with massive marrow involvement, had poor results, mainly because of marrow depression; one, whose marrow had been previously purged by chemotherapy, showed a decrease in blood cell counts but not to critical levels, thus allowing repeated treatments and some improvement. Two other cases had stage III disease, without marrow involvement. Both could receive repeated treatments without adverse effects on marrow and circulating blood cells; both could have surgical procedures when a significant neoplastic mass reduction had been induced by MIBG treatments. Almost all patients experienced reduction or disappearing of pain. Treatments were well tolerated.

  16. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in an Ethnically Diverse Group of South African School Children

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Joanne; Meiring, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined physical activity and inactivity levels in an urban South African setting across 12 years of formal schooling. This information is important for implementing strategies to curb increasing trends of physical inactivity and related negative consequences, especially in low to middle income countries facing multiple challenges on overburdened health care systems. We examined levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour cross-sectionally over 12 school years from childhood to adolescence in Black, White and Indian boys and girls. The aim of our study was to describe gender and race related patterns of physical and sedentary activity levels in a sample of South African children and to determine whether there were associations between these variables and body mass status. Physical activity questionnaires, previously validated in a South African setting, were used to gather information about activity and sedentary behaviours among 767 Black, White and Indian children (5-18 years of age) across the 12 grades of formal schooling. Body mass and height were also measured. Time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity declined over the school years for all race groups and was consistently lower for girls than boys (p = 0.03), while time spent in sedentary activity increased with increasing grade (p < 0.001) for boys and girls and across all race groups. Associations between physical activity and body mass were observed for White children (r = -0.22, p < 0.001), but not for Black and Indian children (p > 0.05) whereas time spent in sedentary activities was significantly and positively correlated with body mass across all race groups: Indian (r = 0.25, p < 0.001), White (r = 0.22, p < 0.001) and Black (r = 0.37, p = 0.001). The strength of the associations was similar for boys and girls. Black and Indian children were less physically active than their white peers (p < 0.05), and Black children also spent more time in sedentary activity (p < 0

  17. Characterization of secondary solid waste anticipated from the treatment of trench water from Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, T.E.; Taylor, P.A.

    1992-09-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that new liquid waste streams, generated as a consequence of closure activities at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6, can be treated adequately by existing wastewater treatment facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) without producing hazardous secondary solid wastes. Previous bench-scale treatable studies indicated that ORNL treatment operations will adequately remove the contaminants although additional study was required in order to characterize the secondary waste materials produced as a result of the treatment A 0.5-L/min pilot plant was designed and constructed to accurately simulate the treatment capabilities of ORNL fill-scale (490 L/min) treatment facilities-the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) and Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). This new test system was able to produce secondary wastes in the quantities necessary for US Environmental Protection Agency toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) testing. The test system was operated for a 45-d test period with a minimum of problems and downtime. The pilot plant operating data verified that the WAG 6 trench waters can be treated at the PWTP and NRWTP to meet the discharge limits. The results of TCLP testing indicate that none of the secondary solid wastes will be considered hazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  18. Characterization of secondary solid waste anticipated from the treatment of trench water from Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, T.E.; Taylor, P.A.

    1992-09-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that new liquid waste streams, generated as a consequence of closure activities at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6, can be treated adequately by existing wastewater treatment facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) without producing hazardous secondary solid wastes. Previous bench-scale treatable studies indicated that ORNL treatment operations will adequately remove the contaminants although additional study was required in order to characterize the secondary waste materials produced as a result of the treatment A 0.5-L/min pilot plant was designed and constructed to accurately simulate the treatment capabilities of ORNL fill-scale (490 L/min) treatment facilities-the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) and Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). This new test system was able to produce secondary wastes in the quantities necessary for US Environmental Protection Agency toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) testing. The test system was operated for a 45-d test period with a minimum of problems and downtime. The pilot plant operating data verified that the WAG 6 trench waters can be treated at the PWTP and NRWTP to meet the discharge limits. The results of TCLP testing indicate that none of the secondary solid wastes will be considered hazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  19. Habit reversal training and educational group treatments for children with tourette syndrome: A preliminary randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yates, Rachel; Edwards, Katie; King, John; Luzon, Olga; Evangeli, Michael; Stark, Daniel; McFarlane, Fiona; Heyman, Isobel; İnce, Başak; Kodric, Jana; Murphy, Tara

    2016-05-01

    Quality of life of children with Tourette Syndrome (TS) is impacted greatly by its symptoms and their social consequences. Habit Reversal Training (HRT) is effective but has not, until now, been empirically evaluated in groups. This randomised controlled trial evaluated feasibility and preliminary efficacy of eight HRT group sessions compared to eight Education group sessions. Thirty-three children aged 9-13 years with TS or Chronic Tic Disorder took part. Outcomes evaluated were tic severity and quality of life (QoL). Tic severity improvements were found in both groups. Motor tic severity (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale) showed greatest improvements in the HRT group. Both groups showed a strong tendency toward improvements in patient reported QoL. In conclusion, group-based treatments for TS are feasible and exposure to other children with tics did not increase tic expression. HRT led to greater reductions in tic severity than Education. Implications, such as cost-effectiveness of treatment delivery, are discussed. PMID:27037483

  20. A Preliminary Study of an Integrated and Culturally Attuned Cognitive Behavioral Group Treatment for Chinese Problem Gamblers in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Chung, Catherine Lai Ping; Wu, Janet; Tang, Joe; Lau, Patrick; Wan, Jennie Po Ching

    2015-09-01

    Chinese people may have a higher rate of gambling problems than other cultural groups. However, there are very few clinical outcome studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of clinical interventions for helping Chinese gamblers. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective for helping problem gamblers to significantly reduce their gambling problems in western countries. Very few CBT clinical trials have been conducted with the Chinese populations, and the results were masked by methodological limitations. This preliminary study attempted to test the effectiveness of an integrated and culturally attuned CBT group treatment for Chinese problem gamblers in Hong Kong. This study adopted a randomized control design and 38 participants were allocated randomly to the experimental condition (n = 18) and control condition (n = 20). The experimental group received 10 weekly CBT group sessions and individual counseling services while control group only received the individual counseling services. Significant decreases in gambling severity and frequencies of gambling were found in the experimental group. The findings also showed that a change in gambling cognitions predicted the changes in gambling severity and gambling urge while a change in gambling severity was also linked to a change in depression. Preliminary evidence highlights the potential benefits of an integrated and culturally attuned CBT group treatment for Chinese problem gamblers in Hong Kong. However, a more vigorous research design with a larger sample is needed to provide solid evidence of the effectiveness of the model for Chinese problem gamblers. PMID:24699943

  1. Antipyrine clearance and response to interferon treatment in patients with chronic active hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Coverdale, S; Byth, K; Field, J; Liddle, C; Lin, R; Farrell, G C

    1995-10-01

    To determine whether hepatic metabolic function affects the response to interferon treatment, we measured antipyrine clearance (APC) in 85 patients with chronic active hepatitis C and compared the results with treatment outcome. Among 55 patients who responded to interferon by normalization of alanine transaminase (ALT), median APC before treatment was 0.47 (range, 0.12 to 0.98; normal range, 0.34 to 1.02 mL/min/kg body wt), a value that was significantly greater than in 30 nonresponders (0.23; 0.08 to 0.67 mL/min/kg body wt, P < .001). APC was closely associated with response to interferon. The response rate among cases with values > 0.25 mL/min/kg body weight was 79%, the same as in cases without cirrhosis. Cases without cirrhosis and with APC of > 0.25 mL/min/kg body weight had an 85% chance of responding to interferon; this was unlikely a simple reflection of histological activity, because the correlation with Scheuer score was poor in this subgroup (r = -.31, P < .05). A second, independent group of 43 patients was used to test the predictive value of APC (using 0.25 mL/min/kg body wt as a cut-off) for response to interferon treatment. In this group, APC correctly predicted positive response to interferon in 75% of cases. APC was also used to measure the effects of treatment on hepatic metabolic function. Regardless of outcome, there was no change in APC at the end of a 6-month course of interferon treatment. Six months later, however, improvement in APC (14%; P < .05) was evident among responders but not in those who had failed to respond to interferon.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7557852

  2. Antimalarial and Antileishmanial Activities of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors with Triazole-Linked Cap Group

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vishal; Guerrant, William; Chen, Po C.; Gryder, Berkley; Benicewicz, Derek B.; Khan, Shabana I.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.

    2009-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are endowed with plethora of biological functions including anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic, and cognition-enhancing activities. Parsing the structure–activity relationship (SAR) for each disease condition is vital for long-term therapeutic applications of HDACi. We report in the present study specific cap group substitution patterns and spacer-group chain lengths that enhance the antimalarial and antileishmanial activity of aryltriazolylhydroxamates-based HDACi. We identified many compounds that are several folds selectively cytotoxic to the plasmodium parasites compared to standard HDACi. Also, a few of these compounds have antileishmanial activity that rivals that of miltefosine, the only currently available oral agent against visceral leishmaniasis. The anti-parasite properties of several of these compounds tracked well with their anti-HDAC activities. The results presented here provide further evidence on the suitability of HDAC inhibition as a viable therapeutic option to curb infections caused by apicomplexan protozoans and trypanosomatids. PMID:19914074

  3. Surveillance and maintenance activities of waste area groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.; Jones, R.G.

    1991-12-01

    Surveillance and maintenance (S M) of 75 sites were conductd by the Remedial Action Section for the Environmental Restoration Program for surplus facilities and sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals. S M activities on these sites were conducted from the end of their operating life until final facility disposal or site stabilization. The objectives of the Waste Area Grouping S M Program are met by maintaining a program of routine S M as well as by implementing interim corrective maintenance when deemed necessary as a result of site surveillance. This report briefly presents this program's activities and includes tables indicating tank levels and dry well data for FY 1991.

  4. Design, synthesis, and antifungal activities of novel triazole derivatives containing the benzyl group

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kehan; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Yanwei; Bai, Guojing; Wu, Qiuye; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Shichong; Jiang, Yuanying

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies undertaken by our group, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-substituted-2-propanols (1a–r), which were analogs of fluconazole, was designed and synthesized by click chemistry. In the study reported here, the in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. Compounds 1a, 1q, and 1r showed the more antifungal activity than the others. PMID:25792806

  5. Design, synthesis, and antifungal activities of novel triazole derivatives containing the benzyl group.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kehan; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Yanwei; Bai, Guojing; Wu, Qiuye; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Shichong; Jiang, Yuanying

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies undertaken by our group, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-substituted-2-propanols (1a-r), which were analogs of fluconazole, was designed and synthesized by click chemistry. In the study reported here, the in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. Compounds 1a, 1q, and 1r showed the more antifungal activity than the others. PMID:25792806

  6. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Versus Sertraline for the Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbahr, Fernando Ramos; Castillo, Ana Regina; Ito, Ligia Montenegro; Latorre, Maria do Rosario Dias de Oliveira; Moreira, Michele Nunes; Lotufo-Neto, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT) and of sertraline in treatment-naive children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Method: Between 2000 and 2002, 40 subjects between 9 and 17 years old were randomized to receive GCBT (n = 20) or sertraline (n = 20). GCBT consisted of a…

  7. Mother-Infant Group Psychotherapy as an Intensive Treatment in Early Interaction among Mothers with Substance Abuse Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belt, Ritva; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

    2007-01-01

    In this article we present a novel method of outpatient care: brief, dynamic mother-infant group psychotherapy with mothers who have substance use problems. In this therapy, substance abuse treatment is part of mental health and parenting interventions. The focus is on preventing disturbance in the mother-infant relationship in this high-risk…

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Group Treatment for Anxiety Symptoms in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reaven, Judith A.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Nichols, Shana; Dasari, Meena; Flanigan, Erin; Hepburn, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk for developing anxiety disorders relative to children without ASD and those with other developmental disabilities. Thirty-three children with high-functioning ASD and their parents participated in an original, manualized cognitive behavioral group treatment aimed at reducing…

  9. Structure-Guided Design of Group I Selective p21-Activated Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Crawford, James J; Lee, Wendy; Aliagas, Ignacio; Mathieu, Simon; Hoeflich, Klaus P; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Weiru; Rouge, Lionel; Murray, Lesley; La, Hank; Liu, Ning; Fan, Peter W; Cheong, Jonathan; Heise, Christopher E; Ramaswamy, Sreemathy; Mintzer, Robert; Liu, Yanzhou; Chao, Qi; Rudolph, Joachim

    2015-06-25

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) play important roles in cytoskeletal organization, cellular morphogenesis, and survival and have generated significant attention as potential therapeutic targets for cancer. Following a high-throughput screen, we identified an aminopyrazole scaffold-based series that was optimized to yield group I selective PAK inhibitors. A structure-based design effort aimed at targeting the ribose pocket for both potency and selectivity led to much-improved group I vs II selectivity. Early lead compounds contained a basic primary amine, which was found to be a major metabolic soft spot with in vivo clearance proceeding predominantly via N-acetylation. We succeeded in identifying replacements with improved metabolic stability, leading to compounds with lower in vivo rodent clearance and excellent group I PAK selectivity. PMID:26030457

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed Trimethylenemethane Cycloaddition of Olefins Activated by the σ-Electron-Withdrawing Trifluoromethyl Group.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Debien, Laurent

    2015-09-16

    α-Trifluoromethyl-styrenes, trifluoromethyl-enynes, and dienes undergo palladium-catalyzed trimethylenemethane cycloadditions under mild reaction conditions. The trifluoromethyl group serves as a unique σ-electron-withdrawing group for the activation of the olefin toward the cycloaddition. This method allows for the formation of exomethylene cyclopentanes bearing a quaternary center substituted by the trifluoromethyl group, compounds of interest for the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and materials industries. In the diene series, the cycloaddition operates in a [3 + 4] and/or [3 + 2] manner to give rise to seven- and/or five-membered rings. This transformation greatly improves the scope of the TMM cycloaddition technology and provides invaluable insights into the reaction mechanism. PMID:26291872

  11. Default-Mode Network Activity Identified by Group Independent Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Conghui; Zhuang, Jie; Peng, Danling; Yu, Guoliang; Yang, Yanhui

    Default-mode network activity refers to some regional increase in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal during baseline than cognitive tasks. Recent functional imaging studies have found co-activation in a distributed network of cortical regions, including ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PPC) that characterize the default mode of human brain. In this study, general linear model and group independent component analysis (ICA) were utilized to analyze the fMRI data obtained from two language tasks. Both methods yielded similar, but not identical results and detected a resting deactivation network at some midline regions including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. Particularly, the group ICA method segregated functional elements into two separate maps and identified ventral cingulate component and fronto-parietal component. These results suggest that these two components might be linked to different mental function during "resting" baseline.

  12. Group Counseling in the Schools: Legal, Ethical, and Treatment Issues in School Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespi, Tony D.

    2009-01-01

    School psychologists are interested in providing effective and efficient direct services to children. With a wide spectrum of psychological problems impacting children, group counseling represents one viable and valuable intervention. Given the complexity of group counseling, many schools and school psychologists are interested in legal and…

  13. The Implications of Teacher Selection and Teacher Effects in Individually Randomized Group Treatment Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Randomized experiments have become an increasingly popular design to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in education (Spybrook, 2008). Many of the interventions evaluated in education are delivered to groups of students, rather than to individuals. Experiments designed to evaluate programs delivered at the group level often…

  14. Factors Predicting Attendance at Self-Help Groups after Substance Abuse Treatment: Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Keith; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Followed 201 treated substance abusers for 6 months and found that Blacks and women were more likely to attend self-help groups and that measures of social stability did not predict attendance. Found that persons who attended groups had more severe problems in several domains. (Author/NB)

  15. Aptitude Treatment Effects of Laboratory Grouping Method for Students of Differing Reasoning Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrenz, Frances

    1985-01-01

    Determined: (1) if elementary education majors (N=91) from different levels of reasoning ability learned more science concepts under different grouping methods in an inquiry/learning cycle-based physical science class; and (2) if these students became able to reason more effectively under the different grouping methods. (JN)

  16. Adolescent Substance-Use Frequency following Self-Help Group Attendance and Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangi, Jennifer; Darling, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the heterogeneity of posttreatment outcomes, the likelihood of relapse is often dependent on several factors, including participation in continuing care services such as self-help groups. However, few studies have examined the use of self-help groups among adolescent outpatients. Therefore, in this study, investigators examined self-help…

  17. Group Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disability and Sexually Abusive Behaviour: Service User Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Sarah-Jane; Murphy, Glynis H.; Langdon, Peter E.; Rose, David; Reed, Tracy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Men with intellectual disability (ID) and sexually abusive behaviour are a disempowered and marginalised group. Nevertheless, as service users, they can be consulted and involved in a variety of different ways, including ascertaining their views of the services they receive. Method: A group of 16 men with ID and sexually abusive…

  18. Control of Surface Functional Groups on Pertechntate Sorption on Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Wang; H. Gao; R. Yeredla; H. Xu; M. Abrecht; G.D. Stasio

    2006-07-05

    {sup 99}Tc is highly soluble and poorly adsorbed by natural materials under oxidizing conditions, thus being of particular concern for radioactive waste disposal. Activated carbon can potentially be used as an adsorbent for removing Tc from aqueous solutions. We have tested six commercial activated carbon materials for their capabilities for sorption of pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The tested materials can be grouped into two distinct types: Type I materials have high sorption capabilities with the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) varying from 9.5 x 10{sup 5} to 3.2 x 10{sup 3} mL/g as the pH changes from 4.5 to 9.5, whereas type II materials have relatively low sorption capabilities with K{sub d} remaining more or less constant (1.1 x 10{sup 3} - 1.8 x 10{sup 3} mL/g) over a similar pH range. The difference in sorption behavior between the two types of materials is attributed to the distribution of surface functional groups. The predominant surface groups are identified to be carboxylic and phenolic groups. The carboxylic group can be further divided into three subgroups A, B, and C in the order of increasing acidity. The high sorption capabilities of type I materials are found to be caused by the presence of a large fraction of carboxylic subgroups A and B, while the low sorption capabilities of type II materials are due to the exclusive presence of phenolic and carboxylic subgroup C. Therefore, the performance of activated carbon for removing TcO{sub 4}{sup -} can be improved by enhancing the formation of carboxylic subgroups A and B during material processing.

  19. Bioaugmentation to improve nitrification in activated sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Leu, Shao-Yuan; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2010-06-01

    Bioaugmentation is a proposed technique to improve nutrient removal in municipal wastewater treatment. Compared with commonly used nitrification/denitrification (NDN) processes, bioaugmentation may be able to reduce tankage or land requirements. Many approaches for bioaugmentation have been developed, but few studies have compared the benefits among different approaches. This paper quantifies the effectiveness of bioaugmentation processes and investigates three major "onsite" bioaugmentation alternatives: 1) the parallel-plants approach, which uses acclimated biomass grown in a nitrifying "long-SRT" (sludge retention time) plant to augment a low-SRT treatment plant; 2) the enricher-reactor approach, which uses an offline reactor to produce the augmentation cultures; and 3) the enricher-reactor/return activated sludge (ER-RAS) approach, which grows enrichment culture in a reaeration reactor that receives a portion of the recycle activated sludge. Kinetic models were developed to simulate each approach, and the benefits of various approaches are presented on the same basis with controllable parameters, such as bioaugmentation levels, aeration tank volume, and temperatures. Examples were given to illustrate the potential benefits of bioaugmentation by upgrading a "carbon-only" wastewater treatment plant to nitrification. Simulation results suggested that all bioaugmentation approaches can decrease the minimum SRT for nitrification. The parallel-plants approach creates the highest concentration of biomass but may fail at too low temperature. The ER-RAS approach likely would be more useful at lower temperature and required less reactor volume; enricher-reactor approach would likely be more advantageous in the presence of inhibitory compound(s). PMID:20572460

  20. Effects of prior treatment with simvastatin on skeletal muscle structure and mitochondrial enzyme activities during early phases of sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Ozkok, Elif; Yorulmaz, Hatice; Ates, Gulten; Serdaroglu-Oflazer, Piraye; Tamer, Ayse Sule

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the early phase of sepsis and prior treatment of Simvastatin on muscle structure and mitochondrial enzymes treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. We divided rats into control, LPS, simvastatin, simvastatin + LPS groups. Mitochondrial citrate synthase, complex I, II, I + III, II + III, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activities were measured. Muscle tissue was stained using modified Gomori trichrome (MGT), succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome oxidase (COX). In all treated groups, complex I and citrate synthase activities were higher than in the controls. In the control and LPS groups, COX activity was increased when compared with simvastatins’. Complex II, II-III activities were higher in the LPS group than in the control group. Complex I-III activities were higher in the Simvastatin and Simvastatin + LPS groups than in the control and LPS groups (P < 0.05). Myopathic changes with LPS group were observed in MGT stained sections. Our findings showed improvements in the alterations of enzyme activities and muscle myofibrils after treating rats with LPS that had received a prior dose of simvastatin. PMID:25674200

  1. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology.

    PubMed

    Siegford, Janice M; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K; Daigle, Courtney L; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Hernandez, Carlos E; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns with selecting focal birds. PMID:26848693

  2. Inhibition of mammillary body neurons by direct activation of Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    The mammillary body is an important neural component of limbic circuitry implicated in learning and memory. Excitatory and inhibitory inputs, primarily mediated by glutamate and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), respectively, converge and integrate in this region, before sending information to the thalamus. One potentially overlooked mechanism for inhibition of mammillary body neurons is through direct activation of Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Here, whole-cell patch clamp recordings of in vitro slice preparations containing the mammillary body nuclei of the mouse were employed to record responses to bath application of pharmacological agents to isolate the direct effect of activating Group II mGluRs. Application of the Group II mGluR specific agonist, APDC, resulted in a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential in mammillary body neurons, likely resulting from the opening of a potassium conductance. These data suggest that glutamatergic inputs to the mammillary body may be attenuated via Group II mGluRs and implicates a functional role for these receptors in memory-related circuits and broadly throughout the central nervous system. PMID:27390777

  3. The outcome of control groups in clinical trials of conservative treatments for chronic mechanical neck pain: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Howard; Humphreys, B Kim; Hagino, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Background Chronic neck pain is highly prevalent in Western societies, with about 15% of females and 10% of males suffering with it at any time. The course of untreated chronic neck pain patients in clinical trials has not been well-defined and the placebo effect has not been clarified. Methods A systematic review of RCT's of conservative treatments for chronic mechanical neck pain was conducted. Studies were excluded if they did not include a control group, if they involved subjects with whiplash injuries, a predominance of headache or arm pain associated with chronic neck pain and if only one treatment was reported. Only studies scoring 3–5 out of 5 on the Jadad Scale for quality were included in the final analysis. Data on change in pain scores of subjects in both placebo (PL) as well as no-treatment (NT) control groups were analyzed. Mean changes in pain scores as well as effect sizes were calculated, summarized and compared between these groups. Results Twenty (20) studies, 5 in the NT group and 15 in the PL group, with outcome intervals ranging from 1–52 weeks were included in the final analysis. The mean [95% CI] effect size of change in pain ratings in the no-treatment control studies at outcome points up to 10 weeks was 0.18 [-0.05, 0.41] and for outcomes from 12–52 weeks it was 0.4 [0.12, 0.68]. In the placebo control groups it was 0.50 [0.10, 0.90] at up to 10 weeks and 0.33. [-1.97, 2.66] at 12–24 weeks. None of the comparisons between the no-treatment and placebo groups were statistically significant. Conclusion It appears that the changes in pain scores in subjects with chronic neck pain not due to whiplash who are enrolled in no-treatment and placebo control groups were similarly small and not significantly different. As well, they do not appear to increase over longer-term follow-up. PMID:16848905

  4. Randomised comparison between adrenaline injection alone and adrenaline injection plus heat probe treatment for actively bleeding ulcers.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, S. S.; Lau, J. Y.; Sung, J. J.; Chan, A. C.; Lai, C. W.; Ng, E. K.; Chan, F. K.; Yung, M. Y.; Li, A. K.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare endoscopic adrenaline injection alone and adrenaline injection plus heat probe for the treatment of actively bleeding peptic ulcers. DESIGN: Randomised prospective study of patients admitted with actively bleeding peptic ulcers. SETTING: One university hospital. SUBJECTS: 276 patients with actively bleeding ulcers detected by endoscopy within 24 hours of admission: 136 patients were randomised to endoscopic adrenaline injection alone and 140 to adrenaline injection plus heat probe treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Initial endoscopic haemostasis; clinical rebleeding; requirement for operation; requirement for blood transfusion; hospital stay, ulcer healing at four weeks; and mortality in hospital. RESULTS: Initial haemostasis was achieved in 131/134 patients (98%) who received adrenaline injection alone and 135/136 patients (99%) who received additional heat probe treatment (P = 0.33). Outcome as measured by clinical rebleeding (12 v 5), requirement for emergency operation (14 v 8), blood transfusion (2 v 3 units), hospital stay (4 v 4 days), ulcer healing at four weeks (79.1% v 74%), and in hospital mortality (7 v 8) were not significantly different in the two groups. In the subgroup of patients with spurting haemorrhage 8/27 (29.6%; 14.5% to 50.3%) patients from the adrenaline injection alone group and 2/31 (6.5%; 1.1% to 22.9%) patients from the dual treatment group required operative intervention. The relative risk of this was lower in the dual treatment group (0.17; 0.03 to 0.87). Hospital stay was significantly shorter in the dual treatment group than the adrenaline injection alone group (4 v 6 days, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The addition of heat probe treatment after endoscopic adrenaline injection confers an advantage in ulcers with spurting haemorrhage. PMID:9158465

  5. Bovine serum albumin with glycated carboxyl groups shows membrane-perturbing activities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shin-Yi; Chen, Ying-Jung; Kao, Pei-Hsiu; Chang, Long-Sen

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the present study aimed to investigate whether glycated bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed novel activities on the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated BSA (Man-BSA) was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-d-mannopyranoside. In contrast to BSA, Man-BSA notably induced membrane permeability of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC)/egg yolk sphingomyelin (EYSM)/cholesterol (Chol) and EYPC/EYSM vesicles. Noticeably, Man-BSA induced the fusion of EYPC/EYSM/Chol vesicles, but not of EYPC/EYSM vesicles. Although BSA and Man-BSA showed similar binding affinity for lipid vesicles, the lipid-bound conformation of Man-BSA was distinct from that of BSA. Moreover, Man-BSA adopted distinct structure upon binding with the EYPC/EYSM/Chol and EYPC/EYSM vesicles. Man-BSA could induce the fusion of EYPC/EYSM/Chol vesicles with K562 and MCF-7 cells, while Man-BSA greatly induced the leakage of Chol-depleted K562 and MCF-7 cells. The modified BSA prepared by conjugating carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-d-glucopyranoside also showed membrane-perturbing activities. Collectively, our data indicate that conjugation of carboxyl groups with monosaccharide generates functional BSA with membrane-perturbing activities on the lipid-water interface. PMID:25449061

  6. [Factors associated with the participation of elderly people in group educational activities].

    PubMed

    Dias, Flavia Aparecida; Tavares, Darlene Mara dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    This study sought to characterize the elderly and their participation in group educational activities, and to verify the sociodemographic and health factors associated with non-participation. It was a cross-sectional survey carried out with 2,142 elderly individuals, using descriptive analysis, Student's t-test and logistical regression (p<0.05). In both groups, the majority of participants were women, 60 - 70 years of age, married with an income of one minimum salary. The elderly participants predominately showed 1-4 years of education, with non-participants 4 - 8. The morbidities most cited by the elderly who participated in educational activities were: hypertension and vision problems. Among non-participants, vision and spinal problems prevailed. In both groups, the greatest percentage was 1 - 3 incapacities. The age range of 80 years and above was associated with a greater chance of non-participation in activities. It is necessary to plan actions that favor participation, thereby contributing to monitor their health conditions. PMID:24015464

  7. Influence of functional groups on organic aerosol cloud condensation nucleus activity.

    PubMed

    Suda, Sarah R; Petters, Markus D; Yeh, Geoffrey K; Strollo, Christen; Matsunaga, Aiko; Faulhaber, Annelise; Ziemann, Paul J; Prenni, Anthony J; Carrico, Christian M; Sullivan, Ryan C; Kreidenweis, Sonia M

    2014-09-01

    Organic aerosols in the atmosphere are composed of a wide variety of species, reflecting the multitude of sources and growth processes of these particles. Especially challenging is predicting how these particles act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Previous studies have characterized the CCN efficiency for organic compounds in terms of a hygroscopicity parameter, κ. Here we extend these studies by systematically testing the influence of the number and location of molecular functional groups on the hygroscopicity of organic aerosols. Organic compounds synthesized via gas-phase and liquid-phase reactions were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with scanning flow CCN analysis and thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometry. These experiments quantified changes in κ with the addition of one or more functional groups to otherwise similar molecules. The increase in κ per group decreased in the following order: hydroxyl ≫ carboxyl > hydroperoxide > nitrate ≫ methylene (where nitrate and methylene produced negative effects, and hydroperoxide and nitrate groups produced the smallest absolute effects). Our results contribute to a mechanistic understanding of chemical aging and will help guide input and parametrization choices in models relying on simplified treatments such as the atomic oxygen:carbon ratio to predict the evolution of organic aerosol hygroscopicity. PMID:25118824

  8. Active site mutants of human secreted Group IIA Phospholipase A2 lacking hydrolytic activity retain their bactericidal effect.

    PubMed

    Chioato, Lucimara; Aragão, Elisangela Aparecida; Ferreira, Tatiana Lopes; Ward, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    The Human Secreted Group IIA Phospholipase A(2) (hsPLA2GIIA) presents potent bactericidal activity, and is considered to contribute to the acute-phase immune response. Hydrolysis of inner membrane phospholipids is suggested to underlie the bactericidal activity, and we have evaluated this proposal by comparing catalytic activity with bactericidal and liposome membrane damaging effects of the G30S, H48Q and D49K hsPLA2GIIA mutants. All mutants showed severely impaired hydrolytic activities against mixed DOPC:DOPG liposome membranes, however the bactericidal effect against Micrococcus luteus was less affected, with 50% killing at concentrations of 1, 3, 7 and 9 μg/mL for the wild-type, D49K, H48Q and G30S mutants respectively. Furthermore, all proteins showed Ca(2+)-independent damaging activity against liposome membranes demonstrating that in addition to the hydrolysis-dependent membrane damage, the hsPLA2GIIA presents a mechanism for permeabilization of phospholipid bilayers that is independent of catalytic activity, which may play a role in the bactericidal function of the protein. PMID:21986368

  9. Inference concerning a common dispersion of several treatment groups in the analysis of over/underdispersed count data.

    PubMed

    Saha, Krishna K

    2014-05-01

    Over/underdispersed count data arise in many biostatistical practices in which a number of different treatment groups are compared in an experiment. In the analysis of several treatment groups of such count data, a very common statistical inference problem is to test whether these data come from the same population. The usual practice for testing homogeneity of several treatment groups in terms of means and dispersions is first to test the equality of dispersions and then to test the equality of the means based on the result of the test for equality of dispersions. Previous studies reported test procedures for testing the homogeneity of the means of several treatment groups with an assumption of equal or unequal dispersions. This article develops test procedures for testing the validity of the equal or unequal dispersions assumption of several treatment groups in the analysis of over/underdispersed count data. We consider the C(α) test based on the maximum likelihood (ML) method using the negative binomial model as well as the three other C(α) tests based on the method of moments, extended quasi-likelihood, and double extended quasi-likelihood using the models specified by the first two moments of counts. Monte Carlo simulations are then used to study the comparative behavior of these C(α) tests along with the likelihood ratio test in terms of size and power. The simulation results demonstrate that all four statistics hold the nominal level reasonably well in most of the data situations studied here, and the C(α) test based on ML shows some edge in power over the other three C(α) tests. Finally, applications to biostatistical practices are analyzed. PMID:24446132

  10. Treatment of neuroblastoma with /sup 131/I-metaiodobenzylguanidine: experience of the Muenster/Kassel Group

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, M.; Wehinger, H.; Kraus, C.; Ritter, J.; Schroeter, W.

    1987-01-01

    I-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine was used for treatment of neuroblastoma stage IV in three children after surgery and or chemotherapy had failed to be effective. In two of the children with multilocular lesions, after an impressive improvement of clinical symptoms tumor progression was observed. Because in about 25% of children with relapsing neuroblastoma complete remission may be achieved by combining surgery, chemotherapy, and I-131-MIBG treatment, this therapeutic modality should be included in the therapeutic strategy of stage III and IV neuroblastoma.

  11. Lysis of typhus-group rickettsia-infected targets by lymphokine activated killers

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, M.; Dasch, G.A.

    1986-03-01

    The authors recently described a subset of OKT8, OKT3-positive lymphocytes from typhus-group rickettsia immune individuals which were capable of lysing autologous PHA-blasts or Epstein-Barr virus transformed B cells (LCL) infected with typhus-group rickettsiae. In order to determine if killing by these effectors was HLA-restricted, they stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from typhus-group rickettsia immune individuals in vitro with typhus-group rickettsia-derived antigen for one week and then measured lysis of autologous LCL or HLA-mismatched LCL in a 4-6 hour Cr/sup 51/-release assay. There was significant lysis of both the autologous and the HLA-mismatched infected targets as compared to the corresponding uninfected targets. Since this suggested that the effectors were lymphokine activated killers (LAK) rather than cytotoxic T lymphocytes, they then tested this hypothesis by stimulating PBMC from both immune and non-immune individuals in vitro for one week with purified interleukin 2 and measuring lysis of infected, autologous LCL. PBMC thus treated, from both immune and non-immune individuals, were capable of significantly lysing autologous, infected LCL as compared to the non-infected control. They therefore conclude that targets infected with typhus-group rickettsiae are susceptible to lysis to LAK.

  12. OCCUPATION OF X-RAY-SELECTED GALAXY GROUPS BY X-RAY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A.; Hasinger, G.; Cappelluti, N.; Miyaji, T.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Zamorani, G.; Gilli, R.; George, M. R.; Tanaka, M.; Silverman, J.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Shankar, F.

    2012-10-10

    We present the first direct measurement of the mean halo occupation distribution (HOD) of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the COSMOS field at z {<=} 1, based on the association of 41 XMM and 17 C-COSMOS AGNs with member galaxies of 189 X-ray-detected galaxy groups from XMM-Newton and Chandra data. We model the mean AGN occupation in the halo mass range log M{sub 200} [M{sub Sun }] = 13-14.5 with a rolling-off power law with the best-fit index {alpha} = 0.06(- 0.22; 0.36) and normalization parameter f{sub a} 0.05(0.04; 0.06). We find the mean HOD of AGNs among central galaxies to be modeled by a softened step function at log M{sub h} > log M{sub min} = 12.75(12.10, 12.95) M{sub Sun} while for the satellite AGN HOD we find a preference for an increasing AGN fraction with M{sub h} , suggesting that the average number of AGNs in satellite galaxies grows slower ({alpha}{sub s} < 0.6) than the linear proportion ({alpha}{sub s} = 1) observed for the satellite HOD of samples of galaxies. We present an estimate of the projected autocorrelation function (ACF) of galaxy groups over the range of r{sub p} = 0.1-40 h {sup -1} Mpc at (z) = 0.5. We use the large-scale clustering signal to verify the agreement between the group bias estimated by using the observed galaxy groups ACF and the value derived from the group mass estimates. We perform a measurement of the projected AGN-galaxy-group cross-correlation function, excluding from the analysis AGNs that are within galaxy groups and we model the two-halo term of the clustering signal with the mean AGN HOD based on our results.

  13. Recognition of human-vehicle interactions in group activities via multi-attributed semantic message generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2015-05-01

    Improved Situational awareness is a vital ongoing research effort for the U.S. Homeland Security for the past recent years. Many outdoor anomalous activities involve vehicles as their primary source of transportation to and from the scene where a plot is executed. Analysis of dynamics of Human-Vehicle Interaction (HVI) helps to identify correlated patterns of activities representing potential threats. The objective of this paper is bi-folded. Primarily, we discuss a method for temporal HVI events detection and verification for generation of HVI hypotheses. To effectively recognize HVI events, a Multi-attribute Vehicle Detection and Identification technique (MVDI) for detection and classification of stationary vehicles is presented. Secondly, we describe a method for identification of pertinent anomalous behaviors through analysis of state transitions between two successively detected events. Finally, we present a technique for generation of HVI semantic messages and present our experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of semantic messages for discovery of HVI in group activities.

  14. A New Calibrated Sunspot Group Series Since 1749: Statistics of Active Day Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, I. G.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Lockwood, M.; Mursula, K.; Owens, M.; Solanki, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Although sunspot-number series have existed since the mid-nineteenth century, they are still the subject of intense debate, with the largest uncertainty being related to the "calibration" of the visual acuity of individual observers in the past. A daisy-chain regression method is usually applied to inter-calibrate the observers, which may lead to significant bias and error accumulation. Here we present a novel method for calibrating the visual acuity of the key observers to the reference data set of Royal Greenwich Observatory sunspot groups for the period 1900 - 1976, using the statistics of the active-day fraction. For each observer we independently evaluate their observational thresholds [ SS] defined such that the observer is assumed to miss all of the groups with an area smaller than SS and report all the groups larger than SS. Next, using a Monte-Carlo method, we construct a correction matrix for each observer from the reference data set. The correction matrices are significantly non-linear and cannot be approximated by a linear regression or proportionality. We emphasize that corrections based on a linear proportionality between annually averaged data lead to serious biases and distortions of the data. The correction matrices are applied to the original sunspot-group records reported by the observers for each day, and finally the composite corrected series is produced for the period since 1748. The corrected series is provided as supplementary material in electronic form and displays secular minima around 1800 (Dalton Minimum) and 1900 (Gleissberg Minimum), as well as the Modern Grand Maximum of activity in the second half of the twentieth century. The uniqueness of the grand maximum is confirmed for the last 250 years. We show that the adoption of a linear relationship between the data of Wolf and Wolfer results in grossly inflated group numbers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in some reconstructions.

  15. Osteoporosis knowledge, calcium intake, and weight-bearing physical activity in three age groups of women.

    PubMed

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women and compare knowledge to calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity (WBPA). In this cross-sectional study, knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA were assessed using probe interviews, a food frequency and an activity questionnaire, respectively. Seventy-five white women were separated into three groups: young (25-35 years), middle aged (36-46 years) and postmenopausal (50+ years). Concept maps were used to assess knowledge (concepts, integration and misconceptions). Calcium intakes from diet, supplements and fortified orange juice were estimated as were minutes of daily WBPA. Analysis of covariance was used to compare knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA by age group. Covariates included education, family history, physical problems making exercise difficult, and lactose intolerance. Chi square analysis was used to determine differences in these covariates across age groups. Correlations and regression analysis were used to determine relationships between knowledge and behaviors. Knowledge scores averaged 32-44 points (183 possible). Average calcium intake in all groups exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake's recommended Adequate Intake but 20-24% consumed less than 60% of the AI. Housework, walking at work, and standing at home and work accounted for 90% of WBPA. Knowledge about osteoporosis was limited and not associated with age, WBPA or calcium intake. Calcium intake and WBPA were not associated with age. Practitioners need to provide explicit information on osteoporosis and risk reducing behaviors to women of all ages. PMID:12238730

  16. Remarkable anti-trichomonas vaginalis activity of plants traditionally used by the Mbyá-Guarani indigenous group in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brandelli, Clara Lia Costa; Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellate protozoan, is the causative agent of trichomonosis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Taking into account the increased prevalence of metronidazole-resistant isolates, alternative drugs are essential for the successful treatment. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and popular wisdom about the use of medicinal plants is a powerful tool in this search. In this study, the activity of 10 medicinal plants extensively used in daily life by Mbyá-Guarani indigenous group was evaluated against seven different T. vaginalis isolates. Among the aqueous extracts tested, Verbena sp. (Guachu ka'a in Mbyá-Guarani language) and Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Guavira in Mbyá-Guarani language) showed the highest activity against T. vaginalis with MIC value of 4.0 mg/mL reaching 100% of efficacy against the parasite. The kinetic growth assays showed that the extracts promoted complete growth abolishment after 4 h of incubation. In addition, the extracts tested did not promote a significant hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Our results show for the first time the potential activity of Verbena sp. and C. xanthocarpa against T. vaginalis. In addition, this study demonstrates that indigenous knowledge is an important source of new prototype antiprotozoal agents. PMID:23865068

  17. Remarkable Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis Activity of Plants Traditionally Used by the Mbyá-Guarani Indigenous Group in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Brandelli, Clara Lia Costa; Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellate protozoan, is the causative agent of trichomonosis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Taking into account the increased prevalence of metronidazole-resistant isolates, alternative drugs are essential for the successful treatment. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and popular wisdom about the use of medicinal plants is a powerful tool in this search. In this study, the activity of 10 medicinal plants extensively used in daily life by Mbyá-Guarani indigenous group was evaluated against seven different T. vaginalis isolates. Among the aqueous extracts tested, Verbena sp. (Guachu ka'a in Mbyá-Guarani language) and Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Guavira in Mbyá-Guarani language) showed the highest activity against T. vaginalis with MIC value of 4.0 mg/mL reaching 100% of efficacy against the parasite. The kinetic growth assays showed that the extracts promoted complete growth abolishment after 4 h of incubation. In addition, the extracts tested did not promote a significant hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Our results show for the first time the potential activity of Verbena sp. and C. xanthocarpa against T. vaginalis. In addition, this study demonstrates that indigenous knowledge is an important source of new prototype antiprotozoal agents. PMID:23865068

  18. Biotransformation of trace organic compounds by activated sludge from a biological nutrient removal treatment system.

    PubMed

    Inyang, Mandu; Flowers, Riley; McAvoy, Drew; Dickenson, Eric

    2016-09-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) and their biotransformation rates, kb (LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) was investigated across different redox zones in a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system using an OECD batch test. Biodegradation kinetics of fourteen TOrCs with initial concentration of 1-36μgL(-)(1) in activated sludge were monitored over the course of 24h. Degradation kinetic behavior for the TOrCs fell into four groupings: Group 1 (atenolol) was biotransformed (0.018-0.22LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions. Group 2 (meprobamate and trimethoprim) biotransformed (0.01-0.21LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under anoxic and aerobic conditions, Group 3 (DEET, gemfibrozil and triclosan) only biotransformed (0.034-0.26LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under aerobic conditions, and Group 4 (carbamazepine, primidone, sucralose and TCEP) exhibited little to no biotransformation (<0.001LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under any redox conditions. BNR treatment did not provide a barrier against Group 4 compounds. PMID:27309772

  19. AGN POPULATION IN HICKSON COMPACT GROUPS. I. DATA AND NUCLEAR ACTIVITY CLASSIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    MartInez, M. A.; Del Olmo, A.; Perea, J.; Coziol, R. E-mail: chony@iaa.es E-mail: rcoziol@astro.ugto.mx

    2010-03-15

    We have conducted a new spectroscopic survey to characterize the nature of nuclear activity in Hickson compact group (HCG) galaxies and establish its frequency. We have obtained new intermediate-resolution optical spectroscopy for 200 member galaxies and corrected for underlying stellar population contamination using galaxy templates. Spectra for 11 additional galaxies have been acquired from the ESO and 6dF public archives, and emission-line ratios have been taken from the literature for 59 more galaxies. Here we present the results of our classification of the nuclear activity for 270 member galaxies, which belong to a well-defined sample of 64 HCGs. We found a large fraction of galaxies, 63%, with emission lines. Using standard diagnostic diagrams, 45% of the emission-line galaxies were classified as pure active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 23% as Transition Objects (TOs), and 32% as star-forming nuclei (SFNs). In the HCGs, the AGN activity appears as the most frequent activity type. Adopting the interpretation that in TOs a low-luminosity AGN coexists with circumnuclear star formation, the fraction of galaxies with an AGN could rise to 42% of the whole sample. The low frequency (20%) of SFNs confirms that there is no star formation enhancement in HCGs. After extinction correction, we found a median AGN H{alpha} luminosity of 7.1 x 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}, which implies that AGNs in HCG have a characteristically low luminosity. This result added to the fact that there is an almost complete absence of broad-line AGNs in compact groups (CGs) as found by MartInez et al. and corroborated in this study for HCGs, is consistent with very few gas left in these galaxies. In general, therefore, what may characterize the level of activity in CGs is a severe deficiency of gas.

  20. AGN Population in Hickson Compact Groups. I. Data and Nuclear Activity Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, M. A.; Del Olmo, A.; Coziol, R.; Perea, J.

    2010-03-01

    We have conducted a new spectroscopic survey to characterize the nature of nuclear activity in Hickson compact group (HCG) galaxies and establish its frequency. We have obtained new intermediate-resolution optical spectroscopy for 200 member galaxies and corrected for underlying stellar population contamination using galaxy templates. Spectra for 11 additional galaxies have been acquired from the ESO and 6dF public archives, and emission-line ratios have been taken from the literature for 59 more galaxies. Here we present the results of our classification of the nuclear activity for 270 member galaxies, which belong to a well-defined sample of 64 HCGs. We found a large fraction of galaxies, 63%, with emission lines. Using standard diagnostic diagrams, 45% of the emission-line galaxies were classified as pure active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 23% as Transition Objects (TOs), and 32% as star-forming nuclei (SFNs). In the HCGs, the AGN activity appears as the most frequent activity type. Adopting the interpretation that in TOs a low-luminosity AGN coexists with circumnuclear star formation, the fraction of galaxies with an AGN could rise to 42% of the whole sample. The low frequency (20%) of SFNs confirms that there is no star formation enhancement in HCGs. After extinction correction, we found a median AGN Hα luminosity of 7.1 × 1039 erg s-1, which implies that AGNs in HCG have a characteristically low luminosity. This result added to the fact that there is an almost complete absence of broad-line AGNs in compact groups (CGs) as found by Martínez et al. and corroborated in this study for HCGs, is consistent with very few gas left in these galaxies. In general, therefore, what may characterize the level of activity in CGs is a severe deficiency of gas.

  1. Pomalidomide Is Active in the Treatment of Anemia Associated With Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tefferi, Ayalew; Verstovsek, Srdan; Barosi, Giovanni; Passamonti, Francesco; Roboz, Gail J.; Gisslinger, Heinz; Paquette, Ronald L.; Cervantes, Francisco; Rivera, Candido E.; Deeg, H. Joachim; Thiele, Juergen; Kvasnicka, Hans M.; Vardiman, James W.; Zhang, Yanming; Bekele, B. Nebiyou; Mesa, Ruben A.; Gale, Robert P.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Thalidomide and lenalidomide can alleviate anemia in myelofibrosis. However, their value is undermined by their respective potential to cause peripheral neuropathy and myelosuppression. We therefore evaluated the safety and therapeutic activity of another immunomodulatory drug, pomalidomide. Methods In a phase II randomized, multicenter, double-blind, adaptive design study, four treatment arms were evaluated: pomalidomide (2 mg/d) plus placebo, pomalidomide (2 mg/d) plus prednisone, pomalidomide (0.5 mg/d) plus prednisone, and prednisone plus placebo. Pomalidomide was administered for up to 12 28-day treatment cycles. Prednisone (30 mg/d) was given in a tapering dose schedule during the first three cycles. Response was assessed by International Working Group criteria. Results Eighty-four patients with myelofibrosis-associated anemia were randomly assigned to the aforementioned treatment arms: 22, 19, 22, and 21, respectively. Response in anemia was documented in 20 patients, including 15 who became transfusion independent. Response rates in the four treatment arms were 23% (95% CI, 5% to 41%), 16% (95% CI, 0% to 33%), 36% (95% CI, 16% to 56%), and 19% (95% CI, 2% to 36%). The corresponding figures for patients receiving ≥ 3 cycles of treatment (n = 62) were 38%, 23%, 40%, and 25%. Response to pomalidomide with or without prednisone was durable (range, 3.2 to 16.9+ months) and significantly better in the absence of leukocytosis (37% v 8%; P = .01); JAK2V617F or cytogenetic status did not affect response. Grade ≥ 3 toxicities were infrequent and included (in each treatment arm) neutropenia (9%; 16%; 5%; 5%), thrombocytopenia (14%; 16%; 9%; 5%), and thrombosis (9%; 5%; 0%; 0%). Conclusion Pomalidomide therapy at 0.5 or 2 mg/d with or without an abbreviated course of prednisone is well tolerated in patients with myelofibrosis and active in the treatment of anemia. PMID:19652059

  2. Coarse-scaling adjustment of fine-group neutron spectra for epithermal neutron beams in BNCT using multiple activation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan-Hao; Nievaart, Sander; Tsai, Pi-En; Liu, Hong-Ming; Moss, Ray; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide an improved and reliable neutron source description for treatment planning in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a spectrum adjustment procedure named coarse-scaling adjustment has been developed and applied to the neutron spectrum measurements of both the Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor (THOR) epithermal neutron beam in Taiwan and the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in The Netherlands, using multiple activation detectors. The coarse-scaling adjustment utilizes a similar idea as the well-known two-foil method, which adjusts the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes according to the Maxwellian distribution for thermal neutrons and 1/ E distribution over the epithermal neutron energy region. The coarse-scaling adjustment can effectively suppress the number of oscillations appearing in the adjusted spectrum and provide better smoothness. This paper also presents a sophisticated 9-step process utilizing twice the coarse-scaling adjustment which can adjust a given coarse-group spectrum into a fine-group structure, i.e. 640 groups, with satisfactory continuity and excellently matched reaction rates between measurements and calculation. The spectrum adjustment algorithm applied in this study is the same as the well-known SAND-II.

  3. Within-group health disparities among Blacks: the effects of Afrocentric features and unfair treatment.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Nao; Penner, Louis A; Gonzalez, Richard; Albrecht, Terrance L

    2013-10-01

    Prior research on the impact of Afrocentric features on health has focused primarily on a single feature, skin color. We explored the effects of two other Afrocentric features (lip thickness, nose width) on Blacks' health status and whether unfair treatment mediates any relationship between these features and health. A secondary analysis of a prior study of Black patients' health was conducted. Patients with strong (high lip and high nose ratios) and weak (low lip and low nose ratios) Afrocentric features (i.e., congruent features) had poorer health than patients with incongruent features. Unlike findings for skin color, congruence of features rather than strength predicted health. Congruence predicted perceived unfair treatment in the same manner. Importantly, perceived unfair treatment mediated the relation between Afrocentric features and health. The study suggests that even subtle differences in Afrocentric features can have serious long-term health consequences among Blacks. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23914746

  4. A dance movement therapy group for depressed adult patients in a psychiatric outpatient clinic: effects of the treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pylvänäinen, Päivi M.; Muotka, Joona S.; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2015-01-01

    We were interested in investigating the effects of dance movement therapy (DMT) in a psychiatric outpatient clinic with patients diagnosed with depression. DMT aims to engage the patients in physical and verbal exploration of their experiences generated in movement based interaction. The assumption was that DMT, which includes both physical engagement as well as emotional and social exploration, would alleviate the mood and psychiatric symptoms. All adult patients (n = 33) included in the study received treatment as usual (TAU). Twenty-one patients participated in a 12-session DMT group intervention, and the remaining 12 patients chose to take TAU only. The majority of the patients suffered from moderate or severe depression, recurrent and/or chronic type. The effects of the interventions were investigated after the intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. Compared to the TAU, adding DMT seemed to improve the effect of the treatment. The effect of the DMT was observable whether the patient was taking antidepressant medication or not. At follow-up, between group effect sizes (ES) were medium in favor for the DMT group (d = 0.60–0.79). In the DMT group, the within ES at the 3 months follow-up varied from 0.62 to 0.82 as compared to TAU 0.15–0.37. The results indicated that DMT is beneficial in the treatment of depressed patients. PMID:26217292

  5. Efficacy of treatment in an opioid -dependent population group using the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP) tool.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ruth; Boggs, Bob; Taggart, Noel; Kelly, Martin; Drillington, Aileen; Swanton, Ivy; Patterson, Diane

    2009-01-01

    A pilot study was performed to assess the effectiveness of treatment in an opioid dependent population using the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP) tool1.The primary outcome of the study was to assess if treatment had an effect on 1. Substance use (quantity and frequency of use), 2. Health risk behaviour (injecting and sharing injecting equipment), 3. Health symptoms (physical and psychological) and 4. Personal /Social functioning (relationships, employment and crime). A secondary outcome was also sought.The study took place in 2007 in an inner city Belfast hospital specialising in the treatment of addiction, over a two month period. Fifteen patients, all opioid dependent and receiving outpatient community treatment, were interviewed at baseline (prior to the commencement of treatment) and at eight weeks follow up.Three patients were lost to follow up. Two patients stopped using altogether. Of the remaining patients, improvements were seen in most areas. There was a decrease in the use of heroin (71.28%), cocaine (99.72%), crack cocaine (100%), cannabis (99.94%) and alcohol (33.17%). There was a reduction in injecting behaviour (60.93%). Improvements were observed in health with a reduction in physical (41.35%) and psychological (35%) symptoms. Overall personal and social functioning improved regarding interactions with family and friends. A reduction in crime was also observed (75%).Opinions and views of staff involved in the study were generally positive.This patient population presents with multiple and complex needs. Effective treatment needs to address these needs and not just drug addiction alone. The Maudsley Addiction Profile tool highlights this. PMID:19252726

  6. Synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles directly from active carbon via a one-step ultrasonic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haitao; He, Xiaodie; Liu, Yang; Yu, Hang; Kang, Zhenhui; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-15

    Water-soluble fluorescent carbon nanoparticles were synthesized directly from active carbon by a one-step hydrogen peroxide-assisted ultrasonic treatment. The carbon nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, optical fluorescent microscopy, fluorescent spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that the surface of carbon nanoparticles was rich of hydroxyl groups resulting in high hydrophilicity. The carbon nanoparticles could emit bright and colorful photoluminescence covering the entire visible-to-near infrared spectral range. Furthermore, these carbon nanoparticles also had excellent up-conversion fluorescent properties.

  7. Optically active surfaces formed by ion implantation and thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gea, L.A.; Boatner, L.A.; Evans, H.M.; Zuhr, R.

    1996-08-01

    Embedded VO{sub 2} precipitates have been formed in single-crystal sapphire by the ion co-implantation of vanadium and oxygen and subsequent thermal annealing. The embedded VO{sub 2} particles have been shown to exhibit an optical switching behavior that is comparable to that of continuous thin films. In this work, the mechanisms of formation of these optically active particles are investigated. It is shown that precipitation of the vanadium dioxide phase is favored when the thermal treatment is performed on an ion-damaged but still crystalline (rather than amorphized) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. The best optical switching behavior is observed in this case, and this behavior is apparently correlated with a more-favorable dispersion of VO{sub 2} small particles inside the matrix.

  8. Youth Group Engagement in Noncompliant Communities During Supplemental Immunization Activities in Kaduna, Nigeria, in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Audu; Mkanda, Pascal; Manneh, Fadinding; Korir, Charles; Warigon, Charity; Gali, Emmanuel; Banda, Richard; Umeh, Gregory; Nsubuga, Peter; Chevez, Ana; Vaz, Rui G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. One of the major challenges being faced in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative program is persistent refusal of oral polio vaccine (OPV) and harassment of vaccination team members by youths. The objective of the study was to describe the strategy of collaborating with recognized youth groups to reduce team harassment during vaccination campaigns and improve vaccination coverage in noncompliant communities. Methods. We assessed data from polio vaccination activities in OPV-refusing communities in the Igabi and Zaria local government areas (LGAs) of Kaduna State in Nigeria. We evaluated the following factors to determine trends: enhanced independent monitoring data on the proportion of children missed by vaccination activities (hereafter, “missed children”), lot quality assurance surveys, and vaccination team harassment. Results. The proportion of missed children decreased in both LGAs after the intervention. In Igabi LGA and Zaria LGA, the lowest proportions of missed children before and after the intervention decreased from 7% to 2% and from 5% to 1%, respectively. Lot quality assurance survey trends showed an improvement in immunization coverage 1 year after youth groups' engagement in both LGAs. Conclusions. Systematic engagement of youth groups has a great future in polio interruption as we approach the endgame strategy for polio eradication. It promises to be a veritable innovation in reaching chronically missed children in OPV-refusing communities. PMID:26609003

  9. Group planarian sudden mortality: Is the threshold around global geomagnetic activity ≥K6?

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Nirosha J; Karbowski, Lukasz M; Mekers, William Ft; Persinger, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Sudden deaths in groups of animals have been observed by field and laboratory biologists. We have measured mortalities in large group-housed planarian during the infrequent periods of very intense geomagnetic activity. In 13 separate episodes over the last 5 y we have observed the sudden death in our laboratory of hundreds of planarian if their density was about 1 worm per cc and the global geomagnetic activity was K≥6 the day before or the day of the observation of the mortality. Such mortality never occurred in other conditions or days. Both estimates of the "magnetic moment" of a planarian in magnetic fields above this threshold of sustained magnetic flux density as well as the magnetic energy within the planarian volume predict values that could affect phenomenon associated with the total numbers of pH-dependent charges within each worm. These conditions could affect the Levin-Burr bioelectrical signals and networks that affect patterning information and sustainability in whole living systems. The establishment of a central reservoir for the report of these transient events might allow Life Scientists to more fully appreciate the impact of these pervasive global stimuli upon dense groups of animals. PMID:27066174

  10. Group and Individual Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Using Cognitive Therapy and Exposure Plus Response Prevention: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Two Randomized Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittal, Maureen L.; Robichaud, Melisa; Thordarson, Dana S.; McLean, Peter D.

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the long-term durability of group treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and contemporary cognitive treatments. The current study investigated the 2-year follow-up results for participants who completed randomized trials of group or individual treatment and received either cognitive therapy (CT) or…

  11. Treatment benefits on metabolic syndrome with diet and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dragusha, Gani; Elezi, Abdulla; Dragusha, Shpend; Gorani, Daut; Begolli, Luljeta

    2010-05-01

    The research has included 422 patients aged between 25 to 60, of whom 341 were men and 81 women. The purpose of research was to determine impact of diet and physical activity in the treatment of metabolic syndrome during the six month period. Processing of results through descriptive and discriminative analysis have indicated that 6 month treatment with diet and physical activity have had an impact in the: waistline decrease by 6.05 cm or 5.50% among males, and 4.92 cm or 5.10% among females; body mass index (BMI) decrease by 1.78 or 6.20% among males, and 2.3 or 8.16% among females; decrease of blood triglycerides levels by 0.35 mmol/L or 16.28% among males, and 0.27 mmol/L or 13.30% among females; increase of blood cholesterol HDL-C by 0.48 mmol/L or 34.78% among males, and 0.06 mmol/L or 4.28% among females; systolic arterial pressure decreased by 15 mmHg or 10.18%, and diastolic blood pressure by 8.74 mmHg or 9.47% among males, and systolic arterial pressure decreased by 7.39 mmHg or 5.17%, and diastolic blood pressure decreased by 5.18 mmHg or 5.75% among females; the level of blood glucose decreased by 0.45 mmol/L or 7.04% among males, and by 0.64 mmol/L or 9.92% decreased among females. The results show that physical exercise and diet are important factors in reducing the values symptoms of metabolic syndrome. In order to improve symptoms of metabolic syndrome, it is necessary to keep on with healthy diet and physical exercise that means the change of lifestyle. PMID:20507300

  12. 42 CFR 483.440 - Condition of participation: Active treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Active treatment... CARE FACILITIES Conditions of Participation for Intermediate Care Facilities for the Mentally Retarded § 483.440 Condition of participation: Active treatment services. (a) Standard: Active treatment....

  13. Adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds onto modified activated carbons: effect of oxygen functional groups.

    PubMed

    Vega, Esther; Lemus, Jesús; Anfruns, Alba; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael; Palomar, José; Martin, María J

    2013-08-15

    The effect of physical and chemical properties of activated carbon (AC) on the adsorption of ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide was investigated by treating a commercial AC with nitric acid and ozone. The chemical properties of ACs were characterised by temperature programme desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. AC treated with nitric acid presented a larger amount of oxygen functional groups than materials oxidised with ozone. This enrichment allowed a significant improvement on adsorption capacities for ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide but not for dimethyl disulphide. In order to gain a deeper knowledge on the effect of the surface chemistry of AC on the adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds, the quantum-chemical COSMO-RS method was used to simulate the interactions between AC surface groups and the studied volatile sulphur compounds. In agreement with experimental data, this model predicted a greater affinity of dimethyl disulphide towards AC, unaffected by the incorporation of oxygen functional groups in the surface. Moreover, the model pointed out to an increase of the adsorption capacity of AC by the incorporation of hydroxyl functional groups in the case of ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide due to the hydrogen bond interactions. PMID:23708449

  14. Control of nuclear activities by substrate-selective and protein-group SUMOylation.

    PubMed

    Jentsch, Stefan; Psakhye, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Reversible modification of proteins by SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) affects a large number of cellular processes. In striking contrast to the related ubiquitin pathway, only a few enzymes participate in the SUMO system, although this pathway has numerous substrates as well. Emerging evidence suggests that SUMOylation frequently targets entire groups of physically interacting proteins rather than individual proteins. Protein-group SUMOylation appears to be triggered by recruitment of SUMO ligases to preassembled protein complexes. Because SUMOylation typically affects groups of proteins that bear SUMO-interaction motifs (SIMs), protein-group SUMOylation may foster physical interactions between proteins through multiple SUMO-SIM interactions. Individual SUMO modifications may act redundantly or additively, yet they may mediate dedicated functions as well. In this review, we focus on the unorthodox principles of this pathway and give examples for SUMO-controlled nuclear activities. We propose that collective SUMOylation is typical for nuclear assemblies and argue that SUMO serves as a distinguishing mark for functionally engaged protein fractions. PMID:24016193

  15. Guidelines for treatment of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in humans. WHO Informal Working Group on Echinococcosis.

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Summarized in this article are recent experiences in the treatment of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) of the liver caused by the metacestode stages of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, respectively. For CE, surgery remains the first choice for treatment with the potential to remove totally the parasite and completely cure the patient. However, chemotherapy with benzimidazole compounds (albendazole or mebendazole) and the recently developed PAIR procedure (puncture-aspiration-injection-re-aspiration) with concomitant chemotherapy offer further options for treatment of CE cases. Chemotherapy is not yet satisfactory: cure can be expected in about 30% of patients and improvement in 30-50%, after 12 months' follow-up. AE is generally a severe disease, with over 90% mortality in untreated patients. Radical surgery is recommended in all operable cases but has to be followed by chemotherapy for at least 2 years. Inoperable cases and patients who have undergone nonradical resection or liver transplantation require continuous chemotherapy for many years. Long-term chemotherapy may significantly prolong survival, even for inoperable patients with severe AE. Liver transplantation may be indicated as a life-saving measure for patients with severe liver dysfunction, but is associated with a relatively high risk of proliferation of intraoperatively undetected parasite remnants. Details of indications, contraindications, treatment schedules and other aspects are discussed. PMID:8789923

  16. Methodological Considerations in Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Research with Intact Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.; Salvia, John

    1980-01-01

    The paper cites difficulties in aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) research which investigates relationships between test performance and the extent of profiting from instruction. Two methods for ATI research (regression analysis and analysis of variance) are described, assumptions and potential mininterpretations are noted, and correct…

  17. Treatment of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity: An Integrative Review of Recent Recommendations from Five Expert Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschenbaum, Daniel S.; Gierut, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare and contrast 5 sets of expert recommendations about the treatment of childhood and adolescent obesity. Method: We reviewed 5 sets of recent expert recommendations: 2007 health care organizations' four stage model, 2007 Canadian clinical practice guidelines, 2008 Endocrine Society recommendations, 2009 seven step model, and…

  18. An Outcome Evaluation of a Treatment Readiness Group Program for Probationers with Substance Use Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roque, Lorena; Lurigio, Arthur J.

    2009-01-01

    From 2003 to 2008, Treatment Alternatives for Safe Communities of Illinois (TASC) implemented the Reducing Risk: Outreach and Pretreatment for Probationers program (RROPP) in Cook County (Chicago), Illinois. The goal of RROPP was to reduce probationers' further penetration into the criminal justice system by increasing participation in substance…

  19. Estimating Treatment Effects via Multilevel Matching within Homogenous Groups of Clusters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Peter M.; Kim, Jee-Seon

    2015-01-01

    Despite the popularity of propensity score (PS) techniques they are not yet well studied for matching multilevel data where selection into treatment takes place among level-one units within clusters. This paper suggests a PS matching strategy that tries to avoid the disadvantages of within- and across-cluster matching. The idea is to first…

  20. Coping Strategies in Bulimia Nervosa Treatment: Impact on Outcome in Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binford, Roslyn B.; Mussell, Melissa Pederson; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Mitchell, James E.

    2005-01-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the extent to which participants (N = 143) receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (BN) reported implementing therapeutic strategies to abstain from BN behaviors, and to assess whether use of specific strategies predicts outcome at treatment end and 1-and 6-month follow-up. Frequency of…