Science.gov

Sample records for active treatment phase

  1. Waste activated sludge treatment based on temperature staged and biologically phased anaerobic digestion system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingwen; Zheng, Mingxia; Tao, Tao; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun

    2013-10-01

    The concept of temperature staged and biological phased (TSBP) was proposed to enhance the performance of waste-activated sludge anaerobic digestion. Semi-continuous experiments were used to investigate the effect of temperature (35 to 70 degrees C) as well as the hydraulic retention time (HRT) (2, 4 and 6 days) on the acidogenic phase. The results showed that the solubilization degree of waste-activated sludge increased from 14.7% to 30.1% with temperature increasing from 35 to 70 degrees C, while the acidification degree was highest at 45 degrees C (17.6%), and this was quite different from the temperature impact on hydrolysis. Compared with HRT of 2 and 6 days, 4 days was chosen as the appropriate HRT because of its relatively high solubilization degree (24.6%) and acidification degree (20.1%) at 45 degrees C. The TSBP system combined the acidogenic reactor (45 degrees C, 4 days) with the methanogenic reactor (35 degrees C, 16 days) and the results showed 84.8% and 11.4% higher methane yield and volatile solid reduction, respectively, compared with that of the single-stage anaerobic digestion system with HRT of 20 days at 35 degrees C. Moreover, different microbial morphologies were observed in the acidogenic- and methanogenic-phase reactors, which resulted from the temperature control and HRT adjustment. All the above results indicated that 45 degrees C was the optimum temperature to inhibit the activity of methanogenic bacteria in the acidogenic phase, and temperature staging and phase separation was thus accomplished. The advantages of the TSBP process were also confirmed by a full-scale waste-activated sludge anaerobic digestion project which was an energy self-sufficient system.

  2. Volatile composition and aroma activity of guava puree before and after thermal and dense phase carbon dioxide treatments.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Maria Lourdes; Marshall, Maurice R; Rouseff, Russell Lee

    2015-02-01

    Volatiles from initially frozen, dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD)- and thermally treated guava purees were isolated by solid phase microextraction (SPME), chromatographically separated and identified using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-olfactometry (GC-O), and GC-pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD, sulfur mode). Fifty-eight volatiles were identified using GC-MS consisting of: 6 aldehydes, 2 acids, 15 alcohols, 6 ketones, 21 esters, and 8 terpenes. Eleven volatiles were newly identified in guava puree. Hexanal was the most abundant volatile in all 3 types of guava puree. Ten sulfur compounds were identified using GC-PFPD of which 3 possessed aroma activity and 3 were not previously reported in guava puree. Both treatments profoundly reduced total sulfur peak areas and produced different peak patterns compared to control. Thermal treatment reduced total sulfur peak area 47.9% compared to a loss of 34.7% with DPCD treatment. Twenty-six volatiles possessed aroma activity. (Z)-3-Hexenyl hexanoate was the major contributor to the aroma of the freshly thawed and DPCD-treated guava puree. DPCD treatment reduced total MS ion chromatogram (MS TIC) peak area 35% but produced a GC-O aroma profile very similar to control. Whereas thermal treatment reduced total TIC peak area only 8.7% compared to control but produced a 35% loss in total GC-O peak intensities.

  3. Effects of prior treatment with simvastatin on skeletal muscle structure and mitochondrial enzyme activities during early phases of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ozkok, Elif; Yorulmaz, Hatice; Ates, Gulten; Serdaroglu-Oflazer, Piraye; Tamer, Ayse Sule

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the early phase of sepsis and prior treatment of Simvastatin on muscle structure and mitochondrial enzymes treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. We divided rats into control, LPS, simvastatin, simvastatin + LPS groups. Mitochondrial citrate synthase, complex I, II, I + III, II + III, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activities were measured. Muscle tissue was stained using modified Gomori trichrome (MGT), succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome oxidase (COX). In all treated groups, complex I and citrate synthase activities were higher than in the controls. In the control and LPS groups, COX activity was increased when compared with simvastatins'. Complex II, II-III activities were higher in the LPS group than in the control group. Complex I-III activities were higher in the Simvastatin and Simvastatin + LPS groups than in the control and LPS groups (P < 0.05). Myopathic changes with LPS group were observed in MGT stained sections. Our findings showed improvements in the alterations of enzyme activities and muscle myofibrils after treating rats with LPS that had received a prior dose of simvastatin.

  4. Athena: Assessment Phase Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumb, David; Ayre, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The Athena mission concept has been proposed by the community in response to science themes of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Unlike other, competitive, mission selection exercises this "Large" class observatory mission has essentially been pre-selected. Nevertheless it has to be demonstrated that Athena meets the programmatic constraints of 1Bn euro cost cap, and a readiness level appropriate for formal mission adoption by the end 2019. This should be confirmed through a Phase A study conducted with two parallel industry activities. We describe the technical and programmatic content of these and latest progress in space and ground segment definition.

  5. Celecoxib treatment does not alter recruitment and activation of osteoclasts in the initial phase of experimental tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Filho, E P; Stabile, A C; Ervolino, E; Stuani, M B S; Iyomasa, M M; Rocha, M J A

    2012-10-08

    In a previous study, we reported that the short-term treatment with celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) attenuates the activation of brain structures related to nociception and does not interfere with orthodontic incisor separation in rats. The conclusion was that celecoxib could possibly be prescribed for pain in orthodontic patients. However, we did not analyze the effects of this drug in periodontium. The aim of this follow-up study was to analyze effects of celecoxib treatment on recruitment and activation of osteoclasts and alveolar bone resorption after inserting an activated orthodontic appliance between the incisors in our rat model. Twenty rats (400-420 g) were pretreated through oral gavage with celecoxib (50 mg/kg) or vehicle (carboxymethylcellulose 0.4%). After 30 min, they received an activated (30 g) orthodontic appliance, set not to cause any palate disjunction. In sham animals, the appliance was immediately removed after introduction. All animals received ground food and, every 12 h, celecoxib or vehicle. After 48 h, they were anesthetized and transcardiacally perfused through the aorta with 4% formaldehyde. Subsequently, maxillae were removed, post-fixed and processed for histomorphometry or immunohistochemical analyses. As expected, incisor distalization induced an inflammatory response with certain histological changes, including an increase in the number of active osteoclasts at the compression side in group treated with vehicle (appliance: 32.2 ± 2.49 vs sham: 4.8 ± 1.79, P<0.05) and celecoxib (appliance: 31.0 ± 1.45 vs sham: 4.6 ± 1.82, P<0.05). The treatment with celecoxib did not modify substantially the histological alterations and the number of active osteoclasts after activation of orthodontic appliance. Moreover, we did not see any difference between the groups with respect to percentage of bone resorption area. Taken together with our previous results we conclude that short-term treatment with celecoxib can

  6. Celecoxib treatment does not alter recruitment and activation of osteoclasts in the initial phase of experimental tooth movement

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Filho, E.P.; Stabile, A.C.; Ervolino, E.; Stuani, M.B.S.; Iyomasa, M.M.; Rocha, M.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported that the short-term treatment with celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) attenuates the activation of brain structures related to nociception and does not interfere with orthodontic incisor separation in rats. The conclusion was that celecoxib could possibly be prescribed for pain in orthodontic patients. However, we did not analyze the effects of this drug in periodontium. The aim of this follow-up study was to analyze effects of celecoxib treatment on recruitment and activation of osteoclasts and alveolar bone resorption after inserting an activated orthodontic appliance between the incisors in our rat model. Twenty rats (400–420 g) were pretreated through oral gavage with celecoxib (50 mg/kg) or vehicle (carboxymethyl-cellulose 0.4%). After 30 min, they received an activated (30 g) orthodontic appliance, set not to cause any palate disjunction. In sham animals, the appliance was immediately removed after introduction. All animals received ground food and, every 12 h, celecoxib or vehicle. After 48 h, they were anesthetized and transcardiacally perfused through the aorta with 4% formaldehyde. Subsequently, maxillae were removed, post-fixed and processed for histomorphometry or immunohistochemical analyses. As expected, incisor distalization induced an inflammatory response with certain histological changes, including an increase in the number of active osteoclasts at the compression side in group treated with vehicle (appliance:32.2±2.49 vs sham: 4.8±1.79, P<0.05) and celecoxib (appliance: 31.0±1.45 vs sham: 4.6±1.82, P<0.05). The treatment with celecoxib did not modify substantially the histological alterations and the number of active osteoclasts after activation of orthodontic appliance. Moreover, we did not see any difference between the groups with respect to percentage of bone resorption area. Taken together with our previous results we conclude that short-term treatment with celecoxib can indeed be

  7. Celecoxib treatment does not alter recruitment and activation of osteoclasts in the initial phase of experimental tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Filho, E P; Stabile, A C; Ervolino, E; Stuani, M B S; Iyomasa, M M; Rocha, M J A

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported that the short-term treatment with celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) attenuates the activation of brain structures related to nociception and does not interfere with orthodontic incisor separation in rats. The conclusion was that celecoxib could possibly be prescribed for pain in orthodontic patients. However, we did not analyze the effects of this drug in periodontium. The aim of this follow-up study was to analyze effects of celecoxib treatment on recruitment and activation of osteoclasts and alveolar bone resorption after inserting an activated orthodontic appliance between the incisors in our rat model. Twenty rats (400-420 g) were pretreated through oral gavage with celecoxib (50 mg/kg) or vehicle (carboxymethylcellulose 0.4%). After 30 min, they received an activated (30 g) orthodontic appliance, set not to cause any palate disjunction. In sham animals, the appliance was immediately removed after introduction. All animals received ground food and, every 12 h, celecoxib or vehicle. After 48 h, they were anesthetized and transcardiacally perfused through the aorta with 4% formaldehyde. Subsequently, maxillae were removed, post-fixed and processed for histomorphometry or immunohistochemical analyses. As expected, incisor distalization induced an inflammatory response with certain histological changes, including an increase in the number of active osteoclasts at the compression side in group treated with vehicle (appliance: 32.2 ± 2.49 vs sham: 4.8 ± 1.79, P<0.05) and celecoxib (appliance: 31.0 ± 1.45 vs sham: 4.6 ± 1.82, P<0.05). The treatment with celecoxib did not modify substantially the histological alterations and the number of active osteoclasts after activation of orthodontic appliance. Moreover, we did not see any difference between the groups with respect to percentage of bone resorption area. Taken together with our previous results we conclude that short-term treatment with celecoxib can

  8. Cannabidiol Post-Treatment Alleviates Rat Epileptic-Related Behaviors and Activates Hippocampal Cell Autophagy Pathway Along with Antioxidant Defense in Chronic Phase of Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Mahshid; Nikseresht, Sara; Khodagholi, Fariba; Naderi, Nima; Maghsoudi, Nader

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal and sometimes severe behavioral and molecular symptoms are usually observed in epileptic humans and animals. To address this issue, we examined the behavioral and molecular aspects of seizure evoked by pilocarpine. Autophagy can promote both cell survival and death, but there are controversial reports about the neuroprotective or neurodegenerative effects of autophagy in seizure. Cannabidiol has anticonvulsant properties in some animal models when used as a pretreatment. In this study, we investigated alteration of seizure scores, autophagy pathway proteins, and antioxidant status in hippocampal cells during the chronic phase of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy after treatment with cannabidiol. Cannabidiol (100 ng, intracerebroventricular injection) delayed the chronic phase of epilepsy. Single administration of cannabidiol during the chronic phase of seizure significantly diminished seizure scores such as mouth clonus, head nodding, monolateral and bilateral forelimb clonus and increased the activity of catalase enzyme and reduced glutathione content. Such a protective effect in the behavioral scores of epileptic rats was also observed after repeated administrations of cannabidiol at the onset of the silent phase. Moreover, the amount of Atg7, conjugation of Atg5/12, Atg12, and LC3II/LC3I ratio increased significantly in epileptic rats treated with repeated injections of cannabidiol. In short, our results suggest that post-treatment of Cannabidiol could enhance the induction of autophagy pathway and antioxidant defense in the chronic phase of epilepsy, which could be considered as the protective mechanisms of cannabidiol in a temporal lobe epilepsy model.

  9. A double-blind, randomized, and active-controlled phase III study of Herbiron drink in the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in premenopausal females in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ching-Tzu; Jeng, Cherng-Jye; Yeh, Lian-Shung; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Chen, Shih-Ming; Lee, Chyi-Long; Lin, Willie; Hsu, Chun-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Background About 468 million non-pregnant women are estimated to suffer from iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) worldwide. The highest prevalence of IDA occurs in the Taiwanese population. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of Herbiron to increase iron absorption in women with IDA. Design Phase III double-blind, randomized, active-controlled, and parallel comparative study enrolled 124 patients with IDA and consisted of a 2-week run-in period, randomization, 12 weeks of supplementation, and 4 weeks of follow-up. The treatment group received Herbiron drink 50 mL p.o., b.i.d., before meals (daily iron intake: 21 mg/day) plus placebo tablets. The control group received a ferrous sulfate tablet, t.i.d., plus placebo 50-mL drink before meals (daily iron intake: 195 mg/day). Results Both treatments significantly improved hemoglobin and all secondary efficacy endpoints. Most IDA patients treated with Herbiron or ferrous sulfate finished the study in the normal range. Ferrous sulfate treatment induced a rapid rate of hemoglobin synthesis, which plateaued by week 8, whereas Herbiron treatment increased the rate of hemoglobin synthesis more slowly, likely due to its nine-fold lower iron content. Gastrointestinal adverse events (diarrhea, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, and nausea) but not infectious adverse events were significantly more common in the ferrous sulfate group (n=11, 18.3%) than those in the Herbiron group (n=1, 1.6%) (p=0.004). Conclusion Twelve weeks of Herbiron treatment delivering 21mg of iron or ferrous sulfate treatment delivering 195 mg of iron induced normal hemoglobin levels in 62 or 91% of non-pregnant women with IDA in Taiwan, respectively, suggesting dose-dependent and bioavailability effects. PMID:27343206

  10. Active membrane phased array radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moussessian, Alina; Del Castillo, Linda; Huang, John; Sadowy, Greg; Hoffman, James; Smith, Phil; Hatake, Toshiro; Derksen, Chuck; Lopez, Bernardo; Caro, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We have developed the first membrane-based active phased array in L-band (1.26GHz). The array uses membrane compatible Transmit/Receive (T/R) modules (membrane T/R) for each antenna element. We use phase shifters within each T/R module for electronic beam steering. We will discuss the T/R module design and integration with the membrane, We will also present transmit and receive beam-steering results for the array.

  11. Tinnitus activities treatment.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Richard S; Gogel, Stephanie A; Gehringer, Anne K

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus Activities Treatment includes counseling of the whole person, and considers individual differences and needs. We consider four areas: thoughts and emotions, hearing and communication, sleep, and concentration. We typically use Partial Masking Sound Therapy, with a noise or music set to the lowest level that provides relief. A picture-based approach facilitates engagement of the patient, and provides thorough and structured counseling. We engage the patient by including homework and activities to demonstrate understanding and facilitate progress. PMID:17956807

  12. 40 CFR 35.2108 - Phased or segmented treatment works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phased or segmented treatment works. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2108 Phased or segmented treatment works. Grant funding may be awarded for a phase or segment of a treatment works,...

  13. Treatment of incest perpetrators: a five-phase model.

    PubMed

    Frenken, J

    1994-04-01

    The author's experiences with treating fathers who committed incest and were sentenced to undergo therapy are discussed in this paper. The treatment consists of five phases. Following crisis intervention and assessment, an analysis is made of the sequence of events, thoughts, moods, and behaviors that precede sexual contact. In the third phase, the client's sense of guilt is brought out and he actively takes responsibility for the sexual abuse of his daughter. In the fourth phase, the origin of the sexual abuse is clarified as it is put into the context of his own problems and the problems within the family. In the fifth phase, strategies for relapse prevention are practiced. In addition there are partner-relationship sessions with the couple as well as family counseling sessions. Up to now none of the clients have recidivized.

  14. Repetitive obidoxime treatment induced increase of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase activity even in a late phase of a severe methamidophos poisoning: A case report.

    PubMed

    Steinritz, Dirk; Eyer, Florian; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; John, Harald

    2016-02-26

    Accidental self-poisoning or deliberate use in suicidal intent of organophosphorus pesticides (OPP), which are widely used in agriculture, represent a health problem worldwide. Symptoms of poisoning are characterized by acute cholinergic crisis caused by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. A 75-year-old male patient ingested 20ml of an OPP solution containing 10% methamidophos in suicidal intent. In the course of poisoning typical clinical symptoms of cholinergic crisis (miosis, bradycardia, hypotension, hypersalivation and impairment of neurologic status) were evident. Butyryl (plasma) cholinesterase (BChE) and red blood cell acetylcholinesterase (RBC-AChE) revealed decreased activities, thus specific treatment with the enzyme reactivator obidoxime was started. Inhibitory activity of the patient's plasma indicated significant amounts of persisting methamidophos in the circulation and was still found on day 4 after ingestion. Due to missing spontaneous breathing on day 6, obidoxime was administered again. Afterwards a significant increase of RBC-AChE activity was found. The patient was extubated on day 10 and a restitution ad integrum was achieved. In conclusion, obidoxime is a potent reactivator of OPP-inhibited AChE. A repetitive and prolonged administration of obidoxime should be considered in cases of severe methamidophos poisoning and should be tailored with an advanced analytical biomonitoring.

  15. Phase Transitions in Model Active Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redner, Gabriel S.

    The amazing collective behaviors of active systems such as bird flocks, schools of fish, and colonies of microorganisms have long amazed scientists and laypeople alike. Understanding the physics of such systems is challenging due to their far-from-equilibrium dynamics, as well as the extreme diversity in their ingredients, relevant time- and length-scales, and emergent phenomenology. To make progress, one can categorize active systems by the symmetries of their constituent particles, as well as how activity is expressed. In this work, we examine two categories of active systems, and explore their phase behavior in detail. First, we study systems of self-propelled spherical particles moving in two dimensions. Despite the absence of an aligning interaction, this system displays complex emergent dynamics, including phase separation into a dense active solid and dilute gas. Using simulations and analytic modeling, we quantify the phase diagram and separation kinetics. We show that this nonequilibrium phase transition is analogous to an equilibrium vapor-liquid system, with binodal and spinodal curves and a critical point. We also characterize the dense active solid phase, a unique material which exhibits the structural signatures of a crystalline solid near the crystal-hexatic transition point, as well as anomalous dynamics including superdiffusive motion on intermediate timescales. We also explore the role of interparticle attraction in this system. We demonstrate that attraction drastically changes the phase diagram, which contains two distinct phase-separated regions and is reentrant as a function of propulsion speed. We interpret this complex situation with a simple kinetic model, which builds from the observed microdynamics of individual particles to a full description of the macroscopic phase behavior. We also study active nematics, liquid crystals driven out of equilibrium by energy-dissipating active stresses. The equilibrium nematic state is unstable in these

  16. DHS Phase III activities underway.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Activities and improvements in the third round of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are described for the first year of the five year DHS-III project during 1992-97. Underway are data quality assessments, identification of data needs, development of a new core questionnaire and modules, and fieldwork survey implementation. Data quality studies are conducted on respondent age, age at first marriage, birth history, knowledge and use of contraception, and health of children aged under 5 years. An analysis of reinterview subsamples for Pakistan and Nigeria will test reliability of data. Emerging data needs for the decade are identified through consultations with data users in the population and health fields. A variety of organizational representatives and recognized experts provide valuable inputs on questionnaire content and module topics. This article also reveals that a shorter questionnaire length will be considered. There will be new questionnaire topics on reliance on breast feeding for contraception, induced abortion and complications, and quality of care. Reductions are made in little used data and retrospective data longer than 3-5 years preceding the survey date. Revisions are made in the Interviewer's and Supervisor's Manuals, the Service Availability Questionnaire, the Male/Husbands Questionnaire, and fifteen modules. Fieldwork is either in progress of completion in Ghana, Kenya, the Philippines, and Turkey. Bangladesh and Bolivia are scheduled for 1993. In 1994 surveys will be administered in Burundi, Central African Republic, Cote d'Ivoire, Guatemala, Haiti, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. PMID:12287320

  17. Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr).

  18. Microbial activity in soils following steam treatment.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Ruth E; James, C Andrew; Bhupathiraju, Vishvesh K; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Steam enhanced extraction (SEE) is an aquifer remediation technique that can be effective at removing the bulk of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination from the subsurface, particularly highly volatile contaminants. However, low volatility compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are less efficiently removed by this process. This research evaluated the effects of steam injection on soil microbial activity, community structure, and the potential for biodegradation of contaminants following steam treatment. Three different soils were evaluated: a laboratory-prepared microbially-enriched soil, soil from a creosote contaminated field site, and soil from a chlorinated solvent and waste oil contaminated field site. Results from field-scale steaming are also presented. Microbial activity before and after steam treatment was evaluated using direct epifluorescent microscopy (DEM) using the respiratory activity dye 5-cyano-2,3, ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) in conjunction with the fluorochrome 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl) aminofluorescein (DTAF) to yield a quantitative assessment of active and total microbial numbers. DEM results indicate that steamed soils that were analyzed while still hot exhibited microbial activity levels that were below detection. However, soil samples that were slowly cooled, more closely reflecting the conditions of applied SEE, exhibited microbial activity levels that were comparable to presteamed soils. Samples from a field-site where steam was applied continuously for 6 weeks also showed high levels of microbial activity following cooling. The metabolic capabilities of the steamed communities were investigated by measuring cell growth in enrichment cultures on various substrates. These studies provided evidence that organisms capable of biodegradation were among the mesophilic populations that survived steam treatment. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the soils with domain-level rRNA probes suggest

  19. Granular activated algae for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Tiron, O; Bumbac, C; Patroescu, I V; Badescu, V R; Postolache, C

    2015-01-01

    The study used activated algae granules for low-strength wastewater treatment in sequential batch mode. Each treatment cycle was conducted within 24 h in a bioreactor exposed to 235 μmol/m²/s light intensity. Wastewater treatment was performed mostly in aerobic conditions, oxygen being provided by microalgae. High removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved (86-98%) in the first hours of the reaction phase, during which the indicator's removal rate was 17.4 ± 3.9 mg O₂/g h; NH(4)(+) was removed during organic matter degradation processes with a rate of 1.8 ± 0.6 mg/g h. After almost complete COD removal, the (O⁺) remaining in the liquor was removed through nitrification processes promoted by the increase of the liquor's oxygen saturation (O₂%), the transformation rate of NH4(+) into NO(3)(-) increasing from 0.14 ± 0.05 to 1.5 ± 0.4 mg NH4(+)/g h, along with an O₂% increase. A wide removal efficiency was achieved in the case of PO(4)(3)(-) (11-85%), with the indicator's removal rate being 1.3 ± 0.7 mg/g h. In the provided optimum conditions, the occurrence of the denitrifying activity was also noticed. A large pH variation was registered (5-8.5) during treatment cycles. The granular activated algae system proved to be a promising alternative for wastewater treatment as it also sustains cost-efficient microalgae harvesting, with microalgae recovery efficiency ranging between 99.85 and 99.99% after granules settling with a velocity of 19 ± 3.6 m/h.

  20. Acoustic Treatment Design Scaling Methods. Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, L. (Technical Monitor); Parrott, T. (Technical Monitor); Jones, M. (Technical Monitor); Kraft, R. E.; Yu, J.; Kwan, H. W.; Beer, B.; Seybert, A. F.; Tathavadekar, P.

    2003-01-01

    The ability to design, build and test miniaturized acoustic treatment panels on scale model fan rigs representative of full scale engines provides not only cost-savings, but also an opportunity to optimize the treatment by allowing multiple tests. To use scale model treatment as a design tool, the impedance of the sub-scale liner must be known with confidence. This study was aimed at developing impedance measurement methods for high frequencies. A normal incidence impedance tube method that extends the upper frequency range to 25,000 Hz. without grazing flow effects was evaluated. The free field method was investigated as a potential high frequency technique. The potential of the two-microphone in-situ impedance measurement method was evaluated in the presence of grazing flow. Difficulties in achieving the high frequency goals were encountered in all methods. Results of developing a time-domain finite difference resonator impedance model indicated that a re-interpretation of the empirical fluid mechanical models used in the frequency domain model for nonlinear resistance and mass reactance may be required. A scale model treatment design that could be tested on the Universal Propulsion Simulator vehicle was proposed.

  1. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

  2. Decontamination and inspection plan for Phase 3 closure of the 300 area waste acid treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-02-01

    This decontamination and inspection plan (DIP) describes decontamination and verification activities in support of Phase 3 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS). Phase 3 is the third phase of three WATS closure phases. Phase 3 attains clean closure conditions for WATS portions of the 334 and 311 Tank Farms (TF) and the 333 and 303-F Buildings. This DIP also describes designation and management of waste and debris generated during Phase 3 closure activities. Information regarding Phase 1 and Phase 2 for decontamination and verification activities closure can be found in WHC-SD-ENV-AP-001 and HNF-1784, respectively. This DIP is provided as a supplement to the closure plan (DOE/RL-90-11). This DIP provides the documentation for Ecology concurrence with Phase 3 closure methods and activities. This DIP is intended to provide greater detail than is contained in the closure plan to satisfy Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 requirement that closure documents describe the methods for removing, transporting, storing, and disposing of all dangerous waste at the unit. The decontamination and verification activities described in this DIP are based on the closure plan and on agreements reached between Ecology and the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) during Phase 3 closure activity workshops and/or project manager meetings (PMMs).

  3. 40 CFR 35.2108 - Phased or segmented treatment works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phased or segmented treatment works. 35.2108 Section 35.2108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... exist: (1) The Federal share of the cost of building the treatment works would require...

  4. 40 CFR 35.2108 - Phased or segmented treatment works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phased or segmented treatment works. 35.2108 Section 35.2108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... exist: (1) The Federal share of the cost of building the treatment works would require...

  5. Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70) Peptide Activated Natural Killer (NK) Cells for the Treatment of Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) after Radiochemotherapy (RCTx) – From Preclinical Studies to a Clinical Phase II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Hanno M.; Ahrens, Norbert; Blankenstein, Christiane; Duell, Thomas; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S.; Günther, Christine; Gunther, Sophie; Habl, Gregor; Hautmann, Hubert; Hautmann, Matthias; Huber, Rudolf Maria; Molls, Michael; Offner, Robert; Rödel, Claus; Rödel, Franz; Schütz, Martin; Combs, Stephanie E.; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is frequently overexpressed in tumor cells. An unusual cell surface localization could be demonstrated on a large variety of solid tumors including lung, colorectal, breast, squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, prostate and pancreatic carcinomas, glioblastomas, sarcomas and hematological malignancies, but not on corresponding normal tissues. A membrane (m)Hsp70-positive phenotype can be determined either directly on single cell suspensions of tumor biopsies by flow cytometry using cmHsp70.1 monoclonal antibody or indirectly in the serum of patients using a novel lipHsp70 ELISA. A mHsp70-positive tumor phenotype has been associated with highly aggressive tumors, causing invasion and metastases and resistance to cell death. However, natural killer (NK), but not T cells were found to kill mHsp70-positive tumor cells after activation with a naturally occurring Hsp70 peptide (TKD) plus low dose IL-2 (TKD/IL-2). Safety and tolerability of ex vivo TKD/IL-2 stimulated, autologous NK cells has been demonstrated in patients with metastasized colorectal and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a phase I clinical trial. Based on promising clinical results of the previous study, a phase II randomized clinical study was initiated in 2014. The primary objective of this multicenter proof-of-concept trial is to examine whether an adjuvant treatment of NSCLC patients after platinum-based radiochemotherapy (RCTx) with TKD/IL-2 activated, autologous NK cells is clinically effective. As a mHsp70-positive tumor phenotype is associated with poor clinical outcome only mHsp70-positive tumor patients will be recruited into the trial. The primary endpoint of this study will be the comparison of the progression-free survival of patients treated with ex vivo activated NK cells compared to patients who were treated with RCTx alone. As secondary endpoints overall survival, toxicity, quality-of-life, and biological responses will be determined in both

  6. [Targets of treatment in the acute phase of cerebral infarction].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Fukuuchi, Y; Nogawa, S; Ito, D; Suzuki, S; Dembo, T; Kosakai, A

    2001-12-01

    In the acute phase of cerebral infarction, many experimental data suggest that free radicals including superoxide, hydroxy radical and nitric oxide are one of the most important factors to cause brain damage. We have clearly detected nitrotyrosine (a marker of endogenous production of peroxynitrite, which is readily produced from superoxide and nitric oxide) in neurons and intraparenchymal vascular walls during post-ischemic reperfusion. Free radical scavengers thus seem to be very promising tools of treatment, and one of them (edaravone) has recently been approved for clinical use in Japan. CREB (cyclic AMP response element binding protein) is a DNA-binding transcription factor, and its function is activated by phosphorylation of Ser133 residue. CREB plays important roles in neuronal development, synaptic plasticity and regeneration. We have found that phosphorylation of CREB is significantly and persistently increased in surviving neurons and oligodendrocytes in post-ischemic brain, while this phosphorylation is only transiently increased in neurons and oligodendrocytes which eventually die. These data suggest that CREB phosphorylation plays an important role in protection of ischemic brain tissue. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) remain abundant throughout the adult brain, and retain their ability to become not only mature oligodendrocytes, but also neurons. We have recently found that OPC are significantly activated and proliferate in the peri-infarct area at 1-2 weeks after ischemia, suggesting that OPC may be involved in the repair mechanisms of ischemic brain. Future targets of stroke treatment should include enhancement of intrinsic protection mechanisms such as CREB phosphorylation and activation of progenitors cells. PMID:12235793

  7. Therapeutic inhibition of the early phase of complement activation.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anja; Ramwadhdoebé, Tamara H; Nauta, Alma J; Hack, C Erik; Daha, Mohamed R

    2002-09-01

    The complement system is a key component of innate immunity against invading pathogens. However, undesired activation of complement is involved in inflammation and associated tissue damage in a number of pathological conditions, such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, autoimmune diseases, and rejection of allo- and xenografts. During recent years, various therapeutically active complement inhibitors have been developed. In vivo studies using these inhibitors underscored the value of complement inhibition in the prevention of tissue damage. The currently available complement inhibitors mainly target the effector phase of the complement system that is common to all three activation pathways. Such a complete block of complement activation breaks the innate anti-microbial barrier, thereby increasing the risk for infection. Therefore, the development of potent complement inhibitors that interfere in the recognition phase of a specific complement activation pathway will generate important novel possibilities for treatment. The present review is focused on molecules that are able to inhibit the function of C1q and MBL, the recognition units of the classical pathway and the lectin pathway of complement, respectively. The potential value of these molecules for the development of therapeutically active complement inhibitors is discussed.

  8. Active limited-angle tomographic phase microscope.

    PubMed

    Kus, Arkadiusz; Krauze, Wojciech; Kujawinska, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an active, holographic tomography system, working with limited angle of projections, realized by optical-only, diffraction-based beam steering. The system created for this purpose is a Mach–Zehnder interferometer modified to serve as a digital holographic microscope with a high numerical aperture illumination module and a spatial light modulator (SLM). Such a solution is fast and robust. Apart from providing an elegant solution to viewing angle shifting, it also adds new capabilities of the holographic microscope system. SLM, being an active optical element, allows wavefront correction in order to improve measurement accuracy. Integrated phase data captured with different illumination scenarios within a highly limited angular range are processed by a new tomographic reconstruction algorithm based on the compressed sensing technique: total variation minimization, which is applied here to reconstruct nonpiecewise constant samples. Finally, the accuracy of full measurement and the proposed processing path is tested for a calibrated three-dimensional micro-object as well as a biological object--C2C12 myoblast cell.

  9. One Phase versus Two Phase Treatment in Mixed Dentition: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Suresh, M; Ratnaditya, Akurathi; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Karpe, Shameem

    2015-08-01

    The mixed dentition is the developmental period after the permanent first molars and incisors have erupted, and before the remaining deciduous teeth are lost. Phase I treatment is usually done early in this period. Mixed dentition treatment goals often focus on skeletal rather than dental correction. To design a treatment plan, the clinician must understand the growth and development patterns, and the known effects of the chosen treatment modality. Jaw growth affects orthodontic treatment, usually favorably, but sometimes unfavorably. When and how much growth will occur is completely unpredictable. However, we know some useful facts about jaw growth in the mixed dentition. The two areas that remain controversial in the orthodontic literature are the treatment of crowding and of Class II malocclusions in the mixed dentition. Is there a benefit to early treatment for these problems? This question has yet to be fully answered by researchers. Hence, we planned for review of all available literature to come to a consensus about preventive or interceptive orthodontics or in other words Phase 1 and Phase 2 treatment. The clinician can diagnose and intercept certain developing problems with early treatment. Many other cases should be supervised, but not treated until the permanent teeth are in place. We must base our decision to treat on experience, knowledge of growth and dental development, and research.

  10. Window Treatment Phase I and Other Energy II Conservation Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Philip E.

    Six different energy-saving treatments for large window areas were tested by Tompkins-Cortland Community College (TCCC) to coordinate energy saving with building design. The TCCC building has an open space design with 33,000 square feet of external glass and other features causing heating problems and high energy costs. Phase I of the…

  11. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Active treatment. 441.154 Section 441.154 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  12. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Active treatment. 441.154 Section 441.154 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  13. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Active treatment. 441.154 Section 441.154 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  14. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Active treatment. 441.154 Section 441.154 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  15. 42 CFR 441.154 - Active treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Active treatment. 441.154 Section 441.154 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment. Inpatient psychiatric services must involve “active treatment”, which means implementation of...

  16. Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment Induces a Two-Phase Antinociceptive Response of Unusually Long Duration in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eunhee; Zelinski, Lisa M.; Ohgami, Yusuke; Shirachi, Donald Y.; Quock, Raymond M.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy is approved by the FDA for limited clinical indications but is reported to produce pain relief in several chronic pain conditions. However, there have been no studies to explain this apparent analgesic effect of HBO2. Research conducted in our laboratory demonstrates that four daily 60-min HBO2 treatments at 3.5 ATA induced an unparalleled antinociceptive response that consists of 1) an early phase that lasted at least six hours after the HBO2 treatment before dissipating; and 2) a late phase that emerged about 18 hours after the early phase and lasted for up to three weeks. The early phase was sensitive to antagonism by acutely intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.)-administered opioid antagonist naltrexone and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-inhibitor L-NAME. The late phase was inhibited by treatment with i.c.v. naltrexone or L-NAME during the four HBO2 treatments but was not antagonized by either naltrexone or L-NAME following acute pretreatment two weeks after HBO2 treatment. These experimental results implicate a novel mechanism that is activated by HBO2, resulting in an antinociceptive response of unusually long duration that is of potential interest in the clinical management of pain. Perspective Hyperbaric oxygen treatment of mice can induce a two-phase antinociceptive response of unusually long duration. Nitric oxide and opioid receptors appear to initiate or mediate both phases of the antinociceptive response. Further elucidation of the underlying mechanism may potentially identify molecular targets that cause long-lasting activation of endogenous analgesic systems. PMID:20418186

  17. Sequential designs for phase III clinical trials incorporating treatment selection.

    PubMed

    Stallard, Nigel; Todd, Susan

    2003-03-15

    Most statistical methodology for phase III clinical trials focuses on the comparison of a single experimental treatment with a control. An increasing desire to reduce the time before regulatory approval of a new drug is sought has led to development of two-stage or sequential designs for trials that combine the definitive analysis associated with phase III with the treatment selection element of a phase II study. In this paper we consider a trial in which the most promising of a number of experimental treatments is selected at the first interim analysis. This considerably reduces the computational load associated with the construction of stopping boundaries compared to the approach proposed by Follman, Proschan and Geller (Biometrics 1994; 50: 325-336). The computational requirement does not exceed that for the sequential comparison of a single experimental treatment with a control. Existing methods are extended in two ways. First, the use of the efficient score as a test statistic makes the analysis of binary, normal or failure-time data, as well as adjustment for covariates or stratification straightforward. Second, the question of trial power is also considered, enabling the determination of sample size required to give specified power.

  18. Active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase tuning

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bo O.; Zhao, Junming; Feng, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Impedance metasurface is composed of electrical small scatters in two dimensional plane, of which the surface impedance can be designed to produce desired reflection phase. Tunable reflection phase can be achieved by incorporating active element into the scatters, but the tuning range of the reflection phase is limited. In this paper, an active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase control is presented to remove the phase tuning deficiency in conventional approach. The unit cell of the metasurface is a multiple resonance structure with two resonance poles and one resonance zero, capable of providing 360° reflection phase variation and active tuning within a finite frequency band. Linear reflection phase tuning can also be obtained. Theoretical analysis and simulation are presented and validated by experiment at microwave frequency. The proposed approach can be applied to many cases where fine and full phase tuning is needed, such as beam steering in reflectarray antennas. PMID:24162366

  19. Treatment of naming in nonfluent aphasia through manipulation of intention and attention: a phase 1 comparison of two novel treatments.

    PubMed

    Crosson, Bruce; Fabrizio, Katherine S; Singletary, Floris; Cato, M Allison; Wierenga, Christina E; Parkinson, R Bruce; Sherod, Megan E; Moore, Anna Bacon; Ciampitti, Maribel; Holiway, Beth; Leon, Susan; Rodriguez, Amy; Kendall, Diane L; Levy, Ilana F; Rothi, Leslie J Gonzalez

    2007-07-01

    Twenty-three chronic nonfluent aphasia patients with moderate or severe word-finding impairments and 11 with profound word-finding impairments received two novel picture-naming treatments. The intention treatment initiated picture-naming trials with a complex left-hand movement and was designed to enhance right frontal participation during word retrieval. The attention treatment required patients to view visual stimuli for picture-naming trials in their left hemispace and was designed to enhance right posterior perisylvian participation during word retrieval. Because the intention treatment addressed action mechanisms and nonfluent aphasia reflects difficulty initiating or maintaining action (i.e., language output), it was hypothesized that intention component of the treatment would enhance re-acquisition of picture naming more than the attention component. Patients with moderate and severe word-finding impairment showed gains with both treatments but greater incremental improvement from one treatment phase to the next with the intention than the attention treatment. Thus, the hypothesis that intention component would be a more active constituent than the attention component was confirmed for these patients. Patients with profound word-finding impairment showed some improvement with both treatments but no differential effects for the intention treatment. Almost all patients who showed treatment gains on either treatment also demonstrated generalization from trained to untrained items. PMID:17521480

  20. Analysis of Convective Heat Transfer Enhancement by Nanofluids: Single-Phase and Two-Phase Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakaç, S.; Pramuanjaroenkij, A.

    2016-05-01

    Nanofluids have been investigated regarding their advantages and potentialities for the purpose of increasing convective heat transfer rates inside thermal systems where they are used as working fluids. Researchers in thermophysics have investigated these fluids experimentally and numerically. This review provides extensive theoretical information concerning nanofluids in the single-phase and two-phase treatments. Important published works on nanofluid properties and correlations are summarized and reviewed in detail. Heat transfer enhancement by nanofluids is a challenging problem due to the difficulties inherent in the model of the physical mechanism of interaction between the paricles. Here the interaction between the phases is modeled by several two-phase models, and the results are given in graphical and tabular forms. Despite the advantages of the mixture model, such as imlementation of physical properties and less computational power requirements, some studies showed that the results of the single-phase and two-phase models are very similar. The main difference consists in the effect of the drift velocities of the phases relative to each other.

  1. Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees: a debate piece

    PubMed Central

    ter Heide, F. Jackie June; Mooren, Trudy M.; Kleber, Rolf J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Asylum seekers and refugees have been claimed to be at increased risk of developing complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD). Consequently, it has been recommended that refugees be treated with present-centred or phased treatment rather than stand-alone trauma-focused treatment. This recommendation has contributed to a clinical practice of delaying or waiving trauma-focused treatment in refugees with PTSD. Objective The aim of this debate piece is to defend two theses: (1) that complex trauma leads to complex PTSD in a minority of refugees only and (2) that trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees who seek treatment for PTSD. Methods The first thesis is defended by comparing data on the prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees to those in other trauma-exposed populations, using studies derived from a systematic review. The second thesis is defended using conclusions of systematic reviews and a meta-analysis of the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment in refugees. Results Research shows that refugees are more likely to meet a regular PTSD diagnosis or no diagnosis than a complex PTSD diagnosis and that prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees is relatively low compared to that in survivors of childhood trauma. Effect sizes for trauma-focused treatment in refugees, especially narrative exposure therapy (NET) and culturally adapted cognitive-behaviour therapy (CA-CBT), have consistently been found to be high. Conclusions Complex PTSD in refugees should not be assumed to be present on the basis of complex traumatic experiences but should be carefully diagnosed using a validated interview. In line with treatment guidelines for PTSD, a course of trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees seeking treatment for PTSD, including asylum seekers. PMID:26886486

  2. Urine naloxone concentration at different phases of buprenorphine maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Heikman, Pertti; Häkkinen, Margareeta; Gergov, Merja; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    In spite of the benefits of buprenorphine-naloxone co-formulation (BNX) in opioid maintenance treatment, the naloxone component has not prevented parenteral use of BNX. Current laboratory methods are not sufficient to differentiate between therapeutic and illicit use of buprenorphine, and little is known about urine naloxone concentrations. Measurement of urine naloxone, together with buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine, might help to determine the naloxone source and administration route. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for this purpose. Naloxone, buprenorphine, and norbuprenorphine total concentrations were measured in urine samples from opioid-dependent patients before and during stable and unstable phases of maintenance treatment with BNX. The limit of quantification in urine was 1.0 µg/L for naloxone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. Before treatment, all samples contained buprenorphine but the median naloxone concentration was 0 µg/L. During the maintenance treatment with BNX all urine samples were positive for naloxone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. The naloxone concentration at a stable phase of treatment (median 60 µg/L, range 5-200 µg/L) was not different from the naloxone concentration at an unstable phase (70 µg/L, 10-1700 µg/L). Applying an upper limit of 200 µg/L to the sample, the median naloxone/buprenorphine ratio was higher in the high than in the low naloxone concentration group (0.9 vs 0.3, respectively). This study suggests that naloxone in urine can act as an indicator of compliance with BNX. Parenteral use of BNX was associated with a high naloxone/buprenorphine ratio. Negative naloxone with positive buprenorphine suggests the use/abuse of buprenorphine alone. PMID:23512803

  3. 29 CFR 96.52 - Pre-resolution phase activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... respects with the report submission requirements of 29 CFR part 99. Failure to submit a complete audit... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pre-resolution phase activities. 96.52 Section 96.52 Labor... Resolution § 96.52 Pre-resolution phase activities. (a) Submission of reports. Recipients and...

  4. A Two Phase Treatment of an Infected Hip Endoprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Ciriviri, Jasmin; Talevski, Darko; Nestorovski, Zoran; Vraniskoski, Tode; Mishevska-Perchinkova, Snežana

    2015-01-01

    The revision of the two phase treatment represents a golden standard in the treatment of infected endoprosthesis. Throughout this study, the results of 21 patients with an infected hip endoprosthesis treated in two phases have been processed, with the use of an antibiotic spacer, within the period of 2009 and 2012. Thereby, a unique protocol for diagnosis and treatment of infections has been applied to all the patients, which entails a preoperational x-ray image, laboratory findings (Se, CRP), as well as a puncture aspiration with a microbiological and biochemical examination of the aspirated fragments. The operational treatment consists of: taking a sample for microbiological and histopathological diagnosis, removal of the implanted endoprosthesis, excision of the avascular and necrotic tissue and installing an antibiotic spacer. Postoperatively, the patients are treated with a parenteral application of an antibiotics based on an antibiogram, throughout a period of two weeks, and later on an oral treatment, a combination of two antibiotics, depending on the antibiogram, within the following four to six weeks. After the appeasement of the local findings and the laboratory results, a revision with a removal of the antibiotic spacer and reimplantation of an endoprosthesis - revisional or primary has been conducted on the patients, depending on the bone deficit. The functionality of the joint is graded based on the Haris Hip Score. The patients are being observed postoperatively for a period of 12 to 36 months. A definite reimplantation has been applied to 20 patients, while one patient has been treated with a resection method. The Haris Hip Score was 45 preoperatively, and 80 postoperatively. The applied protocol of the treatment of infected endoprosthesis is effective in the eradication of the infection and the final reimplantation. PMID:27442385

  5. Active phase locking of thirty fiber channels using multilevel phase dithering method.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhimeng; Tang, Xuan; Luo, Yongquan; Liu, Cangli; Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Dayong; Wang, Xiaojun; Chen, Tunan; Han, Mei

    2016-03-01

    An active phase locking of a large-scale fiber array with thirty channels has been demonstrated experimentally. In the experiment, the first group of thirty phase controllers is used to compensate the phase noises between the elements and the second group of thirty phase modulators is used to impose additional phase disturbances to mimic the phase noises in the high power fiber amplifiers. A multi-level phase dithering algorithm using dual-level rectangular-wave phase modulation and time division multiplexing can achieve the same phase control as single/multi-frequency dithering technique, but without coherent demodulation circuit. The phase locking efficiency of 30 fiber channels is achieved about 98.68%, 97.82%, and 96.50% with no additional phase distortion, modulated phase distortion I (±1 rad), and phase distortion II (±2 rad), corresponding to the phase error of λ/54, λ/43, and λ/34 rms. The contrast of the coherent combined beam profile is about 89%. Experimental results reveal that the multi-level phase dithering technique has great potential in scaling to a large number of laser beams. PMID:27036760

  6. Competing dynamic phases of active polymer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Simon; Banerjee, Shiladitya; Dinner, Aaron R.

    Recent experiments on in-vitro reconstituted assemblies of F-actin, myosin-II motors, and cross-linking proteins show that tuning local network properties can changes the fundamental biomechanical behavior of the system. For example, by varying cross-linker density and actin bundle rigidity, one can switch between contractile networks useful for reshaping cells, polarity sorted networks ideal for directed molecular transport, and frustrated networks with robust structural properties. To efficiently investigate the dynamic phases of actomyosin networks, we developed a coarse grained non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation of model semiflexible filaments, molecular motors, and cross-linkers with phenomenologically defined interactions. The simulation's accuracy was verified by benchmarking the mechanical properties of its individual components and collective behavior against experimental results at the molecular and network scales. By adjusting the model's parameters, we can reproduce the qualitative phases observed in experiment and predict the protein characteristics where phase crossovers could occur in collective network dynamics. Our model provides a framework for understanding cells' multiple uses of actomyosin networks and their applicability in materials research. Supported by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.

  7. Basic Chad Arabic: The Active Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    This third volume in the course on Chad Arabic emphasizes the active development of speaking skills in the target language. The active participation of the student requires imitation and induction of linguistic structures to a large extent. Some 45 units present grammatical material on gender, parts of speech, and verbs. Each unit contains a…

  8. Consequences of abnormal CDK activity in S phase.

    PubMed

    Anda, Silje; Rothe, Christiane; Boye, Erik; Grallert, Beáta

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CDKs) are important regulators of DNA replication. In this work we have investigated the consequences of increasing or decreasing the CDK activity in S phase. To this end we identified S-phase regulators of the fission yeast CDK, Cdc2, and used appropriate mutants to modulate Cdc2 activity. In fission yeast Mik1 has been thought to be the main regulator of Cdc2 activity in S phase. However, we find that Wee1 has a major function in S phase and thus we used wee1 mutants to investigate the consequences of increased Cdc2 activity. These wee1 mutants display increased replication stress and, particularly in the absence of the S-phase checkpoint, accumulate DNA damage. Notably, more cells incorporate EdU in a wee1(-) strain as compared to wildtype, suggesting altered regulation of DNA replication. In addition, a higher number of cells contain chromatin-bound Cdc45, an indicator of active replication forks. In addition, we found that Cdc25 is required to activate Cdc2 in S phase and used a cdc25 mutant to explore a situation where Cdc2 activity is reduced. Interestingly, a cdc25 mutant has a higher tolerance for replication stress than wild-type cells, suggesting that reduced CDK activity in S phase confers resistance to at least some forms of replication stress. PMID:26918805

  9. Promoter activity dynamics in the lag phase of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lag phase is a period of time with no growth that occurs when stationary phase bacteria are transferred to a fresh medium. Bacteria in lag phase seem inert: their biomass does not increase. The low number of cells and low metabolic activity make it difficult to study this phase. As a consequence, it has not been studied as thoroughly as other bacterial growth phases. However, lag phase has important implications for bacterial infections and food safety. We asked which, if any, genes are expressed in the lag phase of Escherichia coli, and what is their dynamic expression pattern. Results We developed an assay based on imaging flow cytometry of fluorescent reporter cells that overcomes the challenges inherent in studying lag phase. We distinguish between lag1 phase- in which there is no biomass growth, and lag2 phase- in which there is biomass growth but no cell division. We find that in lag1 phase, most promoters are not active, except for the enzymes that utilize the specific carbon source in the medium. These genes show promoter activities that increase exponentially with time, despite the fact that the cells do not measurably increase in size. An oxidative stress promoter, katG, is also active. When cells enter lag2 and begin to grow in size, they switch to a full growth program of promoter activity including ribosomal and metabolic genes. Conclusions The observed exponential increase in enzymes for the specific carbon source followed by an abrupt switch to production of general growth genes is a solution of an optimal control model, known as bang-bang control. The present approach contributes to the understanding of lag phase, the least studied of bacterial growth phases. PMID:24378036

  10. Treatment of glycerol phase formed by biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Hájek, Martin; Skopal, Frantisek

    2010-05-01

    Glycerol is a by-product of biodiesel produced by transesterification and is contained in the glycerol phase together with many other materials such as soaps, remaining catalyst, water, and esters formed during the process. The content of glycerol is approximately 30-60 wt.%. In this paper, treatments of the glycerol phase to obtain glycerol with a purity of 86 wt.% (without distillation) and a mixture of fatty acids with esters (1:1) or only a mixture of fatty acids with a purity of 99 wt.% are presented. The treatment was carried out by removing of alkaline substances and esters. Fatty acids were produced by saponification of the remaining esters and subsequent neutralization of alkaline substances by phosphoric, sulfuric, hydrochloric, or acetic acids. Salts are by-products and, in the case of phosphoric acid can be used as potash-phosphate fertilizer. The process of treatment is easy and environmentally friendly, because no special chemicals or equipment are required and all products are utilizable.

  11. Active Nematics Are Intrinsically Phase Separated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Shradha; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2006-09-01

    Two-dimensional nonequilibrium nematic steady states, as found in agitated granular-rod monolayers or films of orientable amoeboid cells, were predicted [Europhys. Lett. 62, 196 (2003)EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/epl/i2003-00346-7] to have giant number fluctuations, with the standard deviation proportional to the mean. We show numerically that the steady state of such systems is macroscopically phase separated, yet dominated by fluctuations, as in the Das-Barma model [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1602 (2000)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.85.1602]. We suggest experimental tests of our findings in granular and living-cell systems.

  12. Upregulation of phase II enzymes through phytochemical activation of Nrf2 protects cardiomyocytes against oxidant stress.

    PubMed

    Reuland, Danielle J; Khademi, Shadi; Castle, Christopher J; Irwin, David C; McCord, Joe M; Miller, Benjamin F; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2013-03-01

    Increased production of reactive oxygen species has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and enhanced endogenous antioxidants have been proposed as a mechanism for regulating redox balance. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a transcriptional regulator of phase II antioxidant enzymes, and activation of Nrf2 has been suggested to be an important step in attenuating oxidative stress associated with CVD. A well-defined combination of five widely studied medicinal plants derived from botanical sources (Bacopa monniera, Silybum marianum (milk thistle), Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Camellia sinensis (green tea), and Curcuma longa (turmeric)) has been shown to activate Nrf2 and induce phase II enzymes through the antioxidant response element. The purpose of these experiments was to determine if treatment of cardiomyocytes with this phytochemical composition, marketed as Protandim, activates Nrf2, induces phase II detoxification enzymes, and protects cardiomyocytes from oxidant-induced apoptosis in a Nrf2-dependent manner. In cultured HL-1 cardiomyocytes, phytochemical treatment was associated with nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, significant induction of phase II enzymes, and concomitant protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. The protection against oxidant stress was abolished when Nrf2 was silenced by shRNA, suggesting that our phytochemical treatment worked through the Nrf2 pathway. Interestingly, phytochemical treatment was found to be a more robust activator of Nrf2 than oxidant treatment, supporting the use of the phytochemicals as a potential treatment to increase antioxidant defenses and protect heart cells against an oxidative challenge.

  13. Active longitudes, nonaxisymmetric dynamos and phase mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Moss, D.; Sokoloff, D.; Usoskin, I. G.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the problem of solar active longitudes from the viewpoint of dynamo theory. We start from a recent observational analysis of the problem undertaken by Berdyugina & Usoskin (2003, A&A, 405, 1121) and Usoskin et al. (2005, A&A, 441, 347) who demonstrated from a study of sunspot data that solar active longitudes rotate differentially, with a small but significant asynchrony between northern and southern hemispheres. We suggest two concepts by which the underlying magnetic structure could lead to the observed phenomenology - the true differential rotation of a nonaxisymmetric magnetic structure and a stroboscopic effect. In the latter case, a solid body rotation of nonaxisymmetric magnetic structure is illuminated by an activity wave propagating from middle latitudes to the solar equator, and so mimics a differential rotation. We then discuss several mechanisms which could in principle lead to the excitation of active longitudes. In particular, we consider dynamo excitation of nonaxisymmetric magnetic modes, nonaxisymmetric structures as a manifestation of a relic magnetic field in the solar core, nonaxisymmetric solar hydrodynamics and nonlinear instabilities that lack axial symmetry. We conclude that these mechanisms all provide ways to explain the phenomenology, provided the stroboscopic interpretation is accepted. Of course, a quantitative explanation in the framework of any scenario requires ultimately a detailed numerical simulation. The interpretation of the available observations as a true differential rotation appears to provide a much more severe challenge for theorists. We are unable to suggest a plausible mechanism of this kind; however we can not exclude in principle such an explanation. We relate the phenomenon of solar active longitudes to the information available concerning stellar active longitudes, and also consider evidence from other tracers of solar activity.

  14. Elastic activator for treatment of open bite.

    PubMed

    Stellzig, A; Steegmayer-Gilde, G; Basdra, E K

    1999-06-01

    This article presents a modified activator for treatment of open bite cases. The intermaxillary acrylic of the lateral occlusal zones is replaced by elastic rubber tubes. By stimulating orthopaedic gymnastics (chewing gum effect), the elastic activator intrudes upper and lower posterior teeth. A noticeable counterclockwise rotation of the mandible was accomplished by a decrease of the gonial angle. Besides the simple fabrication of the device and uncomplicated replacement of the elastic rubber tubes, treatment can be started even in mixed dentition when affixing plates may be difficult. PMID:10420241

  15. Vaginal cone use in passive and active phases in patients with stress urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Jorge Milhem; Ribeiro, Ricardo Muniz; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques; Abrão, Maurício Simões; Baracat, Edmund Chada

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vaginal cone therapy in two phases, passive and active, in women with stress urinary incontinence. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, São Paulo University, Brazil. Twenty-four women with a clinical and urodynamic diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence were treated with vaginal cones in a passive phase (without voluntary contractions of the pelvic floor) and an active phase (with voluntary contractions), each of which lasted three months. Clinical complaints, a functional evaluation of the pelvic floor, a pad test, and bladder neck mobility were analyzed before and after each phase. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients completed the treatment. The reduction in absolute risk with the pad test was 0.38 (p<0.034) at the end of the passive phase and 0.67 (p<0.0001) at the end of the active phase. The reduction in absolute risk with the pelvic floor evaluation was 0.62 (p<0.0001) at the end of the passive phase and 0.77 (p<0.0001) at the end of the active phase. The reduction in absolute risk of bladder neck mobility was 0.38 (p<0.0089) at the end of the passive phase and 0.52 (p<0.0005) at the end of the active phase. Complete reversal of symptomatology was observed in 12 (57.1%) patients, and satisfaction was expressed by 19 (90.4%). CONCLUSION: Using vaginal cones in the passive phase, as other researchers did, was effective. Inclusion of the active phase led to additional improvement in all of the study parameters evaluated in women with stress urinary incontinence. Randomized studies are needed, however, to confirm these results. PMID:21789381

  16. Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE), phase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Deluis, Javier; Miller, David W.

    1989-01-01

    A rationale to determine which structural experiments are sufficient to verify the design of structures employing Controlled Structures Technology was derived. A survey of proposed NASA missions was undertaken to identify candidate test articles for use in the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE). The survey revealed that potential test articles could be classified into one of three roles: development, demonstration, and qualification, depending on the maturity of the technology and the mission the structure must fulfill. A set of criteria was derived that allowed determination of which role a potential test article must fulfill. A review of the capabilities and limitations of the STS middeck was conducted. A reference design for the MACE test article was presented. Computing requirements for running typical closed-loop controllers was determined, and various computer configurations were studied. The various components required to manufacture the structure were identified. A management plan was established for the remainder of the program experiment development, flight and ground systems development, and integration to the carrier. Procedures for configuration control, fiscal control, and safety, reliabilty, and quality assurance were developed.

  17. ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Daniel J. Stepan

    2000-07-01

    High concentrations of humate in surface water result in the formation of excess amounts of chlorinated byproducts during disinfection treatment. These precursors can be removed in water treatment prior to disinfection using powdered activated carbon. In the interest of developing a more cost-effective method for removal of humates in surface water, a comparison of the activities of carbons prepared from North Dakota lignites with those of commercial carbons was conducted. Previous studies indicated that a commercial carbon prepared from Texas lignite (Darco HDB) was superior to those prepared from bituminous coals for water treatment. That the high alkali content of North Dakota lignites would result in favorable adsorptive properties for the very large humate molecules was hypothesized, owing to the formation of larger pores during activation. Since no standard humate test has been previously developed, initial adsorption testing was performed using smaller dye molecules with various types of ionic character. With the cationic dye, methylene blue, a carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite (HSKRC) adsorbed more dye than the Darco HDB. The carbon from the low-sodium lignite was much inferior. With another cationic dye, malachite green, the Darco HDB was slightly better. With anionic dyes, methyl red and azocarmine-B, the results for the HSKRC and Darco HDB were comparable. A humate test was developed using Aldrich humic acid. The HSKRC and the Darco HDB gave equally high adsorption capacities for the humate (138 mg/g), consistent with the similarities observed in earlier tests. A carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite from a different mine showed an outstanding improvement (201 mg/g). The carbons prepared from the low-sodium lignites from both mines showed poor adsorption capacities for humate. Adsorption isotherms were performed for the set of activated carbons in the humate system. These exhibited a complex behavior interpreted as resulting from two types

  18. Phase response curves in the characterization of epileptiform activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Velazquez, J. L.; Galán, R. F.; Dominguez, L. Garcia; Leshchenko, Y.; Lo, S.; Belkas, J.; Erra, R. Guevara

    2007-12-01

    Coordinated cellular activity is a major characteristic of nervous system function. Coupled oscillator theory offers unique avenues to address cellular coordination phenomena. In this study, we focus on the characterization of the dynamics of epileptiform activity, based on some seizures that manifest themselves with very periodic rhythmic activity, termed absence seizures. Our approach consists in obtaining experimentally the phase response curves (PRCs) in the neocortex and thalamus, and incorporating these PRCs into a model of coupled oscillators. Phase preferences of the stationary states and their stability are determined, and these results from the model are compared with the experimental recordings, and interpreted in physiological terms.

  19. Bilateral Limb Phase Relationship and Its Potential to Alter Muscle Activity Phasing During Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    López-Ortiz, Citlali; Walter, Charles B.; Brown, David A.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that the sensorimotor state of one limb can influence another limb and therefore bilateral somatosensory inputs make an important contribution to interlimb coordination patterns. However, the relative contribution of interlimb pathways for modifying muscle activation patterns in terms of phasing is less clear. Here we studied adaptation of muscle activity phasing to the relative angular positions of limbs using a split-crank ergometer, where the cranks could be decoupled to allow different spatial angular position relationships. Twenty neurologically healthy individuals performed the specified pedaling tasks at different relative angular positions while surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded bilaterally from eight lower extremity muscles. During each experiment, the relative angular crank positions were altered by increasing or decreasing their difference by randomly ordered increments of 30° over the complete cycle [0° (in phase pedaling); 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180° (standard pedaling); and 210, 240, 270, 300, and 330° out of phase pedaling]. We found that manipulating the relative angular positions of limbs in a pedaling task caused muscle activity phasing changes that were either delayed or advanced, dependent on the relative spatial position of the two cranks and this relationship is well-explained by a sine curve. Further, we observed that the magnitude of phasing changes in biarticular muscles (like rectus femoris) was significantly greater than those of uniarticular muscles (like vastus medialis). These results are important because they provide new evidence that muscle phasing can be systematically influenced by interlimb pathways. PMID:19741107

  20. Aluminium surface treatment with ceramic phases using diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labisz, K.; Tański, T.; Brytan, Z.; Pakieła, W.; Wiśniowski, M.

    2016-07-01

    Ceramic particles powder feeding into surface layer of engineering metal alloy is a well-known and widely used technique. New approach into the topic is to obtain finely distributed nano-sized particles involved in the aluminium matrix using the traditional laser technology. In this paper are presented results of microstructure investigation of cast aluminium-silicon-copper alloys surface layer after heat treatment and alloying with ceramic carbides of WC and ZrO2 using high-power diode laser. The surface layer was specially prepared for the reason of reducing the reflectivity, which is the main problem in the up-to-date metal matrix composites production. With scanning electron microscopy, it was possible to determine the deformation process and distribution of WC and ZrO2 ceramic powder phase. Structure of the surface after laser treatment changes, revealing three zones—remelting zone, heat-affected zone and transition zone placed over the Al substrate. The structural changes of ceramic powder, its distribution and morphology as well as microstructure of the matrix material influence on functional properties, especially wear resistance and hardness of the achieved layer, were investigated.

  1. Acute phase protein response in heartworm-infected dogs after adulticide treatment.

    PubMed

    Méndez, J C; Carretón, E; Martínez-Subiela, S; Tvarijonaviciute, A; Cerón, J J; Montoya-Alonso, J A

    2015-04-30

    During the adulticide treatment of Dirofilaria immitis the worms die releasing fragments of parasites and causing pulmonary thromboembolisms which could exacerbate the clinical condition. To determine the utility of acute phase proteins (APPs) to monitor the progression of the treatment, different positive [C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (hp)] and negative [albumin, paraoxonase-1(PON-1)] APPs were measured in 15 heartworm-infected dogs (5 with high and 10 with low parasite burden) following adulticide treatment. The results showed increased concentrations of CRP, decreased concentrations of haptoglobin and PON-1 in infected dogs before starting the treatment. Progressive but not significant increases were observed in PON-1 activity and albumin concentration along the treatment. After the treatment with doxycycline and ivermectine a decrease in CRP and Hp levels was experienced, which could reflect a reduction of the vascular inflammation caused by the elimination of Wolbachia and reduction of microfilariae. Fifteen days after the first melarsomine injection, marked increases in CRP and Hp were observed, which could be due to pulmonary inflammation and thromboembolism caused by the post-adulticide death of the worms. This increase was greater in dogs with high parasite burden. As the pathology disappeared, there was an improvement in the concentrations of CRP and Hp, returning into reference values in dogs with low parasite burden at the end of the treatment. The measurement of CRP and Hp could be a resource of support to evaluate the magnitude of the post-adulticide complications during the adulticide treatment of D. immitis. PMID:25801227

  2. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    PubMed

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones.

  3. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    PubMed

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones. PMID:26378390

  4. Functioning of family system in pediatric oncology during treatment phase.

    PubMed

    Perricone, Giovanna; Polizzi, Concetta; Morales, Maria Regina; Marino, Santo; Scacco, Cinzia Favara

    2012-10-01

    The study focuses on parents' psychological implications caused by the treatment of their children suffering from tumor. It investigates some specific mothers' resource factors such as their strategies of coping and the perception of their own family functioning in terms of cohesion and adaptability. The study was performed with 34 mothers of children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), during the treatment phase. The used tools were the Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced--New Italian Version, to investigate coping strategies, and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale-III, to analyze both real and ideal perception of family functioning. The data related to coping, show how the involved mothers tend to mainly use the strategies of positive aptitude, orientation toward problem and social support (F = 99.88, df = 4, P < .01). The family functioning, in terms of adaptability, is described as chaotic relating to both the real (χ(2) = 13.29, df = 3, P = .004) and ideal (χ(2) = 11.52, df = 2, P = .003) family, whereas in terms of cohesion, it is perceived as chiefly disengaged in the real family (χ(2) = 12.3, df = 3, P = .006) and as enmeshed in the ideal one (χ(2) = 12.58, df = 3, P = .006). Statistically positive correlations were only detected between adaptability and avoidance (r = 0.49, P < .01); adaptability and orientation toward problem (r = 0.36, P < .05); and adaptability and transcendent orientation (r = -0.04, P < .05). Despite the critical situation, the mothers have shown optimistic view, care for problem management and capability to ask for help. These coping strategies allow the therapeutic alliance between families and health care workers, so useful for the quality of childcare. PMID:22732085

  5. Ponatinib as first-line treatment for patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase: a phase 2 study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Preetesh; Kantarjian, Hagop; Jabbour, Elias; Gonzalez, Graciela Nogueras; Borthakur, Gautam; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Daver, Naval; Gachimova, Evguenia; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Kornblau, Steven; Ravandi, Farhad; O’Brien, Susan; Cortes, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Ponatinib has shown efficacy in patients with refractory chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and in those with CML with a Thr315Ile mutation. We aimed to investigate the activity and safety of ponatinib as first-line treatment for patients with chronic-phase CML. Methods We did a single-arm, phase 2 trial at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX, USA. Between May 3, 2012, and Sept 24, 2013, we enrolled patients with early (<6 months) chronic-phase CML and treated them with oral ponatinib once a day. Patients enrolled before July 25, 2013, were given a starting dose of 45 mg per day; we lowered this due to tolerability issues and patients enrolled after this date were given a starting dose of 30 mg per day. After a warning by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in Oct 6, 2013, for vascular complications with ponatinib, we started all patients on aspirin 81 mg daily and reduced the dose of ponatinib to 30 mg or 15 mg per day for all patients. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved complete cytogenetic response by 6 months in the per-protocol population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01570868. Findings We enrolled 51 patients. Median follow-up was 20.9 months (IQR 14.9–25.2). 43 patients were started on 45 mg ponatinib every day; eight patients were started on 30 mg per day. 43 (94%) of 46 evaluable patients achieved complete cytogenetic response at 6 months. Most frequent toxicities included skin-related effects (n=35; 69%) and elevated lipase (n=32; 63%). Cardiovascular events (mainly hypertension) occurred in 25 (49%) patients. Grade 3–4 myelosuppression occurred in 15 (29%) patients. Five (10%) patients developed cerebrovascular or vaso-occlusive disease. 43 (85%) patients needed treatment interruptions at some time and 45 (88%) needed dose reductions. The study was terminated June 18, 2014, at the recommendation of the FDA due to concern about the increased risk of thromboembolism

  6. A latchable thermally activated phase change actuator for microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Christiane; Sachsenheimer, Kai; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2016-03-01

    Complex microfluidic systems often require a high number of individually controllable active components like valves and pumps. In this paper we present the development and optimization of a latchable thermally controlled phase change actuator which uses a solid/liquid phase transition of a phase change medium and the displacement of the liquid phase change medium to change and stabilize the two states of the actuator. Because the phase change is triggered by heat produced with ohmic resistors the used control signal is an electrical signal. In contrast to pneumatically activated membrane valves this concept allows the individual control of several dozen actuators with only two external pressure lines. Within this paper we show the general working principle of the actuator and demonstrate its general function and the scalability of the concept at an example of four actuators. Additionally we present the complete results of our studies to optimize the response behavior of the actuator - the influence of the heating power as well as the used phase change medium on melting and solidifying times.

  7. Acute phase treatment of VTE: Anticoagulation, including non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Hillis, Christopher M; Crowther, Mark A

    2015-06-01

    The acute phase of venous thromboembolism (VTE) treatment focuses on the prompt and safe initiation of full-dose anticoagulation to decrease morbidity and mortality. Immediate management consists of resuscitation, supportive care, and thrombolysis for patients with haemodynamically significant pulmonary embolism (PE) or limb-threatening deep-vein thrombosis (DVT). Patients with contraindications to anticoagulants are considered for vena cava filters. Disposition for the acute treatment of VTE is then considered based on published risk scores and the patient's social status, as the first seven days carries the highest risk for VTE recurrence, extension and bleeding due to anticoagulation. Next, a review of: immediate and long-term bleeding risk, comorbidities (i. e. active cancer, renal failure, obesity, thrombophilia), medications, patient preference, VTE location and potential for pregnancy should be undertaken. This will help determine the most suitable anticoagulant for immediate treatment. The non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), including the factor Xa inhibitors apixaban, edoxaban and rivaroxaban as well as the direct-thrombin inhibitor dabigatran, are increasing the convenience of and options available for VTE treatment. Current options for immediate treatment include low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), unfractionated heparin (UFH), fondaparinux, apixaban, or rivaroxaban. LMWH or UFH may be continued as monotherapy or transitioned to treatment with a VKA, dabigatran or edoxaban. This review describes the upfront treatment of VTE and the evolving role of NOACs in the contemporary management of VTE.

  8. Active phase compensation system for fiber optic holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Beheim, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Fiber optic delivery systems promise to extend the application of holography to severe environments by simplifying test configurations and permitting the laser to be remotely placed in a more benign location. However, the introduction of optical fiber leads to phase stability problems. Environmental effects cause the pathlengths of the fibers to change randomly, preventing the formation of stationary interference patterns which are required for holography. An active phase control system has been designed and used with an all-fiber optical system to stabilize the phase difference between light emitted from two fibers, and to step the phase difference by 90 deg without applying any constraints on the placement of the fibers. The accuracy of the phase steps is shown to be better than 0.02 deg., and a stable phase difference can be maintained for 30 min. This system can be applied to both conventional and electro-optic holography, as well as to any system where the maintenance of an accurate phase difference between two coherent beams is required.

  9. Does Nanoparticle Activity Depend upon Size and Crystal Phase?

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jingkun; Oberdörster, Günter; Elder, Alison; Gelein, Robert; Mercer, Pamela; Biswas, Pratim

    2010-01-01

    A method to investigate the dependence of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (e.g. size, surface area and crystal phase) on their oxidant generating capacity is proposed and demonstrated for TiO2 nanoparticles. Gas phase synthesis methods that allow for strict control of size and crystal phase were used to prepare TiO2 nanoparticles. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating capacity of these particles was then measured. The size dependent ROS activity was established using TiO2 nanoparticles of 9 different sizes (4 – 195 nm) but the same crystal phase. For a fixed total surface area, an S-shaped curve for ROS generation per unit surface area was observed as a function of particle size. The highest ROS activity per unit area was observed for 30 nm particles, and observed to be constant above 30 nm. There was a decrease in activity per unit area as size decreased from 30 nm to 10 nm; and again constant for particles smaller than 10 nm. The correlation between crystal phase and oxidant capacity was established using TiO2 nanoparticles of 11 different crystal phase combinations but similar size. The ability of different crystal phases of TiO2 nanoparticles to generate ROS was highest for amorphous, followed by anatase, and then anatase/rutile mixtures, and lowest for rutile samples. Based on evaluation of the entire dataset, important dose metrics for ROS generation are established. Their implications of these ROS studies on biological and toxicological studies using nanomaterials are discussed. PMID:20827377

  10. Freestyle Writing: A Three-Phase Expressive Writing Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macciomei, Nancy R.

    1992-01-01

    A teacher describes use of a three-phase freestyle writing activity to encourage students with disabilities to develop independent expressive written language. Students develop their skills by writing for brief periods, first whatever comes to mind, then a self-selected topic, and subsequently a teacher-selected topic. (DB)

  11. [Individual response to treatments using Teuscher activator].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, I L; Lagerström, L O

    1991-12-01

    Variations in facial growth and dentoalveolar development were studied in a group of 40 patients treated with the Teuscher appliance, a functional appliance which is a combination of an activator and a high-pull headgear. Patients were selected for this study on the basis of an initial Class II Division 1 malocclusion and on being consecutively treated with this appliance. The results showed that in 80% of the patients the maxilla either remained unchanged in it's relationship to the anterior cranial base (NSL) or became more retrusive during the treatment period. The mandible in 70% of the patients became more prognathic, only in four cases did the mandible become slightly more retrognathic. The analysis further showed that no statistically significant change occurred in the inclination of the mandible during treatment. Correlation analysis of the association between pretreatment mandibular plane angle and the changes during treatment showed no association. The dentoalveolar changes were characterized by retroclination of the maxillary incisors in 90% of the patients which occurred in spite of the torque springs, intended to maintain the inclination of these teeth. In contrast, the mandibular incisors on average showed no statistically significant change during treatment. This may be attributed to the capping of these teeth. Analysis of the association between the pretreatment inclination and the change during treatment of the mandibular incisors showed an inverse relationship. Mandibular incisors, that initially were proclined, tended to become more upright which is in contrast to previous studies indicating that functional appliance treatment generally increases the inclination of these teeth. The results of this study suggest that the correction of the skeletal component of the Class II malocclusion with the Teuscher appliance in most instances takes place by restriction of forward development of the maxilla in combination with downward-forward growth of the

  12. Pontine respiratory activity involved in inspiratory/expiratory phase transition

    PubMed Central

    Mörschel, Michael; Dutschmann, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Control of the timing of the inspiratory/expiratory (IE) phase transition is a hallmark of respiratory pattern formation. In principle, sensory feedback from pulmonary stretch receptors (Breuer–Hering reflex, BHR) is seen as the major controller for the IE phase transition, while pontine-based control of IE phase transition by both the pontine Kölliker–Fuse nucleus (KF) and parabrachial complex is seen as a secondary or backup mechanism. However, previous studies have shown that the BHR can habituate in vivo. Thus, habituation reduces sensory feedback, so the role of the pons, and specifically the KF, for IE phase transition may increase dramatically. Pontine-mediated control of the IE phase transition is not completely understood. In the present review, we discuss existing models for ponto-medullary interaction that may be involved in the control of inspiratory duration and IE transition. We also present intracellular recordings of pontine respiratory units derived from an in situ intra-arterially perfused brainstem preparation of rats. With the absence of lung inflation, this preparation generates a normal respiratory pattern and many of the recorded pontine units demonstrated phasic respiratory-related activity. The analysis of changes in membrane potentials of pontine respiratory neurons has allowed us to propose a number of pontine-medullary interactions not considered before. The involvement of these putative interactions in pontine-mediated control of IE phase transitions is discussed. PMID:19651653

  13. [Influence of tap water treatment on perfluorinated compounds residue in the dissolved phase].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Chen, Qing-wu; Wang, Xin-xuan; Chai, Zhi-fang; Shen, Jin-can; Yang, Bo; Liu, Guo-qing

    2013-09-01

    To study the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) residues through water treatments including flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration, ozonation with activated carbon and chlorination, as well as the seasonal variation of PFCs in the raw water of waterworks, 13 PFCs species in the dissolved phase of raw water, finished water, as well as the water samples after flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration, and ozonation with activated carbon filtration were measured by the high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with solid phase extraction. Results indicated that sigma PFCs residue in water was higher in spring and summer than that in fall and winter. The vast majority of PFCs in samples were of short and medium chains (C < or = 10), and perfluorooctane sulfonate was the most typical residue species. Among the five water treatment stages, sedimentation, sand filtration and ozonation with activated carbon filtration can remove PFCs, while flocculation and chlorination significantly raise the levels of short- (C < or = 6) and medium-chain (10 > or = C > or = 7) PFCs, respectively, causing sigma PFCs increase in finished water by 10%-44% compared to raw water. However, the PFCs residues in finished water are still far below their limit values, posing no threat against human health.

  14. Gamma power is phase-locked to posterior alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Osipova, Daria; Hermes, Dora; Jensen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations in various frequency bands have been reported in numerous studies in both humans and animals. While it is obvious that these oscillations play an important role in cognitive processing, it remains unclear how oscillations in various frequency bands interact. In this study we have investigated phase to power locking in MEG activity of healthy human subjects at rest with their eyes closed. To examine cross-frequency coupling, we have computed coherence between the time course of the power in a given frequency band and the signal itself within every channel. The time-course of the power was calculated using a sliding tapered time window followed by a Fourier transform. Our findings show that high-frequency gamma power (30-70 Hz) is phase-locked to alpha oscillations (8-13 Hz) in the ongoing MEG signals. The topography of the coupling was similar to the topography of the alpha power and was strongest over occipital areas. Interestingly, gamma activity per se was not evident in the power spectra and only became detectable when studied in relation to the alpha phase. Intracranial data from an epileptic subject confirmed these findings albeit there was slowing in both the alpha and gamma band. A tentative explanation for this phenomenon is that the visual system is inhibited during most of the alpha cycle whereas a burst of gamma activity at a specific alpha phase (e.g. at troughs) reflects a window of excitability. PMID:19098986

  15. Is left ventricular dysfunction reversed after treatment of active acromegaly?

    PubMed

    Toumanidis, Savvas T H; Evangelopoulos, Maria Eleftheria; Ilias, Ioannis; Pamboucas, Constantinos; Trikka, Chrysanthi; Alevizaki, Maria

    2011-03-01

    It has been suggested that control of GH and IGF excess can arrest the progression of cardiovascular abnormalities and normalize cardiac performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reversibility of acromegalic cardiomyopathy in patients with active and inactive disease and to evaluate the effect of the inactivity of the disease on left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, irrespective of the applied treatment. The patient population consisted of 55 patients who were studied in the active and/or inactive phase. A complete M-mode, two-dimensional and color-flow Doppler echocardiographic examination was performed. LV mass index and posterior wall index were significantly lower in patients with inactive acromegaly compared to those with active disease (P < 0.03 respectively). Diastolic dysfunction was improved in patients with inactive compared to those with active disease (E/A ratio P < 0.009). IGF was positively correlated with LV mass index (r = 0.28, P < 0.02). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that in active patients the E/A ratio was independently related to age (β = -0.674, P < 0.001) and GH (β = 0.282, P < 0.03), whereas in inactive patients none of the parameters were related significantly with the E/A ratio. In a subgroup of 15 patients who were studied in both the active and inactive phase of the disease, the reduction in GH levels was correlated positively with the reduction in LV mass index (r = 0.89, P < 0.0001) and negatively with the improvement in E/A ratio (r = -0.74, P < 0.001). In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate an improvement of left ventricular diastolic function and a significant improvement of cardiac hypertrophy in patients with inactive acromegaly and normal systolic cardiac function compared to those with active disease.

  16. [Behavioral activation and depression: a contextual treatment approach].

    PubMed

    Soucy Chartier, Isabelle; Blanchet, Valérie; Provencher, Martin D

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a widespread psychological disorder that affects approximately one in five North American. Typical reactions to depression include inactivity, isolation, and rumination. Several treatments and psychological interventions have emerged to address this problematic. Cognitive behavioural therapies have received increasingly large amounts of empirical support. A sub-component of cognitive behavioural therapy, behavioural activation, has been shown to in itself effectively treat symptoms of depression. This intervention involves efforts to re-activate the depressed client by having them engage in pleasant, gratifying, leisure, social, or physical activities, thereby counteracting the tendency to be inactive and to isolate oneself. Clients are guided through the process of establishing a list of potentially rewarding social, leisure, mastery-oriented or physical activities, to then establish a gradual hierarchy of objectives to be accomplished over the span of several weeks. Concrete action plans are devised, and solutions to potential obstacles are elaborated. The client is the asked to execute the targeted objective and to record their mood prior to and following the activity. Behavioural activation effectively reverses the downward spiral to depression. Interestingly, studies show that behavioural activation has a positive effect on cognitive activities. It has been shown to reduce rumination and favour cognitive restructuring, without requiring cognitively-based interventions. The advantage of this treatment is therefore that it is simpler to administer in comparison to full-packaged cognitive behavioural therapies, it requires a lesser number of sessions and can be disseminated in a low-intensity format. This article begins by summarizing the origins of the behavioural model of depression, which serves as a basis to the understanding of behavioural activation. This is followed by a detailed explanation of the different phases involved in a behavioural

  17. Phase Segregation of Passive Advective Particles in an Active Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Amit; Polley, Anirban; Rao, Madan

    2016-02-01

    Localized contractile configurations or asters spontaneously appear and disappear as emergent structures in the collective stochastic dynamics of active polar actomyosin filaments. Passive particles which (un)bind to the active filaments get advected into the asters, forming transient clusters. We study the phase segregation of such passive advective scalars in a medium of dynamic asters, as a function of the aster density and the ratio of the rates of aster remodeling to particle diffusion. The dynamics of coarsening shows a violation of Porod behavior; the growing domains have diffuse interfaces and low interfacial tension. The phase-segregated steady state shows strong macroscopic fluctuations characterized by multiscaling and intermittency, signifying rapid reorganization of macroscopic structures. We expect these unique nonequilibrium features to manifest in the actin-dependent molecular clustering at the cell surface.

  18. A Ku band 5 bit MEMS phase shifter for active electronically steerable phased array applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Anesh K.; Gautam, Ashu K.; Farinelli, Paola; Dutta, Asudeb; Singh, S. G.

    2015-03-01

    The design, fabrication and measurement of a 5 bit Ku band MEMS phase shifter in different configurations, i.e. a coplanar waveguide and microstrip, are presented in this work. The development architecture is based on the hybrid approach of switched and loaded line topologies. All the switches are monolithically manufactured on a 200 µm high resistivity silicon substrate using 4 inch diameter wafers. The first three bits (180°, 90° and 45°) are realized using switched microstrip lines and series ohmic MEMS switches whereas the fourth and fifth bits (22.5° and 11.25°) consist of microstrip line sections loaded by shunt ohmic MEMS devices. Individual bits are fabricated and evaluated for performance and the monolithic device is a 5 bit Ku band (16-18 GHz) phase shifter with very low average insertion loss of the order of 3.3 dB and a return loss better than 15 dB over the 32 states with a chip area of 44 mm2. A total phase shift of 348.75° with phase accuracy within 3° is achieved over all of the states. The performance of individual bits has been optimized in order to achieve an integrated performance so that they can be implemented into active electronically steerable antennas for phased array applications.

  19. In vitro activity of Aloe vera inner gel against microorganisms grown in planktonic and sessile phases.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, V; Di Bartolomeo, S; Di Campli, E; Nostro, A; Cellini, L; Di Giulio, M

    2015-12-01

    The failure of traditional antimicrobial treatments is becoming a worldwide problem. The use of Aloe vera is of particular interest for its role as curative agent and its efficacy in complementary therapies for a variety of illnesses. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of A. vera inner gel against a panel of microorganisms, Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. In addition to A. vera inner gel being used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, in dermatological treatments, and wound healing, it was also tested on the sessile phase of clinical Helicobacter pylori strains (including multi-drug-resistant strains) and on planktonic and sessile phase of Staphylococcus aureus/Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from venous leg ulcers.A. vera inner gel expresses its prevalent activity against Gram-negative bacteria and C. albicans in respect to Gram-positive bacteria. The results of the A. vera antibiofilm activity showed a decrease of the produced biomass in a concentration-dependent-way, in each analyzed microorganism. The data obtained show that A. vera inner gel has both an antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity suggesting its potential use for the treatment of microbial infections, in particular for H. pylori gastric infection, especially in case of multi-drug-resistance, as well as for an effective wound dressing. PMID:26526205

  20. In vitro activity of Aloe vera inner gel against microorganisms grown in planktonic and sessile phases.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, V; Di Bartolomeo, S; Di Campli, E; Nostro, A; Cellini, L; Di Giulio, M

    2015-12-01

    The failure of traditional antimicrobial treatments is becoming a worldwide problem. The use of Aloe vera is of particular interest for its role as curative agent and its efficacy in complementary therapies for a variety of illnesses. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of A. vera inner gel against a panel of microorganisms, Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. In addition to A. vera inner gel being used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, in dermatological treatments, and wound healing, it was also tested on the sessile phase of clinical Helicobacter pylori strains (including multi-drug-resistant strains) and on planktonic and sessile phase of Staphylococcus aureus/Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from venous leg ulcers.A. vera inner gel expresses its prevalent activity against Gram-negative bacteria and C. albicans in respect to Gram-positive bacteria. The results of the A. vera antibiofilm activity showed a decrease of the produced biomass in a concentration-dependent-way, in each analyzed microorganism. The data obtained show that A. vera inner gel has both an antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity suggesting its potential use for the treatment of microbial infections, in particular for H. pylori gastric infection, especially in case of multi-drug-resistance, as well as for an effective wound dressing.

  1. An open, phase III study of lanreotide (Somatuline PR) in the treatment of acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Lin, J D; Lee, S T; Weng, H F

    1999-02-01

    Acromegaly is a disorder caused by excessive secretion of human growth hormone (GH). Somatostatin and its analogue-prolonged release formulation, lanreotide (Somatuline PR), inhibit the secretion of growth hormone. The aim of this open Phase III study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of lanreotide in the treatment of six acromegalic patients with a mean age of 44 +/- 13 yr including two patients with diabetes mellitus. All the patients previously received transsphenoidal or transcranial hypophysectomy. Lanreotide was given intramuscularly every 2 weeks at a fixed dose of 30 mg for 12 weeks. Serum GH and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were evaluated before, 2, 6 and 12 weeks after treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment, mean (+/- SEM) GH levels decreased from 24.8 +/- 12.5 to 6.9 +/- 3.3 ng/ml and mean serum IGF-I levels decreased from 689 +/- 282 to 430 +/- 216 ng/ml. Abdominal ultrasonographic examinations showed no gallbladder stone or bile sand formation before or after the treatment. Three of the patients who did not receive octreotide presented with manifestations of mild gastrointestinal adverse effect such as mild abdominal pain and diarrhea. In conclusion, lanreotide is effective in the treatment of active postoperative acromegaly. PMID:10426587

  2. JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

  3. Phase separation of biphasic mixture of active Janus colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jing; Han, Ming; Luijten, Erik; Granick, Steve

    2014-03-01

    Recently there is a surge of interest in the phase behavior of active matter in which building blocks display self-propelling motion. Although much has been known from theory and simulation, experimental examples are very rare. Specifically, the epitomic problem of a binary mixture of active matter defies any experiment or theory so far. Here we present an experimental realization of binary mixture of particles, which only acquires activity when they collisionally interact with the opposite kind. We used a system in which the only difference in the two particles is the phase in their cyclic motion, precluding any artifact due to difference in interparticle potential. We observe phenomena strikingly similar to spinodal decomposition of molecular system, in addition to new features due to the nonequilibrium nature of the system. We derived a general, effective Flory-Huggins theory for spinodal decomposition of bicomponent active system, and rationalized the 1/3 power law growth of the domain size in regions where thermodynamic analogy is valid. The system also presents a plethora of nonequilibrium phenomena such as critical fluctuation, lane formation, and dynamic absorbing state in different parameter space.

  4. Treatment of ichthyophthiriasis with photodynamically active chlorophyllin.

    PubMed

    Häder, D-P; Schmidl, J; Hilbig, R; Oberle, M; Wedekind, H; Richter, P R

    2016-04-01

    Water-soluble chlorophyll (chlorophyllin) exerts pronounced photodynamic activity on fish parasites. In order to determine its potential as a remedy against ectoparasites in fish carps were incubated in water with defined concentrations of chlorophyllin. The main focus of the experiments was on the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Fouquet) which is responsible for considerable losses in livestock in aquaculture. As malachite green, which in the past efficiently cured infected fishes, is banned because of its possible carcinogenicity; no effective remedy is presently available in aquaculture to treat ichthyophthiriasis. Using chlorophyllin, the number of trophonts was significantly reduced (more than 50 %) after 3 h incubation of infested fish at 2 and 4 mg/L and subsequent irradiation with simulated solar radiation. The lack of reinfection after light treatment indicates that also the remaining parasites have lost their multiplication capacity. In the controls (no chlorophyllin and no light, light but no chlorophyllin, or chlorophyllin but no light), no reduction of the I. multifiliis infection was observed. We propose that chlorophyllin (or other photodynamic substances) is a possible effective countermeasure against I. multifiliis and other ectoparasites in aquaculture. PMID:26693716

  5. Collective versus hub activation of epidemic phases on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Silvio C.; Sander, Renan S.; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2016-03-01

    We consider a general criterion to discern the nature of the threshold in epidemic models on scale-free (SF) networks. Comparing the epidemic lifespan of the nodes with largest degrees with the infection time between them, we propose a general dual scenario, in which the epidemic transition is either ruled by a hub activation process, leading to a null threshold in the thermodynamic limit, or given by a collective activation process, corresponding to a standard phase transition with a finite threshold. We validate the proposed criterion applying it to different epidemic models, with waning immunity or heterogeneous infection rates in both synthetic and real SF networks. In particular, a waning immunity, irrespective of its strength, leads to collective activation with finite threshold in scale-free networks with large degree exponent, at odds with canonical theoretical approaches.

  6. Study 329 continuation phase: Safety and efficacy of paroxetine and imipramine in extended treatment of adolescent major depression

    PubMed Central

    Le Noury, Joanna; Nardo, John M.; Healy, David; Jureidini, Jon; Raven, Melissa; Tufanaru, Catalin; Abi-Jaoude, Elia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This is an analysis of the unpublished continuation phase of Study 329, the primary objective of which was to compare the efficacy and safety of paroxetine and imipramine with placebo in the treatment of adolescents with unipolar major depression. The objectives of the continuation phase were to assess safety and relapse rates in the longer term. The objective of this publication, under the Restoring Invisible and Abandoned Trials (RIAT) initiative, was to see whether access to and analysis of the previously unpublished dataset from the continuation phase of this randomized controlled trial would have clinically relevant implications for evidence-based medicine. METHODS: The study was an eight-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial with a six month continuation phase. The setting was 12 North American academic psychiatry centres, from 20 April 1994 to 15 February 1998. 275 adolescents with major depression were originally enrolled in Study 329, with 190 completing the eight-week acute phase. Of these, 119 patients (43%) entered the six-month continuation phase (paroxetine n = 49; imipramine n = 39; placebo n = 31), in which participants were continued on their current treatment, blinded. As per the protocol, we have looked at rates of relapse (based on Hamilton Depression Scale scores) across both acute and continuation phases, and generated a safety profile for paroxetine and imipramine compared with placebo for up to six months. ANOVA testing (generalized linear model) using a model including effects of site, treatment and site x treatment interaction was applied. Otherwise we used only descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Of patients entering the continuation phase, 15 of 49 for paroxetine (31%), 12 of 39 for imipramine (31%) and 12 of 31 for placebo (39%) completed as responders. Across the study, 25 patients on paroxetine relapsed (41% of those showing an initial response), 15 on imipramine (26%), and 10 on placebo (21%). In

  7. Pemetrexed Induces S-Phase Arrest and Apoptosis via a Deregulated Activation of Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun-Chieh; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Wu, Chun-Chi; Cheng, Chi-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Hung, Hsiao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Pemetrexed is approved for first-line and maintenance treatment of patients with advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The protein kinase Akt/protein kinase B is a well-known regulator of cell survival which is activated by pemetrexed, but its role in pemetrexed-mediated cell death and its molecular mechanisms are unclear. This study showed that stimulation with pemetrexed induced S-phase arrest and cell apoptosis and a parallel increase in sustained Akt phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation in the NSCLC A549 cell line. Inhibition of Akt expression by Akt specific siRNA blocked S-phase arrest and protected cells from apoptosis, indicating an unexpected proapoptotic role of Akt in the pemetrexed-mediated toxicity. Treatment of A549 cells with pharmacological inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), wortmannin and Ly294002, similarly inhibited pemetrexed-induced S-phase arrest and apoptosis and Akt phosphorylation, indicating that PI3K is an upstream mediator of Akt and is involved in pemetrexed-mediated cell death. Previously, we identified cyclin A-associated cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) as the principal kinase that was required for pemetrexed-induced S-phase arrest and apoptosis. The current study showed that inhibition of Akt function and expression by pharmacological inhibitors as well as Akt siRNA drastically inhibited cyclin A/Cdk2 activation. These pemetrexed-mediated biological and molecular events were also observed in a H1299 cell line. Overall, our results indicate that, in contrast to its normal prosurvival role, the activated Akt plays a proapoptotic role in pemetrexed-mediated S-phase arrest and cell death through a mechanism that involves Cdk2/cyclin A activation. PMID:24847863

  8. Preparation of stationary phases for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using thermal treatments at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Vigna, Camila R M; Bottoli, Carla B G; Collins, Kenneth E; Collins, Carol H

    2007-07-13

    Batches of poly(methyloctylsiloxane) (PMOS)-loaded silica were prepared by deposition from a solution of PMOS into the pores of HPLC silica. Portions of PMOS-loaded silica were subjected to a thermal treatment at 100 degrees C for 24h (condition 1) in a tube furnace under a nitrogen atmosphere. After that, the material was heated for 4h at higher temperatures (150-400 degrees C) (condition 2). Heating at higher temperatures produces polymer bilayers. Non-immobilized and thermally treated stationary phases were characterized by percent carbon, (29)Si cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and reversed-phase chromatographic performance. The results show that thermal treatment between 150 and 300 degrees C accelerates the immobilization process, possibly due to some bond breaking of the polysiloxane, with formation of strong linkages to the surface of the support, resulting in more complete coverage of the silica. The chromatographic results show an improvement of efficiency with the increase of the temperature of condition 2 up to 300 degrees C and an increase in the resolution of the components, mainly for the phase heated at 300 degrees C. Such results demonstrate that a two-step thermal treatment (100 degrees C then 150-300 degrees C) produces stationary phases with good properties for use in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

  9. One-, two- and three-phase viscosity treatments for basaltic lava flows

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Andrew J. L.; Allen, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Lava flows comprise three-phase mixtures of melt, crystals, and bubbles. While existing one-phase treatments allow melt phase viscosity to be assessed on the basis of composition, water content, and/or temperature, two-phase treatments constrain the effects of crystallinity or vesicularity on mixture viscosity. However, three-phase treatments, allowing for the effects of coexisting crystallinity and vesicularity, are not well understood. We investigate existing one- and two-phase treatments using lava flow case studies from Mauna Loa (Hawaii) and Mount Etna (Italy) and compare these with a three-phase treatment that has not been applied previously to basaltic mixtures. At Etna, melt viscosities of 425 ± 30 Pa s are expected for well-degassed (0.1 w. % H2O), and 135 ± 10 Pa s for less well-degassed (0.4 wt % H2O), melt at 1080°C. Application of a three-phase model yields mixture viscosities (45% crystals, 25–35% vesicles) in the range 5600–12,500 Pa s. This compares with a measured value for Etnean lava of 9400 ± 1500 Pa s. At Mauna Loa, the three-phase treatment provides a fit with the full range of field measured viscosities, giving three-phase mixture viscosities, upon eruption, of 110–140 Pa s (5% crystals, no bubble effect due to sheared vesicles) to 850–1400 Pa s (25–30% crystals, 40–60% spherical vesicles). The ability of the three-phase treatment to characterize the full range of melt-crystal-bubble mixture viscosities in both settings indicates the potential of this method in characterizing basaltic lava mixture viscosity. PMID:21691456

  10. Phase 1 immobilized low-activity waste operational source term

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1998-03-06

    This report presents an engineering analysis of the Phase 1 privatization feeds to establish an operational source term for storage and disposal of immobilized low-activity waste packages at the Hanford Site. The source term information is needed to establish a preliminary estimate of the numbers of remote-handled and contact-handled waste packages. A discussion of the uncertainties and their impact on the source term and waste package distribution is also presented. It should be noted that this study is concerned with operational impacts only. Source terms used for accident scenarios would differ due to alpha and beta radiation which were not significant in this study.

  11. LOW RISK PROSTATE CANCER: ACTIVE TREATMENT OR ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE?

    PubMed

    Tomašković, Igor

    2015-09-01

    The widely used screening for prostate cancer with prostate specific antigen has resulted in identification of potentially lethal prostate cancers at a much more curable stage and has been associated with significant falls in prostate cancer mortality. In spite of the fact that prostate cancer is one of the deadliest malignancies in men, the advent of sensitive diagnostic testing has also resulted in detection of low risk cancers due to the high incidence of latent prostate cancer in aging men and prolonged natural history of the disease. This, in turn, has entailed the problem of cancer overdiagnosis and subsequent overtreatment. Approximately 6 times as many men will be diagnosed with the disease as will die from it. Active surveillance appeared as a response to the clearly documented risks of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of low risk prostate cancer for localized prostate cancer. It entails initial expectant management rather than immediate therapy, with 'curative-intent' treatment deferred until there is evidence that the patient is at an increased risk of disease progression. This approach attempts to balance the risks and side effects of overtreatment against the possibility of disease progression and lost opportunity for cure. A systematic literature review brings current knowledge on the subject.

  12. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01

    An integrated systems engineering approach is used for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for management of contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. Ten different systems encompassing several incineration design options are studied. All subsystems, including facilities, equipment, and methods needed for integration of each of the ten systems are identified. Typical subsystems needed for complete treatment of MLLW are incoming waste receiving and preparation (characterization, sorting, sizing, and separation), thermal treatment, air pollution control, primary and secondary stabilization, metal decontamination, metal melting, mercury recovery, lead recovery, and special waste and aqueous waste treatment. The evaluation is performed by developing a preconceptual design package and planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for each system. As part of the preconceptual design process, functional and operational requirements, flow sheets and mass balances, and conceptual equipment layouts are developed for each system. The PLCC components estimated are technology development, production facility construction, pre-operation, operation and maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning. Preconceptual design data and other technology information gathered during the study are examined and areas requiring further development, testing, and evaluation are identified and recommended. Using a qualitative method, each of the ten systems are ranked.

  13. Active Phase and Amplitude Fluctuations of Flagellar Beating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Rui; Klindt, Gary S.; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H.; Jülicher, Frank; Friedrich, Benjamin M.

    2014-07-01

    The eukaryotic flagellum beats periodically, driven by the oscillatory dynamics of molecular motors, to propel cells and pump fluids. Small but perceivable fluctuations in the beat of individual flagella have physiological implications for synchronization in collections of flagella as well as for hydrodynamic interactions between flagellated swimmers. Here, we characterize phase and amplitude fluctuations of flagellar bending waves using shape mode analysis and limit-cycle reconstruction. We report a quality factor of flagellar oscillations Q =38.0±16.7 (mean±s.e.). Our analysis shows that flagellar fluctuations are dominantly of active origin. Using a minimal model of collective motor oscillations, we demonstrate how the stochastic dynamics of individual motors can give rise to active small-number fluctuations in motor-cytoskeleton systems.

  14. Active phase and amplitude fluctuations of flagellar beating.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Klindt, Gary S; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H; Jülicher, Frank; Friedrich, Benjamin M

    2014-07-25

    The eukaryotic flagellum beats periodically, driven by the oscillatory dynamics of molecular motors, to propel cells and pump fluids. Small but perceivable fluctuations in the beat of individual flagella have physiological implications for synchronization in collections of flagella as well as for hydrodynamic interactions between flagellated swimmers. Here, we characterize phase and amplitude fluctuations of flagellar bending waves using shape mode analysis and limit-cycle reconstruction. We report a quality factor of flagellar oscillations Q = 38.0 ± 16.7 (mean ± s.e.). Our analysis shows that flagellar fluctuations are dominantly of active origin. Using a minimal model of collective motor oscillations, we demonstrate how the stochastic dynamics of individual motors can give rise to active small-number fluctuations in motor-cytoskeleton systems.

  15. Feedback-induced phase transitions in active heterogeneous conductors.

    PubMed

    Ocko, Samuel A; Mahadevan, L

    2015-04-01

    An active conducting medium is one where the resistance (conductance) of the medium is modified by the current (flow) and in turn modifies the flow, so that the classical linear laws relating current and resistance, e.g., Ohm's law or Darcy's law, are modified over time as the system itself evolves. We consider a minimal model for this feedback coupling in terms of two parameters that characterize the way in which addition or removal of matter follows a simple local (or nonlocal) feedback rule corresponding to either flow-seeking or flow-avoiding behavior. Using numerical simulations and a continuum mean field theory, we show that flow-avoiding feedback causes an initially uniform system to become strongly heterogeneous via a tunneling (channel-building) phase separation; flow-seeking feedback leads to an immuring (wall-building) phase separation. Our results provide a qualitative explanation for the patterning of active conducting media in natural systems, while suggesting ways to realize complex architectures using simple rules in engineered systems.

  16. Nonlinear active materials: an illustration of controllable phase matchability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongcheng; Gautier, Romain; Donakowski, Martin D; Tran, T Thao; Edwards, Bryce W; Nino, Juan C; Halasyamani, P Shiv; Liu, Zhengtang; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R

    2013-08-14

    For a crystal to exhibit nonlinear optical (NLO) activity such as second-harmonic generation (SHG), it must belong to a noncentrosymmetric (NCS) space group. Moreover, for these nonlinear optical (NLO) materials to be suitable for practical uses, the synthesized crystals should be phase-matchable (PM). Previous synthetic research into SHG-active crystals has centered on (i) how to create NCS compounds and/or (ii) how to obtain NCS compounds with high SHG efficiencies. With these tactics, one can synthesize a material with a high SHG efficiency, but the material could be unusable if the material was nonphase-matchable (non-PM). To probe the origin of phase matchability of NCS structures, we present two new chemically similar hybrid compounds within one composition space: (I) [Hdpa]2NbOF5·2H2O and (II) HdpaNbOF4 (dpa = 2,2'-dipyridylamine). Both compounds are NCS and chemically similar, but (I) is non-PM while (II) is PM. Our results indicate--consistent with organic crystallography--the arrangement of the organic molecule within hybrid materials dictates whether the material is PM or non-PM.

  17. Feedback-Induced Phase Transitions in Active Heterogeneous Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocko, Samuel A.; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-04-01

    An active conducting medium is one where the resistance (conductance) of the medium is modified by the current (flow) and in turn modifies the flow, so that the classical linear laws relating current and resistance, e.g., Ohm's law or Darcy's law, are modified over time as the system itself evolves. We consider a minimal model for this feedback coupling in terms of two parameters that characterize the way in which addition or removal of matter follows a simple local (or nonlocal) feedback rule corresponding to either flow-seeking or flow-avoiding behavior. Using numerical simulations and a continuum mean field theory, we show that flow-avoiding feedback causes an initially uniform system to become strongly heterogeneous via a tunneling (channel-building) phase separation; flow-seeking feedback leads to an immuring (wall-building) phase separation. Our results provide a qualitative explanation for the patterning of active conducting media in natural systems, while suggesting ways to realize complex architectures using simple rules in engineered systems.

  18. Changes in hormone and stress-inducing activities of municipal wastewater in a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wojnarowicz, Pola; Yang, Wenbo; Zhou, Hongde; Parker, Wayne J; Helbing, Caren C

    2014-12-01

    Conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants do not efficiently remove contaminants of emerging concern, and so are primary sources for contaminant release into the aquatic environment. Although these contaminants are present in effluents at ng-μg/L concentrations (i.e. microcontaminants), many compounds can act as endocrine disrupting compounds or stress-inducing agents at these levels. Chemical fate analyses indicate that additional levels of wastewater treatment reduce but do not always completely remove all microcontaminants. The removal of microcontaminants from wastewater does not necessarily correspond to a reduction in biological activity, as contaminant metabolites or byproducts may still be biologically active. To evaluate the efficacy of conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants to remove biological activity, we examined the performance of a full scale conventional activated sludge municipal wastewater treatment plant located in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. We assessed reductions in levels of conventional wastewater parameters and thyroid hormone disrupting and stress-inducing activities in wastewater at three phases along the treatment train using a C-fin assay. Wastewater treatment was effective at reducing total suspended solids, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, and stress-inducing bioactivity. However, only minimal reduction was observed in thyroid hormone disrupting activities. The present study underscores the importance of examining multiple chemical and biological endpoints in evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of wastewater treatment for removal of microcontaminants.

  19. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  20. Label-Free Direct Visual Analysis of Hydrolytic Enzyme Activity Using Aqueous Two-Phase System Droplet Phase Transitions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Dextran hydrolysis-mediated conversion of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-dextran (DEX) aqueous two-phase system droplets to a single phase was used to directly visualize Dextranase activity. DEX droplets were formed either by manual micropipetting or within a continuous PEG phase by computer controlled actuation of an orifice connecting rounded channels formed by backside diffused light lithography. The time required for the two-phase to one-phase transition was dependent on the Dextranase concentration, pH of the medium, and temperature. The apparent Michaelis constants for Dextranase were estimated based on previously reported catalytic constants, the binodal polymer concentration curves for PEG-DEX phase transition for each temperature, and pH condition. The combination of a microfluidic droplet system and phase transition observation provides a new method for label-free direct measurement of enzyme activity. PMID:24654925

  1. Phase II clinical trials on Investigational drugs for the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Edward J.; Semrad, Thomas J.; Bold, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite some recent advances in treatment options, pancreatic cancer remains a devastating disease with poor outcomes. In a trend contrary to most malignancies, both incidence and mortality continue to rise due to pancreatic cancer. The majority of patients present with advanced disease and there are no treatment options for this stage that have demonstrated a median survival greater than 1 year. As the penultimate step prior to phase III studies involving hundreds of patients, phase II clinical trials provide an early opportunity to evaluate the efficacy of new treatments that are desperately needed for this disease. Areas Covered This review covers the results of published phase II clinical trials in advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma published within the past 5 years. The treatment results are framed in the context of the current standards of care and the historic challenge of predicting phase III success from phase II trial results. Expert opinion Promising therapies remain elusive in pancreatic cancer based on recent phase II clinical trial results. Optimization and standardization of clinical trial design in the phase II setting, with consistent incorporation of biomarkers, is needed to more accurately identify promising therapies that warrant phase III evaluation. PMID:25809274

  2. Active retrodirective arrays for SPS beam pointing. [phase conjugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernoff, R.

    1980-01-01

    The basic requirement of the SPS beam pointing system is that it deliver a certain amount of S-band (lambda = 12.5 cm) power to a 9.6 km diameter receiving rectenna on the ground. The power is transmitted from a 1.0 km diameter antenna array on the SPS, which is, for a rectenna at about plus or minus 40 deg. latitude, some 37.5x10 to the 6th power km distant. At the present time ARA's appear to be the best bet to realize this very stringent beam pointing requirement. An active retrodirective array (ARA) transmits a beam towards the apparent source of an illuminating signal called the pilot. The array produces, not merely reflects, RF power. Retrodirectivity is achieved by retransmitting from each element of the array a signal whose phase is the "conjugate" of that received by the element. Phase conjugate circuits and pointing errors in ARA's are described. Results obtained using a 2-element X-band ARA and an 8-element S-band ARA are included.

  3. Behavioral Activation Is an Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier…

  4. Magnetic observations during the recent declining phase of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. J.

    Changes in the heliospheric magnetic field during the recent declining phase in solar activity are reviewed and compared with observations during past sunspot cycles. The study is based principally on data obtained by IMP-8 and Ulysses. The field magnitude is found to have increased during the declining phase until it reached a maximum value of 11.5nT in approximately 1991.5, approximately two years after sunspot maximum. The field of the sun's south pole became negative after a reversal in early 1990. The sector structure disappeared at Ulysses in April 1993 when the latitude of the spacecraft was -30 deg revealing a low inclination of the heliospheric current sheet. A large outburst of solar activity in March 1991 caused four Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and numerious shocks at the location of Ulysses. Following a delay of more than a year, a series of recurrent high speed streams and Corotating Interaction Regions commenced in July 1992 which were observed by IMP-8, Ulysses and Voyager 2. In all these respects, the behavior of the magnetic field mimics that seen in the two earlier sunspot cycles. The comprehensive data set suggests a correlation between the absolute value of B and sunspot number. The major solar cycle variations in the radial component (and magnitude) of the field have been successfully reproduced by a recent model consisting of a tilted solar dipole, whose strength and tilt undergo characteristic changes over the sunspot cycle, and the heliospheric current sheet. The large outbursts of activity in mid-1972, mid-1982 and the first quarter of 1991 may represent a characteristic last 'gasp' of solar activity before the sun evolves to a different state. The recurrent high speed streams in 1973, 1984 and 1992 accompany the developemnt of large asymetrical polar coronal holes and the growth in intensity of the polar cap fields. After they endure for about one year, the polar coronal holes recede and the high speed streams are replaced by weaker

  5. Large-Aperture Membrane Active Phased-Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, Boris; McGrath, William; Leduc, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Large-aperture phased-array microwave antennas supported by membranes are being developed for use in spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar systems. There may also be terrestrial uses for such antennas supported on stationary membranes, large balloons, and blimps. These antennas are expected to have areal mass densities of about 2 kg/sq m, satisfying a need for lightweight alternatives to conventional rigid phased-array antennas, which have typical areal mass densities between 8 and 15 kg/sq m. The differences in areal mass densities translate to substantial differences in total mass in contemplated applications involving aperture areas as large as 400 sq m. A membrane phased-array antenna includes patch antenna elements in a repeating pattern. All previously reported membrane antennas were passive antennas; this is the first active membrane antenna that includes transmitting/receiving (T/R) electronic circuits as integral parts. Other integral parts of the antenna include a network of radio-frequency (RF) feed lines (more specifically, a corporate feed network) and of bias and control lines, all in the form of flexible copper strip conductors on flexible polymeric membranes. Each unit cell of a prototype antenna (see Figure 1) contains a patch antenna element and a compact T/R module that is compatible with flexible membrane circuitry. There are two membrane layers separated by a 12.7-mm air gap. Each membrane layer is made from a commercially available flexible circuit material that, as supplied, comprises a 127-micron-thick polyimide dielectric layer clad on both sides with 17.5-micron-thick copper layers. The copper layers are patterned into RF, bias, and control conductors. The T/R module is located on the back side of the ground plane and is RF-coupled to the patch element via a slot. The T/R module is a hybrid multilayer module assembled and packaged independently and attached to the membrane array. At the time of reporting the information for

  6. Oral health changes during early phase of orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudarević, Karlo; Jurela, Antonija; Repić, Dario; Jokić, Dražen; Mikić, Ivana Medvedec; Pejda, Slavica

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of fixed orthodontic appliance on Streptococcus (S.) mutans and S. sobrinus counts in orthodontic patients with regard to their previous caries experience (Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index) during the first 12 weeks of orthodontic treatment. Twenty-two patients that satisfied inclusion criteria (healthy systemic and periodontal condition, avoidance of antibiotic therapy and antiseptic mouthwashes in the past three months) were included. All clinical measurements took place prior to and 12 weeks after fixed orthodontic appliance placement, in the following order: 1) stimulated saliva flow (SS); 2) Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S); and 3) DMFT. The method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus at T1 and T2. T-test showed significant increase in DMFT index and SS between T1 and T2. Results also indicated significant improvement in OHI-S index. By use of the PCR method, S. mutans was detected in two patients at T1. At T2, two more patients had S. mutans, but the increase was not statistically significant. Using the same method, S. sobrinus was detected only in two patients at T2. In conclusion, fixed orthodontic appliances did not induce statistically significant changes in caries microflora even in the presence of enhanced oral hygiene habits.

  7. Treatment of substituted phenol mixtures in single phase and two-phase solid-liquid partitioning bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Rita, Sara; Angelucci, Domenica Mosca; Annesini, M Cristina; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2011-07-15

    The biological treatment of phenolics is constrained by the inherent cytotoxicity of these compounds. One method to alleviate such toxicity is to add a sequestering phase to absorb, and subsequently release, the substrate(s) to the micro-organisms; such a system is termed a Two Phase Partitioning Bioreactor. Here we have compared the performance of a TPPB, relative to single phase operation, in which a small volume (5%, v/v) of beads of the polymer Hytrel 8206 was used to treat aqueous mixtures of 2,4-dimethylphenol and 4-nitrophenol. Hytrel 8206 was selected from a range of polymers that were tested for their partition coefficients (PCs) for the target molecules, with the more hydrophobic compound (2,4-dimethylphenol) having a higher PC value (201) than 4-nitrophenol (143). Significantly increased removal rates for both substrates were demonstrated in TPPB mode relative to single phase operation. Additionally, the differential release of the compounds to the aqueous phase and their distinct PC values changed the kinetic pattern of the biotreatment system, smoothing out the cellular oxygen demand. Release of the substrates by the polymer over 60 operating cycles was virtually complete (>97%) demonstrating the reusability and robustness of the use of polymers in overcoming cytotoxicity of phenolic substrates.

  8. A novel, implicit treatment for language comprehension processes in right hemisphere brain damage: Phase I data.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Connie A; Blake, Margaret T; Wambaugh, Julie; Meigh, Kimberly

    2011-03-22

    BACKGROUND: This manuscript reports the initial phase of testing for a novel, "Contextual constraint" treatment, designed to stimulate inefficient language comprehension processes in adults with right hemisphere brain damage (RHD). Two versions of treatment were developed to target two normal comprehension processes that have broad relevance for discourse comprehension and that are often disrupted by RHD: coarse semantic coding and suppression. The development of the treatment was informed by two well-documented strengths of the RHD population. The first is consistently better performance on assessments that are implicit, or nearly so, than on explicit, metalinguistic measures of language and cognitive processing. The second is improved performance when given linguistic context that moderately-to-strongly biases an intended meaning. Treatment consisted of providing brief context sentences to prestimulate, or constrain, intended interpretations. Participants made no explicit associations or judgments about the constraint sentences; rather, these contexts served only as implicit primes. AIMS: This Phase I treatment study aimed to determine the effects of a novel, implicit, Contextual Constraint treatment in adults with RHD whose coarse coding or suppression processes were inefficient. Treatment was hypothesized to speed coarse coding or suppression function in these individuals. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Three adults with RHD participated in this study, one (P1) with a coarse coding deficit and two (P2, P3) with suppression deficits. Probe tasks were adapted from prior studies of coarse coding and suppression in RHD. The dependent measure was the percentage of responses that met predetermined response time criteria. When pre-treatment baseline performance was stable, treatment was initiated. There were two levels of contextual constraint, Strong and Moderate, and treatment for each item began with the provision of the Strong constraint context. OUTCOMES

  9. Diarylacylhydrazones: Clostridium-Selective Antibacterials with Activity Against Stationary-Phase Cells

    PubMed Central

    Casadei, Gabriele; Bremner, John B.; Lewis, Kim; Kelso, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Current antibiotics for treating Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), i.e. metronidazole, vancomycin and more recently fidaxomicin, are mostly effective but treatment failure and disease relapse remain as significant clinical problems. The shortcomings of these agents are attributed to their low selectivity for C. difficile over normal gut microflora and their ineffectiveness against C. difficile spores. This paper reports that certain diarylacylhydrazones identified during a high-throughput screening/counter-screening campaign show selective activity against two Clostridium species (C. difficile and C. perfringens) over common gut commensals. Representative examples are shown to possess activity similar to vancomycin against clinical C. difficile strains and to kill stationary-phase C. difficile cells, which are responsible for spore production. Structure-activity relationships with additional synthesised analogues suggested a protonophoric mechanism may play a role in the observed activity/selectivity and this was supported by the well-known protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) showing selective anti-Clostridium effects and activity similar to diarylacylhydrazones against stationary-phase C. difficile cells. Two diarylacylhydrazones were shown to be non-toxic towards human FaDu and Hep G2 cells indicating that further studies with the class are warranted towards new drugs for CDI. PMID:24360560

  10. Skills training in affective and interpersonal regulation followed by exposure: a phase-based treatment for PTSD related to childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Cloitre, Marylene; Koenen, Karestan C; Cohen, Lisa R; Han, Hyemee

    2002-10-01

    Fifty-eight women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood abuse were randomly assigned to a 2-phase cognitive-behavioral treatment or a minimal attention wait list. Phase 1 of treatment included 8 weekly sessions of skills training in affect and interpersonal regulation; Phase 2 included 8 sessions of modified prolonged exposure. Compared with those on wait list, participants in active treatment showed significant improvement in affect regulation problems, interpersonal skills deficits, and PTSD symptoms. Gains were maintained at 3- and 9-month follow-up. Phase 1 therapeutic alliance and negative mood regulation skills predicted Phase 2 exposure success in reducing PTSD, suggesting the value of establishing a strong therapeutic relationship and emotion regulation skills before exposure work among chronic PTSD populations.

  11. Electrocoagulation: Simply a Phase Separation Technology? The Case of Bronopol Compared to Its Treatment by EAOPs.

    PubMed

    Bocos, Elvira; Brillas, Enric; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Sirés, Ignasi

    2016-07-19

    Electrocoagulation (EC) has long been considered a phase separation process, well suited for industrial wastewater treatment since it causes a quick, drastic decay of organic matter content. This research demonstrates that EC also behaves, at least for some molecules like the industrial preservative bronopol, as an effective transformation technology able to yield several breakdown products. This finding has relevant environmental implications, pointing to EC as a greener process than described in literature. A thorough optimization of EC was performed with solutions of bronopol in a simulated water matrix, yielding the complete disappearance of the parent molecule within 20 min at 200 mA (∼20 mA/cm(2)), using Fe as the anode and cathode. A 25% of total organic carbon (TOC) abatement was attained as maximum, with bronopol being converted into bromonitromethane, bromochloromethane, formaldehyde and formic acid. N atoms were accumulated as NO3(-), whereas Br(-) was stable once released. This suggests that mediated oxidation by active chlorine, as well as by hydroxyl radicals resulting from its reaction with iron ions, is the main transformation mechanism. Aiming to enhance the mineralization, a sequential combination of EC with electro-Fenton (EF) as post-treatment process was proposed. EF with boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode ensured the gradual TOC removal under the action of (•)OH and BDD((•)OH), also transforming Br(-) into BrO3(-).

  12. Electrocoagulation: Simply a Phase Separation Technology? The Case of Bronopol Compared to Its Treatment by EAOPs.

    PubMed

    Bocos, Elvira; Brillas, Enric; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Sirés, Ignasi

    2016-07-19

    Electrocoagulation (EC) has long been considered a phase separation process, well suited for industrial wastewater treatment since it causes a quick, drastic decay of organic matter content. This research demonstrates that EC also behaves, at least for some molecules like the industrial preservative bronopol, as an effective transformation technology able to yield several breakdown products. This finding has relevant environmental implications, pointing to EC as a greener process than described in literature. A thorough optimization of EC was performed with solutions of bronopol in a simulated water matrix, yielding the complete disappearance of the parent molecule within 20 min at 200 mA (∼20 mA/cm(2)), using Fe as the anode and cathode. A 25% of total organic carbon (TOC) abatement was attained as maximum, with bronopol being converted into bromonitromethane, bromochloromethane, formaldehyde and formic acid. N atoms were accumulated as NO3(-), whereas Br(-) was stable once released. This suggests that mediated oxidation by active chlorine, as well as by hydroxyl radicals resulting from its reaction with iron ions, is the main transformation mechanism. Aiming to enhance the mineralization, a sequential combination of EC with electro-Fenton (EF) as post-treatment process was proposed. EF with boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode ensured the gradual TOC removal under the action of (•)OH and BDD((•)OH), also transforming Br(-) into BrO3(-). PMID:27328254

  13. Influence of plasma treatment time on plasma induced vapor phase grafting modification of PBO fiber surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, B.; Meng, L. H.; Huang, Y. D.

    2012-05-01

    The surface of poly-p-phenylene benzobisthiazole (PBO) fibers was treated through oxygen plasma induced vapor phase grafting (PIVPG) method under various oxygen plasma pre-treatment time conditions. The surface chemical composition, surface morphologies and surface free energy of pristine and treated PBO fibers were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Cahn DCAA system. The mechanics property of these fibers was evaluated by tensile strength and interfacial shear strength (IFSS). It was found that the surface characteristics of treated PBO fibers occurred significant change compare with the pristine PBO fibers. After treatment, the polar functional groups were introduced on the fiber surface. Carbon concentration decreased; oxygen concentration and elemental ratio of oxygen to carbon increased. Acrylic acid can react with the activated PBO fibers surface, which led to the fiber surface roughness increased. The surface free energy increased from 41.4 mN/m to 62.8 mN/m when PBO fibers were plasma pre-treated for 10 min, while the IFSS of PBO fibers with epoxy resin increased from 36.6 MPa to 55.8 MPa. Therefore, PIVPG can be used to enhance the interfacial bond between PBO fibers and epoxy resin.

  14. Phase segregation in a system of active dumbbells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonnella, Giuseppe; Lamura, Antonio; Suma, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    A systems of self-propelled dumbbells interacting by a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson potential is considered. At sufficiently low temperatures the system phase separates into a dense phase and a gas-like phase. The kinetics of the cluster formation and the growth law for the average cluster size are analyzed.

  15. Less-costly activated carbon for sewage treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingham, J. D.; Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Lignite-aided sewage treatment is based on absorption of dissolved pollutants by activated carbon. Settling sludge is removed and dried into cakes that are pyrolyzed with lignites to yield activated carbon. Lignite is less expensive than activated carbon previously used to supplement pyrolysis yield.

  16. Contribution of siloxanes to COD loading at wastewater treatment plants: phase transfer, removal, and fate at different treatment units.

    PubMed

    Surita, Sharon C; Tansel, Berrin

    2015-03-01

    Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMSs) are entering to waste stream in increasing quantities due to their increasing use in personal care products (i.e., shampoos, creams). The cVMSs have high vapor pressures and low solubilities and are mostly transferred into the gaseous phase via volatilization; however, some are sorbed onto biosolids. The purpose of this study was to track and estimate the phase transfer (water, solids, gas), fate, and contribution to COD loading of selected siloxanes (D4, D5 and D6) which are the most commonly found cVMSs in the wastewater systems. Removal efficiencies of the wastewater treatment units were evaluated based on the partitioning characteristics of the cVMSs in gas, liquid, and biosolids phases. The contributions of the siloxanes present in the influent and effluent were estimated in terms of COD levels based on the theoretical oxygen demand (ThOD) of the siloxanes. Siloxanes constitute approximately 39 and 0.001mgL(-1) of the COD in the influents and effluent. Oxidation systems showed higher removal efficiencies based COD loading in comparison to the removal efficiencies achieved aeration tanks and filtration systems. Treatment systems effectively remove the siloxanes from the aqueous phase with over 94% efficiency. About 50% of the siloxanes entering to the wastewater treatment plant accumulate in biosolids.

  17. Aging assessment of nuclear air-treatment system HEPA filters and adsorbers. Volume 1, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Winegardner, W.K.

    1993-08-01

    A Phase I aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units (adsorbers) was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Information concerning design features; failure experience; aging mechanisms, effects, and stressors; and surveillance and monitoring methods for these key air-treatment system components was compiled. Over 1100 failures, or 12 percent of the filter installations, were reported as part of a Department of Energy (DOE) survey. Investigators from other national laboratories have suggested that aging effects could have contributed to over 80 percent of these failures. Tensile strength tests on aged filter media specimens indicated a decrease in strength. Filter aging mechanisms range from those associated with particle loading to reactions that alter properties of sealants and gaskets. Low radioiodine decontamination factors associated with the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident were attributed to the premature aging of the carbon in the adsorbers. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance include oxidation as well as the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the adsorption of pollutants. Stressors include heat, moisture, radiation, and airborne particles and contaminants.

  18. Fortifying the Treatment of Prostate Cancer with Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Champ, Colin E.; Francis, Lanie; Klement, Rainer J.; Dickerman, Roger; Smith, Ryan P.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, significant data have shown that obese men experience a survival detriment after treatment for prostate cancer. While methods to combat obesity are of utmost importance for the prostate cancer patient, newer data reveal the overall metabolic improvements that accompany increased activity levels and intense exercise beyond weight loss. Along these lines, a plethora of data have shown improvement in prostate cancer-specific outcomes after treatment accompanied with these activity levels. This review discusses the metabolic mechanisms in which increased activity levels and exercise can help improve both outcomes for men treated for prostate cancer while lowering the side effects of treatment. PMID:26977321

  19. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  20. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  1. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  2. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  3. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the...

  4. Ultrasound Microbubble Treatment Enhances Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Fluid-Phase Uptake through Distinct Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fekri, Farnaz; Delos Santos, Ralph Christian; Karshafian, Raffi; Antonescu, Costin N

    2016-01-01

    Drug delivery to tumors is limited by several factors, including drug permeability of the target cell plasma membrane. Ultrasound in combination with microbubbles (USMB) is a promising strategy to overcome these limitations. USMB treatment elicits enhanced cellular uptake of materials such as drugs, in part as a result of sheer stress and formation of transient membrane pores. Pores formed upon USMB treatment are rapidly resealed, suggesting that other processes such as enhanced endocytosis may contribute to the enhanced material uptake by cells upon USMB treatment. How USMB regulates endocytic processes remains incompletely understood. Cells constitutively utilize several distinct mechanisms of endocytosis, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) for the internalization of receptor-bound macromolecules such as Transferrin Receptor (TfR), and distinct mechanism(s) that mediate the majority of fluid-phase endocytosis. Tracking the abundance of TfR on the cell surface and the internalization of its ligand transferrin revealed that USMB acutely enhances the rate of CME. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy experiments revealed that USMB treatment altered the assembly of clathrin-coated pits, the basic structural units of CME. In addition, the rate of fluid-phase endocytosis was enhanced, but with delayed onset upon USMB treatment relative to the enhancement of CME, suggesting that the two processes are distinctly regulated by USMB. Indeed, vacuolin-1 or desipramine treatment prevented the enhancement of CME but not of fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB, suggesting that lysosome exocytosis and acid sphingomyelinase, respectively, are required for the regulation of CME but not fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB treatment. These results indicate that USMB enhances both CME and fluid phase endocytosis through distinct signaling mechanisms, and suggest that strategies for potentiating the enhancement of endocytosis upon USMB treatment may improve targeted

  5. Ultrasound Microbubble Treatment Enhances Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Fluid-Phase Uptake through Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Fekri, Farnaz; Delos Santos, Ralph Christian; Karshafian, Raffi

    2016-01-01

    Drug delivery to tumors is limited by several factors, including drug permeability of the target cell plasma membrane. Ultrasound in combination with microbubbles (USMB) is a promising strategy to overcome these limitations. USMB treatment elicits enhanced cellular uptake of materials such as drugs, in part as a result of sheer stress and formation of transient membrane pores. Pores formed upon USMB treatment are rapidly resealed, suggesting that other processes such as enhanced endocytosis may contribute to the enhanced material uptake by cells upon USMB treatment. How USMB regulates endocytic processes remains incompletely understood. Cells constitutively utilize several distinct mechanisms of endocytosis, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) for the internalization of receptor-bound macromolecules such as Transferrin Receptor (TfR), and distinct mechanism(s) that mediate the majority of fluid-phase endocytosis. Tracking the abundance of TfR on the cell surface and the internalization of its ligand transferrin revealed that USMB acutely enhances the rate of CME. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy experiments revealed that USMB treatment altered the assembly of clathrin-coated pits, the basic structural units of CME. In addition, the rate of fluid-phase endocytosis was enhanced, but with delayed onset upon USMB treatment relative to the enhancement of CME, suggesting that the two processes are distinctly regulated by USMB. Indeed, vacuolin-1 or desipramine treatment prevented the enhancement of CME but not of fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB, suggesting that lysosome exocytosis and acid sphingomyelinase, respectively, are required for the regulation of CME but not fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB treatment. These results indicate that USMB enhances both CME and fluid phase endocytosis through distinct signaling mechanisms, and suggest that strategies for potentiating the enhancement of endocytosis upon USMB treatment may improve targeted

  6. Phase diversity and polarization augmented techniques for active imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Peter M.

    A firm understanding of the space environment is necessary to defend US access to space-based systems. Conventional imaging systems have been developed to gather information on space-based objects, but they are incapable of imaging objects in the earth's shadow. In order close this gap in imaging-system coverage, an active-illumination based approach must be used. To facilitate this, a multi-frame active phase diversity imaging (APDI) algorithm is derived and demonstrated for the statistics of coherent light. In addition to conventional focal-plane and diversity-plane data, a statistical description for the pupil plane intensity distribution is formed and included in the derivation. The algorithm is implemented and characterized using a Monte Carlo approach. Analysis shows that the algorithm is robust, that the effect of system configuration on optimal algorithm parameters is minimal, that the algorithm is insensitive to detection noise for SNR ≥ 7, and that it performs well for SNRs as low as 2. Furthermore, it's shown that introduction of pupil-plane data on average results in a 60% better image reconstruction from dynamically aberrated data than is obtained using only focal-plane and diversity-plane data. Both an Expectation-Maximization algorithm and a lensless-APDI approach are presented for generating imagery directly from pupil-plane polarization measurements. Shortfalls of these methods and areas worthy of further consideration are identified. The use of pupil-plane polarization state measurements in place of pupil-plane intensity measurements in the APDI algorithm is explored. A framework for including polarization measurements into the APDI algorithm is demonstrated, and an initial statistical model and results are presented. Under the developed implementation, introduction of the polarization data doesn't result in better performance. Areas that may result in better reconstructions are discussed.

  7. Behavioral activation: a strategy to enhance treatment response.

    PubMed

    Sudak, Donna M; Majeed, Muhammad H; Youngman, Branden

    2014-07-01

    Behavioral activation is an empirically validated treatment for depression pioneered in 1973 by Ferster, based on B.F. Skinner's behavioral principles. After publication of Beck's work on cognitive therapy, the boundaries of behavioral and cognitive therapies were blurred and the two now overlap substantially. Behavioral activation is also used as a stand-alone treatment and can also be effective in conjunction with antidepressant medication. Case conceptualization in behavioral activation entails an assessment of the behaviors that the patient has stopped that produce pleasure or are of importance, as well as behaviors essential to self-care. Activity monitoring, which provides treatment targets and leads to the case conceptualization in behavioral activation, consists of using charts, forms, or other prompts to track the relationship between activities and other variables (e.g., mood, enjoyment). That technique is also used to target rumination, procrastination, and avoidance and may also be helpful for patients with psychosis. PMID:25036582

  8. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of bicrystal phase TiO2 nanotubes containing TiO2-B and anatase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chuanxi; Zhu, Kerong; Qi, Mengyao; Zhuang, Yonglong; Cheng, Chao

    2012-06-01

    Bicrystal phase TiO2 nanotubes (NTS) containing monoclinic TiO2-B and anatase were prepared by the hydrothermal reaction of anatase nanoparticles with NaOH aqueous solution and a heat treatment. Their structure was characterized by XRD, TEM and Raman spectra. The results showed that the bicrystal phase TiO2 NTS were formed after calcining H2Ti4O9·H2O NTS at 573 K. The bicrystal phase TiO2 NTS exhibit significantly higher photocatalytic activity than the single phase anatase NTS and Dessuga P-25 nanoparticles in the degradation of Methyl Orange aqueous solution under ultraviolet light irradiation, which is attributed to the large surface and interface areas of the bicrystal phase TiO2 NTS.

  9. Nitrogenous wastewater treatment by activated algae

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.K.

    1985-02-01

    A biological treatability study by activated algae process was performed with synthetic wastewater containing a high concentration of nitrogen. It was found that the wastewater could be processed at all nitrogen removal rates. The yield coefficient and decay coefficient for heterotrophic bacteria were 0.06 (COD basis) and 0.019 day/sup -1/ (COD bases) respectively. The yield coefficient and decay coefficient for nitrifiers were 0.06 and 0.02 day/sup -1/ respectively. NH/sup +//sub 4/-N seemed to inhibit bacteriological growth as the yield coefficients values were significantly lower. Nitrification was observed at all the nitrogen loadings. Diffusion of NH/sub 3/ into the atmosphere was the dominant mechanism of nitrogen removal. The results demonstrated a symbiotic relationship between algae and bacteria.

  10. Plans for the next phase of CORDEX activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, Filippo; Gutowski, William

    2016-04-01

    Ensembles of Regional Climate Model (RCM) projections have been completed under the protocol of the first phase of the COordinated Regional Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX, Giorgi et al. 2009) over most CORDEX domains. As a result of these activities a number of scientific issues have emerged, which provide the basis for discussion of the next phase of the CORDEX program. Among such issues are a clearer identification and quantification of the added value of the use of RCMs, the development and use of a new generation of very high resolution (<10 km), convection permitting RCMs, the coordination across development efforts of coupled Regional Earth System Models (RESMs), a more detailed and process-based analysis of RCM simulations, the effects of regional forcings (e.g. land use change and aerosols) and a better integration of empirical/statistical downscaling within the CORDEX framework. A large inhomogeneity was also noted across different CORDEX regional efforts, with some domains (e.g. EURO-CORDEX, AFRICA-CORDEX and MED-CORDEX) being covered by large ensembles and others by much more sparse experiment matrices. This has limited the use of CORDEX results in international programs such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Two avenues are being discussed in order to address these issues. The first is to produce a homogeneous set of higher resolution projections (10-20 km) across all or most CORDEX domains using a core set of RCMs downscaling a core set of GCMs. The second is to develop and implement a set of "Flagship Pilot Studies (FPSs)" over sub-regions of interest aimed at addressing specific scientific questions (e.g. added value and convection-permitting simulations, intercomparison of different downscaling approaches, land-use and aerosol effects). In this presentation we will describe the status of the discussion and plans for these new CORDEX initiatives, which will be likely finalized at the upcoming third Pan-CORDEX conference (ICRC

  11. Deep-cryogenic-treatment-induced phase transformation in the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-mei; Cheng, Nan-pu; Chen, Zhi-qian; Guo, Ning; Zeng, Su-min

    2015-01-01

    An aluminum alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) subjected to deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) was systematically investigated. The results show that a DCT-induced phase transformation varies the microstructures and affects the mechanical properties of the Al alloy. Both Guinier-Preston (GP) zones and a metastable η' phase were observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The phenomenon of the second precipitation of the GP zones in samples subjected to DCT after being aged was observed. The viability of this phase transformation was also demonstrated by first-principles calculations.

  12. Phase separation of cesium from lead borosilicate glass by heat treatment under a reducing atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhanglian; Okada, Takashi; Nishimura, Fumihiro; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2016-11-01

    A phase-separation technique for removing sodium from glass using a heat-treatment method under a reducing atmosphere was previously developed for sodium recovery from waste glass. In this study, this technique was applied to cesium-containing lead borosilicate glass to concentrate the cesium in phase-separated sodium-rich materials for efficient cesium extraction. The theoretical phase-separation temperature of the sodium-rich phase was simulated by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and was predicted to occur below 700°C for lead borosilicate glass. Experimentally, a simulated lead borosilicate glass was melted at 1000°C and subsequently annealed below 700°C under a CO-containing reducing atmosphere. The phase separation of cesium was found to occur with sodium enrichment on the glass surface that was in contact with the gas phase, promoting cesium extraction from the treated glass using water. The cesium extraction efficiency was affected by the surface area of the treated glass that was in contact with water, and under the examined conditions, the cesium extraction efficiency was up to 66%. Phase separation using reductive heat treatment, combined with a water leaching technique, is suggested to be effective for extracting cesium incorporated in borosilicate glass waste. PMID:27368086

  13. Microstructural and phase evolution in metakaolin geopolymers with different activators and added aluminosilicate fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Madhuchhanda; Dana, Kausik; Das, Sukhen

    2015-10-01

    This work aims to investigate the microstructural and phase evolution of alkali activated metakaolin products with different activators and added aluminosilicate filler phases. The added filler phases have different reactivity to the alkali activated metakaolin system. Microstructural evolution in the alkali activated products has been investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). Variation in strength development in alkali activated metakaolin products was followed by compressive strength measurement test. Microstructural study shows that in case of metakaolin with NaOH activator crystalline sodalite formed in all the product samples irrespective of the added filler phases. The microstructure of these NaOH activated products investigated by FESEM showed crystalline and inhomogeneous morphology. Mixed activator containing both NaOH and sodium silicate in a fixed mass ratio formed predominantly amorphous phase. Microstructure of these samples showed more homogeneity than that of NaOH activated metakaolin products. The study further shows that addition of α-Al2O3 powder, non reactive phase to the alkali activated metakaolin system when used in larger amount increased crystalline phase in the matrix. α-Al2O3 powder addition increased the compressive strength of the product samples for both the activator compositions. Added phase of colloidal silica, reactive to the alkali activated metakaolin system when used in larger amount was found to increase amorphous nature of the matrix. Addition of colloidal silica influenced the compressive strength property differently with different activator compositions.

  14. Monitoring the biological activity of micropollutants during advanced wastewater treatment with ozonation and activated carbon filtration.

    PubMed

    Macova, M; Escher, B I; Reungoat, J; Carswell, S; Chue, K Lee; Keller, J; Mueller, J F

    2010-01-01

    A bioanalytical test battery was used to monitor the removal efficiency of organic micropollutants during advanced wastewater treatment in the South Caboolture Water Reclamation Plant, Queensland, Australia. This plant treats effluent from a conventional sewage treatment plant for industrial water reuse. The aqueous samples were enriched using solid-phase extraction to separate some organic micropollutants of interest from metals, nutrients and matrix components. The bioassays were chosen to provide information on groups of chemicals with a common mode of toxic action. Therefore they can be considered as sum indicators to detect certain relevant groups of chemicals, not as the most ecologically or human health relevant endpoints. The baseline toxicity was quantified with the bioluminescence inhibition test using the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The specific modes of toxic action that were targeted with five additional bioassays included aspects of estrogenicity, dioxin-like activity, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and phytotoxicity. While the accompanying publication discusses the treatment steps in more detail by drawing from the results of chemical analysis as well as the bioanalytical results, here we focus on the applicability and limitations of using bioassays for the purpose of determining the treatment efficacy of advanced water treatment and for water quality assessment in general. Results are reported in toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ), that is, the concentration of a reference compound required to elicit the same response as the unknown and unidentified mixture of micropollutants actually present. TEQ proved to be useful and easily communicable despite some limitations and uncertainties in their derivation based on the mixture toxicity theory. The results obtained were reproducible, robust and sensitive. The TEQ in the influent ranged in the same order of magnitude as typically seen in effluents of conventional sewage treatment plants. In the

  15. Diagnosis, Cause, and Treatment Approaches for Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder.

    PubMed

    Magee, Michelle; Marbas, Emily M; Wright, Kenneth P; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Broussard, Josiane L

    2016-09-01

    Delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) is commonly defined as an inability to fall asleep and wake at societal times resulting in excessive daytime sleepiness. Although the cause is multifaceted, delays in sleep time are largely driven by misalignment between the circadian pacemaker and the desired sleep-wake timing schedule. Current treatment approaches focus on correcting the circadian delay; however, there is a lack of data investigating combined therapies for treatment of DSWPD. PMID:27542884

  16. Factors Associated with Fatality during the Intensive Phase of Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Casals, M.; Caminero, J. A.; García-García, J. M.; Jiménez-Fuentes, M. A.; Medina, J. F.; Millet, J. P.; Ruiz-Manzano, J.; Caylá, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the case-fatality rate (CFR) at the end of the intensive phase of tuberculosis (TB) treatment, and factors associated with fatality. Methods TB patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2013 were followed-up during treatment. We computed the CFR at the end of the intensive phase of TB treatment, and the incidence of death per 100 person-days (pd) of follow-up. We performed survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression, and calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results A total of 5,182 patients were included, of whom 180 (3.5%) died; 87 of these deaths (48.3%) occurred during the intensive phase of treatment, with a CFR of 1.7%. The incidence of death was 0.028/100 pd. The following factors were associated with death during the intensive phase: being >50 years (HR = 36.9;CI:4.8–283.4); being retired (HR = 2.4;CI:1.1–5.1); having visited the emergency department (HR = 3.1;CI:1.2–7.7); HIV infection (HR = 3.4;CI:1.6–7.2); initial standard treatment with 3 drugs (HR = 2.0;CI:1.2–3.3) or non-standard treatments (HR = 2.68;CI:1.36–5.25); comprehension difficulties (HR = 2.8;CI:1.3–6.1); and smear-positive sputum (HR = 2.3-CI:1.0–4.8). Conclusion There is a non-negligible CFR during the intensive phase of TB, whose reduction should be prioritised. The CFR could be a useful indicator for evaluating TB programs. PMID:27487189

  17. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  18. Brain activation to cocaine cues and motivation/treatment status

    PubMed Central

    Prisciandaro, James J.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation to change is believed to be a key factor in therapeutic success in substance use disorders; however, the neurobiological mechanisms through which motivation to change impacts decreased substance use remain unclear. Existing research is conflicting, with some investigations supporting decreased and others reporting increased frontal activation to drug cues in individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. The present study investigated the relationship between motivation to change cocaine use and cue-elicited brain activity in cocaine-dependent individuals using two conceptualizations of “motivation to change:” 1) current treatment status (i.e., currently receiving vs. not receiving outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence) and 2) self-reported motivation to change substance use, using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES; Miller and Tonigan, 1996). Thirty-eight cocaine-dependent individuals (14 currently in treatment) completed a diagnostic assessment and an fMRI cocaine cue-reactivity task. Whole-brain analyses demonstrated that both treatment-seeking and motivated participants had lower activation to cocaine cues in a wide variety of brain regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal, and cingulate cortices relative to non-treatment-seeking and less motivated participants. Future research is needed to explain the mechanism by which treatment and/or motivation impacts neural cue-reactivity, as such work could potentially aid in the development of more effective therapeutic techniques for substance-dependent patients. PMID:22458561

  19. Brain activation to cocaine cues and motivation/treatment status.

    PubMed

    Prisciandaro, James J; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T

    2014-03-01

    Motivation to change is believed to be a key factor in therapeutic success in substance use disorders; however, the neurobiological mechanisms through which motivation to change impacts decreased substance use remain unclear. Existing research is conflicting, with some investigations supporting decreased and others reporting increased frontal activation to drug cues in individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. The present study investigated the relationship between motivation to change cocaine use and cue-elicited brain activity in cocaine-dependent individuals using two conceptualizations of 'motivation to change': (1) current treatment status (i.e. currently receiving versus not receiving outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence) and (2) self-reported motivation to change substance use, using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. Thirty-eight cocaine-dependent individuals (14 currently in treatment) completed a diagnostic assessment and an fMRI cocaine cue-reactivity task. Whole-brain analyses demonstrated that both treatment-seeking and motivated participants had lower activation to cocaine cues in a wide variety of brain regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal and cingulate cortices relative to non-treatment-seeking and less motivated participants. Future research is needed to explain the mechanism by which treatment and/or motivation impacts neural cue reactivity, as such work could potentially aid in the development of more effective therapeutic techniques for substance-dependent patients.

  20. Activated carbons obtained from sewage sludge by chemical activation: gas-phase environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Boualem, T; Debab, A; Martínez de Yuso, A; Izquierdo, M T

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity for toluene and SO2 of low cost activated carbons prepared from sewage sludge by chemical activation at different impregnation ratios. Samples were characterized by proximate and ultimate analyses, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption. Because of the low carbon content of the raw material, the development of porosity in the activated carbons was mainly of a mesoporous nature, with surface areas lower than 300 m(2)/g. The study of gas-phase applications for activated carbons from sewage sludge was carried out using both an organic and an inorganic compound in order to screen for possible applications. Toluene adsorption capacity at saturation was around 280 mg/g, which is a good level of performance given the high ash content of the activated carbons. However, dynamic experiments at low toluene concentration presented diffusion problems resulting from low porosity development. SO2 adsorption capacity is associated with average micropore size, which can be controlled by the impregnation ratio used to prepare the activated carbons.

  1. Phase transformations during the reaction heat treatment of Nb3Sn superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuerlein, C.; Di Michiel, M.; Thilly, L.; Buta, F.; Peng, X.; Gregory, E.; Parrell, J. A.; Pong, I.; Bordini, B.; Cantoni, M.

    2010-06-01

    The evolution of Nb containing phases during the diffusion heat treatment of three different high critical current Nb3Sn strand types is compared, based on synchrotron X-ray diffraction results that have been obtained at the ID15 beam line of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). In all strands studied, Nb3Sn formation is preceded by the formation of a Cu-Nb-Sn ternary phase, NbSn2 and Nb6Sn5. As compared to the PIT and Tube Type strand, the amount of these phases formed in the RRP strand is relatively small. In the RRP strand subelements with a fine filament structure Nb3Sn grows more quickly, thereby preventing to a large extent the formation of the other higher tin phases.

  2. Frequency translating phase conjugation circuit for active retrodirective antenna array. [microwave transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernoff, R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An active retrodirective antenna array which has central phasing from a reference antenna element through a "tree" structured network of transmission lines utilizes a number of phase conjugate circuits (PCCs) at each node and a phase reference regeneration circuit (PRR) at each node except the initial node. Each node virtually coincides with an element of the array. A PCC generates the exact conjugate phase of an incident signal using a phase locked loop which combines the phases in an up converter, divides the sum by 2 and mixes the result with the phase in a down converter for phase detection. The PRR extracts the phase from the conjugate phase. Both the PCC and the PRR are not only exact but also free from mixer degeneracy.

  3. Critical comparison of classical and quantum mechanical treatments of the phase equilibria of water

    SciTech Connect

    Wick, Collin D.; Schenter, Gregory K.

    2006-03-17

    The Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulation technique was used to compare the phase equilibria of the rigid TIP4P water model [J.\\ Chem.\\ Phys.\\ {\\bf 79}, 926, (1983)] utilizing classical and quantum statistical mechanical treatments. The quantum statistical mechanical treatment generally resulted in lower liquid densities and higher vapor densities, showing a narrowing in the phase envelope. As a result, the calculated critical temperature and normal boiling point were higher from the quantum simulations than the classical by 20~and 17~K, respectively, but the critical densities were very close. A semiclassical treatment, involving a low order expansion in Plank's constant, resulted in densities and vapor pressures that fluctuated between the values for the classical and quantum statistical mechanics values, with no definite agreement with either.

  4. Clinical disease activity and acute phase reactant levels are discordant among patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: acute phase reactant levels contribute separately to predicting outcome at one year

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Clinical trials of new treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) typically require subjects to have an elevated acute phase reactant (APR), in addition to tender and swollen joints. However, despite the elevation of individual components of the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) (tender and swollen joint counts and patient and physician global assessment), some patients with active RA may have normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and/or C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and thus fail to meet entry criteria for clinical trials. We assessed the relationship between CDAI and APRs in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America (CORRONA) registry by comparing baseline characteristics and one-year clinical outcomes of patients with active RA, grouped by baseline APR levels. Methods This was an observational study of 9,135 RA patients who had both ESR and CRP drawn and a visit at which CDAI was >2.8 (not in remission). Results Of 9,135 patients with active RA, 58% had neither elevated ESR nor CRP; only 16% had both elevated ESR and CRP and 26% had either ESR or CRP elevated. Among the 4,228 patients who had a one-year follow-up visit, both baseline and one-year follow-up modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (mHAQ) and CDAI scores were lowest for patients with active RA but with neither APR elevated; both mHAQ and CDAI scores increased sequentially with the increase in number of elevated APR levels at baseline. Each individual component of the CDAI followed the same trend, both at baseline and at one-year follow-up. The magnitude of improvement in both CDAI and mHAQ scores at one year was associated positively with the number of APRs elevated at baseline. Conclusions In a large United States registry of RA patients, APR levels often do not correlate with disease activity as measured by joint counts and global assessments. These data strongly suggest that it is appropriate to obtain both ESR and CRP from RA patients at the initial

  5. Phase advancement and nucleus-specific timing of thalamocortical activity during slow cortical oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Slézia, Andrea; Hangya, Balázs; Ulbert, István; Acsády, László

    2011-01-01

    The exact timing of cortical afferent activity is instrumental for the correct coding and retrieval of internal and external stimuli. Thalamocortical inputs represent the most significant subcortical pathway to the cortex, but the precise timing and temporal variability of thalamocortical activity is not known. To examine this question, we studied the phase of thalamic action potentials relative to cortical oscillations and established correlations among phase, the nuclear location of the thalamocortical neurons and the frequency of cortical activity. The phase of thalamic action potentials depended on the exact frequency of the slow cortical oscillation both on long (minutes) and short (single wave) time scales. Faster waves were accompanied by phase advancement in both cases. Thalamocortical neurons located in different nuclei fired at significantly different phases of the slow waves but were active at similar phase of spindle oscillations. Different thalamic nuclei displayed distinct burst patterns. Bursts with higher number of action potentials displayed progressive phase advancement in a nucleus-specific manner. Thalamic neurons located along nuclear borders were characterized by mixed burst and phase properties. Our data demonstrate that the temporal relationship between cortical and thalamic activity is not fixed but displays dynamic changes during oscillatory activity. The timing depends on the precise location and exact activity of thalamocortical cells and the ongoing cortical network pattern. This variability of thalamic output and its coupling to cortical activity can enable thalamocortical neurons to actively participate in the coding and retrieval of complex cortical signals. PMID:21228169

  6. Co-Cu Nanoparticles: Synthesis by Galvanic Replacement and Phase Rearrangement during Catalytic Activation.

    PubMed

    Nafria, Raquel; Genç, Aziz; Ibáñez, Maria; Arbiol, Jordi; de la Piscina, Pilar Ramírez; Homs, Narcís; Cabot, Andreu

    2016-03-01

    The control of the phase distribution in multicomponent nanomaterials is critical to optimize their catalytic performance. In this direction, while impressive advances have been achieved in the past decade in the synthesis of multicomponent nanoparticles and nanocomposites, element rearrangement during catalyst activation has been frequently overseen. Here, we present a facile galvanic replacement-based procedure to synthesize Co@Cu nanoparticles with narrow size and composition distributions. We further characterize their phase arrangement before and after catalytic activation. When oxidized at 350 °C in air to remove organics, Co@Cu core-shell nanostructures oxidize to polycrystalline CuO-Co3O4 nanoparticles with randomly distributed CuO and Co3O4 crystallites. During a posterior reduction treatment in H2 atmosphere, Cu precipitates in a metallic core and Co migrates to the nanoparticle surface to form Cu@Co core-shell nanostructures. The catalytic behavior of such Cu@Co nanoparticles supported on mesoporous silica was further analyzed toward CO2 hydrogenation in real working conditions. PMID:26878153

  7. Transitioning from multi-phase to single-phase microfluidics for long-term culture and treatment of multicellular spheroids.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Kay S; Boyd, Marie; Zagnoni, Michele

    2016-09-21

    When compared to methodologies based on low adhesion or hanging drop plates, droplet microfluidics offers several advantages for the formation and culture of multicellular spheroids, such as the potential for higher throughput screening and the use of reduced cell numbers, whilst providing increased stability for plate handling. However, a drawback of the technology is its characteristic compartmentalisation which limits the nutrients available to cells within an emulsion and poses challenges to the exchange of the encapsulated solution, often resulting in short-term cell culture and/or viability issues. The aim of this study was to develop a multi-purpose microfluidic platform that combines the high-throughput characteristics of multi-phase flows with that of ease of perfusion typical of single-phase microfluidics. We developed a versatile system to upscale the formation and long-term culture of multicellular spheroids for testing anticancer treatments, creating an array of fluidically addressable, compact spheroids that could be cultured in either medium or within a gel scaffold. The work provides proof-of-concept results for using this system to test both chemo- and radio-therapeutic protocols using in vitro 3D cancer models.

  8. Transitioning from multi-phase to single-phase microfluidics for long-term culture and treatment of multicellular spheroids.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Kay S; Boyd, Marie; Zagnoni, Michele

    2016-09-21

    When compared to methodologies based on low adhesion or hanging drop plates, droplet microfluidics offers several advantages for the formation and culture of multicellular spheroids, such as the potential for higher throughput screening and the use of reduced cell numbers, whilst providing increased stability for plate handling. However, a drawback of the technology is its characteristic compartmentalisation which limits the nutrients available to cells within an emulsion and poses challenges to the exchange of the encapsulated solution, often resulting in short-term cell culture and/or viability issues. The aim of this study was to develop a multi-purpose microfluidic platform that combines the high-throughput characteristics of multi-phase flows with that of ease of perfusion typical of single-phase microfluidics. We developed a versatile system to upscale the formation and long-term culture of multicellular spheroids for testing anticancer treatments, creating an array of fluidically addressable, compact spheroids that could be cultured in either medium or within a gel scaffold. The work provides proof-of-concept results for using this system to test both chemo- and radio-therapeutic protocols using in vitro 3D cancer models. PMID:27477673

  9. A two-phase partitioning airlift bioreactor for the treatment of BTEX contaminated gases.

    PubMed

    Littlejohns, Jennifer V; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2009-08-15

    This investigation characterizes a novel 11 L airlift two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) for the treatment of gases contaminated with a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene (BTEX). The application of the TPPB technology in an airlift bioreactor configuration provides a novel technology that reduces energy intensity relative to traditional stirred tank TPPB configurations. The addition of a solid second phase of silicone rubber beads (10%, v/v) or of a liquid second phase of silicone oil (10%, v/v) resulted in enhanced performance of the airlift bioreactor relative to the single phase case, with 20% more BTEX being removed from the gas phase during an imposed transient loading. During a 4 h loading step change of three times the nominal loading (60 g m(-3) h(-1)), overall removal efficiencies for the airlift TPPBs containing a liquid or solid phase remained above 75%, whereas the single phase airlift had an overall removal efficiency of 47.1%. The airlift TPPB containing a silicone rubber second phase was further characterized by testing performance during steady-state operation over a range of loadings and inlet gas flow rates in the form of a 3(2) factorial experimental design. Optimal operating conditions that avoid oxygen limitations and that still have a slow enough gas flow rate for sufficient BTEX transfer from the gas phase to the working volume are identified. The novel solid-liquid airlift TPPB reduces energy inputs relative to stirred tank designs while being able to eliminate large amounts of BTEX during both steady-state and fluctuating loading conditions.

  10. Activity of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase in the mouse uterus during the estrous cycle, throughout the preimplantation phase of pregnancy, and throughout the luteal phase of pseudopregnancy.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, C

    1995-05-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent autacoid produced by the embryo and the endometrium during early pregnancy. Its actions in vivo are dependent upon its half-life, which in turn is largely governed by its metabolism. PAF:acetylhydrolase is a major metabolic enzyme for PAF and is widespread in body tissues and fluids. This study was an examination of the activity of this enzyme in the uterus (uterine luminal fluids and endometrial scrapings) of mice in the periovulatory period, throughout the preimplantation phase of pregnancy, and throughout the luteal phase of pseudopregnancy. PAF:acetylhydrolase activity was found in uterine washings and endometrial tissue; it was dependent upon incubation time and protein concentration and was destroyed by boiling. The activity was not affected by cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) and was not inhibited by bromophenacyl bromide, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor. The specific and total activity changed dramatically throughout the reproductive cycle. Total tissue activity did not change significantly during the follicular phase. On the day after ovulation, tissue activity was lower in naturally mated mice and was maintained at this level until Day 4; there was no difference in this value between pregnant and pseudopregnant animals. On days 5 and 6 of pseudopregnancy the total tissue activity increased, reaching a peak on Day 6 of 4609 pmol acetate released.min-1, approximately 780% higher than the value obtained on Day 4. Activity then decreased so that by Day 8 it was not different from preovulatory levels. For uterine luminal fluids, total activity significantly decreased during the follicular phase. This continued throughout the preimplatation phase with minimum activity being reached on Days 3 and 4 (7.68 pmol acetate.min-1 on Day 4 pseudopregnancy).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Transitional bonding for segmented treatment: a two-phase restorative approach.

    PubMed

    Grabiel, Jeffrey C

    2015-04-01

    When extensive dental therapy is needed, as in cases of severe attrition, interim restorations are useful in determining whether or not the proposed treatment will be successful. Transitional resin bonding is one type of interim method. In this case report, a 60-year-old patient presented with severely worn maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth; he desired treatment to be done in a timely fashion so as to be ready to attend an important wedding. Due to the urgency in timing and the complexity of the case, the treatment plan was a two-phase approach that included an initial esthetic and occlusal design to create a diagnostic wax-up followed by placement of transitional composite resin bonding, and then placement of indirect porcelain restorations. This transitional bonding approach allowed comprehensive treatment to be completed at a pace suitable to the patient's needs.

  12. Phase Transformation Behavior at Low Temperature in Hydrothermal Treatment of Stable and Unstable Titania Sol

    PubMed

    So; Park; Kim; Moon

    1997-07-15

    Nanosize titania sol was prepared from titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and conditions for the formation of stable sol were identified. As the H+/TTIP mole ratio decreased and H2O/TTIP mole ratio increased, stable sol was likely to be formed. The size and crystallinity remained unchanged after hydrothermal treatment of the stable sol at between 160 and 240°C. However, hydrothermal treatment of unstable sol produced rod-like particles and crystallinity of particles was changed from anatase to rutile. This difference in phase transformation at low hydrothermal treatment temperature was likely to be caused by the fact that stable sol remained to be stable even after hydrothermal treatment, while unstable sol had a tendency to be aggregated. PMID:9268523

  13. Identification of additional MAP kinases activated upon PAMP treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nitta, Yukino; Ding, Pingtao; Zhang, Yuelin

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades play important roles in plant immunity. Upon pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) treatment, MPK3, MPK6 and MPK4 are quickly activated by upstream MKKs through phosphorylation. Western blot analysis using α-phospho-p44/42-ERK antibody suggests that additional MPKs with similar size as MPK4 are also activated upon PAMP perception. To identify these MAP kinases, 7 candidate MPKs with similar sizes as MPK4 were selected for further analysis. Transgenic plants expressing these MPKs with a ZZ-3xFLAG double tag of 17 kD were generated and analyzed by western blot. MPK1, MPK11 and MPK13 were found to be phosphorylated upon treatment with flg22. Our study revealed additional MAPKs being activated during PAMP-triggered immunity. PMID:25482788

  14. Identification of new compounds with high activity against stationary phase Borrelia burgdorferi from the NCI compound collection.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is the leading tick-borne disease in the USA. Whereas the majority of Lyme disease patients with early disease can be cured with standard treatment, some patients suffer from chronic fatigue and joint and muscular pain despite treatment, a syndrome called posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. Although the cause is unclear, ineffective killing of Borrelia burgdorferi persisters by current Lyme disease antibiotics is one possible explanation. We took advantage of our recently developed high-throughput viability assay and screened the National Cancer Institute compound library collection consisting of 2526 compounds against stationary phase B. burgdorferi. We identified the top 30 new active hits, including the top six anthracycline antibiotics daunomycin 3-oxime, dimethyldaunomycin, daunomycin, NSC299187, NSC363998 and nogalamycin, along with other compounds, including prodigiosin, mitomycin, nanaomycin and dactinomycin, as having excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture. The anthracycline or anthraquinone compounds, which are known to have both anti-cancer and antibacterial activities, also had high activity against growing B. burgdorferi with low minimum inhibitory concentration. Future studies on the structure-activity relationship and mechanisms of action of anthracyclines/anthraquinones are warranted. In addition, drug combination studies with the anthracycline class of compounds and the current Lyme antibiotics to eradicate B. burgdorferi persisters in vitro and in animal models are needed to determine if they improve the treatment of Lyme disease. PMID:26954881

  15. Integrated fungal biomass and activated sludge treatment for textile wastewaters bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Anastasi, Antonella; Spina, Federica; Romagnolo, Alice; Tigini, Valeria; Prigione, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2012-11-01

    A combined biological process was investigated for effective textile wastewater treatment. The process consisted of a first step performed by selected fungal biomasses, mainly devoted to the effluent decolourisation, and of a subsequent stage by means of activated sludge, in order to reduce the remaining COD and toxicity. In particular, the treatment with Trametes pubescens MUT 2400, selected over nine strains, achieved very good results in respect to all parameters. The final scale-up phase in a moving bed bioreactor with the supported biomass of the fungus allowed to verify the effectiveness of the treatment with high volumes. Despite promising results, further steps must be taken in order to optimize the use of these biomasses for a full exploitation of their oxidative potential in textile wastewater treatment.

  16. Two-phase treatment of patients with crossbite and tendency toward skeletal Class III malocclusion*

    PubMed Central

    Bayerl, Maria de Lourdes Machado

    2014-01-01

    Angle Class III malocclusion is characterized by an inadequate anteroposterior dental relationship which may or may not be accompanied by skeletal changes. In general, patients are distressed by a significantly compromised facial aspect which, when associated with a deficient middle third, encourages patients to seek treatment. This article reports a two-phase treatment carried out in a female patient aged six years and six months with a tendency towards a Class III skeletal pattern. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO). It is representative of the Discrepancy Index (DI) category, and fulfills part of the requirements for obtaining BBO Diploma. PMID:25279531

  17. Activity induced phase separation in particles and (bio)polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosberg, Alexander

    It was recently shown that the non-equilibrium steady state of the mixture of two types of particles exposed to two different thermostats can phase separate (A.Y.Grosberg, J.-F.Joanny, PRE, v. 91, 032118, 2015). similar result is valid also in the case when particles in question are monomers of two different polymer chains, or blocks of a co-polymer. We discuss the implications of these results for the physics of chromatin.

  18. Functional design criteria for Project W-252, Phase II Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, C.E.

    1994-11-10

    This document provides the functional design criteria required for the Phase 2 Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Project, Project W-252. Project W-252 shall provide new facilities and existing facility modifications required to implement Best Available Technology/All Known, Available, and Reasonable Methods of Prevention, Control, and Treatment (BAT/AKART) for the 200 East Phase II Liquid Effluent Streams. The project will also provide a 200 East Area Phase II Effluent Collection System (PTECS) for connection to a disposal system for relevant effluent streams to which BAT/AKART has been applied. Liquid wastestreams generated in the 200 East Area are currently discharged to the soil column. Included in these wastestreams are cooling water, steam condensate, raw water, and sanitary wastewaters. It is the policy of the DOE that the use of soil columns to treat and retain radionuclides and nonradioactive contaminants be discontinued at the earliest practical time in favor of wastewater treatment and waste minimization. In 1989, the DOE entered into an interagency agreement with Ecology and EPA. This agreement is referred to as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Project W-252 is one of the projects required to achieve the milestones set forth in the Tri-Party Agreement. One of the milestones requires BAT/AKART implementation for Phase II streams by October 1997. This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) document provides the technical baseline required to initiate Project W-252 to meet the Tri-Party Agreement milestone for the application of BAT/AKART to the Phase II effluents.

  19. Effect of phase difference in multi-antenna microwave thermal ablation for breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Phasukkit, Pattarapong; Sanpanich, Arthorn; Tungjitkusolmun, Supan; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    It was realized that cancer in breast is one of the most health hazards threatening women around the world for many years. Thermal ablation by using microwave energy is another alternative surgical maneuver due to its minimally invasive therapeutic technique. In this research, we investigate an effect of phase difference between three adjacent opened-slot coaxial probes in a multiple antenna alignment of microwave thermal ablation system for breast cancer treatment. FEM by using COMSOL is an implementation tools to simulate for 0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 degree of phase difference. 3D Simulation results show that temperature distribution pattern, destructive volume and SAR in breast tissue are affected from those phase-shift utilization in multi-antenna system significantly. PMID:24110538

  20. Halide based shock-wave treatment of fluid-rich natural phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlothauer, T.; Schimpf, C.; Brendler, E.; Keller, K.; Kroke, E.; Heide, G.

    2015-11-01

    For the synthesis of high pressure phases from natural minerals and the shock wave treatment of fluid bearing phases a halide based method was developed. The experiments were performed in the pressure range between 25 and 162 GPa with a success rate for the new method of 100% for the new method. Based on the Impedance Corrected Sample Recovery Capsule under avoiding the adiabatic decompression a direct comparison between different loading paths and sample holder geometries is possible. The recovered samples show neither indications of melting in the case of kaolinite and very limited degassing in the case of carbonates. The recovery of amorphous water bearing Al-Si-phases with Aluminum in four-, five- and six-fold coordination was possible. The samples were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, nuclear-magnetic-resonance- and infra-red-spectroscopy and the results were directly compared.

  1. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  2. Approach to In- Situ Producing Reinforcing Phase Within an Active-Transient Liquid Phase Bond Seam for Aluminum Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guifeng; Liao, Xianjin; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Linjie; Zhang, Jianxun

    2015-06-01

    To optimize the braze composition design route for aluminum matrix composite, the feasibility of in situ producing reinforcing phase within the transient liquid phase bond seam matrix, by adding active melting point increaser (MPI, e.g., Ti) together with general melting point depressant (MPD, e.g., Cu) into the interlayer, was demonstrated. For SiC p /A356 composite, by comparing the wettability, joint microstructure, joint shear strength, and fracture path for the developed Al-19Cu-1Ti, Al-19Cu, Al-33Cu-1Ti, Al-33Cu (wt pct), and commercial Cu foils as interlayer, the feasibility of in situ producing reinforcing phase within the bond seam by adding Ti was demonstrated. Especially for Al-19Cu-1Ti active braze, small and dispersed ternary aluminide of Al-Si-Ti phase was obtained within the bond seam as in situ reinforcement, leading to a favorable fracture path within SiC p /A356, not along the initial interface or within the bond seam. For the formation mechanism of the in situ reinforcing phase of MPI-containing intermetallic compound within the bond seam, a model of repeating concentration-precipitation-termination-engulfment during isothermal solidification is proposed.

  3. Oscillatory activity, phase differences, and phase resetting in the inferior olivary nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lefler, Yaara; Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; Yarom, Yosef

    2013-01-01

    The generation of temporal patterns is one of the most fascinating functions of the brain. Unlike the response to external stimuli temporal patterns are generated within the system and recalled for a specific use. To generate temporal patterns one needs a timing machine, a "master clock" that determines the temporal framework within which temporal patterns can be generated and implemented. Here we present the concept that in this putative "master clock" phase and frequency interact to generate temporal patterns. We define the requirements for a neuronal "master clock" to be both reliable and versatile. We introduce this concept within the inferior olive nucleus which at least by some scientists is regarded as the source of timing for cerebellar function. We review the basic properties of the subthreshold oscillation recorded from olivary neurons, analyze the phase relationships between neurons and demonstrate that the phase and onset of oscillation is tightly controlled by synaptic input. These properties endowed the olivary nucleus with the ability to act as a "master clock."

  4. Nasreya: a treatment and disposal facility for industrial hazardous waste in Alexandria, Egypt: phase I.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Adham R; Kock, Per; Nadim, Amani

    2005-04-01

    A facility for the treatment and disposal of industrial hazardous waste has been established in Alexandria, Egypt. Phase I of the facility encompassing a secure landfill and solar evaporation ponds is ready to receive waste, and Phase II encompassing physico-chemical treatment, solidification, and interim storage is underway. The facility, the Nasreya Centre, is the first of its kind in Egypt, and represents the nucleus for the integration, improvement and further expansion of different hazardous waste management practices and services in Alexandria. It has been developed within the overall legal framework of the Egyptian Law for the Environment, and is expected to improve prospects for enforcement of the regulatory requirements specified in this law. It has been developed with the overall aim of promoting the establishment of an integrated industrial hazardous waste management system in Alexandria, serving as a demonstration to be replicated elsewhere in Egypt. For Phase I, the Centre only accepts inorganic industrial wastes. In this respect, a waste acceptance policy has been developed, which is expected to be reviewed during Phase II, with an expansion of the waste types accepted.

  5. Sequential combined treatment with allopurinol and benznidazole in the chronic phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Mazliah, D. E.; Alvarez, M. G.; Cooley, G.; Lococo, B. E.; Bertocchi, G.; Petti, M.; Albareda, M. C.; Armenti, A. H.; Tarleton, R. L.; Laucella, S. A.; Viotti, R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Even though the use of combined drugs has been proved to be effective in other chronic infections, assessment of combined treatment of antiparasitic drugs in human Chagas' disease has not been performed. Herein, a pilot study was conducted to evaluate the tolerance and side effects of a sequential combined treatment of two antiparasitic drugs, allopurinol and benznidazole, in the chronic phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Patients and methods Changes in total and T. cruzi-specific T and B cells were monitored during a median follow-up of 36 months. Allopurinol was administered for 3 months (600 mg/day) followed by 30 days of benznidazole (5 mg/kg/day) in 11 T. cruzi-infected subjects. Results The combined sequential treatment of allopurinol and benznidazole was well tolerated. The levels of T. cruzi-specific antibodies significantly decreased after sequential combined treatment, as determined by conventional serology and by a multiplex assay using recombinant proteins. The frequency of T. cruzi-specific interferon-γ-producing T cells significantly increased after allopurinol treatment and decreased to background levels following benznidazole administration in a substantial proportion of subjects evaluated. The levels of total naive (CD45RA + CCR7 + CD62L+) CD4 + and CD8 + T cells were restored after allopurinol administration and maintained after completion of the combined drug protocol, along with a decrease in T cell activation in total peripheral CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Conclusions This pilot study shows that the combination of allopurinol and benznidazole induces significant modifications in T and B cell responses indicative of a reduction in parasite burden, and sustains the feasibility of administration of two antiparasitic drugs in the chronic phase of Chagas' disease. PMID:23104493

  6. Nutrition and physical activity during and after cancer treatment: an American Cancer Society guide for informed choices.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Colleen; Kushi, Lawrence H; Byers, Tim; Courneya, Kerry S; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Grant, Barbara; McTiernan, Anne; Rock, Cheryl L; Thompson, Cyndi; Gansler, Ted; Andrews, Kimberly S

    2006-01-01

    Cancer survivors are often highly motivated to seek information about food choices, physical activity, and dietary supplement use to improve their treatment outcomes, quality of life, and survival. To address these concerns, the American Cancer Society (ACS) convened a group of experts in nutrition, physical activity, and cancer to evaluate the scientific evidence and best clinical practices related to optimal nutrition and physical activity after the diagnosis of cancer. This report summarizes their findings and is intended to present health care providers with the best possible information from which to help cancer survivors and their families make informed choices related to nutrition and physical activity. The report discusses nutrition and physical activity issues during the phases of cancer treatment and recovery, living after recovery from treatment, and living with advanced cancer; select nutrition and physical activity issues such as body weight, food choices, and food safety; issues related to select cancer sites; and common questions about diet, physical activity, and cancer survivorship.

  7. Acute phase response induced following tumor treatment by photodynamic therapy: relevance for the therapy outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Merchant, Soroush; Stott, Brandon; Cecic, Ivana; Payne, Peter; Sun, Jinghai

    2006-02-01

    Acute phase response is an effector process orchestrated by the innate immune system for the optimal mobilization of the resources of the organism distant from the local insult site needed in the execution of a host-protecting reaction. Our research has shown that mice bearing tumors treated by photodynamic therapy (PDT) exhibit the three major hallmarks of acute phase response: release of acute phase reactants, neutrophilia, and pituitary/adrenal axis activation. Of particular interest in this study were acute phase proteins that have a pivotal role in the clearance of dead cells, since the occurrence of this process in PDT-treated tumors emerges as a critical event in the course of PDT-associated host response. It is shown that this type of acute phase reactants, including complement proteins (C3, C5, C9, mannose-binding lectin, and ficolin A) and related pentraxins (serum amyloid P component and PTX3), are upregulated following tumor PDT and accumulate in the targeted lesions. Based on the recently accumulated experimental evidence it is definitely established that the acute phase response is manifested in the hosts bearing PDT-treated tumors and it is becoming clear that this effector process is an important element of PDT-associated host response bearing in impact on the eventual outcome of this therapy.

  8. [Current treatment and management of the acute phase of Peyronies's disease].

    PubMed

    Vanni, Alex J; Bennett, Nelson E

    2009-10-01

    The true pathophysiologic nature of Peyronie's disease continues to evolve. This pathology often results in a penile plaque(s), penile deformity, curvature, pain, and erectile dysfunction. Clinically, there are two distinct phases, acute and chronic. The focus of this review will center on the management of the acute phase of Peyronie's disease. While little data exists demonstrating disease resolution, disease stabilization is an important clinical goal for patients as this often allows acceptable sexual function. Thus, medical management during the acute phase of Peyronie's disease is aimed at limiting and stabilizing the degree of penile fibrosis, decreasing penile curvature, and reducing penile pain. In this manuscript we explain different therapies; oral, topical, intralesional injection and others like extracorporeal shockwave (ESWT), radiation and penile traction for acute phase of Peyronie's disease. Although no consensus exists for the treatment of acute phase Peyronie's disease, a majority of patients can achieve stabilization and in some cases regression of their disease with proper medical therapy. The goals of therapy should be discussed extensively with each patient, noting that erectile function will be likely despite some degree of curvature.

  9. Superfluid phase transition with activated velocity fluctuations: Renormalization group approach.

    PubMed

    Dančo, Michal; Hnatič, Michal; Komarova, Marina V; Lučivjanský, Tomáš; Nalimov, Mikhail Yu

    2016-01-01

    A quantum field model that incorporates Bose-condensed systems near their phase transition into a superfluid phase and velocity fluctuations is proposed. The stochastic Navier-Stokes equation is used for a generation of the velocity fluctuations. As such this model generalizes model F of critical dynamics. The field-theoretic action is derived using the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism and path integral approach. The regime of equilibrium fluctuations is analyzed within the perturbative renormalization group method. The double (ε,δ)-expansion scheme is employed, where ε is a deviation from space dimension 4 and δ describes scaling of velocity fluctuations. The renormalization procedure is performed to the leading order. The main corollary gained from the analysis of the thermal equilibrium regime suggests that one-loop calculations of the presented models are not sufficient to make a definite conclusion about the stability of fixed points. We also show that critical exponents are drastically changed as a result of the turbulent background and critical fluctuations are in fact destroyed by the developed turbulence fluctuations. The scaling exponent of effective viscosity is calculated and agrees with expected value 4/3.

  10. Superfluid phase transition with activated velocity fluctuations: Renormalization group approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dančo, Michal; Hnatič, Michal; Komarova, Marina V.; Lučivjanský, Tomáš; Nalimov, Mikhail Yu.

    2016-01-01

    A quantum field model that incorporates Bose-condensed systems near their phase transition into a superfluid phase and velocity fluctuations is proposed. The stochastic Navier-Stokes equation is used for a generation of the velocity fluctuations. As such this model generalizes model F of critical dynamics. The field-theoretic action is derived using the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism and path integral approach. The regime of equilibrium fluctuations is analyzed within the perturbative renormalization group method. The double (ɛ ,δ ) -expansion scheme is employed, where ɛ is a deviation from space dimension 4 and δ describes scaling of velocity fluctuations. The renormalization procedure is performed to the leading order. The main corollary gained from the analysis of the thermal equilibrium regime suggests that one-loop calculations of the presented models are not sufficient to make a definite conclusion about the stability of fixed points. We also show that critical exponents are drastically changed as a result of the turbulent background and critical fluctuations are in fact destroyed by the developed turbulence fluctuations. The scaling exponent of effective viscosity is calculated and agrees with expected value 4 /3 .

  11. Superfluid phase transition with activated velocity fluctuations: Renormalization group approach.

    PubMed

    Dančo, Michal; Hnatič, Michal; Komarova, Marina V; Lučivjanský, Tomáš; Nalimov, Mikhail Yu

    2016-01-01

    A quantum field model that incorporates Bose-condensed systems near their phase transition into a superfluid phase and velocity fluctuations is proposed. The stochastic Navier-Stokes equation is used for a generation of the velocity fluctuations. As such this model generalizes model F of critical dynamics. The field-theoretic action is derived using the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism and path integral approach. The regime of equilibrium fluctuations is analyzed within the perturbative renormalization group method. The double (ε,δ)-expansion scheme is employed, where ε is a deviation from space dimension 4 and δ describes scaling of velocity fluctuations. The renormalization procedure is performed to the leading order. The main corollary gained from the analysis of the thermal equilibrium regime suggests that one-loop calculations of the presented models are not sufficient to make a definite conclusion about the stability of fixed points. We also show that critical exponents are drastically changed as a result of the turbulent background and critical fluctuations are in fact destroyed by the developed turbulence fluctuations. The scaling exponent of effective viscosity is calculated and agrees with expected value 4/3. PMID:26871026

  12. Biologically Inspired Photocatalytically Active Membranes for Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsinger, Nichola M.

    There is an alarming increase of a variety of new chemicals that are now being discharged into the wastewater system causing increased concern for public health and safety because many are not removed by typical wastewater treatment practices. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is a heterogeneous photocatalytic material that rapidly and completely mineralizing organics without harmful byproducts. TiO2 is synthesized by various methods, which lack the necessary control of crystal size, phase, and morphological features that yield optimized semiconductor materials. Mineralizing organisms demonstrate how nature can produce elegant structures at room temperature through controlled organic-mineral interactions. Here, we utilize biologically-inspired scaffolds to template the nucleation and growth of inorganic materials such as TiO2, which aid in controlling the size and phase of these particles and ultimately, their properties. Nanosized rutile and anatase particles were synthesized under solution conditions at relatively low temperatures and mild pH conditions. The effects of reaction conditions on phase and grain size were investigated and discussed from coordination chemistry and coarsening mechanisms. Photocatalytic characterization of TiO2 phase mixtures was performed to investigate their synergistic effect. The suspension conditions of these catalytic nanomaterials were modulated to optimize the degradation rate of organic analytes. Through the addition of an organic scaffold during the synthesis reaction, a mechanically robust (elastic) composite material containing TiO2 nanoparticles was produced. This composite was subsequently heat-treated to produce a porous, high surface area TiO2 nanoparticulate membrane. Processing conditions were investigated to characterize the growth and phase transformation of TiO2, which ultimately impacts photocatalytic performance. These bulk porous TiO2 structures can be fabricated and tailored to act as stand-alone photocatalytic membranes

  13. Ten year revision of the brief behavioral activation treatment for depression: revised treatment manual.

    PubMed

    Lejuez, C W; Hopko, Derek R; Acierno, Ron; Daughters, Stacey B; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2011-03-01

    Following from the seminal work of Ferster, Lewinsohn, and Jacobson, as well as theory and research on the Matching Law, Lejuez, Hopko, LePage, Hopko, and McNeil developed a reinforcement-based depression treatment that was brief, uncomplicated, and tied closely to behavioral theory. They called this treatment the brief behavioral activation treatment for depression (BATD), and the original manual was published in this journal. The current manuscript is a revised manual (BATD-R), reflecting key modifications that simplify and clarify key treatment elements, procedures, and treatment forms. Specific modifications include (a) greater emphasis on treatment rationale, including therapeutic alliance; (b) greater clarity regarding life areas, values, and activities; (c) simplified (and fewer) treatment forms; (d) enhanced procedural details, including troubleshooting and concept reviews; and (e) availability of a modified Daily Monitoring Form to accommodate low literacy patients. Following the presentation of the manual, the authors conclude with a discussion of the key barriers in greater depth, including strategies for addressing these barriers.

  14. [Exercises in patients with myositis--active treatment intervention?].

    PubMed

    Babić-Naglić, Durdica

    2012-01-01

    Polymyositis, dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis are rare inflammatory myopathies characterized by muscle weakness. Regardless of pharmacological treatment in most patients remain muscle weakness and inability to perform daily activities. Until recently, the prevailing opinion was that active exercises can exacerbate the inflammatory activity in the muscles and is now known that active exercise and exercise with resistance improve strength and endurance of muscles, aerobic capacity and overall functional ability. Exercises are prescribed according to the disease activity, manual muscle test or dynamometer measurements, range of motion, cardiorespiratory capacity and clinical status of the locomotor system. Each of the components can be influenced by targeted exercises and should be a integral part of myositis therapy.

  15. Acupuncture as a primary and independent treatment in the acute phases of sudden sensorineural hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuanyuan; Lu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is an otological emergency defined as a rapid hearing loss, seriously affects patient's social life. To data, no study has reported the treatment by acupuncture alone in the acute phase. In this report, Acupuncture and Moxibustion therapy of excitation-focus transfer is outlined. The patient was a 26-year-old young woman who had an SSHL coupled with ear fullness. The patient had no past medical history, but she had undergone variable emotions and had a history of excessive noise exposure. The patient refused to receive any medicine especially steroids and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. She just only received acupuncture treatment. Her symptoms and outcome measurements were improved every week and completely recovered after the last week. Even though the article presents a single case and is based on self-reports, there are very clear trends on how patients with SSHL responded to acupuncture treatments. PMID:27368045

  16. Effects of different heat treatments on lysozyme quantity and antimicrobial activity of jenny milk.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, C; Labella, C; Elshafie, H S; Camele, I; Musto, M; Paolino, R; D'Adamo, C; Freschi, P

    2016-07-01

    Thermal treatments are used to improve milk microbial safety, shelf life, and biological activity of some of its components. However, thermal treatments can reduce the nutritional quality of milk, affecting the molecular structure of milk proteins, such as lysozyme, which is a very important milk component due to its antimicrobial effect against gram-positive bacteria. Jenny milk is characterized by high lysozyme content. For this reason, in the last few years, it has been used as an antimicrobial additive in dairy products as an alternative to hen egg white lysozyme, which can cause allergic reactions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pasteurization and condensation on the concentration and antimicrobial activity of lysozyme in jenny milk. Furthermore, lysozyme quantity and activity were tested in raw and pasteurized milk after condensation at 40 and 20% of the initial volume. Reversed-phase HPLC was performed under fluorescence detection to monitor lysozyme in milk samples. We evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the tested milk against Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus mojavensis, Clavibacter michiganensis, Clostridium tyrobutyricum, Xanthomonas campestris, and Escherichia coli. Condensation and pasteurization did not affect the concentration or antimicrobial activity of lysozyme in jenny milk, except for B. mojaventis, which showed resistance to lysozyme in milk samples subjected to heat treatments. Moreover, lysozyme in jenny milk showed antimicrobial activity similar to synthetic antibiotics versus some gram-positive strains and also versus the gram-negative strain X. campestris. PMID:27157571

  17. Liquid-phase adsorption of organic compounds by granular activated carbon and activated carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.H.; Hsu, F.M.

    1995-06-01

    Liquid-phase adsorption of organic compounds by granular activated carbon (GAC) and activated carbon fibers (ACFs) is investigated. Acetone, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), phenol, and tetrahydrofuran (THF) were employed as the model compounds for the present study. It is observed from the experimental results that adsorption of organic compounds by GAC and ACF is influenced by the BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) surface area of adsorbent and the molecular weight, polarity, and solubility of the adsorbate. The adsorption characteristics of GAC and ACFs were found to differ rather significantly. In terms of the adsorption capacity of organic compounds, the time to reach equilibrium adsorption, and the time for complete desorption, ACFs have been observed to be considerably better than GAC. For the organic compounds tested here, the GAC adsorptions were shown to be represented well by the Langmuir isotherm while the ACF adsorption could be adequately described by the Langmuir or the Freundlich isotherm. Column adsorption tests indicated that the exhausted ACFs can be effectively regenerated by static in situ thermal desorption at 150 C, but the same regeneration conditions do not do as well for the exhausted GAC.

  18. Chelation efficacy and erythroid response during deferasirox treatment in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms in fibrotic phase.

    PubMed

    Latagliata, Roberto; Montagna, Chiara; Porrini, Raffaele; Di Veroli, Ambra; Leonetti, Sabrina Crescenzi; Niscola, Pasquale; Ciccone, Fabrizio; Spadea, Antonio; Breccia, Massimo; Maurillo, Luca; Rago, Angela; Spirito, Francesca; Cedrone, Michele; De Muro, Marianna; Montanaro, Marco; Andriani, Alessandro; Bagnato, Antonino; Montefusco, Enrico; Alimena, Giuliana

    2016-06-01

    At present, very few data are available on deferasirox (DFX) in the treatment of patients with Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms in fibrotic phase (FP-MPN) and transfusion dependence. To address this issue, a retrospective analysis of 28 patients (22 male and 6 female) with FP-MPN and iron overload secondary to transfusion dependence was performed, based on patients enrolled in the database of our regional cooperative group who received treatment with DFX. DFX was started after a median interval from diagnosis of 12.8 months (IR 7.1-43.1) with median ferritin values of 1415 ng/mL (IR 1168-1768). Extra-hematological toxicity was reported in 16 of 28 patients (57.1%), but only two patients discontinued treatment due to toxicity. Among 26 patients evaluable for response (≥6 months of treatment), after a median treatment period of 15.4 months (IR 8.1-22.3), 11 patients (42.3%) achieved a stable and consistent reduction in ferritin levels <1000 ng/mL. As for hematological improvement, 6 of 26 patients (23%) showed a persistent (>3 months) rise of Hb levels >1.5 g/dL, with disappearance of transfusion dependence in four cases. Treatment with DFX is feasible and effective in FP-MPN with iron overload. Moreover, in this setting, an erythroid response can occur in a significant proportion of patients.

  19. Coarsening Kinetics and Morphological Evolution in a Two-Phase Titanium Alloy During Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianwei; Zeng, Weidong; Jia, Zhiqiang; Sun, Xin; Zhao, Yawei

    2016-03-01

    The effects of alpha/beta heat treatment on microstructure evolution of Ti-17 alloy with a lamellar colony structure are established. Heat treatment experiments are conducted at 1103 or 1063 K for times ranging from 10 min to 8 h. The main features of microstructure evolution during heat treatment comprise static globularization and coarsening of primary alpha phase. Such behaviors can be accelerated by higher heat treatment temperature. Furthermore, globularization and coarsening behaviors show a faster rate at higher prestrain. In order to better understand the microstructure evolution of Ti-17 alloy during alpha/beta heat treatment, static globularization and coarsening behaviors are modeled in the theoretical frame of the Johnson-Mehl-Avarmi-Kolmogorov (JMAK) and Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) theories, respectively. The JMAK and LSW kinetics parameters are derived under different experimental conditions. Agreements between measurements and predictions are found, indicating that the JMAK and LSW theories can be used to predict and trace static globularization and coarsening processes of Ti-17 alloy during alpha/beta heat treatment.

  20. Chelation efficacy and erythroid response during deferasirox treatment in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms in fibrotic phase.

    PubMed

    Latagliata, Roberto; Montagna, Chiara; Porrini, Raffaele; Di Veroli, Ambra; Leonetti, Sabrina Crescenzi; Niscola, Pasquale; Ciccone, Fabrizio; Spadea, Antonio; Breccia, Massimo; Maurillo, Luca; Rago, Angela; Spirito, Francesca; Cedrone, Michele; De Muro, Marianna; Montanaro, Marco; Andriani, Alessandro; Bagnato, Antonino; Montefusco, Enrico; Alimena, Giuliana

    2016-06-01

    At present, very few data are available on deferasirox (DFX) in the treatment of patients with Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms in fibrotic phase (FP-MPN) and transfusion dependence. To address this issue, a retrospective analysis of 28 patients (22 male and 6 female) with FP-MPN and iron overload secondary to transfusion dependence was performed, based on patients enrolled in the database of our regional cooperative group who received treatment with DFX. DFX was started after a median interval from diagnosis of 12.8 months (IR 7.1-43.1) with median ferritin values of 1415 ng/mL (IR 1168-1768). Extra-hematological toxicity was reported in 16 of 28 patients (57.1%), but only two patients discontinued treatment due to toxicity. Among 26 patients evaluable for response (≥6 months of treatment), after a median treatment period of 15.4 months (IR 8.1-22.3), 11 patients (42.3%) achieved a stable and consistent reduction in ferritin levels <1000 ng/mL. As for hematological improvement, 6 of 26 patients (23%) showed a persistent (>3 months) rise of Hb levels >1.5 g/dL, with disappearance of transfusion dependence in four cases. Treatment with DFX is feasible and effective in FP-MPN with iron overload. Moreover, in this setting, an erythroid response can occur in a significant proportion of patients. PMID:26277477

  1. Activity mediated phase separation: Can we understand phase behavior of the nonequilibrium problem from an equilibrium approach?

    PubMed

    Trefz, Benjamin; Das, Subir K; Egorov, Sergei A; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt

    2016-04-14

    We present results for structure and dynamics of mixtures of active and passive particles, from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and integral equation theory (IET) calculations, for a physically motivated model. The perfectly passive limit of the model corresponds to the phase-separating Asakura-Oosawa model for colloid-polymer mixtures in which, for the present study, the colloids are made self-propelling by introducing activity in accordance with the well known Vicsek model. Such activity facilitates phase separation further, as confirmed by our MD simulations and IET calculations. Depending upon the composition of active and passive particles, the diffusive motion of the active species can only be realized at large time scales. Despite this, we have been able to construct an equilibrium approach to obtain the structural properties of such inherently out-of-equilibrium systems. In this method, effective inter-particle potentials were constructed via IET by taking structural inputs from the MD simulations of the active system. These potentials in turn were used in passive MD simulations, results from which are observed to be in fair agreement with the original ones. PMID:27083747

  2. Activity mediated phase separation: Can we understand phase behavior of the nonequilibrium problem from an equilibrium approach?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefz, Benjamin; Das, Subir K.; Egorov, Sergei A.; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt

    2016-04-01

    We present results for structure and dynamics of mixtures of active and passive particles, from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and integral equation theory (IET) calculations, for a physically motivated model. The perfectly passive limit of the model corresponds to the phase-separating Asakura-Oosawa model for colloid-polymer mixtures in which, for the present study, the colloids are made self-propelling by introducing activity in accordance with the well known Vicsek model. Such activity facilitates phase separation further, as confirmed by our MD simulations and IET calculations. Depending upon the composition of active and passive particles, the diffusive motion of the active species can only be realized at large time scales. Despite this, we have been able to construct an equilibrium approach to obtain the structural properties of such inherently out-of-equilibrium systems. In this method, effective inter-particle potentials were constructed via IET by taking structural inputs from the MD simulations of the active system. These potentials in turn were used in passive MD simulations, results from which are observed to be in fair agreement with the original ones.

  3. Treatment of contaminated groundwaters with granular activated carbon and air stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, M.H.; Gupta, U.S.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past several years there have been increasing reports of cases of contaminated groundwater. Many cases were caused by leaking from surface impoundments or landfills, or leakage from underground storage tanks. Treatment of groundwater use, discharge or recharge into the aquifer is becoming a major concern. Two widely used treatment techniques are adsorption with granular activated carbon and packed tower air stripping. Granular activated carbon is often applied when organic contaminants need to be removed to nondetectable levels, and should be a part of the process if nonvolatile contaminants are present. Air stripping is capable of 95-99% reduction of volatile contaminants and can be a cost effective treatment technology if nondetectable contaminant levels are not required and air pollution is not a factor. Should off-gas from an air stripper require treatment for removal of organic contaminants, granular activated carbon adsorption can be effectively applied as it was in the water phase. Selection of a groundwater treatment technology depends on factors such as contaminant type, end use of the water and air pollution concern, and each case requires consideration of these factors to arrive at the most cost effective solution.

  4. Phase Behavior of Active Swimmers in Depletants: Molecular Dynamics and Integral Equation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subir K.; Egorov, Sergei A.; Trefz, Benjamin; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt

    2014-05-01

    We study the structure and phase behavior of a binary mixture where one of the components is self-propelling in nature. The interparticle interactions in the system are taken from the Asakura-Oosawa model for colloid-polymer mixtures for which the phase diagram is known. In the current model version, the colloid particles are made active using the Vicsek model for self-propelling particles. The resultant active system is studied by molecular dynamics methods and integral equation theory. Both methods produce results consistent with each other and demonstrate that the Vicsek model-based activity facilitates phase separation, thus, broadening the coexistence region.

  5. Phase behavior of active swimmers in depletants: molecular dynamics and integral equation theory.

    PubMed

    Das, Subir K; Egorov, Sergei A; Trefz, Benjamin; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt

    2014-05-16

    We study the structure and phase behavior of a binary mixture where one of the components is self-propelling in nature. The interparticle interactions in the system are taken from the Asakura-Oosawa model for colloid-polymer mixtures for which the phase diagram is known. In the current model version, the colloid particles are made active using the Vicsek model for self-propelling particles. The resultant active system is studied by molecular dynamics methods and integral equation theory. Both methods produce results consistent with each other and demonstrate that the Vicsek model-based activity facilitates phase separation, thus, broadening the coexistence region. PMID:24877969

  6. Brazing of the Tore Supra actively cooled Phase III Limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, R.E.; Walker, C.A.; Lutz, T.J.; Hosking, F.M.; McGrath, R.T.

    1993-12-31

    The head of the water-cooled Tore Supra Phase 3 Limiter is a bank of 14 round OFHC copper tubes, curved to fit the plasma radius, onto which several hundred pyrolytic graphite (PG) tiles and a lesser number of carbon fiber composite tiles are brazed. The small allowable tolerances for fitting the tiles to the tubes and mating of compound curvatures made the brazing and fabrication extremely challenging. The paper describes the fabrication process with emphasis on the procedure for brazing. In the fixturing for vacuum furnace brazing, the tiles were each independently clamped to the tube with an elaborate set of window frame clamps. Braze quality was evaluated with transient heating tests. Some rebrazing was necessary.

  7. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

    2005-03-11

    This report summarizes work performed on this project from October 2004 through March 2005. In previous work, a surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) was shown to be an effective system for removing BTEX contaminants from produced water. Additional work on this project demonstrated that a compost-based biofilter could biodegrade the BTEX contaminants found in the SMZ regeneration waste gas stream. However, it was also determined that the BTEX concentrations in the waste gas stream varied significantly during the regeneration period and the initial BTEX concentrations were too high for the biofilter to handle effectively. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a passive adsorption column placed upstream of the biofilter to attenuate the peak gas-phase VOC concentrations delivered to the biofilter during the SMZ regeneration process. In preparation for the field test of the SMZ/VPB treatment system in New Mexico, a pilot-scale SMZ system was also designed and constructed during this reporting period. Finally, a cost and feasibility analysis was also completed. To investigate the merits of the passive buffering system during SMZ regeneration, two adsorbents, SMZ and granular activated carbon (GAC) were investigated in flow-through laboratory-scale columns to determine their capacity to handle steady and unsteady VOC feed conditions. When subjected to a toluene-contaminated air stream, the column containing SMZ reduced the peak inlet 1000 ppmv toluene concentration to 630 ppmv at a 10 second contact time. This level of buffering was insufficient to ensure complete removal in the downstream biofilter and the contact time was longer than desired. For this reason, using SMZ as a passive buffering system for the gas phase contaminants was not pursued further. In contrast to the SMZ results, GAC was found to be an effective adsorbent to handle the peak contaminant concentrations that occur early during the SMZ regeneration process. At a one

  8. Neutron distribution and induced activity inside a Linac treatment room.

    PubMed

    Juste, B; Miró, R; Verdú, G; Díez, S; Campayo, J M

    2015-01-01

    Induced radioactivity and photoneutron contamination inside a radiation therapy bunker of a medical linear accelerator (Linac) is investigated in this work. The Linac studied is an Elekta Precise electron accelerator which maximum treatment photon energy is 15 MeV. This energy exceeds the photonuclear reaction threshold (around 7 MeV for high atomic number metals). The Monte Carlo code MCNP6 has been used for quantifying the neutron contamination inside the treatment room for different gantry rotation configuration. Walls activation processes have also been simulated. The approach described in this paper is useful to prevent the overexposure of patients and medical staff. PMID:26737878

  9. Extracellular enzyme activity in a willow sewage treatment system.

    PubMed

    Brzezinska, Maria Swiontek; Lalke-Porczyk, Elżbieta; Kalwasińska, Agnieszka

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on the activity of extra-cellular enzymes in soil-willow vegetation filter soil which is used in the post-treatment of household sewage in an onsite wastewater treatment system located in central Poland. Wastewater is discharged from the detached house by gravity into the onsite wastewater treatment system. It flows through a connecting pipe into a single-chamber septic tank and is directed by the connecting pipe to a control well to be further channelled in the soil-willow filter by means of a subsurface leaching system. Soil samples for the studies were collected from two depths of 5 cm and 1 m from three plots: close to the wastewater inflow, at mid-length of the plot and close to its terminal part. Soil samples were collected from May to October 2009. The activity of the extra-cellular enzymes was assayed by the fluorometric method using 4-methylumbelliferyl and 7-amido-4-methylcoumarin substrate. The ranking of potential activity of the assayed enzymes was the same at 5 cm and 1 m soil depths, i.e. esterase > phosphmomoesterase > leucine-aminopeptidase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase. The highest values of enzymatic activity were recorded in the surface layer of the soil at the wastewater inflow and decreased with increasing distance from that point.

  10. Digital active material processing platform effort (DAMPER), SBIR phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, John; Smith, Dennis

    1992-01-01

    Applied Technology Associates, Inc., (ATA) has demonstrated that inertial actuation can be employed effectively in digital, active vibration isolation systems. Inertial actuation involves the use of momentum exchange to produce corrective forces which act directly on the payload being actively isolated. In a typical active vibration isolation system, accelerometers are used to measure the inertial motion of the payload. The signals from the accelerometers are then used to calculate the corrective forces required to counteract, or 'cancel out' the payload motion. Active vibration isolation is common technology, but the use of inertial actuation in such systems is novel, and is the focus of the DAMPER project. A May 1991 report was completed which documented the successful demonstration of inertial actuation, employed in the control of vibration in a single axis. In the 1 degree-of-freedom (1DOF) experiment a set of air bearing rails was used to suspend the payload, simulating a microgravity environment in a single horizontal axis. Digital Signal Processor (DSP) technology was used to calculate in real time, the control law between the accelerometer signals and the inertial actuators. The data obtained from this experiment verified that as much as 20 dB of rejection could be realized by this type of system. A discussion is included of recent tests performed in which vibrations were actively controlled in three axes simultaneously. In the three degree-of-freedom (3DOF) system, the air bearings were designed in such a way that the payload is free to rotate about the azimuth axis, as well as translate in the two horizontal directions. The actuator developed for the DAMPER project has applications beyond payload isolation, including structural damping and source vibration isolation. This report includes a brief discussion of these applications, as well as a commercialization plan for the actuator.

  11. Soil solid-phase controls lead activity in soil solution.

    PubMed

    Badawy, S H; Helal, M I D; Chaudri, A M; Lawlor, K; McGrath, S P

    2002-01-01

    Lead pollution of the environment is synonymous with civilization. It has no known biological function, and is naturally present in soil, but its presence in food crops is deemed undesirable. The concern regarding Pb is mostly due to chronic human and animal health effects, rather then phytotoxicity. However, not much is known about the chemistry and speciation of Pb in soils. We determined the activity of Pb2+, in near neutral and alkaline soils, representative of alluvial, desertic and calcareous soils of Egypt, using the competitive chelation method. Lead activity ranged from 10(-6.73) to 10(-4.83) M, and was negatively correlated with soil and soil solution pH (R2 = -0.92, P < 0.01 and R2 = -0.89, P < 0.01, respectively). It could be predicted in soil solution from the equation: log(Pb2+) = 9.9 - 2pH. A solubility diagram for the various Pb minerals found in soil was constructed using published thermodynamic data obtained from the literature, and our measured Pb2+ activities compared with this information. The measured Pb2+ activities were undersaturated with regard to the solubility of PbSiO3 in equilibrium with SiO2 (soil). However, they were supersaturated with regard to the solubilities of the Pb carbonate minerals PbCO3 (cerussite) and Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2 in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 and hydroxide Pb(OH)2. They were also supersaturated with regard to the solubilities of the Pb phosphate minerals Pb3(PO4)2, Pb5(PO4)3OH, and Pb4O(PO4)2 in equilibrium with tricalcium phosphate and CaCO3. The activity of Pb2+ was not regulated by any mineral of known solubility in our soils, but possibly by a mixture of Pb carbonate and phosphate minerals.

  12. Parallel solution-phase synthesis and general biological activity of a uridine antibiotic analog library.

    PubMed

    Moukha-chafiq, Omar; Reynolds, Robert C

    2014-05-12

    A small library of ninety four uridine antibiotic analogs was synthesized, under the Pilot Scale Library (PSL) Program of the NIH Roadmap initiative, from amine 2 and carboxylic acids 33 and 77 in solution-phase fashion. Diverse aldehyde, sulfonyl chloride, and carboxylic acid reactant sets were condensed to 2, leading after acid-mediated hydrolysis, to the targeted compounds 3-32 in good yields and high purity. Similarly, treatment of 33 with diverse amines and sulfonamides gave 34-75. The coupling of the amino terminus of d-phenylalanine methyl ester to the free 5'-carboxylic acid moiety of 33 followed by sodium hydroxide treatment led to carboxylic acid analog 77. Hydrolysis of this material gave analog 78. The intermediate 77 served as the precursor for the preparation of novel dipeptidyl uridine analogs 79-99 through peptide coupling reactions to diverse amine reactants. None of the described compounds show significant anticancer or antimalarial acivity. A number of samples exhibited a variety of promising inhibitory, agonist, antagonist, or activator properties with enzymes and receptors in primary screens supplied and reported through the NIH MLPCN program. PMID:24661222

  13. Active phase-nulling of the self-mixing phase in a terahertz frequency quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Dean, P; Keeley, J; Valavanis, A; Bertling, K; Lim, Y L; Taimre, T; Alhathlool, R; Li, L H; Indjin, D; Rakić, A D; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G

    2015-03-15

    We demonstrate an active phase-nulling scheme for terahertz (THz) frequency quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) under optical feedback, by active electronic feedback control of the emission frequency. Using this scheme, the frequency tuning rate of a THz QCL is characterized, with significantly reduced experimental complexity compared to alternative approaches. Furthermore, we demonstrate real-time displacement sensing of targets, overcoming the resolution limits imposed by quantization in previously implemented fringe-counting methods. Our approach is readily applicable to high-frequency vibrometry and surface profiling of targets, as well as frequency-stabilization schemes for THz QCLs.

  14. Rapid phase-correlated rescanning irradiation improves treatment time in carbon-ion scanning beam treatment under irregular breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shinichiro; Furukawa, Takuji

    2016-05-01

    To shorten treatment time in pencil beam scanning irradiation, we developed rapid phase-controlled rescanning (rPCR), which irradiates two or more isoenergy layers in a single gating window. Here, we evaluated carbon-ion beam dose distribution with rapid and conventional PCR (cPCR). 4 dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) imaging was performed on 12 subjects with lung or liver tumors. To compensate for intrafractional range variation, the field-specific target volume (FTV) was calculated using 4DCT within the gating window (T20–T80). We applied an amplitude-based gating strategy, in which the beam is on when the tumor is within the gating window defined by treatment planning. Dose distributions were calculated for layered phase-controlled rescanning under an irregular respiratory pattern, although a single 4DCT data set was used. The number of rescannings was eight times. The prescribed doses were 48 Gy(RBE)/1 fr (where RBE is relative biological effectiveness) delivered via four beam ports to the FTV for the lung cases and 45 Gy(RBE)/2 fr delivered via two beam ports to the FTV for the liver cases. In the liver cases, the accumulated dose distributions showed an increased magnitude of hot/cold spots with rPCR compared with cPCR. The results of the dose assessment metrics for the cPCR and rPCR were very similar. The D 95, D max, and D min values (cPCR/rPCR) averaged over all the patients were 96.3  ±  0.9%/96.0  ±  1.2%, 107.3  ±  3.6%/107.1  ±  2.9%, and 88.8  ±  3.2%/88.1  ±  3.1%, respectively. The treatment times in cPCR and rPCR were 110.7 s and 53.5 s, respectively. rPCR preserved dose conformation under irregular respiratory motion and reduced the total treatment time compared with cPCR.

  15. Rapid phase-correlated rescanning irradiation improves treatment time in carbon-ion scanning beam treatment under irregular breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shinichiro; Furukawa, Takuji

    2016-05-01

    To shorten treatment time in pencil beam scanning irradiation, we developed rapid phase-controlled rescanning (rPCR), which irradiates two or more isoenergy layers in a single gating window. Here, we evaluated carbon-ion beam dose distribution with rapid and conventional PCR (cPCR). 4 dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) imaging was performed on 12 subjects with lung or liver tumors. To compensate for intrafractional range variation, the field-specific target volume (FTV) was calculated using 4DCT within the gating window (T20-T80). We applied an amplitude-based gating strategy, in which the beam is on when the tumor is within the gating window defined by treatment planning. Dose distributions were calculated for layered phase-controlled rescanning under an irregular respiratory pattern, although a single 4DCT data set was used. The number of rescannings was eight times. The prescribed doses were 48 Gy(RBE)/1 fr (where RBE is relative biological effectiveness) delivered via four beam ports to the FTV for the lung cases and 45 Gy(RBE)/2 fr delivered via two beam ports to the FTV for the liver cases. In the liver cases, the accumulated dose distributions showed an increased magnitude of hot/cold spots with rPCR compared with cPCR. The results of the dose assessment metrics for the cPCR and rPCR were very similar. The D 95, D max, and D min values (cPCR/rPCR) averaged over all the patients were 96.3  ±  0.9%/96.0  ±  1.2%, 107.3  ±  3.6%/107.1  ±  2.9%, and 88.8  ±  3.2%/88.1  ±  3.1%, respectively. The treatment times in cPCR and rPCR were 110.7 s and 53.5 s, respectively. rPCR preserved dose conformation under irregular respiratory motion and reduced the total treatment time compared with cPCR.

  16. [Influence of biological activated carbon dosage on landfill leachate treatment].

    PubMed

    Cui, Yan-Rui; Guo, Yan; Wu, Qing

    2014-08-01

    Effects of biological activated carbon (BAC) dosage on COD removal in landfill leachate treatment were compared. The COD removal efficiency of reactors with 0, 100 and 300 g activated carbon dosage per litre activated sludge was 12.9%, 19.6% and 27.7%, respectively. The results indicated that BAC improved the refractory organic matter removal efficiency and there was a positive correlation between COD removal efficiency and BAC dosage. The output of carbon dioxide after 8h of aeration in reactors was 109, 193 and 306 mg corresponding to the activated carbon dosages mentioned above, which indicated the amount of biodegradation and BAC dosage also had a positive correlation. The combination of adsorption and bioregeneration of BAC resulted in the positive correlation betweem organic matter removal efficiency and BAC dosage, and bioregeneration was the root cause for the microbial decomposition of refractory organics.

  17. GAS PHASE SELECTIVE PHOTOXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS USING LIGHT-ACTIVATED TITANIUM DIOXIDE AND MOLECULAR OXYGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas Phase Selective Oxidation of Alcohols Using Light-Activated Titanium Dioxide and Molecular Oxygen

    Gas phase selective oxidations of various primary and secondary alcohols are studied in an indigenously built stainless steel up-flow photochemical reactor using ultravi...

  18. Liquid Phase Adsorption of α-Tocopherol by Activated Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, Awang; Ming, Chu Chi; Sundang, Murni

    α-Tocopherol or commonly called vitamin E can be found in major commercial vegetable oils such as soya oil and palm oil. However the existence in these oil is in low concentration. The recovery of low concentration of α-tocopherol from palm oils is increasingly popular. Adsorption technique for the recovery of α-tocopherol from palm oil is believed to be much lower in cost and more effective. As a case study in this work, activated carbon is chosen as the adsorbent and ethanol as the solvent. The adsorption equilibria of α-tocopherol onto activated carbon was conducted in batch and the concentration of α-tocopherol was identified by LCMS. Langmuirian monolayer adsorption theory was used for the analysis of the isotherm equilibria. The adsorptivity of α-tocopherol onto activated carbon was identified. The adsorption equilibria at low concentration found to be linear. The breakthrough curve was then generated using model assuming isothermal, single transition trace component with intraparticle diffusion. Sensitivity test on the curve indicated that the system is very sensitive to changes in diffusitivity and passive to changes on the equilibrium constant.

  19. New orally active anticoagulant agents for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gerotziafas, Grigoris T; Mahé, Isabelle; Elalamy, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Patients with cancer have a 6–7-fold higher risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) as compared with non-cancer patients. Effective and safe anticoagulation for the prevention and treatment of VTE is the cornerstone of the management of patients with cancer, aiming to decrease morbidity and mortality and to improve quality of life. Unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparins, fondaparinux and vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are used in the prevention and treatment of VTE in cancer patients. Heparins and fondaparinux are administered subcutaneously. VKAs are orally active, but they have a narrow therapeutic window, numerous food and drug interactions, and treatment requires regular laboratory monitoring and dose adjustment. These limitations among others have important negative impact on the quality of life of patients and decrease adherence to the treatment. New orally active anticoagulant (NOAC) agents are specific inhibitors of activated factor Xa (FXa) (rivaroxaban and apixaban) or thrombin (dabigatran). It is expected that NOACs will improve antithrombotic treatment. Cancer patients are a particular group that could benefit from treatment with NOACs. However, NOACs present some significant interactions with drugs frequently used in cancer patients, which might influence their pharmacokinetics, compromising their efficacy and safety. In the present review, we analyzed the available data from the subgroups of patients with active cancer who were included in Phase III clinical trials that assessed the efficacy and safety of NOACs in the prevention and treatment of VTE. The data from the Phase III trials in prophylaxis of VTE by rivaroxaban or apixaban highlight that these two agents, although belonging to the same pharmacological group (direct inhibitors of factor Xa), have substantially different profiles of efficacy and safety, especially in hospitalized acutely ill medical patients with active cancer. A limited number of patients with VTE and active

  20. Phase 2 THOR Steam Reforming Tests for Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas R. Soelberg

    2004-01-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste is stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the waste into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. A steam reforming technology patented by Studsvik, Inc., and licensed to THOR Treatment Technologies has been tested in two phases using a Department of Energy-owned fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier in 2003. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, stoichiometry, and chemistry were varied to identify and demonstrate process operation and product characteristics under different operating conditions. Two test series were performed. During the first series, the process chemistry was designed to produce a sodium carbonate product. The second series was designed to produce a more leach-resistant, mineralized sodium aluminosilicate product. The tests also demonstrated the performance of a MACT-compliant off-gas system.

  1. General Electric ATS program technical review: Phase 2 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Chance, T.; Smith, D.

    1995-10-01

    In response to the industrial and utility objectives specified for the ATS, the GE Power Generation ATS Phase 2 Program consisted of a dual approach. These were (1) development of an Industrial ATS (aircraft engine based) led by GE Aircraft Engines, and (2) development of a Utility ATS which was already underway at GEPG. Both programs required the identification and resolution of critical technical issues. Both systems were studied in Tasks 3-7, and both have resulted in designs that meet all ATS goals. The Industrial ATS as defined (130 MW) did not meet projected market power size requirements, and emphasis has remained on the Utility ATS development. The design and testing effort has been focused on the MS7001H combined cycle gas turbine, as the next product evolution in GE Power Generation`s product line. Common technology derived from the ATS Program is also being incorporated into the 50 Hz version of the ATS utility machine designated as the MS9001H.

  2. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Solubility and phase behavior of polyacrylate scale inhibitors and their implications for precipitation squeeze treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Rabaioli, M.R.; Lockhart, T.P.

    1995-11-01

    The phase behavior of a commercial phosphino-polyacrylate inhibitor (PPAA) in aqueous brine has been characterized as a function of temperature, pH, and the Ca{sup ++} and PPAA concentrations. The quantity of precipitate formed has been determined as a function of the same variables. Contrary to expectations, over a range of conditions the yield of phase-separated PPAA was found to be less than 50% and sometimes as low as 5%. Studies on a sample of isolated precipitate show that it has significant solubility even in brines with high Ca{sup ++} concentration. Ca{sup ++}-induced fractionation of the polymeric inhibitor by molecular weight has been identified as the mechanism responsible for both the observed precipitation and re-dissolution behavior. The implications of these results for the optimization of precipitation squeeze treatments are discussed.

  4. Topical alpha-tocopherol acetate in the bulk phase: eight years of experience in skin treatment.

    PubMed

    Panin, Giorgio; Strumia, Renata; Ursini, Fulvio

    2004-12-01

    Clinical practice in dermatology indicates that alpha-tocopherol acetate is beneficial in xerosis, hyperkeratosis, asteatotic eczema, atopic dermatitis, superficial burns, cutaneous ulcers, onychoschizia and, in general, skin diseases in which an inflammatory process is activated. The positive effect results from the combination of biological activity, the absence of adverse reactions, and the physical effect of the alpha-tocopherol acetate oil. The viscosity of this oil in bulk phase accounts for a remarkable moisturizing effect and minimization of transepidermal water loss. This effect combines well with the antioxidant capacity of alpha-tocopherol released from the ester, and the recently emerging effect on reprogramming of gene expression.

  5. Non-equilibrium Phase Transitions: Activated Random Walks at Criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, M.; Rolla, L. T.; Sidoravicius, V.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we present rigorous results on the critical behavior of the Activated Random Walk model. We conjecture that on a general class of graphs, including , and under general initial conditions, the system at the critical point does not reach an absorbing state. We prove this for the case where the sleep rate is infinite. Moreover, for the one-dimensional asymmetric system, we identify the scaling limit of the flow through the origin at criticality. The case remains largely open, with the exception of the one-dimensional totally-asymmetric case, for which it is known that there is no fixation at criticality.

  6. Improving the treatment of non-aqueous phase TCE in low permeability zones with permanganate.

    PubMed

    Chokejaroenrat, Chanat; Comfort, Steve; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Dvorak, Bruce

    2014-03-15

    Treating dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) embedded in low permeability zones (LPZs) is a particularly challenging issue for injection-based remedial treatments. Our objective was to improve the sweeping efficiency of permanganate (MnO4(-)) into LPZs to treat high concentrations of TCE. This was accomplished by conducting transport experiments that quantified the penetration of various permanganate flooding solutions into a LPZ that was spiked with non-aqueous phase (14)C-TCE. The treatments we evaluated included permanganate paired with: (i) a shear-thinning polymer (xanthan); (ii) stabilization aids that minimized MnO2 rind formation and (iii) a phase-transfer catalyst. In addition, we quantified the ability of these flooding solutions to improve TCE destruction under batch conditions by developing miniature LPZ cylinders that were spiked with (14)C-TCE. Transport experiments showed that MnO4(-) alone was inefficient in penetrating the LPZ and reacting with non-aqueous phase TCE, due to a distinct and large MnO2 rind that inhibited the TCE from further oxidant contact. By including xanthan with MnO4(-), the sweeping efficiency increased (90%) but rind formation was still evident. By including the stabilization aid, sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) with xanthan, permanganate penetrated 100% of the LPZ, no rind was observed, and the percentage of TCE oxidized increased. Batch experiments using LPZ cylinders allowed longer contact times between the flooding solutions and the DNAPL and results showed that SHMP+MnO4(-) improved TCE destruction by ∼16% over MnO4(-) alone (56.5% vs. 40.1%). These results support combining permanganate with SHMP or SHMP and xanthan as a means of treating high concentrations of TCE in low permeable zones.

  7. Micromechanics and constitutive models for soft active materials with phase evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Binglian

    Soft active materials, such as shape memory polymers, liquid crystal elastomers, soft tissues, gels etc., are materials that can deform largely in response to external stimuli. Micromechanics analysis of heterogeneous materials based on finite element method is a typically numerical way to study the thermal-mechanical behaviors of soft active materials with phase evolution. While the constitutive models that can precisely describe the stress and strain fields of materials in the process of phase evolution can not be found in the databases of some commercial finite element analysis (FEA) tools such as ANSYS or Abaqus, even the specific constitutive behavior for each individual phase either the new formed one or the original one has already been well-known. So developing a computationally efficient and general three dimensional (3D) thermal-mechanical constitutive model for soft active materials with phase evolution which can be implemented into FEA is eagerly demanded. This paper first solved this problem theoretically by recording the deformation history of each individual phase in the phase evolution process, and adopted the idea of effectiveness by regarding all the new formed phase as an effective phase with an effective deformation to make this theory computationally efficient. A user material subroutine (UMAT) code based on this theoretical constitutive model has been finished in this work which can be added into the material database in Abaqus or ANSYS and can be easily used for most soft active materials with phase evolution. Model validation also has been done through comparison between micromechanical FEA and experiments on a particular composite material, shape memory elastomeric composite (SMEC) which consisted of an elastomeric matrix and the crystallizable fibre. Results show that the micromechanics and the constitutive models developed in this paper for soft active materials with phase evolution are completely relied on.

  8. Brain activation and lexical learning: the impact of learning phase and word type.

    PubMed

    Raboyeau, G; Marcotte, K; Adrover-Roig, D; Ansaldo, A I

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the neural correlates of second-language lexical acquisition in terms of learning phase and word type. Ten French-speaking participants learned 80 Spanish words-40 cognates, 40 non-cognates-by means of a computer program. The learning process included the early learning phase, which comprised 5 days, and the consolidation phase, which lasted 2 weeks. After each phase, participants performed an overt naming task during an er-fMRI scan. Naming accuracy was better for cognates during the early learning phase only. However, cognates were named faster than non-cognates during both phases. The early learning phase was characterized by activations in the left iFG and Broca's area, which were associated with effortful lexical retrieval and phonological processing, respectively. Further, the activation in the left ACC and DLPFC suggested that monitoring may be involved during the early phases of lexical learning. During the consolidation phase, the activation in the left premotor cortex, the right supramarginal gyrus and the cerebellum indicated that articulatory planning may contribute to the consolidation of second-language phonetic representations. No dissociation between word type and learning phase could be supported. However, a Fisher r-to-z test showed that successful cognate retrieval was associated with activations in Broca's area, which could reflect the adaptation of known L1 phonological sequences. Moreover, successful retrieval of non-cognates was associated with activity in the anterior-medial left fusiform and right posterior cingulate cortices, suggesting that their successful retrieval may rely upon the access to semantic and lexical information, and even on the greater likelihood of errors.

  9. Monitoring laser treatment of port wine stains using phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yonghua; Chen, Zhongping; Saxer, Christopher E.; de Boer, Johannes F.; Majaron, Boris; Verkruysse, Wim; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2000-04-01

    We used a novel phase-resolved optical Doppler tomographic (ODT) technique, with very high flow velocity sensitivity and high spatial resolution, to image blood flow in port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks in human skin. The variance of blood flow velocity is used to locate the PWS vessels in addition to the regular ODT images. Our device combines an ODT system and laser so that PWS blood flow can be monitored in situ before and after treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical application of ODT to provide a fast semi-quantitative evaluation of the efficacy of PWS laser therapy in situ and in real-time.

  10. Change of Mandibular Position during Two-Phase Orthodontic Treatment of Skeletal Class II in the Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Hägg, Urban; Wong, Ricky Wing Kit; Liao, Chongshan; Yang, Yanqi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in mandibular position during a two-phase orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Thirty consecutively treated Chinese male adolescents who had undergone two-phase treatment with Herbst appliance and fixed appliance and fulfilled the specific selection criteria were sampled. Cephalograms taken at T0 (before treatment), T1 (at the end of functional appliance treatment), and T2 (at the end of fixed appliance treatment) were analyzed. The change in sagittal positioning of the mandible was 6.8±3.44 mm in phase I (T0-T1), 0.4±2.79 mm in phase II (T1-T2), and 7.2±4.61 mm in total. The mandible came forward in 100% of the patients at T1. In phase II, it came forward in one-third (positive group) remained unchanged in one-third (stable group) and went backward in one-third (negative group) of the patients. At T2, it came forward twice as much in the positive group compared to the negative group. Mandibular length was significantly increased in 100% of the patients in both phases. In conclusion, during the treatment with functional appliance, the mandibular prognathism increases in all patients, whereas during the treatment with fixed appliance there is no significant change in mandibular prognathism. PMID:25695103

  11. Activated carbon treatment of municipal solid waste incineration flue gas.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shengyong; Ji, Ya; Buekens, Alfons; Ma, Zengyi; Jin, Yuqi; Li, Xiaodong; Yan, Jianhua

    2013-02-01

    Activated carbon injection is widely used to control dioxins and mercury emissions. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to its modelling. This paper proposes an expansion of the classical Everaerts-Baeyens model, introducing the expression of fraction of free adsorption sites, f (s), and asserting the significant contribution of fly ash to dioxins removal. Moreover, the model monitors dioxins partitioning between vapour and particulate phase, as well as removal efficiency for each congener separately. The effects of the principal parameters affecting adsorption are analysed according to a semi-analytical, semi-empirical model. These parameters include temperature, contact time during entrained-flow, characteristics (grain-size, pore structure, specific surface area) and dosage of activated carbon, lignite cokes or mineral adsorbent, fly ash characteristics and concentration, and type of incinerator plant. PMID:23179511

  12. Ghrelin treatment prevents development of activity based anorexia in mice.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Romain; Lucas, Nicolas; Breton, Jonathan; Azhar, Saïda; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2016-06-01

    Stimulation of feeding is necessary for treatment of pathological conditions of chronic malnutrition due to anorexia. Ghrelin, a hunger hormone, is one of the candidate for pharmacological treatments of anorexia, but because of its instability in plasma has limited efficacy. We previously showed that plasmatic IgG protect ghrelin from degradation and that IgG from obese subjects and mice may increase ghrelin׳s orexigenic effect. In this study we tested if ghrelin alone or combined with IgG may improve feeding in chronically food-restricted mice with or without physical activity-based anorexia (ABA) induced by free access to a running wheel. Mice received a single daily intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin (1nM) together or not with total IgG (1nM) from obese ob/ob or lean mice before access to food during 8 days of 3h/day feeding time. We found that both ghrelin and ghrelin combined with IgG from obese, but not lean mice, prevented ABA, however, they were not able to diminish body weight loss. Physical activity was lower during the feeding period and was increased shortly after feeding in mice receiving ghrelin together with IgG from obese mice. In food-restricted mice without ABA, ghrelin treatments did not have significant effects on food intake. Thus, this study supports pharmacological use of ghrelin or ghrelin combined with IgG from obese animals for treatment of anorexia accompanied by elevated physical activity. The utility of combining ghrelin with protective IgG should be further determined in animal models of anorexia with unrestricted access to food.

  13. A Phase 2 Randomized Trial of a Rifapentine plus Moxifloxacin-Based Regimen for Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Conde, Marcus B.; Mello, Fernanda C. Q.; Duarte, Rafael Silva; Cavalcante, Solange C.; Rolla, Valeria; Dalcolmo, Margareth; Loredo, Carla; Durovni, Betina; Armstrong, Derek T.; Efron, Anne; Barnes, Grace L.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Savic, Radojka M.; Dooley, Kelly E.; Cohn, Silvia; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Chaisson, Richard E.; Dorman, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The combination of rifapentine and moxifloxacin administered daily with other anti-tuberculosis drugs is highly active in mouse models of tuberculosis chemotherapy. The objective of this phase 2 clinical trial was to determine the bactericidal activity, safety, and tolerability of a regimen comprised of rifapentine, moxifloxacin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide administered daily during the first 8 weeks of pulmonary tuberculosis treatment. Methods Adults with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis were randomized to receive either rifapentine (approximately 7.5 mg/kg) plus moxifloxacin (investigational arm), or rifampin (approximately 10 mg/kg) plus ethambutol (control) daily for 8 weeks, along with isoniazid and pyrazinamide. The primary endpoint was sputum culture status at completion of 8 weeks of treatment. Results 121 participants (56% of accrual target) were enrolled. At completion of 8 weeks of treatment, negative cultures using Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium occurred in 47/60 (78%) participants in the investigational arm vs. 43/51 (84%, p = 0.47) in the control arm; negative cultures using liquid medium occurred in 37/47 (79%) in the investigational arm vs. 27/41 (66%, p = 0.23) in the control arm. Time to stable culture conversion was shorter for the investigational arm vs. the control arm using liquid culture medium (p = 0.03), but there was no difference using LJ medium. Median rifapentine area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-24) was 313 mcg*h/mL, similar to recent studies of rifapentine dosed at 450–600 mg daily. Median moxifloxacin AUC0-24 was 28.0 mcg*h/mL, much lower than in trials where rifapentine was given only intermittently with moxifloxacin. The proportion of participants discontinuing assigned treatment for reasons other than microbiological ineligibility was higher in the investigational arm vs. the control arm (11/62 [18%] vs. 3/59 [5%], p = 0.04) although the proportions of grade 3 or higher adverse events were

  14. Improvement and further development in CESM/CAM5: gas-phase chemistry and inorganic aerosol treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Gas-phase chemistry and subsequent gas-to-particle conversion processes such as new particle formation, condensation, and thermodynamic partitioning have large impacts on air quality, climate, and public health through influencing the amounts and distributions of gaseous precursors and secondary aerosols. Their roles in global air quality and climate are examined in this work using the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.5 (CESM1.0.5) with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5.1) (referred to as CESM1.0.5/CAM5.1). CAM5.1 includes a simple chemistry that is coupled with a 7-mode prognostic Modal Aerosol Model (MAM7). MAM7 includes classical homogenous nucleation (binary and ternary) and activation nucleation (empirical first-order power law) parameterizations, and a highly simplified inorganic aerosol thermodynamics treatment that only simulates particulate-phase sulfate and ammonium. In this work, a new gas-phase chemistry mechanism based on the 2005 Carbon Bond Mechanism for Global Extension (CB05_GE) and several advanced inorganic aerosol treatments for condensation of volatile species, ion-mediated nucleation (IMN), and explicit inorganic aerosol thermodynamics for sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, sodium, and chloride have been incorporated into CESM/CAM5.1-MAM7. Compared to the simple gas-phase chemistry, CB05_GE can predict many more gaseous species, and thus could improve model performance for PM2.5, PM10, PM components, and some PM gaseous precursors such as SO2 and NH3 in several regions as well as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and cloud properties (e.g., cloud fraction (CF), cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC), and shortwave cloud forcing, SWCF) on the global scale. The modified condensation and aqueous-phase chemistry could further improve the prediction of additional variables such as HNO3, NO2, and O3 in some regions, and new particle formation rate (J) and AOD on the global scale. IMN can improve the prediction of secondary PM2

  15. Phase conjugation method and apparatus for an active retrodirective antenna array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.; Chernoff, R. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An active retrodirective antenna array wherein a reference array element is used to generate a phase reference which is replicated at succeeding elements of the array. Each element of the array is associated with a phase regeneration circuit and the phase conjugation circuitry of an adjacent element. In one implementation, the phase reference circuit operates on the input signal at the reference element, a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) output signal and the input pilot signal at the next array element received from a transmission line. By proper filtering and mixing, a phase component may be produced to which the VCO may be locked to produce the phase conjugate of the pilot signal at the next array element plus a transmission line delay. In another implementation, particularly suited for large arrays in space, two different input pilot frequencies are employed.

  16. Two-phase flow in a chemically active porous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Darmon, Alexandre Dauchot, Olivier; Benzaquen, Michael; Salez, Thomas

    2014-12-28

    We study the problem of the transformation of a given reactant species into an immiscible product species, as they flow through a chemically active porous medium. We derive the equation governing the evolution of the volume fraction of the species, in a one-dimensional macroscopic description, identify the relevant dimensionless numbers, and provide simple models for capillary pressure and relative permeabilities, which are quantities of crucial importance when tackling multiphase flows in porous media. We set the domain of validity of our models and discuss the importance of viscous coupling terms in the extended Darcy’s law. We investigate numerically the steady regime and demonstrate that the spatial transformation rate of the species along the reactor is non-monotonous, as testified by the existence of an inflection point in the volume fraction profiles. We obtain the scaling of the location of this inflection point with the dimensionless lengths of the problem. Eventually, we provide key elements for optimization of the reactor.

  17. Effects of treatment with an Hsp90 inhibitor in tumors based on 15 phase II clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, He; Lu, Mingjie; Yao, Mengqian; Zhu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp)90 serves as a chaperone protein that promotes the proper folding of proteins involved in a variety of signal transduction processes involved in cell growth. Hsp90 inhibitors, which inhibit the activity of critical client proteins, have emerged as the accessory therapeutic agents for multiple human cancer types. To better understand the effects of Hsp90 inhibitors in cancer treatment, the present study reviewed 15 published phase II clinical trials to investigate whether Hsp90 inhibitors will benefit patients with cancer. Information of complete response, partial response, stable disease, objective response and objective response rate was collected to evaluate clinical outcomes. Overall, Hsp90 inhibitors are effective against a variety of oncogene-addicted cancers, including those that have developed resistance to specific receptors.

  18. Activation of bone marrow phagocytes following benzene treatment of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Laskin, D L; MacEachern, L; Snyder, R

    1989-01-01

    Techniques in flow cytometry/cell sorting were used to characterize the effects of benzene and its metabolites on subpopulations of bone marrow cells. Treatment of male Balb/c mice with benzene (880 mg/kg) or a combination of its metabolites, hydroquinone and phenol (50 mg/kg), resulted in a 30 to 40% decrease in bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometric analysis revealed two subpopulations of bone marrow cells that could be distinguished by their size and density or granularity. The larger, more dense subpopulation was found to consist predominantly of macrophages and granulocytes as determined by monoclonal antibody binding and by cell sorting. Benzene treatment had no selective cytotoxic effects on subpopulations of bone marrow cells. To determine if benzene treatment activated bone marrow phagocytes, we quantified production of hydrogen peroxide by these cells using the fluorescent indicator dye, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. We found that macrophages and granulocytes from bone marrow of treated mice produced 50% more hydrogen peroxide in response to the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate than did cells from control animals. It is hypothesized that phagocyte activation and production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates may contribute to hematotoxicity induced by benzene. PMID:2676504

  19. Relationship between Acute Phase of Chronic Periodontitis and Meteorological Factors in the Maintenance Phase of Periodontal Treatment: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Noriko; Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    The acute phase of chronic periodontitis may occur even in patients during supportive periodontal therapy. However, the details are not fully understood. Since the natural environment, including meteorology affects human health, we hypothesized that weather conditions may affect occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weather conditions and acute phase of chronic periodontitis in patients under supportive periodontal therapy. Patients who were diagnosed with acute phase of chronic periodontitis under supportive periodontal therapy during 2011–2013 were selected for this study. We performed oral examinations and collected questionnaires and meteorological data. Of 369 patients who experienced acute phase of chronic periodontitis, 153 had acute phase of chronic periodontitis without direct-triggered episodes. When using the autoregressive integrated moving average model of time-series analysis, the independent covariant of maximum hourly range of barometric pressure, maximum hourly range of temperature, and maximum daily wind speed were significantly associated with occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis (p < 0.05), and 3.1% of the variations in these occurrence over the study period were explained by these factors. Meteorological variables may predict occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis. PMID:26251916

  20. Relationship between Acute Phase of Chronic Periodontitis and Meteorological Factors in the Maintenance Phase of Periodontal Treatment: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Noriko; Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu

    2015-08-01

    The acute phase of chronic periodontitis may occur even in patients during supportive periodontal therapy. However, the details are not fully understood. Since the natural environment, including meteorology affects human health, we hypothesized that weather conditions may affect occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weather conditions and acute phase of chronic periodontitis in patients under supportive periodontal therapy. Patients who were diagnosed with acute phase of chronic periodontitis under supportive periodontal therapy during 2011-2013 were selected for this study. We performed oral examinations and collected questionnaires and meteorological data. Of 369 patients who experienced acute phase of chronic periodontitis, 153 had acute phase of chronic periodontitis without direct-triggered episodes. When using the autoregressive integrated moving average model of time-series analysis, the independent covariant of maximum hourly range of barometric pressure, maximum hourly range of temperature, and maximum daily wind speed were significantly associated with occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis (p < 0.05), and 3.1% of the variations in these occurrence over the study period were explained by these factors. Meteorological variables may predict occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis. PMID:26251916

  1. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment: evaluation of a new three-phase separation system in a UASB reactor.

    PubMed

    Caixeta, Cláudia E T; Cammarota, Magali C; Xavier, Alcina M F

    2002-01-01

    The anaerobic treatment of the wastewater from the meat processing industry was studied using a 7.2 1 UASB reactor. The reactor was equipped with an unconventional configuration of the three-phase separation system. The effluent was characterized in terms of pH (6.3-6.6), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (2,000-6,000 mg l(-1)), biochemical oxygen demand BOD5 (1,300-2,300 mg 1(-1)), fats (40-600 mg l(-1)) and total suspended solids (TSS) (850-6,300 mg l(-1)) The reactor operated continuously throughout 80 days with hydraulic retention time of 14, 18 and 22 h. The wastewater from Rezende Industrial was collected after it had gone through pretreatment (screening, flotation and equalization). COD, BOD and TSS reductions and the biogas production rate were the parameters considered in analyzing the efficiency of the process. The average production of biogas was 111 day(-1) (STP) for the three experimental runs. COD removal varied from 77% to 91% while BOD removal was 95%. The removal of total suspended solids varied from 81% to 86%. This fact supports optimal efficiency of the proposed three-phase separation system as well as the possibility of applying it to the treatment of industrial effluents.

  2. Treatment outcome in endodontics: the Toronto study--phases 3 and 4: orthograde retreatment.

    PubMed

    de Chevigny, Cristian; Dao, Thuan T; Basrani, Bettina R; Marquis, Vincent; Farzaneh, Mahsa; Abitbol, Sarah; Friedman, Shimon

    2008-02-01

    Outcome 4-6 years after retreatment was assessed for Phases 3 and 4 of the Toronto Study. Of 477 teeth retreated, 333 were lost to follow-up, 18 were extracted, and 126 (41% recall, excluding 124 discontinuers) were examined for outcome of healed (periapical index score, < or = 2; no signs or symptoms) or diseased. When pooled with Phases 1 and 2, 187 of 229 teeth (82%) were healed. Logistic regression identified significant (P < or = .05) preoperative outcome predictors: root filling quality (odds ratio [OR], 4.18; confidence interval [CI], 1.72-10.12; healed: inadequate, 88%; adequate, 66%), perforation (OR, 4.01; CI, 1.28-12.62; healed: absent, 87%; present, 56%), and radiolucency (OR, 3.33; CI, 1.19-9.36; healed: absent, 93%; present, 80%). In teeth with radiolucency, outcome predictors were number of treatment sessions (OR, 12.08; CI, 1.84-infinity; healed: one, 100%; > or = 2, 77%) and previous root filling quality (OR, 7.68; CI, 2.36-26.89; healed: inadequate, 86%; adequate, 50%). Outcome was better in teeth with inadequate previous root filling, without perforation and radiolucency. Suggested significance of number of treatment sessions in teeth with radiolucency requires validation from randomized controlled trials.

  3. Rotation of nilotinib and imatinib for first-line treatment of chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gugliotta, Gabriele; Castagnetti, Fausto; Breccia, Massimo; Gozzini, Antonella; Usala, Emilio; Carella, Angelo M; Rege-Cambrin, Giovanna; Martino, Bruno; Abruzzese, Elisabetta; Albano, Francesco; Stagno, Fabio; Luciano, Luigia; D'Adda, Mariella; Bocchia, Monica; Cavazzini, Francesco; Tiribelli, Mario; Lunghi, Monia; Pia Falcone, Antonietta; Musolino, Caterina; Levato, Luciano; Venturi, Claudia; Soverini, Simona; Cavo, Michele; Alimena, Giuliana; Pane, Fabrizio; Martinelli, Giovanni; Saglio, Giuseppe; Rosti, Gianantonio; Baccarani, Michele

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of second-generation tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has generated a lively debate on the choice of first-line TKI in chronic phase, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Despite the TKIs have different efficacy and toxicity profiles, the planned use of two TKIs has never been investigated. We report on a phase 2 study that was designed to evaluate efficacy and safety of a treatment alternating nilotinib and imatinib, in newly diagnosed BCR-ABL1 positive, chronic phase, CML patients. One hundred twenty-three patients were enrolled. Median age was 56 years. The probabilities of achieving a complete cytogenetic response, a major molecular response, and a deep molecular response (MR 4.0) by 2 years were 93%, 87%, and 61%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival were 89%. Response rates and survival are in the range of those reported with nilotinib alone. Moreover, we observed a relatively low rate of cardiovascular adverse events (5%). These data show that the different efficacy and toxicity profiles of TKIs could be favorably exploited by alternating their use. Am. J. Hematol. 91:617-622, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Hindered gas-phase partitioning of trichloroethylene from aqueous cyclodextrin systems: implications for treatment and analysis.

    PubMed

    Kashiyama, N; Boving, T B

    2004-08-15

    Chemically enhanced flushing has shown great promise for attenuating subsurface nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination. One particular chemically enhanced remediation technology is cyclodextrin enhanced flushing (CDEF). CDEF has been demonstrated as a viable alternative to conventional and innovative remediation methods. However, the presence of cyclodextrin (CD) in solution complicates the treatment and analysis of volatile organic compounds, such as trichloroethylene (TCE). The principal reason for the complications is the presence of TCE in three compartments instead of two, i.e., the aqueous solution, the vapor phase, and complexed inside the soluble CD molecule. Aqueous TCE-CD systems were examined at various concentration and temperature conditions and their respective Henry's law constants were measured. The presence of CD significantly decreased Henry's law constant of TCE. On the basis of these results, a quantitative model was developed to predict the additional effort that becomes necessary when air-stripping TCE from CDEF flushing solution. The modeling results demonstrate that the presence of CD requires significantly higher gas flow rates or longer residence times of the flushing solution inside an air stripper. Similarly, current gas chromatographic purge-and-trap methods for TCE analysis in CD solution appear to underestimate the aqueous phase TCE concentration if the CD concentration of the sample is not accounted for. Although this model was developed specifically for CD-TCE systems, it is likely that these results have implications for other VOCs and other solubilization enhancing agents, such as surfactants or cosolvents.

  5. Rotation of nilotinib and imatinib for first-line treatment of chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gugliotta, Gabriele; Castagnetti, Fausto; Breccia, Massimo; Gozzini, Antonella; Usala, Emilio; Carella, Angelo M; Rege-Cambrin, Giovanna; Martino, Bruno; Abruzzese, Elisabetta; Albano, Francesco; Stagno, Fabio; Luciano, Luigia; D'Adda, Mariella; Bocchia, Monica; Cavazzini, Francesco; Tiribelli, Mario; Lunghi, Monia; Pia Falcone, Antonietta; Musolino, Caterina; Levato, Luciano; Venturi, Claudia; Soverini, Simona; Cavo, Michele; Alimena, Giuliana; Pane, Fabrizio; Martinelli, Giovanni; Saglio, Giuseppe; Rosti, Gianantonio; Baccarani, Michele

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of second-generation tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has generated a lively debate on the choice of first-line TKI in chronic phase, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Despite the TKIs have different efficacy and toxicity profiles, the planned use of two TKIs has never been investigated. We report on a phase 2 study that was designed to evaluate efficacy and safety of a treatment alternating nilotinib and imatinib, in newly diagnosed BCR-ABL1 positive, chronic phase, CML patients. One hundred twenty-three patients were enrolled. Median age was 56 years. The probabilities of achieving a complete cytogenetic response, a major molecular response, and a deep molecular response (MR 4.0) by 2 years were 93%, 87%, and 61%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival were 89%. Response rates and survival are in the range of those reported with nilotinib alone. Moreover, we observed a relatively low rate of cardiovascular adverse events (5%). These data show that the different efficacy and toxicity profiles of TKIs could be favorably exploited by alternating their use. Am. J. Hematol. 91:617-622, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26971721

  6. Photocatalytical Antibacterial Activity of Mixed-Phase TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Yeniyol, Sinem; Mutlu, Ilven; He, Zhiming; Yüksel, Behiye; Boylan, Robert Joseph; Ürgen, Mustafa; Karabuda, Zihni Cüneyt; Basegmez, Cansu; Ricci, John Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-phase TiO2 nanocomposite thin films consisting of anatase and rutile prepared on commercially pure Ti sheets via the electrochemical anodization and annealing treatments were investigated in terms of their photocatalytic activity for antibacterial use around dental implants. The resulting films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The topology was assessed by White Light Optical Profiling (WLOP) in the Vertical Scanning Interferometer (VSI) mode. Representative height descriptive parameters of roughness R a and R z were calculated. The photocatalytic activity of the resulting TiO2 films was evaluated by the photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye solution. The antibacterial ability of the photocatalyst was examined by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans suspensions in a colony-forming assay. XRD showed that anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films were predominantly in anatase and rutile that were 54.6 wt% and 41.9 wt%, respectively. Craters (2-5 µm) and protruding hills (10-50 µm) on Ti substrates were produced after electrochemical anodization with higher R a and R z surface roughness values. Anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films showed 26% photocatalytic decolorization toward RhB dye solution. The number of colonizing bacteria on anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films was decreased significantly in vitro. The photocatalyst was effective against A. actinomycetemcomitans colonization. PMID:26576430

  7. Photocatalytical Antibacterial Activity of Mixed-Phase TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    PubMed Central

    Yeniyol, Sinem; Mutlu, Ilven; He, Zhiming; Yüksel, Behiye; Boylan, Robert Joseph; Ürgen, Mustafa; Karabuda, Zihni Cüneyt; Basegmez, Cansu; Ricci, John Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-phase TiO2 nanocomposite thin films consisting of anatase and rutile prepared on commercially pure Ti sheets via the electrochemical anodization and annealing treatments were investigated in terms of their photocatalytic activity for antibacterial use around dental implants. The resulting films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The topology was assessed by White Light Optical Profiling (WLOP) in the Vertical Scanning Interferometer (VSI) mode. Representative height descriptive parameters of roughness Ra and Rz were calculated. The photocatalytic activity of the resulting TiO2 films was evaluated by the photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye solution. The antibacterial ability of the photocatalyst was examined by  Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans suspensions in a colony-forming assay. XRD showed that anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films were predominantly in anatase and rutile that were 54.6 wt% and 41.9 wt%, respectively. Craters (2–5 µm) and protruding hills (10–50 µm) on Ti substrates were produced after electrochemical anodization with higher Ra and Rz surface roughness values. Anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films showed 26% photocatalytic decolorization toward RhB dye solution. The number of colonizing bacteria on anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films was decreased significantly in vitro. The photocatalyst was effective against A. actinomycetemcomitans colonization. PMID:26576430

  8. Unbiased estimation in seamless phase II/III trials with unequal treatment effect variances and hypothesis-driven selection rules.

    PubMed

    Robertson, David S; Prevost, A Toby; Bowden, Jack

    2016-09-30

    Seamless phase II/III clinical trials offer an efficient way to select an experimental treatment and perform confirmatory analysis within a single trial. However, combining the data from both stages in the final analysis can induce bias into the estimates of treatment effects. Methods for bias adjustment developed thus far have made restrictive assumptions about the design and selection rules followed. In order to address these shortcomings, we apply recent methodological advances to derive the uniformly minimum variance conditionally unbiased estimator for two-stage seamless phase II/III trials. Our framework allows for the precision of the treatment arm estimates to take arbitrary values, can be utilised for all treatments that are taken forward to phase III and is applicable when the decision to select or drop treatment arms is driven by a multiplicity-adjusted hypothesis testing procedure. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27103068

  9. Unbiased estimation in seamless phase II/III trials with unequal treatment effect variances and hypothesis-driven selection rules.

    PubMed

    Robertson, David S; Prevost, A Toby; Bowden, Jack

    2016-09-30

    Seamless phase II/III clinical trials offer an efficient way to select an experimental treatment and perform confirmatory analysis within a single trial. However, combining the data from both stages in the final analysis can induce bias into the estimates of treatment effects. Methods for bias adjustment developed thus far have made restrictive assumptions about the design and selection rules followed. In order to address these shortcomings, we apply recent methodological advances to derive the uniformly minimum variance conditionally unbiased estimator for two-stage seamless phase II/III trials. Our framework allows for the precision of the treatment arm estimates to take arbitrary values, can be utilised for all treatments that are taken forward to phase III and is applicable when the decision to select or drop treatment arms is driven by a multiplicity-adjusted hypothesis testing procedure. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. In Situ Mercury Stabilization (ISMS) Treatment: Technology Maturation Project Phase I Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb,P.D.; Milian, L.

    2008-03-01

    further developed it has the potential for large-scale in-situ treatment of contaminated soils that could substantially reduce the prohibitive cost of thermal desorption and/or excavation and disposal. Licensing and spin-off technology development opportunities would then be viable. Depending on performance and regulatory acceptance, the treated mercury could either be excavated for disposal elsewhere or left in place as a stable alternative. Excavated spent treatment rods could be processed by the SPSS process to reduce the potential for dispersion and lower leachability even further. The Phase I objectives of the In Situ Mercury Stabilization Treatment Process Technology Maturation Project were to: (1) replicate the original bench-scale results that formed the basis for BNL's patent application, i.e., mercury contamination in soil will migrate to and react with 'rods' containing sulfur and/or sulfur compounds, (2) provide enough information to evaluate a decision to conduct further development, and (3) establish some of the critical parameters that require further technology maturation during Phase II. The information contained in this report summarizes the work conducted in Phase I to meet these objectives.

  11. Variability in AIRS CO2 during active and break phases of Indian summer monsoon.

    PubMed

    Revadekar, J V; Ravi Kumar, K; Tiwari, Yogesh K; Valsala, Vinu

    2016-01-15

    Due to human activities, the atmospheric concentration of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) has been rising extensively since the Industrial Revolution. Indian summer monsoon (ISM) has a dominant westerly component from ocean to land with a strong tendency to ascend and hence may have role in CO2 distribution in lower and middle troposphere over Indian sub-continent. A substantial component of ISM variability arises from the fluctuations on the intra-seasonal scale between active and break phases which correspond to strong and weak monsoon circulation. In view of the above, an attempt is made in this study to examine the AIRS/AQUA satellite retrieved CO2 distribution in response to atmospheric circulation with focus on active and break phase. Correlation analysis indicates the increase in AIRS CO2 linked with strong monsoon circulation. Study also reveals that anomalous circulation pattern during active and break phase show resemblance with high and low values of AIRS CO2. Homogeneous monsoon regions of India show substantial increase in CO2 levels during active phase. Hilly regions of India show strong contrast in CO2 and vertical velocity during active and break phases.

  12. EFFECT OF VAPOR-PHASE BIOREACTOR OPERATION ON BIOMASS ACCUMULATION, DISTRIBUTION, AND ACTIVITY. (R826168)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess biomass accumulation and activity loss in vapor-phase bioreactors (VPBs) can lead to unreliable long-term operation. In this study, temporal and spatial variations in biomass accumulation, distribution and activity in VPBs treating toluene-contaminated air were monitored o...

  13. Identification and active disturbance rejection for the JPL Phase B Test Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Daniel B.; Gibson, J. S.; Li, Wu-Jeng

    1993-09-01

    Active disturbance rejection to minimize optical path length error is illustrated by experimental results from the JPL Phase B Test Bed, which incorporates an interferometric sensor and a controllable trolley mounted on a flexible truss structure. The controller actively isolates the optical instruments from structural vibrations induced by external disturbances consisting of linear combinations of sinusoidal signals.

  14. Effect of thermomechanical treatment on the microstructure, phase composition, and mechanical properties of Al-Cu-Mn-Mg-Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuiko, I. S.; Gazizov, M. R.; Kaibyshev, R. O.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the thermomechanical treatment on the microstructure, phase composition, and mechanical properties of heat-treatable AA2519 aluminum alloy (according to the classification of the Aluminum Association) has been considered. After solid-solution treatment, quenching, and artificial aging (T6 treatment) at 180°C for the peak strength, the yield stress, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation to failure are ~300 MPa, 435 MPa, and 21.7%, respectively. It has been shown that treatments that include intermediate plastic deformations with degrees of 7 and 15% (T87 and T815 treatments, respectively) have a significant effect on the phase composition and morphology of strengthening particles precipitated during peak aging T8X type, where X is pre-strain percent, treatments initiate the precipitation of significant amounts of particles of the θ'- and Ω-phases. After T6 treatment, predominantly homogeneously distributed particles of θ″-phase have been observed. Changes in the microstructure and phase composition of the AA2519 alloy, which are caused by intermediate deformation, lead to a significant increase in the yield stress and ultimate tensile strength (by ~40 and ~8%, respectively), whereas the plasticity decreases by 40-50%.

  15. Research on soybean protein wastewater treatment by the integrated two-phase anaerobic reactor

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yaqin

    2015-01-01

    The start-up tests of treating soybean protein wastewater by the integrated two-phase anaerobic reactor were studied. The results showed that the soybean protein wastewater could be successfully processed around 30 days when running under the situation of dosing seed sludge with the influent of approximately 2000 mg/L and an HRT of 40 h. When the start-up was finished, the removal rate of COD by the reactor was about 80%. In the zone I, biogas mainly revealed carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen (H2). Methane was the main component in the zone 2 which ranged from 53% to 59% with an average of 55%. The methane content in biogas increased from the zone I to II. It indicated that the methane-producing capacity of the anaerobic sludge increased. It was found that the uniquely designed two-phase integrated anaerobic reactor played a key role in treating soybean protein wastewater. The acidogenic fermentation bacteria dominated in the zone I, while methanogen became dominant in the zone II. It realized the relatively effective separation of hydrolysis acidification and methanogenesis process in the reactor, which was benefit to promote a more reasonable space distribution of the microbial communities in the reactor. There were some differences between the activities of the sludge in the two reaction zones of the integrated two-phase anaerobic reactor. The activity of protease was higher in the reaction zone I. And the coenzyme F420 in the reaction zone II was twice than that in the reaction zone I, which indicated that the activity of the methanogens was stronger in the reaction zone II. PMID:26288554

  16. Pomalidomide Is Active in the Treatment of Anemia Associated With Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tefferi, Ayalew; Verstovsek, Srdan; Barosi, Giovanni; Passamonti, Francesco; Roboz, Gail J.; Gisslinger, Heinz; Paquette, Ronald L.; Cervantes, Francisco; Rivera, Candido E.; Deeg, H. Joachim; Thiele, Juergen; Kvasnicka, Hans M.; Vardiman, James W.; Zhang, Yanming; Bekele, B. Nebiyou; Mesa, Ruben A.; Gale, Robert P.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Thalidomide and lenalidomide can alleviate anemia in myelofibrosis. However, their value is undermined by their respective potential to cause peripheral neuropathy and myelosuppression. We therefore evaluated the safety and therapeutic activity of another immunomodulatory drug, pomalidomide. Methods In a phase II randomized, multicenter, double-blind, adaptive design study, four treatment arms were evaluated: pomalidomide (2 mg/d) plus placebo, pomalidomide (2 mg/d) plus prednisone, pomalidomide (0.5 mg/d) plus prednisone, and prednisone plus placebo. Pomalidomide was administered for up to 12 28-day treatment cycles. Prednisone (30 mg/d) was given in a tapering dose schedule during the first three cycles. Response was assessed by International Working Group criteria. Results Eighty-four patients with myelofibrosis-associated anemia were randomly assigned to the aforementioned treatment arms: 22, 19, 22, and 21, respectively. Response in anemia was documented in 20 patients, including 15 who became transfusion independent. Response rates in the four treatment arms were 23% (95% CI, 5% to 41%), 16% (95% CI, 0% to 33%), 36% (95% CI, 16% to 56%), and 19% (95% CI, 2% to 36%). The corresponding figures for patients receiving ≥ 3 cycles of treatment (n = 62) were 38%, 23%, 40%, and 25%. Response to pomalidomide with or without prednisone was durable (range, 3.2 to 16.9+ months) and significantly better in the absence of leukocytosis (37% v 8%; P = .01); JAK2V617F or cytogenetic status did not affect response. Grade ≥ 3 toxicities were infrequent and included (in each treatment arm) neutropenia (9%; 16%; 5%; 5%), thrombocytopenia (14%; 16%; 9%; 5%), and thrombosis (9%; 5%; 0%; 0%). Conclusion Pomalidomide therapy at 0.5 or 2 mg/d with or without an abbreviated course of prednisone is well tolerated in patients with myelofibrosis and active in the treatment of anemia. PMID:19652059

  17. Self-immobilization and/or thermal treatment for preparing silica-poly(methyloctylsiloxane) stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Bottoli, Carla B G; Vigna, Camila R M; Fischer, Gerd; Albert, Klaus; Collins, Kenneth E; Collins, Carol H

    2004-03-19

    Batches of poly(methyloctylsiloxane) (PMOS)-loaded silica were prepared by the deposition of PMOS, into the pores of HPLC silica. Portions of PMOS-loaded silica were allowed to remain at ambient temperature, without further treatment for 2, 9, 20, 31, 51, 105 and 184 days after preparation to undergo self-immobilization (irreversible adsorption of a layer of polymer on silica at ambient temperature in the absence of initiators). Other portions were subjected to a thermal treatment (100 degrees C for 4h) after 1, 2, 5, 7, 9, 15, 20, 25, 70, 111 and 184 days. Self-immobilized and thermally treated samples were characterized by % C, 29Si cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR spectroscopy and reversed-phase column performance. The results show that thermal immobilization accelerates the distribution and rearrangement of the polymer on the silica surface. However, from the time that a monolayer has been formed by self-immobilization (approximately 100 days for PMOS on Kromasil silica), the thermal treatment does not alter this configuration and, thus, does not change the resulting chromatographic parameters.

  18. Therapeutic Immunization In HIV Infected Ugandans Receiving Stable Antiretroviral Treatment: A Phase I Safety Study4

    PubMed Central

    Kityo, Cissy; Bousheri, Stephanie; Akao, Juliette; Ssali, Francis; Byaruhanga, Rose; Ssewanyana, Isaac; Muloma, Prossy; Myalo, Sula; Magala, Rose; Lu, Yichen; Mugyenyi, Peter; Cao, Huyen

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic immunizations in HIV infection may boost immunity during antiretroviral treatment. We report on the first therapeutic vaccine trial in Uganda, Africa. This open label Phase I trial was designed to assess the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine candidate. Thirty HIV positive volunteers receiving a stable regimen of antiretroviral therapy with CD4 counts > 400 were recruited for the safety evaluation of LFn-p24C, a detoxified anthrax-derived polypeptide fused to the subtype C HIV gag protein p24. The vaccine was well tolerated and HIV RNA levels remained undetectable following three immunizations. CD4 counts in vaccine recipients were significantly higher compared to the control individuals after 12 months. HIV-specific responses were associated with higher gain in CD4 counts following LFn-p24C immunizations. Volunteers were subsequently asked to undergo a 30-day period of observed treatment interruption. 8/24 (30%) individuals showed no evidence of viral rebound during treatment interruption. All demonstrated prompt suppression of viral load following resumption of ART. Our data demonstrates the safety of LFn-p24C and suggests that adjunct therapeutic immunization may benefit select individuals in further boosting an immune response. PMID:21211581

  19. Comparison of different numerical treatments for x-ray phase tomography of soft tissue from differential phase projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelliccia, Daniele; Vaz, Raquel; Svalbe, Imants; Morgan, Kaye S.; Marathe, Shashidhara; Xiao, Xianghui; Assoufid, Lahsen; Anderson, Rebecca A.; Topczewski, Jacek; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J.

    2015-04-01

    X-ray imaging of soft tissue is made difficult by their low absorbance. The use of x-ray phase imaging and tomography can significantly enhance the detection of these tissues and several approaches have been proposed to this end. Methods such as analyzer-based imaging or grating interferometry produce differential phase projections that can be used to reconstruct the 3D distribution of the sample refractive index. We report on the quantitative comparison of three different methods to obtain x-ray phase tomography with filtered back-projection from differential phase projections in the presence of noise. The three procedures represent different numerical approaches to solve the same mathematical problem, namely phase retrieval and filtered back-projection. It is found that obtaining individual phase projections and subsequently applying a conventional filtered back-projection algorithm produces the best results for noisy experimental data, when compared with other procedures based on the Hilbert transform. The algorithms are tested on simulated phantom data with added noise and the predictions are confirmed by experimental data acquired using a grating interferometer. The experiment is performed on unstained adult zebrafish, an important model organism for biomedical studies. The method optimization described here allows resolution of weak soft tissue features, such as muscle fibers.

  20. Physiologically motivated multiplex Kuramoto model describes phase diagram of cortical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadilek, Maximilian; Thurner, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    We derive a two-layer multiplex Kuramoto model from Wilson-Cowan type physiological equations that describe neural activity on a network of interconnected cortical regions. This is mathematically possible due to the existence of a unique, stable limit cycle, weak coupling, and inhibitory synaptic time delays. We study the phase diagram of this model numerically as a function of the inter-regional connection strength that is related to cerebral blood flow, and a phase shift parameter that is associated with synaptic GABA concentrations. We find three macroscopic phases of cortical activity: background activity (unsynchronized oscillations), epileptiform activity (highly synchronized oscillations) and resting-state activity (synchronized clusters/chaotic behaviour). Previous network models could hitherto not explain the existence of all three phases. We further observe a shift of the average oscillation frequency towards lower values together with the appearance of coherent slow oscillations at the transition from resting-state to epileptiform activity. This observation is fully in line with experimental data and could explain the influence of GABAergic drugs both on gamma oscillations and epileptic states. Compared to previous models for gamma oscillations and resting-state activity, the multiplex Kuramoto model not only provides a unifying framework, but also has a direct connection to measurable physiological parameters.

  1. Follow-up of 6-10-Year-Old Stuttering Children after Lidcombe Program Treatment: A Phase I Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koushik, Sarita; Shenker, Rosalee; Onslow, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase I trial sought to establish (1) whether the Lidcombe Program is viable for school-age children, (2) whether there is any indication that it requires modification for school-age children, (3) whether treatment effects are durable, (4) how many treatment sessions appear to be required to significantly reduce stuttering frequency…

  2. Rationale for active vitamin D and analogs in the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Yasuho

    2003-02-01

    In 1981, Chugai Pharmaceutical succeeded in marketing alfacalcidol, a prodrug of calcitriol, as a therapeutic agent for renal osteodystrophy. In 1983, Chugai succeeded in extending the application of alfacalcidol to the treatment of osteoporosis as well. Clinicians in Japan have accepted alfacalcidol as a remedy for osteoporosis. However, the use of calcitriol and its analogs for the treatment of osteoporosis is still controversial. Some misunderstandings exist internationally about the efficacy of the active form of vitamin D for the treatment of osteoporosis. It is important to emphasize that patients with osteoporosis have intestinal calcium malabsorption and dysfunction in renal activation of vitamin D. When massive doses of parent vitamin D were administered to OVX rats, bone mass increased, but surprisingly, many porotic area were observed in the cortical bone. On the other hand, administration of alfacalcidol increased physiological bone without porotic observation. It is necessary to give the active form of vitamin D, D-hormone, with an RDA-equivalent supply of calcium. Alfacalcidol forms physiological strong bones that are hardly fractured by regulating calcium and bone metabolism. We proposed a new vitamin D analog, 2beta (3-hydroxypropoxy)calcitriol [ED-71] as a therapeutic drug for osteoporosis, which is more potent than calcitriol. ED-71 is now being investigated in phase 2 clinical studies in Japan. ED-71 will appear as more improved drugs for osteoporosis until 2010. PMID:12520540

  3. Integrated basic treatment of activated carbon for enhanced CO2 selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelodun, Adedeji Adebukola; Jo, Young-Min

    2013-12-01

    We attempted the use of three chemical agents viz nitric acid (HN), calcium nitrate (CaN) and calcium ethanoate (CaEt) to achieve enhanced CO2 selective adsorption by activated carbon (AC). In dry phase treatment, microporous coconut shell-based carbon (CS) exhibits higher CO2 capacity than coal-based. However, upon wet-phase pre-treatment, modified CS samples showed lesser CO2 adsorption efficiency. Surface characterization with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of calcium and amine species on the samples with integrated treatment (A-CaN). These samples recorded the highest low-level CO2 capture despite calcinated CaEt-doped samples (C-CaEt) showing the highest value for pure and high level CO2 adsorption capacities. The slope and linearity values of isobaric desorption were used to estimate the proportion of CO2 chemisorbed and heterogeneity of the adsorbents’ surfaces respectively. Consequently, integrated basic impregnation provides the most efficient adsorbents for selective adsorption of both indoor and outdoor CO2 levels.

  4. Preferred locomotor phase of activity of lumbar interneurons during air-stepping in subchronic spinal cats.

    PubMed

    AuYong, Nicholas; Ollivier-Lanvin, Karen; Lemay, Michel A

    2011-03-01

    Spinal locomotor circuits are intrinsically capable of driving a variety of behaviors such as stepping, scratching, and swimming. Based on an observed rostrocaudal wave of activity in the motoneuronal firing during locomotor tasks, the traveling-wave hypothesis proposes that spinal interneuronal firing follows a similar rostrocaudal pattern of activation, suggesting the presence of spatially organized interneuronal modules within the spinal motor system. In this study, we examined if the spatial organization of the lumbar interneuronal activity patterns during locomotor activity in the adult mammalian spinal cord was consistent with a traveling-wave organizational scheme. The activity of spinal interneurons within the lumbar intermediate zone was examined during air-stepping in subchronic spinal cats. The preferred phase of interneuronal activity during a step cycle was determined using circular statistics. We found that the preferred phases of lumbar interneurons from both sides of the cord were evenly distributed over the entire step cycle with no indication of functional groupings. However, when units were subcategorized according to spinal hemicords, the preferred phases of units on each side largely fell around the period of extensor muscle activity on each side. In addition, there was no correlation between the preferred phases of units and their rostrocaudal locations along the spinal cord with preferred phases corresponding to both flexion and extension phases of the step cycle found at every rostrocaudal level of the cord. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that interneurons operate as part of a longitudinally distributed network rather than a rostrocaudally organized traveling-wave network.

  5. Removal of diclofenac by conventional drinking water treatment processes and granular activated carbon filtration.

    PubMed

    Rigobello, Eliane Sloboda; Dantas, Angela Di Bernardo; Di Bernardo, Luiz; Vieira, Eny Maria

    2013-06-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of conventional drinking water treatment processes with and without pre-oxidation with chlorine and chlorine dioxide and the use of granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration for the removal of diclofenac (DCF). Water treatment was performed using the Jar test with filters on a lab scale, employing nonchlorinated artesian well water prepared with aquatic humic substances to yield 20HU true color, kaolin turbidity of 70 NTU and 1mgL(-1) DCF. For the quantification of DCF in water samples, solid phase extraction and HPLC-DAD methods were developed and validated. There was no removal of DCF in coagulation with aluminum sulfate (3.47mgAlL(-1) and pH=6.5), flocculation, sedimentation and sand filtration. In the treatment with pre-oxidation and disinfection, DCF was partially removed, but the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was unchanged and byproducts of DCF were observed. Chlorine dioxide was more effective than chorine in oxidizing DCF. In conclusion, the identification of DCF and DOC in finished water indicated the incomplete elimination of DCF through conventional treatments. Nevertheless, conventional drinking water treatment followed by GAC filtration was effective in removing DCF (⩾99.7%). In the oxidation with chlorine, three byproducts were tentatively identified, corresponding to a hydroxylation, aromatic substitution of one hydrogen by chlorine and a decarboxylation/hydroxylation. Oxidation with chlorine dioxide resulted in only one byproduct (hydroxylation).

  6. Active phase and polarization locking of a 1.4 kW fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Goodno, Gregory D; McNaught, Stuart J; Rothenberg, Joshua E; McComb, Timothy S; Thielen, Peter A; Wickham, Michael G; Weber, Mark E

    2010-05-15

    A three-stage Yb-fiber amplifier emitted 1.43 kW of single-mode power when seeded with a 25 GHz linewidth master oscillator (MO). The amplified output was polarization stabilized and phase locked using active heterodyne phase control. A low-power sample of the output beam was coherently combined to a second fiber amplifier with 90% visibility. The measured combining efficiency agreed with estimated decoherence effects from fiber nonlinearity, linewidth, and phase-locking accuracy. This is the highest-power fiber laser that has been coherently locked using any method that allows brightness scaling.

  7. Oscillatory activity and phase-amplitude coupling in the human medial frontal cortex during decision making.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael X; Elger, Christian E; Fell, Juergen

    2009-02-01

    Electroencephalogram oscillations recorded both within and over the medial frontal cortex have been linked to a range of cognitive functions, including positive and negative feedback processing. Medial frontal oscillatory characteristics during decision making remain largely unknown. Here, we examined oscillatory activity of the human medial frontal cortex recorded while subjects played a competitive decision-making game. Distinct patterns of power and cross-trial phase coherence in multiple frequency bands were observed during different decision-related processes (e.g., feedback anticipation vs. feedback processing). Decision and feedback processing were accompanied by a broadband increase in cross-trial phase coherence at around 220 msec, and dynamic fluctuations in power. Feedback anticipation was accompanied by a shift in the power spectrum from relatively lower (delta and theta) to higher (alpha and beta) power. Power and cross-trial phase coherence were greater following losses compared to wins in theta, alpha, and beta frequency bands, but were greater following wins compared to losses in the delta band. Finally, we found that oscillation power in alpha and beta frequency bands were synchronized with the phase of delta and theta oscillations ("phase-amplitude coupling"). This synchronization differed between losses and wins, suggesting that phase-amplitude coupling might reflect a mechanism of feedback valence coding in the medial frontal cortex. Our findings link medial frontal oscillations to decision making, with relations among activity in different frequency bands suggesting a phase-utilizing coding of feedback valence information.

  8. Brain electrical activity changes in treatment refractory schizophrenics after olanzapine treatment.

    PubMed

    Cerdán, Luis F; Guevara, Miguel A; Sanz, Araceli; Amezcua, Claudia; Ramos-Loyo, Julieta

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify brain electrical activity changes generated by olanzapine (OLZ) in treatment refractory schizophrenics (TRS). 14 paranoid TRS (31.5+/-8.39 years old) were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of OLZ treatment. Psychopathology was evaluated by means of total BPRS and PANSS scores. Resting EEG was recorded in the pre (under typical neuroleptics) and post (under OLZ) sessions. A good response to OLZ was observed in 57% of TRS. A significant reduction in positive and negative symptoms scales of PANSS was found. Absolute power of theta1, theta2, alpha1 bands increased after treatment, while beta2 power showed a decrease. Intrahemispheric correlation increased between different zones of the frontal areas and between frontal and posterior areas, while interhemispheric correlation decreased in theta2. EEG changes were more evident in those patients who had a better response to OLZ. OLZ showed to be effective in TRS, improving psychiatric symptoms and increasing activity synchronization between different areas within each hemisphere that may indicate a functional reorganization, particularly in good responders.

  9. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREACTOR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

    2003-04-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from October 2002 to March 2003. In this starting stage of this study, we have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Two saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. Preliminary results suggest that BTEX sorption actually increases with the number of saturation/regeneration cycles. Furthermore, the experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and are

  10. Revisiting the question: Does high-latitude solar activity lead low-latitude solar activity in time phase?

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, D. F.; Qu, Z. N.; Guo, Q. L.

    2014-05-01

    Cross-correlation analysis and wavelet transform methods are used to investigate whether high-latitude solar activity leads low-latitude solar activity in time phase or not, using the data of the Carte Synoptique solar filaments archive from 1919 March to 1989 December. From the cross-correlation analysis, high-latitude solar filaments have a time lead of 12 Carrington solar rotations with respect to low-latitude ones. Both the cross-wavelet transform and wavelet coherence indicate that high-latitude solar filaments lead low-latitude ones in time phase. Furthermore, low-latitude solar activity is better correlated with high-latitude solar activity of the previous cycle than with that of the following cycle, which is statistically significant. Thus, the present study confirms that high-latitude solar activity in the polar regions is indeed better correlated with the low-latitude solar activity of the following cycle than with that of the previous cycle, namely, leading in time phase.

  11. 3F8 monoclonal antibody treatment of patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma: a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, N K; Kushner, B H; Yeh, S D; Larson, S M

    1998-06-01

    3F8 is an IgG3 murine monoclonal antibody directed against the ganglioside GD2. In a phase II study, 3F8 was administered i.v. to 16 patients (pts) who had stage 4 neuroblastoma. Response was seen in bony lesions (2 of 7 pts) and marrow (3 of 8 pts). Acute toxicities of pain, fever, urticaria, hypertension, hypotension and anaphylactoid reactions were self-limited and manageable. Three pts are long-term survivors between 79-130+ months after 3F8 treatment without additional systemic therapy and no delayed neurological complications. The potential benefits of 3F8 when added to chemoradio-therapy warrant further investigation.

  12. An empirical description of phases of maintenance following treatment for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Murphy, S A; Hoffman, A L

    1993-01-01

    This article reports two longitudinal prospective studies conducted sequentially to describe participants' maintenance of abstinence experiences up to 36 months posttreatment. Study 1 reports responses of 102 subjects who maintained alcohol abstinence following treatment and who were assessed for duration and intensity of symptoms associated with postacute withdrawal at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. A decreasing linear trend of symptoms was found as time of alcohol abstinence increased. Study 2 obtained interview and survey data from 23 successful abstainers from Study 1 at 12, 18, and 36 months posttreatment to describe coping strategies, perceptions of relapse risk, extent and duration of "aftercare," and substitute addictions as these phenomena developed and changed over time. Multiple occasions of data collection supported the description of three phases of maintenance: symptom stabilization/management accompanied by a cognitive paradigm shift, distancing self from alcohol-dependent behavior, and normalization of life processes.

  13. Phase III LDR rule proposes new treatment standards CWA/SDWA systems affected

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    On March 2, 1995, EPA took one more step toward fulfilling statutory/judicial mandates regarding the RCRA land disposal restrictions (LDR) program. Among the most significant aspects of this so-called Phase III LDR rule is the proposal of treatment standards for characteristic wastes managed in systems regulated by the Clean Water Act (CWA) and in Class I injection wells regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). These regulations would also apply to zero-discharge systems that treat waste-water in a manner equivalent to that used by CWA dischargers (i.e., CWA-equivalent systems). According to EPA, promulgation of the proposed requirements could affect a large number of facilities that may be forced to treat their wastes for underlying hazardous constituents prior to disposal. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Improvement and further development in CESM/CAM5: gas-phase chemistry and inorganic aerosol treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-10-01

    Gas-phase chemistry and subsequent gas-to-particle conversion processes such as new particle formation, condensation, and thermodynamic partitioning have large impacts on air quality, climate, and public health through influencing the amounts and distributions of gaseous precursors and secondary aerosols. Their roles in global air quality and climate are examined in this work using the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.5 (CESM1.0.5) with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5.1) (referred to as CESM1.0.5/CAM5.1). CAM5.1 includes a simple chemistry that is coupled with a 7-mode prognostic Modal Aerosol Model (MAM7). MAM7 includes classical homogenous nucleation (binary and ternary) and activation nucleation (empirical first-order power law) parameterizations, and a highly-simplified inorganic aerosol thermodynamics treatment that only simulates sulfate (SO42-) and ammonium (NH4+). In this work, a new gas-phase chemistry mechanism based on the 2005 Carbon Bond Mechanism for Global Extension (CB05_GE) and several advanced inorganic aerosol treatments for condensation of volatile species, ion-mediated nucleation (IMN), and explicit inorganic aerosol thermodynamics have been incorporated into CESM/CAM5.1-MAM7. Comparing to the simple gas-phase chemistry, CB05_GE can predict many more gaseous species, and improve model performance for PM2.5, PM10, PM2.5 components, and some PM gaseous precursors such as SO2 and NH3 in several regions, as well as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and cloud properties (e.g., cloud fraction (CF), cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC), and shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF)) on globe. The modified condensation and aqueous-phase chemistry further improves the predictions of additional variables such as HNO3, NO2, and O3 in some regions, and new particle formation rate (J) and AOD over globe. IMN can improve the predictions of secondary PM2.5 components, PM2.5, and PM10 over Europe, as well as AOD and CDNC over globe. The explicit

  15. Sporicidal Activity of the KMT reagent in its vapor phase against Geobacillus stearothermophilus Spores.

    PubMed

    Kida, Nori; Mochizuki, Yasushi; Taguchi, Fumiaki

    2007-01-01

    In an investigation of the sporicidal activity of the KMT reagent, a vapor phase study was performed using five kinds of carriers contaminated with Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores. When 25 ml of the KMT reagent was vaporized in a chamber (capacity; approximately 95 liters), the 2-step heating method (vaporization by a combination of low temperature and high temperature) showed the most effective sporicidal activity in comparison with the 1-step heating method (rapid vaporization). The 2-step heating method appeared to be related to the sporicidal activity of vaporized KMT reagent, i.e., ethanol and iodine, which vaporized mainly when heated at a low temperature such as 55 C, and acidic water, which vaporized mainly when heated at a high temperature such as 300 C. We proposed that the KMT reagent can be used as a new disinfectant not only in the liquid phase but also in the vapor phase in the same way as peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. PMID:17237604

  16. Menstrual cycle phase does not affect sympathetic neural activity in women with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Stickford, Abigail SL; VanGundy, Tiffany B; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Patients with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) are primarily premenopausal women, which may be attributed to female sex hormones. We tested the hypothesis that hormonal fluctuations of the menstrual cycle alter sympathetic neural activity and orthostatic tolerance in POTS women. Ten POTS women were studied during the early follicular (EF) and mid-luteal (ML) phases of the menstrual cycle. Haemodynamics and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were measured when supine, during 60 deg upright tilt for 45 min or until presyncope, and during the cold pressor test (CPT) and Valsalva manoeuvres. Blood pressure and total peripheral resistance were higher during rest and tilting in the ML than EF phase; however, heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output were similar between phases. There were no mean ± SD differences in MSNA burst frequency (8 ± 8 EF phase vs. 10 ± 10 bursts min–1 ML phase at rest; 34 ± 15 EF phase vs. 36 ± 16 bursts min–1 ML phase at 5 min tilt), burst incidence or total activity, nor any differences in the cardiovagal and sympathetic baroreflex sensitivities between phases under any condition. The incidence of presyncope was also the same between phases. There were no differences in haemodynamic or sympathetic responses to CPT or Valsalva. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle does not affect sympathetic neural activity but modulates blood pressure and vasoconstriction in POTS women during tilting. Thus, factors other than sympathetic neural activity are probably responsible for the symptoms of orthostatic intolerance across the menstrual cycle in women with POTS. Key points Women with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) report fluctuations in orthostatic tolerance throughout the menstrual cycle. The mechanism(s) underlying blood pressure control across the menstrual cycle in women with POTS are unknown. The findings of the present study indicate that the menstrual

  17. [Aortic valve injury due to blunt trauma--treatment in acute phase].

    PubMed

    Kohno, M; Ohuchi, H; Fukuda, I

    1996-10-01

    Aortic valve injury due to blunt trauma is rare and often difficult to diagnose. Therefore, most reported cases are operated on months or years after initial injury. Reported below is the case of a 55-year-old male, who was involved in a head-on collision with a bus. He was transported to Tsukuba Medical Center by ambulance, 34 minutes after the accident. The patient presented acute shock without obvious evidence of hemorrhaging. On physical examination a murmur was detected. The murmur was evaluated by Doppler echocardiography and revealed aortic regurgitation. On further physical examination he had gross hematuria and intratracheal bleeding. Computerized tomography (CT) showed evidence of contusions to his lungs, liver, and kidneys. The individual was diagnosed with an aortic valve injury, causing aortic insufficiency. It was necessary to continuously monitor the patients' hemodynamic state, assessing when conditions to operate were most favorable. However, in the hyper-acute phase the bleeding is difficult to control. We waited for his platelet count to recover before operating on the fifth day. When the patient underwent valve repair using extracorporeal circulation (ECC), aprotinin was added to the procedure. The surgery revealed a large laceration on the right coronary cusp of the aortic valve. Repair to the valve was impossible, so replacement of the aortic valve was required. A Carbomedics mechanical valve (phi 21 mm) was inserted. The patient did well after surgery, and eventually returned to work. To date, in Japan, there are eleven such cases of aortic valve injury on file. However, this is the first reported case that involved operating during the acute phase. This case demonstrates that, with careful evaluation of coexisting injuries and control of bleeding, successful treatment of aortic valve injury using ECC is possible, even in the acute phase. PMID:8940844

  18. Three phase biological treatment process for chlorinated compounds in air streams

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, W.J.; Collins, J.; Wells, J.; Kennedy, K.

    1999-07-01

    A combination of experimental and modeling studies were carried out to evaluate the potential for biological treatment of air streams containing chlorinated organics in a hybrid process. The proposed process consists of a scrubbing column for transferring chlorinated compounds from the gas to the liquid phase and a high rate anaerobic reactor for biodegradation of the compounds. Carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene and dichloromethane were employed as target compounds in this study to assess compounds with a range of chemical, physical and biological properties. Batch tests provided conclusive evidence that the target compounds strongly partition to vegetable oil. Continuous flow test results suggested that high removal efficiencies for all three compounds ({gt}90%) could be obtained with gas-liquid flow ratios less than 200. It was found that the Onda correlations did not fit the experimental data of vegetable oil very well, hence the Onda correlations were modified by assuming that the gas phase resistance was controlling mass transfer. The assumption appeared to be valid for the compounds with lower gas-oil partitioning coefficients (CT and PCE). DCM appeared to have some component of liquid phase control. Experiments were conducted in high rate anaerobic reactors to evaluate the impact of cosubstrate loading and hydraulic retention time on the biodegradation of the target compounds. Removals approached 100% for all three target compounds when the UASB was operated at high values of OLR and HRT. Removals for PCE and DCM decreased when the UASB was run under more strenuous conditions. A hybrid anaerobic reactor that consisted of a liquid-liquid mass transfer zone and an anaerobic biodegradation zone was operated to assess the processes potential to degrade the target compounds when they entered in a vegetable oil matrix.

  19. Treatment of coke-oven wastewater with the powdered activated carbon-contact stabilization activated sludge process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Suidan, M.T.; Deady, M.A.; Gee, C.S.

    1983-11-01

    The objective of the study was to determine optimum parameters for the operation of an innovative process train used in the treatment of coke-over wastewater. The treatment process train consisted of a contact-stabilization activated sludge system with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition, followed by activated sludge nitrification, followed by denitrification in an anoxic filter. The control and operating parameters evaluated during the study were: (a) the average mixed-liquor PAC concentration maintained in the contact-stabilization system, (b) the solids retention time practiced in the contact-stabilization system, and (c) the hydraulic detention time maintained in the contact aeration tank. Three identical treatement process trains were constructed and employed in this study. The coke-oven wastewater used for this investigation was fed to the treatment units at 30% strength. The first part of the study was devoted to determining the interactions between the mixed liquor PAC concentration and the solids retention time in the contact-stabilization tanks. Results showed that optimum overall system performance is attainable when the highest sludge age (30 day) and highest mixed liquor PAC concentration were practiced. During the second phase of the study, all three systems were operated at a 30 day solids retention time while different detention times of 1, 2/3 and 1/3 day were evaluated in the contact tank. PAC addition rates were maintained at the former levels and, consequently, reduced contact times entailed higher mixed liquor carbon concentrations. Once again, the system receiving the highest PAC addition rate of PAC exhibited the best overall performance. This system exhibited no deterioration in process performance as a result of decreased contact detention time. 72 references, 41 figures, 24 tables.

  20. Photo-induced optical activity in phase-change memory materials.

    PubMed

    Borisenko, Konstantin B; Shanmugam, Janaki; Williams, Benjamin A O; Ewart, Paul; Gholipour, Behrad; Hewak, Daniel W; Hussain, Rohanah; Jávorfi, Tamás; Siligardi, Giuliano; Kirkland, Angus I

    2015-03-05

    We demonstrate that optical activity in amorphous isotropic thin films of pure Ge2Sb2Te5 and N-doped Ge2Sb2Te5N phase-change memory materials can be induced using rapid photo crystallisation with circularly polarised laser light. The new anisotropic phase transition has been confirmed by circular dichroism measurements. This opens up the possibility of controlled induction of optical activity at the nanosecond time scale for exploitation in a new generation of high-density optical memory, fast chiroptical switches and chiral metamaterials.

  1. Accurate means of detecting and characterizing abnormal patterns of ventricular activation by phase image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Botvinick, E.H.; Frais, M.A.; Shosa, D.W.; O'Connell, J.W.; Pacheco-Alvarez, J.A.; Scheinman, M.; Hattner, R.S.; Morady, F.; Faulkner, D.B.

    1982-08-01

    The ability of scintigraphic phase image analysis to characterize patterns of abnormal ventricular activation was investigated. The pattern of phase distribution and sequential phase changes over both right and left ventricular regions of interest were evaluated in 16 patients with normal electrical activation and wall motion and compared with those in 8 patients with an artificial pacemaker and 4 patients with sinus rhythm with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and delta waves. Normally, the site of earliest phase angle was seen at the base of the interventricular septum, with sequential change affecting the body of the septum and the cardiac apex and then spreading laterally to involve the body of both ventricles. The site of earliest phase angle was located at the apex of the right ventricle in seven patients with a right ventricular endocardial pacemaker and on the lateral left ventricular wall in one patient with a left ventricular epicardial pacemaker. In each case the site corresponded exactly to the position of the pacing electrode as seen on posteroanterior and left lateral chest X-ray films, and sequential phase changes spread from the initial focus to affect both ventricles. In each of the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the site of earliest ventricular phase angle was located, and it corresponded exactly to the site of the bypass tract as determined by endocardial mapping. In this way, four bypass pathways, two posterior left paraseptal, one left lateral and one right lateral, were correctly localized scintigraphically. On the basis of the sequence of mechanical contraction, phase image analysis provides an accurate noninvasive method of detecting abnormal foci of ventricular activation.

  2. Behavioural activation for the treatment of depression in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Whybrow, Dean

    2013-03-01

    INTRODUCTION: Depression is a common mental health problem in both civilian and military populations. Access to evidence based psychological therapies for treating common mental health problems such as depression may not be adequate at present. Behavioural Activation (BA) represents a National Institute for Clinical Excellence recommended, evidence-based treatment for depression. The aim of this review was to review the literature to determine how BA could work as a therapeutic approach for military personnel with depression. METHOD: Five specialty-specific electronic databases were searched using the key words 'behavioural activation', 'activity scheduling' and 'depression'. Emerging themes were drawn out of the literature using a long table approach to thematic analysis. RESULTS: Seven themes were identified: Clinical Effectiveness, Cultural Competence, Co-morbidity, Cost Effectiveness, Alternatives to Face-to-Face Therapy, Training and Patient Experience. CONCLUSIONS: Group based BA is a cost effective option that may build upon service personnel's cultural affinity to teamwork and peer support. Brief training workshops and supervision could be provided to military mental health nurses to deliver group based BA. However service delivery may also be enhanced by enabling some nurses to specialise as Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapists. More research is needed to understand whether this pragmatic, two pronged approach to training would result in the sustained dissemination of evidence based practice.

  3. Level of response and safety of pharmacological monotherapy in the treatment of acute bipolar I disorder phases: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, Jorge M.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Vieta, Eduard; Vázquez, Gustavo; Tohen, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, combinations of pharmacological treatments have become common for the treatment of bipolar disorder type I (BP I); however, this practice is usually not evidence-based and rarely considers monotherapy drug regimen (MDR) as an option in the treatment of acute phases of BP I. Therefore, we evaluated comparative data of commonly prescribed MDRs for both manic and depressive phases of BP I. Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the ClinicalStudyResults.org and other data sources were searched from 1949 to March 2009 for placebo and active controlled randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Risk ratios (RRs) for response, remission, and discontinuation rates due to adverse events (AEs), lack of efficacy, or discontinuation due to any cause, and the number needed to treat or harm (NNT or NNH) were calculated for each medication individually and for all evaluable trials combined. The authors included 31 RCTs in the analyses comparing a MDR with placebo or with active treatment for acute mania, and 9 RCTs comparing a MDR with placebo or with active treatment for bipolar depression. According to the collected evidence, most of the MDRs when compared to placebo showed significant response and remission rates in acute mania. In the case of bipolar depression only quetiapine and, to a lesser extent, olanzapine showed efficacy as MDR. Overall, MDRs were well tolerated with low discontinuation rates due to any cause or AE, although AE profiles differed among treatments. We concluded that most MDRs were efficacious and safe in the treatment of manic episodes, but very few MDRs have demonstrated being efficacious for bipolar depressive episodes. PMID:20128953

  4. Dual Neuroprotective Pathways of a Pro-Electrophilic Compound via HSF-1-activated Heat Shock Proteins and Nrf2-activated Phase 2 Antioxidant Response Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Takumi; Rezaie, Tayebeh; Seki, Masaaki; Sunico, Carmen R.; Tabuchi, Takahito; Kitagawa, Tomomi; Yanagitai, Mika; Senzaki, Mutsumi; Kosegawa, Chihiro; Taira, Hideharu; McKercher, Scott R.; Hoffman, Jennifer K.; Roth, Gregory P.; Lipton, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway and consequent induction of phase 2 antioxidant enzymes is known to afford neuroprotection. Here, we present a series of novel electrophilic compounds that protect neurons via this pathway. Natural products, such as carnosic acid (CA), are present in high amounts in the herbs rosemary and sage as ortho-dihydroquinones, and have attracted particular attention because they are converted by oxidative stress to their active form (ortho-quinone species) that stimulate the Keap1/Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. Once activated, this pathway leads to the production of a series of antioxidant phase 2 enzymes. Thus, such dihydroquinones function as redox-activated “pro-electrophiles.” Here, we explored the concept that related para-dihydroquinones represent even more effective bioactive pro-electrophiles for the induction of phase 2 enzymes without producing toxic side effects. We synthesized several novel para-hydroquinone-type pro-electrophilic compounds (designated D1 and D2) in order to analyze their protective mechanism. DNA microarray, PCR, and Western blot analyses showed that compound D1 induced expression of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), including HSP70, HSP27 and DnaJ, in addition to phase 2 enzymes such as hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), NADP(H) quinine-oxidoreductase1, and the Na+-independent cystine/glutamate exchanger. Treatment with D1 resulted in activation of Nrf2 and HSF-1 transcriptional elements, thus inducing phase 2 enzymes and HSPs, respectively. In this manner, D1 protected neuronal cells from both oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related stress. Additionally, D1 suppressed induction of GRP78, an ER chaperone protein, and inhibited hyperoxidation of peroxiredoxin 2 (PRX2), a molecule that in it reduced state can protect from oxidative stress. These results suggest that D1 is a novel pro-electrophilic compound that activates both the Nrf2 and HSF-1 pathways, and may thus offer protection from oxidative and ER stress

  5. [EFFICACY AND SECURITY OF A CONVENTIONAL PROCEDURE OF PLASMAPHERESIS IN COMPLEX OF TREATMENT OF NONBILIARY ACUTE PANCREATITIS IN EARLY PHASE OF THE DISEASE].

    PubMed

    Mishalov, V G; Markulan, L Yu; Matveyev, R M

    2016-02-01

    Abstract Efficacy and security of a plasmapheresis procedure in complex of treatment of nonbiliary acute pancreatitis in early phase of the disease were established, basing on the treatment results analysis in 48 patients. The plasmapheresis results were estimated in accordance to changes revealed in the intoxication leukocytic index (ILI), a general protein (GP) content, general calcium (GC) in the blood plasm and of the activated partial thrombin time (APTHT). Application of plasmapheresis in patients, suffering purulent pancreatitis in the enzymal phase, have guaranteed a staged reduction of ILI by (34.86 ± 1.27)%, the APTHT enhancement from (35.15 ± 0.37) to (52.01 ± 0.62) sec, a trustworthy lowering of the GP by (4.35 ± 0.02) g/L at average and of GC in a blood plasmby (10.45 ± 0.38)%. PMID:27244915

  6. Superficial shoulder muscle co-activations during lifting tasks: Influence of lifting height, weight and phase.

    PubMed

    Blache, Y; Dal Maso, F; Desmoulins, L; Plamondon, A; Begon, M

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the level of co-activation of the superficial shoulder muscles during lifting movement. Boxes containing three different loads (6, 12, and 18 kg) were lifted by fourteen subjects from the waist to shoulder or eye level. The 3D kinematics and electromyograms of the three deltoids, latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major were recorded. A musculoskeletal model was used to determine direction of the moment arm of these muscles. Finally an index of muscle co-activation named the muscle focus was used to evaluate the effects of lifting height, weight lifted and phase (pulling, lifting and dropping phases) on superficial shoulder muscle coactivation. The muscle focus was lower (more co-contraction) during the dropping phase compared to the two other phases (-13%, p<0.001). This was explained by greater muscle activations and by a change in the direction of the muscle moment arm as a function of glenohumeral joint position. Consequently, the function of the shoulder superficial muscles varied with respect to the glenohumeral joint position. To increase the superficial muscle coactivation during the dropping phase may be a solution to increase glenohumeral joint stiffness.

  7. Organochlorine pesticides removal from wastewater by pine bark adsorption after activated sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sérgio; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Ruiz, Antonio; Ratola, Nuno; Alves, Arminda

    2011-04-01

    Pesticides have been responsible for strong environmental impacts, mainly due to their persistence in the environment. Removal technologies are usually combined, because degradation of organic matter is needed prior to a tertiary treatment to guarantee pesticides elimination to levels below legal limits (normally 0.1 microg L(-1)). Pine bark was studied as an alternative to activated carbon, for organochlorine pesticides removal. A combination of technologies based on biodegradation with activated sludge followed by pine bark adsorption treatment was used for lindane (LIN) and heptachlor (HEP) removal from contaminated waters. Pesticides were quantified throughout the process by GC-ECD preceded by solid-phase microextraction (SPME). An experimental set-up was maintained for 4 months, by feeding a standard solution with pesticides concentration of 1 microg L(-1) each and known organic matter (Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD, -563 mg O2 L(-1)) on a daily basis. COD suffered a reduction of about 81% in the biological step and no increase was detected in the subsequent adsorption treatment. Overall removal efficiency was 76.6% and above 77.7% for LIN and HEP, respectively.

  8. Trimebutine-induced phase III-like activity in infants with intestinal motility disorders.

    PubMed

    Boige, N; Cargill, G; Mashako, L; Cezard, J P; Navarro, J

    1987-01-01

    Duodenal manometric recordings were performed in five male children (mean age 11.7 +/- 6.8 months) suffering from severe digestive pathology with clinical findings of dysmotility; they required total parenteral nutrition: one case of enteropathy following intestinal resection for congenital small bowel atresia, and four cases of intestinal pseudoobstruction. The basal 3-h fasting recordings showed complete disorganization of interdigestive activity characterized by an absence of migrating motor complexes and a marked basal hypomotility with motor indices lower than in control subjects. Intravenous trimebutine (3 mg/kg) produced a phase III-like activity 88 +/- 121 s after administration in four cases. The activity lasted 236 +/- 105 s and had a mean frequency of 11.75 +/- 0.86 waves/min. It was propagated aborally in the two patients having two duodenal recording sites. Trimebutine-induced phase III activity was followed by signs of peristalsis in two patients. PMID:3430262

  9. Dramatic activity of mixed-phase TiO2 photocatalyst synthesized by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huiquan; Xu, Bolian; Fan, Yining

    2013-02-01

    The mixed-phase TiO2 photocatalysts with different anatase/rutile/brookite ratios and high specific surface area (157-218 m2/g) were prepared by hydrothermal method at 100 °C and the effect of rutile content in TiO2 on the BET surface area, light absorption and separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers was studied and correlated to the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. Rutile content increased from 0% to 100% by increasing the amount of TiCl4 in aqueous phase and the initial pH value of reaction solution played an important role in the phase composition of TiO2. The photocatalytic mechanism of mixed-phase TiO2 was discussed.

  10. Automated co-alignment of coherent fiber laser arrays via active phase-locking.

    PubMed

    Goodno, Gregory D; Weiss, S Benjamin

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate a novel closed-loop approach for high-precision co-alignment of laser beams in an actively phase-locked, coherently combined fiber laser array. The approach ensures interferometric precision by optically transducing beam-to-beam pointing errors into phase errors on a single detector, which are subsequently nulled by duplication of closed-loop phasing controls. Using this approach, beams from five coherent fiber tips were simultaneously phase-locked and position-locked with sub-micron accuracy. Spatial filtering of the sensed light is shown to extend the control range over multiple beam diameters by recovering spatial coherence despite the lack of far-field beam overlap.

  11. Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials.

    PubMed

    Rensberg, Jura; Zhang, Shuyan; Zhou, You; McLeod, Alexander S; Schwarz, Christian; Goldflam, Michael; Liu, Mengkun; Kerbusch, Jochen; Nawrodt, Ronny; Ramanathan, Shriram; Basov, D N; Capasso, Federico; Ronning, Carsten; Kats, Mikhail A

    2016-02-10

    Active, widely tunable optical materials have enabled rapid advances in photonics and optoelectronics, especially in the emerging field of meta-devices. Here, we demonstrate that spatially selective defect engineering on the nanometer scale can transform phase-transition materials into optical metasurfaces. Using ion irradiation through nanometer-scale masks, we selectively defect-engineered the insulator-metal transition of vanadium dioxide, a prototypical correlated phase-transition material whose optical properties change dramatically depending on its state. Using this robust technique, we demonstrated several optical metasurfaces, including tunable absorbers with artificially induced phase coexistence and tunable polarizers based on thermally triggered dichroism. Spatially selective nanoscale defect engineering represents a new paradigm for active photonic structures and devices.

  12. Fostering Students' Creativity through Van Hiele's 5 Phase-Based Tangram Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siew, Nyet Moi; Chong, Chin Lu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Van Hiele's 5 phase-based tangrams activities could help to foster creativity among Grade Three primary school students. Students' creativity was investigated in terms of Torrance's Figural Test of creative thinking: Fluency, Originality, Elaboration, Abstractness of title, and Resistance to a…

  13. Efficiency of an unstable resonator with an active medium containing small-scale phase inhomogeneities

    SciTech Connect

    Lobachev, V V; Strakhov, S Yu

    2004-01-31

    Properties of an unstable resonator with small-scale periodic inhomogeneities of the refractive index in an active medium are considered. It is shown that the parameters of output radiation depend on the structure of a phase inhomogeneity. The methods for increasing the resonator efficiency are analysed. (resonators. interferometers)

  14. Final Report on Regional Exchange Activities During the October 1976-February 1977 Planning Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEMREL, Inc., St. Louis, MO.

    This report describes in detail the Central Midwest Regional Educational Laboratory's (CEMREL) activities during the October 1976-February 1977 planning phase of the nationwide R & D Exchange (RDX) program sponsored by the National Institute of Education. Basically, CEMREL's task during the planning period was to develop plans for the creation and…

  15. HER2 activating mutations are targets for colorectal cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kavuri, Shyam M.; Jain, Naveen; Galimi, Francesco; Cottino, Francesca; Leto, Simonetta M.; Migliardi, Giorgia; Searleman, Adam C.; Shen, Wei; Monsey, John; Trusolino, Livio; Jacobs, Samuel A.; Bertotti, Andrea; Bose, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas project identified HER2 somatic mutations and gene amplification in 7% of colorectal cancer patients. Introduction of the HER2 mutations, S310F, L755S, V777L, V842I, and L866M, into colon epithelial cells increased signaling pathways and anchorage-independent cell growth, indicating that they are activating mutations. Introduction of these HER2 activating mutations into colorectal cancer cell lines produced resistance to cetuximab and panitumumab by sustaining MAPK phosphorylation. HER2 mutations are potently inhibited by low nanomolar doses of the irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors, neratinib and afatinib. HER2 gene sequencing of 48 cetuximab resistant, quadruple (KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA) WT colorectal cancer patient-derived xenografts (PDX’s) identified 4 PDX’s with HER2 mutations. HER2 targeted therapies were tested on two PDX’s. Treatment with a single HER2 targeted drug (trastuzumab, neratinib, or lapatinib) delayed tumor growth, but dual HER2 targeted therapy with trastuzumab plus tyrosine kinase inhibitors produced regression of these HER2 mutated PDX’s. PMID:26243863

  16. Bacterial Diversity of Active Sludge in Wastewater Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xin; Ma, Mingchao; Li, Jun; Lu, Anhuai; Zhong, Zuoshen

    A bacterial 16S rDNA gene clone library was constructed to analyze the bacterial diversity of active sludge in Gaobeidian Wastewater Treatment Plant, Beijing. The results indicated that the bacterial diversity of active sludge was very high, and the clones could be divided into 5 different groups. The dominant bacterial community was proteobacteria, which accounted for 76.7%. The dominant succession of bacterial community were as follows: the β-proteobacteria (39.8%), the uncultured bacteria (22.33%), the γ-proteobacteria (20.15%), the α-proteobacteria (6.79%), and the σ-proteobacteria (4.85%). Nitrosomonas-like and Nitrospira-like bacteria, such as Nitrosomonas sp. (1.94%) and uncultured Nitrospirae bacterium (11.65%) were also detected, which have played important roles in ammonia and nitrite oxidisers in the system. However, they were only a little amount because of their slow growth and less competitive advantage than heterotrophic bacteria. Denitrifying bacteria like Thauera sp. was at a high percentage, which implies a strong denitrification ability; Roseomonas sp. was also detected in the clone library, which could be related to the degradation of organophosphorus pesticide.

  17. Water treatment using activated carbon supporting silver and magnetite.

    PubMed

    Valušová, Eva; Vandžurová, Anna; Pristaš, Peter; Antalík, Marián; Javorský, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Recent efforts in water purification have led to the development of novel materials whose unique properties can offer effective biocidal capabilities with greater ease of use and at lower cost. In this study, we introduce a novel procedure for the preparation of activated carbon (charcoal) composite in which magnetite and silver are incorporated (MCAG); we also describe the use of this material for the disinfection of surface water. The formation process of magnetic MCAG composite was studied using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the high sorption efficiency of AgNO₃ to magnetic activated carbon. The antimicrobial capabilities of the prepared MCAG were examined and the results clearly demonstrate their inhibitory effect on total river water bacteria and on Pseudomonas koreensis and Bacillus mycoides cultures isolated from river water. The bacterial counts in river water samples were reduced by five orders of magnitude following 30 min of treatment using 1 g l⁻¹ of MCAG at room temperature. The removal of all bacteria from the surface water samples implies that the MCAG material would be a suitable disinfectant for such waters. In combination with its magnetic character, MCAG would be an excellent candidate for the simple ambulatory disinfection of surface water.

  18. Treatment for sulfur mustard lung injuries; new therapeutic approaches from acute to chronic phase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective Sulfur mustard (SM) is one of the major potent chemical warfare and attractive weapons for terrorists. It has caused deaths to hundreds of thousands of victims in World War I and more recently during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988). It has ability to develop severe acute and chronic damage to the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Understanding the acute and chronic biologic consequences of SM exposure may be quite essential for developing efficient prophylactic/therapeutic measures. One of the systems majorly affected by SM is the respiratory tract that numerous clinical studies have detailed processes of injury, diagnosis and treatments of lung. The low mortality rate has been contributed to high prevalence of victims and high lifetime morbidity burden. However, there are no curative modalities available in such patients. In this review, we collected and discussed the related articles on the preventive and therapeutic approaches to SM-induced respiratory injury and summarized what is currently known about the management and therapeutic strategies of acute and long-term consequences of SM lung injuries. Method This review was done by reviewing all papers found by searching following key words sulfur mustard; lung; chronic; acute; COPD; treatment. Results Mustard lung has an ongoing pathological process and is active disorder even years after exposure to SM. Different drug classes have been studied, nevertheless there are no curative modalities for mustard lung. Conclusion Complementary studies on one hand regarding pharmacokinetic of drugs and molecular investigations are mandatory to obtain more effective treatments. PMID:23351279

  19. Catalytic activity of bimetallic catalysts highly sensitive to the atomic composition and phase structure at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Shiyao; Petkov, Valeri; Prasai, Binay; Wu, Jinfang; Joseph, Pharrah; Skeete, Zakiya; Kim, Eunjoo; Mott, Derrick; Malis, Oana; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2015-11-01

    The ability to determine the atomic arrangement in nanoalloy catalysts and reveal the detailed structural features responsible for the catalytically active sites is essential for understanding the correlation between the atomic structure and catalytic properties, enabling the preparation of efficient nanoalloy catalysts by design. Herein we describe a study of CO oxidation over PdCu nanoalloy catalysts focusing on gaining insights into the correlation between the atomic structures and catalytic activity of nanoalloys. PdCu nanoalloys of different bimetallic compositions are synthesized as a model system and are activated by a controlled thermochemical treatment for assessing their catalytic activity. The results show that the catalytic synergy of Pd and Cu species evolves with both the bimetallic nanoalloy composition and temperature of the thermochemical treatment reaching a maximum at a Pd : Cu ratio close to 50 : 50. The nanoalloys are characterized structurally by ex situ and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, including atomic pair distribution function analysis. The structural data show that, depending on the bimetallic composition and treatment temperature, PdCu nanoalloys adopt two different structure types. One features a chemically ordered, body centered cubic (B2) type alloy consisting of two interpenetrating simple cubic lattices, each occupied with Pd or Cu species alone, and the other structure type features a chemically disordered, face-centered cubic (fcc) type of alloy wherein Pd and Cu species are intermixed at random. The catalytic activity for CO oxidation is strongly influenced by the structural features. In particular, it is revealed that the prevalence of chemical disorder in nanoalloys with a Pd : Cu ratio close to 50 : 50 makes them superior catalysts for CO oxidation in comparison with the same nanoalloys of other bimetallic compositions. However, the catalytic synergy can be diminished if the Pd50Cu50 nanoalloys undergo phase

  20. Treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer with opioid growth factor: phase I.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jill P; Conter, Robert L; Bingaman, Sandra I; Harvey, Harold A; Mauger, David T; Ahmad, Mejdi; Demers, Lawrence M; Stanley, Wayne B; McLaughlin, Patricia J; Zagon, Ian S

    2004-03-01

    Opioid growth factor (OGF) is an endogenous pentapeptide that inhibits growth of human pancreatic cancer cells in culture, as well as xenografts in nude mice. To establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and determine safety and toxicity of OGF, a phase I trial was performed in patients with advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer. Patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma were treated with escalating doses of OGF for 30 min i.v. to determine the MTD. The s.c. route of administration also was evaluated. Once the MTD was established, a group of patients was treated chronically, and monitored for safety and toxicity. Hypotension was the dose-limiting toxicity, resulting in a MTD of 250 microg/kg i.v. Due to limited solubility of OGF in small volumes, a maximum dose of 50 microg/kg twice daily was determined by the s.c. route of administration. No adverse events were reported for oxygen saturation, cardiac rhythm, laboratory values or neurological status in either the acute or chronic parts of the study with the i.v. or s.c. routes. During the chronic i.v. phase, two subjects had resolution of liver metastases and one showed regression of the pancreatic tumor. Mean survival from the time of diagnosis was 8.7 months (range 2-23 months) in the i.v. group and 9.5 months (range 1-18 months) in the s.c. group. We conclude that OGF can be safely administered to patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of OGF alone or in combination with present modes of therapy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  1. Finite element analysis of weightbath hydrotraction treatment of degenerated lumbar spine segments in elastic phase.

    PubMed

    Kurutz, M; Oroszváry, L

    2010-02-10

    deformations are related to the instant elastic phase of WHT that are doubled during the creep period of the treatment. The beneficial clinical impacts of WHT are still evident even 3 months later.

  2. Purification of Active Myrosinase from Plants by Aqueous Two-Phase Counter-Current Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Kristina L.; Ito, Yoichiro; Ramarathnam, Aarthi; Holtzclaw, W. David; Fahey, Jed W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase; E.C. 3.2.1.147), is a plant enzyme of increasing interest and importance to the biomedical community. Myrosinase catalyses the formation of isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (frombroccoli) and 4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (from moringa), which are potent inducers of the cytoprotective phase-2 response in humans, by hydrolysis of their abundant glucosinolate (β-thioglucoside N-hydroxysulphate) precursors. Objective To develop an aqueous two-phase counter-current chromatography (CCC) system for the rapid, three-step purification of catalytically active myrosinase. Methods A high-concentration potassium phosphate and polyethylene glycol biphasic aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is used with a newly developed CCC configuration that utilises spiral-wound, flat-twisted tubing (with an ovoid cross-section). Results Making the initial crude plant extract directly in the ATPS and injecting only the lower phase permitted highly selective partitioning of the myrosinase complex before a short chromatography on a spiral disk CCC. Optimum phase retention and separation of myrosinase from other plant proteins afforded a 60-fold purification. Conclusion Catalytically active myrosinase is purified from 3-day broccoli sprouts, 7-day daikon sprouts, mustard seeds and the leaves of field-grown moringa trees, in a CCC system that is predictably scalable. PMID:25130502

  3. Phase II evaluation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) for the treatment of hot flashes

    PubMed Central

    Kadakia, Kunal C.; Loprinzi, Charles L.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Fee-Schroeder, Kelliann C.; Sood, Amit; Barton, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hot flashes are a significant source of symptom burden that negatively impacts quality of life (QOL). For women who have contraindications to, or are unwilling to consider, estrogens or antidepressants for bothersome hot flashes, there are limited effective pharmacologic or complementary and alternative medicines. Methods This single-arm phase II trial studied the efficacy of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) for the treatment of hot flashes. Eligible women were required to have reported ≥14 hot flashes per week for ≥1 month. The patients were treated with SAMe at a dose of 400 mg twice daily to evaluate whether a reduction in hot flash score appeared to be better than the historical placebo response of approximately 25 %. The women kept a daily hot flash diary during a baseline week and then daily during weeks 2–7. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline to week 7 in hot flash score and hot flash frequency. Secondary endpoints included toxicity analyses and the effect of SAMe on QOL. Results From October 28, 2010 to January 30, 2012, 43 women were treated with SAMe. The decrease in mean percent of baseline hot flash score and frequency was 35.4 and 32.6 %, respectively. When compared to the historical placebo response of 25 %, the effect of SAMe on hot flash score was not statistically significant (p=0.09). Treatment was well tolerated with expected grade 1/2 gastrointestinal toxicity and no negative effect on QOL. Conclusions The use of SAMe does not appear to significantly reduce hot flashes more than would be expected with a placebo. PMID:26248653

  4. Comparison of thermophilic anaerobic digestion characteristics between single-phase and two-phase systems for kitchen garbage treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, YongJin; Hong, Feng; Cheon, JiHoon; Hidaka, Taira; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Lab-scale single-phase and two-phase thermophilic methane fermentation systems (SPS and TPS, respectively) were operated and fed with artificial kitchen waste. In both SPS and TPS, the highest methane recovery ratio of 90%, in terms of chemical oxygen demand by dichromate (CODcr), was observed at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 15 gCODcr/(l.d). The ratio of particle CODcr remaining to total CODcr in the influent was 0.1 and the ratio of NH(4)-N concentration to the input total nitrogen concentration was 0.5 in both SPS and TPS. However, the propionate concentration in the SPS reactor fluctuated largely and was 2 gCODcr/l higher than that in TPS, indicating less stable digestion. Regardless, efficient kitchen waste degradation can be accomplished in both SPS and TPS at an OLR of <20 gCODcr/(l.d), even though TPS may be more stable and easier to maintain. Bacillus coagulans predominated with an occupied ratio of approximately 90% in the acid fermentation reactor of TPS, and then a richer microbial community with a higher Shannon index value was maintained in the methane fermentation reactor of TPS than in the SPS reactor. PMID:18295719

  5. Solid-phase assay of lectin activity using HRP-conjugated glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Kojima-Aikawa, Kyoko

    2014-01-01

    Various enzyme-conjugated probes have been widely used for detection of specific interactions between biomolecules. In the case of glycan-protein interaction, horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated glycoproteins (HRP-GPs) are useful for the detection of carbohydrate-binding activity of plant and animal lectins. In this chapter, a typical solid-phase assay of the carbohydrate-binding activity of Sophora japonica agglutinin I, a Gal/GalNAc-specific lectin, using HRP-conjugated asialofetuin is described. HRP-GPs are versatile tools for probing lectin activities in crude extracts, screening many samples at one time, and applicable not only for solid-phase binding assays but also samples which are dot- or Western-blotted onto the membrane. PMID:25117228

  6. Phase-controlled electrochemical activity of epitaxial Mg-spinel thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Zhenxing; Chen, Xiao; Qiao, Liang; Lipson, Albert L.; Fister, Timothy T.; Zeng, Li; Kim, Chunjoong; Yi, Tanghong; Sa, Niya; Proffit, Danielle L.; et al

    2015-12-07

    We report an approach to control the reversible electrochemical activity (i.e., extraction/insertion) of Mg2+ in a cathode host through the use of phase-pure epitaxially stabilized thin film structures. The epitaxially stabilized MgMn2O4. (MMO) thin films in the distinct tetragonal and cubic phases are shown to exhibit dramatically different properties (in a nonaqueous electrolyte, Mg(TFSI)2 in propylene carbonate): tetragonal MMO shows negligible activity while the cubic MMO (normally found as polymorph at high temperature or high pressure) exhibits reversible Mg2+ activity with associated changes in film structure and Mn oxidation state. Lastly, these results demonstrate a novel strategy for identifying themore » factors that control multivalent cation mobility in next generation battery materials.« less

  7. Phase-controlled electrochemical activity of epitaxial Mg-spinel thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhenxing; Chen, Xiao; Qiao, Liang; Lipson, Albert L.; Fister, Timothy T.; Zeng, Li; Kim, Chunjoong; Yi, Tanghong; Sa, Niya; Proffit, Danielle L.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Cabana, Jordi; Ingram, Brian J.; Biegalski, Michael D.; Bedzyk, Michael J.; Fenter, Paul

    2015-12-07

    We report an approach to control the reversible electrochemical activity (i.e., extraction/insertion) of Mg2+ in a cathode host through the use of phase-pure epitaxially stabilized thin film structures. The epitaxially stabilized MgMn2O4. (MMO) thin films in the distinct tetragonal and cubic phases are shown to exhibit dramatically different properties (in a nonaqueous electrolyte, Mg(TFSI)2 in propylene carbonate): tetragonal MMO shows negligible activity while the cubic MMO (normally found as polymorph at high temperature or high pressure) exhibits reversible Mg2+ activity with associated changes in film structure and Mn oxidation state. Lastly, these results demonstrate a novel strategy for identifying the factors that control multivalent cation mobility in next generation battery materials.

  8. Phase-Controlled Electrochemical Activity of Epitaxial Mg-Spinel Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhenxing; Chen, Xiao; Qiao, Liang; Lipson, Albert L; Fister, Timothy T; Zeng, Li; Kim, Chunjoong; Yi, Tanghong; Sa, Niya; Proffit, Danielle L; Burrell, Anthony K; Cabana, Jordi; Ingram, Brian J; Biegalski, Michael D; Bedzyk, Michael J; Fenter, Paul

    2015-12-30

    We report an approach to control the reversible electrochemical activity (i.e., extraction/insertion) of Mg(2+) in a cathode host through the use of phase-pure epitaxially stabilized thin film structures. The epitaxially stabilized MgMn2O4 (MMO) thin films in the distinct tetragonal and cubic phases are shown to exhibit dramatically different properties (in a nonaqueous electrolyte, Mg(TFSI)2 in propylene carbonate): tetragonal MMO shows negligible activity while the cubic MMO (normally found as polymorph at high temperature or high pressure) exhibits reversible Mg(2+) activity with associated changes in film structure and Mn oxidation state. These results demonstrate a novel strategy for identifying the factors that control multivalent cation mobility in next-generation battery materials.

  9. Phase matching of four-wave interactions of SRS components in birefringent SRS-active crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetanin, Sergei N.; Basiev, Tasoltan T.

    2012-03-01

    A new method has been proposed for achieving wave vector matching in four-wave interactions of frequency components upon SRS in birefringent SRS-active crystals. The method ensures anti-Stokes wave generation and enables a substantial reduction in higher order Stokes SRS generation thresholds. Phase matching directions in BaWO4 SRS-active negative uniaxial crystals and SrWO4 SRS-active positive uniaxial crystals have been found in the wavelength range 0.4 — 0.7 μm.

  10. Activation of glycine receptor phase-shifts the circadian rhythm in neuronal activity in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Mordel, Jérôme; Karnas, Diana; Inyushkin, Alexey; Challet, Etienne; Pévet, Paul; Meissl, Hilmar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In mammals, the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is composed of numerous synchronized oscillating cells that drive daily behavioural and physiological processes. Several entrainment pathways, afferent inputs to the SCN with their neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems, can reset the circadian system regularly and also modulate neuronal activity within the SCN. In the present study, we investigated the function of the inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine on neuronal activity in the mouse SCN and on resetting of the circadian clock. The effects of glycine on the electrical activity of SCN cells from C57Bl/6 mice were studied either by patch-clamp recordings from acute brain slices or by long-term recordings from organotypic brain slices using multi-microelectrode arrays (MEA). Voltage-clamp recordings confirmed the existence of glycine-induced, chloride-selective currents in SCN neurons. These currents were reversibly suppressed by strychnine, phenylbenzene ω-phosphono-α-amino acid (PMBA) or ginkgolide B, selective blockers of glycine receptors (GlyRs). Long-term recordings of the spontaneous activity of SCN neurons revealed that glycine application induces a phase advance during the subjective day and a phase delay during the early subjective night. Both effects were suppressed by strychnine or by PMBA. These results suggest that glycine is able to modulate circadian activity by acting directly on its specific receptors in SCN neurons. PMID:21486797

  11. Line active hybrid lipids determine domain size in phase separation of saturated and unsaturated lipids.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Robert; Safran, Samuel A

    2010-03-17

    A simple model of the line activity of a hybrid lipid (e.g., POPC) with one fully saturated chain and one partially unsaturated chain demonstrates that these lipids preferentially pack at curved interfaces between phase-separated saturated and unsaturated domains. We predict that the domain sizes typically range from tens to hundreds of nm, depending on molecular interactions and parameters such as molecular volume and area per headgroup in the bulk fluid phase. The role of cholesterol is taken into account by an effective change in the headgroup areas and the domain sizes are predicted to increase with cholesterol concentration.

  12. Line Active Hybrid Lipids Determine Domain Size in Phase Separation of Saturated and Unsaturated Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Robert; Safran, Samuel A.

    2010-01-01

    A simple model of the line activity of a hybrid lipid (e.g., POPC) with one fully saturated chain and one partially unsaturated chain demonstrates that these lipids preferentially pack at curved interfaces between phase-separated saturated and unsaturated domains. We predict that the domain sizes typically range from tens to hundreds of nm, depending on molecular interactions and parameters such as molecular volume and area per headgroup in the bulk fluid phase. The role of cholesterol is taken into account by an effective change in the headgroup areas and the domain sizes are predicted to increase with cholesterol concentration. PMID:20303848

  13. Experimental demonstration of an active phase randomization and monitor module for quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2012-08-01

    Phase randomization is a very important assumption in the BB84 quantum key distribution (QKD) system with weak coherent source; otherwise, eavesdropper may spy the final key. In this Letter, a stable and monitored active phase randomization scheme for the one-way and two-way QKD system is proposed and demonstrated in experiments. Furthermore, our scheme gives an easy way for Alice to monitor the degree of randomization in experiments. Therefore, we expect our scheme to become a standard part in future QKD systems due to its secure significance and feasibility.

  14. Parametric Study to Characterize Low Activity Waste Tank Heat Removal Alternatives for Phase 1 Specification Development

    SciTech Connect

    GRENARD, C.E.

    2000-09-11

    Alternative for removing heat from Phase 1, low-activity waste feed double-shell tanks using the ventilation systems have been analyzed for Phase 1 waste feed delivery. The analysis was a parametric study using a model that predicted the waste temperatures for a range of primary and annulus ventilation system flow rates. The analysis was performed to determine the ventilation flow required to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding the Limiting Conditions for Operation limits during normal operation and the Safety Limits during off-normal events.

  15. Phase transformation of iron in hydroxyapatite in the activation of n-octane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padayachee, D.; Dasireddy, V. D. B. C.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Singh, S.; Friedrich, H. B.

    2015-04-01

    The phase change of iron modified hydroxyapatite catalysts used in the activation of n-octane has been investigated using Mössbauer spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. These catalysts were prepared using a wet impregnation and a co-precipitation technique. Both the catalysts showed the presence of an iron(III) phase. Differences were observed in the reduction behavior of the catalysts, suggesting that their reduction pathway is sensitive to the method of synthesis. This study focused on characterizing the differences in the phasic composition of the catalysts in an attempt to further understand their catalytic performance.

  16. Effects of microwave exposure and Gemcitabine treatment on apoptotic activity in Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) cells.

    PubMed

    Canseven, Ayşe G; Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Kayhan, Handan; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of 1.8 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-modulated microwave (MW) radiation on apoptotic level and cell viability of Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) cells with or without Gemcitabine, which exhibits cell phase specificity, primarily killing cells undergoing DNA synthesis (S-phase). Raji cells were exposed to 1.8 GHz GSM-modulated MW radiation at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.350 W/kg in a CO2 incubator. The duration of the exposure was 24 h. The amount of apoptotic cells was analyzed using Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) staining with flow cytometer. The apoptotic activity of MW exposed Raji cells was increased significantly. In addition, cell viability of exposed samples was significantly decreased. Combined exposure of MW and Gemcitabine increased the amount of apoptotic cells than MW radiation alone. Moreover, viability of MW + Gemcitabine exposed cells was lower than that of cells exposed only to MW. These results demonstrated that MW radiation exposure and Gemcitabine treatment have a synergistic effect on apoptotic activity of Raji cells.

  17. Laboratory study of non-aqueous phase liquid and water co-boiling during thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C; Mumford, K G; Kueper, B H

    2014-08-01

    In situ thermal treatment technologies, such as electrical resistance heating and thermal conductive heating, use subsurface temperature measurements in addition to the analysis of soil and groundwater samples to monitor remediation performance. One potential indication of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) removal is an increase in temperature following observations of a co-boiling plateau, during which subsurface temperatures remain constant as NAPL and water co-boil. However, observed co-boiling temperatures can be affected by the composition of the NAPL and the proximity of the NAPL to the temperature measurement location. Results of laboratory heating experiments using single-component and multi-component NAPLs showed that local-scale temperature measurements can be mistakenly interpreted as an indication of the end of NAPL-water co-boiling, and that significant NAPL saturations (1% to 9%) remain despite observed increases in temperature. Furthermore, co-boiling of multi-component NAPL results in gradually increasing temperature, rather than a co-boiling plateau. Measurements of gas production can serve as a complementary metric for assessing NAPL removal by providing a larger-scale measurement integrated over multiple smaller-scale NAPL locations. Measurements of the composition of the NAPL condensate can provide ISTT operators with information regarding the progress of NAPL removal for multi-component sources.

  18. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREATOR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    LYNN E. KATZ; KERRY A. KINNEY; R.S. BOWMAN; E.J. SULLIVAN

    2003-10-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. An efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed to remove these constituents. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from March 2003 through September 2003. We have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Ten saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. The results suggest that BTEX sorption capacity is not lost after ten saturation/regeneration cycles. The composition of produced water from a site operated by Crystal Solutions Ltd. in Wyoming has been characterized and was used to identify key semi-volatile components. Isotherms with selected semi-volatile components have been initiated and preliminary results have been obtained. The experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and

  19. [Advanced Treatment of Effluent from Industrial Park Wastewater Treatment Plant by Ferrous Ion Activated Sodium Persulfate].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Song-mei; Zhou, Zhen; Gu, Ling-yun; Jiang, Hai-tao; Ren, Jia-min; Wang, Luo-chun

    2016-01-15

    Fe(II) activated sodium persulfate (PS) technology was used for advanced treatment of effluent from industrial park wastewater treatment plant. Separate and combined effects of PS/COD, Fe(II)/PS and pH on COD and TOC removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology. Variations of organic substances before and after Fe(II)-PS oxidation were characterized by UV-Vis spectrometry, gel chromatography and three-dimensional fluorescence. PS/COD and Fe(II)/PS had significant effect on COD removal, while all the three factors had significant effect on TOC removal. The combined effect of PS/COD and pH had significant effect on COD removal. COD and TOC removal efficiencies reached 50.7% and 60.6% under optimized conditions of PS/COD 3.47, Fe(II)/PS 3.32 and pH 6.5. Fe(II)-PS oxidation converted macromolecular organic substances to small ones, and reduced contents of protein-, humic- and fulvic-like substances.

  20. [Suppression of cycling activity in sheep using parenteral progestagen treatment].

    PubMed

    Janett, F; Camponovo, L; Lanker, U; Hässig, M; Thun, R

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two synthetic progestagen preparations Chlormadinone acetate (CAP, Chronosyn, Veterinaria AG Zürich) and Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, Nadigest, G Streuli & Co. Uznach) on cycling activity and fertility in sheep. A flock of 28 non pregnant white alpine sheep was randomly divided into three groups, A (n = 10), B (n = 9) and C (n = 9). During a period of 4 weeks the cycling activity was confirmed by blood progesterone analysis. Thereafter, the animals of group A were treated with 50 mg CAP, those of group B with 140 mg MPA and those of group C with physiological saline solution. All injections were given intramuscularly. Suppression of endogenous progesterone secretion lasted from 28 to 49 days (mean = 39 days) in group A and from 42 to 70 days (mean = 50 days) in group B. The synchronization effect of both preparations was unsatisfactory as the occurrence of first estrus was distributed over a period of 3 weeks in group A and 4 weeks in group B. These findings could also be confirmed by the lambing period which lasted 52 days in group A and 36 days in group B. Control animals lambed within 9 days due to the synchronizing effect of the ram. The first fertile estrus was observed 36 days (group A) and 45 days (group B) after the treatment. In group A all 10 animals and in groups B and C 8 of 9 ewes each became pregnant. Parenteral progestagen application with CAP and MPA is a simple, safe and reversible method of estrus suppression in the sheep. The minimal suppressive duration of 4 (CAP) and 5 weeks (MPA) is not sufficient when a period of 3 months (alpine pasture period) is desired.

  1. Neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment counteracts circadian arrhythmicity induced by phase shifts of the light-dark cycle in female and male Siberian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Brian J.; Onishi, Kenneth G.; Zucker, Irving

    2013-01-01

    Studies of rats and voles suggest that distinct pathways emanating from the anterior hypothalamic-retrochiasmatic area and the mediobasal hypothalamic arcuate nucleus independently generate ultradian rhythms (URs) in hormone secretion and behavior. We evaluated the hypothesis that destruction of arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons, in concert with dampening of suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian rhythmicity, would compromise the generation of ultradian rhythms (URs) of locomotor activity. Siberian hamsters of both sexes treated neonatally with monosodium glutamate (MSG) that destroys ARC neurons were subjected in adulthood to a circadian disrupting phase-shift protocol (DPS) that produces SCN arrhythmia. MSG treatments induced hypogonadism and obesity, and markedly reduced the size of the optic chiasm and primary optic tracts. MSG-treated hamsters exhibited normal entrainment to the light-dark cycle, but MSG treatment counteracted the circadian arrhythmicity induced by the DPS protocol: only 6% of MSG-treated hamsters exhibited circadian arrhythmia, whereas 50% of control hamsters were circadian disrupted. In MSG-treated hamsters that retained circadian rhythmicity after DPS treatment, quantitative parameters of URs appeared normal, but in the 2 MSG-treated hamsters that became circadian arrhythmic after DPS, both dark-phase and light-phase URs were abolished. Although preliminary, these data are consistent with reports in voles suggesting that the combined disruption of SCN and ARC function impairs the expression of behavioral URs. The data also suggest that light thresholds for entrainment of circadian rhythms may be lower than those required to disrupt circadian organization. PMID:23701725

  2. Selective glucocorticoid receptor-activating adjuvant therapy in cancer treatments

    PubMed Central

    Sundahl, Nora; Clarisse, Dorien; Bracke, Marc; Offner, Fritz; Berghe, Wim Vanden; Beck, Ilse M.

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse effects and glucocorticoid resistance cripple their chronic use, glucocorticoids form the mainstay therapy for acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, and play an important role in treatment protocols of both lymphoid malignancies and as adjuvant to stimulate therapy tolerability in various solid tumors. Glucocorticoid binding to their designate glucocorticoid receptor (GR), sets off a plethora of cell-specific events including therapeutically desirable effects, such as cell death, as well as undesirable effects, including chemotherapy resistance, systemic side effects and glucocorticoid resistance. In this context, selective GR agonists and modulators (SEGRAMs) with a more restricted GR activity profile have been developed, holding promise for further clinical development in anti-inflammatory and potentially in cancer therapies. Thus far, the research into the prospective benefits of selective GR modulators in cancer therapy limped behind. Our review discusses how selective GR agonists and modulators could improve the therapy regimens for lymphoid malignancies, prostate or breast cancer. We summarize our current knowledge and look forward to where the field should move to in the future. Altogether, our review clarifies novel therapeutic perspectives in cancer modulation via selective GR targeting. PMID:27713909

  3. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study. Phase 2: Extravehicular activity at a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Valerie; Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Schulze, Arthur E.

    1988-01-01

    The focus is on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems requirements definition for an advanced space mission: remote-from-main base EVA on the Moon. The lunar environment, biomedical considerations, appropriate hardware design criteria, hardware and interface requirements, and key technical issues for advanced lunar EVA were examined. Six remote EVA scenarios (three nominal operations and three contingency situations) were developed in considerable detail.

  4. Influence of Thermal Treatment on the Antimicrobial Activity of Silver-Doped Biological Apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Cristina Liana; Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Voicu, Georgeta; Vasile, Eugenia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Predoi, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we report the structural and morphological properties of silver-doped hydroxyapatite (AgHAp) with a silver concentration x Ag = 0.5 before and after being thermal treated at 600 and 1000 °C. The results obtained by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy suggest that the structure of the samples changes gradually, from hydroxyapatite (AgHAp_40) to a predominant β-TCP structure (AgHAp_1000), achieved when the thermal treatment temperature is 1000 °C. In the AgHAp_600 sample, the presence of two phases, HAp and β-TCP, was highlighted. Also, scanning electron microscopy studies suggest that the shape and dimension of the nanoparticles begin to change when the temperature increases. The antimicrobial activity of the obtained compounds was evaluated against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans strains.

  5. Brain activations in the premonitory phase of nitroglycerin-triggered migraine attacks.

    PubMed

    Maniyar, Farooq Husain; Sprenger, Till; Monteith, Teshamae; Schankin, Christoph; Goadsby, Peter James

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was identify brain areas involved in the premonitory phase of migraine using functional neuroimaging. To this end, we performed positron emission tomography scans with H2(15)O to measure cerebral blood flow as a marker of neuronal activity. We conducted positron emission tomography scans at baseline, in the premonitory phase without pain and during migraine headache in eight patients. We used glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin) to trigger premonitory symptoms and migraine headache in patients with episodic migraine without aura who habitually experienced premonitory symptoms during spontaneous attacks. The main outcome was comparing the first premonitory scans in all patients to baseline scans in all patients. We found activations in the posterolateral hypothalamus, midbrain tegmental area, periaqueductal grey, dorsal pons and various cortical areas including occipital, temporal and prefrontal cortex. Brain activations, in particular of the hypothalamus, seen in the premonitory phase of glyceryl trinitrate-triggered migraine attacks can explain many of the premonitory symptoms and may provide some insight into why migraine is commonly activated by a change in homeostasis.

  6. Human thalamus regulates cortical activity via spatially specific and structurally constrained phase-amplitude coupling.

    PubMed

    Malekmohammadi, Mahsa; Elias, W Jeff; Pouratian, Nader

    2015-06-01

    Although the thalamus is believed to regulate and coordinate cortical activity both within and across functional regions, such as motor and visual cortices, direct evidence for such regulation and the mechanism of regulation remains poorly described. Using simultaneous invasive recordings of cortical and thalamic electrophysiological activity in 2 awake and spontaneously behaving human subjects, we provide direct evidence of thalamic regulation of cortical activity through a mechanism of phase-amplitude coupling (PAC), in which the phase of low frequency oscillations regulates the amplitude of higher frequency oscillations. Specifically, we show that cortical PAC between the theta phase and beta amplitude is spatially dependent on and time variant with the magnitude of thalamocortical theta coherence. Moreover, using causality analysis and MR diffusion tractography, we provide evidence that thalamic theta activity drives cortical theta oscillations and PAC across structures and that these thalamocortical relationships are structurally constrained by anatomic pathways. This relationship allows for new evidence of thalamocortical PAC. Given the diffuse connectivity of the thalamus with the cerebral cortex, thalamocortical PAC may play an important role in addressing the binding problem, including both integration and segregation of information within and across cortical areas.

  7. Thermally activated phase slips in superfluid spin transport in magnetic wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Se Kwon; Takei, So; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically study thermally activated phase slips in superfluid spin transport in easy-plane magnetic wires within the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert phenomenology, which runs parallel to the Langer-Ambegaokar-McCumber-Halperin theory for thermal resistances in superconducting wires. To that end, we start by obtaining the exact solutions for free-energy minima and saddle points. We provide an analytical expression for the phase-slip rate in the zero spin-current limit, which involves a detailed analysis of spin fluctuations at the extrema of the free energy. An experimental setup for a magnetoelectric circuit is proposed, in which thermal phase slips can be inferred by measuring nonlocal magnetoresistance.

  8. Hemispheric activation during planning and execution phases in reaching post stroke: a consort study.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yin; Daly, Janis J; Hansley, Jeff; Yao, Wan X; Yang, Qi; Sun, Jiayang; Hvorat, Ken; Pundik, Svetlana; Yue, Guang H

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced activation in the non-lesion hemisphere in stroke patients was widely observed during movement of the affected upper limb, but its functional role related to motor planning and execution is still unknown.This study was to characterize the activation in the non-lesion hemisphere during movement planning and execution by localizing sources of high-density electroencephalography (EEG) signal and estimating the source strength (current density [A/m]).Ten individuals with chronic stroke and shoulder/elbow coordination deficits and 5 healthy controls participated in the study.EEG (64 channels) was recorded from scalp electrodes while the subjects performed a reach task involving shoulder flexion and elbow extension of the affected (patients) or dominant (controls) upper extremity. Sources of the EEG were obtained and analyzed at 17 time points across movement preparation and execution phases. A 3-layer boundary element model was overlaid and used to identify the brain activation sources. A distributed current density model, low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) L1 norm method, was applied to the data pre-processed by independent component analysis.Subjects with stroke had stronger source strength in the sensorimotor cortices during the movement compared with the controls. Their contralesional/lesional activation ratio (CTLR) for the primary motor cortices was significantly higher than that of the controls during the movement-planning phase, but not during the execution phase. The CTLR was higher in planning than in the execution phase in the stroke group.Excessive contralesional motor cortical activation appears to be more related to movement preparation rather than execution in chronic stroke.

  9. Monitoring Precursor 16S rRNAs of Acinetobacter spp. in Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Systems

    PubMed Central

    Oerther, Daniel B.; Pernthaler, Jakob; Schramm, Andreas; Amann, Rudolf; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2000-01-01

    Recently, Cangelosi and Brabant used oligonucleotide probes targeting the precursor 16S rRNA of Escherichia coli to demonstrate that the levels of precursor rRNA were more sensitive to changes in growth phase than the levels of total rRNA (G. A. Cangelosi and W. H. Brabant, J. Bacteriol. 179:4457–4463, 1997). In order to measure changes in the levels of precursor rRNA in activated sludge systems, we designed oligonucleotide probes targeting the 3′ region of the precursor 16S rRNA of Acinetobacter spp. We used these probes to monitor changes in the level of precursor 16S rRNA during batch growth of Acinetobacter spp. in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium, filtered wastewater, and in lab- and full-scale wastewater treatment systems. Consistent with the previous reports for E. coli, results obtained with membrane hybridizations and fluorescence in situ hybridizations with Acinetobacter calcoaceticus grown in LB medium showed a more substantial and faster increase in precursor 16S rRNA levels compared to the increase in total 16S rRNA levels during exponential growth. Diluting an overnight culture of A. calcoaceticus grown in LB medium with filtered wastewater resulted in a pattern of precursor 16S rRNA levels that appeared to follow diauxic growth. In addition, fluorescence in situ hybridizations with oligonucleotide probes targeting total 16S rRNA and precursor 16S rRNA showed that individual cells of A. calcoaceticus expressed highly variable levels of precursor 16S rRNA when adapting from LB medium to filtered sewage. Precursor 16S rRNA levels of Acinetobacter spp. transiently increased when activated sludge was mixed with influent wastewater in lab- and full-scale wastewater treatment systems. These results suggest that Acinetobacter spp. experience a change in growth activity within wastewater treatment systems. PMID:10788395

  10. Treatment of primary HIV-1 infection with cyclosporin A coupled with highly active antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rizzardi, G. Paolo; Harari, Alexandre; Capiluppi, Brunella; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Ellefsen, Kim; Ciuffreda, Donatella; Champagne, Patrick; Bart, Pierre-Alexandre; Chave, Jean-Philippe; Lazzarin, Adriano; Pantaleo, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    Primary HIV-1 infection causes extensive immune activation, during which CD4+ T cell activation supports massive HIV-1 production. We tested the safety and the immune-modulating effects of combining cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during primary HIV-1 infection. Nine adults with primary HIV-1 infection were treated with CsA along with HAART. At week 8, all patients discontinued CsA but maintained HAART. Viral replication was suppressed to a comparable extent in the CsA + HAART cohort and in 29 control patients whose primary infection was treated with HAART alone. CsA restored normal CD4+ T cell levels, both in terms of percentage and absolute numbers. The increase in CD4+ T cells was apparent within a week and persisted throughout the study period. CsA was not detrimental to virus-specific CD8+ or CD4+ T cell responses. At week 48, the proportion of IFN-γ–secreting CD4+ and CD4+CCR7– T cells was significantly higher in the CsA + HAART cohort than in the HAART-alone cohort. In conclusion, rapid shutdown of T cell activation in the early phases of primary HIV-1 infection can have long-term beneficial effects and establish a more favorable immunologic set-point. Appropriate, immune-based therapeutic interventions may represent a valuable complement to HAART for treating HIV infection. PMID:11877476

  11. A COMPARISON OF LIQUID AND GAS-PHASE PHOTOOXIDATION TREATMENT OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER: SYNTHETIC AND FIELD SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of photo-oxidation treatment of metyl tert-butyl either (MTBE) in water was investigated using two systems, 1) a slurry falling film photo-reactor, and 2) an integrated air-stripping with gas phase photooxidation system. MTBE-contaminated synthetic water and field...

  12. Long term results of mechanical prostheses for treatment of active infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, J; Tornos, M; Permanyer-Miralda, G; Almirante, B; Murtra, M; Soler-Soler, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To analyse the long term results of mechanical prostheses for treating active infective endocarditis.
DESIGN—Prospective cohort study of a consecutive series of patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis and operated on in the active phase of the infection for insertion of a mechanical prosthesis.
SETTING—Tertiary referral centre in a metropolitan area.
RESULTS—Between 1975 and 1997, 637 cases of infective endocarditis were diagnosed in the centre. Of these, 436 were left sided (with overall mortality of 20.3%). Surgical treatment in the active phase of the infection was needed in 141 patients (72% native, 28% prosthetic infective endocarditis). Mechanical prostheses were used in 131 patients. Operative mortality was 30.5% (40 patients). Ninety one survivors were followed up prospectively for (mean (SD)) 5.4 (4.5) years. Thirteen patients developed prosthetic valve dysfunction. Nine patients suffered reinfection: four of these (4%) were early and five were late. The median time from surgery for late reinfection was 1.4 years. During follow up, 12 patients died. Excluding operative mortality, actuarial survival was 86.6% at five years and 83.7% at 10 years; actuarial survival free from death, reoperation, and reinfection was 73.1% at five years and 59.8% at 10 years.
CONCLUSIONS—In patients surviving acute infective endocarditis and receiving mechanical prostheses, the rate of early reinfection compares well with reported results of homografts. In addition, prosthesis dysfunction rate is low and long term survival is good. These data should prove useful for comparison with long term studies, when available, using other types of valve surgery in active infective endocarditis.


Keywords: infective endocarditis; surgery; mechanical prosthesis PMID:11410564

  13. Relationship between physical activity and function in elderly patients discharged after surgical treatment for gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Tsuyoshi; Kubo, Akira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to observe changes in physical activity (PA) from before surgery to after discharge among elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer and to examine the relationships between PA, function, and physique after discharge in these patients. [Subjects and Methods] The study participants were 18 elderly patients who underwent surgical treatment for gastrointestinal cancer [10 males and 8 females, aged 71.4 ± 4.2 years (mean ± SD)]. We evaluated patients’ PA, function, and physique before surgery and after discharge. Calorie consumption as calculated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short version was measured for PA. Isometric knee extension force (IKEF), the timed up and go test (TUGT), and the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) were measured for function. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated for physique. [Results] Significant declines in PA and BMI were observed after discharge among the study participants. In addition, a significant correlation between PA and IKEF was observed in the discharge phase. [Conclusion] These results suggest that PA after discharge is significantly less than that before surgery and related to the functioning of the lower extremities in the same period in elderly patients who undergo surgical treatment for gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:26504327

  14. Catalytic activity of bimetallic catalysts highly sensitive to the atomic composition and phase structure at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Shan, Shiyao; Petkov, Valeri; Prasai, Binay; Wu, Jinfang; Joseph, Pharrah; Skeete, Zakiya; Kim, Eunjoo; Mott, Derrick; Malis, Oana; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2015-12-01

    The ability to determine the atomic arrangement in nanoalloy catalysts and reveal the detailed structural features responsible for the catalytically active sites is essential for understanding the correlation between the atomic structure and catalytic properties, enabling the preparation of efficient nanoalloy catalysts by design. Herein we describe a study of CO oxidation over PdCu nanoalloy catalysts focusing on gaining insights into the correlation between the atomic structures and catalytic activity of nanoalloys. PdCu nanoalloys of different bimetallic compositions are synthesized as a model system and are activated by a controlled thermochemical treatment for assessing their catalytic activity. The results show that the catalytic synergy of Pd and Cu species evolves with both the bimetallic nanoalloy composition and temperature of the thermochemical treatment reaching a maximum at a Pd : Cu ratio close to 50 : 50. The nanoalloys are characterized structurally by ex situ and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, including atomic pair distribution function analysis. The structural data show that, depending on the bimetallic composition and treatment temperature, PdCu nanoalloys adopt two different structure types. One features a chemically ordered, body centered cubic (B2) type alloy consisting of two interpenetrating simple cubic lattices, each occupied with Pd or Cu species alone, and the other structure type features a chemically disordered, face-centered cubic (fcc) type of alloy wherein Pd and Cu species are intermixed at random. The catalytic activity for CO oxidation is strongly influenced by the structural features. In particular, it is revealed that the prevalence of chemical disorder in nanoalloys with a Pd : Cu ratio close to 50 : 50 makes them superior catalysts for CO oxidation in comparison with the same nanoalloys of other bimetallic compositions. However, the catalytic synergy can be diminished if the Pd50Cu50 nanoalloys undergo

  15. Early Phase in the Development of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Addiction: Opioid Relapse Takes Initial Center Stage.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Yasmin L; Yoon, Michelle; Manini, Alex F; Hernandez, Stephanie; Olmedo, Ruben; Ostman, Maria; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2015-10-01

    Multiple cannabinoids derived from the marijuana plant have potential therapeutic benefits but most have not been well investigated, despite the widespread legalization of medical marijuana in the USA and other countries. Therapeutic indications will depend on determinations as to which of the multiple cannabinoids, and other biologically active chemicals that are present in the marijuana plant, can be developed to treat specific symptoms and/or diseases. Such insights are particularly critical for addiction disorders, where different phytocannabinoids appear to induce opposing actions that can confound the development of treatment interventions. Whereas Δ(9)-tetracannabinol has been well documented to be rewarding and to enhance sensitivity to other drugs, cannabidiol (CBD), in contrast, appears to have low reinforcing properties with limited abuse potential and to inhibit drug-seeking behavior. Other considerations such as CBD's anxiolytic properties and minimal adverse side effects also support its potential viability as a treatment option for a variety of symptoms associated with drug addiction. However, significant research is still needed as CBD investigations published to date primarily relate to its effects on opioid drugs, and CBD's efficacy at different phases of the abuse cycle for different classes of addictive substances remain largely understudied. Our paper provides an overview of preclinical animal and human clinical investigations, and presents preliminary clinical data that collectively sets a strong foundation in support of the further exploration of CBD as a therapeutic intervention against opioid relapse. As the legal landscape for medical marijuana unfolds, it is important to distinguish it from "medical CBD" and other specific cannabinoids, that can more appropriately be used to maximize the medicinal potential of the marijuana plant. PMID:26269227

  16. Early Phase in the Development of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Addiction: Opioid Relapse Takes Initial Center Stage.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Yasmin L; Yoon, Michelle; Manini, Alex F; Hernandez, Stephanie; Olmedo, Ruben; Ostman, Maria; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2015-10-01

    Multiple cannabinoids derived from the marijuana plant have potential therapeutic benefits but most have not been well investigated, despite the widespread legalization of medical marijuana in the USA and other countries. Therapeutic indications will depend on determinations as to which of the multiple cannabinoids, and other biologically active chemicals that are present in the marijuana plant, can be developed to treat specific symptoms and/or diseases. Such insights are particularly critical for addiction disorders, where different phytocannabinoids appear to induce opposing actions that can confound the development of treatment interventions. Whereas Δ(9)-tetracannabinol has been well documented to be rewarding and to enhance sensitivity to other drugs, cannabidiol (CBD), in contrast, appears to have low reinforcing properties with limited abuse potential and to inhibit drug-seeking behavior. Other considerations such as CBD's anxiolytic properties and minimal adverse side effects also support its potential viability as a treatment option for a variety of symptoms associated with drug addiction. However, significant research is still needed as CBD investigations published to date primarily relate to its effects on opioid drugs, and CBD's efficacy at different phases of the abuse cycle for different classes of addictive substances remain largely understudied. Our paper provides an overview of preclinical animal and human clinical investigations, and presents preliminary clinical data that collectively sets a strong foundation in support of the further exploration of CBD as a therapeutic intervention against opioid relapse. As the legal landscape for medical marijuana unfolds, it is important to distinguish it from "medical CBD" and other specific cannabinoids, that can more appropriately be used to maximize the medicinal potential of the marijuana plant.

  17. Short-Course Accelerated Radiotherapy in Palliative Treatment of Advanced Pelvic Malignancies: A Phase I Study

    SciTech Connect

    Caravatta, Luciana; Padula, Gilbert D.A.; Macchia, Gabriella; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Deodato, Francesco; Massaccesi, Mariangela; Mignogna, Samantha; Tambaro, Rosa; Rossi, Marco; Flocco, Mariano; Scapati, Andrea; and others

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose of a conformal short-course accelerated radiotherapy in patients with symptomatic advanced pelvic cancer. Methods and Materials: A phase I trial in 3 dose-escalation steps was designed: 14 Gy (3.5-Gy fractions), 16 Gy (4-Gy fractions), and 18 Gy (4.5-Gy fractions). The eligibility criteria included locally advanced and/or metastatic pelvic cancer and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of {<=}3. Treatment was delivered in 2 days with twice-daily fractionation and at least an 8-hour interval. Patients were treated in cohorts of 6-12 to define the maximum tolerated dose. The dose-limiting toxicity was defined as any acute toxicity of grade 3 or greater, using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Pain was recorded using a visual analog scale. The effect on quality of life was evaluated according to Cancer Linear Analog Scale (CLAS). Results: Of the 27 enrolled patients, 11 were male and 16 were female, with a median age of 72 years (range 47-86). The primary tumor sites were gynecologic (48%), colorectal (33.5%), and genitourinary (18.5%). The most frequent baseline symptoms were bleeding (48%) and pain (33%). Only grade 1-2 acute toxicities were recorded. No patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity. With a median follow-up time of 6 months (range 3-28), no late toxicities were observed. The overall (complete plus partial) symptom remission was 88.9% (95% confidence interval 66.0%-97.8%). Five patients (41.7%) had complete pain relief, and six (50%) showed >30% visual analog scale reduction. The overall response rate for pain was 91.67% (95% confidence interval 52.4%-99.9%). Conclusions: Conformal short course radiotherapy in twice-daily fractions for 2 consecutive days was well tolerated up to a total dose of 18 Gy. A phase II study is ongoing to confirm the efficacy on symptom control and quality of life indexes.

  18. Correlation of scintigraphic phase maps with intraoperative epicardial/endocardial maps in patients with activation disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Dae, M.W.; Botvinick, E.H.; Scheinmann, M.H.; Morady, F.J.; Davis, J.A.; Schechtmann, N.; Frais, M.; Faulkner, D.; O'Connell, W.

    1984-01-01

    To assess the true accuracy of scintigraphic findings, 8 patients (PTS), 6 with pre-excitation (PEX) syndrome and 2 with intractable ventricular tachycardia (VT), were studied by phase analysis, prior to corrective surgery. Sites of earliest phase angle were determined in multiple projections during the conduction disturbance, compared to sites of early ventricular activation determined by epicardial mapping during PEX and, when performed, by endocardial mapping during VT, and to maps previously generated at conventional electrophysiologic study (EPS). Among PEX PTS, Rt and Lt lateral, Lt anterolateral, Rt and Lt posterolateral and posteroseptal bypass pathways mapped at surgery correlated with phase localization. While localization from EPS also correlated well with surgical maps in 4 PTS, 1 PT could not be mapped by EPS and another presented ambiguities. Scintigraphic localization also correlated well with surgical mapping in a PT with a RV VT focus while EPS was suggestive but uncertain. A second PT with VT mapped scintigraphically to originate in a Lt lateral focus, demonstrated a similar localization on EPS, and during surgical mapping, an incision made through the scintigraphic focus terminated VT. Incision in regions of earliest activity in the first VT PT and in PTS with PEX resolved the arrhythmia or interrupted the bypass tract. Phase mapping correlated closely with surface mapping at surgery while providing an accurate, independent method for noninvasive assessment of conduction disturbances and a complementary tool to standard EPS.

  19. Hydralazine and magnesium valproate as epigenetic treatment for myelodysplastic syndrome. Preliminary results of a phase-II trial.

    PubMed

    Candelaria, Myrna; Herrera, Aquileo; Labardini, Juan; González-Fierro, Aurora; Trejo-Becerril, Catalina; Taja-Chayeb, Lucía; Pérez-Cárdenas, Enrique; de la Cruz-Hernández, Erick; Arias-Bofill, Daymi; Vidal, Silvia; Cervera, Eduardo; Dueñas-Gonzalez, Alfonso

    2011-04-01

    Decitabine and azacitidine, two DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors, are the current standard of treatment for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are also being tested against MDS. Both drug classes synergize in their gene reactivating and anticancer activities. The combination of hydralazine and valproate (Transkrip®), a DNMT and HDAC inhibitor, respectively), has been developed as epigenetic therapy under the drug repositioning concept. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of hydralazine and valproate against MDS, an open phase-II study for previously treated patients with MDS was conducted. The hydralazine dose was given according with the acetylator phenotype, and valproate was dosed at 30 mg/kg/day. Response was graded with International Working Group criteria. Toxicity was evaluated by the Common Toxemia Criteria-National Cancer Institute version 3 scale. From November 2007 to January 2010, 12 patients were included. Median age±SD was 53±19.78 years (range, 23-79 years); median time from diagnosis to inclusion in the study was 7.9 months (range 2.6-36.1 months). Median of previous treatment was 2 (range, 1-6). Refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia was diagnosed in ten cases, and refractory anemia with excess of blasts in two. Overall response was documented in six (50%) of 12 cases, including one CR, one PR, and four hematological improvements of the erythroid series. Two patients (16.6%) progressed to acute myeloid leukemia. Hemoglobin increased from 7.4 to 10.3 g/dL (in 13 weeks), neutrophils, from 1.1 to 2.0 (in 3 weeks), and platelets, from 66×10(9) to 72×10(9)/L (in 2 weeks). Transfusional requirements decreased from 2.3 to 0 U bi-monthly for red blood cells and from 0.5 to 0 U bi-monthly for platelets in responding patients. Main toxicities were mild, including somnolence and nausea. Preliminary results of this phase-II study suggest that the combination of hydralazine and valproate is a

  20. Effects of plasmochemical treatments and cerium additions on the structural characteristics and activity of copper catalyst particles in isopropanol dehydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, E. A.; Lobanov, N. N.; Galimova, N. A.; Protasova, I. A.; Yagodovskii, V. D.

    2012-08-01

    The effect of the treatment of the 5 wt % Cu/SiO2 (I) and (5 wt % Cu + 0.5 wt % Ce)/SiO2 (II) catalysts with glow discharge plasma in O2, H2, and Ar on their structural characteristics was studied by X-ray phase analysis; the influence of cerium additions and plasmochemical treatments on the catalyst activity in isopropanol dehydrogenation was also investigated. Under the plasmochemical treatment, the diameters of Cu particles in catalyst I nearly doubled and microstresses in the metal particles also changed. Catalyst II was X-ray amorphous both before and after plasmochemical treatments. The activity of I after plasmochemical treatment increased because of the increase in the number of centers and changes in their composition. Growth of the activity of I compared with the activity of II was explained by the formation of new catalytic centers due to positive charging of the Ce+α adatom on the surface of the copper particle.

  1. Caffeine in hot drinks elicits cephalic phase responses involving cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Shine, Gillian; Whitton, Peter A; Towell, Anthony

    2012-09-01

    Caffeine stimulates both oropharyngeal and gut bitter taste receptors (hTAS2Rs) and so has the potential to elicit reflex autonomic responses. Coffee containing 130 mg caffeine has been reported to increase heart rate for 30 min post-ingestion. Whereas added-caffeine, in doses of 25 to 200 mg, ingested with decaffeinated coffee/tea decreases heart rate 10 to 30 min post-ingestion. This study aimed to clarify caffeine's chemosensory impact. Double-espresso coffees were compared to a placebo-control capsule in a double-blind between-measures design. Coffees tested were regular coffee (130 mg caffeine) and decaffeinated coffee with added-caffeine (0, 67 and 134 mg). Cardiovascular measures from three post-ingestion phases: 1) 0 to 5; 2) 10 to 15; and 3) 25 to 30 min; were compared to pre-ingestion measures. Participants comprised 11 women in the control group and 10 women in the test group. Decaffeinated coffee elicited no changes. Decaffeinated coffee with 67 mg caffeine: decreased dp/dt in Phase 1. Decaffeinated coffee with 134 mg caffeine: increased heart rate in Phases 1 and 2; decreased spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in Phase 1; and increased diastolic pressure in Phases 2 and 3. Regular coffee: increased heart rate in Phases 1 and 2; decreased dp/dt in all phases; and decreased systolic pressure in Phase 1. Caffeine is the substance in regular coffee which elicits chemosensory autonomic reflex responses, which involves heart activity and the baroreflex. Compared to the caffeine in regular coffee, added-caffeine elicits somewhat different chemosensory responses including a more pronounced pressor effect and resetting of the baroreflex. Caffeine in commonly consumed amounts, as well as modulating body processes by blocking adenosine receptors, can elicit reflex autonomic responses during the ingestion of caffeinated drinks. It is plausible that caffeine stimulates hTAS2Rs, during the ingestion of coffee, eliciting cephalic phase responses. These cephalic phase

  2. Caffeine in hot drinks elicits cephalic phase responses involving cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Shine, Gillian; Whitton, Peter A; Towell, Anthony

    2012-09-01

    Caffeine stimulates both oropharyngeal and gut bitter taste receptors (hTAS2Rs) and so has the potential to elicit reflex autonomic responses. Coffee containing 130 mg caffeine has been reported to increase heart rate for 30 min post-ingestion. Whereas added-caffeine, in doses of 25 to 200 mg, ingested with decaffeinated coffee/tea decreases heart rate 10 to 30 min post-ingestion. This study aimed to clarify caffeine's chemosensory impact. Double-espresso coffees were compared to a placebo-control capsule in a double-blind between-measures design. Coffees tested were regular coffee (130 mg caffeine) and decaffeinated coffee with added-caffeine (0, 67 and 134 mg). Cardiovascular measures from three post-ingestion phases: 1) 0 to 5; 2) 10 to 15; and 3) 25 to 30 min; were compared to pre-ingestion measures. Participants comprised 11 women in the control group and 10 women in the test group. Decaffeinated coffee elicited no changes. Decaffeinated coffee with 67 mg caffeine: decreased dp/dt in Phase 1. Decaffeinated coffee with 134 mg caffeine: increased heart rate in Phases 1 and 2; decreased spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in Phase 1; and increased diastolic pressure in Phases 2 and 3. Regular coffee: increased heart rate in Phases 1 and 2; decreased dp/dt in all phases; and decreased systolic pressure in Phase 1. Caffeine is the substance in regular coffee which elicits chemosensory autonomic reflex responses, which involves heart activity and the baroreflex. Compared to the caffeine in regular coffee, added-caffeine elicits somewhat different chemosensory responses including a more pronounced pressor effect and resetting of the baroreflex. Caffeine in commonly consumed amounts, as well as modulating body processes by blocking adenosine receptors, can elicit reflex autonomic responses during the ingestion of caffeinated drinks. It is plausible that caffeine stimulates hTAS2Rs, during the ingestion of coffee, eliciting cephalic phase responses. These cephalic phase

  3. Effects of Two-Phase Treatment with the Herbst and Preadjusted Edgewise Appliances on the Upper Airway Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Koay, Woei Li; Tse, Christine Shuk Kwan; Gu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To assess the effects of two-phase treatment with the Herbst and the preadjusted edgewise appliances on upper airway dimensions and to investigate the correlation between changes in the upper airway dimensions and skeletal morphologies. Methods. A total of 27 Chinese male adolescents aged 12.8 ± 1.3 years were selected. Lateral cephalograms were collected to assess the skeletal morphology and upper airway dimensions. Results. Following Herbst appliance treatment, the upper airway space was significantly enlarged, with the retropalatal (U-MPW) increasing by 1.1 ± 1.6 mm (P < 0.001), the retroglossal (PASmin) increasing by 1.3 ± 2.9 mm (P < 0.05), and the hypopharynx (V-LPW) enlarging by 1.6 ± 3.0 mm (P < 0.01). PASmin was found to show a negative correlation to the mandibular plane angle (MnPl-SN) by r = −0.413 (P < 0.05). There was no significant change (P > 0.05) in upper airway dimensions during the second-phase treatment. Conclusions. Herbst appliance treatment increased the oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal airway dimensions among adolescents with Class II malocclusion, and the effects were maintained throughout the second treatment phase with a preadjusted edgewise appliance. There was a negative correlation between the change in the depth of the retroglossal pharynx and the mandibular plane angle. PMID:27073805

  4. Treatment of Produced Water Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; Robert S. Bowman; Enid J. Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig R. Altare

    2006-01-31

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. Produced waters typically contain a high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component as well as chemicals added during the oil-production process. It has been estimated that a total of 14 billion barrels of produced water were generated in 2002 from onshore operations (Veil, 2004). Although much of this produced water is disposed via reinjection, environmental and cost considerations can make surface discharge of this water a more practical means of disposal. In addition, reinjection is not always a feasible option because of geographic, economic, or regulatory considerations. In these situations, it may be desirable, and often necessary from a regulatory viewpoint, to treat produced water before discharge. It may also be feasible to treat waters that slightly exceed regulatory limits for re-use in arid or drought-prone areas, rather than losing them to reinjection. A previous project conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC26-99BC15221 demonstrated that surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) represents a potential treatment technology for produced water containing BTEX. Laboratory and field experiments suggest that: (1) sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) to SMZ follows linear isotherms in which sorption increases with increasing solute hydrophobicity; (2) the presence of high salt concentrations substantially increases the capacity of the SMZ for BTEX; (3) competitive sorption among the BTEX compounds is negligible; and, (4) complete recovery of the SMZ sorption capacity for BTEX can be achieved by air sparging the SMZ. This report summarizes research for a follow on project to optimize the regeneration process for multiple sorption/regeneration cycles, and to develop and incorporate a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) system for treatment of the off-gas generated during

  5. Activities conducted during the definition phase of the outer planets missions program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The activities are described of the Meteoroid Science Team for the definition phase of the outer planet missions. Studies reported include: (1) combined zodiacal experiment for the Grand Tour Missions of the outer planets, (2) optical transmission of a honeycomb panel and its effectiveness as a particle impact surface, (3) element identification data from the combined zodiacal OPGT experiment and (4) development of lightweight thermally stable mirrors.

  6. High photocatalytic activity of mixed anatase-rutile phases on commercial TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruu Siah, Wai; Lintang, Hendrik O.; Shamsuddin, Mustaffa; Yuliati, Leny

    2016-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is well-known as an active photocatalyst for degradation of various organic pollutants. Over the years, a wide range of TiO2 nanoparticles with different phase compositions, crystallinities, and surface areas have been developed. Due to the different methods and conditions used to synthesize these commercial TiO2 nanoparticles, the properties and photocatalytic performance would also be different from each other. In this study, the photocatalytic removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5- trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) was investigated on commercial Evonik P25, Evonik P90, Hombikat UV100 and Hombikat N100 TiO2 nanoparticles. Upon photocatalytic tests, it was found that overall, the photocatalytic activities of the P25 and the P90 were higher than the N100 and the UV100 for the removal of both 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. The high activities of the P25 and the P90 could be attributed to their phase compositions, which are made up of a mixture of anatase and rutile phases of TiO2. Whereas, the UV100 and the N100 are made up of 100% anatase phase of TiO2. The synergistic effect of the anatase/rutile mixture was reported to slow down the recombination rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Consequently, the photocatalytic activity was increased on these TiO2 nanoparticles.

  7. Active-to-absorbing-state phase transition in an evolving population with mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Niladri

    2015-10-01

    We study the active to absorbing phase transition (AAPT) in a simple two-component model system for a species and its mutant. We uncover the nontrivial critical scaling behavior and weak dynamic scaling near the AAPT that shows the significance of mutation and highlights the connection of this model with the well-known directed percolation universality class. Our model should be a useful starting point to study how mutation may affect extinction or survival of a species.

  8. Selective nanovector mediated treatment of activated proinflammatory microglia/macrophages in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Papa, Simonetta; Rossi, Filippo; Ferrari, Raffaele; Mariani, Alessandro; De Paola, Massimiliano; Caron, Ilaria; Fiordaliso, Fabio; Bisighini, Cinzia; Sammali, Eliana; Colombo, Claudio; Gobbi, Marco; Canovi, Mara; Lucchetti, Jacopo; Peviani, Marco; Morbidelli, Massimo; Forloni, Gianluigi; Perale, Giuseppe; Moscatelli, Davide; Veglianese, Pietro

    2013-11-26

    Much evidence shows that acute and chronic inflammation in spinal cord injury (SCI), characterized by immune cell infiltration and release of inflammatory mediators, is implicated in development of the secondary injury phase that occurs after spinal cord trauma and in the worsening of damage. Activation of microglia/macrophages and the associated inflammatory response appears to be a self-propelling mechanism that leads to progressive neurodegeneration and development of persisting pain state. Recent advances in polymer science have provided a huge amount of innovations leading to increased interest for polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) as drug delivery tools to treat SCI. In this study, we tested and evaluated in vitro and in vivo a new drug delivery nanocarrier: minocycline loaded in NPs composed by a polymer based on poly-ε-caprolactone and polyethylene glycol. These NPs are able to selectively target and modulate, specifically, the activated proinflammatory microglia/macrophages in subacute progression of the secondary injury in SCI mouse model. After minocycline-NPs treatment, we demonstrate a reduced activation and proliferation of microglia/macrophages around the lesion site and a reduction of cells with round shape phagocytic-like phenotype in favor of a more arborized resting-like phenotype with low CD68 staining. Treatment here proposed limits, up to 15 days tested, the proinflammatory stimulus associated with microglia/macrophage activation. This was demonstrated by reduced expression of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and persistent reduced expression of CD68 in traumatized site. The nanocarrier drug delivery tool developed here shows potential advantages over the conventionally administered anti-inflammatory therapy, maximizing therapeutic efficiency and reducing side effects.

  9. Phase transformation sequence and magnetic properties of melt-spun SmCo-based alloy after isochronal heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, X. Y.; Finlayson, T. R.

    2008-11-15

    The phase transformation sequence, microstructure and compositions, and magnetic properties for a melt-spun Sm(Co{sub 0.68}Fe{sub 0.2}Cu{sub 0.1}Zr{sub 0.02}){sub 7.5} alloy after isochronal heat treatments have been studied by using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP), and magnetometry. The as-spun ribbons had a single phase with the Cu{sub 7}Tb structure. After being aged at 720 deg. C, the single phase decomposed into two major phases: 2:17R and 1:5H, and one minor CoFeZr-rich phase. The formation of the Z-phase happened after the cellular structure, requiring a higher temperature than that for the cellular structure. The 3DAP analysis showed that Zr was depleted from the 2:17R and 1:5H phases by a half while the other elements remained almost unchanged when the aging temperature increased from 720 to 840 deg. C. In contrast to the sintered permanent magnets, Cu was enriched in the 1:5H phase with a much higher concentration (>40 at. %). The Cu enrichment also occurred at the boundary of the Z-phase. The coercivity achieved was H{sub c}=4.34 kOe following aging at 720 deg. C. The highest maximum energy product, (BH){sub max}, was 6.48 MG Oe after aging at 800 deg. C and the remanence to saturation magnetization ratio, M{sub r}/M{sub s}, was 0.69. This relatively low H{sub c} and high M{sub r}/M{sub s} ratio may be a consequence of the formation of a significant volume fraction of the CoFeZr-rich nanocrystalline phase.

  10. Infrared Laser Activation of Soluble and Membrane Protein Assemblies in the Gas Phase.

    PubMed

    Mikhailov, Victor A; Liko, Idlir; Mize, Todd H; Bush, Matthew F; Benesch, Justin L P; Robinson, Carol V

    2016-07-19

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) is the dominant method for probing intact macromolecular complexes in the gas phase by means of mass spectrometry (MS). The energy obtained from collisional activation is dependent on the charge state of the ion and the pressures and potentials within the instrument: these factors limit CID capability. Activation by infrared (IR) laser radiation offers an attractive alternative as the radiation energy absorbed by the ions is charge-state-independent and the intensity and time scale of activation is controlled by a laser source external to the mass spectrometer. Here we implement and apply IR activation, in different irradiation regimes, to study both soluble and membrane protein assemblies. We show that IR activation using high-intensity pulsed lasers is faster than collisional and radiative cooling and requires much lower energy than continuous IR irradiation. We demonstrate that IR activation is an effective means for studying membrane protein assemblies, and liberate an intact V-type ATPase complex from detergent micelles, a result that cannot be achieved by means of CID using standard collision energies. Notably, we find that IR activation can be sufficiently soft to retain specific lipids bound to the complex. We further demonstrate that, by applying a combination of collisional activation, mass selection, and IR activation of the liberated complex, we can elucidate subunit stoichiometry and the masses of specifically bound lipids in a single MS experiment.

  11. Oscillatory phase modulates the timing of neuronal activations and resulting behavior.

    PubMed

    Coon, W G; Gunduz, A; Brunner, P; Ritaccio, A L; Pesaran, B; Schalk, G

    2016-06-01

    Human behavioral response timing is highly variable from trial to trial. While it is generally understood that behavioral variability must be due to trial-by-trial variations in brain function, it is still largely unknown which physiological mechanisms govern the timing of neural activity as it travels through networks of neuronal populations, and how variations in the timing of neural activity relate to variations in the timing of behavior. In our study, we submitted recordings from the cortical surface to novel analytic techniques to chart the trajectory of neuronal population activity across the human cortex in single trials, and found joint modulation of the timing of this activity and of consequent behavior by neuronal oscillations in the alpha band (8-12Hz). Specifically, we established that the onset of population activity tends to occur during the trough of oscillatory activity, and that deviations from this preferred relationship are related to changes in the timing of population activity and the speed of the resulting behavioral response. These results indicate that neuronal activity incurs variable delays as it propagates across neuronal populations, and that the duration of each delay is a function of the instantaneous phase of oscillatory activity. We conclude that the results presented in this paper are supportive of a general model for variability in the effective speed of information transmission in the human brain and for variability in the timing of human behavior. PMID:26975551

  12. Highly active antiretroviral treatment for the prevention of HIV transmission

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 an estimated 33 million people were living with HIV; 67% resided in sub-Saharan Africa, with 35% in eight countries alone. In 2007, there were about 1.4 million HIV-positive tuberculosis cases. Globally, approximately 4 million people had been given highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by the end of 2008, but in 2007, an estimated 6.7 million were still in need of HAART and 2.7 million more became infected with HIV. Although there has been unprecedented investment in confronting HIV/AIDS - the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS estimates $13.8 billion was spent in 2008 - a key challenge is how to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic given limited and potentially shrinking resources. Economic disparities may further exacerbate human rights issues and widen the increasingly divergent approaches to HIV prevention, care and treatment. HIV transmission only occurs from people with HIV, and viral load is the single greatest risk factor for all modes of transmission. HAART can lower viral load to nearly undetectable levels. Prevention of mother to child transmission offers proof of the concept of HAART interrupting transmission, and observational studies and previous modelling work support using HAART for prevention. Although knowing one's HIV status is key for prevention efforts, it is not known with certainty when to start HAART. Building on previous modelling work, we used an HIV/AIDS epidemic of South African intensity to explore the impact of testing all adults annually and starting persons on HAART immediately after they are diagnosed as HIV positive. This theoretical strategy would reduce annual HIV incidence and mortality to less than one case per 1000 people within 10 years and it would reduce the prevalence of HIV to less than 1% within 50 years. To explore HAART as a prevention strategy, we recommend further discussions to explore human rights and ethical considerations, clarify research priorities and review feasibility and acceptability

  13. Treatment of gas industry wastes using the biological granular activated carbon fluidized bed reactor process. Annual report, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, R.; Wagner, D.; Sunday, A.; Heine, B.; Rajan, R.

    1994-08-01

    The Granular Activated Carbon-Fluidized Bed Reactor (GAC-FBR) system is a high rate process that combines the advantages of biological and physical-chemical treatment in a single unit operation. The process is particularly well-suited to treatment of contaminants present in water and wastewater at relatively low concentrations. Process economics indicate the GAC-FBR can be extremely cost-effective compared to aqueous phase GAC adsorption and air stripping followed by vapor phase control. Accordingly, three field trials are scheduled for the next 18 months; one at a manufactured gas plant site (PAHs), one at a gas dehydration site (BTEX), and one to treat a chlorinated solvent (TCE) at a government installation.

  14. Phase separation and rotor self-assembly in active particle suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz-Linek, J.; Valeriani, C.; Cacciuto, A.; Cates, M. E.; Marenduzzo, D.; Morozov, A. N.; Poon, W. C. K.

    2012-01-01

    Adding a nonadsorbing polymer to passive colloids induces an attraction between the particles via the “depletion” mechanism. High enough polymer concentrations lead to phase separation. We combine experiments, theory, and simulations to demonstrate that using active colloids (such as motile bacteria) dramatically changes the physics of such mixtures. First, significantly stronger interparticle attraction is needed to cause phase separation. Secondly, the finite size aggregates formed at lower interparticle attraction show unidirectional rotation. These micro-rotors demonstrate the self-assembly of functional structures using active particles. The angular speed of the rotating clusters scales approximately as the inverse of their size, which may be understood theoretically by assuming that the torques exerted by the outermost bacteria in a cluster add up randomly. Our simulations suggest that both the suppression of phase separation and the self-assembly of rotors are generic features of aggregating swimmers and should therefore occur in a variety of biological and synthetic active particle systems. PMID:22392986

  15. Waves of Cdk1 Activity in S Phase Synchronize the Cell Cycle in Drosophila Embryos.

    PubMed

    Deneke, Victoria E; Melbinger, Anna; Vergassola, Massimo; Di Talia, Stefano

    2016-08-22

    Embryos of most metazoans undergo rapid and synchronous cell cycles following fertilization. While diffusion is too slow for synchronization of mitosis across large spatial scales, waves of Cdk1 activity represent a possible process of synchronization. However, the mechanisms regulating Cdk1 waves during embryonic development remain poorly understood. Using biosensors of Cdk1 and Chk1 activities, we dissect the regulation of Cdk1 waves in the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm. We show that Cdk1 waves are not controlled by the mitotic switch but by a double-negative feedback between Cdk1 and Chk1. Using mathematical modeling and surgical ligations, we demonstrate a fundamental distinction between S phase Cdk1 waves, which propagate as active trigger waves in an excitable medium, and mitotic Cdk1 waves, which propagate as passive phase waves. Our findings show that in Drosophila embryos, Cdk1 positive feedback serves primarily to ensure the rapid onset of mitosis, while wave propagation is regulated by S phase events.

  16. Waves of Cdk1 Activity in S Phase Synchronize the Cell Cycle in Drosophila Embryos.

    PubMed

    Deneke, Victoria E; Melbinger, Anna; Vergassola, Massimo; Di Talia, Stefano

    2016-08-22

    Embryos of most metazoans undergo rapid and synchronous cell cycles following fertilization. While diffusion is too slow for synchronization of mitosis across large spatial scales, waves of Cdk1 activity represent a possible process of synchronization. However, the mechanisms regulating Cdk1 waves during embryonic development remain poorly understood. Using biosensors of Cdk1 and Chk1 activities, we dissect the regulation of Cdk1 waves in the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm. We show that Cdk1 waves are not controlled by the mitotic switch but by a double-negative feedback between Cdk1 and Chk1. Using mathematical modeling and surgical ligations, we demonstrate a fundamental distinction between S phase Cdk1 waves, which propagate as active trigger waves in an excitable medium, and mitotic Cdk1 waves, which propagate as passive phase waves. Our findings show that in Drosophila embryos, Cdk1 positive feedback serves primarily to ensure the rapid onset of mitosis, while wave propagation is regulated by S phase events. PMID:27554859

  17. Active phases and flickering of a symbiotic recurrent nova T CrB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iłkiewicz, Krystian; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Stoyanov, Kiril; Manousakis, Antonios; Miszalski, Brent

    2016-11-01

    T CrB is a symbiotic recurrent nova known to exhibit active phases, characterized by apparent increases in the hot component temperature and the appearance of flickering, i.e. changes in the observed flux on the time-scale of minutes. Historical UV observations have ruled out orbital variability as an explanation for flickering and instead suggest flickering is caused by variable mass transfer. We have analysed optical and X-ray observations to investigate the nature of the flickering as well as the active phases in T CrB. The spectroscopic and photometric observations confirm that the active phases follow two periods of ˜1000d and ˜5000d. Flickering in the X-rays is detected and follows an amplitude-flux relationship similar to that observed in the optical. The flickering is most prominent at harder X-ray energies, suggesting that it originates in the boundary layer between the accretion disc and the white dwarf. The X-ray radiation from the boundary layer is then reprocessed by a thick accretion disc or a nebula into UV radiation. A more detailed understanding of flickering would benefit from long-term simultaneous X-ray and optical monitoring of the phenomena in symbiotic recurrent novae and related systems such as Z And type symbiotic stars.

  18. Liquid-Phase Adsorption of Phenol onto Activated Carbons Prepared with Different Activation Levels.

    PubMed

    Hsieh; Teng

    2000-10-01

    The influence of the pore size distribution of activated carbon on the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions was explored. Activated carbons with different porous structures were prepared by gasifying a bituminous coal char to different extents of burn-off. The results of adsorption experiments show that the phenol capacity of these carbons does not proportionally increase with their BET surface area. This reflects the heterogeneity of the carbon surface for adsorption. The pore size distributions of these carbons, determined according to the Dubinin-Stoeckli equation, were found to vary with the burn-off level. By incorporating the distribution with the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation using an inverse proportionality between the micropore size and the adsorption energy, the isotherms for the adsorption of phenol onto these carbons can be well predicted. The present study has demonstrated that the heterogeneity of carbon surface for the phenol adsorption can be attributed to the different energies required for adsorption in different-size micropores. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10998301

  19. Evaluating the Stability of Open Bite Treatments and Its Predictive Factors in the Retention Phase during Permanent Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Parisa; Pakshir, Hamid Reza; Hoseini, Seyed Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Orthodontists often find challenges in treating the anterior open bite and maintaining the results. Purpose This retrospective study was aimed to evaluate the stability of corrected open bite in the retention phase during permanent dentition. Materials and Method A total number of 37 patients, including 20 males and 17 females, with the mean age of 18±2.1 years at the beginning of the treatment were studied after correction of the anterior open bite. Overbites of the patients were measured from their lateral cephalograms before (T1), at the end (T2) and at least 3 years after the end of the treatment in the presence of their fixed retainers (T3).The mean overbite changes and the number of patients with open bite, due to treatment relapse, at T3 were calculated. The relationship between the pre-treatment factors and the treatment relapse was assessed at T1 and T2. Also the effects of treatment methods, extraction and adjunctive use of removable appliances on the post-treatment relapse were evaluated. Results The mean overbite change during the post-treatment period was -0.46±0.7 mm and six patients (16.2%) had relapse in the follow-up recall. Cephalometric Jaraback index showed statistically significant, but weak correlation with overbite changes after the treatment (p= 0.035; r= -0.353). No significant difference was found between the extraction and non-extraction groups (p= 0.117) the use and the type of the removable appliances (p= 0.801). Conclusion Fixed retainers alone are insufficient for stabilizing the results of corrected open bite. The change of overbite in the retention phase could not be predicted from cephalometric measurements. Extraction and use of adjunctive removable appliance did not have any effect on the treatment relapse. PMID:25759854

  20. Aqueous phase adsorption of different sized molecules on activated carbon fibers: Effect of textural properties.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Yogendra N; Bhaduri, Bhaskar; Joshi, Harish C; Srivastava, Anurag; Verma, Nishith

    2016-07-01

    The effect that the textural properties of rayon-based activated carbon fibers (ACFs), such as the BET surface area and pore size distribution (PSD), have on the adsorption of differently sized molecules, namely, brilliant yellow (BY), methyl orange (MO) and phenol (PH), was investigated in the aqueous phase. ACF samples with different BET areas and PSDs were produced by steam-activating carbonized fibers for different activation times (0.25, 0.5, and 1 h). The samples activated for 0.25 h were predominantly microporous, whereas those activated for relatively longer times contained hierarchical micro-mesopores. The adsorption capacities of the ACFs for the adsorbate increased with increasing BET surface area and pore volume, and ranged from 51 to 1306 mg/g depending on the textural properties of the ACFs and adsorbate size. The adsorption capacities of the hierarchical ACF samples followed the order BY > MO > PH. Interestingly, the number of molecules adsorbed by the ACFs followed the reverse order: PH > MO > BY. This anomaly was attributed to the increasing molecular weight of the PH, MO and BY molecules. The equilibrium adsorption data were described using the Langmuir isotherm. This study shows that suitable textural modifications to ACFs are required for the efficient aqueous phase removal of an adsorbate. PMID:27107386

  1. Aqueous phase adsorption of different sized molecules on activated carbon fibers: Effect of textural properties.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Yogendra N; Bhaduri, Bhaskar; Joshi, Harish C; Srivastava, Anurag; Verma, Nishith

    2016-07-01

    The effect that the textural properties of rayon-based activated carbon fibers (ACFs), such as the BET surface area and pore size distribution (PSD), have on the adsorption of differently sized molecules, namely, brilliant yellow (BY), methyl orange (MO) and phenol (PH), was investigated in the aqueous phase. ACF samples with different BET areas and PSDs were produced by steam-activating carbonized fibers for different activation times (0.25, 0.5, and 1 h). The samples activated for 0.25 h were predominantly microporous, whereas those activated for relatively longer times contained hierarchical micro-mesopores. The adsorption capacities of the ACFs for the adsorbate increased with increasing BET surface area and pore volume, and ranged from 51 to 1306 mg/g depending on the textural properties of the ACFs and adsorbate size. The adsorption capacities of the hierarchical ACF samples followed the order BY > MO > PH. Interestingly, the number of molecules adsorbed by the ACFs followed the reverse order: PH > MO > BY. This anomaly was attributed to the increasing molecular weight of the PH, MO and BY molecules. The equilibrium adsorption data were described using the Langmuir isotherm. This study shows that suitable textural modifications to ACFs are required for the efficient aqueous phase removal of an adsorbate.

  2. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  3. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  4. 42 CFR 31.5 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Survey and Public Health Service § 31.5 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. (a) An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him....

  5. 42 CFR 31.5 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Survey and Public Health Service § 31.5 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. (a) An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him....

  6. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  7. 42 CFR 31.5 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Survey and Public Health Service § 31.5 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. (a) An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him....

  8. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  9. 42 CFR 31.5 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Survey and Public Health Service § 31.5 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. (a) An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him....

  10. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  11. Background solar velocity spectrum at high and low phases of solar activity cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régulo, C.; Roca Cortés, T.; Vázquez Ramió, H.

    2002-12-01

    Using GOLF/SOHO data a detailed analysis of the solar background spectrum has been performed at high and low phases of solar activity cycle. The analysis includes not only the non-periodic components of the background power spectrum but also the periodic ones. Apart from the solar activity, other causes produce similar effects in the data, particularly the different depths in the solar atmosphere where the measurements are done, because due to the sun-satellite relative velocity, we are observing at different positions in the line profile. Another effect is that different line wings are used in the observation at two different epochs, before and after SOHO loss and recovery which, unfortunately, coincide with minimum and maximum of solar activity. In this work we have tried to separate all these effects in order to really understand what is being seen in the data and ultimately extract the effects of solar activity on the acoustic background solar spectrum.

  12. 14-3-3-dependent inhibition of the deubiquitinating activity of UBPY and its cancellation in the M phase

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, Emi; Kitamura, Naomi; Komada, Masayuki

    2007-10-01

    The deubiquitinating enzyme UBPY, also known as USP8, regulates cargo sorting and membrane traffic at early endosomes. Here we demonstrate the regulatory mechanism of the UBPY catalytic activity. We identified 14-3-3 {epsilon}, {gamma}, and {zeta} as UBPY-binding proteins using co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometric analysis. The 14-3-3 binding of UBPY was inhibited by mutating the consensus 14-3-3-binding motif RSYS{sup 680}SP, by phosphatase treatment, and by competition with the Ser{sup 680}-phosphorylated RSYS{sup 680}SP peptide. Metabolic labeling with [{sup 32}P]orthophosphate and immunoblotting using antibody against the phosphorylated 14-3-3-binding motif showed that Ser{sup 680} is a major phosphorylation site in UBPY. These results indicated that 14-3-3s bind to the region surrounding Ser{sup 680} in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The mutation at Ser{sup 680} led to enhanced ubiquitin isopeptidase activity of UBPY toward poly-ubiquitin chains and a cellular substrate, epidermal growth factor receptor, in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, addition of 14-3-3{epsilon} inhibited the UBPY activity in vitro. Finally, UBPY was dephosphorylated at Ser{sup 680} and dissociated from 14-3-3s in the M phase, resulting in enhanced activity of UBPY during cell division. We conclude that UBPY is catalytically inhibited in a phosphorylation-dependent manner by 14-3-3s during the interphase, and this regulation is cancelled in the M phase.

  13. Activity Increase Despite Arthritis (AÏDA): design of a Phase II randomised controlled trial evaluating an active management booklet for hip and knee osteoarthritis [ISRCTN24554946

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nefyn H; Amoakwa, Elvis; Burton, Kim; Hendry, Maggie; Belcher, John; Lewis, Ruth; Hood, Kerenza; Jones, Jeremy; Bennett, Paul; Edwards, Rhiannon T; Neal, Richard D; Andrew, Glynne; Wilkinson, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Background Hip and knee osteoarthritis is a common cause of pain and disability, which can be improved by exercise interventions. However, regular exercise is uncommon in this group because the low physical activity level in the general population is probably reduced even further by pain related fear of movement. The best method of encouraging increased activity in this patient group is not known. A booklet has been developed for patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis. It focuses on changing disadvantageous beliefs and encouraging increased physical activity. Methods/Design This paper describes the design of a Phase II randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the effectiveness of this new booklet for patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis in influencing illness and treatment beliefs, and to assess the feasibility of conducting a larger definitive RCT in terms of health status and exercise behaviour. A computerised search of four general medical practice patients' record databases will identify patients older than 50 years of age who have consulted with hip or knee pain in the previous twelve months. A random sample of 120 will be invited to participate in the RCT comparing the new booklet with a control booklet, and we expect 100 to return final questionnaires. This trial will assess the feasibility of recruitment and randomisation, the suitability of the control intervention and outcome measurement tools, and will provide an estimate of effect size. Outcomes will include beliefs about hip and knee pain, beliefs about exercise, fear avoidance, level of physical activity, health status and health service costs. They will be measured at baseline, one month and three months. Discussion We discuss the merits of testing effectiveness in a phase II trial, in terms of intermediate outcome measures, whilst testing the processes for a larger definitive trial. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of testing the psychometric properties of the primary outcome

  14. Different adaptation of the motor activity rhythm to chronic phase shifts between adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nerea; da Silva, Crhistiane; Díez-Noguera, Antoni; Cambras, Trinitat

    2013-09-01

    Chronic phase shifts is a common feature in modern societies, which may induce sleep alterations and other health problems. The effects of phase shift on the circadian rhythms have been described to be more pronounced in old than in young animals. However, few works address the effects of chronic phase shifts during adolescence. Here we tested the development of the motor activity circadian rhythm of young rats under chronic phase shifts, which consisted on 6-h advances (A), 6h delays (D) or 6h advances and delays alternated every 5 days (AD) during the first 60 days after weaning. Moreover, the rhythmic pattern was compared to that of adult rats under the same lighting conditions. Results indicate that adolescent rats, independently on the lighting environment, developed a clear circadian rhythm, whose amplitude increased the first 50 days after weaning and showed a more stable circadian rhythm than adults under the same lighting conditions. In the case of A and AD groups, circadian disruption was observed only in adult rats. In all groups, the offset of activity correlated with light pattern better than the onset, and this correlation was always higher in the case of the rhythm of the pubertal rats. When AD groups were transferred to constant darkness, the group submitted to this condition during adolescence showed shorter period than that submitted in their adulthood. In conclusion, differently from adult rats, adolescent rats submitted to chronic phase shifts did not show circadian disruption and developed a single circadian rhythm, suggesting permanent changes in the circadian system.

  15. Different adaptation of the motor activity rhythm to chronic phase shifts between adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nerea; da Silva, Crhistiane; Díez-Noguera, Antoni; Cambras, Trinitat

    2013-09-01

    Chronic phase shifts is a common feature in modern societies, which may induce sleep alterations and other health problems. The effects of phase shift on the circadian rhythms have been described to be more pronounced in old than in young animals. However, few works address the effects of chronic phase shifts during adolescence. Here we tested the development of the motor activity circadian rhythm of young rats under chronic phase shifts, which consisted on 6-h advances (A), 6h delays (D) or 6h advances and delays alternated every 5 days (AD) during the first 60 days after weaning. Moreover, the rhythmic pattern was compared to that of adult rats under the same lighting conditions. Results indicate that adolescent rats, independently on the lighting environment, developed a clear circadian rhythm, whose amplitude increased the first 50 days after weaning and showed a more stable circadian rhythm than adults under the same lighting conditions. In the case of A and AD groups, circadian disruption was observed only in adult rats. In all groups, the offset of activity correlated with light pattern better than the onset, and this correlation was always higher in the case of the rhythm of the pubertal rats. When AD groups were transferred to constant darkness, the group submitted to this condition during adolescence showed shorter period than that submitted in their adulthood. In conclusion, differently from adult rats, adolescent rats submitted to chronic phase shifts did not show circadian disruption and developed a single circadian rhythm, suggesting permanent changes in the circadian system. PMID:23792134

  16. The effect of phase partitioning of semivolatile compounds on the measured CCN activity of aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romakkaniemi, S.; Jaatinen, A.; Laaksonen, A.; Nenes, A.; Raatikainen, T.

    2013-09-01

    The effect of inorganic semivolatile aerosol compounds on the CCN activity of aerosol particles was studied by using a computational model for a DMT-CCN counter, a cloud parcel model for condensation kinetics and experiments to quantify the modelled results. Concentrations of water vapour and semivolatiles as well as aerosol trajectories in the CCN column were calculated by a computational fluid dynamics model. These trajectories and vapour concentrations were then used as an input for the cloud parcel model to simulate mass transfer kinetics of water and semivolatiles between aerosol particles and the gas phase. Two different questions were studied: (1) how big fraction of semivolatiles is evaporated from particles before activation in the CCN counter? (2) How much the CCN activity can be increased due to condensation of semivolatiles prior to the maximum water supersaturation in the case of high semivolatile concentration in the gas phase? The results show that, to increase the CCN activity of aerosol particles, a very high gas phase concentration (as compared to typical ambient conditions) is needed. We used nitric acid as a test compound. A concentration of several ppb or higher is needed for measurable effect. In the case of particle evaporation, we used ammonium nitrate as a test compound and found that it partially evaporates before maximum supersaturation is reached in the CCN counter, thus causing an underestimation of CCN activity. The effect of evaporation is clearly visible in all supersaturations, leading to an underestimation of the critical dry diameter by 10 to 15 nanometres in the case of ammonium nitrate particles in different supersaturations. This result was also confirmed by measurements in supersaturations between 0.1 and 0.7%.

  17. A numerical study on dual-phase-lag model of bio-heat transfer during hyperthermia treatment.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Kumar, Dinesh; Rai, K N

    2015-01-01

    The success of hyperthermia in the treatment of cancer depends on the precise prediction and control of temperature. It was absolutely a necessity for hyperthermia treatment planning to understand the temperature distribution within living biological tissues. In this paper, dual-phase-lag model of bio-heat transfer has been studied using Gaussian distribution source term under most generalized boundary condition during hyperthermia treatment. An approximate analytical solution of the present problem has been done by Finite element wavelet Galerkin method which uses Legendre wavelet as a basis function. Multi-resolution analysis of Legendre wavelet in the present case localizes small scale variations of solution and fast switching of functional bases. The whole analysis is presented in dimensionless form. The dual-phase-lag model of bio-heat transfer has compared with Pennes and Thermal wave model of bio-heat transfer and it has been found that large differences in the temperature at the hyperthermia position and time to achieve the hyperthermia temperature exist, when we increase the value of τT. Particular cases when surface subjected to boundary condition of 1st, 2nd and 3rd kind are discussed in detail. The use of dual-phase-lag model of bio-heat transfer and finite element wavelet Galerkin method as a solution method helps in precise prediction of temperature. Gaussian distribution source term helps in control of temperature during hyperthermia treatment. So, it makes this study more useful for clinical applications.

  18. Once-daily USL255 as adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures: Randomized phase III study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Steve S; Fakhoury, Toufic A; Hogan, R Edward; Nagaraddi, Venkatesh N; Blatt, Ilan; Lawson, Balduin; Arnold, Stephan; Anders, Bob; Clark, Annie M; Laine, Dawn; Meadows, R Shawn; Halvorsen, Mark B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of USL255, Qudexy™ XR (topiramate) extended-release capsules, as an adjunctive treatment for refractory partial-onset seizures (POS) in adults taking one to three concomitant antiepileptic drugs. Methods In this global phase III study (PREVAIL; NCT01142193), 249 adults with POS were randomized 1:1 to once-daily USL255 (200 mg/day) or placebo. The primary and key secondary efficacy endpoints were median percent reduction in weekly POS frequency and responder rate (proportion of patients with ≥50% reduction in seizure frequency). Seizure freedom was also assessed. Safety (adverse events, clinical and laboratory findings), as well as treatment effects on quality of life (QOLIE-31-P) and clinical global impression of change (CGI-C), were evaluated. Results Across the entire 11-week treatment phase, USL255 significantly reduced the median percent seizure frequency and significantly improved responder rate compared with placebo. Efficacy over placebo was observed early in treatment, in patients with highly refractory POS, and in those with the most debilitating seizure types (i.e., complex partial, partial secondarily generalized). USL255 was safe and generally well tolerated with a low incidence of neurocognitive adverse events. USL255 was associated with significant clinical improvement without adversely affecting quality of life. Significance The PREVAIL phase III clinical study demonstrated that once-daily USL255 (200 mg/day) significantly improved seizure control and was safe and generally well tolerated with few neurocognitive side effects. PMID:24902983

  19. Neural activity associated with semantic versus phonological anomia treatments in aphasia.

    PubMed

    van Hees, Sophia; McMahon, Katie; Angwin, Anthony; de Zubicaray, Greig; Copland, David A

    2014-02-01

    Naming impairments in aphasia are typically targeted using semantic and/or phonologically based tasks. However, it is not known whether these treatments have different neural mechanisms. Eight participants with aphasia received twelve treatment sessions using an alternating treatment design, with fMRI scans pre- and post-treatment. Half the sessions employed Phonological Components Analysis (PCA), and half the sessions employed Semantic Feature Analysis (SFA). Pre-treatment activity in the left caudate correlated with greater immediate treatment success for items treated with SFA, whereas recruitment of the left supramarginal gyrus and right precuneus post-treatment correlated with greater immediate treatment success for items treated with PCA. The results support previous studies that have found greater treatment outcome to be associated with activity in predominantly left hemisphere regions, and suggest that different mechanisms may be engaged dependent on the type of treatment employed.

  20. Phased surgical treatment of barium enema-induced rectal injury and retention of barium in the pelvic floor space

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic injuries caused by barium enema are rarely reported. Following a phased surgical protocol for up to one year, we have successfully treated a patient with rectal injury and severe infection of the pelvic floor space complicated with retention of large amounts of barium and vaginal fistula. In this article, the phased surgery planning for the treatment of rectal injury complicated with vaginal fistula is discussed in terms of the pros and cons, and the observed effect and evolution of barium retained in the pelvic floor space are described. PMID:25405155

  1. Successful Treatment with an Antihypertensive Drug Regimen Including Eplerenone in a Patient with Malignant Phase Hypertension with Renal Failure.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumihiko; Goto, Masahide; Wada, Yoshiki; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    A 28-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the treatment of congestive heart failure and severe hypertension. The patient was diagnosed with malignant phase hypertension based on the presence of marked hypertension with left ventricular hypertrophy, exudate retinopathy, and renal failure. Intensive therapy for hypertension and heart failure with a combination of antihypertensive drugs including nitroglycerin, nifedipine, eplerenone and candesartan successfully lowered his blood pressure and further improved the renal function. Eplerenone could be one of the choices of antihypertensive drugs in combination therapy in patients with malignant phase hypertension with progressive heart and renal failure.

  2. Phase Change Activation and Characterization of Spray-Deposited Poly(vinylidene) Fluoride Piezoelectric Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riosbaas, Miranda Tiffany

    Structural safety and integrity continues to be an issue of utmost concern in our world today. Existing infrastructures in civil, commercial, and military applications are beginning to see issues associated with age and environmental conditions. In addition, new materials are being put to service that are not yet fully characterized and understood when it comes to long term behavior. In order to assess the structural health of both old and new materials, it is necessary to implement a technique for monitoring wear and tear. Current methods that are being used today typically depend on visual inspection techniques or handheld instruments. These methods are not always ideal for large structures as they become very tedious leading to a substantial amount of both time and money spent. More recently, composite materials have been introduced into applications that can benefit from high strength-to-weight ratio materials. However, the use of more complex materials (such as composites) leads to a high demand of structural health monitoring techniques, since the damage is often internal and not visible to the naked eye. The work performed in this thesis examines the methods that can be used for phase change activation and characterization of sprayable poly(vinylidene) fluoride (PVDF) thin films in order to exploit their piezoelectric characteristics for sensing applications. PVDF is widely accepted to exist in four phases: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. Alpha phase PVDF is produced directly from the melt and exhibits no piezoelectric properties. The activation or transition from α phase to some combination of beta and/or gamma phase PVDF leads to a polarizable piezoelectric thin film to be used in sensing applications. The work herein presents the methods used to activate phase change in PVDF, such as mechanical stretching, annealing, and chemical composition, to be able to implement PVDF as an impact detection sensor. The results and analysis provided in this thesis will

  3. Pressure-induced phase transitions of exposed curved surface nano-TiO2 with high photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yanwei; Chen, Fengjiao; Li, Xin; Yuan, Ye; Dong, Haini; Samanta, Sudeshna; Yu, Zhenhai; Rahman, Saqib; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Ke; Yan, Shuai; Wang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    We report a unique phase transition in compressed exposed curved surface nano-TiO2 with high photocatalytic activity using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy. High-pressure studies indicate that the anatase phase starts to transform into baddeleyite phase upon compression at 19.4 GPa, and completely transforms into the baddeleyite phase above 24.6 GPa. Upon decompression, the baddeleyite phase was maintained until the pressure was released to 6.4 GPa and then transformed into the α-PbO2 phase at 2.7 GPa. Together with the results of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and the pressure-volume relationship, this phase transition's characteristics during the compression-decompression cycle demonstrate that the truncated biconic morphology possessed excellent stability. This study may provide an insight to the mechanisms of stability for high photocatalytic activity of nano-TiO2.

  4. Significant Treatment Effect of Bupropion in Patients With Bipolar Disorder but Similar Phase-Shifting Rate as Other Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dian-Jeng; Tseng, Ping-Tao; Chen, Yen-Wen; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Lin, Pao-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bupropion is widely used for treating bipolar disorder (BD), and especially those with depressive mood, based on its good treatment effect, safety profile, and lower risk of phase shifting. However, increasing evidence indicates that the safety of bupropion in BD patients may not be as good as previously thought. The aim of this study was to summarize data on the treatment effect and safety profile of bupropion in the treatment of BD via a meta-analysis. Electronic search through PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov was performed. The inclusion criteria were: (i) studies comparing changes in disease severity before and after bupropion treatment or articles comparing the treatment effect of bupropion in BD patients with those receiving other standard treatments; (ii) articles on clinical trials in humans. The exclusion criteria were (i) case reports/series, and (ii) nonclinical trials. All effect sizes from 10 clinical trials were pooled using a random effects model. We examined the possible confounding variables using meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Bupropion significantly improved the severity of disease in BD patients (P < 0.001), and the treatment effect was similar to other antidepressants/standard treatments (P = 0.220). There were no significant differences in the dropout rate (P = 0.285) and rate of phase shifting (P = 0.952) between BD patients who received bupropion and those who received other antidepressants. We could not perform a detailed meta-analysis of every category of antidepressant, nor could we rule out the possible confounding effect of concurrent psychotropics or include all drug side effects. Furthermore, the number of studies recruited in the meta-analysis was relatively small. Our findings reconfirm the benefits of bupropion for the treatment of bipolar depression, which are similar to those of other antidepressants. However, the rate of phase shifting with bupropion usage was not as low compared to other

  5. Zirconia supported catalysts for bioethanol steam reforming: Effect of active phase and zirconia structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, M.; Padilla, R.; Rodríguez, L.; Sanz, J. L.; Daza, L.

    Three new catalysts have been prepared in order to study the active phase influence in ethanol steam reforming reaction. Nickel, cobalt and copper were the active phases selected and were supported on zirconia with monoclinic and tetragonal structure, respectively. To characterize the behaviour of the catalysts in reaction conditions a study of catalytic activity with temperature was performed. The highest activity values were obtained at 973 K where nickel and cobalt based catalysts achieved an ethanol conversion of 100% and a selectivity to hydrogen close to 70%. Nickel supported on tetragonal zirconia exhibited the highest hydrogen production efficiency, higher than 4.5 mol H 2/mol EtOH fed. The influence of steam/carbon (S/C) ratio on product distribution was another parameter studied between the range 3.2-6.5. Nickel supported on tetragonal zirconia at S/C = 3.2 operated at 973 K without by-product production such as ethylene or acetaldehyde. In order to consider a further application in an ethanol processor, a long-term reaction experiment was performed at 973 K, S/C = 3.2 and atmospheric pressure. After 60 h, nickel supported on tetragonal zirconia exhibited high stability and selectivity to hydrogen production.

  6. Switchable Ultrathin Quarter-wave Plate in Terahertz Using Active Phase-change Metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dacheng; Zhang, Lingchao; Gu, Yinghong; Mehmood, M. Q.; Gong, Yandong; Srivastava, Amar; Jian, Linke; Venkatesan, T.; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Hong, Minghui

    2015-10-01

    Metamaterials open up various exotic means to control electromagnetic waves and among them polarization manipulations with metamaterials have attracted intense attention. As of today, static responses of resonators in metamaterials lead to a narrow-band and single-function operation. Extension of the working frequency relies on multilayer metamaterials or different unit cells, which hinder the development of ultra-compact optical systems. In this work, we demonstrate a switchable ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate by hybridizing a phase change material, vanadium dioxide (VO2), with a metasurface. Before the phase transition, VO2 behaves as a semiconductor and the metasurface operates as a quarter-wave plate at 0.468 THz. After the transition to metal phase, the quarter-wave plate operates at 0.502 THz. At the corresponding operating frequencies, the metasurface converts a linearly polarized light into a circularly polarized light. This work reveals the feasibility to realize tunable/active and extremely low-profile polarization manipulation devices in the terahertz regime through the incorporation of such phase-change metasurfaces, enabling novel applications of ultrathin terahertz meta-devices.

  7. PDF neuron firing phase-shifts key circadian activity neurons in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Cerullo, Isadora; Chen, Xiao; Rosbash, Michael

    2014-06-17

    Our experiments address two long-standing models for the function of the Drosophila brain circadian network: a dual oscillator model, which emphasizes the primacy of PDF-containing neurons, and a cell-autonomous model for circadian phase adjustment. We identify five different circadian (E) neurons that are a major source of rhythmicity and locomotor activity. Brief firing of PDF cells at different times of day generates a phase response curve (PRC), which mimics a light-mediated PRC and requires PDF receptor expression in the five E neurons. Firing also resembles light by causing TIM degradation in downstream neurons. Unlike light however, firing-mediated phase-shifting is CRY-independent and exploits the E3 ligase component CUL-3 in the early night to degrade TIM. Our results suggest that PDF neurons integrate light information and then modulate the phase of E cell oscillations and behavioral rhythms. The results also explain how fly brain rhythms persist in constant darkness and without CRY.

  8. Switchable Ultrathin Quarter-wave Plate in Terahertz Using Active Phase-change Metasurface

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dacheng; Zhang, Lingchao; Gu, Yinghong; Mehmood, M. Q.; Gong, Yandong; Srivastava, Amar; Jian, Linke; Venkatesan, T.; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Hong, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    Metamaterials open up various exotic means to control electromagnetic waves and among them polarization manipulations with metamaterials have attracted intense attention. As of today, static responses of resonators in metamaterials lead to a narrow-band and single-function operation. Extension of the working frequency relies on multilayer metamaterials or different unit cells, which hinder the development of ultra-compact optical systems. In this work, we demonstrate a switchable ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate by hybridizing a phase change material, vanadium dioxide (VO2), with a metasurface. Before the phase transition, VO2 behaves as a semiconductor and the metasurface operates as a quarter-wave plate at 0.468 THz. After the transition to metal phase, the quarter-wave plate operates at 0.502 THz. At the corresponding operating frequencies, the metasurface converts a linearly polarized light into a circularly polarized light. This work reveals the feasibility to realize tunable/active and extremely low-profile polarization manipulation devices in the terahertz regime through the incorporation of such phase-change metasurfaces, enabling novel applications of ultrathin terahertz meta-devices. PMID:26442614

  9. Opposite photocatalytic activity orders of low-index facets of anatase TiO₂ for liquid phase dye degradation and gaseous phase CO₂ photoreduction.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liqun; Mao, Jin; Peng, Tianyou; Zan, Ling; Zhang, Youxiang

    2014-08-01

    We firstly demonstrate the opposite photocatalytic activity orders of low-index facets of anatase TiO2 in the liquid phase for rhodamine B (RhB) photocatalytic degradation and in the gaseous phase for the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4. The photocatalytic activity order in the liquid phase for RhB photocatalytic degradation is revealed as {001} > {101} > {010}, whereas the photocatalytic activity order {010} > {101} > {001} is found in the gaseous phase for the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4. The atomic arrangement of the different facets, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, photoluminescence spectra and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis show that the photoactivity order in the gas phase for the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4 mainly depends on the CO2 molecule adsorption properties on the different exposed facets, and the separation efficiency of the photo-generated carriers determines the photoactivity order for the dye degradation reaction in the liquid phase. These findings also provide a new direction to design efficient photocatalysts and the tuning of their photoreactivity for environmental and energy applications.

  10. Neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment counteracts circadian arrhythmicity induced by phase shifts of the light-dark cycle in female and male Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Onishi, Kenneth G; Zucker, Irving

    2013-07-12

    Studies of rats and voles suggest that distinct pathways emanating from the anterior hypothalamic-retrochiasmatic area and the mediobasal hypothalamic arcuate nucleus independently generate ultradian rhythms (URs) in hormone secretion and behavior. We evaluated the hypothesis that destruction of arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons, in concert with dampening of suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian rhythmicity, would compromize the generation of ultradian rhythms (URs) of locomotor activity. Siberian hamsters retain-->of both sexes treated neonatally with monosodium glutamate (MSG) that destroys ARC neurons were subjected in adulthood to a circadian disrupting phase-shift protocol (DPS) that produces SCN arrhythmia. MSG treatments induced hypogonadism and obesity, retain-->and markedly reduced the size of the optic chiasm and optic nerves. MSG-treated hamsters exhibited normal entrainment to the light-dark cycle, but MSG treatretain-->ment counteracted the circadian arrhythmicity induced by the DPS protocol: only 6% of retain-->MSG-treated hamsters exhibited circadian arrhythmia, whereas 50% of control hamsters were circadian disrupted. In MSG-treated hamsters that retained circadian rhythmicity after DPS treatment, quantitative parameters of URs appeared normal, but in the two MSG-treated hamsters that became circadian arrhythmic after DPS, both dark-phase and light-phase URs were abolished. Although preliminary, these data are consistent with reports in voles suggesting that the combined disruption of SCN and ARC function impairs the expression of behavioral URs. The data also suggest that light thresholds for entrainment of circadian rhythms may be lower than those required to disrupt circadian organization.

  11. Activated Sludge. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Owen K.; Klopping, Paul H.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. Topic areas addressed in the lessons include: (1) activated sludge concepts and components (including aeration tanks, aeration systems, clarifiers, and sludge pumping systems); (2) activated sludge variations and modes; (3) biological nature of activated…

  12. Coherent beam combining of pulsed fibre amplifiers with active phase control

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X L; Zhou, Pu; Ma, Y X; Ma, H T; Xu, X J; Liu, Z J; Zhao, Y J

    2011-12-31

    Coherent beam combining of pulsed fibre lasers is a promising method for power scaling while simultaneously maintaining good beam quality. We propose and demonstrate a scalable architecture for coherent beam combining of all-fibre pulsed amplifiers with active phase control using the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm. A low-pass filter is introduced to eliminate the fluctuation of the metric function caused by pulsed lasers and to extract the exact phase noise signal. Active control is thereby based on the SPGD algorithm, resulting in stable coherent beam combining at the receiving plane even in a turbulent environment. Experimental results show that the fringe visibility of the long exposure pattern increases from 0 to 0.4, and the power encircled in the main-lobe increases by 1.6 times when the system evolves from the open-loop phase-locking scheme to the closed-loop scheme. This architecture can be easily scaled up to a higher power by increasing the number of amplifying channels and the power of a single amplifier.

  13. Efficient Photocatalytic Activities of TiO2 Hollow Fibers with Mixed Phases and Mesoporous Walls.

    PubMed

    Hou, Huilin; Shang, Minghui; Wang, Lin; Li, Wenge; Tang, Bin; Yang, Weiyou

    2015-01-01

    Currently, Degussa P25, with the typical mixed phases of anatase and rutile TiO2, is widely applied as the commercial photocatalysts. However, there are still some of obstacles for the P25 nanoparticles with totally high photocatalytic activities, especially for the catalytic stability due to their inevitable aggregation of the nanoparticles when used as the photocatalysts. In the present work, we reported the exploration of a novel TiO2 photocatalyst, which could offer an ideal platform for synergetic combination of the mixed-phase composition, hollow architecture and mesoporous walls for the desired excellent photocatalytic efficiency and robust stability. The mesoporous TiO2 hollow nanofibers were fabricated via a facile single capillary electrospinning technique, in which the foaming agents were used for creating mesopores throughout the walls of the hollow fibers. The obtained hollow fibers exhibit a high purity and possess the mixed phases of 94.6% anatase and 5.4% rutile TiO2. As compared to P25, the as-fabricated mesoporous TiO2 hollow fibers exhibited much higher efficient photocatalytic activities and stabilities toward the hydrogen evolution with a rate of ~499.1 μmol g(-1)·h(-1) and ~99.5% degradation Rhodamine B (RhB) in 60 min, suggesting their promising application in efficient photocatalysts. PMID:26470013

  14. Process for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase of catalytically active material

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Dale L.; Russo, Richard E.; Mao, Xianglei

    1995-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase reaction product of catalytically active material comprising one or more alkali metals, one or more alkaline earth metals, and one or more Group VIII transition metals. The process comprises reacting together one or more alkali metal oxides and/or salts, one or more alkaline earth metal oxides and/or salts, one or more Group VIII transition metal oxides and/or salts, capable of forming a catalytically active reaction product, in the optional presence of an additional source of oxygen, using a laser beam to ablate from a target such metal compound reactants in the form of a vapor in a deposition chamber, resulting in the deposition, on a heated substrate in the chamber, of the desired oxide phase reaction product. The resulting product may be formed in variable, but reproducible, stoichiometric ratios. The homogeneous oxide solid phase product is useful as a catalyst, and can be produced in many physical forms, including thin films, particulate forms, coatings on catalyst support structures, and coatings on structures used in reaction apparatus in which the reaction product of the invention will serve as a catalyst.

  15. Synoptic perturbations in MJO active phases during the Cindy-Dynamo experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvel, J.; Roca, R.

    2013-12-01

    During the Cindy-Dynamo experiment in October-December 2011, three active convective phases of the intraseasonal oscillation were observed. The convection related to these convective phases is organized at the basin scale by different synoptic perturbations related in particular to Low Pressure Systems (LPS). These LPS (associated to low level cyclonic vortexes) are generated near the equator and can live several days either near a fixed position (especially in southwest Indian Ocean), or following a westward beta drift associated to a deepening. Some of these vortexes later become cyclones. We present first a technique to identify the LPS using ERA Interim re-analyses. Using satellite data we then show how the LPS can organize the convection at basin scale during an active MJO phase and modify the characteristics of the Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS). Extending the analyses over more than 30 years, we show a clear relation between LPS genesis and growth and the MJO over the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific Ocean. More analyses are then presented on the interaction between the LPS and the convection and on the energy transfer between LPS and the large-scale MJO circulation.

  16. Efficient Photocatalytic Activities of TiO2 Hollow Fibers with Mixed Phases and Mesoporous Walls

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Huilin; Shang, Minghui; Wang, Lin; Li, Wenge; Tang, Bin; Yang, Weiyou

    2015-01-01

    Currently, Degussa P25, with the typical mixed phases of anatase and rutile TiO2, is widely applied as the commercial photocatalysts. However, there are still some of obstacles for the P25 nanoparticles with totally high photocatalytic activities, especially for the catalytic stability due to their inevitable aggregation of the nanoparticles when used as the photocatalysts. In the present work, we reported the exploration of a novel TiO2 photocatalyst, which could offer an ideal platform for synergetic combination of the mixed-phase composition, hollow architecture and mesoporous walls for the desired excellent photocatalytic efficiency and robust stability. The mesoporous TiO2 hollow nanofibers were fabricated via a facile single capillary electrospinning technique, in which the foaming agents were used for creating mesopores throughout the walls of the hollow fibers. The obtained hollow fibers exhibit a high purity and possess the mixed phases of 94.6% anatase and 5.4% rutile TiO2. As compared to P25, the as-fabricated mesoporous TiO2 hollow fibers exhibited much higher efficient photocatalytic activities and stabilities toward the hydrogen evolution with a rate of ~499.1 μmol g−1·h−1 and ~99.5% degradation Rhodamine B (RhB) in 60 min, suggesting their promising application in efficient photocatalysts. PMID:26470013

  17. Efficient Photocatalytic Activities of TiO2 Hollow Fibers with Mixed Phases and Mesoporous Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Huilin; Shang, Minghui; Wang, Lin; Li, Wenge; Tang, Bin; Yang, Weiyou

    2015-10-01

    Currently, Degussa P25, with the typical mixed phases of anatase and rutile TiO2, is widely applied as the commercial photocatalysts. However, there are still some of obstacles for the P25 nanoparticles with totally high photocatalytic activities, especially for the catalytic stability due to their inevitable aggregation of the nanoparticles when used as the photocatalysts. In the present work, we reported the exploration of a novel TiO2 photocatalyst, which could offer an ideal platform for synergetic combination of the mixed-phase composition, hollow architecture and mesoporous walls for the desired excellent photocatalytic efficiency and robust stability. The mesoporous TiO2 hollow nanofibers were fabricated via a facile single capillary electrospinning technique, in which the foaming agents were used for creating mesopores throughout the walls of the hollow fibers. The obtained hollow fibers exhibit a high purity and possess the mixed phases of 94.6% anatase and 5.4% rutile TiO2. As compared to P25, the as-fabricated mesoporous TiO2 hollow fibers exhibited much higher efficient photocatalytic activities and stabilities toward the hydrogen evolution with a rate of ~499.1 μmol g-1·h-1 and ~99.5% degradation Rhodamine B (RhB) in 60 min, suggesting their promising application in efficient photocatalysts.

  18. Human motor cortical activity is selectively phase-entrained on underlying rhythms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kai J; Hermes, Dora; Honey, Christopher J; Hebb, Adam O; Ramsey, Nick F; Knight, Robert T; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Fetz, Eberhard E

    2012-01-01

    The functional significance of electrical rhythms in the mammalian brain remains uncertain. In the motor cortex, the 12-20 Hz beta rhythm is known to transiently decrease in amplitude during movement, and to be altered in many motor diseases. Here we show that the activity of neuronal populations is phase-coupled with the beta rhythm on rapid timescales, and describe how the strength of this relation changes with movement. To investigate the relationship of the beta rhythm to neuronal dynamics, we measured local cortical activity using arrays of subdural electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrodes in human patients performing simple movement tasks. In addition to rhythmic brain processes, ECoG potentials also reveal a spectrally broadband motif that reflects the aggregate neural population activity beneath each electrode. During movement, the amplitude of this broadband motif follows the dynamics of individual fingers, with somatotopically specific responses for different fingers at different sites on the pre-central gyrus. The 12-20 Hz beta rhythm, in contrast, is widespread as well as spatially coherent within sulcal boundaries and decreases in amplitude across the pre- and post-central gyri in a diffuse manner that is not finger-specific. We find that the amplitude of this broadband motif is entrained on the phase of the beta rhythm, as well as rhythms at other frequencies, in peri-central cortex during fixation. During finger movement, the beta phase-entrainment is diminished or eliminated. We suggest that the beta rhythm may be more than a resting rhythm, and that this entrainment may reflect a suppressive mechanism for actively gating motor function. PMID:22969416

  19. Generalized Hammersley Process and Phase Transition for Activated Random Walk Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolla, Leonardo T.

    2008-12-01

    * ACTIVATED RANDOM WALK MODEL * This is a conservative particle system on the lattice, with a Markovian continuous-time evolution. Active particles perform random walks without interaction, and they may as well change their state to passive, then stopping to jump. When particles of both types occupy the same site, they all become active. This model exhibits phase transition in the sense that for low initial densities the system locally fixates and for high densities it keeps active. Though extensively studied in the physics literature, the matter of giving a mathematical proof of such phase transition remained as an open problem for several years. In this work we identify some variables that are sufficient to characterize fixation and at the same time are stochastically monotone in the model's parameters. We employ an explicit graphical representation in order to obtain the monotonicity. With this method we prove that there is a unique phase transition for the one-dimensional finite-range random walk. Joint with V. Sidoravicius. * BROKEN LINE PROCESS * We introduce the broken line process and derive some of its properties. Its discrete version is presented first and a natural generalization to the continuum is then proposed and studied. The broken lines are related to the Young diagram and the Hammersley process and are useful for computing last passage percolation values and finding maximal oriented paths. For a class of passage time distributions there is a family of boundary conditions that make the process stationary and reversible. One application is a simple proof of the explicit law of large numbers for last passage percolation with exponential and geometric distributions. Joint with V. Sidoravicius, D. Surgailis, and M. E. Vares.

  20. A Critical Review of Trials of First-Line BCR-ABL Inhibitor Treatment in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Chronic Phase

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Elias; Lipton, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic expression of the constitutively active oncoprotein, BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase, in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was the basis for the development of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors for treatment. Three BCR-ABL inhibitors, imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib, have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for first-line treatment of patients with newly diagnosed CML in chronic phase (CML-CP). This article reviews the key phase III clinical trials supporting the use of first-line imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib in patients with CML-CP as well as findings of supportive phase II studies. At the time of its approval in 2001, imatinib induced unprecedented response rates in patients with CML-CP; however, resistance and intolerance to imatinib prevent 20% to 30% of patients from deriving full therapeutic benefit. Nilotinib and dasatinib, both approved in 2010 for first-line CML-CP treatment, are more potent than imatinib and less susceptible to imatinib resistance mechanisms. Comparative clinical trials of each agent with imatinib have shown that they are associated with significantly deeper and more rapid responses than standard-dose imatinib, without compromising safety. Given that evidence suggests achievement of an early response is predictive of improved long-term outcomes, earlier use of these compounds may lead to more rapid, deeper responses corresponding with improvements in patient outcome. Although future studies will benefit from more uniform definitions of endpoints and methods of analysis, data from published studies of first-line BCR-ABL inhibitor treatment for patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP support the use of either dasatinib or nilotinib in place of imatinib. PMID:24095296

  1. Phase II DeCOG-Study of Ipilimumab in Pretreated and Treatment-Naïve Patients with Metastatic Uveal Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Lisa; Vaubel, Julia; Mohr, Peter; Hauschild, Axel; Utikal, Jochen; Simon, Jan; Garbe, Claus; Herbst, Rudolf; Enk, Alexander; Kämpgen, Eckhart; Livingstone, Elisabeth; Bluhm, Leonie; Rompel, Rainer; Griewank, Klaus G.; Fluck, Michael; Schilling, Bastian; Schadendorf, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Up to 50% of patients with uveal melanoma (UM) develop metastatic disease with limited treatment options. The immunomodulating agent ipilimumab has shown an overall survival (OS) benefit in patients with cutaneous metastatic melanoma in two phase III trials. As patients with UM were excluded in these studies, the Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group (DeCOG) conducted a phase II to assess the efficacy and safety of ipilimumab in patients with metastatic UM. Patients and Methods We undertook a multicenter phase II study in patients with different subtypes of metastatic melanoma. Here we present data on patients with metastatic UM (pretreated and treatment-naïve) who received up to four cycles of ipilimumab administered at a dose of 3 mg/kg in 3 week intervals. Tumor assessments were conducted at baseline, weeks 12, 24, 36 and 48 according to RECIST 1.1 criteria. Adverse events (AEs), including immune-related AEs were graded according to National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) v.4.0. Primary endpoint was the OS rate at 12 months. Results Forty five pretreated (85%) and eight treatment-naïve (15%) patients received at least one dose of ipilimumab. 1-year and 2-year OS rates were 22% and 7%, respectively. Median OS was 6.8 months (95% CI 3.7–8.1), median progression-free survival 2.8 months (95% CI 2.5–2.9). The disease control rate at weeks 12 and 24 was 47% and 21%, respectively. Sixteen patients had stable disease (47%), none experienced partial or complete response. Treatment-related AEs were observed in 35 patients (66%), including 19 grade 3–4 events (36%). One drug-related death due to pancytopenia was observed. Conclusions Ipilimumab has very limited clinical activity in patients with metastatic UM. Toxicity was manageable when treated as per protocol-specific guidelines. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01355120 PMID:25761109

  2. Structural phase transitions and lean NO removal activity of copper-modified alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Masakuni; Suzuki, Suguru; Loong, C.K.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Thomas, R.R.

    1996-12-31

    Copper-modified alumina catalysts, designed for NO removal under lean-burn engine conditions, have been investigated from the viewpoint of the structural phase transition and thermal stability. The structural changes of crystalline components heat-treated at temperatures from 500{degrees}C to 1100{degrees}C were characterized by neutron diffraction (ND) method. In the as-prepared materials, powder-diffraction patterns revealed a mixture of crystalline {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CuO, and electron spin resonance (ESR) data showed well-dispersed Cu{sup 2+} cations coordinated by O atoms in an open-octahedron geometry. ND measurements confirmed the elimination of the CuO phase above 800{degrees}C, and suggested the stabilization of a {delta}-phase of alumina by 10 mol% CuO-doping at 900-1000{degrees}C. This Cu-alumina catalyst which was subjected to heat treatment at 900{degrees}C in air showed a 20% lean de-NOx removal efficiency in a test using a model exhaust gas mixture of space velocity =00, 000 h{sup -1}.

  3. The Active Molybdenum Oxide Phase in the Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde (Formox Process): A DFT Study.

    PubMed

    Rellán-Piñeiro, Marcos; López, Núria

    2015-07-01

    Methanol is oxidised to formaldehyde by the Formox process, in which molybdenum oxides, usually doped with iron, are the catalyst. The active phase of the catalysts and the reasons for the selectivity observed are still unknown. We present a density functional theory based study that indicates the unique character of Mo(VI)¢Mo(IV) pairs as the most active and selective sites and indicates the active sites on the surface, the controlling factors of selectivity, and the role of the dopant. Iron reduces the energy requirements of the redox Mo(VI)¢Mo(IV) pair by acting as an electron reservoir that sets in if required. Our present study paves the way towards a better understanding of the process.

  4. Regulatory Cell Populations in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) Patients: Effect of Disease Activity and Treatment Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Rodi, Maria; Dimisianos, Nikolaos; de Lastic, Anne-Lise; Sakellaraki, Panagiota; Deraos, George; Matsoukas, John; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis; Mouzaki, Athanasia

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) of autoimmune etiology that results from an imbalance between CNS-specific T effector cells and peripheral suppressive mechanisms mediated by regulatory cells (RC). In this research, we collected blood samples from 83 relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients and 45 healthy persons (HC), to assess the sizes of their RC populations, including CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ (nTregs), CD3+CD4+HLA−G+, CD3+CD8+CD28−, CD3+CD56+, and CD56bright cells, and how RC are affected by disease activity (acute phase or remission) and types of treatment (methylprednisolone, interferon, or natalizumab). In addition, we isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and cultured them with peptides mapping to myelin antigens, to determine RC responsiveness to autoantigens. The results showed decreased levels of nTregs in patients in the acute phase ± methylprednisolone and in remission + natalizumab, but HC levels in patients in remission or receiving interferon. Patients + interferon had the highest levels of CD3+CD4+HLA−G+ and CD3+CD8+CD28− RC, and patients in the acute phase + methylprednisolone the lowest. Patients in remission had the highest levels of CD3+CD56+, and patients in remission + natalizumab the highest levels of CD56bright cells. Only nTregs responded to autoantigens in culture, regardless of disease activity or treatment. The highest suppressive activity was exhibited by nTregs from patients in remission. In conclusion, in RRMS disease activity and type of treatment affect different RC populations. nTregs respond to myelin antigens, indicating that it is possible to restore immunological tolerance through nTreg induction. PMID:27571060

  5. A Novel Phase-Shift Control of Semibridgeless Active Rectifier for Wireless Power Transfer

    DOE PAGES

    Colak, Kerim; Asa, Erdem; Bojarski, Mariusz; Czarkowski, Dariusz; Onar, Omer C.

    2015-05-12

    We investigated a novel phase-shift control of a semibridgeless active rectifier (S-BAR) in order to utilize the S-BAR in wireless energy transfer applications. The standard receiver-side rectifier topology is developed by replacing rectifier lower diodes with synchronous switches controlled by a phase-shifted PWM signal. Moreover, theoretical and simulation results showthat with the proposed control technique, the output quantities can be regulated without communication between the receiver and transmitter. In order to confirm the performance of the proposed converter and control, experimental results are provided using 8-, 15-, and 23-cm air gap coreless transformer which has dimension of 76 cm xmore » 76 cm, with 120-V input and the output power range of 0 to 1kW with a maximum efficiency of 94.4%.« less

  6. A Novel Phase-Shift Control of Semibridgeless Active Rectifier for Wireless Power Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Colak, Kerim; Asa, Erdem; Bojarski, Mariusz; Czarkowski, Dariusz; Onar, Omer C.

    2015-05-12

    We investigated a novel phase-shift control of a semibridgeless active rectifier (S-BAR) in order to utilize the S-BAR in wireless energy transfer applications. The standard receiver-side rectifier topology is developed by replacing rectifier lower diodes with synchronous switches controlled by a phase-shifted PWM signal. Moreover, theoretical and simulation results showthat with the proposed control technique, the output quantities can be regulated without communication between the receiver and transmitter. In order to confirm the performance of the proposed converter and control, experimental results are provided using 8-, 15-, and 23-cm air gap coreless transformer which has dimension of 76 cm x 76 cm, with 120-V input and the output power range of 0 to 1kW with a maximum efficiency of 94.4%.

  7. Density-matrix renormalization-group study of current and activity fluctuations near nonequilibrium phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Gorissen, Mieke; Hooyberghs, Jef; Vanderzande, Carlo

    2009-02-01

    Cumulants of a fluctuating current can be obtained from a free-energy-like generating function, which for Markov processes equals the largest eigenvalue of a generalized generator. We determine this eigenvalue with the density-matrix renormalization group for stochastic systems. We calculate the variance of the current in the different phases, and at the phase transitions, of the totally asymmetric exclusion process. Our results can be described in the terms of a scaling ansatz that involves the dynamical exponent z . We also calculate the generating function of the dynamical activity (total number of configuration changes) near the absorbing-state transition of the contact process. Its scaling properties can be expressed in terms of known critical exponents. PMID:19391693

  8. Active hexagonally segmented mirror to investigate new optical phasing technologies for segmented telescopes.

    PubMed

    Gonté, Frédéric; Dupuy, Christophe; Luong, Bruno; Frank, Christoph; Brast, Roland; Sedghi, Baback

    2009-11-10

    The primary mirror of the future European Extremely Large Telescope will be equipped with 984 hexagonal segments. The alignment of the segments in piston, tip, and tilt within a few nanometers requires an optical phasing sensor. A test bench has been designed to study four different optical phasing sensor technologies. The core element of the test bench is an active segmented mirror composed of 61 flat hexagonal segments with a size of 17 mm side to side. Each of them can be controlled in piston, tip, and tilt by three piezoactuators with a precision better than 1 nm. The context of this development, the requirements, the design, and the integration of this system are explained. The first results on the final precision obtained in closed-loop control are also presented.

  9. Active hexagonally segmented mirror to investigate new optical phasing technologies for segmented telescopes.

    PubMed

    Gonté, Frédéric; Dupuy, Christophe; Luong, Bruno; Frank, Christoph; Brast, Roland; Sedghi, Baback

    2009-11-10

    The primary mirror of the future European Extremely Large Telescope will be equipped with 984 hexagonal segments. The alignment of the segments in piston, tip, and tilt within a few nanometers requires an optical phasing sensor. A test bench has been designed to study four different optical phasing sensor technologies. The core element of the test bench is an active segmented mirror composed of 61 flat hexagonal segments with a size of 17 mm side to side. Each of them can be controlled in piston, tip, and tilt by three piezoactuators with a precision better than 1 nm. The context of this development, the requirements, the design, and the integration of this system are explained. The first results on the final precision obtained in closed-loop control are also presented. PMID:19904341

  10. A High Power Density Single-Phase PWM Rectifier With Active Ripple Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruxi; Wang, Fei; Boroyevich, Dushan; Burgos, Rolando; Lai, Rixin; Ning, Puqi; Rajashekara, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that single-phase pulse width modulation rectifiers have second-order harmonic currents and corresponding ripple voltages on the dc bus. The low-frequency harmonic current is normally filtered using a bulk capacitor in the bus, which results in low power density. However, pursuing high power density in converter design is a very important goal in the aerospace applications. This paper studies methods for reducing the energy storage capacitor for single-phase rectifiers. The minimum ripple energy storage requirement is derived independently of a specific topology. Based on theminimum ripple energy requirement, the feasibility of the active capacitor s reduction schemes is verified. Then, we propose a bidirectional buck boost converter as the ripple energy storage circuit, which can effectively reduce the energy storage capacitance. The analysis and design are validated by simulation and experimental results.

  11. The inactive-active phase transition in the noisy additive (exclusive-or) probabilistic cellular automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the inactive-active phase transition in an array of additive (exclusive-or) cellular automata (CA) under noise. The model is closely related with the Domany-Kinzel (DK) probabilistic cellular automaton (PCA), for which there are rigorous as well as numerical estimates on the transition probabilities. Here, we characterize the critical behavior of the noisy additive cellular automaton by mean field analysis and finite-size scaling and show that its phase transition belongs to the directed percolation universality class of critical behavior. As a by-product of our analysis, we argue that the critical behavior of the noisy elementary CA 90 and 102 (in Wolfram’s enumeration scheme) must be the same. We also perform an empirical investigation of the mean field equations to assess their quality and find that away from the critical point (but not necessarily very far away) the mean field approximations provide a reasonably good description of the dynamics of the PCA.

  12. Activated scaling in disorder-rounded first-order quantum phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellafard, Arash; Chakravarty, Sudip

    2016-09-01

    First-order phase transitions, classical or quantum, subject to randomness coupled to energylike variables (bond randomness) can be rounded, resulting in continuous transitions (emergent criticality). We study perhaps the simplest such model, the quantum three-color Ashkin-Teller model, and show that the quantum critical point in (1 +1 ) dimension is an unusual one, with activated scaling at the critical point and Griffiths-McCoy phase away from it. The behavior is similar to the transverse random field Ising model, even though the pure system has a first-order transition in this case. We believe that this fact must be attended to when discussing quantum critical points in numerous physical systems.

  13. Transparent gels: study of their formation and assimilation of active ingredients through phase diagrams.

    PubMed

    Comelles, F; Caelles, J; Parra, J L; Leal, J S

    1992-08-01

    Synopsis Multicomponent gel formulations capable of assimilating, simultaneously, several active ingredients of potential application in the cosmetic field were studied. The possibility of formation of a transparent gel was determined using a method which consisted in the optimization of several lipophilic basic compositions, composed of oil, a mixture of surfactants, a sunscreen agent, several vitamins and antioxidants situated in the base of a regular tetrahedron that symbolized the considered system. To this, a polar phase made of water, a cosolvent and urea in appropriate proportions and situated in the fourth vertex, was progressively added. It may be concluded, that the use of phase diagrams on cosmetic systems, constitutes a useful way to select the components and their mutual ratios, allowing an adaptation to the specific requested conditions of formulation.

  14. Calcium and Magnesium Ions Are Membrane-Active against Stationary-Phase Staphylococcus aureus with High Specificity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuntao; Yang, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is notorious for its ability to acquire antibiotic-resistance, and antibiotic-resistant S. aureus has become a wide-spread cause of high mortality rate. Novel antimicrobials capable of eradicating S. aureus cells including antibiotic-resistant ones are thus highly desired. Membrane-active bactericides and species-specific antimicrobials are two promising sources of novel anti-infective agents for fighting against bacterial antibiotic-resistance. We herein show that Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), two alkaline-earth-metal ions physiologically essential for diverse living organisms, both disrupt model S. aureus membranes and kill stationary-phase S. aureus cells, indicative of membrane-activity. In contrast to S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis exhibit unaffected survival after similar treatment with these two cations, indicative of species-specific activity against S. aureus. Moreover, neither Ca(2+) nor Mg(2+) lyses mouse red blood cells, indicative of hemo-compatibility. This works suggests that Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) may have implications in targeted eradication of S. aureus pathogen including the antibiotic-resistant ones. PMID:26865182

  15. Calcium and Magnesium Ions Are Membrane-Active against Stationary-Phase Staphylococcus aureus with High Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuntao; Yang, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is notorious for its ability to acquire antibiotic-resistance, and antibiotic-resistant S. aureus has become a wide-spread cause of high mortality rate. Novel antimicrobials capable of eradicating S. aureus cells including antibiotic-resistant ones are thus highly desired. Membrane-active bactericides and species-specific antimicrobials are two promising sources of novel anti-infective agents for fighting against bacterial antibiotic-resistance. We herein show that Ca2+ and Mg2+, two alkaline-earth-metal ions physiologically essential for diverse living organisms, both disrupt model S. aureus membranes and kill stationary-phase S. aureus cells, indicative of membrane-activity. In contrast to S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis exhibit unaffected survival after similar treatment with these two cations, indicative of species-specific activity against S. aureus. Moreover, neither Ca2+ nor Mg2+ lyses mouse red blood cells, indicative of hemo-compatibility. This works suggests that Ca2+ and Mg2+ may have implications in targeted eradication of S. aureus pathogen including the antibiotic-resistant ones. PMID:26865182

  16. Properties of highly refractory corundum ceramics containing glass phase, and their influence on the surface roughness after mechanical treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Degtyareva, E.V.; Barannik, Y.P.; Kabakova, I.I.; Skorodumova, E.B.

    1985-09-01

    Systematic investigations were made of the effect of the content of silica additives in the form of aluminosilicate raw materials, synthetic glasses, (aluminoborosilicate), and also pure silicon dioxide and mixtures of it with magnesium, calcium, yttrium, zirconium, chromium oxides, and zircon concentrate on the formation of glass phase and the content in it of SiO/sub 2/, the mechanical strength and impact strength of the ceramics and their abrasion resistance. A study was also made of the relationship between these properties and the state of the surface finish of the ceramics after mechanical treatment. The study showed that the amount of glass phase formed after firing and the content in the glass phase of silica are determined by the concentration of silicon oxide contained in the additive.

  17. Development of Radar Control system for Multi-mode Active Phased Array Radar for atmospheric probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasodha, Polisetti; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Thriveni, A.

    2016-07-01

    Modern multi-mode active phased array radars require highly efficient radar control system for hassle free real time radar operation. The requirement comes due to the distributed architecture of the active phased array radar, where each antenna element in the array is connected to a dedicated Transmit-Receive (TR) module. Controlling the TR modules, which are generally few hundreds in number, and functioning them in synchronisation, is a huge task during real time radar operation and should be handled with utmost care. Indian MST Radar, located at NARL, Gadanki, which is established during early 90's, as an outcome of the middle atmospheric program, is a remote sensing instrument for probing the atmosphere. This radar has a semi-active array, consisting of 1024 antenna elements, with limited beam steering, possible only along the principle planes. To overcome the limitations and difficulties, the radar is being augmented into fully active phased array, to accomplish beam agility and multi-mode operations. Each antenna element is excited with a dedicated 1 kW TR module, located in the field and enables to position the radar beam within 20° conical volume. A multi-channel receiver makes the radar to operate in various modes like Doppler Beam Swinging (DBS), Spaced Antenna (SA), Frequency Domain Interferometry (FDI) etc. Present work describes the real-time radar control (RC) system for the above described active phased array radar. The radar control system consists of a Spartan 6 FPGA based Timing and Control Signal Generator (TCSG), and a computer containing the software for controlling all the subsystems of the radar during real-time radar operation and also for calibrating the radar. The main function of the TCSG is to generate the control and timing waveforms required for various subsystems of the radar. Important components of the RC system software are (i) TR module configuring software which does programming, controlling and health parameter monitoring of the

  18. Development of Radar Control system for Multi-mode Active Phased Array Radar for atmospheric probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasodha, Polisetti; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Thriveni, A.

    2016-07-01

    Modern multi-mode active phased array radars require highly efficient radar control system for hassle free real time radar operation. The requirement comes due to the distributed architecture of the active phased array radar, where each antenna element in the array is connected to a dedicated Transmit-Receive (TR) module. Controlling the TR modules, which are generally few hundreds in number, and functioning them in synchronisation, is a huge task during real time radar operation and should be handled with utmost care. Indian MST Radar, located at NARL, Gadanki, which is established during early 90's, as an outcome of the middle atmospheric program, is a remote sensing instrument for probing the atmosphere. This radar has a semi-active array, consisting of 1024 antenna elements, with limited beam steering, possible only along the principle planes. To overcome the limitations and difficulties, the radar is being augmented into fully active phased array, to accomplish beam agility and multi-mode operations. Each antenna element is excited with a dedicated 1 kW TR module, located in the field and enables to position the radar beam within 20° conical volume. A multi-channel receiver makes the radar to operate in various modes like Doppler Beam Swinging (DBS), Spaced Antenna (SA), Frequency Domain Interferometry (FDI) etc. Present work describes the real-time radar control (RC) system for the above described active phased array radar. The radar control system consists of a Spartan 6 FPGA based Timing and Control Signal Generator (TCSG), and a computer containing the software for controlling all the subsystems of the radar during real-time radar operation and also for calibrating the radar. The main function of the TCSG is to generate the control and timing waveforms required for various subsystems of the radar. Important components of the RC system software are (i) TR module configuring software which does programming, controlling and health parameter monitoring of the

  19. Structure-phase states evolution in Al-Si alloy under electron-beam treatment and high-cycle fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Konovalov, Sergey Alsaraeva, Krestina Gromov, Victor Semina, Olga; Ivanov, Yurii

    2015-10-27

    By methods of scanning and transmission electron diffraction microscopy the analysis of structure-phase states and defect substructure of silumin subjected to high-intensity electron beam irradiation in various regimes and subsequent fatigue loading up to failure was carried out. It is revealed that the sources of fatigue microcracks are silicon plates of micron and submicron size are not soluble in electron beam processing. The possible reasons of the silumin fatigue life increase under electron-beam treatment are discussed.

  20. Induction of anoxic microenvironment in multi-phase metabolic shift strategy during periodic discontinuous batch mode operation enhances treatment of azo dye wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Naresh Kumar, A; Annie Modestra, J; Venkata Mohan, S

    2014-08-01

    Variation in anoxic microenvironment (multi-phase (MP) metabolic shift strategy) during cycle operation of periodic discontinuous batch/sequencing batch (PDBR/SBR) mode operation showed enhanced degradation of recalcitrant azo dye (C.I. Acid Black 10B) at higher dye load (1250mg/l). The process performance was evaluated by varying anoxic phasing period during cycle operation. Before multiphase (BMP) operation with 2.1% of anoxic period showed color/COD removal efficiency of 41.9%/46.3%. Increment in anoxic period responded favorable in enhancing treatment efficiency [AMPI (16.2%), 49.4%/52.4%; AMPII (26.6%), 54.7%/57.2%; AMPIII (34.9%), 58.4%/61.5%]. Relatively higher bio-electrochemical activity, persistent reductive behavior (redox catalytic currents, 0.26/-0.72μA), prevalence of redox shuttlers (Fe-S proteins, cytochromes, quinones) facilitating enhanced electron transfer by minimization of associated losses and higher enzyme activities were observed with induction of anoxic phase. Anoxic condition shifts system microenvironment between oxidation and reduction assisting reduction of dye to its intermediates followed by their mineralization.

  1. Scale-Up Information for Gas-Phase Ammonia Treatment of Uranium in the Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Thomle, Jonathan N.; Johnson, Timothy C.

    2014-09-01

    Uranium is present in the vadose zone at the Hanford Central Plateau and is of concern for protection of groundwater. The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau identified gas-phase treatment and geochemical manipulation as potentially effective treatment approaches for uranium and technetium in the Hanford Central Plateau vadose zone. Based on laboratory evaluation, use of ammonia vapor was selected as the most promising uranium treatment candidate for further development and field testing. While laboratory tests have shown that ammonia treatment effectively reduces the mobility of uranium, additional information is needed to enable deployment of this technology for remediation. Of importance for field applications are aspects of the technology associated with effective distribution of ammonia to a targeted treatment zone, understanding the fate of injected ammonia and its impact on subsurface conditions, and identifying effective monitoring approaches. In addition, information is needed to select equipment and operational parameters for a field design. As part of development efforts for the ammonia technology for remediation of vadose zone uranium contamination, field scale-up issues were identified and have been addressed through a series of laboratory and modeling efforts. This report presents a conceptual description for field application of the ammonia treatment process, engineering calculations to support treatment design, ammonia transport information, field application monitoring approaches, and a discussion of processes affecting the fate of ammonia in the subsurface. The report compiles this information from previous publications and from recent research and development activities. The intent of this report is to provide technical information about these scale-up elements to support the design and operation of a field test for the ammonia treatment technology.

  2. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  3. Gamma activity coupled to alpha phase as a mechanism for top-down controlled gating.

    PubMed

    Bonnefond, Mathilde; Jensen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Coupling between neural oscillations in different frequency bands has been proposed to coordinate neural processing. In particular, gamma power coupled to alpha phase is proposed to reflect gating of information in the visual system but the existence of such a mechanism remains untested. Here, we recorded ongoing brain activity using magnetoencephalography in subjects who performed a modified Sternberg working memory task in which distractors were presented in the retention interval. During the anticipatory pre-distractor period, we show that the phase of alpha oscillations was coupled with the power of high (80-120Hz) gamma band activity, i.e. gamma power consistently was lower at the trough than at the peak of the alpha cycle (9-12Hz). We further show that high alpha power was associated with weaker gamma power at the trough of the alpha cycle. This result is in line with alpha activity in sensory region implementing a mechanism of pulsed inhibition silencing neuronal firing every ~100 ms. PMID:26039691

  4. Shape Representation of Word Was Automatically Activated in the Encoding Phase

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Tianyu; Zheng, Liling; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Theories of embodied language comprehension have proposed that language processing includes perception simulation and activation of sensorimotor representation. Previous studies have used a numerical priming paradigm to test the priming effect of semantic size, and the negative result showed that the sensorimotor representation has not been activated during the encoding phase. Considering that the size property is unstable, here we changed the target property to examine the priming effect of semantic shape using the same paradigm. The participants would see three different object names successively, and then they were asked to decide whether the shape of the second referent was more similar to the first one or the third one. In the eye-movement experiment, the encoding time showed a distance-priming effect, as the similarity of shapes between the first referent and the second referent increased, the encoding time of the second word gradually decreased. In the event-related potentials experiment, when the difference of shapes between the first referent and the second referent increased, the N400 amplitude became larger. These findiings suggested that the shape information of a word was activated during the encoding phase, providing supportive evidence for the embodied theory of language comprehension. PMID:27788236

  5. Gamma Activity Coupled to Alpha Phase as a Mechanism for Top-Down Controlled Gating

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefond, Mathilde; Jensen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Coupling between neural oscillations in different frequency bands has been proposed to coordinate neural processing. In particular, gamma power coupled to alpha phase is proposed to reflect gating of information in the visual system but the existence of such a mechanism remains untested. Here, we recorded ongoing brain activity using magnetoencephalography in subjects who performed a modified Sternberg working memory task in which distractors were presented in the retention interval. During the anticipatory pre-distractor period, we show that the phase of alpha oscillations was coupled with the power of high (80-120Hz) gamma band activity, i.e. gamma power consistently was lower at the trough than at the peak of the alpha cycle (9-12Hz). We further show that high alpha power was associated with weaker gamma power at the trough of the alpha cycle. This result is in line with alpha activity in sensory region implementing a mechanism of pulsed inhibition silencing neuronal firing every ~100 ms. PMID:26039691

  6. Phase 1b study of lenvatinib (E7080) in combination with temozolomide for treatment of advanced melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hong, David S.; Kurzrock, Razelle; Falchook, Gerald S.; Andresen, Corina; Kwak, Jennifer; Ren, Min; Xu, Lucy; George, Goldy C.; Kim, Kevin B.; Nguyen, Ly M.; O'Brien, James P.; Nemunaitis, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective and Methods In this phase 1b study, patients with stage 4 or unresectable stage 3 melanoma were treated with escalating doses of lenvatinib (once daily) and temozolomide (TMZ) (days 1–5) in 28-day cycles, to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the combination. Dose Level (DL)1: lenvatinib 20 mg, TMZ 100 mg/m2; DL2: lenvatinib 24 mg, TMZ 100 mg/m2; DL3: lenvatinib 24 mg, TMZ 150 mg/m2. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded and tumor response assessed per RECIST 1.0. Results Dose-limiting toxicity occurred in 1 of 32 treated patients (DL1); MTD was not reached. The highest dose administered was lenvatinib 24 mg + TMZ 150 mg/m2. Most common treatment-related AEs included fatigue (56.3%), hypertension (53.1%), and proteinuria (46.9%). Overall objective response rate was 18.8% (6 patients), all partial response; (DL1, n = 1; DL3, n = 5). Stable disease (SD) ≥ 16 weeks was observed in 28.1% of patients (DL1 and DL2, n = 1 each; DL3, n = 7); 12.5% of patients had SD ≥ 23 weeks. Single and repeat-dose pharmacokinetics of lenvatinib were comparable across cycles and with concomitant TMZ administration. Conclusion Lenvatinib 24 mg/day + TMZ 150 mg/m2/day (days 1–5) demonstrated modest clinical activity, an acceptable safety profile, and was administered without worsening of either lenvatinib- or TMZ-related toxicities in this patient group. PMID:26503473

  7. Phenolic wastewater treatment through extractive recovery coupled with biodegradation in a two-phase partitioning membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Prashant; Loh, Kai-Chee

    2015-12-01

    A two-phase partitioning membrane bioreactor (TPPMB) was designed and operated for treatment of high strength phenolic wastewater through extraction/stripping and concomitant biodegradation. Tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene was used as the organic phase, sodium hydroxide as the stripping phase and Pseudomonas putida for biodegradation. In a semi-dispersive approach, organic phase dispersed in the stripping solution was contacted with wastewater through semi-permeable membranes for removal of phenol from wastewater, while the microorganisms were inoculated directly into the wastewater for biodegradation. The TPPMB exhibited high phenol removal rates, and phenol concentrations of 1000-3000mg/L were reduced to undetected amounts within 2-4h. Up to 80% phenol was recovered through extraction, while the remaining was metabolized by the microorganisms. Phenol recovery in the TPPMB was enhanced by increasing the mass transfer rate of phenol through the membranes, and it was also estimated that phenol diffusion through the aqueous boundary layer on the tube side was the rate limiting step. The flexibility in adjusting inoculation time in the TPPMB prevented microorganisms from adverse effects of substrate inhibition, which facilitated complete removal of phenol from the wastewater. TPPMB retained the advantages of both solvent extraction and biodegradation, and it can be highly promising for the treatment of toxic industrial wastewater.

  8. Phenolic wastewater treatment through extractive recovery coupled with biodegradation in a two-phase partitioning membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Prashant; Loh, Kai-Chee

    2015-12-01

    A two-phase partitioning membrane bioreactor (TPPMB) was designed and operated for treatment of high strength phenolic wastewater through extraction/stripping and concomitant biodegradation. Tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene was used as the organic phase, sodium hydroxide as the stripping phase and Pseudomonas putida for biodegradation. In a semi-dispersive approach, organic phase dispersed in the stripping solution was contacted with wastewater through semi-permeable membranes for removal of phenol from wastewater, while the microorganisms were inoculated directly into the wastewater for biodegradation. The TPPMB exhibited high phenol removal rates, and phenol concentrations of 1000-3000mg/L were reduced to undetected amounts within 2-4h. Up to 80% phenol was recovered through extraction, while the remaining was metabolized by the microorganisms. Phenol recovery in the TPPMB was enhanced by increasing the mass transfer rate of phenol through the membranes, and it was also estimated that phenol diffusion through the aqueous boundary layer on the tube side was the rate limiting step. The flexibility in adjusting inoculation time in the TPPMB prevented microorganisms from adverse effects of substrate inhibition, which facilitated complete removal of phenol from the wastewater. TPPMB retained the advantages of both solvent extraction and biodegradation, and it can be highly promising for the treatment of toxic industrial wastewater. PMID:26210322

  9. Water at Biological Phase Boundaries: Its Role in Interfacial Activation of Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Many life-sustaining activities in living cells occur at the membrane-water interface. The pertinent questions that we need to ask are, what are the evolutionary reasons in biology for choosing the membrane-water interface as the site for performing and/or controlling crucial biological reactions, and what is the key physical principle that is very singular to the membrane-water interface that biology exploits for regulating metabolic processes in cells? In this chapter, a hypothesis is developed, which espouses that cells control activities of membrane-bound enzymes through manipulation of the thermodynamic activity of water in the lipid-water interfacial region. The hypothesis is based on the fact that the surface pressure of a lipid monolayer is a direct measure of the thermodynamic activity of water at the lipid-water interface. Accordingly, the surface pressure-dependent activation or inactivation of interfacial enzymes is directly related to changes in the thermodynamic activity of interfacial water. Extension of this argument suggests that cells may manipulate conformations (and activities) of membrane-bound enzymes by manipulating the (re)activity of interfacial water at various locations in the membrane by localized compression or expansion of the interface. In this respect, cells may use the membrane-bound hormone receptors, lipid phase transition, and local variations in membrane lipid composition as effectors of local compression and/or expansion of membrane, and thereby local water activity. Several experimental data in the literature will be reexamined in the light of this hypothesis.

  10. Contribution of sensory feedback to ongoing ankle extensor activity during the stance phase of walking.

    PubMed

    Donelan, J Maxwell; Pearson, Keir G

    2004-01-01

    Numerous investigations over the past 15 years have demonstrated that sensory feedback plays a critical role in establishing the timing and magnitude of muscle activity during walking. Here we review recent studies reporting that sensory feedback makes a substantial contribution to the activation of extensor motoneurons during the stance phase. Quantitative analysis of the effects of loading and unloading ankle extensor muscles during walking on a horizontal surface has shown that sensory feedback can increase the activity of ankle extensor muscles by up to 60%. There is currently some uncertainty about which sensory receptors are responsible for this enhancement of extensor activity, but likely candidates are the secondary spindle endings in the ankle extensors of humans and the Golgi tendon organs in the ankle extensors of humans and cats. Two important issues arise from the finding that sensory feedback from the leg regulates the magnitude of extensor activity. The first is the extent to which differences in the magnitude of activity in extensor muscles during different locomotor tasks can be directly attributed to changes in the magnitude of sensory signals, and the second is whether the enhancement of extensor activity is determined primarily by feedback from a specific group of receptors or from numerous groups of receptors distributed throughout the leg. Limitations of current experimental strategies prevent a straightforward empirical resolution of these issues. A potentially fruitful approach in the immediate future is to develop models of the known and hypothesized neuronal networks controlling motoneuronal activity, and use these simulations to control forward dynamic models of the musculo-skeletal system. These simulations would help understand how sensory signals are modified with a change in locomotor task and, in conjunction with physiological experiments, establish the extent to which these modifications can account for changes in the magnitude of

  11. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production.

  12. Assessment of uterine and umbilical artery velocimetry during latent and active phases of normal labor.

    PubMed

    Meizner, I; Levy, A; Katz, M

    1993-01-01

    Twenty healthy parturients in active labor were monitored with continuous wave Doppler to assess changes in uterine and umbilical velocity waveforms. Each case served as its own control. Tracings of fetal heart rate monitoring were normal in all patients. The analysis of the waveforms included the peak systolic/end-diastolic ratio for the umbilical circulation (umbilical artery), and the systolic minus diastolic velocity divided by systolic velocity (resistance index) was used as an indication of downstream resistance in the uterine arteries. Recordings from umbilical, left and right uterine arteries were obtained during various stages of progression of labor as indicated by Friedman's curve. In latent phase labor with intact membranes, as well as in three consecutive measurements throughout active phase labor until delivery, umbilical artery systolic/end-diastolic ratios, before, during and after contraction did not change--2.2 +/- 0.5, 2.3 +/- 0.6, 2.2 +/- 0.3 and 2.5 +/- 0.7 (NS). No changes in the resistance to flow in the left and right uterine arteries were recorded during both latent and active phases of labor--0.53 +/- 0.09, 0.52 +/- 0.1, 0.5 +/- 0.07, 0.56 +/- 0.07 (NS) and 0.59 +/- 0.1, 0.57 +/- 0.1, 0.56 +/- 0.1, 0.59 +/- 0.08 (NS), respectively. These results suggest stability of the fetal cardiovascular system ensuring continuous constant gas exchange process during labor, enabling most term fetuses to tolerate labor to a degree where minimal if any metabolic changes occur.

  13. Hanford Tank Waste - Near Source Treatment of Low Activity Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, William Gene

    2013-08-15

    Abstract only. Treatment and disposition of Hanford Site waste as currently planned consists of 100+ waste retrievals, waste delivery through up to 8+ miles of dedicated, in-ground piping, centralized mixing and blending operations- all leading to pre-treatment combination and separation processes followed by vitrification at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The sequential nature of Tank Farm and WTP operations requires nominally 15-20 years of continuous operations before all waste can be retrieved from many Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). Also, the infrastructure necessary to mobilize and deliver the waste requires significant investment beyond that required for the WTP. Treating waste as closely as possible to individual tanks or groups- as allowed by the waste characteristics- is being investigated to determine the potential to 1) defer, reduce, and/or eliminate infrastructure requirements, and 2) significantly mitigate project risk by reducing the potential and impact of single point failures. The inventory of Hanford waste slated for processing and disposition as LAW is currently managed as high-level waste (HLW), i.e., the separation of fission products and other radionuclides has not commenced. A significant inventory of this waste (over 20M gallons) is in the form of precipitated saltcake maintained in single shell tanks, many of which are identified as potential leaking tanks. Retrieval and transport (as a liquid) must be staged within the waste feed delivery capability established by site infrastructure and WTP. Near Source treatment, if employed, would provide for the separation and stabilization processing necessary for waste located in remote farms (wherein most of the leaking tanks reside) significantly earlier than currently projected. Near Source treatment is intended to address the currently accepted site risk and also provides means to mitigate future issues likely to be faced over the coming decades. This paper

  14. Ten Year Revision of the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression: Revised Treatment Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejuez, C. W.; Hopko, Derek R.; Acierno, Ron; Daughters, Stacey B.; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2011-01-01

    Following from the seminal work of Ferster, Lewinsohn, and Jacobson, as well as theory and research on the Matching Law, Lejuez, Hopko, LePage, Hopko, and McNeil developed a reinforcement-based depression treatment that was brief, uncomplicated, and tied closely to behavioral theory. They called this treatment the brief behavioral activation…

  15. The activity of recent anti-allergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Clement, P; Smitz, J; De Waele, M

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments were performed during the pollen season to study the activity of different antiallergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Nasal allergen challenge (NAC) was performed to mimic an acute attack of allergic rhinitis and to objectively evaluate the effect of the drugs on the early-phase reaction during the season. The first study assessed the effect of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg a day) and of a combination of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg) plus H2 (Cimetidine 800 mg a day) antagonists on nasal symptoms, mediator release and eosinophil count in a group of 16 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. During the same season a second study compared in a randomized way (2 parallel groups) the effect of Budesonide (Rhinocort Aqua) and Azelastine (Allergodil nasal spray) in a group of 14 patients. Results showed that both antihistamines, applied topically of dosed orally, reduced sneezing even when significant increases of histamine concentration in nasal secretions were evidenced immediately after NAC. When a combination of Cetirizine and Cimetidine was administered, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction of nasal airway resistance and increase of nasal airflow after NAC were demonstrated as well. In addition, topical application of Budesonide showed a strong (p < 0.01) effect on the infiltration and activation of eosinophils during the season, and on tryptase release after NAC. These effects lasted at least for one week after therapy. PMID:8669268

  16. The activity of recent anti-allergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Clement, P; Smitz, J; De Waele, M

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments were performed during the pollen season to study the activity of different antiallergic drugs in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Nasal allergen challenge (NAC) was performed to mimic an acute attack of allergic rhinitis and to objectively evaluate the effect of the drugs on the early-phase reaction during the season. The first study assessed the effect of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg a day) and of a combination of H1 (Cetirizine 10 mg) plus H2 (Cimetidine 800 mg a day) antagonists on nasal symptoms, mediator release and eosinophil count in a group of 16 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. During the same season a second study compared in a randomized way (2 parallel groups) the effect of Budesonide (Rhinocort Aqua) and Azelastine (Allergodil nasal spray) in a group of 14 patients. Results showed that both antihistamines, applied topically of dosed orally, reduced sneezing even when significant increases of histamine concentration in nasal secretions were evidenced immediately after NAC. When a combination of Cetirizine and Cimetidine was administered, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction of nasal airway resistance and increase of nasal airflow after NAC were demonstrated as well. In addition, topical application of Budesonide showed a strong (p < 0.01) effect on the infiltration and activation of eosinophils during the season, and on tryptase release after NAC. These effects lasted at least for one week after therapy.

  17. Intravitreal Sirolimus for the Treatment of Geographic Atrophy: Results of a Phase I/II Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Petrou, Philip A.; Cunningham, Denise; Shimel, Katherine; Harrington, Molly; Hammel, Keri; Cukras, Catherine A.; Ferris, Frederick L.; Chew, Emily Y.; Wong, Wai T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the safety and effects of intravitreal sirolimus for the potential treatment of geographic atrophy (GA). Methods. The study was a single-center, open-label, phase I/II trial enrolling six participants with bilateral GA treated with intravitreal sirolimus in only one randomly assigned eye, with the fellow eye as control. The primary efficacy outcome measure was the change in total GA area from baseline on color fundus photography (CFP); secondary outcomes included changes in GA area on fundus autofluorescence (FAF), visual acuity, central retinal thickness (CRT), and macular sensitivity from baseline. Results. Although no systemic adverse events were attributed to treatment, two of six participants had ocular adverse events that were possibly associated. The treated eye of one participant developed abnormal paralesional changes on FAF that were associated with accelerated retinal thinning. This accelerated retinal thinning was also seen in the treated eye of a second participant. Because of concern that these events were associated with treatment, treatment was suspended. Comparisons of treated and fellow eyes for change in visual acuity, change in GA area, and change in CRT showed no evidence of treatment benefit and generally favored the untreated fellow eye. Conclusions. While paralesional FAF changes and rapid retinal thinning observed are potentially part of the natural course of GA, they may possibly be related to treatment. No general evidence of anatomical or functional benefit was detected in treated eyes. Further data on intravitreal sirolimus for GA treatment will be available from a larger phase II trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01445548.) PMID:25525171

  18. Physical Activity in Adolescents following Treatment for Cancer: Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Wright, Marilyn; Bryans, Angie; Gray, Kaylin; Skinner, Leah; Verhoeve, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels and influencing individual and environmental factors in a group of adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparison group. Methods. The study was conducted using a "mixed methods" design. Quantitative data was collected from 48 adolescent survivors of cancer and 48 comparison adolescents using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Fatigue Scale-Adolescents, and the Amherst Health and Activity Study-Student Survey. Qualitative data was collected in individual semistructured interviews. Results. Reported leisure-time physical activity total scores were not significantly different between groups. Physical activity levels were positively correlated with adult social support factors in the group of adolescent survivors of cancer, but not in the comparison group. Time was the primary barrier to physical activity in both groups. Fatigue scores were higher for the comparison but were not associated with physical activity levels in either group. The qualitative data further supported these findings. Conclusions. Barriers to physical activity were common between adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparative group. Increased knowledge of the motivators and barriers to physical activity may help health care providers and families provide more effective health promotion strategies to adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer.

  19. Treatment of feline otoacariasis with 2 otic preparations not containing miticidal active ingredients.

    PubMed

    Scherk-Nixon, M; Baker, B; Pauling, G E; Hare, J E

    1997-04-01

    Two otic products not containing miticidal active ingredients were compared for the treatment of otoacariasis in 20 cats. It was concluded that treatment of feline otoacariasis can be achieved using products with an oil/wax base in conjunction with routine ear cleaning and total body parasitacide treatment.

  20. Treatment of feline otoacariasis with 2 otic preparations not containing miticidal active ingredients.

    PubMed Central

    Scherk-Nixon, M; Baker, B; Pauling, G E; Hare, J E

    1997-01-01

    Two otic products not containing miticidal active ingredients were compared for the treatment of otoacariasis in 20 cats. It was concluded that treatment of feline otoacariasis can be achieved using products with an oil/wax base in conjunction with routine ear cleaning and total body parasitacide treatment. PMID:9105721

  1. The international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D): outcomes from the acute phase of antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Saveanu, Radu; Etkin, Amit; Duchemin, Anne-Marie; Goldstein-Piekarski, Andrea; Gyurak, Anett; Debattista, Charles; Schatzberg, Alan F; Sood, Satish; Day, Claire V A; Palmer, Donna M; Rekshan, William R; Gordon, Evian; Rush, A John; Williams, Leanne M

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to characterize a large international cohort of outpatients with MDD within a practical trial design, in order to identify clinically useful predictors of outcomes with three common antidepressant medications in acute-phase treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). The international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression has presently enrolled 1008 treatment-seeking outpatients (18-65 years old) at 17 sites (five countries). At pre-treatment, we characterized participants by symptoms, clinical history, functional status and comorbidity. Participants were randomized to receive escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine-extended release and managed by their physician following usual treatment practices. Symptoms, function, quality of life, and side-effect outcomes were assessed 8 weeks later. The relationship of anxiety to response and remission was assessed by comorbid Axis I diagnosis, presence/absence of anxiety symptoms, and dimensionally by anxiety symptom severity. The sample had moderate-to-severe symptoms, but substantial comorbidity and functional impairment. Of completers at week 8, 62.2% responded and 45.4% reached remission on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; 53.3% and 37.6%, respectively on the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Functional improvements were seen across all domains. Most participants had side effects that occurred with a frequency of 25% or less and were reported as being in the "none" to minimal/mild range for intensity and burden. Outcomes did not differ across medication groups. More severe anxiety symptoms at pre-treatment were associated with lower remission rates across all medications, independent of depressive severity, diagnostic comorbidity or side effects. Across medications, we found consistent and similar improvements in symptoms and function, and a dimensional prognostic effect of comorbid anxiety symptoms. These equivalent outcomes across treatments lay the foundation for

  2. Comparing Active Pediatric Obesity Treatments Using Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilles, Allyson; Cassano, Michael; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Higgins, Diana; Hecker, Jeffrey E.; Nangle, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    The current meta-analysis reviews research on the treatment of pediatric obesity focusing on studies that have been published since 1994. Eleven studies (22 comparisons, 115 effect sizes, N = 447) were included in the present meta-analysis. Results indicated that comprehensive behavioral interventions may be improved in at least two ways:…

  3. The Contribution of the Activation Entropy to the Gas-Phase Stability of Modified Nucleic Acid Duplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hari, Yvonne; Dugovič, Branislav; Istrate, Alena; Fignolé, Annabel; Leumann, Christian J.; Schürch, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Tricyclo-DNA (tcDNA) is a sugar-modified analogue of DNA currently tested for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in an antisense approach. Tandem mass spectrometry plays a key role in modern medical diagnostics and has become a widespread technique for the structure elucidation and quantification of antisense oligonucleotides. Herein, mechanistic aspects of the fragmentation of tcDNA are discussed, which lay the basis for reliable sequencing and quantification of the antisense oligonucleotide. Excellent selectivity of tcDNA for complementary RNA is demonstrated in direct competition experiments. Moreover, the kinetic stability and fragmentation pattern of matched and mismatched tcDNA heteroduplexes were investigated and compared with non-modified DNA and RNA duplexes. Although the separation of the constituting strands is the entropy-favored fragmentation pathway of all nucleic acid duplexes, it was found to be only a minor pathway of tcDNA duplexes. The modified hybrid duplexes preferentially undergo neutral base loss and backbone cleavage. This difference is due to the low activation entropy for the strand dissociation of modified duplexes that arises from the conformational constraint of the tc-sugar-moiety. The low activation entropy results in a relatively high free activation enthalpy for the dissociation comparable to the free activation enthalpy of the alternative reaction pathway, the release of a nucleobase. The gas-phase behavior of tcDNA duplexes illustrates the impact of the activation entropy on the fragmentation kinetics and suggests that tandem mass spectrometric experiments are not suited to determine the relative stability of different types of nucleic acid duplexes.

  4. A phase II study of AZD2171 (cediranib) in the treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mattison, Ryan; Jumonville, Alcee; Flynn, Patrick James; Moreno-Aspitia, Alvaro; Erlichman, Charles; Laplant, Betsy; Juckett, Mark B.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) not fit for intensive treatment need novel therapy options. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibition is one potential mechanism by which AML and MDS could be treated. The receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor AZD2171 (cediranib) has activity against VEGF receptors KDR and FLT-1. This multicenter phase II study was designed to test cediranib's activity in patients with AML or high-risk MDS. The primary endpoint was confirmed disease response defined as a composite of complete remission, partial remission or hematologic improvement. The study enrolled 23 subjects in the AML cohort and 16 subjects in the MDS cohort. There were no confirmed responses in either group. Since the study met the stopping rule after the first stage of enrollment, the trial was closed to further accrual. Common adverse events in both cohorts included thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, anemia, fatigue, dyspnea, diarrhea, nausea and dehydration. PMID:25329007

  5. Syllable-Timed Speech Treatment for School-Age Children Who Stutter: A Phase I Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Cheryl; O'Brian, Sue; Harrison, Elisabeth; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This clinical trial determined the outcomes of a simple syllable-timed speech (STS) treatment for school-age children who stutter. Method: Participants were 10 children, ages 6-11 years, who stutter. Treatment involved training the children and their parents to use STS at near normal speech rates. The technique was practiced in the clinic…

  6. Inhibition of protein kinase B activity induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis during early G₁ phase in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    van Opstal, Angélique; Bijvelt, José; van Donselaar, Elly; Humbel, Bruno M; Boonstra, Johannes

    2012-04-01

    Inhibition of PKB (protein kinase B) activity using a highly selective PKB inhibitor resulted in inhibition of cell cycle progression only if cells were in early G1 phase at the time of addition of the inhibitor, as demonstrated by time-lapse cinematography. Addition of the inhibitor during mitosis up to 2 h after mitosis resulted in arrest of the cells in early G1 phase, as deduced from the expression of cyclins D and A and incorporation of thymidine. After 24 h of cell cycle arrest, cells expressed the cleaved caspase-3, a central mediator of apoptosis. These results demonstrate that PKB activity in early G1 phase is required to prevent the induction of apoptosis. Using antibodies, it was demonstrated that active PKB translocates to the nucleus during early G1 phase, while an even distribution of PKB was observed through cytoplasm and nucleus during the end of G1 phase. PMID:22251027

  7. DYNAMO Convective System Structure During Active and Suppressed Phases of the MJO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, D. P.; Guy, N.; Chen, S. S.; Wang, Q.

    2012-12-01

    One of the primary goals of the DYNAMO project (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation -MJO) are to better understand the structure of convective cloud systems and their large-scale environment in the MJO region to improve MJO forecasts within the climate-system models. During the MJO field campaign of 2011-12 (CINDY2011-DYNAMO-AMIE-LASP) one of the NOAA P-3 instrumented aircraft was deployed to Diego Garcia, a small island in the British Indian Ocean Territories, to gather data on cloud systems within the DYNAMO domain. In particular, the vertically scanning tail-mounted X-band radar and GPS dropwindsones, are used to document the structures of various mesoscale convective systems (MCS) observed during phases of the MJO. An overview of the convective structures seen during the project will be given and a few selected case studies will be presented to illustrate typical MCS structures seen in the airborne Doppler and dropsonde data sets. Bulk characteristics of MCSs in various MJO phases will be shown such as reflectivity and airflow relative to convective features, the depth and strength of near-surface cold pools from dropsonde data, and typical environmental proximity soundings of the MCSs. From a statistical viewpoint, various contoured frequency by altitude diagrams of reflectivity and vertical velocity derived from the 3-D Doppler winds will be shown that will characterize the convective systems in suppressed and active phases of the MJO.

  8. Modelling and Simulation of Single-Phase Series Active Compensator for Power Quality Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Arun Kumar; Mathuria, Kirti; Singh, Bhim; Bhuvaneshwari, G.

    2016-10-01

    A single-phase active series compensator is proposed in this work to reduce harmonic currents at the ac mains and to regulate the dc link voltage of a diode bridge rectifier (DBR) that acts as the front end converter for a voltage source inverter feeding an ac motor. This ac motor drive is used in any of the domestic, commercial or industrial appliances. Under fluctuating ac mains voltages, the dc link voltage of the DBR depicts wide variations and hence the ac motor is used at reduced rating as compared to its name-plate rating. The active series compensator proposed here provides dual functions of improving the power quality at the ac mains and regulating the dc link voltage thus averting the need for derating of the ac motor.

  9. The phase shift between the hemispheres in the solar activity cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibalova, A. S.; Obridko, V. N.; Sokoloff, D. D.

    2016-10-01

    The shift between the solar activity cycles in the northern and southern hemispheres of the Sun is studied using data on sunspot number and area. The data obtained are compared with archival information on episodes of appreciable solar-cycle asymmetry. The small phase shift between recent activity cycles in the northern and southern solar hemispheres differs considerably from the shift for episodes of appreciable deviations from dipolar symmetry in the sunspot distribution detected with various degrees of confidence in archival astronomical data from the 17th-19th centuries. The current time shift between the hemispheres is insignificant, about 6-7 months. This shift has changed its sign twice in recent solar history; this probably corresponds to more or less periodic variations with a timescale close to the duration of the Gleissberg cycle.

  10. Rapid reverse phase-HPLC assay of HMG-CoA reductase activity

    PubMed Central

    Mozzicafreddo, Matteo; Cuccioloni, Massimiliano; Eleuteri, Anna Maria; Angeletti, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Radioisotope-based and mass spectrometry coupled to chromatographic techniques are the conventional methods for monitoring HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity. Irrespective of offering adequate sensitivity, these methods are often cumbersome and time-consuming, requiring the handling of radiolabeled chemicals or elaborate ad-hoc derivatizing procedures. We propose a rapid and versatile reverse phase-HPLC method for assaying HMGR activity capable of monitoring the levels of both substrates (HMG-CoA and NADPH) and products (CoA, mevalonate, and NADP+) in a single 20 min run with no pretreatment required. The linear dynamic range was 10–26 pmol for HMG-CoA, 7–27 nmol for NADPH, 0.5–40 pmol for CoA and mevalonate, and 2–27 nmol for NADP+, and limit of detection values were 2.67 pmol, 2.77 nmol, 0.27 pmol, and 1.3 nmol, respectively. PMID:20418539

  11. Solid-Phase Synthesis, Characterization, and Cellular Activities of Collagen-Model Nanodiamond-Peptide Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Knapinska, Anna M.; Tokmina-Roszyk, Dorota; Amar, Sabrina; Tokmina-Roszyk, Michal; Mochalin, Vadym N.; Gogotsi, Yury; Cosme, Patrick; Terentis, Andrew C.; Fields, Gregg B.

    2015-01-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) have received considerable attention as potential drug delivery vehicles. NDs are small (~5 nm diameter), can be surface modified in a controllable fashion with a variety of functional groups, and have little observed toxicity in vitro and in vivo. However, most biomedical applications of NDs utilize surface adsorption of biomolecules, as opposed to covalent attachment. Covalent modification provides reliable and reproducible ND–biomolecule ratios, and alleviates concerns over biomolecule desorption prior to delivery. The present study has outlined methods for the efficient solid-phase conjugation of ND to peptides and characterization of ND–peptide conjugates. Utilizing collagen-derived peptides, the ND was found to support or even enhance the cell adhesion and viability activities of the conjugated sequence. Thus, NDs can be incorporated into peptides and proteins in a selective manner, where the presence of the ND could potentially enhance the in vivo activities of the biomolecule it is attached to. PMID:25753561

  12. Nonhomogeneity effects in adsorption from gas and liquid phases on activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Derylo-Marczewska, A.; Marczewski, A.W.

    1999-05-25

    The process of adsorption of dissociating organic substances from dilute aqueous solutions on various activated carbons is studied. The investigated adsorbents have different pore structure and chemical properties of the surface. The characteristics of activated carbons are determined from nitrogen and benzene isotherms and potentiometric titration data. The properties of pore structure--BET specific surface area, the total pore volume, the external surface area, the micropore volume, and the density of surface charge--are evaluated. The isotherms of benzoic acid adsorption from the aqueous phase are measured for a wide range of solution pH and constant ionic strength by using the static method. The liquid adsorption data are analyzed in terms of the theory of adsorption on heterogeneous solids.

  13. Family and Community Studies (FACS) Fourth Interim Report, Phase I and Activities and Timelines for Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Renato; And Others

    Discussed in this paper is a preliminary analysis of findings from data gathered during the first phase of a research project exploring the processes whereby the nature of the mother's occupation affects her family life, especially (1) her partnership in decisions about housework, child care and education and (2) the negotiation of the allocation…

  14. REPEATED REDUCTIVE AND OXIDATIVE TREATMENTS ON GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenton oxidation and Fenton oxidation preceded by reduction solutions were applied to granular activated carbon (GAC) to chemically regenerate the adsorbent. No adsorbate was present on the GAC so physicochemical effects from chemically aggressive regeneration of the carbon coul...

  15. Direct imaging of macrophage activation during PDT treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.; Xing, Da

    2011-11-01

    Mounting evidence describes a more complex progress of macrophage activation during photodynamic therapy (PDT), which performing distinct immunological functions and different physiologies on surrounding cells and tissues. Macrophage-targeted PDT has been applied in the selective killing of cells involved in inflammation and tumor. We have previously shown that PDT-mediated tumor cells apoptosis can induce a higher level immune response than necrosis, and enhance the macrophage activation. However, the molecular mechanism of macrophage activation during PDT-induced apoptotic cells (AC) still unclear. Here, we use confocal microscopy to image the phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages. We also observed that PDT-treated AC can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are present on macrophages surface. Besides, the increase in nitric oxide (NO) formation in macrophages was detected in real time by a laser scanning microscopy. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

  16. Direct imaging of macrophage activation during PDT treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.; Xing, Da

    2012-03-01

    Mounting evidence describes a more complex progress of macrophage activation during photodynamic therapy (PDT), which performing distinct immunological functions and different physiologies on surrounding cells and tissues. Macrophage-targeted PDT has been applied in the selective killing of cells involved in inflammation and tumor. We have previously shown that PDT-mediated tumor cells apoptosis can induce a higher level immune response than necrosis, and enhance the macrophage activation. However, the molecular mechanism of macrophage activation during PDT-induced apoptotic cells (AC) still unclear. Here, we use confocal microscopy to image the phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages. We also observed that PDT-treated AC can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are present on macrophages surface. Besides, the increase in nitric oxide (NO) formation in macrophages was detected in real time by a laser scanning microscopy. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Spermatogenically Regressed, Recrudescent and Active Phase Testis of Seasonally Breeding Wall Lizards Hemidactylus flaviviridis

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Mukesh; Mathur, Amitabh; Khan, Meraj Alam; Majumdar, Subeer S.; Rai, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    Background Reptiles are phylogenically important group of organisms as mammals have evolved from them. Wall lizard testis exhibits clearly distinct morphology during various phases of a reproductive cycle making them an interesting model to study regulation of spermatogenesis. Studies on reptile spermatogenesis are negligible hence this study will prove to be an important resource. Methodology/Principal Findings Histological analyses show complete regression of seminiferous tubules during regressed phase with retracted Sertoli cells and spermatognia. In the recrudescent phase, regressed testis regain cellular activity showing presence of normal Sertoli cells and developing germ cells. In the active phase, testis reaches up to its maximum size with enlarged seminiferous tubules and presence of sperm in seminiferous lumen. Total RNA extracted from whole testis of regressed, recrudescent and active phase of wall lizard was hybridized on Mouse Whole Genome 8×60 K format gene chip. Microarray data from regressed phase was deemed as control group. Microarray data were validated by assessing the expression of some selected genes using Quantitative Real-Time PCR. The genes prominently expressed in recrudescent and active phase testis are cytoskeleton organization GO 0005856, cell growth GO 0045927, GTpase regulator activity GO: 0030695, transcription GO: 0006352, apoptosis GO: 0006915 and many other biological processes. The genes showing higher expression in regressed phase belonged to functional categories such as negative regulation of macromolecule metabolic process GO: 0010605, negative regulation of gene expression GO: 0010629 and maintenance of stem cell niche GO: 0045165. Conclusion/Significance This is the first exploratory study profiling transcriptome of three drastically different conditions of any reptilian testis. The genes expressed in the testis during regressed, recrudescent and active phase of reproductive cycle are in concordance with the testis

  18. Dissemination activities: a critical new role for substance abuse treatment organizations.

    PubMed

    Fields, Dail; Blum, Terry C; Roman, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for integration of substance abuse treatment into medical care via medical homes and continuing specialty care. For this integration to occur in the substance abuse treatment field, substantial sharing and dissemination of information by treatment providers is required. This study explored the determinants of organizational activities directed at disseminating evidence-based practices (EBPs) undertaken by 193 community treatment programs who are members of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network. Using factor analysis, the research identified two generic categories reflecting different motivations for dissemination activities and explored both treatment center leadership and organizational characteristics as determinants of these different types of dissemination activities. Organizational characteristics predicting treatment center dissemination activities included size, previous involvement in research protocols, linkages with other providers, and having non-profit status. The treatment center leader's membership in professional organizations was also a significant determinant. Organization variables account for a larger portion of the variance in treatment center dissemination activities. The results suggest that the willingness of treatment providers to help disseminate EBPs within the industry may be heavily influenced through shared network connections with other treatment organizations.

  19. Dissemination Activities: A Critical New Role for Substance Abuse Treatment Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Terry C.; Roman, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for integration of substance abuse treatment into medical care via medical homes and continuing specialty care. For this integration to occur in the substance abuse treatment field, substantial sharing and dissemination of information by treatment providers is required. This study explored the determinants of organizational activities directed at disseminating evidence-based practices (EBP) undertaken by 193 community treatment programs who are members of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network. Using factor analysis, the research identified two generic categories reflecting different motivations for dissemination activities, and explored both treatment center leadership and organizational characteristics as determinants of these different types of dissemination activities. Organizational characteristics predicting treatment center dissemination activities included size, previous involvement in research protocols, linkages with other providers, and having non-profit status. The treatment center leader's membership in professional organizations was also a significant determinant. Organization variables account for a larger portion of the variance in treatment center dissemination activities. The results suggest that the willingness of treatment providers to help disseminate EBPs within the industry may be heavily influenced through shared network connections with other treatment organizations. PMID:24722825

  20. Structural and phase changes in carbides of the high-speed steel upon heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaus, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of austenitizing temperature on structural and phase changes in carbides of the tungsten-molybdenum high-speed steel has been studied. The results of metallographic analysis and energy dispersive microanalysis have been discussed. It has been shown that an increase in austenitizing temperature from 1180 to 1260°C causes structural transformations in carbide particles of eutectic origin crushed upon hot plastic deformation, which are related to their dissolution and coalescence, and changes in the phase composition of the carbides themselves.

  1. In Vivo Antiprotozoal Activity of the Chloroform Extract from Carica papaya Seeds against Amastigote Stage of Trypanosoma cruzi during Indeterminate and Chronic Phase of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutierrez, Salud; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of the chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds during the subacute and chronic phase of infection of Trypanosoma cruzi, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg were evaluated during the subacute phase, including a mixture of their main components (oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids). Subsequently, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg in mice during the chronic phase of infection (100 dpi) were also evaluated. It was found that chloroform extract was able to reduce the amastigote nests numbers during the subacute phase in 55.5 and 69.7% (P > 0.05) as well as in 56.45% in animals treated with the mixture of fatty acids. Moreover, the experimental groups treated with 50 and 75 mg/kg during the chronic phase of the infection showed a significant reduction of 46.8 and 53.13% respectively (P < 0.05). It is recommended to carry out more studies to determine if higher doses of chloroformic extract or its administration in combination with other antichagasic drugs allows a better response over the intracellular stage of T. cruzi in infected animal models and determine if the chloroform extract of C. papaya could be considered as an alternative for treatment during the indeterminate and chronic phase of the infection. PMID:25276216

  2. In Vivo Antiprotozoal Activity of the Chloroform Extract from Carica papaya Seeds against Amastigote Stage of Trypanosoma cruzi during Indeterminate and Chronic Phase of Infection.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutierrez, Salud; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of the chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds during the subacute and chronic phase of infection of Trypanosoma cruzi, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg were evaluated during the subacute phase, including a mixture of their main components (oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids). Subsequently, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg in mice during the chronic phase of infection (100 dpi) were also evaluated. It was found that chloroform extract was able to reduce the amastigote nests numbers during the subacute phase in 55.5 and 69.7% (P > 0.05) as well as in 56.45% in animals treated with the mixture of fatty acids. Moreover, the experimental groups treated with 50 and 75 mg/kg during the chronic phase of the infection showed a significant reduction of 46.8 and 53.13% respectively (P < 0.05). It is recommended to carry out more studies to determine if higher doses of chloroformic extract or its administration in combination with other antichagasic drugs allows a better response over the intracellular stage of T. cruzi in infected animal models and determine if the chloroform extract of C. papaya could be considered as an alternative for treatment during the indeterminate and chronic phase of the infection. PMID:25276216

  3. Patterns of metabolic activity in the treatment of schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, J.D.; Christman, D.R.; Corona, J.F.; Fowler, J.S.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Jaeger, J.; Micheels, P.A.; Rotrosen, J.; Russell, J.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Wikler, A.

    1984-04-01

    Six patients with chronic schizophrenia were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) before and after neuroleptic treatment, using fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose. After treatment, the mean whole-slice glucose metabolic rate at the level of the basal ganglia showed a 25% increase. However, patterns of frontal hypometabolism observed with the schizophrenic patients were not altered by medication. Pattern analysis using the fast Fourier transform was applied to a set of 422 images from a mixed group of normal, depressed, and schizophrenic subjects. Reconstruction of the images with low-frequency coefficients was excellent, reducing considerably the number of variables needed to characterize each image. Hierarchical cluster analysis categorized the transformed images according to anatomical level and subject group (patient versus control). The results suggest the utility of this procedure for the classification and characterization of metabolic PET images from psychiatric patients. 8 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  4. Orally active iron chelators in the treatment of iron overload.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, N F

    1996-03-01

    Data from several trials have provided evidence for the efficacy of deferiprone in the treatment of iron overload in thalassemia major. Deferiprone has now been shown to induce sustained decreases in tissue iron to concentrations that are associated with survival free of the complications of iron overload in deferoxamine-treated patients. Despite this evidence of efficacy, the risk of agranulocytosis mandates a careful evaluation of the risk of this drug in patients willing and able to use deferoxamine. The incidence of agranulocytosis associated with deferiprone is under study in a prospective multicenter trial in Canada, Italy, and the United States, under corporate sponsorship by Apotex Research in Canada. The results of this study should determine the risk associated with the use of this agent and may provide the data required for a US Food and Drug Administration decision regarding licensing of this agent for the treatment of iron overload, a goal supported by investigators worldwide.

  5. Cytokine treatment of macrophage suppression of T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Daniel; Bucknum, Amanda; Kozlowski, Megan; Matlack, Robin; Riggs, James

    2010-01-01

    High Mphi:T cell ratios suppress the immune response to the retroviral superantigen Mls by IFNgamma-triggered production of the arg- and trp-consuming enzymes iNOS and IDO. Attempts to reverse suppression by treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokines revealed that IL-6 improved the T cell response to Mls and the pro-hematopoietic cyokines IL-3 and GM-CSF increased suppression. GM-CSF treatment increased Mphi expression of CD80, a ligand for the immune suppressive B7H1 and CTLA-4 receptors. These results illustrate potential strategies for reversing the suppression of cell-mediated immunity characteristic of the high Mphi:T cell ratios found in many tumors.

  6. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment of BPH: results of a multi-center phase III study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanghvi, N.; Gardner, T.; Koch, M.; Bihrle, R.; Foster, R.; Resnick, M.; Seftel, A.; Grunberger, I.; Stiedle, C.; Corchan, J.

    2003-04-01

    The five centers phase III trial was to show that HIFU can treat prostate tissue thermally for symptomatic relief of BPH and improve flow rates. At five sites, 68 BPH patients were treated with the Sonablate device (Focus Surgery, Inc. Indianapolis, IN). A urethral Foley catheter was inserted into the urethra to aid in positioning and was kept in-situ during the treatment. A cooling device was used to cool the rectal wall. The patients returned home within a few hours after the procedure. The Foley catheter was kept electively to avoid any incidence of acute urinary retention following the therapy. The catheter was removed after 4-5 days. The average treatment time was 38 minutes. The patients were treated without pain, blood loss or complications. At 90 days post treatment, average Qmax and AUA Symptom Scores improved from 8.7 ml/s to 12.66 ml/s (48%) and 23.06 to 11.62 (52%), respectively. Significant prostate tissue changes took place before and after the treatment. 80% of the patients had cavity formation at the site of treatment at the bladder neck and prostate. Nonsurgical HIFU therapy is safe and effective for providing symptomatic relief of BPH symptoms and the treatment can be performed as an outpatient procedure.

  7. Vapour and Liquid-Phase Artemisia annua Essential Oil Activities against Several Clinical Strains of Candida.

    PubMed

    Santomauro, Francesca; Donato, Rosa; Sacco, Cristiana; Pini, Gabriella; Flamini, Guido; Bilia, Anna Rita

    2016-07-01

    Candida spp. are often the cause of infection in immune-compromised individuals. They are characterized by a strong resistance to antimicrobial drugs and disinfectants. The activity of Artemisia annua essential oil against Candida spp. was determined by vapour contact and microdilution assay. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes (more than 75 % of the constituents), mainly represented by the irregular monoterpene artemisia ketone (ca. 22 %), and the widespread monoterpenes 1,8 cineole (ca. 19 %) and camphor (ca. 17 %). Other representative constituents were artemisia alcohol (5.9 %), α-pinene (5.7 %), and pinocarvone (3.0 %). Thujone, a typical toxic constituent of the Artemisia species, was not detected. The results are reported as minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and diameter of inhibition zone obtained by the vapour diffusion assay. We tested 10 clinical Candida strains, coming from both clinical samples and international collections. The results show that the antifungal activity of A. annua is influenced by the type of method adopted. The inhibitory action of the essential oil was, in fact, higher in the vapour than in the liquid phase. Our results show an average minimum inhibitory concentration in the liquid phase of 11.88 µL/mL, while in the vapour phase, the growth of all Candida strains tested at a concentration of 2.13 µL/cm(3) was inhibited. A strain of Candida glabrata was found to be less susceptible to the liquid medium than the vapour assay (50 µL/mL vs. 0.64 µL/cm(3), respectively). Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis were the most susceptible to the vapour test, while Candida parapsilosis was the most resistant. PMID:27286334

  8. Regional Heat Sources and the Active and Break Phases of Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Annamalai, H; Sperber, K R

    2003-12-15

    The boreal summer intraseasonal variability (BSISV) associated with the 30-50 day mode is represented by the co-existence of three components, poleward propagation of convection over the Indian and tropical west Pacific longitudes and eastward propagation along the equator. The hypothesis that the three components influence each other has been investigated using observed OLR, NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, and solutions from an idealized linear model. The null hypothesis is that the three components are mutually independent. Cyclostationary EOF (CsEOF) analysis is applied on filtered OLR to extract the life-cycle of the BSISV. The dominant mode of CsEOF is significantly tied to observed rainfall over the Indian subcontinent. The components of the heating patterns from CsEOF analysis serve as prescribed forcings for the linear model. This allows us to ascertain which heat sources and sinks are instrumental in driving the large-scale monsoon circulation during the BSISV life-cycle. We identify three new findings: (1) the circulation anomalies that develop as a Rossby wave response to suppressed convection over the equatorial Indian Ocean associated with the previous break phase of the BSISV precondition the ocean-atmosphere system in the western Indian Ocean and trigger the next active phase of the BSISV, (2) the development of convection over the tropical west Pacific forces descent anomalies to the west. This, in conjunction with the weakened cross-equatorial flow due to suppressed convective anomalies over the equatorial Indian Ocean reduce the tropospheric moisture over the Arabian Sea, and promote westerly wind anomalies that do not recurve over India. As a result the low-level cyclonic vorticity shifts from India to southeast Asia and break conditions are initiated over India, and (3) the circulation anomalies forced by equatorial Indian Ocean convective anomalies significantly influence the active/break phases over the tropical west Pacific. Our model solutions support

  9. [Active treatment of behavior problems of the mentally retarded. Sultopride].

    PubMed

    Amedro, M J; Couquiaud, F G

    1983-12-15

    We have studied the effectiveness of a neuroleptic, sultopride, in difficult patients with mental impairment and severe disorders of behavior and character. Twenty patients were entered into the study. Specific items were evaluated one week, two months and four months after initiation of treatment. Disorders of character abated quickly and significantly. Tolerance was satisfactory. Overall results were satisfactory in 75% of patients, with 55% good and 20% very good responses. Failures were recorded in patients with associated disorders of personality and affect.

  10. [Ethical concerns around donors after cessation of active treatment].

    PubMed

    Dorez, Didier

    2016-09-01

    The cessation of treatment in intensive care leads to death through circulatory arrest. In these circumstances there is an opportunity to remove organs, if that was the wish of the patient. This raises legitimate ethical questions. A French national protocol defines the conditions of this donation and ensures a harmonisation of practices as well as an overall improvement in end-of-life support in intensive care. These donors represent an opportunity to increase the number of organs available for transplant. PMID:27596498

  11. Fate and removal of permethrin by conventional activated sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Santos, A; Reif, R; Hillis, P; Judd, S J

    2011-01-01

    The fate and removal of permethrin during conventional wastewater treatment were evaluated at pilot-plant scale at different concentrations of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and, hence, different solids retention times (SRT). At feed concentrations of 0.26-0.86 microg L(-1), the permethrin was removed by primary treatment at an efficiency rate of 37%, similar to previously reported data, and from 40% to 83% for secondary treatment, decreasing with decreasing SRT. Comparable ranges, from 37% up to 98%, have been reported for micropollutants with similar physicochemical properties to permethrin, such as galaxolide and tonalide. Little difference in removal was noted between the medium and low MLSS concentrations trials, the main difference in treated effluent permethrin concentration arising on changing from high to medium MLSS levels. This was attributed to the limited acclimatization period employed in these two trials, leading to higher levels of soluble organic matter in the treated water, with which the permethrin appeared to be associated. PMID:21970178

  12. Neotectonic activity at the Giant Gjallar Vent (Norwegian Sea) indicates a future phase of active fluid venting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumke, Ines; Berndt, Christian; Crutchley, Gareth; Couillard, Mélanie; Gay, Aurélien

    2013-04-01

    The Giant Gjallar Vent (GGV) is a hydrothermal vent complex that formed during the opening of the North Atlantic at about 55 Ma. Sill intrusions into Cretaceous organic-rich sediments led to the production and subsequent vigorous seafloor venting of methane. A later phase of fluid escape occurred in mid-Oligocene times. The GGV is characterised by two pipes of 440 m and 480 m in diameter that reach up to the Base Late Pliocene Unconformity (BLPU) between the Kai and Naust formations. The unconformity is strongly deformed over an area of c. 18,000 km² across the vent, with a positive relief of up to 38 m above the surrounding paleo-seafloor. The overlying sediments of the Naust Formation conformally drape this deformation, smoothing its relief to a maximum of 15 m at the modern seafloor. The sediment drape indicates present inactivity of the vent system, as does the absence of indicators of active fluid escape in the water column during RV METEOR cruise M87-2 in 2012. However, high-resolution 2D seismic and Parasound data from the same cruise, and exploration-type 3D seismic data acquired by Norsk Hydro, show several indications for recent to ongoing activity at the GGV. Beneath the BLPU, strong frequency attenuation and chaotic reflections indicate the presence of free gas. At the edges of the extent of chaotic reflections, subvertical faults cut the unconformity as well as horizons of the lower and middle Naust Formation, suggesting tectonic activity after deposition of these horizons. Neotectonic activity is further indicated by the extensive occurrence of shallow faults apparent in Parasound records in the immediate vicinity of the vent and up to 16 km away. Some of these faults reach the seafloor. The observed deformation and faults may be the result of fluids accumulating beneath the BLPU due to increased loading of the oozy Kai Formation by denser glacigenic Naust sediments. Because of the lower permeability of the Naust Formation, the unconformity acts as a

  13. Does exogenous progesterone and oestradiol treatment from the mid-luteal phase induce follicular cysts in goats?

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomomi; Sawai, Rie; Kumai, Ryoko; Kim, Seungjoon; Kuroiwa, Takenobu; Kamomae, Hideo

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of exogenous ovarian steroid treatment, which is known to induce follicular cyst experimentally in cows, on ovarian activity in goats. Eleven female Shiba goats with the length of the normal oestrous cycle (approximately 21 days) received subcutaneously either 1 ml of ethanol (control group, n=4) or 4 mg of progesterone and 2mg of oestradiol (treatment group, n=7) daily for 7 days beginning on day 14 of the oestrous cycle (day 0=ovulation). Ultrasonographic images of the ovary and blood samples were collected daily to monitor the ovarian activity. Ovulation was observed before 1 day after the end of treatment in the control group. In the treatment group, no detectable structures of follicles or corpus luteum (static ovarian condition) were found for 6.0+/-1.4 days (mean+/-S.D.) after the end of treatment. Then, detectable follicles appeared and ovulation was observed in all animals of the treatment group. There was no significant difference in the maximum diameter of the ovulatory follicle between the control and treatment group (4.7+/-0.4mm versus 5.1+/-0.7 mm). The large non-ovulatory follicles, which grew more than 10mm in diameter were observed after the static ovarian condition in one goat of the treatment group, whereas no turnover of the cystic follicular structures was found. The length of the inter-ovulatory intervals in the treatment group was significantly longer than that in the control group (38.4+/-7.4 days versus 20.3+/-0.5 days, P<0.05). The present results demonstrated that the exogenous treatment of progesterone and oestradiol, which was adapted from the follicular cyst model in cows, did not induce follicular cysts in goats, suggesting that there is/are different mechanism(s) mediating the occurrence of follicular cysts between cows and goats. PMID:16542801

  14. Application of acid-activated Bauxsol for wastewater treatment with high phosphate concentration: Characterization, adsorption optimization, and desorption behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jie; Cong, Xiangna; Zhang, Panyue; Zeng, Guangming; Hoffmann, Erhard; Liu, Yang; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Haibo; Fang, Wei; Hahn, Hermann H

    2016-02-01

    Acid-activated Bauxsol was applied to treat wastewater with high phosphate concentration in a batch adsorption system in this paper. The effect of acid activation on the change of Bauxsol structure was systematically investigated. The mineralogical inhomogeneity and intensity of Bauxsol decreased after acid activation, and FeCl3·2H2O and Al(OH)3 became the dominant phases of acid-activated Bauxsol adsorption. Moreover, the BET surface area and total pore volume of Bauxsol increased after acid activation. Interaction of initial solution pH and adsorption temperature on phosphate adsorption onto acid-activated Bauxsol was investigated by using response surface methodology with central composite design. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity of 192.94 mg g(-1) was achieved with an initial solution pH of 4.19 and an adsorption temperature of 52.18 °C, which increased by 7.61 times compared with that of Bauxsol (22.40 mg g(-1)), and was higher than other adsorbents. Furthermore, the desorption studies demonstrated that the acid-activated Bauxsol was successfully regenerated with 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl solution. The adsorption capacity and desorption efficiency of acid-activated Bauxsol maintained at 80.48% and 93.02% in the fifth adsorption-desorption cycle, respectively, suggesting that the acid-activated Bauxsol could be repeatedly used in wastewater treatment with high phosphate concentration. PMID:26606195

  15. Application of acid-activated Bauxsol for wastewater treatment with high phosphate concentration: Characterization, adsorption optimization, and desorption behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jie; Cong, Xiangna; Zhang, Panyue; Zeng, Guangming; Hoffmann, Erhard; Liu, Yang; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Haibo; Fang, Wei; Hahn, Hermann H

    2016-02-01

    Acid-activated Bauxsol was applied to treat wastewater with high phosphate concentration in a batch adsorption system in this paper. The effect of acid activation on the change of Bauxsol structure was systematically investigated. The mineralogical inhomogeneity and intensity of Bauxsol decreased after acid activation, and FeCl3·2H2O and Al(OH)3 became the dominant phases of acid-activated Bauxsol adsorption. Moreover, the BET surface area and total pore volume of Bauxsol increased after acid activation. Interaction of initial solution pH and adsorption temperature on phosphate adsorption onto acid-activated Bauxsol was investigated by using response surface methodology with central composite design. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity of 192.94 mg g(-1) was achieved with an initial solution pH of 4.19 and an adsorption temperature of 52.18 °C, which increased by 7.61 times compared with that of Bauxsol (22.40 mg g(-1)), and was higher than other adsorbents. Furthermore, the desorption studies demonstrated that the acid-activated Bauxsol was successfully regenerated with 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl solution. The adsorption capacity and desorption efficiency of acid-activated Bauxsol maintained at 80.48% and 93.02% in the fifth adsorption-desorption cycle, respectively, suggesting that the acid-activated Bauxsol could be repeatedly used in wastewater treatment with high phosphate concentration.

  16. Effective treatment of olive mill effluents from two-phase and three-phase extraction processes by batch membranes in series operation upon threshold conditions.

    PubMed

    Ochando-Pulido, J M; Hodaifa, G; Victor-Ortega, M D; Rodriguez-Vives, S; Martinez-Ferez, A

    2013-12-15

    Production of olive oil results in the generation of high amounts of heavy polluted effluents characterized by extremely variable contaminants degree, leading to sensible complexity in treatment. In this work, batch membrane processes in series comprising ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) are used to purify the effluents exiting both the two-phase and tree-phase extraction processes to a grade compatible to the discharge in municipal sewer systems in Spain and Italy. However, one main problem in applying this technology to wastewater management issues is given by membrane fouling. In the last years, the threshold flux theory was introduced as a key tool to understand fouling problems, and threshold flux measurement can give valuable information regarding optimal membrane process design and operation. In the present manuscript, mathematical approach of threshold flux conditions for membranes operation is addressed, also implementing proper pretreatment processes such as pH-T flocculation and UV/TiO2 photocatalysis with ferromagnetic-core nanoparticles in order to reduce membranes fouling. Both influence the organic matter content as well as the particle size distribution of the solutes surviving in the wastewater stream, leading, when properly applied, to reduced fouling, higher rejection and recovery values, thus enhancing the economic feasibility of the process. PMID:23602253

  17. Direct observation of single stationary-phase bacteria reveals a surprisingly long period of constant protein production activity

    PubMed Central

    Gefen, Orit; Fridman, Ofer; Ronin, Irine; Balaban, Nathalie Q.

    2014-01-01

    Exponentially growing bacteria are rarely found in the wild, as microorganisms tend to spend most of their lifetime at stationary phase. Despite this general prevalence of stationary-phase bacteria, they are as yet poorly characterized. Our goal was to quantitatively study this phase by direct observation of single bacteria as they enter into stationary phase and by monitoring their activity over several days during growth arrest. For this purpose, we devised an experimental procedure for starving single Escherichia coli bacteria in microfluidic devices and measured their activity by monitoring the production rate of fluorescent proteins. When amino acids were the sole carbon source, the production rate decreased by an order of magnitude upon entry into stationary phase. We found that, even while growth-arrested, bacteria continued to produce proteins at a surprisingly constant rate over several days. Our identification of this newly observed period of constant activity in nongrowing cells, designated as constant activity stationary phase, makes possible the conduction of assays that require constant protein expression over time, and are therefore difficult to perform under exponential growth conditions. Moreover, we show that exogenous protein expression bears no fitness cost on the regrowth of the population when starvation ends. Further characterization of constant activity stationary phase—a phase where nongrowing bacteria can be quantitatively studied over several days in a reproducible manner—should contribute to a better understanding of this ubiquitous but overlooked physiological state of bacteria in nature. PMID:24344288

  18. Surface activation of dyed fabric for cellulase treatment.

    PubMed

    Schimper, Christian B; Ibanescu, Constanta; Bechtold, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Surface activation of fabric made from cellulose fibres, such as viscose, lyocell, modal fibres and cotton, can be achieved by printing of a concentrated NaOH-containing paste. From the concentration of reducing sugars formed in solution, an increase in intensity of the cellulase hydrolysis by a factor of six to eight was observed, which was mainly concentrated at the activated parts of the fabric surface. This method of local activation is of particular interest for modification of materials that have been dyed with special processes to attain an uneven distribution of dyestuff within the yarn cross-section, e.g., indigo ring-dyed denim yarn for jeans production. Fabrics made from regenerated cellulose fibres were used as model substrate to express the effects of surface activation on indigo-dyed material. Wash-down experiments on indigo-dyed denim demonstrated significant colour removal from the activated surface at low overall weight loss of 4-5%. The method is of relevance for a more eco-friendly processing of jeans in the garment industry.

  19. Nanoalloying and phase transformations during thermal treatment of physical mixtures of Pd and Cu nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukundan, Vineetha; Yin, Jun; Joseph, Pharrah; Luo, Jin; Shan, Shiyao; Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Malis, Oana

    2014-04-01

    Nanoscale alloying and phase transformations in physical mixtures of Pd and Cu ultrafine nanoparticles are investigated in real time with in situ synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction complemented by ex situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The combination of metal-support interaction and reactive/non-reactive environment was found to determine the thermal evolution and ultimate structure of this binary system. At 300 °C, the nanoparticles supported on silica and carbon black intermix to form a chemically ordered CsCl-type (B2) alloy phase. The B2 phase transforms into a disordered fcc alloy at higher temperature (> 450 °C). The alloy nanoparticles supported on silica and carbon black are homogeneous in volume, but evidence was found of Pd surface enrichment. In sharp contrast, when supported on alumina, the two metals segregated at 300 °C to produce almost pure fcc Cu and Pd phases. Upon further annealing of the mixture on alumina above 600 °C, the two metals interdiffused, forming two distinct disordered alloys of compositions 30% and 90% Pd. The annealing atmosphere also plays a major role in the structural evolution of these bimetallic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles annealed in forming gas are larger than the nanoparticles annealing in helium due to reduction of the surface oxides that promotes coalescence and sintering.

  20. THE DISTRIBUTION AND SOLID-PHASE SPECIATION OF AS IN IRON-BASED TREATMENT MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic concentrations (Total Recoverable As by EPA Method 3051) and solid-phase speciation (by X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy-XANES) were assessed as a function of depth through Fe-media beds for two commercially available products from pilot-scale field tests. These r...

  1. Phase 2 TWR Steam Reforming Test for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas R. Soelberg; Doug Marshall; Dean Taylor; Steven Bates

    2004-01-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste (SBW) is stored in stainless steel tanks a the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the SBW into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. Fluidized bed steam reforming technology, licensed to ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC (TWR) by Manufacturing Technology Conversion International, was tested in two phases using an INEEL (Department of Energy) fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, reductant stoichiometry, and process temperature were varied to identify and demonstrate how the process might be optimized to improve operation and product characteristics. The first week of testing was devoted primarily to process chemistry and the second week was devoted more toward bed stability and particle size control.

  2. Plane of nutrition during the preweaning period but not the grower phase influences the neutrophil activity of Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, B S; Cobb, C J; Sellers, M D; Pepper-Yowell, A R; Earleywine, T J; Ballou, M A

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of plane of nutrition during (1) the pre- and immediate postweaning periods and (2) the grower phase on the performance and leukocyte responses of Holstein calves. In experiment 1, 39 (2 ± 1 d old) colostrum-fed heifer calves were randomly assigned to 2 planes of nutrition, a low (LPN; n = 19) and a high plane of nutrition (HPN; n = 20). Calves in the LPN treatment were offered 418 g/d of dry matter (DM) of a 20% crude protein (CP)/20% fat milk replacer, whereas calves in the HPN treatment were offered 747 and 1,010 g/d of DM of a 28% CP/20% fat milk replacer during wk 1 and wk 2 to 6, respectively. Calves were offered ad libitum access to a calf starter until the end of the study. Peripheral blood samples were collected on d 3, 10, 21, 45, 47, 53, and 91 for many ex vivo leukocyte responses and biochemical analyses. A nutrition × time interaction was present for average daily gain and feed efficiency (feed:gain ratio). A nutrition × time interaction existed for plasma glucose concentration. Neutrophil L-selectin expression was greater in calves fed the LPN than HPN on d 3 and 21. The percentage of neutrophils producing an oxidative burst (OB) when cocultured with Escherichia coli tended to be greater and was greater in calves fed the LPN than HPN on d 10 and 21, respectively. In addition, neutrophils from calves fed the LPN had greater OB intensity throughout the neonatal period (0 to 21 d). However, plasma haptoglobin was not different between the 2 planes of nutrition throughout the study. In experiment 2, 50 heifer calves that were all previously fed a HPN similar to that described for experiment 1 were randomly assigned to 2 planes of nutrition (HPN and LPN) during the grower phase (5 pens/treatment; 5 calves/pen). Calves fed the HPN during the grower phase were fed 4.1 kg of concentrate DM (pellets; 22.4% CP, DM basis) per head per day, whereas calves on the LPN during the grower phase were fed 1

  3. Localization of spontaneous magnetoencephalographic activity of neonates and fetuses using independent component and Hilbert phase analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vairavan, Srinivasan; Eswaran, Hari; Preissl, Hubert; Wilson, James D.; Haddad, Naim; Lowery, Curtis L.

    2011-01-01

    The fetal magnetoencephalogram (fMEG) is measured in the presence of large interference from maternal and fetal magnetocardiograms (mMCG and fMCG). These cardiac interferences can be attenuated by orthogonal projection (OP) technique of the corresponding spatial vectors. However, the OP technique redistributes the fMEG signal among the channels and also leaves some cardiac residuals (partially attenuated mMCG and fMCG) due to loss of stationarity in the signal. In this paper, we propose a novel way to extract and localize the neonatal and fetal spontaneous brain activity by using independent component analysis (ICA) technique. In this approach, we perform ICA on a small subset of sensors for 1-min duration. The independent components obtained are further investigated for the presence of discontinuous patterns as identified by the Hilbert phase analysis and are used as decision criteria for localizing the spontaneous brain activity. In order to locate the region of highest spontaneous brain activity content, this analysis is performed on the sensor subsets, which are traversed across the entire sensor space. The region of the spontaneous brain activity as identified by the proposed approach correlated well with the neonatal and fetal head location. In addition, the burst duration and the inter-burst interval computed for the identified discontinuous brain patterns are in agreement with the reported values. PMID:21096327

  4. Metal Nanoparticles Catalyzed Selective Carbon-Carbon Bond Activation in the Liquid Phase.

    PubMed

    Ye, Rong; Yuan, Bing; Zhao, Jie; Ralston, Walter T; Wu, Chung-Yeh; Unel Barin, Ebru; Toste, F Dean; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2016-07-13

    Understanding the C-C bond activation mechanism is essential for developing the selective production of hydrocarbons in the petroleum industry and for selective polymer decomposition. In this work, ring-opening reactions of cyclopropane derivatives under hydrogen catalyzed by metal nanoparticles (NPs) in the liquid phase were studied. 40-atom rhodium (Rh) NPs, encapsulated by dendrimer molecules and supported in mesoporous silica, catalyzed the ring opening of cyclopropylbenzene at room temperature under hydrogen in benzene, and the turnover frequency (TOF) was higher than other metals or the Rh homogeneous catalyst counterparts. Comparison of reactants with various substitution groups showed that electron donation on the three-membered ring boosted the TOF of ring opening. The linear products formed with 100% selectivity for ring opening of all reactants catalyzed by the Rh NP. Surface Rh(0) acted as the active site in the NP. The capping agent played an important role in the ring-opening reaction kinetics. Larger particle size tended to show higher TOF and smaller reaction activation energy for Rh NPs encapsulated in either dendrimer or poly(vinylpyrrolidone). The generation/size of dendrimer and surface group also affected the reaction rate and activation energy. PMID:27322570

  5. Effects of gelatin sponge combined with moist wound-healing nursing intervention in the treatment of phase III bedsore

    PubMed Central

    LI, YANLING; YAO, MEIYING; WANG, XIA; ZHAO, YANQING

    2016-01-01

    Pressure sore pertains to tissue damage or necrosis that occurs due to lack of adequate nutrition following long-term exposure to pressure and decreased blood circulation. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of gelatin sponge combined with moist wound-healing nursing intervention in the treatment of phase III bedsore. In total, 50 patients with phase III bedsore were included in the present study. The patients were randomly divided into the control (n=25) and observation (n=25) groups. Patients in the control group received conventional nursing, while those in the observation group received gelatin sponge combined with moist wound healing nursing. The effects of the two nursing methods were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the improvement rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). The Branden score and area of pressure sore of the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.05). The frequency and time of dressing change and the average cost of hospitalization of the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.001). In conclusion, gelatin sponge combined with moist wound-healing nursing intervention may significantly improve the treatment of phase III bedsore. PMID:27313666

  6. Ecotoxicological risks associated with land treatment of petrochemical wastes. II. Effects on hepatic phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes in cotton rats.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Ruth; Wilson, James; Lochmiller, Robert; Janz, David; Schroder, Jackie; Basta, Nicholas

    2003-02-28

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible exposure and resultant hepatic effects of petrochemical waste on cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) living on landfarmed sites. Male and female cotton rats were collected in summer, fall, and winter from four landfarm sites and four ecologically similar reference sites. Hepatic methoxyresorufin O-deethylase (MROD) activity was significantly induced in male and female rats collected from landfarms compared to rats collected from reference sites. In contrast, changes in ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity were inconsistent due to season, sex, and treatment variation. A significant decrease in EROD and MROD activity was found in cotton rats held for 48 h prior to sacrifice compared to rats euthanized on the day of capture. These results indicate that when using hepatic EROD and MROD activities as biochemical markers of exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists, animals should be euthanized as quickly as possible after capture. The cotton rats collected from one landfarm unit exhibited a pattern of consistent elevation of EROD, MROD, and pent-oxyresorufin O-deethylase (PROD) activity. This unit also had a pattern of elevated CYP1A2 protein expression determined by Western blotting. There were no consistent alterations from contaminant exposure on hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, glutathione levels, or CYP1A1 protein. Hepatic EROD and MROD activities varied considerably between seasons and sex of rats. In conclusion, consistent induction of hepatic EROD and MROD activities in cotton rats was found in three out of four sampled landfarm sites compared to the rats collected from the reference sites, indicating exposure to contaminants-likely polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of silver loaded MnO2 nanomaterials with different crystal phases against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian; He, Hong; Zhang, Changbin; Sun, Li; Liu, Sijin; Wang, Shaoxin

    2016-03-01

    Silver-loaded MnO2 nanomaterials (Ag/MnO2), including Ag/α-MnO2, Ag/β-MnO2, Ag/γ-MnO2 and Ag/δ-MnO2 nanorods, were prepared with hydrothermal and impregnation methods. The bactericidal activities of four types of Ag/MnO2 nanomaterials against Escherichia coli were investigated and an inactivation mechanism involving Ag(+) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also proposed. The bactericidal activities of Ag/MnO2 depended on the MnO2 crystal phase. Among these nanomaterials, Ag/β-MnO2 showed the highest bactericidal activity. There was a 6-log decrease in E. coli survival number after treatment with Ag/β-MnO2 for 120min. The results of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide spin-trapping measurements by electron spin resonance indicate OH and O2‾ formation with addition of Ag/β-MnO2, Ag/γ-MnO2 or Ag/δ-MnO2. The strongest peak of OH appeared for Ag/β-MnO2, while no OH or O2‾ signal was found over Ag/α-MnO2. Through analysis of electron spin resonance (ESR) and Ag(+) elution results, it could be deduced that the toxicity of Ag(+) eluted from Ag/MnO2 nanomaterials and ROS played the main roles during the bactericidal process. Silver showed the highest dispersion on the surface of β-MnO2, which promoted ROS formation and the increase of bactericidal activity. Experimental results also indicated that Ag/MnO2 induced the production of intracellular ROS and disruption of the cell wall and cell membrane. PMID:26969056

  8. Novel multi-source phase-controlled radiofrequency technology for non-ablative and micro-ablative treatment of wrinkles, lax skin and acne scars.

    PubMed

    Elman, Monica; Harth, Yoram

    2011-01-01

    The basic properties of lasers and pulsed light sources limit their ability to deliver high energy to the dermis and subcutaneous tissues without excessive damage to the epidermis. Radiofrequency was shown to penetrate deeper than optical light sources independent of skin color. The early RF-based devices used single source bipolar RF, which is safe but limited in use due to the superficial flow of energy between the two bipolar electrodes. Another type of single source RF employs a single electrode (monopolar) in which the RF energy flows from one electrode on the surface of the skin through the entire body to a plate under the body. Although more effective than bipolar, this devices require intense active cooling of the skin and may be associated with considerable pain and other systemic and local safety concerns. Latest generation of RF technology developed by EndyMed Medical Ltd. (Caesarea, Israel) utilizes simultaneously six or more phase controlled RF generators (3DEEP technology). The multiple electrical fields created by the multiple sources "repel" or "attract" each other, leading to the precise 3 dimensional delivery of RF energy to the dermal and sub-dermal targets minimizing the energy flow through the epidermis without the need for active cooling. Confocal microscopy of the skin has shown that 6 treatment sessions of Multisource RF technology improve skin structure features. The skin after treatment had longer and narrower dermal papilla and denser and finer collagen fiber typical to younger skin as compared to pre treatment skin. Ultrasound of the skin showed after 6 treatment sessions reduction of 10 percent in the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer. Non ablative facial clinical studies showed a significant reduction of wrinkles after treatment further reduced at 3 months follow-up. Body treatment studies showed a circumference reduction of 2.9 cm immediately after 6 treatments, and 2 cm at 12 months after the end of treatment, proving long term

  9. Efficacy, Safety, and Dose of Pafuramidine, a New Oral Drug for Treatment of First Stage Sleeping Sickness, in a Phase 2a Clinical Study and Phase 2b Randomized Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Christian; Yeramian, Patrick D.; Merolle, Ada; Serge, Kazadi Kyanza; Mpanya, Alain; Lutumba, Pascal; Mesu, Victor Kande Betu Ku; Lubaki, Jean-Pierre Fina; Mpoto, Alfred Mpoo; Thompson, Mark; Munungu, Blaise Fungula; Josenando, Théophilo; Bernhard, Sonja C.; Olson, Carol A.; Blum, Johannes; Tidwell, Richard R.; Pohlig, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis [HAT]) is caused by protozoan parasites and characterized by a chronic progressive course, which may last up to several years before death. We conducted two Phase 2 studies to determine the efficacy and safety of oral pafuramidine in African patients with first stage HAT. Methods The Phase 2a study was an open-label, non-controlled, proof-of-concept study where 32 patients were treated with 100 mg of pafuramidine orally twice a day (BID) for 5 days at two trypanosomiasis reference centers (Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo [DRC]) between August 2001 and November 2004. The Phase 2b study compared pafuramidine in 41 patients versus standard pentamidine therapy in 40 patients. The Phase 2b study was open-label, parallel-group, controlled, randomized, and conducted at two sites in the DRC between April 2003 and February 2007. The Phase 2b study was then amended to add an open-label sequence (Phase 2b-2), where 30 patients received pafuramidine for 10 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was parasitologic cure at 24 hours (Phase 2a) or 3 months (Phase 2b) after treatment completion. The primary safety outcome was the rate of occurrence of World Health Organization Toxicity Scale Grade 3 or higher adverse events. All subjects provided written informed consent. Findings/Conclusion Pafuramidine for the treatment of first stage HAT was comparable in efficacy to pentamidine after 10 days of dosing. The cure rates 3 months post-treatment were 79% in the 5-day pafuramidine, 100% in the 7-day pentamidine, and 93% in the 10-day pafuramidine groups. In Phase 2b, the percentage of patients with at least 1 treatment-emergent adverse event was notably higher after pentamidine treatment (93%) than pafuramidine treatment for 5 days (25%) and 10 days (57%). These results support continuation of the development program for pafuramidine into Phase 3. PMID:26881924

  10. Fully characterization of an active optical filter based on an equivalent-phase-shifted DFB-SOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Ye; Li, Ming; Shi, Nuannuan; Tang, Jian; Sun, Shuqian; Zhang, Lihong; Li, Wei; Zhu, Ninghua

    2016-10-01

    A fully characterization of an active optical filter based on an equivalent-phase-shifted DFB-SOA has been theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. By employing an optical vector network analyzer (OVNA), transmission characteristics of the equivalent-phase-shifted DFB-SOA are obtained. The influences of driven current on transmission characteristics of the equivalent-phase-shifted DFB-SOA are also investigated. In addition to the advantage of integration, the proposed equivalent-phase-shifted DFB-SOA also shows significant application in design of photonic devices for all-optical signal processing and computing.

  11. Activated Sludge. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Owen K.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials needed to teach a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. These materials include an overview of the unit, lesson plans, lecture outlines (keyed to slides designed for use with the lessons), student worksheets for each of the seven lessons (with answers), and two copies of a final quiz (with and…

  12. Incorporating Nondrug Social & Recreational Activities in Outpatient Chemical Dependency Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siporin, Sheldon; Baron, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    "Contingency Management programs (CMP) and non-drug social and recreational activities (NDSRA) are interventions premised on behavior theory that rely on external sources of reinforcement alternative to drug-based forms to decrease drug use. CMP usually employs vouchers as reinforcement for negative toxicologies. Despite research support, CMP…

  13. Gas-phase activation and reaction dynamics of chiral ion-dipole complexes.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Antonello; Speranza, Maurizio

    2003-11-01

    A family of enantiomerically pure oxonium ions, that is O-protonated 1-aryl-1-methoxyethanes, has been generated in the gas phase by the (CH(3))(2)Cl(+) methylation of the corresponding 1-arylethanols. Some information on their reaction dynamics was obtained from a detailed kinetic study of their inversion of configuration and dissociation. The activation parameters of the inversion reaction are found to obey two different isokinetic relationships depending upon the nature and the position of the substituents in the oxonium ions. In contrast, the activation parameters of the dissociation reaction obey a single isokinetic relationship. The inversion and dissociation rate constants do not follow simple linear free-energy relationships. This complicated kinetic picture has been rationalized in terms of different activation dynamics in gaseous CH(3)Cl, which, in turn, determine the reaction dynamics of the oxonium ion. When the predominant activation of the oxonium ion involves resonant energy exchange from the 1015 cm(-1) CH(3) rocking mode of unperturbed CH(3)Cl, the inversion reaction proceeds through the dynamically most favored TS, characterized by the unassisted C(alpha)bond;O bond elongation. When, instead, the activation of the oxonium ions requires the formation of an intimate encounter complex with CH(3)Cl, the inversion reaction takes place via the energetically most favored TS, characterized by multiple coordination of the CH(3)OH moiety with the H(alpha) and H(ortho) atoms of the benzylic residue. The activation dynamics operating in the intimate encounter complex with CH(3)Cl is also responsible for the dissociation of most selected oxonium ions.

  14. Oral ciclopirox olamine displays biological activity in a phase I study in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Minden, Mark D; Hogge, Donna E; Weir, Scott J; Kasper, Jim; Webster, Debra A; Patton, Lavonne; Jitkova, Yulia; Hurren, Rose; Gronda, Marcela; Goard, Carolyn A; Rajewski, Lian G; Haslam, John L; Heppert, Kathleen E; Schorno, Kevin; Chang, Hong; Brandwein, Joseph M; Gupta, Vikas; Schuh, Andre C; Trudel, Suzanne; Yee, Karen W L; Reed, Gregory A; Schimmer, Aaron D

    2014-04-01

    The antimycotic ciclopirox olamine is an intracellular iron chelator that has anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. We developed an oral formulation of ciclopirox olamine and conducted the first-in-human phase I study of this drug in patients with relapsed or refractory hematologic malignancies (Trial registration ID: NCT00990587). Patients were treated with 5-80 mg/m² oral ciclopirox olamine once daily for five days in 21-day treatment cycles. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic companion studies were performed in a subset of patients. Following definition of the half-life of ciclopirox olamine, an additional cohort was enrolled and treated with 80 mg/m² ciclopirox olamine four times daily. Adverse events and clinical response were monitored throughout the trial. Twenty-three patients received study treatment. Ciclopirox was rapidly absorbed and cleared with a short half-life. Plasma concentrations of an inactive ciclopirox glucuronide metabolite were greater than those of ciclopirox. Repression of survivin expression was observed in peripheral blood cells isolated from patients treated once daily with ciclopirox olamine at doses greater than 10 mg/m², demonstrating biological activity of the drug. Dose-limiting gastrointestinal toxicities were observed in patients receiving 80 mg/m² four times daily, and no dose limiting toxicity was observed at 40 mg/m² once daily. Hematologic improvement was observed in two patients. Once-daily dosing of oral ciclopirox olamine was well tolerated in patients with relapsed or refractory hematologic malignancies, and further optimization of dosing regimens is warranted in this patient population. PMID:24273151

  15. Hybrid Plasma Simulations at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Predictions for the High Activity Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenders, C.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Richter, I.; Motschmann, U.

    2014-04-01

    In August 2014 the Rosetta spacecraft will arrive at its target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. One of the main objectives of this unique mission is to study the evolution of the cometary activity. Among others, the instruments of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium will study the plasma interaction of the solar wind and the awaking comet. Since the gas production rate of the comet is relatively low, the kinetic effects of the ion motion are important for the entire interaction region. A hybrid model, which treats the ions as particles and the electrons as a fluid, is most capable of making predictions about the interaction. The results of our latest 3D global hybrid simulations of the plasma environment in the active phase of the comet, performed with the A.I.K.E.F. code, will be presented. Next to the perihelion passage of the comet the gas production rate will be high enough for the Mach cones, which are triggered during the weak activity phases, to be transformed into a bow shock. Close to the nucleus, the simulations reveal a separation of the massloaded flow from the upstream regions and the pure cometary ion flow from the inner most region. According to this flow pattern, a diamagnetic cavity and several other features are resolved by our simulations. Most of them exhibit an asymmetry caused by the pick-up of the cometary ions and the deflection of the solar wind. In addition, we will show that cometary ions, which are picked-up by the solar wind, enter the transition region and move into opposite directions of the bulk flow.

  16. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

    2004-09-11

    This report summarizes work performed on this project from April 2004 through September 2004. Our previous work demonstrated that a polyurethane foam biofilter could successfully biodegrade the BTEX contaminants found in the SMZ regeneration waste gas stream. However, establishing the biomass on the polyurethane foam packing was relatively time consuming and daily recirculation of a concentrated nutrient solution was required for efficient operation of the foam biofilter. To simplify the start up and operating requirements of the biofilter system, a simple, compost-based biofilter was investigated for its ability to treat the BTEX contaminants generated during the SMZ regeneration process. The investigation of the compost biofilter was divided into three experimental phases that spanned 180 days of biofilter operation. During Phase 1, the biofilter was continuously supplied a BTEX-contaminated waste gas stream. During Phase 2, a series of periodic shutdown tests were conducted to assess how the biofilter responded when the BTEX feed was discontinued for periods ranging from 1 day to 2.8 days. The Phase 3 experiments focused on determining how the biofilter would handle periodic spikes in inlet BTEX concentration as would be expected when it is coupled with an SMZ column. Results from the continuous feed (Phase 1) experiments demonstrated that the compost biofilter could maintain BTEX removals of greater than 98% within two weeks of startup. Results of the shutdown experiments indicated that benzene removal was the most sensitive to interruptions in the BTEX feed. Nevertheless, the BTEX removal efficiency exceeded 95% within 6 hours of reestablishing the BTEX feed to the biofilter. When the biofilter was subjected to periodic spikes in BTEX concentration (Phase 3), it was found that the total BTEX removal efficiency stabilized at approximately 75% despite the fact that the biofilter was only fed BTEX contaminants 8 hours per day. Finally, the effects of nutrient

  17. Pacemaker phase shift in the absence of neural activity in guinea-pig stomach: a microelectrode array study

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Shinsuke; Shimono, Ken; Liu, Hong-Nian; Jiko, Hideyasu; Katayama, Noburu; Tomita, Tadao; Goto, Kazunori

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) motility is well organized. GI muscles act as a functional syncytium to achieve physiological functions under the control of neurones and pacemaker cells, which generate basal spontaneous pacemaker electrical activity. To date, it is unclear how spontaneous electrical activities are coupled, especially within a micrometre range. Here, using a microelectrode array, we show a spatio-temporal analysis of GI spontaneous electrical activity. The muscle preparations were isolated from guinea-pig stomach, and fixed in a chamber with an array of 8 × 8 planar multielectrodes (with 300 μm in interpolar distance). The electrical activities (field potentials) were simultaneously recorded through a multichannel amplifier system after high-pass filtering at 0.1 Hz. Dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel antagonists are known to differentiate the electrical pacemaker activity of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) by suppressing smooth muscle activity. In the presence of nifedipine, we observed spontaneous electrical activities that were well synchronized over the array area, but had a clear phase shift depending on the distance. The additional application of tetrodotoxin (TTX) had little effect on the properties of the electrical activity. Furthermore, by constructing field potential images, we visualized the synchronization of pacemaker electrical activities resolving phase shifts that were measurable over several hundred micrometres. The results imply a phase modulation mechanism other than neural activity, and we postulate that this mechanism enables smooth GI motility. In addition, some preparations clearly showed plasticity of the pacemaker phase shift. PMID:16990400

  18. Clinical studies in dermatology require a post-treatment observation phase to define the impact of the intervention on the natural history of the complaint.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rodney; Turner, Graham A; Jones, D Andrew R; Luo, Shengjun

    2016-08-01

    The use of a post-treatment period of observation or "regression phase" is common in pharmaceutical and cosmetic clinical dermatology studies. Regression phases can be incorporated into a variety of study designs, ranging from simple post-treatment observation for a defined period, as has been used for moisturizers, antidandruff formulations, and treatments for acne, to more complex randomized intermittent-treatment designs, as used in studies of psoriasis pharmacotherapies. Extensive information can be derived from a regression phase. Notably, it can provide useful data on the persistence of effect and time to relapse after treatment cessation, which are particularly relevant to skin conditions in which consumer or patient adherence to treatment is suboptimal. By incorporating a regression phase, a clinical study can more closely reflect "real-world" behavior, e.g., the switching by consumers from antidandruff to beauty shampoos. The regression phase can also help to differentiate between products that show similar effectiveness during the treatment phase, and monitoring post-treatment physiological end points can provide valuable evidence on the safety and mechanism of action of the therapy.

  19. Clinical studies in dermatology require a post-treatment observation phase to define the impact of the intervention on the natural history of the complaint.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rodney; Turner, Graham A; Jones, D Andrew R; Luo, Shengjun

    2016-08-01

    The use of a post-treatment period of observation or "regression phase" is common in pharmaceutical and cosmetic clinical dermatology studies. Regression phases can be incorporated into a variety of study designs, ranging from simple post-treatment observation for a defined period, as has been used for moisturizers, antidandruff formulations, and treatments for acne, to more complex randomized intermittent-treatment designs, as used in studies of psoriasis pharmacotherapies. Extensive information can be derived from a regression phase. Notably, it can provide useful data on the persistence of effect and time to relapse after treatment cessation, which are particularly relevant to skin conditions in which consumer or patient adherence to treatment is suboptimal. By incorporating a regression phase, a clinical study can more closely reflect "real-world" behavior, e.g., the switching by consumers from antidandruff to beauty shampoos. The regression phase can also help to differentiate between products that show similar effectiveness during the treatment phase, and monitoring post-treatment physiological end points can provide valuable evidence on the safety and mechanism of action of the therapy. PMID:27025208

  20. Effect of insertion of xanthan-based chlorhexidine gel in the maintenance phase following the treatment of chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ashish; Sanghi, Swati; Grover, Dimple; Aggarwal, Shweta; Gupta, Rajan; Pandit, Nymphea

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of subgingivally administered xanthan-based chlorhexidine gel when used in the maintenance phase following scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A randomized, controlled, single-center study was conducted involving 92 sites in 46 systemically healthy patients suffering from moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis with isolated pockets. The selected sites were randomized to two treatment arms: Group A (SRP alone) and Group B (SRP + insertion of chlorhexidine gel after 1 month). The gingival index, plaque index, probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded at baseline and subsequently after 1 month and 3 months. Results: Both the groups showed significant reductions in PPD and CAL at both follow-up visits when compared with the baseline values (P<0.001). Conclusions: The results suggest that the application of xanthan based chlorhexidine gel following SRP in the maintenance phase might be beneficial in treatment of the chronic periodontitis in comparison to SRP alone. Greater improvements may be achieved when antimicrobial agents are used following SRP. PMID:23162333

  1. Advanced conceptual design report. Phase II. Liquid effluent treatment and disposal Project W-252

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-31

    This Advanced Conceptual Design Report (ACDR) provides a documented review and analysis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), WHC-SD-W252-CDR-001, June 30, 1993. The ACDR provides further design evaluation of the major design approaches and uncertainties identified in the original CDR. The ACDR will provide a firmer basis for the both the design approach and the associated planning for the performance of the Definitive Design phase of the project.

  2. [Nutrition, lifestyle, physical activity, and supportive care during chemotherapeutic treatment].

    PubMed

    Lümmen, G; Jäger, T; Sommer, F; Ebert, T; Schmitz-Draeger, B

    2006-05-01

    With improvements in cancer survival rates, more patients with cancer are living longer and the influence of nutrition, lifestyle, physical activity as well as supportive care during and after chemotherapy is of increasing interest. In several malignancies smoking cessation increases cancer survival. Similar effects are expected by healthy nutrition. Regular physical activity of cancer patients reduces drug interactions of chemotherapy, decreases the number of comorbid conditions, and helps patients maintain independence as long as possible. For supportive care during chemotherapy the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are more effective for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. There are several colony-stimulating factors (e.g. GCSF, erythropoietin) for hematopoietic recovery post-chemotherapy. Altogether supportive care of chemotherapy reduces toxicity and increases efficacy.

  3. Reduction phases of thin iron-oxide nanowires upon thermal treatment and Li exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Angelucci, Marco Frau, Eleonora; Grazia Betti, Maria; Hassoun, Jusef; Hong, Inchul; Panero, Stefania; Scrosati, Bruno; Mariani, Carlo

    2014-04-28

    Iron oxide nanostructures, a promising alternative to carbon-based anode in lithium-ion batteries, can be produced using a hard template route. This procedure guarantees the formation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires with comparable diameter and size (average diameter 8 nm) with a dominant cubic γ-phase at the surface. Lithium exposure of the iron oxide nanowires in ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) conditions induces reduction of the Fe ion, leading to a Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and then to a Fe{sup 2+} phase, as determined by means of core-level photoemission spectroscopy. Mild annealing of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in UHV determines an oxygen content reduction for the nanowires at lower temperature with respect to the bulk phase. The morphology and the evolution of the electronic properties upon reduction have been compared to those of micro-sized bulk-like grains, to unravel the role of the reduced size and surface-volume ratio.

  4. Translational and Early Phase Strategies for Treatment Development: Report of ISCTM Autumn 2013 Symposium.

    PubMed

    Young, Jared W; Potter, William Z; Riley, Steve; Groeneveld, Geert J; Kinon, Bruce J; Egan, Mike F; Feltner, Douglas E

    2015-01-01

    For decades, there has been a distinct disconnect translating a compound's effects from basic neuroscience into clinical efficacy. This disconnect has not only been in terms of generating approved compounds, but also in rejecting targets. During the drug discovery process there are key points to be adhered to that would strengthen the likelihood of a compound being translated to the clinic. These points include 1) the importance of translational pharmacology whereby preclinical pharmacological data should predict clinical efficacy; 2) rigorous early phase drug evaluation to enhance early go/no-go decisionmaking; 3) using exposure response modeling to predict drug efficacy during proof-of-concept trials; 4) designing and conducting the appropriate proof-of-concept study; and 5) optimizing Phase II studies to set the stage for success in Phase III trials. These topics were covered in The International Society for CNS Clinical Trials and Methodology (ISCTM) Autumn 2013 meeting on the topic of translational and early development strategies and tools led by Drs. Potter and Feltner. This report comprises a review of those proceedings with a concluding summary to advance future clinical trials.

  5. Translational and Early Phase Strategies for Treatment Development: Report of ISCTM Autumn 2013 Symposium.

    PubMed

    Young, Jared W; Potter, William Z; Riley, Steve; Groeneveld, Geert J; Kinon, Bruce J; Egan, Mike F; Feltner, Douglas E

    2015-01-01

    For decades, there has been a distinct disconnect translating a compound's effects from basic neuroscience into clinical efficacy. This disconnect has not only been in terms of generating approved compounds, but also in rejecting targets. During the drug discovery process there are key points to be adhered to that would strengthen the likelihood of a compound being translated to the clinic. These points include 1) the importance of translational pharmacology whereby preclinical pharmacological data should predict clinical efficacy; 2) rigorous early phase drug evaluation to enhance early go/no-go decisionmaking; 3) using exposure response modeling to predict drug efficacy during proof-of-concept trials; 4) designing and conducting the appropriate proof-of-concept study; and 5) optimizing Phase II studies to set the stage for success in Phase III trials. These topics were covered in The International Society for CNS Clinical Trials and Methodology (ISCTM) Autumn 2013 meeting on the topic of translational and early development strategies and tools led by Drs. Potter and Feltner. This report comprises a review of those proceedings with a concluding summary to advance future clinical trials. PMID:25977839

  6. A new general methodology for incorporating physico-chemical transformations into multi-phase wastewater treatment process models.

    PubMed

    Lizarralde, I; Fernández-Arévalo, T; Brouckaert, C; Vanrolleghem, P; Ikumi, D S; Ekama, G A; Ayesa, E; Grau, P

    2015-05-01

    This paper introduces a new general methodology for incorporating physico-chemical and chemical transformations into multi-phase wastewater treatment process models in a systematic and rigorous way under a Plant-Wide modelling (PWM) framework. The methodology presented in this paper requires the selection of the relevant biochemical, chemical and physico-chemical transformations taking place and the definition of the mass transport for the co-existing phases. As an example a mathematical model has been constructed to describe a system for biological COD, nitrogen and phosphorus removal, liquid-gas transfer, precipitation processes, and chemical reactions. The capability of the model has been tested by comparing simulated and experimental results for a nutrient removal system with sludge digestion. Finally, a scenario analysis has been undertaken to show the potential of the obtained mathematical model to study phosphorus recovery.

  7. A new general methodology for incorporating physico-chemical transformations into multi-phase wastewater treatment process models.

    PubMed

    Lizarralde, I; Fernández-Arévalo, T; Brouckaert, C; Vanrolleghem, P; Ikumi, D S; Ekama, G A; Ayesa, E; Grau, P

    2015-05-01

    This paper introduces a new general methodology for incorporating physico-chemical and chemical transformations into multi-phase wastewater treatment process models in a systematic and rigorous way under a Plant-Wide modelling (PWM) framework. The methodology presented in this paper requires the selection of the relevant biochemical, chemical and physico-chemical transformations taking place and the definition of the mass transport for the co-existing phases. As an example a mathematical model has been constructed to describe a system for biological COD, nitrogen and phosphorus removal, liquid-gas transfer, precipitation processes, and chemical reactions. The capability of the model has been tested by comparing simulated and experimental results for a nutrient removal system with sludge digestion. Finally, a scenario analysis has been undertaken to show the potential of the obtained mathematical model to study phosphorus recovery. PMID:25746499

  8. A randomized, phase 2 study investigating TRV130, a biased ligand of the μ-opioid receptor, for the intravenous treatment of acute pain.

    PubMed

    Viscusi, Eugene R; Webster, Lynn; Kuss, Michael; Daniels, Stephen; Bolognese, James A; Zuckerman, Seth; Soergel, David G; Subach, Ruth Ann; Cook, Emily; Skobieranda, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Efficacy of conventional opioids can be limited by adverse events (AEs). TRV130 is a structurally novel biased ligand of the μ-opioid receptor that activates G protein signaling with little β-arrestin recruitment. In this phase 2, randomized, placebo- and active-controlled study, we investigated the efficacy and tolerability of TRV130 in acute pain after bunionectomy. We used an adaptive study design in which 144 patients experiencing moderate-to-severe acute pain after bunionectomy were randomized to receive double-blind TRV130, placebo, or morphine in a pilot phase. After pilot phase analysis, 195 patients were randomized to receive double-dummy TRV130 0.5, 1, 2, or 3 mg every 3 hours (q3h); placebo; or morphine 4 mg q4h intravenously. The primary end point was the time-weighted average change in numeric rating scale pain intensity over the 48-hour treatment period. Secondary end points included stopwatch and categorical assessments of pain relief. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. TRV130 2 and 3 mg q3h, and morphine 4 mg q4h produced statistically greater mean reductions in pain intensity than placebo over 48 hours (P < 0.005). TRV130 at 2 and 3 mg produced significantly greater categorical pain relief than morphine (P < 0.005) after the first dose, with meaningful pain relief occurring in under 5 minutes. TRV130 produced no serious AEs, with tolerability similar to morphine. These results demonstrate that TRV130 rapidly produces profound analgesia in moderate-to-severe acute pain, suggesting that G-protein-biased μ-opioid receptor activation is a promising target for development of novel analgesics.

  9. Phase I/II Trial Evaluating Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Salvaging Treatment of Locally Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lin; Hu, Jiyi; Guan, Xiyin; Gao, Jing; Lu, Rong; Lu, Jiade J.

    2016-01-01

    , carbon ion radiation therapy offers an ideal alternate to conventional X-ray irradiation. Methods and Design: The recommended dose of re-irradiation using CIRT for locally recurrent NPC will be determined in the dose-escalating phase (Phase I) of the study. Efficacy in terms of local progression-free survival (LPFS) and overall survival (OS) will be studied in the second phase of the study. Increasing doses of CIRT using raster scanning technology from 55GyE (22×2.5 GyE) to 65 GyE (26× 2.5 GyE) will be delivered in the Phase I part of the study. The primary endpoint of the Phase I part of the study is acute and sub-acute toxicities; the primary endpoint in the Phase II part is local progression-free survival and overall survival. Using the historical 2-year OS rate of 50% in locally recurrent NPC patients treated with photon or proton, we hypothesize that CIRT can improve the 2-year OS rate to 70%. Discussion: The utilization of conventional radiation techniques including IMXT, brachytherapy, or stereotactic radiation therapy provides moderate efficacy in the treatment of locally recurrent NPC due to the limitations in dose distribution and biological effectiveness. Improved outcome in terms of treatment-induced toxicity, LC, LPFS, and OS are expected using CIRT due to the physical and biological characteristics of carbon ion beam. However, the recommended dose of CIRT used in re-irradiation for the local NPC focus remain to be determined. The recommended dose as well as the efficacy of CIRT in the treatment of locally recurrent NPC will be evaluated in the present trial. PMID:27162535

  10. Enhancing methane production from waste activated sludge using a novel indigenous iron activated peroxidation pre-treatment process.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu; Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming

    2015-04-01

    Methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor methane potential of WAS. This study presents a novel pre-treatment strategy based on indigenous iron (in WAS) activated peroxidation to enhance methane production from WAS. Pre-treatment of WAS for 30 min at 50mg H2O2/g total solids (dry weight) and pH 2.0 (iron concentration in WAS was 7 mg/g TS) substantially enhanced WAS solubilization. Biochemical methane potential tests demonstrated that methane production was improved by 10% at a digestion time of 16d after incorporating the indigenous iron activated peroxidation pre-treatment. Model-based analysis indicated that indigenous iron activated peroxidation pre-treatment improved the methane potential by 13%, whereas the hydrolysis rate was not significantly affected. The economic analysis showed that the proposed pre-treatment method can save the cost by $112,000 per year in a treatment plant with a population equivalent of 300,000.

  11. Phase 1 sampling and analysis plan for the 304 Concretion Facility closure activities

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, J.G.

    1994-09-14

    This document provides guidance for the initial (Phase 1) sampling and analysis activities associated with the proposed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) clean closure of the 304 Concretion Facility. Over its service life, the 304 Concretion Facility housed the pilot plants associated with cladding uranium cores, was used to store engineering equipment and product chemicals, was used to treat low-level radioactive mixed waste, recyclable scrap uranium generated during nuclear fuel fabrication, and uranium-titanium alloy chips, and was used for the repackaging of spent halogenated solvents from the nuclear fuels manufacturing process. The strategy for clean closure of the 304 Concretion Facility is to decontaminate, sample (Phase 1 sampling), and evaluate results. If the evaluation indicates that a limited area requires additional decontamination for clean closure, the limited area will be decontaminated, resampled (Phase 2 sampling), and the result evaluated. If the evaluation indicates that the constituents of concern are below action levels, the facility will be clean closed. Or, if the evaluation indicates that the constituents of concern are present above action levels, the condition of the facility will be evaluated and appropriate action taken. There are a total of 37 sampling locations comprising 12 concrete core, 1 concrete chip, 9 soil, 11 wipe, and 4 asphalt core sampling locations. Analysis for inorganics and volatile organics will be performed on the concrete cor